Aplysia: An opisthobranch mollusk of the order Anaspidea. It is used frequently in studies of nervous system development because of its large identifiable neurons. Aplysiatoxin and its derivatives are not biosynthesized by Aplysia, but acquired by ingestion of Lyngbya (seaweed) species.Ganglia, Invertebrate: Clusters of neuronal cell bodies in invertebrates. Invertebrate ganglia may also contain neuronal processes and non-neuronal supporting cells. Many invertebrate ganglia are favorable subjects for research because they have small numbers of functional neuronal types which can be identified from one animal to another.Ganglia: Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized CONNECTIVE TISSUE located outside the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Invertebrate Hormones: Hormones produced by invertebrates, usually insects, mollusks, annelids, and helminths.FMRFamide: A molluscan neuroactive peptide which induces a fast excitatory depolarizing response due to direct activation of amiloride-sensitive SODIUM CHANNELS. (From Nature 1995; 378(6558): 730-3)Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Mollusca: A phylum of the kingdom Metazoa. Mollusca have soft, unsegmented bodies with an anterior head, a dorsal visceral mass, and a ventral foot. Most are encased in a protective calcareous shell. It includes the classes GASTROPODA; BIVALVIA; CEPHALOPODA; Aplacophora; Scaphopoda; Polyplacophora; and Monoplacophora.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Neuropeptides: Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.Cheek: The part of the face that is below the eye and to the side of the nose and mouth.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Gills: Paired respiratory organs of fishes and some amphibians that are analogous to lungs. They are richly supplied with blood vessels by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged directly with the environment.Reflex: An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Habituation, Psychophysiologic: The disappearance of responsiveness to a repeated stimulation. It does not include drug habituation.TailNervous System Physiological Phenomena: Characteristic properties and processes of the NERVOUS SYSTEM as a whole or with reference to the peripheral or the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Neurosecretion: The production and release of substances such as NEUROTRANSMITTERS or HORMONES from nerve cells.Instinct: Stereotyped patterns of response, characteristic of a given species, that have been phylogenetically adapted to a specific type of situation.Acidic Glycosphingolipids: A subclass of GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS containing large polar heads made up of several sugar units. One or more of their terminal sugar units are bound to a negatively charged molecule at pH 7. Members of this class include: GANGLIOSIDES, uronoglycosphingolipids, SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS, phosphoglycosphingolipids, and phosphonoglycosphingolipids.Long-Term Potentiation: A persistent increase in synaptic efficacy, usually induced by appropriate activation of the same synapses. The phenomenological properties of long-term potentiation suggest that it may be a cellular mechanism of learning and memory.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Nervous System: The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Aminoethylphosphonic Acid: An organophosphorus compound isolated from human and animal tissues.Protein Kinase C: An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.alpha-Macroglobulins: Glycoproteins with a molecular weight of approximately 620,000 to 680,000. Precipitation by electrophoresis is in the alpha region. They include alpha 1-macroglobulins and alpha 2-macroglobulins. These proteins exhibit trypsin-, chymotrypsin-, thrombin-, and plasmin-binding activity and function as hormonal transporters.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.BooksPublishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Axonal Transport: The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Colchicine: A major alkaloid from Colchicum autumnale L. and found also in other Colchicum species. Its primary therapeutic use is in the treatment of gout, but it has been used also in the therapy of familial Mediterranean fever (PERIODIC DISEASE).Receptors, Histamine: Cell-surface proteins that bind histamine and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Histamine receptors are widespread in the central nervous system and in peripheral tissues. Three types have been recognized and designated H1, H2, and H3. They differ in pharmacology, distribution, and mode of action.Receptors, Histamine H2: A class of histamine receptors discriminated by their pharmacology and mode of action. Histamine H2 receptors act via G-proteins to stimulate ADENYLYL CYCLASES. Among the many responses mediated by these receptors are gastric acid secretion, smooth muscle relaxation, inotropic and chronotropic effects on heart muscle, and inhibition of lymphocyte function. (From Biochem Soc Trans 1992 Feb;20(1):122-5)Receptors, Histamine H1: A class of histamine receptors discriminated by their pharmacology and mode of action. Most histamine H1 receptors operate through the inositol phosphate/diacylglycerol second messenger system. Among the many responses mediated by these receptors are smooth muscle contraction, increased vascular permeability, hormone release, and cerebral glyconeogenesis. (From Biochem Soc Trans 1992 Feb;20(1):122-5)Impromidine: A highly potent and specific histamine H2 receptor agonist. It has been used diagnostically as a gastric secretion indicator.Histamine: An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.Postal Service: The functions and activities carried out by the U.S. Postal Service, foreign postal services, and private postal services such as Federal Express.Correspondence as Topic: Communication between persons or between institutions or organizations by an exchange of letters. Its use in indexing and cataloging will generally figure in historical and biographical material.Receptors, Nicotinic: One of the two major classes of cholinergic receptors. Nicotinic receptors were originally distinguished by their preference for NICOTINE over MUSCARINE. They are generally divided into muscle-type and neuronal-type (previously ganglionic) based on pharmacology, and subunit composition of the receptors.Lobeline: An alkaloid that has actions similar to NICOTINE on nicotinic cholinergic receptors but is less potent. It has been proposed for a variety of therapeutic uses including in respiratory disorders, peripheral vascular disorders, insomnia, and smoking cessation.Anabasine: A piperidine botanical insecticide.Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Lymnaea: A genus of dextrally coiled freshwater snails that includes some species of importance as intermediate hosts of parasitic flukes.Nicotinic Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC). Nicotinic agonists act at postganglionic nicotinic receptors, at neuroeffector junctions in the peripheral nervous system, and at nicotinic receptors in the central nervous system. Agents that function as neuromuscular depolarizing blocking agents are included here because they activate nicotinic receptors, although they are used clinically to block nicotinic transmission.

Mechanisms for generating the autonomous cAMP-dependent protein kinase required for long-term facilitation in Aplysia. (1/1209)

The formation of a persistently active cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is critical for establishing long-term synaptic facilitation (LTF) in Aplysia. The injection of bovine catalytic (C) subunits into sensory neurons is sufficient to produce protein synthesis-dependent LTF. Early in the LTF induced by serotonin (5-HT), an autonomous PKA is generated through the ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated proteolysis of regulatory (R) subunits. The degradation of R occurs during an early time window and appears to be a key function of proteasomes in LTF. Lactacystin, a specific proteasome inhibitor, blocks the facilitation induced by 5-HT, and this block is rescued by injecting C subunits. R is degraded through an allosteric mechanism requiring an elevation of cAMP coincident with the induction of a ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase.  (+info)

Actions of a pair of identified cerebral-buccal interneurons (CBI-8/9) in Aplysia that contain the peptide myomodulin. (2/1209)

A combination of biocytin back-fills of the cerebral-buccal connectives and immunocytochemistry of the cerebral ganglion demonstrated that of the 13 bilateral pairs of cerebral-buccal interneurons in the cerebral ganglion, a subpopulation of 3 are immunopositive for the peptide myomodulin. The present paper describes the properties of two of these cells, which we have termed CBI-8 and CBI-9. CBI-8 and CBI-9 were found to be dye coupled and electrically coupled. The cells have virtually identical properties, and consequently we consider them to be "twin" pairs and refer to them as CBI-8/9. CBI-8/9 were identified by electrophysiological criteria and then labeled with dye. Labeled cells were found to be immunopositive for myomodulin, and, using high pressure liquid chromatography, the cells were shown to contain authentic myomodulin. CBI-8/9 were found to receive synaptic input after mechanical stimulation of the tentacles. They also received excitatory input from C-PR, a neuron involved in neck lengthening, and received a slow inhibitory input from CC5, a cell involved in neck shortening, suggesting that CBI-8/9 may be active during forward movements of the head or buccal mass. Firing of CBI-8 or CBI-9 resulted in the activation of a relatively small number of buccal neurons as evidenced by extracellular recordings from buccal nerves. Firing also produced local movements of the buccal mass, in particular a strong contraction of the I7 muscle, which mediates radula opening. CBI-8/9 were found to produce a slow depolarization and rhythmic activity of B48, the motor neuron for the I7 muscle. The data provide continuing evidence that the small population of cerebral buccal interneurons is composed of neurons that are highly diverse in their functional roles. CBI-8/9 may function as a type of premotor neuron, or perhaps as a peptidergic modulatory neuron, the functions of which are dependent on the coactivity of other neurons.  (+info)

C-PR neuron of Aplysia has differential effects on "Feeding" cerebral interneurons, including myomodulin-positive CBI-12. (3/1209)

Head lifting and other aspects of the appetitive central motive state that precedes consummatory feeding movements in Aplysia is promoted by excitation of the C-PR neuron. Food stimuli activate C-PR as well as a small population of cerebral-buccal interneurons (CBIs). We wished to determine if firing of C-PR produced differential effects on the various CBIs or perhaps affected all the CBIs uniformly as might be expected for a neuron involved in producing a broad undifferentiated arousal state. We found that when C-PR was fired, it produced a wide variety of effects on various CBIs. Firing of C-PR evoked excitatory input to a newly identified CBI (CBI-12) the soma of which is located in the M cluster near the previously identified CBI-2. CBI-12 shares certain properties with CBI-2, including a similar morphology and a capacity to drive rhythmic activity of the buccal-ganglion. Unlike CBI-2, CBI-12 exhibits myomodulin immunoreactivity. Furthermore when C-PR is fired, CBI-12 receives a polysynaptic voltage-dependent slow excitation, whereas, CBI-2 receives relatively little input. C-PR also polysynaptically excites other CBIs including CBI-1 and CBI-8/9 but produces inhibition in CBI-3. In addition, firing of C-PR inhibits plateau potentials in CBI-5/6. The data suggest that activity of C-PR may promote the activity of one subset of cerebral-buccal interneurons, perhaps those involved in ingestive behaviors that occur during the head-up posture. C-PR also inhibits some cerebral-buccal interneurons that may be involved in behaviors in which C-PR activity is not required or may even interfere with other feeding behaviors such as rejection or grazing, that occur with the head down.  (+info)

In vitro analog of operant conditioning in aplysia. I. Contingent reinforcement modifies the functional dynamics of an identified neuron. (4/1209)

Previously, an analog of operant conditioning in Aplysia was developed using the rhythmic motor activity in the isolated buccal ganglia. This analog expressed a key feature of operant conditioning, namely a selective enhancement in the occurrence of a designated motor pattern by contingent reinforcement. Different motor patterns generated by the buccal central pattern generator were induced by monotonic stimulation of a peripheral nerve (i.e., n.2,3). Phasic stimulation of the esophageal nerve (E n.) was used as an analog of reinforcement. The present study investigated the neuronal mechanisms associated with the genesis of different motor patterns and their modifications by contingent reinforcement. The genesis of different motor patterns was related to changes in the functional states of the pre-motor neuron B51. During rhythmic activity, B51 dynamically switched between inactive and active states. Bursting activity in B51 was associated with, and predicted, characteristic features of a specific motor pattern (i.e., pattern I). Contingent reinforcement of pattern I modified the dynamical properties of B51 by decreasing its resting conductance and threshold for eliciting plateau potentials and thus increased the occurrences of pattern I-related activity in B51. These modifications were not observed in preparations that received either noncontingent reinforcement (i.e., yoke control) or no reinforcement (i.e., control). These results suggest that a contingent reinforcement paradigm can regulate the dynamics of neuronal activity that is centrally programmed by the intrinsic cellular properties of neurons.  (+info)

