An opisthobranch mollusk of the order Anaspidea. It is used frequently in studies of nervous system development because of its large identifiable neurons. Aplysiatoxin and its derivatives are not biosynthesized by Aplysia, but acquired by ingestion of Lyngbya (seaweed) species.
Clusters of neuronal cell bodies in invertebrates. Invertebrate ganglia may also contain neuronal processes and non-neuronal supporting cells. Many invertebrate ganglia are favorable subjects for research because they have small numbers of functional neuronal types which can be identified from one animal to another.
Clusters of multipolar neurons surrounded by a capsule of loosely organized CONNECTIVE TISSUE located outside the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Hormones produced by invertebrates, usually insects, mollusks, annelids, and helminths.
A molluscan neuroactive peptide which induces a fast excitatory depolarizing response due to direct activation of amiloride-sensitive SODIUM CHANNELS. (From Nature 1995; 378(6558): 730-3)
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A phylum of the kingdom Metazoa. Mollusca have soft, unsegmented bodies with an anterior head, a dorsal visceral mass, and a ventral foot. Most are encased in a protective calcareous shell. It includes the classes GASTROPODA; BIVALVIA; CEPHALOPODA; Aplacophora; Scaphopoda; Polyplacophora; and Monoplacophora.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
The part of the face that is below the eye and to the side of the nose and mouth.
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
Paired respiratory organs of fishes and some amphibians that are analogous to lungs. They are richly supplied with blood vessels by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged directly with the environment.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
The disappearance of responsiveness to a repeated stimulation. It does not include drug habituation.
Characteristic properties and processes of the NERVOUS SYSTEM as a whole or with reference to the peripheral or the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The production and release of substances such as NEUROTRANSMITTERS or HORMONES from nerve cells.
Stereotyped patterns of response, characteristic of a given species, that have been phylogenetically adapted to a specific type of situation.
A subclass of GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS containing large polar heads made up of several sugar units. One or more of their terminal sugar units are bound to a negatively charged molecule at pH 7. Members of this class include: GANGLIOSIDES, uronoglycosphingolipids, SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS, phosphoglycosphingolipids, and phosphonoglycosphingolipids.
A persistent increase in synaptic efficacy, usually induced by appropriate activation of the same synapses. The phenomenological properties of long-term potentiation suggest that it may be a cellular mechanism of learning and memory.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
An organophosphorus compound isolated from human and animal tissues.
An serine-threonine protein kinase that requires the presence of physiological concentrations of CALCIUM and membrane PHOSPHOLIPIDS. The additional presence of DIACYLGLYCEROLS markedly increases its sensitivity to both calcium and phospholipids. The sensitivity of the enzyme can also be increased by PHORBOL ESTERS and it is believed that protein kinase C is the receptor protein of tumor-promoting phorbol esters.
Glycoproteins with a molecular weight of approximately 620,000 to 680,000. Precipitation by electrophoresis is in the alpha region. They include alpha 1-macroglobulins and alpha 2-macroglobulins. These proteins exhibit trypsin-, chymotrypsin-, thrombin-, and plasmin-binding activity and function as hormonal transporters.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).
The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A major alkaloid from Colchicum autumnale L. and found also in other Colchicum species. Its primary therapeutic use is in the treatment of gout, but it has been used also in the therapy of familial Mediterranean fever (PERIODIC DISEASE).
Cell-surface proteins that bind histamine and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Histamine receptors are widespread in the central nervous system and in peripheral tissues. Three types have been recognized and designated H1, H2, and H3. They differ in pharmacology, distribution, and mode of action.
A class of histamine receptors discriminated by their pharmacology and mode of action. Histamine H2 receptors act via G-proteins to stimulate ADENYLYL CYCLASES. Among the many responses mediated by these receptors are gastric acid secretion, smooth muscle relaxation, inotropic and chronotropic effects on heart muscle, and inhibition of lymphocyte function. (From Biochem Soc Trans 1992 Feb;20(1):122-5)
A class of histamine receptors discriminated by their pharmacology and mode of action. Most histamine H1 receptors operate through the inositol phosphate/diacylglycerol second messenger system. Among the many responses mediated by these receptors are smooth muscle contraction, increased vascular permeability, hormone release, and cerebral glyconeogenesis. (From Biochem Soc Trans 1992 Feb;20(1):122-5)
A highly potent and specific histamine H2 receptor agonist. It has been used diagnostically as a gastric secretion indicator.
An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.
The functions and activities carried out by the U.S. Postal Service, foreign postal services, and private postal services such as Federal Express.
Communication between persons or between institutions or organizations by an exchange of letters. Its use in indexing and cataloging will generally figure in historical and biographical material.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic cocci parasitic in the mouth and in the intestinal and respiratory tracts of man and other animals.
A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of SNAILS and slugs. The former have coiled external shells and the latter usually lack shells.
A family of gram-negative bacteria, in the phylum FIRMICUTES.
Mental processing of chromatic signals (COLOR VISION) from the eye by the VISUAL CORTEX where they are converted into symbolic representations. Color perception involves numerous neurons, and is influenced not only by the distribution of wavelengths from the viewed object, but also by its background color and brightness contrast at its boundary.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA, found in the human NASOPHARYNX and in the normal flora of the respiratory tissues in DOLPHINS. It is occasionally pathogenic for humans and pathogenic for MICE. (Bergey's Manual of Systemic Bacteriology, 1st edition, p295)
A genus of side-gilled sea slugs in the family Pleurobranchidae, superorder GASTROPODA. They are opportunistic voracious feeders but prefer the sea anemone.

Mechanisms for generating the autonomous cAMP-dependent protein kinase required for long-term facilitation in Aplysia. (1/1209)

The formation of a persistently active cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is critical for establishing long-term synaptic facilitation (LTF) in Aplysia. The injection of bovine catalytic (C) subunits into sensory neurons is sufficient to produce protein synthesis-dependent LTF. Early in the LTF induced by serotonin (5-HT), an autonomous PKA is generated through the ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated proteolysis of regulatory (R) subunits. The degradation of R occurs during an early time window and appears to be a key function of proteasomes in LTF. Lactacystin, a specific proteasome inhibitor, blocks the facilitation induced by 5-HT, and this block is rescued by injecting C subunits. R is degraded through an allosteric mechanism requiring an elevation of cAMP coincident with the induction of a ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase.  (+info)

Actions of a pair of identified cerebral-buccal interneurons (CBI-8/9) in Aplysia that contain the peptide myomodulin. (2/1209)

A combination of biocytin back-fills of the cerebral-buccal connectives and immunocytochemistry of the cerebral ganglion demonstrated that of the 13 bilateral pairs of cerebral-buccal interneurons in the cerebral ganglion, a subpopulation of 3 are immunopositive for the peptide myomodulin. The present paper describes the properties of two of these cells, which we have termed CBI-8 and CBI-9. CBI-8 and CBI-9 were found to be dye coupled and electrically coupled. The cells have virtually identical properties, and consequently we consider them to be "twin" pairs and refer to them as CBI-8/9. CBI-8/9 were identified by electrophysiological criteria and then labeled with dye. Labeled cells were found to be immunopositive for myomodulin, and, using high pressure liquid chromatography, the cells were shown to contain authentic myomodulin. CBI-8/9 were found to receive synaptic input after mechanical stimulation of the tentacles. They also received excitatory input from C-PR, a neuron involved in neck lengthening, and received a slow inhibitory input from CC5, a cell involved in neck shortening, suggesting that CBI-8/9 may be active during forward movements of the head or buccal mass. Firing of CBI-8 or CBI-9 resulted in the activation of a relatively small number of buccal neurons as evidenced by extracellular recordings from buccal nerves. Firing also produced local movements of the buccal mass, in particular a strong contraction of the I7 muscle, which mediates radula opening. CBI-8/9 were found to produce a slow depolarization and rhythmic activity of B48, the motor neuron for the I7 muscle. The data provide continuing evidence that the small population of cerebral buccal interneurons is composed of neurons that are highly diverse in their functional roles. CBI-8/9 may function as a type of premotor neuron, or perhaps as a peptidergic modulatory neuron, the functions of which are dependent on the coactivity of other neurons.  (+info)

C-PR neuron of Aplysia has differential effects on "Feeding" cerebral interneurons, including myomodulin-positive CBI-12. (3/1209)

Head lifting and other aspects of the appetitive central motive state that precedes consummatory feeding movements in Aplysia is promoted by excitation of the C-PR neuron. Food stimuli activate C-PR as well as a small population of cerebral-buccal interneurons (CBIs). We wished to determine if firing of C-PR produced differential effects on the various CBIs or perhaps affected all the CBIs uniformly as might be expected for a neuron involved in producing a broad undifferentiated arousal state. We found that when C-PR was fired, it produced a wide variety of effects on various CBIs. Firing of C-PR evoked excitatory input to a newly identified CBI (CBI-12) the soma of which is located in the M cluster near the previously identified CBI-2. CBI-12 shares certain properties with CBI-2, including a similar morphology and a capacity to drive rhythmic activity of the buccal-ganglion. Unlike CBI-2, CBI-12 exhibits myomodulin immunoreactivity. Furthermore when C-PR is fired, CBI-12 receives a polysynaptic voltage-dependent slow excitation, whereas, CBI-2 receives relatively little input. C-PR also polysynaptically excites other CBIs including CBI-1 and CBI-8/9 but produces inhibition in CBI-3. In addition, firing of C-PR inhibits plateau potentials in CBI-5/6. The data suggest that activity of C-PR may promote the activity of one subset of cerebral-buccal interneurons, perhaps those involved in ingestive behaviors that occur during the head-up posture. C-PR also inhibits some cerebral-buccal interneurons that may be involved in behaviors in which C-PR activity is not required or may even interfere with other feeding behaviors such as rejection or grazing, that occur with the head down.  (+info)

In vitro analog of operant conditioning in aplysia. I. Contingent reinforcement modifies the functional dynamics of an identified neuron. (4/1209)

Previously, an analog of operant conditioning in Aplysia was developed using the rhythmic motor activity in the isolated buccal ganglia. This analog expressed a key feature of operant conditioning, namely a selective enhancement in the occurrence of a designated motor pattern by contingent reinforcement. Different motor patterns generated by the buccal central pattern generator were induced by monotonic stimulation of a peripheral nerve (i.e., n.2,3). Phasic stimulation of the esophageal nerve (E n.) was used as an analog of reinforcement. The present study investigated the neuronal mechanisms associated with the genesis of different motor patterns and their modifications by contingent reinforcement. The genesis of different motor patterns was related to changes in the functional states of the pre-motor neuron B51. During rhythmic activity, B51 dynamically switched between inactive and active states. Bursting activity in B51 was associated with, and predicted, characteristic features of a specific motor pattern (i.e., pattern I). Contingent reinforcement of pattern I modified the dynamical properties of B51 by decreasing its resting conductance and threshold for eliciting plateau potentials and thus increased the occurrences of pattern I-related activity in B51. These modifications were not observed in preparations that received either noncontingent reinforcement (i.e., yoke control) or no reinforcement (i.e., control). These results suggest that a contingent reinforcement paradigm can regulate the dynamics of neuronal activity that is centrally programmed by the intrinsic cellular properties of neurons.  (+info)

In vitro analog of operant conditioning in aplysia. II. Modifications of the functional dynamics of an identified neuron contribute to motor pattern selection. (5/1209)

Previously, an analog of operant conditioning was developed using the buccal ganglia of Aplysia, the probabilistic occurrences of a specific motor pattern (i.e., pattern I), a contingent reinforcement (i.e., stimulation of the esophageal nerve), and monotonic stimulation of a peripheral nerve (i.e., n.2,3). This analog expressed a key feature of operant conditioning (i.e., selective enhancement of the probability of occurrence of a designated motor pattern by contingent reinforcement). In addition, the training induced changes in the dynamical properties of neuron B51, an element of the buccal central pattern generator. To gain insights into the neuronal mechanisms that mediate features of operant conditioning, the present study identified a neuronal element that was critically involved in the selective enhancement of pattern I. We found that bursting activity in cell B51 contributed significantly to the expression of pattern I and that changes in the dynamical properties of this cell were associated with the selective enhancement of pattern I. These changes could be induced by an explicit association of reinforcement with random depolarization of B51. No stimulation of n.2,3 was required. These results indicate that the selection of a designated motor pattern by contingent reinforcement and the underlying neuronal plasticity resulted from the association of reinforcement with a component of central neuronal activity that contributes to a specific motor pattern. The sensory stimulus that allows for occurrences of different motor acts may not be critical for induction of plasticity that mediates the selection of a motor output by contingent reinforcement in operant conditioning.  (+info)