In vitro analog of operant conditioning in aplysia. II. Modifications of the functional dynamics of an identified neuron contribute to motor pattern selection. (5/1209)

Previously, an analog of operant conditioning was developed using the buccal ganglia of Aplysia, the probabilistic occurrences of a specific motor pattern (i.e., pattern I), a contingent reinforcement (i.e., stimulation of the esophageal nerve), and monotonic stimulation of a peripheral nerve (i.e., n.2,3). This analog expressed a key feature of operant conditioning (i.e., selective enhancement of the probability of occurrence of a designated motor pattern by contingent reinforcement). In addition, the training induced changes in the dynamical properties of neuron B51, an element of the buccal central pattern generator. To gain insights into the neuronal mechanisms that mediate features of operant conditioning, the present study identified a neuronal element that was critically involved in the selective enhancement of pattern I. We found that bursting activity in cell B51 contributed significantly to the expression of pattern I and that changes in the dynamical properties of this cell were associated with the selective enhancement of pattern I. These changes could be induced by an explicit association of reinforcement with random depolarization of B51. No stimulation of n.2,3 was required. These results indicate that the selection of a designated motor pattern by contingent reinforcement and the underlying neuronal plasticity resulted from the association of reinforcement with a component of central neuronal activity that contributes to a specific motor pattern. The sensory stimulus that allows for occurrences of different motor acts may not be critical for induction of plasticity that mediates the selection of a motor output by contingent reinforcement in operant conditioning.  (+info)

Characterization of the Aplysia californica cerebral ganglion F cluster. (6/1209)

The cerebral ganglia neurons of Aplysia californica are involved in the development and modulation of many behaviors. The medially located F cluster has been characterized using morphological, electrophysiological and biochemical techniques and contains at least three previously uncharacterized neuronal population. As the three subtypes are located in three distinct layers, they are designated as top, middle, and bottom layer F-cluster neurons (CFT, CFM, and CFB). The CFT cells are large (92 +/- 25 microm), white, nonuniformly shaped, and located partially in the sheath surrounding the ganglion. These neurons exhibit weak electrical coupling, the presence of synchronized spontaneous changes in membrane potential, and a generalized inhibitory input upon electrical stimulation of the anterior tentacular (AT) nerve. Similar to the CFT neurons, the CFM neurons (46 +/- 12 microm) are mainly silent but do not show electrical coupling or synchronized changes in membrane potential. Unlike the CFT neurons, the CFM neurons exhibit weak action potential broadening during constant current injection. Comparison of the peptide profiles of CFT, CFM, and CFB (10-30 microm) neurons using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry demonstrates distinct peptide molecular weights for each neuronal subtype with the masses of these peptides not matching any previously characterized peptides from A. californica. The mass spectra obtained from the AT nerve are similar to the CFT neuron mass spectra, while upper labial nerve contains many peptides observed in the CFM neurons located in nongranular neuron region.  (+info)

Dopaminergic synapses mediate neuronal changes in an analogue of operant conditioning. (7/1209)

Feeding behavior in Aplysia can be modified by operant conditioning in which contingent reinforcement is conveyed by the esophageal nerve (E n.). A neuronal analogue of this conditioning in the isolated buccal ganglia was developed by using stimulation of E n. as an analogue of contingent reinforcement. Previous studies indicated that E n. may release dopamine. We used a dopamine antagonist (methylergonovine) to investigate whether dopamine mediated the enhancement of motor patterns in the analogue of operant conditioning. Methylergonovine blocked synaptic connections from the reinforcement pathway and the contingent-dependent enhancement of the reinforced pattern. These results suggest that dopamine mediates at least part of the neuronal modifications induced by contingent reinforcement.  (+info)

Nitric oxide stimulates cGMP production and mimics synaptic responses in metacerebral neurons of Aplysia. (8/1209)

Nitric oxide (NO) acts as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator in the nervous systems of many vertebrates and invertebrates. We investigated the mechanism of NO action at an identified synapse between a mechanoafferent neuron, C2, and the serotonergic metacerebral cell (MCC) in the cerebral ganglion of the mollusc Aplysia californica. Stimulation of C2 produces a decreasing conductance, very slow EPSP in the MCC. C2 is thought to use histamine and NO as cotransmitters at this synapse, because both agents mimic the membrane responses. Now we provide evidence that treatment with NO donors stimulates soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) in the MCC, and as a result cGMP increases. S-Nitrosocysteine (SNC, an NO donor) and 8-bromo-cGMP (8-Br-cGMP) both induced the membrane depolarization and increase in input resistance that are characteristic of the very slow EPSP. Two inhibitors of sGC, 6-anilino-5,8-quinolinequinone (LY83583) and 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4, 3-a]quinoxaline-1-one (ODQ), suppressed both the very slow EPSP and the membrane responses to SNC but not the histamine membrane responses. NO-induced cGMP production was determined in the MCC using cGMP immunocytochemistry (cGMP-IR). In the presence of 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), 10 microM SNC was sufficient to induce cGMP-IR, and the staining intensity increased as the SNC dose was increased. This cGMP-IR was suppressed by ODQ in a dose-dependent manner and completely blocked by 10 microM ODQ. Histamine did not induce cGMP-IR. The results suggest that NO stimulates sGC-dependent cGMP synthesis in the MCC and that cGMP mediates the membrane responses. The cotransmitter histamine induces essentially the same membrane responses but seems to use a separate and distinct second messenger pathway.  (+info)