Characterization of the Aplysia californica cerebral ganglion F cluster. (6/1209)

The cerebral ganglia neurons of Aplysia californica are involved in the development and modulation of many behaviors. The medially located F cluster has been characterized using morphological, electrophysiological and biochemical techniques and contains at least three previously uncharacterized neuronal population. As the three subtypes are located in three distinct layers, they are designated as top, middle, and bottom layer F-cluster neurons (CFT, CFM, and CFB). The CFT cells are large (92 +/- 25 microm), white, nonuniformly shaped, and located partially in the sheath surrounding the ganglion. These neurons exhibit weak electrical coupling, the presence of synchronized spontaneous changes in membrane potential, and a generalized inhibitory input upon electrical stimulation of the anterior tentacular (AT) nerve. Similar to the CFT neurons, the CFM neurons (46 +/- 12 microm) are mainly silent but do not show electrical coupling or synchronized changes in membrane potential. Unlike the CFT neurons, the CFM neurons exhibit weak action potential broadening during constant current injection. Comparison of the peptide profiles of CFT, CFM, and CFB (10-30 microm) neurons using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry demonstrates distinct peptide molecular weights for each neuronal subtype with the masses of these peptides not matching any previously characterized peptides from A. californica. The mass spectra obtained from the AT nerve are similar to the CFT neuron mass spectra, while upper labial nerve contains many peptides observed in the CFM neurons located in nongranular neuron region.  (+info)

Dopaminergic synapses mediate neuronal changes in an analogue of operant conditioning. (7/1209)

Feeding behavior in Aplysia can be modified by operant conditioning in which contingent reinforcement is conveyed by the esophageal nerve (E n.). A neuronal analogue of this conditioning in the isolated buccal ganglia was developed by using stimulation of E n. as an analogue of contingent reinforcement. Previous studies indicated that E n. may release dopamine. We used a dopamine antagonist (methylergonovine) to investigate whether dopamine mediated the enhancement of motor patterns in the analogue of operant conditioning. Methylergonovine blocked synaptic connections from the reinforcement pathway and the contingent-dependent enhancement of the reinforced pattern. These results suggest that dopamine mediates at least part of the neuronal modifications induced by contingent reinforcement.  (+info)

Nitric oxide stimulates cGMP production and mimics synaptic responses in metacerebral neurons of Aplysia. (8/1209)

Nitric oxide (NO) acts as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator in the nervous systems of many vertebrates and invertebrates. We investigated the mechanism of NO action at an identified synapse between a mechanoafferent neuron, C2, and the serotonergic metacerebral cell (MCC) in the cerebral ganglion of the mollusc Aplysia californica. Stimulation of C2 produces a decreasing conductance, very slow EPSP in the MCC. C2 is thought to use histamine and NO as cotransmitters at this synapse, because both agents mimic the membrane responses. Now we provide evidence that treatment with NO donors stimulates soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) in the MCC, and as a result cGMP increases. S-Nitrosocysteine (SNC, an NO donor) and 8-bromo-cGMP (8-Br-cGMP) both induced the membrane depolarization and increase in input resistance that are characteristic of the very slow EPSP. Two inhibitors of sGC, 6-anilino-5,8-quinolinequinone (LY83583) and 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4, 3-a]quinoxaline-1-one (ODQ), suppressed both the very slow EPSP and the membrane responses to SNC but not the histamine membrane responses. NO-induced cGMP production was determined in the MCC using cGMP immunocytochemistry (cGMP-IR). In the presence of 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), 10 microM SNC was sufficient to induce cGMP-IR, and the staining intensity increased as the SNC dose was increased. This cGMP-IR was suppressed by ODQ in a dose-dependent manner and completely blocked by 10 microM ODQ. Histamine did not induce cGMP-IR. The results suggest that NO stimulates sGC-dependent cGMP synthesis in the MCC and that cGMP mediates the membrane responses. The cotransmitter histamine induces essentially the same membrane responses but seems to use a separate and distinct second messenger pathway.  (+info)

We have cloned a DNA fragment from the marine mollusc Aplysia californica, which contains sequences homologous to mammalian ras genes, by screening a genomic library with a viral Ha-ras oncogene probe under conditions of low stringency hybridization. Nucleotide sequencing revealed a putative exon that encodes amino acids sharing 68% homology with residues 5 to 54 of mammalian p21ras polypeptides, and which therefore is likely to encode a ras-like Aplysia protein. The cloned locus, designated Apl-ras, is distinct from the Aplysia rho (ras-homologue) gene and appears to be more closely related to mammalian ras. We used a panel of monoclonal antibodies raised against v-Ha-ras p21 to precipitate an Mr 21,000 protein from extracts of Aplysia nervous tissue, ovotestis, and, to a much lesser degree, buccal muscle. Fluorescence immunocytochemistry revealed that ras-like protein is most abundant in neuronal cell bodies and axon processes, with staining most prominent at plasma membranes. Much less was ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pharmacological dissociation of different forms of synaptic plasticity in the marine mollusc Aplysia. AU - Emptage, N. J.. AU - Mauelshagen, J.. AU - Mercer, A.. AU - Carew, T. J.. PY - 1996. Y1 - 1996. N2 - The actions of the neuromodulator serotonin (5HT) in Aplysia sensory neurons can be dissociated on the basis of their sensitivity to the 5HT receptor antagonist cyproheptadine, and their concentration requirement to 5HT. Here we summarise a series of experiments that suggest that mechanistically distinct processes contribute to the different physiological components of short- and long-term synaptic plasticity.. AB - The actions of the neuromodulator serotonin (5HT) in Aplysia sensory neurons can be dissociated on the basis of their sensitivity to the 5HT receptor antagonist cyproheptadine, and their concentration requirement to 5HT. Here we summarise a series of experiments that suggest that mechanistically distinct processes contribute to the different physiological ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cell and molecular analysis of long-term sensitization in Aplysia. AU - Castellucci, V. F.. AU - Frost, W. N.. AU - Goelet, P.. AU - Montarolo, P. G.. AU - Schacher, S.. AU - Morgan, J. A.. AU - Blumenfeld, H.. AU - Kandel, E. R.. PY - 1986/12/1. Y1 - 1986/12/1. N2 - We have found that one cellular locus for the storage of the memory underlying short-term sensitization of the gill and siphon withdrawal reflex in Aplysia is the set of monosynaptic connections between the siphon sensory cells and the gill and siphon motor neurons. These connections also participate in the storage of memory underlying long-term sensitization. In animals that have undergone long-term sensitization, the amplitudes of the monosynaptic connections are significantly larger (2.2x) than the ones in control animals. To study the mechanisms of onset and retention of long-term synaptic facilitation that underly long-term sensitization and the role of protein synthesis in long-term memory, we have developed ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Developmental transcriptome of Aplysia californica. AU - Heyland, Andreas. AU - Vue, Zer. AU - Voolstra, Christian R.. AU - Medina, Mónica. AU - Moroz, Leonid L.. N1 - KAUST Repository Item: Exported on 2020-10-01 Acknowledgements: Grant Sponsors: Swiss National Science Foundation Stipendium fuer Angehende Forscher, Brain Research Foundation; NSERC; Grant number: C400230; Grant Sponsor: CFI; Grant number: 460175; Grant Sponsor: NIH; Grant numbers: P50HG002806; R01NS06076; RR025699; Grant Sponsor: NSF; Grant numbers: 0744649; DEB-0542330.. PY - 2010/12/6. Y1 - 2010/12/6. N2 - Genome-wide transcriptional changes in development provide important insight into mechanisms underlying growth, differentiation, and patterning. However, such large-scale developmental studies have been limited to a few representatives of Ecdysozoans and Chordates. Here, we characterize transcriptomes of embryonic, larval, and metamorphic development in the marine mollusc Aplysia californica and reveal ...
Prions have a bad reputation. They are responsible for a variety of neurodegenerative diseases including Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans and a plethora of spongiform encephalopathies in animals. But there may be more to neuronal prions than neurotoxicity. In the February 5 Cell, researchers led by Kausik Si at the Stowers Institute for Medical Research, Kansas City, Missouri, report that in the marine mollusk Aplysia Californica, prion-like activity of an RNA binding protein controls long-term facilitation (LTF), a strengthening of synaptic transmission that has been linked to memory formation. The protein oligomerizes into amyloid fibers when Aplysia sensory neurons are stimulated with serotonin and, in turn, the amyloid seems to strengthen LTF. This is the first example of eukaryotic prion activity having a physiological function, according to the authors. They also suggest that it might be representative of a new class of proteins that utilize a self-perpetuating multimeric state to ...
Despite the advances in our understanding of transcriptome, regulation and function of its noncoding components continue to be poorly understood. Here we searched for natural antisense transcript for sensorin (NAT-SRN), a neuropeptide expressed in the presynaptic sensory neurons of gill-withdrawal reflex of the marine snail Aplysia californica. Sensorin (SRN) has a key role in learning and long-term memory storage in Aplysia. We have identified NAT-SRN in the central nervous system (CNS) and have confirmed its expression by northern blotting and fluorescent RNA in situ hybridization. Quantitative analysis of NAT-SRN in micro dissected cell bodies and processes of sensory neurons suggest that NAT-SRN is present in the distal neuronal processes along with sense transcripts. Importantly, aging is associated with reduced levels of NAT-SRN in sensory neuron processes. Furthermore, we find that forskolin, an activator of CREB signaling, differentially alters the distribution of SRN and NAT-SRN. These studies
The neural and cellular mechanisms of plasticity apparent in the feeding behavior of the mollusk Aplysia californica have been extensively studied in a simple neuromuscular circuit consisting of the accessory radula closer (ARC) muscle and its innervating motor and modulatory neurons. In this circuit, the plasticity is largely due to modulation of the amplitude and duration of the contractions of the muscle by a variety of modulatory neurotransmitters and peptide cotransmitters, among them the small cardioactive peptides (SCPs), myomodulins (MMs), and serotonin (5-HT). We have studied dissociated but functionally intact ARC muscle fibers to determine whether modulation of membrane ion currents in the muscle might underlie these effects. Using voltage-clamp techniques, we found that two currents were indeed modulated. In the preceding article, we proposed that enhancement of L-type Ca current is the mechanism by which the modulators potentiate the amplitude of ARC-muscle contractions. Here, we ...