We have cloned a DNA fragment from the marine mollusc Aplysia californica, which contains sequences homologous to mammalian ras genes, by screening a genomic library with a viral Ha-ras oncogene probe under conditions of low stringency hybridization. Nucleotide sequencing revealed a putative exon that encodes amino acids sharing 68% homology with residues 5 to 54 of mammalian p21ras polypeptides, and which therefore is likely to encode a ras-like Aplysia protein. The cloned locus, designated Apl-ras, is distinct from the Aplysia rho (ras-homologue) gene and appears to be more closely related to mammalian ras. We used a panel of monoclonal antibodies raised against v-Ha-ras p21 to precipitate an Mr 21,000 protein from extracts of Aplysia nervous tissue, ovotestis, and, to a much lesser degree, buccal muscle. Fluorescence immunocytochemistry revealed that ras-like protein is most abundant in neuronal cell bodies and axon processes, with staining most prominent at plasma membranes. Much less was ...
Prions have a bad reputation. They are responsible for a variety of neurodegenerative diseases including Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans and a plethora of spongiform encephalopathies in animals. But there may be more to neuronal prions than neurotoxicity. In the February 5 Cell, researchers led by Kausik Si at the Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, Missouri, report that in the marine mollusk Aplysia Californica, prion-like activity of an RNA binding protein controls long-term facilitation (LTF), a strengthening of synaptic transmission that has been linked to memory formation. The protein oligomerizes into amyloid fibers when Aplysia sensory neurons are stimulated with serotonin and, in turn, the amyloid seems to strengthen LTF. This is the first example of eukaryotic prion activity having a physiological function, according to the authors. They also suggest that it "might be representative of a new class of proteins that utilize a self-perpetuating multimeric state to ...
Despite the advances in our understanding of transcriptome, regulation and function of its noncoding components continue to be poorly understood. Here we searched for natural antisense transcript for sensorin (NAT-SRN), a neuropeptide expressed in the presynaptic sensory neurons of gill-withdrawal reflex of the marine snail Aplysia californica. Sensorin (SRN) has a key role in learning and long-term memory storage in Aplysia. We have identified NAT-SRN in the central nervous system (CNS) and have confirmed its expression by northern blotting and fluorescent RNA in situ hybridization. Quantitative analysis of NAT-SRN in micro dissected cell bodies and processes of sensory neurons suggest that NAT-SRN is present in the distal neuronal processes along with sense transcripts. Importantly, aging is associated with reduced levels of NAT-SRN in sensory neuron processes. Furthermore, we find that forskolin, an activator of CREB signaling, differentially alters the distribution of SRN and NAT-SRN. These studies
The neural and cellular mechanisms of plasticity apparent in the feeding behavior of the mollusk Aplysia californica have been extensively studied in a simple neuromuscular circuit consisting of the accessory radula closer (ARC) muscle and its innervating motor and modulatory neurons. In this circuit, the plasticity is largely due to modulation of the amplitude and duration of the contractions of the muscle by a variety of modulatory neurotransmitters and peptide cotransmitters, among them the small cardioactive peptides (SCPs), myomodulins (MMs), and serotonin (5-HT). We have studied dissociated but functionally intact ARC muscle fibers to determine whether modulation of membrane ion currents in the muscle might underlie these effects. Using voltage-clamp techniques, we found that two currents were indeed modulated. In the preceding article, we proposed that enhancement of "L"-type Ca current is the mechanism by which the modulators potentiate the amplitude of ARC-muscle contractions. Here, we ...
The anterior aorta of Aplysia is innervated by nerves arising from the abdominal ganglion (Sawada et al., 1981a). The vulvar nerve is one of the nerves innervating the anterior aorta, in which axons of some identifiable motoneurons or modulatory neurons for the anterior aorta are contained (Sawada et al., 1981a, 1984c). The phasic contraction evoked by the vulvar nerve stimulation was inhibited by the enterins. At least, one of the mechanisms for the inhibition seems to be activation of K+ conductance of the muscle membrane. We found that the enterins hyperpolarize the membrane potential of the muscle fibers via the activation of 4-AP-sensitive K+ channels. Sensitivity of the K+ channels to 4-AP is quite high, and EC50 of 4-AP was,10-6 mol l-1. The value is comparable to another highly 4-AP-sensitive K+ channel described in the accessory radula closer muscle of Aplysia (Brezina et al., 1994). The enterin-induced hyperpolarization of the muscle membrane should, in principle, reduce the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Gene isolation with cDNA probes from identified aplysia neurons. T2 - Neuropeptide modulators of cardiovascular physiology. AU - Nambu, John R.. AU - Taussig, Ronald. AU - Mahon, Anne C.. AU - Scheller, Richard H.. PY - 1983. Y1 - 1983. N2 - The Aplysia abdominal ganglion neurons, R3-R14, modulate cardiovascular activity. In vitro translations of poly(A)+ RNA from these cells suggest that they contain a prevalent mRNA encoding a 14 kd protein. Utilizing differential screening techniques with 32P-labeled cDNA synthesized from the poly(A)+ RNA of identified neurons, we isolated the corresponding gene. The Aplysia haploid genome contains a single copy of this sequence, which is interrupted by two large introns and spans ∼7 kb of genomic DNA. The R3-R14 neurons specifically express this gene, resulting in the synthesis of a 1.25 kb mRNA not found in other abdominal ganglion cells or in the head ganglia. The gene was shown to encode a 13.5 kd precursor, which is proteolytically ...
The buccalin-related peptides, buccalin A and buccalin B, are members of a family of cotransmitters that modulate neuromuscular transmission in Aplysia. In this study, a third buccalin-related peptide, buccalin C, was purified from neuronal elements in the accessory radula closer, a muscle involved in the animals feeding behavior. Oligonucleotide probes based upon the amino acid sequence of buccalin C were used to isolate cDNA clones that encode a buccalin precursor polypeptide. The buccalin precursor contains 19 distinct buccalin-related peptides, several of which are present in multiple copies. The buccalin gene appears to be present in a single copy, with one allele containing a small insert. Expression of this gene occurs in a tissue-specific manner and mRNA transcripts are abundant within neurons in the Aplysia CNS. This large family of neuropeptides may exert extraordinarily complex modulatory actions at synapses where they serve as cotransmitters. ...
Many neurons in the mollusc Aplysia are identifiable and provide a useful model system for investigating the cellular mechanisms used by the neuroendocrine system to mediate simple behaviors. In this study we determined the subcellular localization of eight Aplysia neuropeptides using immunogold labeling techniques, and analyzed the size distribution of dense core and granular vesicles in peptidergic neurons. Recent observations demonstrate that many neurons use multiple chemical messengers. Thus, an understanding of the functional significance of cotransmitters requires an analysis of their relative subcellular distributions. The peptides are expressed in a subset of neurons, or the exocrine atrial gland, and are primarily localized to dense core vesicles. Multiple regions of precursors which are cleaved into several components are co-localized. Each neuron has a distinct size distribution of peptide-containing dense core vesicles ranging in size from 65 to 600 nm. The atrial gland contains ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Serotonin shifts the phase of the orcadian rhythm from the Aplysia eye. AU - Corrent, G.. AU - McAdoo, D. J.. AU - Eskin, A.. PY - 1978/12/1. Y1 - 1978/12/1. N2 - A putative neurotransmitter, serotonin, may be used to transmit temporal information in the eye of Aplysia, because it can shift the phase of the circadian rhythm of spontaneous optic nerve impulses from the eye and the eye contains a significant quantity of serotonin. Serotonin acts either directly on the cell, or cells, containing the circadian pacemaker or on cells electronically coupled to the pacemaker cells.. AB - A putative neurotransmitter, serotonin, may be used to transmit temporal information in the eye of Aplysia, because it can shift the phase of the circadian rhythm of spontaneous optic nerve impulses from the eye and the eye contains a significant quantity of serotonin. Serotonin acts either directly on the cell, or cells, containing the circadian pacemaker or on cells electronically coupled to the ...
We have found that serotonin (5-HT), the endogenous monoamine that mediates dishabituation and sensitization, causes upregulation of AMPA receptor function in Aplysia motor neurons. This functional upregulation of AMPA receptors depends upon release of calcium from postsynaptic intracellular stores and postsynaptic exocytosis. We hypothesize that stimuli that induce dishabituation and sensitization in Aplysia modulate AMPA receptor trafficking in motor neurons that mediate that withdrawal reflex. Support for this hypothesis comes from experiments in which prior injection of botulinum toxin, an inhibitor of exocytosis, into identified siphon motor neurons blocks behavioral dishabituation of the siphon withdrawal reflex ...
Opisthobranch molluscs exhibit fascinating body plans associated with the evolution of shell loss in multiple lineages. Sea hares in particular are interesting because Aplysia californica is a well-studied model organism that offers a large suite of genetic tools. Bursatella leachii is a related tropical sea hare that lacks a shell as an adult and therefore lends itself to comparative analysis with A. californica. We have established an enhanced culturing procedure for B. leachii in husbandry that enabled the study of shell formation and loss in this lineage with respect to A. californica life staging.
Postdoctoral Research Scientist position available in DIT/FOCAS. Applications are sought for the position of Research Scientist: Vibrational Spectroscopy for Cellular Analysis in the FOCAS Research Institute, DIT. The position is a 5 year specified purpose contract associated with a Science Foundation Ireland PI Award "Advancing Vibrational Spectroscopy for Cellular and Sub Cellular Analysis", supervised by Prof Hugh J. Byrne. Funding is initially available for 42 months.. The project will extend the expertise of DIT in the applications of Vibrational Spectroscopy (Raman and Infrared) to the exploration of the underlying biochemical and metabolic changes associated with (nano) toxic and chemotherapeutic responses in vitro. It will explore improved in vitro models, spectral acquisition and data processing and analysis techniques.. The successful candidate is expected to have an excellent working knowledge and expertise in both Raman and Infrared spectroscopic techniques, with specific ...
Research. Dr. Glanzman is interested in the cell biology of learning and memory in simple organisms. In our research we use two animals, the marine snail Aplysia californica, and the zebrafish (Danio rerio). Work on Aplysia: This invertebrate has a comparatively simple nervous system (~ 20,000 neurons) that provides a valuable experimental model for understanding the cellular mechanisms that underlie simple forms of learning, such as habituation, sensitization, and classical conditioning. Another experimental advantage of Aplysia is that sensory and motor neurons that mediate specific reflexes of the animal can be placed into dissociated cell culture where they will reform their synaptic connections. These in vitro sensorimotor synapses are extremely useful for cellular and molecular studies of short- and long-term learning-related synaptic plasticity. Currently, my laboratory is investigating the mechanisms that underlie the persistence of memory: how are memories maintained in our brains over ...
Two Aplysia sensory neurons with synaptic contacts on the same motor neuron in culture after isolation from the nervous system of Aplysia. The motor neuron has been injected with a fluorescent molecule that blocks the activity of a specific Protein Kinase M molecule.
Egg Laying Hormone of Aplysia, 5 mg. The aplysia egg-laying-hormone a 36 amino acid peptide acts as a neurotransmitter on cells of the abdominal ganglion and at the same time diffuses into the hemolymph where it is dispersed through the organism and acts
README_Komendantov.txt (or Readme.txt in ModelDB) This simulation reproduces the model published in: Komendantov, A.O. and Kononenko, N.I. (2000) Caffeine-induced oscillations of the membrane potential in Aplysia neurons. Neurophysiology 32: 77-84. The results of a simulation are illustrated in L7_01_smu.jpg. Example use: Start SNNAP (double click on the SNNAP.jar file) click on Run Simulation Then in the new window File-,Load Simulation browse to and load L7_01.smu file to load a simulation that creates a figure similar to the L7 neuron in Fig 8 from the paper and click Start See http://snnap.uth.tmc.edu/ to download SNNAP ...
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: Innovative Molecular and Cellular Analysis Technologies for Basic and Clinical Cancer Research (R21) RFA-CA-16-001. NCI
Before the local protein synthesis hypothesis gained significant support, there was general agreement that the protein synthesis underlying L-LTP occurred in the cell body. Further, there was thought that the products of this synthesis were shipped cell-wide in a nonspecific manner. It thus became necessary to explain how protein synthesis could occur in the cell body without compromising LTPs input specificity. The synaptic tagging hypothesis attempts to solve the cells difficult problem of synthesizing proteins in the cell body but ensuring they only reach synapses that have received LTP-inducing stimuli. The synaptic tagging hypothesis proposes that a "synaptic tag" is synthesized at synapses that have received LTP-inducing stimuli, and that this synaptic tag may serve to capture plasticity-related proteins shipped cell-wide from the cell body.[41] Studies of LTP in the marine snail Aplysia californica have implicated synaptic tagging as a mechanism for the input-specificity of LTP.[42][43] ...
Aplysia נוירונים californica לפתח קונוסים צמיחה גדול בתרבות כי הם מעולה עבור הדמיה ברזולוציה גבוהה של תנועתיות צמיחה חרוט והדרכה. כאן,...
... ) - New York, NY -Different types of memories stored in the same neuron of the marine snail Aplysia can be selectively erased, according to a new study by researchers at Columbia University Medical Center (CUMC) and McGill University and published today in Current Biology.. The findings suggest that it may be possible to develop drugs to delete memories that trigger anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) without affecting other important memories of past events.. During emotional or traumatic events, multiple memories can become encoded, including memories of any incidental information that is present when the event occurs. In the case of a traumatic experience, the incidental, or neutral, information can trigger anxiety attacks long after the event has occurred, say the researchers.. "The example I like to give is, if you are walking in a high-crime area and you take a shortcut through a dark alley and get mugged, and then you happen to see a mailbox nearby, you ...
1. Action potentials recorded in the soma of R15 neurones in the abdominal ganglia of Aplysia juliana were not suppressed by selective inhibition of either Na or Ca conductance alone. It was necessary to block both conductances to suppress action potentials. 2. Membrane currents generated by step depolarizations of the soma consisted of early transient and delayed steady-state currents. The early transient current could have one or two components depending on the activating depolarization. 3. The early more rapid component had a reversal potential at +54 mV and the reversal potential changed with extracellular Na concentration in accord with the Nernst equation. It was blocked by substitution of impermeant cations for Na, by TTX and by internal injections of Zn. It was concluded that this component was normally a Na current. 4. The later slower component of the transient current had a reversal potential at about +65 mV and the reversal potential changed with extracellular Ca concentration is accord with
TY - JOUR. T1 - Fluorescent voltage imaging for detection of networks in Aplysia central nervous system responding to electrical stimulation. AU - Arawaka, Hiroto. AU - Matsumoto, Naoko. AU - Aoki, Kazuto. AU - Yoshimi, Yasuo. PY - 2011/9/14. Y1 - 2011/9/14. M3 - Article. JO - Neuroscience2011, Yokohama. JF - Neuroscience2011, Yokohama. ER - ...
Background The neurotransmitter L-Glutamate (L-Glu) acting at ionotropic L-Glu receptors (iGluR) conveys fast excitatory signal transmission in the nervous systems of all animals. iGluR-dependent...
Find about Binary Neuron L.L.C, Philadelphia, PA on Sortfolio. Browse by style, budget, and location. View portfolios and previous work.
The discovery that dendrites of neurons in the mammalian brain possess the capacity for protein synthesis stimulated interest in the potential role of local, postsynaptic protein synthesis in learning-related synaptic plasticity. But it remains unclear how local, postsynaptic protein synthesis actua …
Aplysia californica (Alacrity, Redondo Beach, CA), weighing 80-120 g, were anesthetized by injection of isotonic MgCl2, and their abdominal and pleural-pedal ganglia were removed. Prior to desheathing, ganglia were treated with 0.5% glutaraldehyde for 50 s to prevent contraction of muscle cells in the remaining sheath. Ganglia were secured with minuten pins on wax in a recording chamber and desheathed in a 1:1 mixture of MgCl2 and artificial sea water. In experiments on facilitation of depressed synapses, synaptic connections between LE siphon SNs and LFS MNs in the abdominal ganglion were recorded after the left ventral surface of the ganglion was desheathed. In experiments on spike broadening in SNs, pleural ganglia were desheathed to expose the SNs in the ventrocaudal (VC) cluster.. Experiments were performed at room temperature. Ganglia were superfused with high-Mg2+/high-Ca2+ culture medium (6 × normal Ca2+, 1.6 × normal Mg2+) (Goldsmith and Abrams 1991) to reduce polysynaptic input and ...
MODELE NAME: neu ,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,,, ,-------------------------------,---------------------------------------, THRESHOLD: 0 , Threshold for transmitter release , ,-------------------------------,---------------------------------------, SPIKDUR: 0.003 , Spike duration. If equal 0 then , , actual time when presynaptic , , neuronis above threshold will , , be measured , ,-------------------------------,---------------------------------------, VMINIT: -70 , Initial value of membrane potential. , ,-------------------------------,---------------------------------------, CM: 0.0175 , Membrane capacitance. , ,-------------------------------,---------------------------------------, ,-------------------------------,-------------------------------, CONDUCTANCES: , List of Conductances , ,-------------------------------,-------------------------------, CaP , Name of conductance , R15_CaP.vdg , File Name , green , Color , ...
BioFlux automates live cell analysis for shear assays, long-term cell culture, physiologically relevant conditions, cell-cell interactions, and 2-phase flow. Applications include microbiology, immunology, hematology, cancer and others.
BioFlux automates live cell analysis for shear assays, long-term cell culture, physiologically relevant conditions, cell-cell interactions, and 2-phase flow. Applications include microbiology, immunology, hematology, cancer and others.
Principal Investigator:MIYAKE Kensuke, Project Period (FY):1997 - 1998, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B), Section:一般, Research Field:Immunology
Video articles in JoVE about magnesium chloride include An In Vitro Preparation for Eliciting and Recording Feeding Motor Programs with Physiological Movements in Aplysia californica, Ammonia Synthesis at Low Pressure, A Restriction Enzyme Based Cloning Method to Assess the In vitro Replication Capacity of HIV-1 Subtype C Gag-MJ4 Chimeric Viruses, The Cell-based L-Glutathione Protection Assays to Study Endocytosis and Recycling of Plasma Membrane Proteins, Modeling Neural Immune Signaling of Episodic and Chronic Migraine Using Spreading Depression In Vitro, Extracellularly Identifying Motor Neurons for a Muscle Motor Pool in Aplysia californica, Engineering Golden Fluorescence by Selective Pressure Incorporation of Non-Canonical Amino Acids and Protein Analysis by Mass Spectrometry and Fluorescence, Phage Phenomics: Physiological Approaches to Characterize Novel Viral Proteins, Isolation and Activation of Murine Lymphocytes, Layered Alginate Constructs: A Platform for Co-culture
The Buccal neurons are divided into motoneurons, which innervate muscles and interneurons, which are mostly confined to the buccal ganglion. The interneurons are active in turn, with each type of nterneuron only active in one phase of the rhythm. Motoneurons may be active in more than one phase. the picture below shows a simplified diagram, showing which neurons are active in any one phase ...
The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory researchers work will help predict how the Arctic is responding to climate change-and the global effects of those changes.. 0 Comments. ...
The stage was set for a biochemical analysis of memory storage…But even a single Aplysia neuron contains thousands of different proteins and other molecules. Which of these molecules are responsible for short-term memory?...The sequence of biochemical reactions that I sought would have to…translate the brief action of serotonin into molecules whose signals would last for minutes within the sensory neuron. Second, those molecules would have to broadcast signals from the cell membrane, where serotonin acts…to the specialized regions of the axon terminal involved in the release of glutamate. We speculated on the possibility that a specific molecule known as cyclic AMP might be involved….. ...
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Automation of cell biology processes from cell culture with cloning, transfection and colony picking, to the point of cell-based assays and cellular analysis.
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Memory, Aplysia, Kinase, Neuron, Neurons, Role, Protein Kinase, Shock, Tail, Plays, Motor Neuron, Sensory Neuron, Synapses, Roles, Long-term Memory, Action Potential, Plastic, Second Messengers, Sensory Neurons, Serotonin
2BYR: Structures of Aplysia Achbp Complexes with Nicotinic Agonists and Antagonists Reveal Distinctive Binding Interfaces and Conformations.
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Unfolding reveals the rest of the hierarchy. I imagine that maintaining the hierarchy after applying the filter could prove almost impossible and I thought it could be powerful enough in its most simple form. Having a filter in effect would remove hierarchy (expand all and remove level distinction) and only show items that contain the filter text (using Name Matching method if thats possible to implement). That is, entering the word usp_aoeuaoeu would keep the 7 rows (where that string occurs) in the view but typing ALTER PROCEDURE would only keep that one ...
Siphon (?), n. [F. siphon, L. sipho, -onis, fr. Gr. a siphon, tube, pipe.] 1. A device, consisting of a pipe or tube bent so as to...
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What bags is everyone rocking nowadays? Even though I have like 90s of all classes, I am still using netherweaves bag as inventory bags and crafting shit loads of the royal satchels for banks.... What are the best bags in terms of easy to obtain v space?
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Binding of [125I]α-bungarotoxin to acetylcholine receptors of ganglionic homogenate of the marine mollusc Aplysia is blocked by the anticholinesterases eserine (I50 = 4 µM) and neostigmine (I50 = 0.2 mM). The classical acetylcholine antagonist d-tubocurarine blocks with an I50 of 2 µM. Eserine (I50 = 3.2 µM) and neostigmine (I50 , 1 mM) also block toxin binding to a solubilized receptor preparation. In contrast to their relative potency in blocking toxin binding, neostigmine is a more potent inhibitor of Aplysia acetylcholinesterase (I50 = 14 nM) than is eserine (I50 = 250 nM). α-Bungarotoxin does not affect esterase activity or interfere with the ability of eserine to block the esterase. The response to acetylcholine recorded through intracellular microelectrodes is blocked by α-bungarotoxin. Neither eserine nor neostigmine blocks the acetylcholine response; rather, they prolong and increase it, as expected from their effects on the esterase. Eserine (0.1 mM) blocks the α-bungarotoxin ...
Neuropeptides are a diverse assemblage of signalling molecules that have key roles in the regulation of behaviour. Understanding the evolutionary relationships and functions of the plethora of neuropeptides has presented a considerable challenge to biologists. Based on presentations and discussions at a Royal Society meeting in 2017, three companion Review articles by Elphick et al., Jékely et al. and DeLaney et al. discuss advances in our knowledge of neuropeptide evolution and function and the techniques that have facilitated progress in this field of research.. ...
Science Speaker Dr. Richard Manalis, Adjunct Professor of Biological Sciences, Goshen College. A Simple Form of Memory at Nerve-Muscle Synapses of the Frog ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Definition of Withdrawal reflex in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Withdrawal reflex? Meaning of Withdrawal reflex as a legal term. What does Withdrawal reflex mean in law?
Electroporation is a simple yet powerful technique for breaching the cell membrane barrier. The applications of electroporation can be generally divided into two categories: the release of intracellular proteins, nucleic acids and other metabolites for analysis and the delivery of exogenous reagents
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Two identified interneurons in each buccal ganglion of Aplysia can mediate conjoined excitation and inhibition to a single follower cell. A single presynaptic action potential in one of these interneurons produces a diphasic, depolarizing-hyperpolarizing synaptic potential apparently as a result of a single transmitter acting on two types of postsynaptic receptors in the follower cell. These receptors produce synaptic potentials with differing reversal potentials, ionic conductances, time courses, rates of decrement with repetition, pharmacological properties, and functional consequences. The excitatory receptor controls a sodium conductance, the inhibitory receptor controls a chloride conductance. Both components of the synaptic potentials can be produced by iontophoretic application of acetylcholine on the cell body of the follower cell, and each component is differentially sensitive to different cholinergic blocking agents. ...
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2Y7Y: Use of Acetylcholine Binding Protein in the Search for Novel Alpha7 Nicotinic Receptor Ligands. In Silico Docking, Pharmacological Screening, and X-Ray Analysis.