The anterior aorta of Aplysia is innervated by nerves arising from the abdominal ganglion (Sawada et al., 1981a). The vulvar nerve is one of the nerves innervating the anterior aorta, in which axons of some identifiable motoneurons or modulatory neurons for the anterior aorta are contained (Sawada et al., 1981a, 1984c). The phasic contraction evoked by the vulvar nerve stimulation was inhibited by the enterins. At least, one of the mechanisms for the inhibition seems to be activation of K+ conductance of the muscle membrane. We found that the enterins hyperpolarize the membrane potential of the muscle fibers via the activation of 4-AP-sensitive K+ channels. Sensitivity of the K+ channels to 4-AP is quite high, and EC50 of 4-AP was,10-6 mol l-1. The value is comparable to another highly 4-AP-sensitive K+ channel described in the accessory radula closer muscle of Aplysia (Brezina et al., 1994). The enterin-induced hyperpolarization of the muscle membrane should, in principle, reduce the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Gene isolation with cDNA probes from identified aplysia neurons. T2 - Neuropeptide modulators of cardiovascular physiology. AU - Nambu, John R.. AU - Taussig, Ronald. AU - Mahon, Anne C.. AU - Scheller, Richard H.. PY - 1983. Y1 - 1983. N2 - The Aplysia abdominal ganglion neurons, R3-R14, modulate cardiovascular activity. In vitro translations of poly(A)+ RNA from these cells suggest that they contain a prevalent mRNA encoding a 14 kd protein. Utilizing differential screening techniques with 32P-labeled cDNA synthesized from the poly(A)+ RNA of identified neurons, we isolated the corresponding gene. The Aplysia haploid genome contains a single copy of this sequence, which is interrupted by two large introns and spans ∼7 kb of genomic DNA. The R3-R14 neurons specifically express this gene, resulting in the synthesis of a 1.25 kb mRNA not found in other abdominal ganglion cells or in the head ganglia. The gene was shown to encode a 13.5 kd precursor, which is proteolytically ...
The buccalin-related peptides, buccalin A and buccalin B, are members of a family of cotransmitters that modulate neuromuscular transmission in Aplysia. In this study, a third buccalin-related peptide, buccalin C, was purified from neuronal elements in the accessory radula closer, a muscle involved in the animals feeding behavior. Oligonucleotide probes based upon the amino acid sequence of buccalin C were used to isolate cDNA clones that encode a buccalin precursor polypeptide. The buccalin precursor contains 19 distinct buccalin-related peptides, several of which are present in multiple copies. The buccalin gene appears to be present in a single copy, with one allele containing a small insert. Expression of this gene occurs in a tissue-specific manner and mRNA transcripts are abundant within neurons in the Aplysia CNS. This large family of neuropeptides may exert extraordinarily complex modulatory actions at synapses where they serve as cotransmitters. ...
It has been found that in cultured Aplysia neurons bath applications of 40 mM cafffeine evokes oscillations of the membrane potential with about a 40 mV amplitude with a frequency of 0.2 to 0.5 Hz. The most probable mechanism of these caffeine-induced oscillations is inhibition of voltage-activated outward potassium current and, as can be seen from our mathematical modeling, slowdown of inactivation of inward sodium current. It seems likely that these oscillations have a purely membrane origin. Please see paper for results and details ...
Many neurons in the mollusc Aplysia are identifiable and provide a useful model system for investigating the cellular mechanisms used by the neuroendocrine system to mediate simple behaviors. In this study we determined the subcellular localization of eight Aplysia neuropeptides using immunogold labeling techniques, and analyzed the size distribution of dense core and granular vesicles in peptidergic neurons. Recent observations demonstrate that many neurons use multiple chemical messengers. Thus, an understanding of the functional significance of cotransmitters requires an analysis of their relative subcellular distributions. The peptides are expressed in a subset of neurons, or the exocrine atrial gland, and are primarily localized to dense core vesicles. Multiple regions of precursors which are cleaved into several components are co-localized. Each neuron has a distinct size distribution of peptide-containing dense core vesicles ranging in size from 65 to 600 nm. The atrial gland contains ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Serotonin shifts the phase of the orcadian rhythm from the Aplysia eye. AU - Corrent, G.. AU - McAdoo, D. J.. AU - Eskin, A.. PY - 1978/12/1. Y1 - 1978/12/1. N2 - A putative neurotransmitter, serotonin, may be used to transmit temporal information in the eye of Aplysia, because it can shift the phase of the circadian rhythm of spontaneous optic nerve impulses from the eye and the eye contains a significant quantity of serotonin. Serotonin acts either directly on the cell, or cells, containing the circadian pacemaker or on cells electronically coupled to the pacemaker cells.. AB - A putative neurotransmitter, serotonin, may be used to transmit temporal information in the eye of Aplysia, because it can shift the phase of the circadian rhythm of spontaneous optic nerve impulses from the eye and the eye contains a significant quantity of serotonin. Serotonin acts either directly on the cell, or cells, containing the circadian pacemaker or on cells electronically coupled to the ...
We have found that serotonin (5-HT), the endogenous monoamine that mediates dishabituation and sensitization, causes upregulation of AMPA receptor function in Aplysia motor neurons. This functional upregulation of AMPA receptors depends upon release of calcium from postsynaptic intracellular stores and postsynaptic exocytosis. We hypothesize that stimuli that induce dishabituation and sensitization in Aplysia modulate AMPA receptor trafficking in motor neurons that mediate that withdrawal reflex. Support for this hypothesis comes from experiments in which prior injection of botulinum toxin, an inhibitor of exocytosis, into identified siphon motor neurons blocks behavioral dishabituation of the siphon withdrawal reflex ...
Opisthobranch molluscs exhibit fascinating body plans associated with the evolution of shell loss in multiple lineages. Sea hares in particular are interesting because Aplysia californica is a well-studied model organism that offers a large suite of genetic tools. Bursatella leachii is a related tropical sea hare that lacks a shell as an adult and therefore lends itself to comparative analysis with A. californica. We have established an enhanced culturing procedure for B. leachii in husbandry that enabled the study of shell formation and loss in this lineage with respect to A. californica life staging.
Postdoctoral Research Scientist position available in DIT/FOCAS. Applications are sought for the position of Research Scientist: Vibrational Spectroscopy for Cellular Analysis in the FOCAS Research Institute, DIT. The position is a 5 year specified purpose contract associated with a Science Foundation Ireland PI Award Advancing Vibrational Spectroscopy for Cellular and Sub Cellular Analysis, supervised by Prof Hugh J. Byrne. Funding is initially available for 42 months.. The project will extend the expertise of DIT in the applications of Vibrational Spectroscopy (Raman and Infrared) to the exploration of the underlying biochemical and metabolic changes associated with (nano) toxic and chemotherapeutic responses in vitro. It will explore improved in vitro models, spectral acquisition and data processing and analysis techniques.. The successful candidate is expected to have an excellent working knowledge and expertise in both Raman and Infrared spectroscopic techniques, with specific ...