The brain is a "plastic" organ that can undergo many changes. When neurons in the brain receive repetitive stimuli, new synapses are formed, and the efficiency of information transfer changes. In other words, synapse formation is a construction site of learning. We wish to explore what kinds of molecules are at work here. Past studies have shown that the messenger RNAs (mRNAs) of a neurotransmitter protein called sensorin are not retained near the nucleus but are transported to the synaptic terminal where they are condensed and translated into protein when the neuron receives an input stimulus. It was confirmed that no synapse formation occurred when sensorin translation was inhibited. This shows that the transport of sensorin mRNA to the synaptic terminal and its translation there are essential for synapse formation.. Now that we have identified a key molecule , new questions arise. How are the mRNAs transported over such a long distance from the nucleus to the synaptic terminal? How is the ...
The miniaturization of the current technology of storage media is hindered by fundamental limits of quantum mechanics. A new approach consists in using so-called spin-crossover molecules as the smallest possible storage unit. Similar to normal hard drives, these special molecules can save information via their magnetic state. A research team from Kiel University has now managed to successfully place a new class of spin-crossover molecules onto a surface and to improve the molecules storage capacity. The storage density of conventional hard drives could therefore theoretically be increased by more than one hundred fold. The study has been published in the scientific journal Nano Letters. ...
This session will highlight novel approaches utilizing microfabricated systems for molecular and cellular analyses. Applications of microsystems in biosensing, sample handling, cell cultivation and cell manipulation will be presented ...
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RadBioPhys Lab routinely performs cellular analysis (DNA content, Cell death assay, Proliferation Assay) and immunophenotype assays (from 2 to 8 colors analysis).. For more information and specific collaboration requests: [email protected] or +39 0382 987644. ...
Slug radula. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of the radula from a red slug (Arion rufus). The radula is a tongue-like organ found in most molluscs. It is studded with rows of horny teeth (grey), which are used to rasp food particles from surfaces. Magnification: x660 when printed at 10 centimetres wide. - Stock Image C020/8738
Habituation is a simple form of learning that all animals, including people, are capable of. In this lesson, you will learn what it is, how it...
A k-space method for large-scale simulation of ultrasonic pulse propagation is presented. The present method, which solves the coupled first-order differential equations for wave propagation in inhomogeneous media, is derived in a simple form analogo
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Your YOLY challenge this week is to incorporate a simple form of pranayama or breath control into your daily practice. The technique is called Ujjayi Breathing. On YOLY Week #1, I challenged you to take 5 minutes each day to just breathe. If you took this first step, you had the chance to follow your breath and…
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We describe here the cloning of mouse complementary DNAs encoding a novel protein, Rb-8 neural cell adhesion molecule (RNCAM), with a predicted extracellular region of five immunoglobulin Ca-type domains followed by two fibronectin type III domains, Alternative splicing is likely to generate two RNCAM isoforms, which are differently attached to the cell membrane, These structural features and overall sequence identity identify this protein as a novel member of a cell adhesion molecule subgroup together with vertebrate neural cell adhesion molecule, Aplysia cell adhesion molecule, and Drosophila fasciclin II, In insects, fasciclin II is present on a restricted subset of embryonic central nervous system axons where it controls selective axon fasciculation. Intriguingly, RNCAM likewise is expressed in subsets of olfactory and vomeronasal neurons with topographically defined axonal projections, The spatial expression RNCAM corresponds precisely to that of certain odorant receptor expression zones of ...
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Intermediate-term memory (ITM) is a stage of memory distinct from sensory memory, working memory/short-term memory, and long-term memory.[1][2] While sensory memory persists for several milliseconds, working memory persists for up to thirty seconds, and long-term memory persists from thirty minutes to the end of an individuals life, intermediate-term memory persists for about two to three hours.[3] This overlap in the durations of these memory processes indicates that they occur simultaneously, rather than sequentially. Indeed, intermediate-term facilitation can be produced in the absence of long-term facilitation.[4] However, the boundaries between these forms of memory are not clear-cut, and they can vary depending on the task.[5] Intermediate-term memory is thought to be supported by the parahippocampal cortex.[6] In 1993, Rosenzweig and colleagues demonstrated that, in rats conditioned with an aversive stimulus, percent avoidance of the stimulus (and, by implication, memory of the aversive ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Classical conditioning and sensitization share aspects of the same molecular cascade in Aplysia.. AU - Kandel, E. R.. AU - Abrams, T.. AU - Bernier, L.. AU - Carew, Thomas. AU - Hawkins, R. D.. AU - Schwartz, J. H.. PY - 1983. Y1 - 1983. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0021009080&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0021009080&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 6327178. AN - SCOPUS:0021009080. VL - 48 Pt 2. SP - 821. EP - 830. JO - Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology. JF - Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology. SN - 0091-7451. ER - ...
The novel bromotriterpene polyethers aplysqualenol A (1) and B (2) have been isolated from the Caribbean sea slug Aplysia dactylomela, collected in Puerto Rico, and their structures and relative configurational assignments established from spectroscopic data aided by quantum mechanical calculations of NMR chemical shifts. Although both these compounds may be conceived as polyoxacyclic derivatives of the C30 squalene skeleton, it is notable that 1 and 2 each possess an unprecedented C15-to-C24 flexible chain of (14S*) spatial disposition that contains a unique ether bridge between C16 and C19. Biological activity screening tests revealed that, although aplysqualenol A (1) does not have significant antiinfective properties, it possesses potent antitumoral and antiviral activities. (© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2009) ...
The pedal ganglia are connected to other ganglia through large connectives: the Pedal-Pleural connective and the Cerebro-Pedal connective. In addition, there are two commissures that connect the left and right pedal ganglia: the large commissure is known simply as the Pedal Commissure, the smaller, more anterior commissure is called the parapedal commissure. The nerves leaving the pedal ganglion are numbered in an anterior to posterior fashion (P1-P10). Unlike the other nerves, P10 is a midline nerve that exits from the parapedal commissure. Cobalt backfilling of the 9 paired nerves by Hening et al., 1979, indicates that each nerve contains axons of neurons from several cell clusters that are dispersed through the ganglion. ...
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of homosynaptic depression (HD) on spectral properties of the soleus (SOL) H-reflex. Paired stimulations, separated by 100 ms, were used to elicit an unconditioned and conditioned H-reflex in the SOL muscle of 20 participants during quiet standing. Wavelet and principal component analyses were used to analyze features of the time-varying spectral properties of the unconditioned and conditioned H-reflex. The effects of HD on spectral properties of the H-reflex signal were quantified by comparing extracted principal component scores. The analysis extracted two principal components: one associated with the intensity of the spectra and one associated with its frequency. The scores for both principal components were smaller for the conditioned H-reflex. HD decreases the spectral intensity and changes the spectral frequency of H-reflexes. These results suggest that HD changes the recruitment pattern of the motor units evoked during H-reflex ...
Can methods less invasive than SLB, including BAL and TBB, be useful in the diagnosis of IPF? The short answer is no. BAL cellular analysis has been used for many years in the diagnosis of several ILDs. When evaluating individuals with suspected IPF, BAL is useful in excluding other conditions, especially chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis, for which a diagnosis is suggested by a lymphocytosis ,40% [2]. A recent publication of retrospective data reported that 8% of individuals with a HRCT UIP pattern may have BAL features that would point to an alternative diagnosis to IPF [2, 15]. The 2011 guidelines recommend, however, that BAL cellular analysis should not be performed in the diagnostic evaluation of IPF in the majority of individuals, but may be appropriate for a minority. The evidence regarding whether or not BAL adds significantly improved diagnostic specificity is presently unclear [2].. TBB has been shown to be useful in the evaluation of conditions that are predominantly bronchocentric ...
Pulsed infrared (IR) light has been used in multiple animal models to inhibit neural activity. Duke et al. reported inhibition associated with a temperature increase of ~8°C in Aplysia californica buccal nerve 2 (BN2). There is no evidence that the current irradiation schemes alters nerve functionality, however lower temperatures provide a safer environment for sustained inhibition. Inhibition paradigms use a single optical fiber to deliver IR light, resulting in a single hotspot within the nerve. One proposed method for decreasing peak temperatures is to use a lower radiant exposure over a greater area, effectively heating the nerve more evenly. Preliminary computational modeling suggests that using two axially adjacent optical fibers reduces peak temperatures required for infrared neural inhibition (INI). This hypothesis is being validated in vitro in Aplysia. Pleural abdominal nerves were dissected out, and suction electrodes were applied to electrically stimulate and record neural activity. ...
A nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates activity by transmitting signals about whats happening both inside and outside the body. Its made up of special types of cells called neurons, and ranges in size and complexity from just a few hundred nerve cells in the simplest worms, to some 20,000 neurons in the California sea hare, Aplysia californica (a very cool mollusk whose large, sometimes gigantic, neurons have made it the darling of neurobiologists for the past fifty years), to as many as 100 billion in humans. Well be looking in detail at the human brain and DNA in later chapters, but theres an important point to be made before we leave our ancestors on the distant savannah: just as the human brain changed and evolved over the millennia, our individual brain changes and evolves from the day we are born until we die. Critical studies starting in the 1970s and 1980s demonstrated that our brains are in a state of constant evolution - neurons growing, connecting, and then ...
12-keto-eicosatetraenoic acid is a biologically active eicosanoid in the nervous system of Aplysia.It is a metabolite of 12-HPETE formed by Aplysia nervous tissue. 12-KETE was identified in incubations of the tissue with arachidonic acid using HPLC, UV spectrometry, and gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry. [3H]12-KETE is formed from endogenous lipid stores in nervous tissue, labeled with [3H]arachidonic acid upon stimulation by application of histamine. In L14 and L10 cells, identified neurons in the abdominal ganglion, applications of 12-KETE elicit changes in membrane potential similar to those evoked by histamine.[PMID:2774398 ...
Some neurons in Aplysia have receptors which are much more sensitive to octopamine than any other structurally related compound. Most such receptors mediate a hyperpolarizing conductance increase to K(+). These responses when considered with the octopamine content of whole ganglia and single neurons strongly suggest that octopamine is a neurotransmitter in Aplysia.
TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) is a non-canonical IKK family member and plays a critical role in innate immunity by modulating cytokine production, interferon, and NF-kB signaling. It is recently reported that TBK1 directly engages Akt survival signaling to support oncogenic Ras-driven transformation. TBK1 is also identified as a synthetic lethal partner in KRas mutant NSCLC through systematic RNA interference. In this study, we have characterized LSN3090729, a 4-aryl-2-aminopyrimidine derivative as a selective TBK1 kinase inhibitor. Biochemical and cellular analyses demonstrate that LSN3090729 is a potent TBK1 kinase inhibitor, and selectively inhibits TBK1 based on in vitro activities in biochemical assays developed with a panel of protein kinases. In Panc-1, a pancreatic tumor cell line with KRas mutation, LSN3090729 inhibits EGF-induced phosphorylation of AKT at both Thr308 and Ser473 sites. Pharmacokinetic analysis shows that LSN3090729 has an over 70% of oral bioavailability with an ...
Syphon is an open source Mac OS X technology that allows applications to share frames - full frame rate video or stills - with one another in realtime. Now you can leverage the expressive power of a plethora of tools to mix, mash, edit, sample, texture-map, synthesize, and present your imagery using the best tool for each part of the job. Syphon gives you flexibility to break out of single-app solutions and mix creative applications to suit your needs.. Syphon provides an ecosystem for sharing imagery between applications and new media development environments. Syphon is designed to be efficient and will not duplicate resources unnecessarily, keeping your frame rate and best interests in mind.. ...
Serum Wajah, Isi 2 Botol, Memperlambat Penuaan Dini, Mengurangi Garis Halus dan Keriput, Membantu Proses Pemutihan Kulit, Merangsang Terbentuknya Kolagen murah dengan spesifikasi sesuai kebutuhan Anda. Gratis ongkos kirim dan bisa dicicil dengan bunga cicilan 0%
Although one of the first things that a Neuroscience student learns about is reflex reactions such as the patellar reflex (also known as the knee-jerk reflex), the cognitive neuroscientist is interested in the kind of processing that might occur between inputs and outputs in mappings that are not so direct as the knee-jerk reaction. An example of a system which is a step up from the knee-jerk reflex is in the reflexes of the sea slug named Aplysia. Unlike the patellar reflex, Aplysias gill and siphon retraction reflexes seem to habituate over time - the original input-output mappings are overridden by being repeatedly stimulated. This is a simple form of memory, but no real processing can be said to go on there.. Specifically, cognitive neuroscientists are interested in mappings where processing seems to occur before the output decision is made. As MC pointed out earlier, the opportunity for memory (past experience) to affect those mappings is probably important for free will. But ...
Although one of the first things that a Neuroscience student learns about is reflex reactions such as the patellar reflex (also known as the knee-jerk reflex), the cognitive neuroscientist is interested in the kind of processing that might occur between inputs and outputs in mappings that are not so direct as the knee-jerk reaction. An example of a system which is a step up from the knee-jerk reflex is in the reflexes of the sea slug named Aplysia. Unlike the patellar reflex, Aplysias gill and siphon retraction reflexes seem to habituate over time - the original input-output mappings are overridden by being repeatedly stimulated. This is a simple form of memory, but no real processing can be said to go on there.. Specifically, cognitive neuroscientists are interested in mappings where processing seems to occur before the output decision is made. As MC pointed out earlier, the opportunity for memory (past experience) to affect those mappings is probably important for free will. But ...
Synaptic contact and nerve impulse. Representation of the nerve impulse transmission of a neuron synapse A (on the top) to a dendritic button of a neuron B (on the bottom). Vesicles release glutamate (green balls) that fix on the receptors (purple) that open the sodium channels and enable the Na+ (+) ions to penetrate in the dendritic button of the neuron B, thus creating an electric current. The two pink elements are mitochondria. - Stock Image C006/3865
Fujisawa Y, Furukawa Y, Ohta S, Ellis TA, Dembrow NC, Li L, Floyd PD, Sweedler JV, Minakata H, Nakamaru K, et al. The Aplysia Mytilus inhibitory peptide-related peptides: Identification, cloning, processing, distribution, and action. Journal of Neuroscience. 1999 ;19:9618-9634. ...
Fujisawa Y, Furukawa Y, Ohta S, Ellis TA, Dembrow NC, Li L, Floyd PD, Sweedler JV, Minakata H, Nakamaru K, et al. The Aplysia Mytilus inhibitory peptide-related peptides: Identification, cloning, processing, distribution, and action. Journal of Neuroscience. 1999 ;19:9618-9634. ...
During the past two decades, complex image theory techniques have successfully been utilized to determine simple form expressions for the electric and magnetic fields produced by antennas located near the earths surface, for both single-layered and multilayered earths. It is the purpose of this paper to provide a tutorial overview of complex image theory. Particular attention will be paid to its range of validity. Specific applications will also be discussed. ...
ADP-ribosyl cyclases catalyze the transformation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) into the calcium-mobilizing nucleotide second messenger cyclic adenosine diphosphoribose (cADP-ribose) by adenine N1-cyclization onto the C-1 position of NAD+. The invertebrate Aplysia californica ADP-ribosyl cyclase is unusual among this family of enzymes by acting exclusively as a cyclase, whereas the other members, such as CD38 and CD157, also act as NAD+ glycohydrolases, following a partitioning kinetic mechanism. To explore the intramolecular cyclization reaction, the novel nicotinamide 2-fluoroadenine dinucleotide (2-fluoro-NAD+) was designed as a sterically very close analogue to the natural substrate NAD+, with only an electronic perturbation at the critical N1 position of the adenine base designed to impede the cyclization reaction. 2-Fluoro-NAD+ was synthesized in high yield via Lewis acid catalyzed activation of the phosphoromorpholidate derivative of 2-fluoroadenosine 5-monophosphate and coupling
UV-B irradiation of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) roots (1 W/m2, 15 min) or leaves (3 W/m2, 3.3 h) and also one-day-long root incubation in the Knop solution supplemented with 1-4 μM ABA, 1 mM salicylic acid, 16 μM ionomycin, or 0.1 mM colchicine induced growth retardation and subapical root swelling. All factors, except for colchicine, initiated growth of root hairs on the surface of swellings and suppressed their initiation and growth in more basal root region. During the first hour after unilateral root UV-B irradiation, their growth sharply retarded and hydraulic conductivity of membranes in the rhizodermis of growth zone rose 1.5-fold. In 2.5 h, root tips bent toward the source of irradiation. In 4.5 h, the ratio of longitudinal to transverse root extensibility in the root growth zone reduced twofold. In 8 h, root diameter in the subapical zone increased and root hairs appeared in this zone and attained 300 μm in length. In a day after irradiation, on unirradiated root side, meristematic cells
Upper Cretaceous and Paleocene shallow marine mollusk-bearing sediments. Volume 2. The Gastropoda.Philippine Marine Mollusks Gastropoda Volume 2 Summary: File 69,65MB Philippine Marine Mollusks Gastropoda Volume 2 Free Download Searching for Philippine Marine.The Gastropod Genus Calyptraphorus (Rostellariidae: Stromboidea:.Scouting for Philippine Marine Mollusks Gastropoda Volume1 Do you really need this ebook of Philippine Marine Mollusks.A New Species of Contradusta (GASTROPODA: CYPRAEIDAE) from the Philippines. - Visaya vol. 4(1).Download and Read Philippine Marine Mollusks Gastropoda Volume1 Philippine Marine Mollusks Gastropoda Volume1 Bring home now the book enPDFd philippine marine.The eastern Pacific marine mollusks described by C.B. Adams. 21-136. 21. Turner, R.D. Volume 3 ...
The power of Drosophila genetics has attracted attention in tackling important biomedical challenges such as the understanding and prevention of neurodegenerative diseases. Parkinsons disease (PD) is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder which results from the relentless degeneration of midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Over the past two decades tremendous advances have been made in identifying genes responsible for inherited forms of PD. The ease of genetic manipulation in Drosophila has spurred the development of numerous models of PD, including expression of human genes carrying pathogenic mutations or the targeted mutation of conserved orthologs. The genetic and cellular analysis of these models is beginning to reveal fundamental insights into the pathogenic mechanisms. Numerous pathways and processes are disrupted in these models but some common themes are emerging. These often implicate aberrant synaptic function, protein aggregation, autophagy, oxidative stress, and ...
Neurofibres Autonomes Préganglionnaires 0 questions Nerve fibers which project from the central nervous system to autonomic ganglia. In the sympathetic division most preganglionic fibers originate with neurons in the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord, exit via ventral roots from upper thoracic through lower lumbar segments, and project to the paravertebral ganglia; there they either terminate in synapses or continue through the splanchnic nerves to the prevertebral ganglia. In the parasympathetic division the fibers originate in neurons of the brain stem and sacral spinal cord. In both divisions the principal transmitter is acetylcholine but peptide cotransmitters may also be released. ...
Abstract: Abdominal ganglia of crayfish contain identifiable neuropils, commissures, longitudinal tracts, and vertical tracts. To determine the functional significance of this ganglionic framework, we backfilled the following types of neurons with cobalt chloride: sensory hair afferents, slow and fast extensor motor neurons, the segmental stretch receptor neurons, and their inhibitory accessory cells. After the cobalt ions were precipitated and intensified, we studied the central projections of the filled neurons within the ganglionic structures. All of the axons of these neurons exit or enter each of the first five abdominal ganglia through the second pair of nerves. Our description of the central projections of the hair afferents is the first in the literature. These afferents innervate the large ventral horseshoe neuropil (HN) in the core of each ganglion. This neuropil is homologous to the insect ventral association centers, which also process sensory information. Furthermore, we discovered ...
Unabridged Note: Frangula californica grows throughout most of California and the subspecies are somewhat separated geographically, but intermediates and variants in California exist between all the subspecies except subsp. ursina (C.B. Wolf 1938). In California, Frangula californica subsp. ursina occurs only in San Bernardino Co., Frangula californica subsp. californica is the most coastal, growing from the western Klamath Mountains south to Agua Tibia Mtn in southern California., Frangula californica subsp. occidentalis is characteristic of mafic and ultramafic substrates in northwest California; plants on other substrates approach Frangula californica subsp. californica, but leaf blades are equally green (not yellow-green) on both surfaces. Wolf reported that "from San Francisco Bay region to Santa Barbara Co. is a form of Rhamnus californica in which the leaves are whitened beneath, but upon examination show pubescence much shorter than that in Rhamnus tomentella. In older leaves it often ...
Aplysia californica[edit]. The sea hare A californica is a model organism in neurobiology to study among others the molecular ... "Using an aplysia two-hybrid system to examine the interactions between transcription factors involved in long-term ... facilitation in the nervous system of aplysia". Learning & Memory. 10 (1): 40-3. doi:10.1101/lm.55303. PMC 196654. PMID ...
The California sea hare, scientific name Aplysia californica, is a species of sea slug in the sea hare family, Aplysiidae.[1] ... a b c Kandel, Eric Behavioral biology of Aplysia. W.H. Freeman and Co., San Francisco. ... Adult animals can weigh up to 7 kg (15 lb).[4] A closely related species, Aplysia vaccaria, the black sea hare, can grow to be ... Aplysia californica has become a valuable laboratory animal, used in studies of the neurobiology of learning and memory, and is ...
Bolognesi, M; Onesti, S; Gatti, G; Coda, A; Ascenzi, P; Brunori, M (1989). "Aplysia limacina myoglobin. Crystallographic ...
Candidate chemoreceptor subfamilies differentially expressed in the chemosensory organs of the mollusc Aplysia. BMC Biology ... In Aplysia californica, the oral tentacles, which are situated in a more ventral position, are possibly involved in contact ... In reproductively mature Aplysia adults the rhinophore is about 1 cm in length.[1] The neuroanatomical organization includes a ... In the sea hare Aplysia californica, the rhinophores are able to detect pheromones.[1] ...
The dwarf sea hare or pygmy sea hare, Aplysia parvula, is a species of sea slug, specifically a sea hare, a marine gastropod ... The type locality of Aplysia parvula is Saint Vincent, Lesser Antilles. The dwarf sea hare is round-bodied and smooth-skinned ... Rogers C. N., de Nys R. & Steinberg P. D. (2003). "Ecology of the sea hare Aplysia parvula (Opisthobranchia) in New South Wales ... Rosenberg, G.; Gofas, S. (2012). Aplysia parvula Mørch, 1863. Accessed through: World Register of Marine Species at http://www. ...
Sea hare Aplysia dactylomela Aplysia dactylomela showing mouth Fischer, P. (1883). Manuel de conchyliologie et de paléontologie ... The biggest species, Aplysia vaccaria, can reach a length of 75 centimetres (30 in) and a weight of 14 kilograms (31 lb) and is ... See Aplysia gill and siphon withdrawal reflex. Sea hares are often used as a method of eradicating nuisance algae and ... The clade Anaspidea, commonly known as sea hares (Aplysia species and related genera), are medium-sized to very large ...
In 1964 Kehoe moved to Paris to continue her work on Aplysia at the Institut Marey. She began experimenting to identify the ... This was unusual, as the Aplysia response she was researching was cholinergic and was not expected to change with the addition ... In a nearby lab Felix Strumwasser was using neurons from Aplysia Californica, a species of sea slug, to study circadian rhythms ... She has spent decades working with the neurons of Aplysia californica, studying post-synaptic nerve response. She discovered ...
Molecular Mechanisms of Memory Storage in Aplysia. Biological Bulletin, 210, 174-191. LeDoux, Joseph. Synaptic Self: How Our ...
Fork, R. L. (March 1971). "Laser stimulation of nerve cells in Aplysia". Science. 171 (3974): 907-8. Bibcode:1971Sci...171.. ...
Eric Kandel established many of the biochemical markers of learning and memory in the Aplysia (California sea slug) in the ... Hawkins, R. D., Kandel, E. R., & Bailey, C. H. (2006). Molecular mechanisms of memory storage in aplysia. biological bulletin, ...
Vandorpe DH, Morris CE (1992). "Stretch activation of the Aplysia S-channel". The Journal of membrane biology. 127 (3): 205-214 ...
Aplysia californica photos, from the Sea Slug Forum Learning in Aplysia californica, from brembs.net (photos) Photos from ... Aplysia is known to form mating chains with up to 20 animals, thus each animal can serve as male and female at the same time. ... Thus Aplysia resembles the food it grazes on and cannot be distinguished easily from the seaweed unless the animal is moving. ... Aplysia has a generation time of 19 weeks: Day 1-37 after hatching from the egg planktonic stage, day 34-37 Metamorphic stage, ...