Research. Dr. Glanzman is interested in the cell biology of learning and memory in simple organisms. In our research we use two animals, the marine snail Aplysia californica, and the zebrafish (Danio rerio). Work on Aplysia: This invertebrate has a comparatively simple nervous system (~ 20,000 neurons) that provides a valuable experimental model for understanding the cellular mechanisms that underlie simple forms of learning, such as habituation, sensitization, and classical conditioning. Another experimental advantage of Aplysia is that sensory and motor neurons that mediate specific reflexes of the animal can be placed into dissociated cell culture where they will reform their synaptic connections. These in vitro sensorimotor synapses are extremely useful for cellular and molecular studies of short- and long-term learning-related synaptic plasticity. Currently, my laboratory is investigating the mechanisms that underlie the persistence of memory: how are memories maintained in our brains over ...
Two Aplysia sensory neurons with synaptic contacts on the same motor neuron in culture after isolation from the nervous system of Aplysia. The motor neuron has been injected with a fluorescent molecule that blocks the activity of a specific Protein Kinase M molecule.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Extracellular transport properties of Aplysia californica intestine. AU - Gerencser, George A.. AU - Loughlin, Gerry M.. N1 - Funding Information: Ackno~ledgement~This investigation was supported by Whitehall Foundation Grant 78-156 ck-1 DSR.. PY - 1983. Y1 - 1983. N2 - 1. 1. Current-voltage measurements strongly suggested the existence of a low resistance extracellular pathway in the intestinal epithelium. 2. 2. Na+ and Cl- transport across the intestine involved both a cellular and extracellular pathway. 3. 3. The extracellular pathway for both Na+ and Cl- constituted the major conductive route for these ions.. AB - 1. 1. Current-voltage measurements strongly suggested the existence of a low resistance extracellular pathway in the intestinal epithelium. 2. 2. Na+ and Cl- transport across the intestine involved both a cellular and extracellular pathway. 3. 3. The extracellular pathway for both Na+ and Cl- constituted the major conductive route for these ions.. UR - ...
Egg Laying Hormone of Aplysia, 5 mg. The aplysia egg-laying-hormone a 36 amino acid peptide acts as a neurotransmitter on cells of the abdominal ganglion and at the same time diffuses into the hemolymph where it is dispersed through the organism and acts
README_Komendantov.txt (or Readme.txt in ModelDB) This simulation reproduces the model published in: Komendantov, A.O. and Kononenko, N.I. (2000) Caffeine-induced oscillations of the membrane potential in Aplysia neurons. Neurophysiology 32: 77-84. The results of a simulation are illustrated in L7_01_smu.jpg. Example use: Start SNNAP (double click on the SNNAP.jar file) click on Run Simulation Then in the new window File-,Load Simulation browse to and load L7_01.smu file to load a simulation that creates a figure similar to the L7 neuron in Fig 8 from the paper and click Start See http://snnap.uth.tmc.edu/ to download SNNAP ...
The executive Cellular Analysis industry report calculates Development Trend Analysis along with inclusive projection of Production and Consumption volume.
NIH Funding Opportunities and Notices in the NIH Guide for Grants and Contracts: Innovative Molecular and Cellular Analysis Technologies for Basic and Clinical Cancer Research (R21) RFA-CA-16-001. NCI
Before the local protein synthesis hypothesis gained significant support, there was general agreement that the protein synthesis underlying L-LTP occurred in the cell body. Further, there was thought that the products of this synthesis were shipped cell-wide in a nonspecific manner. It thus became necessary to explain how protein synthesis could occur in the cell body without compromising LTPs input specificity. The synaptic tagging hypothesis attempts to solve the cells difficult problem of synthesizing proteins in the cell body but ensuring they only reach synapses that have received LTP-inducing stimuli. The synaptic tagging hypothesis proposes that a synaptic tag is synthesized at synapses that have received LTP-inducing stimuli, and that this synaptic tag may serve to capture plasticity-related proteins shipped cell-wide from the cell body.[47] Studies of LTP in the marine snail Aplysia californica have implicated synaptic tagging as a mechanism for the input-specificity of LTP.[48][49] ...
Before the local protein synthesis hypothesis gained significant support, there was general agreement that the protein synthesis underlying L-LTP occurred in the cell body. Further, there was thought that the products of this synthesis were shipped cell-wide in a nonspecific manner. It thus became necessary to explain how protein synthesis could occur in the cell body without compromising LTPs input specificity. The synaptic tagging hypothesis attempts to solve the cells difficult problem of synthesizing proteins in the cell body but ensuring they only reach synapses that have received LTP-inducing stimuli. The synaptic tagging hypothesis proposes that a synaptic tag is synthesized at synapses that have received LTP-inducing stimuli, and that this synaptic tag may serve to capture plasticity-related proteins shipped cell-wide from the cell body.[41] Studies of LTP in the marine snail Aplysia californica have implicated synaptic tagging as a mechanism for the input-specificity of LTP.[42][43] ...
Aplysia נוירונים californica לפתח קונוסים צמיחה גדול בתרבות כי הם מעולה עבור הדמיה ברזולוציה גבוהה של תנועתיות צמיחה חרוט והדרכה. כאן,...
HealthNewsDigest.com) - New York, NY -Different types of memories stored in the same neuron of the marine snail Aplysia can be selectively erased, according to a new study by researchers at Columbia University Medical Center (CUMC) and McGill University and published today in Current Biology.. The findings suggest that it may be possible to develop drugs to delete memories that trigger anxiety and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) without affecting other important memories of past events.. During emotional or traumatic events, multiple memories can become encoded, including memories of any incidental information that is present when the event occurs. In the case of a traumatic experience, the incidental, or neutral, information can trigger anxiety attacks long after the event has occurred, say the researchers.. The example I like to give is, if you are walking in a high-crime area and you take a shortcut through a dark alley and get mugged, and then you happen to see a mailbox nearby, you ...
Prions are proteins that can assume at least two distinct conformational states, one of which is dominant and self-perpetuating. Previously we found that a translation regulator CPEB from Aplysia, ApCPEB, that stabilizes activity-dependent changes in synaptic efficacy can display prion-like properti …
1. Action potentials recorded in the soma of R15 neurones in the abdominal ganglia of Aplysia juliana were not suppressed by selective inhibition of either Na or Ca conductance alone. It was necessary to block both conductances to suppress action potentials. 2. Membrane currents generated by step depolarizations of the soma consisted of early transient and delayed steady-state currents. The early transient current could have one or two components depending on the activating depolarization. 3. The early more rapid component had a reversal potential at +54 mV and the reversal potential changed with extracellular Na concentration in accord with the Nernst equation. It was blocked by substitution of impermeant cations for Na, by TTX and by internal injections of Zn. It was concluded that this component was normally a Na current. 4. The later slower component of the transient current had a reversal potential at about +65 mV and the reversal potential changed with extracellular Ca concentration is accord with
TY - JOUR. T1 - Fluorescent voltage imaging for detection of networks in Aplysia central nervous system responding to electrical stimulation. AU - Arawaka, Hiroto. AU - Matsumoto, Naoko. AU - Aoki, Kazuto. AU - Yoshimi, Yasuo. PY - 2011/9/14. Y1 - 2011/9/14. M3 - Article. JO - Neuroscience2011, Yokohama. JF - Neuroscience2011, Yokohama. ER - ...
Background The neurotransmitter L-Glutamate (L-Glu) acting at ionotropic L-Glu receptors (iGluR) conveys fast excitatory signal transmission in the nervous systems of all animals. iGluR-dependent...
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The discovery that dendrites of neurons in the mammalian brain possess the capacity for protein synthesis stimulated interest in the potential role of local, postsynaptic protein synthesis in learning-related synaptic plasticity. But it remains unclear how local, postsynaptic protein synthesis actua …
Aplysia californica (Alacrity, Redondo Beach, CA), weighing 80-120 g, were anesthetized by injection of isotonic MgCl2, and their abdominal and pleural-pedal ganglia were removed. Prior to desheathing, ganglia were treated with 0.5% glutaraldehyde for 50 s to prevent contraction of muscle cells in the remaining sheath. Ganglia were secured with minuten pins on wax in a recording chamber and desheathed in a 1:1 mixture of MgCl2 and artificial sea water. In experiments on facilitation of depressed synapses, synaptic connections between LE siphon SNs and LFS MNs in the abdominal ganglion were recorded after the left ventral surface of the ganglion was desheathed. In experiments on spike broadening in SNs, pleural ganglia were desheathed to expose the SNs in the ventrocaudal (VC) cluster.. Experiments were performed at room temperature. Ganglia were superfused with high-Mg2+/high-Ca2+ culture medium (6 × normal Ca2+, 1.6 × normal Mg2+) (Goldsmith and Abrams 1991) to reduce polysynaptic input and ...
BioFlux automates live cell analysis for shear assays, long-term cell culture, physiologically relevant conditions, cell-cell interactions, and 2-phase flow. Applications include microbiology, immunology, hematology, cancer and others.
BioFlux automates live cell analysis for shear assays, long-term cell culture, physiologically relevant conditions, cell-cell interactions, and 2-phase flow. Applications include microbiology, immunology, hematology, cancer and others.
Binding of [125I]α-bungarotoxin to acetylcholine receptors of ganglionic homogenate of the marine mollusc Aplysia is blocked by the anticholinesterases eserine (I50 = 4 µM) and neostigmine (I50 = 0.2 mM). The classical acetylcholine antagonist d-tubocurarine blocks with an I50 of 2 µM. Eserine (I50 = 3.2 µM) and neostigmine (I50 , 1 mM) also block toxin binding to a solubilized receptor preparation. In contrast to their relative potency in blocking toxin binding, neostigmine is a more potent inhibitor of Aplysia acetylcholinesterase (I50 = 14 nM) than is eserine (I50 = 250 nM). α-Bungarotoxin does not affect esterase activity or interfere with the ability of eserine to block the esterase. The response to acetylcholine recorded through intracellular microelectrodes is blocked by α-bungarotoxin. Neither eserine nor neostigmine blocks the acetylcholine response; rather, they prolong and increase it, as expected from their effects on the esterase. Eserine (0.1 mM) blocks the α-bungarotoxin ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Molecular weight distribution of proteins synthesized in single, identified neurons of Aplysia. AU - Wilson, David L.. PY - 1971/1/1. Y1 - 1971/1/1. N2 - Parietovisceral ganglia from Aplysia californica were incubated in medium containing leucine-8H. Single, identified nerve cell somas were isolated from the ganglia, and their proteins extracted and separated by electrophoresis on 5 % SDS-polyacrylamide gels. The distribution of total or newly synthesized proteins from the single neurons was determined by staining or slicing and liquid scintillation counting of the gels. Experiments showed that: (a) a number of proteins were being synthesized in abundance in the nerve cells; (b) different, identified neurons showed reproducibly different labeling patterns in the gels; (c) cells R2 and R15, which showed different distributions of radioactivity in the gels, had similar staining patterns; and (d) there was significant incorporation into material of high (, 75,000) molecular weight ...
Dear Bill,aplycfpa.htm Aplysia cf. parvula is also present in Mayotte. But while the typical aplyparv.htm Aplysia parvula is found in the red alga (see my previous message), these black specimens were
TY - JOUR. T1 - Kainate receptor-mediated heterosynaptic facilitation in the amygdala. AU - Li, He. AU - Chen, Aiqin. AU - Xing, Guoqiang. AU - Wei, Mei Ling. AU - Rogawski, Michael A. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - Prolonged low-frequency stimulation of excitatory afferents to basolateral amygdala neurons results in enduring enhancement of excitatory synaptic responses. The induction of this form of synaptic plasticity is eliminated by selective antagonists of GluR5 kainate receptors and can be mimicked by the GluR5 agonist ATPA. Kainate receptor-mediated synaptic facilitation generalizes to include inactive afferent synapses on the target neurons, and therefore contrasts with other types of activity-dependent enduring synaptic facilitation that are input-pathway specific. Such heterosynaptic spread of synaptic facilitation could account for adaptive and pathological expansion in the set of critical internal and external stimuli that trigger amygdala-dependent behavioral responses.. AB - Prolonged ...
Neuropeptides are a diverse assemblage of signalling molecules that have key roles in the regulation of behaviour. Understanding the evolutionary relationships and functions of the plethora of neuropeptides has presented a considerable challenge to biologists. Based on presentations and discussions at a Royal Society meeting in 2017, three companion Review articles by Elphick et al., Jékely et al. and DeLaney et al. discuss advances in our knowledge of neuropeptide evolution and function and the techniques that have facilitated progress in this field of research.. ...
Dear Dr. Rudman, This Aplysia parvula was actually quite small, mm. As it usually happens, after I saw my first (this one), I began finding more and more, living in different types of alga and with various colors going from re
Science Speaker Dr. Richard Manalis, Adjunct Professor of Biological Sciences, Goshen College. A Simple Form of Memory at Nerve-Muscle Synapses of the Frog ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Definition of Withdrawal reflex in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Withdrawal reflex? Meaning of Withdrawal reflex as a legal term. What does Withdrawal reflex mean in law?
Electroporation is a simple yet powerful technique for breaching the cell membrane barrier. The applications of electroporation can be generally divided into two categories: the release of intracellular proteins, nucleic acids and other metabolites for analysis and the delivery of exogenous reagents