Parabolic bursting has been studied most extensively in the R15 neuron, which is one of six types of neurons of the Aplysia ... The Aplysia abdominal ganglion was studied and extensively characterized because its relatively large neurons and proximity of ... Faber D, Klee M (1972). "Membrane Characteristics of Bursting Pacemaker Neurons in Aplysia". Nature New Biology. 240: 29-31. ... 1967). "Morphological and Functional Properties of Identified Neurons in the Abdominal Ganglion of Aplysia Californica". J. ...
In studies on learning and the Aplysia gill and siphon withdrawal reflex, Aplysia received an electric shock on the siphon each ... Aplysia learned to keep their gills contracted above the criterion level-an unlikely outcome if the response was due to a ... Moreover, in Aplysia and mammals the same cell signaling pathways trigger persistent enhancement of excitability and synaptic ... When a weak tactile stimulus is applied to the siphon of the sea-hare Aplysia californica, the animal rapidly withdraws the ...
Schaefer, M.; Picciotto, M. R.; Kreiner, T.; Kaldany, R. R.; Taussig, R.; Scheller, R. H. (1 June 1985). "Aplysia neurons ... "Aplysia neurons express a gene encoding multiple FMRFamide neuropeptides". Cell. 41 (2): 457-461. PMID 3838698. CS1 maint: ...
One of the homologues is VAP33 from Aplysia californica. VAP33 is a protein required for neurotransmitter release, which binds ... Skehel PA, Martin KC, Kandel ER, Bartsch D (September 1995). "A VAMP-binding protein from Aplysia required for neurotransmitter ...
in the aplysia confirm inhibition of VGCC by ethanol. Voltage clamp recordings have been done on the aplysia neuron. VGCCs were ...
Skehel, P. A.; Martin, K. C.; Kandel, E. R.; Bartsch, D. (1995-09-15). "A VAMP-binding protein from Aplysia required for ...
The changes in synaptic transmission that occur during habituation have been well-characterized in the Aplysia gill and siphon ... Psychology portal Adaptive system Aplysia Consumer demand tests (animals) Desensitization (psychology) Hedonic adaptation ... "Habituation and Dishabituation of the Gill-Withdrawal Reflex in Aplysia". Science. 167 (3926): 1740-1742. doi:10.2307/1728291. ...
... and long-term memory for sensitization in aplysia". Learning & Memory. 9 (1): 29-40. doi:10.1101/lm.44802. PMC 155928. PMID ... "Molecular mechanisms underlying a unique intermediate phase of memory in aplysia". Neuron. 31 (1): 143-54. doi:10.1016/S0896- ... introduced a novel theory for the neural correlates underlying intermediate-term memory in Aplysia in 2001, where they ... "Behavioral, cellular, and molecular analysis of memory in aplysia I: intermediate-term memory" (PDF). Integrative and ...
Si, K.; Lindquist, S.; Kandel, E. (2003). "A neuronal isoform of the aplysia CPEB has prion-like properties". Cell. 115 (7): ...
Macnae, W. (1955). On four species of the genus Aplysia common in South Africa. Annals of the Natal Museum 13 (2): 223-241. ...
This technology opened up a new era of molecular studies on the memory mechanisms in Aplysia, as well as of functional studies ... Lee YS, Bailey CH, Kandel ER, Kaang BK (2008). "Transcriptional regulation of long-term memory in the marine snail Aplysia". ... He investigated the molecular mechanisms of learning and memory using a simple animal, the marine snail Aplysia. Under the ... In parallel with these studies in Aplysia, Kaang has expanded his research field to more complex mammalian models. Combining ...
Experiments with the Aplysia isoform expressed in yeast reveal that CPEB has a key property associated with prions: it can ... An isoform of CPEB found in the neurons of the sea slug Aplysia californica, as well as in Drosophila, mice, and humans, ... Si, K; Lindquist, S; Kandel, ER (2003). "A Neuronal Isoform of the Aplysia CPEB Has Prion-Like Properties". Cell. 115: 879-91. ...
"Aplysia californica" Greenfield, Beth (October 26, 2006). "The outsiders, A new anthology presents oft-painful tales of gay ...
Learning and memory using nociceptors in the sea hare, Aplysia has been described. Mollusk neurons are able to detect ... Mechanosensory neurons innervating Aplysia siphon encode noxious stimuli and display nociceptive sensitization. The Journal of ... Regulation of low-threshold afferent activity may contribute to short-term habituation in Aplysia californica. Neurobiology of ... Neuronal mechanisms of habituation and dishabituation of the gill-withdrawal reflex in Aplysia. Science, 167: 1745-1748 Fischer ...
Aplysia; a gastropod of the subclass Opisthobranchia) distract and confuse the predator and conceal the prey. Camouflage or ... Other articles where Aplysia is discussed: mollusk: Features of defense: …from the sea hare ( ... example, in the sea snail Aplysia-has confirmed that habituation need not depend on changes in the activity of sensory or motor ... Besides the algae-sucking sacoglossans, Aplysia cuts up strips of seaweed for swallowing, and a number of the more primitive ...
Aplysia guttata Sars M., 1840 synonym of Aplysia punctata (Cuvier, 1803) Aplysia hamiltoni Kirk, 1882 : synonym of Aplysia ... Aplysia protea Rang, 1828: synonym of Aplysia dactylomela Rang, 1828 Aplysia pulmonica Gould, 1852 : synonym of Aplysia argus ... synonym of Aplysia dactylomela Rang, 1828 Aplysia sibogae Bergh, 1905: synonym of Aplysia juliana Quoy & Gaimard, 1832 Aplysia ... 1828 Aplysia odorata Risbec, 1928: synonym of Aplysia dactylomela Rang, 1828 Aplysia operta Burne, 1906: synonym of Aplysia ...
Two Aplysia sensory neurons with synaptic contacts on the same motor neuron in culture after isolation from the nervous system ... of Aplysia. The motor neuron has been injected with a fluorescent molecule that blocks the activity of a specific Protein ... Two Aplysia sensory neurons with synaptic contacts on the same motor neuron in culture after isolation from the nervous system ... of Aplysia. The motor neuron has been injected with a fluorescent molecule that blocks the activity of a specific Protein ...
Aplysia argus is a species of gastropod mollusc in the genus Aplysia, native to the Indo-Pacific region. This species has long ... Aplysia dactylomela ". National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). " Aplysia argus ". Universal Biological Indexer ... Aplysia argus . Rüppell & Leuckart, 1830. Retrieved through: World Register of Marine Species. " ... been confused with Aplysia dactylomela (living in the Atlantic Ocean) because they are morphologically very similar, but ...
Serotonergic neurons and axons were mapped in the central ganglia of Aplysia californica using antiserotonin antibody on intact ... Serotonin immunoreactivity of neurons in the gastropod Aplysia californica.. Longley RD, Longley AJ. ...
Interganglionic axonal transport of neuropeptides in Aplysia. PE Lloyd. Journal of Neuroscience 1 September 1989, 9 (9) 3243- ... Interganglionic axonal transport of neuropeptides in Aplysia Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ... Each of these peptides has been shown to be physiologically active in Aplysia. In addition to these previously characterized ... The transport of neuropeptides between central ganglia was studied in Aplysia. Peptide transport was determined by incubating ...
There are very sensitive and specific histamine receptors on some Aplysia neurons which mediate either depolarizing or ... Abstract : There are very sensitive and specific histamine receptors on some Aplysia neurons which mediate either depolarizing ... Descriptors : *HISTAMINE , *NEUROCHEMICAL TRANSMISSION , PHYSIOLOGY , NERVES , PHARMACOLOGY , CHEMORECEPTORS , APLYSIA , ...
I can see many aplydact.htm Aplysia dactylomela photos on the Forum, but no any one of its egg-mass. I was expected it to be ... Information on Aplysia diet. From: Ana Karina Yepes, February 6, 2003 * Aplysia dactylomela from Lord Howe Island. From: W.B. ... Re: Aplysia from South Africa. From: Richard Willan, January 17, 2001 * More photos of possible Aplysia oculifera. From: Valda ... Aplysia dactylomela from Rhodes, Greece. From: Adam Gill, July 1, 2008 * Re: Aplysia dactylomela from the Canary Islands. From ...
Aplysia, Bursting, Routes into bursting, Neuromodulation, Plant model, Phase response curve, Multi-stability in neuronal models ... "Aplysia R15 neuron" by Fred H. Sieling and Robert Butera is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial- ... The Aplysia Genome Project may reveal the genetic identities of ion channels that sum or combine to form previously described ... Kandel and his colleagues named many of the visually identifiable neurons in the ganglia of Aplysia and mapped out many of ...
Zucker R.S. (1988) Intrinsic Electrophysiological Regulation of Firing Patterns of Bursting Neurons in Aplysia. In: Pickering B ...
2Y7Y: Use of Acetylcholine Binding Protein in the Search for Novel Alpha7 Nicotinic Receptor Ligands. In Silico Docking, Pharmacological Screening, and X-Ray Analysis.
Peptidergic modulation of neuronal circuitry controlling feeding in Aplysia Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to ... Peptidergic modulation of neuronal circuitry controlling feeding in Aplysia. WS Sossin, MD Kirk and RH Scheller ... involved in the control of feeding behavior in Aplysia californica. The application of egg-laying hormone (ELH), small ...
The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory researchers work will help predict how the Arctic is responding to climate change-and the global effects of those changes.. 0 Comments. ...
Aplysia californica (Aplysia), the California sea hare, is a marine mollusk that has been used extensively in research ... Serotonin-and training-induced dynamic regulation of CREB2 in Aplysia. Learn Mem. 2011;18(4):245-9.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral ... Decreased response to acetylcholine during aging of aplysia neuron R15. PLoS One. 2013;8(12):e84793.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentral ... Changes in D-aspartate ion currents in the Aplysia nervous system with aging. Brain Res. 2010;1343:28-36.CrossRefPubMed ...
Facilitatory and inhibitory transmitters modulate spontaneous transmitter release at cultured Aplysia sensorimotor synapses.. ... can modulate the frequency of spontaneous transmitter release at synapses formed between dissociated Aplysia sensory neurones ... to contribute to presynaptic facilitation and inhibition of the sensorimotor synapse in the abdominal ganglion of Aplysia, ...
... the marine mollusk Aplysia californica. The presence of UII in the central nervous system (CNS) of Aplysia implies a more ... we named Aplysia urotensin II (apUII), with a sequence and structural similarity to vertebrate UII. With in-situ hybridization ... Urotensin II in Invertebrates: From Structure to Function in Aplysia californica. Figure 2. Distribution of apUII positive ...
Cyclic AMP induces a voltage-dependent current in neurons of Aplysia californica. [T C Pellmar; David O Carpenter; Armed Forces ... Cyclic AMP induces a voltage-dependent current in neurons of Aplysia californica. Author:. T C Pellmar; David O Carpenter; ... schema:name "Cyclic AMP induces a voltage-dependent current in neurons of Aplysia californica"@en ;. schema:productID "15176943 ... Add tags for "Cyclic AMP induces a voltage-dependent current in neurons of Aplysia californica". Be the first. ...
2WNC: Structural Determinants for Interaction of Partial Agonists with Acetylcholine Binding Protein and Neuronal Alpha7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor.
Species Aplysia depilans Gmelin, 1791. Species Aplysia dura Eales, 1960. Species Aplysia euchlora Gray, 1850. Species Aplysia ... Species Aplysia keraudreni Rang, 1828. Species Aplysia kurodai Baba, 1937. Species Aplysia maculata Rang, 1828. Species Aplysia ... Species Aplysia brongniartii Blainville, 1825 (nomen dubium). Subgenus Aplysia (Aplysia) Linnaeus, 1767 represented as Aplysia ... Species Aplysia parvula Mörch, 1863. Species Aplysia punctata (Cuvier, 1803). Species Aplysia rehderi Eales, 1960. Species ...
Abundant expression of ras proteins in Aplysia neurons.. M E Swanson, A M Elste, S M Greenberg, J H Schwartz, T H Aldrich, M E ... Abundant expression of ras proteins in Aplysia neurons.. M E Swanson, A M Elste, S M Greenberg, J H Schwartz, T H Aldrich, M E ... The cloned locus, designated Apl-ras, is distinct from the Aplysia rho (ras-homologue) gene and appears to be more closely ... The large identified neurons of Aplysia offer the opportunity to examine how ras protein might function in mature nerve cells. ...
Thus, classical conditioning in Aplysia appears to be mediated, in part, by LTP due to activation of NMDA-related receptors. ... A cellular analog of classical conditioning inAplysia was used to determine whether this form of invertebrate learning involves ... Mediation of Classical Conditioning in Aplysia californica by Long-Term Potentiation of Sensorimotor Synapses ... Mediation of Classical Conditioning in Aplysia californica by Long-Term Potentiation of Sensorimotor Synapses ...
Some neurons in Aplysia have receptors which are much more sensitive to octopamine than any other structurally related compound ... the octopamine content of whole ganglia and single neurons strongly suggest that octopamine is a neurotransmitter in Aplysia. ... Abstract : Some neurons in Aplysia have receptors which are much more sensitive to octopamine than any other structurally ... Title : Octopamine Receptors on Aplysia Neurons: Further Evidence for a Function of Octopamine as a Neurotransmitter. ...
The kinematics of swallowing in the buccal mass of Aplysia californica.. R F Drushel, D M Neustadter, L L Shallenberger, P E ... The kinematics of swallowing in the buccal mass of Aplysia californica.. R F Drushel, D M Neustadter, L L Shallenberger, P E ... The kinematics of swallowing in the buccal mass of Aplysia californica.. R F Drushel, D M Neustadter, L L Shallenberger, P E ... The kinematics of swallowing in the buccal mass of Aplysia californica. Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message from ...
The novel bromotriterpene polyethers aplysqualenol A (1) and B (2) have been isolated from the Caribbean sea slug Aplysia ... Squalene-Derived Polyethers with Antitumoral and Antiviral Activity from the Caribbean Sea Slug Aplysia dactylomela†‡. Authors ... Chemical Diversity and Biological Properties of Secondary Metabolites from Sea Hares of Aplysia Genus, Marine Drugs, 2016, 14, ... Squalene-Derived Polyethers with Antitumoral and Antiviral Activity from the Caribbean Sea Slug Aplysia dactylomela, ChemInform ...
The enterins inhibit gut motility of Aplysia, and also reduce excitability of some identified Aplysia neurons that are involved ... Aplysia kurodai Baba (80-300 g) were collected at the Hiroshima Bay and on the sea shore in Shimane during March to July (1999- ... Because Aplysia lacks a rigid skeleton, the blood vessels can easily be stretched and/or twisted during a change of posture or ... Dieringer, N., Koester, J. and Weiss, K. R. (1978). Adaptive changes in heart rate of Aplysia californica. J. Comp. Physiol. A ...
  • 1. The monoamine transmitter 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and the peptide Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-amide (FMRFa), which appear to contribute to presynaptic facilitation and inhibition of the sensorimotor synapse in the abdominal ganglion of Aplysia, can modulate the frequency of spontaneous transmitter release at synapses formed between dissociated Aplysia sensory neurones and motoneurones in vitro. (nih.gov)
  • The enterins also decreased the contraction amplitude of the anterior aorta evoked either by the application of an Aplysia cardioactive peptide, NdWFamide, or by the stimulation of a nerve innervating the aorta (the vulvar nerve). (biologists.org)
  • The aplysia egg-laying-hormone a 36 amino acid peptide acts as a neurotransmitter on cells of the abdominal ganglion and at the same time diffuses into the hemolymph where it is dispersed through the organism and acts as a hormone facilitating the expulsion of the egg string. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • An early sodium and a late calcium phase in the afterdischarge of peptide-secreting neurons of Aplysia. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The following Aplysia Src peptide antibodies were prepared by Pacific Immunology (Ramona, CA): rabbit anti-Src1, rabbit anti-activated Src2 (pSrc2), and goat anti-Src2 (Wu et al. (pacificimmunology.com)
  • Adult animals can weigh up to 7 kg (15 lb). A closely related species, Aplysia vaccaria , the black sea hare, can grow to be larger still. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effects of extracellularly applied recombinant human interleukin-2 (rhIL-2) on the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-induced Cl- current recorded from identified neurons (R9 and R12) of Aplysia kurodai were investigated with conventional voltage-clamp and pressure ejection techniques. (muscimol.xyz)
  • Through experiments on the conditioning of the Aplysia, links have been discovered with the synaptic plasticity for reward functions involved in the trait of addiction within mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we tested whether the synaptic facilitation that underlies dishabituation and sensitization in Aplysia requires local, postsynaptic protein synthesis. (nih.gov)
  • A novel cysteine-rich neurotrophic factor in Aplysia facilitates growth, MAPK activation, and long-term synaptic facilitation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Papp, A 1996, ' Presynaptic modification of synaptic transmission at identified Aplysia central synapses, induced by changes in protein kinase C activity ', Neurobiology , vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 203-216. (elsevier.com)
  • Following brief synaptic stimulation, the bag cell neurons in the abdominal ganglion of Aplysia undergo a series of changes in electrophysiological and secretory properties that triggers egg laying behavior. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • The neurotransmitive role of D-Asp has also been proven by its presence in synaptic vesicle in Aplysia limacina (4). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Each of these peptides has been shown to be physiologically active in Aplysia. (jneurosci.org)
  • These results support the proposition that the labeled peptides have transmitterlike actions and suggest that there are a number of neuropeptides that are likely to have central actions that have not yet been characterized in Aplysia. (jneurosci.org)
  • These results suggest that the enterins are functionally redundant multiple myoinhibitory peptides in the arterial system of Aplysia . (biologists.org)
  • Localization of Aplysia neurosecretory peptides to multiple populations of dense core vesicles. (rupress.org)
  • In this study we determined the subcellular localization of eight Aplysia neuropeptides using immunogold labeling techniques, and analyzed the size distribution of dense core and granular vesicles in peptidergic neurons. (rupress.org)
  • Phylogenetic analyses show that the novel Aplysia G-protein coupled receptor-like proteins represent three distinct monophyletic subfamilies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These results should provide the groundwork for future studies aimed at identifying this unknown receptor channel, as well as investigation of the potential relationship of D-Asp receptor modulation to learning and memory in Aplysia, which may have relevance in higher organisms. (miami.edu)
  • Insulin receptor in Aplysia neurons: characterization, molecular cloning, and modulation of ion currents. (mblwhoilibrary.org)
  • The second helix contains the (L/I) 29 IEECKTS 36 sequence conserved in attractins from five species of Aplysia that could interact with the receptor. (elsevier.com)
  • Highly selective serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) receptor antagonists developed for mammals are ineffective in Aplysia due to the evolutionary divergence of neurotransmitter receptors and because the higher ionic strength of physiological saline for marine invertebrates reduces antagonist affinity. (physiology.org)
  • We studied two broad-spectrum 5-HT receptor antagonists that have been characterized biochemically in Aplysia CNS: methiothepin and spiperone. (physiology.org)
  • Previously, we showed that the dishabituation and sensitization of the defensive withdrawal reflex in Aplysia require elevated postsynaptic Ca(2+), postsynaptic exocytosis, and functional upregulation of postsynaptic alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)-type glutamate receptors. (nih.gov)
  • In order to study the distribution of ELH in the nervous system of Aplysia , antibodies were generated against the purified neuropeptide, coupled to a carrier molecule, thyroglobulin (Tg). (caltech.edu)
  • Scheller, Richard H. / Gene isolation with cDNA probes from identified aplysia neurons : Neuropeptide modulators of cardiovascular physiology . (elsevier.com)
  • Here we apply serotonin-immunohistochemistry and fluorescent markers in combination with confocal microscopy as well as optical recording techniques to elucidate the structure and function of the rhinophore of the sea slug Aplysia punctata . (biomedcentral.com)
  • A cellular analog of classical conditioning in Aplysia was used to determine whether this form of invertebrate learning involves N -methyl- d -aspartate (NMDA)-type LTP. (sciencemag.org)
  • We used a panel of monoclonal antibodies raised against v-Ha-ras p21 to precipitate an Mr 21,000 protein from extracts of Aplysia nervous tissue, ovotestis, and, to a much lesser degree, buccal muscle. (rupress.org)
  • The anterior aorta is one of the major arteries in the Aplysia cardiovascular system, and carries hemolymph to many parts of the body including the central nervous system (CNS), the buccal mass, the genital organs, the opaline gland and the anterior somatic tissues ( Koester and Koch, 1987 ). (biologists.org)
  • Because the distribution of the enterin-immunopositive neurons is widespread in the nervous system of Aplysia , it is suggested that the enterins have actions in the control of several systems. (biologists.org)
  • This study used a simple neural circuit of Aplysia , the tail withdrawal reflex (TWR), to investigate nervous system aging with an emphasis on habituation. (frontiersin.org)
  • The expression status of iGluR genes in the Aplysia nervous system was also examined. (springer.com)
  • Our results suggest a significant role for L-Glu mediated responses throughout the Aplysia nervous system, consistent with L-Glu's role as the primary excitatory neurotransmitter. (springer.com)
  • In this thesis, biochemical and immunohistoehemical techniques have been employed to study the primary structure, release and distribution of ELH in the nervous system of Aplysia . (caltech.edu)
  • Significantly altered expression of many genes between sexually mature and aged Aplysia suggests large molecular changes that may impact neuronal function. (springer.com)
  • Classical conditioning and sensitization share aspects of the same molecular cascade in Aplysia. (elsevier.com)
  • Nucleotide sequencing revealed a putative exon that encodes amino acids sharing 68% homology with residues 5 to 54 of mammalian p21ras polypeptides, and which therefore is likely to encode a ras-like Aplysia protein. (rupress.org)
  • The amino acid sequence had similarities to hypothetical proteins of Aplysia spp. (duhnnae.com)
  • Ca2+ removal by the plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase influences the contribution of mitochondria to activity-dependent Ca2+ dynamics in Aplysia neuroendocrine cells. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A putative neurotransmitter, serotonin, may be used to transmit temporal information in the eye of Aplysia, because it can shift the phase of the circadian rhythm of spontaneous optic nerve impulses from the eye and the eye contains a significant quantity of serotonin. (elsevier.com)
  • The links between the synapses during the gill and siphon withdraw reflex are directly correlated to many behavioral traits in the Aplysia such as its habits, reflexes, and conditioning. (wikipedia.org)
  • The properties of the synapses displayed in the tests on conditioning involving the VTA dopamine neurons in the Aplysia are directly related to behavioral responses such as addiction in mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Facilitatory and inhibitory transmitters modulate spontaneous transmitter release at cultured Aplysia sensorimotor synapses. (nih.gov)
  • The cloned locus, designated Apl-ras, is distinct from the Aplysia rho (ras-homologue) gene and appears to be more closely related to mammalian ras. (rupress.org)
  • In the case of Aplysia , researchers have studied the gill withdrawal reflex, a response that rapidly habituates to repeated stimulation of the snail's siphon or mantle shelf. (britannica.com)
  • In Aplysia, the primary reflex studied by scientist while studying operant conditioning is the gill and siphon withdraw reflex. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gill and siphon withdraw reflex allows the Aplysia to pull back its siphon and gill into its shell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abundant expression of ras proteins in Aplysia neurons. (rupress.org)
  • Here we show that novel multi-transmembrane proteins with similarity to rhodopsin G-protein coupled receptors are expressed in sensory epithelia microdissected from the Aplysia rhinophore. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The posterior tentacle of Aplysia , the rhinophore, is a chemosensory organ and several behavioural studies showed that the rhinophores can detect pheromones, initiate orientation and locomotion toward food. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Our neuroanatomical and functional studies of the rhinophore open up a new avenue to analyze the olfactory system in Aplysia . (biomedcentral.com)
  • The large identified neurons of Aplysia offer the opportunity to examine how ras protein might function in mature nerve cells. (rupress.org)
  • Aplysia synapse associated protein (APSAP): identification, characterization, and selective interactions with Shaker-type potassium channels. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In Aplysia, mate attraction and subsequent reproduction is initiated by responding to a cocktail of water-borne protein pheromones released by animal conspecifics. (elsevier.com)
  • A presynaptic role for FMRP during protein synthesis-dependent long-term plasticity in Aplysia. (sfari.org)
  • Researchers have considerably weakened-and perhaps even erased-long-term memories in Aplysia , a type of marine slug, and in neurons in a lab dish, by blocking the activity of a particular enzyme. (discovermagazine.com)
  • example, in the sea snail Aplysia -has confirmed that habituation need not depend on changes in the activity of sensory or motor neurons. (britannica.com)
  • Electrophysiological and neuronal localization techniques for cultured aplysia neurons", Poster presented as part of the Society for Neuroscience Annual Meeting, Washington, DC. (soihub.org)
  • RNASeq was used to investigate whole-transcriptome changes in tail-withdrawal sensory neurons of sexually mature and aged Aplysia to correlate transcriptional changes with reduced behavioral and physiological responses. (springer.com)
  • Decreased ion channel mRNA observed could mean fewer receptors present in aged neurons, resulting in reduced excitability of PVC sensory neurons, ultimately leading to reduced tail-withdrawal reflex observed in aged Aplysia. (springer.com)
  • Despite biological significance of olfaction, little is known about structural and functional aspects of the olfactory sensory pathway in Aplysia . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Simple behaviors in Aplysia , such as habituation, can be studied in individual neurons of simple reflex circuits to better understand aging-associated effects. (frontiersin.org)