The regulation of cell proliferation needs to be coordinated with cell growth and differentiation regulation in multicellular organisms for development to occur properly and tumourogenesis to be avoided. Cell proliferation is regulated through positive and negative signals that influence progression through the cell cycle. The cell cycle is regulated by cyclin dependent kinases that are controlled by the binding of cyclins, whose protein levels oscillate throughout the cell cycle. It is extremely important that progression through the cell cycle is regulated correctly, that mitosis only occurs once DNA replication is completed, and that DNA replication only begins once chromosomes have segregated into daughter cells. While there is great understanding about how the different phases of the cell cycle are controlled, it is still largely unknown how the phases are coordinately regulated, and how the cell cycle is regulated externally during development. An understanding of how cell proliferation is ...
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): The incidence of diabetes mellitus has reached epidemic proportions in the U.S. and will continue to increase rapidly across all age group and ethnicities for the foreseeable future. The resulting cost to society via health care, lost wages, etc. is staggering and the decreased quality of life is immeasurable. Type 2 diabetes is primarily manifest in two categories, insufficient insulin secretion and enhanced insulin resistance. In non-diabetics, increased serum glucose stimulates insulin secretion from the pancreatic ?-cell and decreases glucagon secretion from the pancreatic ?-cell. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion is a complex process that is regulated via complex signaling pathways within the cell. The dynamics of cellular signaling, and corresponding insulin release, are critical to normal regulation of serum glucose, however, detection of many cellular signals is not possible due to a dearth of sensing technologies. Recent studies have rediscovered ...
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Two identified interneurons in each buccal ganglion of Aplysia can mediate conjoined excitation and inhibition to a single follower cell. A single presynaptic action potential in one of these interneurons produces a diphasic, depolarizing-hyperpolarizing synaptic potential apparently as a result of a single transmitter acting on two types of postsynaptic receptors in the follower cell. These receptors produce synaptic potentials with differing reversal potentials, ionic conductances, time courses, rates of decrement with repetition, pharmacological properties, and functional consequences. The excitatory receptor controls a sodium conductance, the inhibitory receptor controls a chloride conductance. Both components of the synaptic potentials can be produced by iontophoretic application of acetylcholine on the cell body of the follower cell, and each component is differentially sensitive to different cholinergic blocking agents. ...
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Kurokawa, M. and Kasuya, Y. and Okamoto, T. (2012) Origin of automaticity and neural regulation of peristalsis in the gastrointestinal tract of Aplysia and Lymnaea. Acta Biologica Hungarica, 63 (Supple). pp. 202-205. ISSN 0236-5383 Kurokawa, M. and Ito, S. and Okamoto, T. (2008) Activities and functions of peripheral neurons in the enteric nervous system of Aplysia and Lymnaea. Acta Biologica Hungarica, 59 (Supple). pp. 65-71. ISSN 0236-5383 ...
COPYRIGHT (C) 2016 KISTI. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.. 대전광역시 유성구 대학로 245 한국과학기술정보연구원TEL : 042.869.1234 서울시 동대문구 회기로 66NDSL고객센터 : 080.969.4114E-mail : [email protected] ...
2Y7Y: Use of Acetylcholine Binding Protein in the Search for Novel Alpha7 Nicotinic Receptor Ligands. In Silico Docking, Pharmacological Screening, and X-Ray Analysis.
2XYS: A Structural and Mutagenic Blueprint for Molecular Recognition of Strychnine and D-Tubocurarine by Different Cys-Loop Receptors.
The brain is a plastic organ that can undergo many changes. When neurons in the brain receive repetitive stimuli, new synapses are formed, and the efficiency of information transfer changes. In other words, synapse formation is a construction site of learning. We wish to explore what kinds of molecules are at work here. Past studies have shown that the messenger RNAs (mRNAs) of a neurotransmitter protein called sensorin are not retained near the nucleus but are transported to the synaptic terminal where they are condensed and translated into protein when the neuron receives an input stimulus. It was confirmed that no synapse formation occurred when sensorin translation was inhibited. This shows that the transport of sensorin mRNA to the synaptic terminal and its translation there are essential for synapse formation.. Now that we have identified a key molecule , new questions arise. How are the mRNAs transported over such a long distance from the nucleus to the synaptic terminal? How is the ...
The miniaturization of the current technology of storage media is hindered by fundamental limits of quantum mechanics. A new approach consists in using so-called spin-crossover molecules as the smallest possible storage unit. Similar to normal hard drives, these special molecules can save information via their magnetic state. A research team from Kiel University has now managed to successfully place a new class of spin-crossover molecules onto a surface and to improve the molecules storage capacity. The storage density of conventional hard drives could therefore theoretically be increased by more than one hundred fold. The study has been published in the scientific journal Nano Letters. ...
Detox Day Spa is a first-of-its-kind concept that starts with a cellular-level analysis to assess absorption of proteins, fats and sugars, presence of uric acid and toxic bowel crystals, as well as bacteria, parasites and fungus via a finger drop of blood under a high-powered microscope. Detox Day Spa offers 35-Day Detox programs built around cellular analyses to flush the body, reset and rebuild the immune system utilizing external detox methods (ionic & infrared), plant-based dietary changes and supplements, and biometric technology. Spa founder Anthony Martinez Beven is a former bio-tech industry marketing executive and medical practice consultant who modeled the Spas 35-Day programs after his own experience. He received back-to-back HIV and cancer diagnoses, and was left with 23 t-cells, the front-line defender in our white blood cell group, and a low body pH after treatments. He was given the option of chemo pills, and Beven researched and forged his own path of natural healing.. ...
Detection of intracellular antigens by flow cytometry poses unique challenges due to the requirement to access the internal epitope of interest. Usually this means employing some type of cross-linking fixative followed by permeabilization using detergent or alcohol. Reagents can be prepared and tested in-house, or alternately, there are numerous commercial preparations available for the cell fix/perm. Any given test system should be evaluated for optimal performance using appropriate controls (see Technical Considerations). Attached is an example of an optimized test system for detection of intracellular antigen using a formaldehyde/methanol fixation and permeabilization combination.. For a complete review of intracellular antigen protocol considerations, see Jacobberger, JW: Flow cytometric analysis of intracellular epitopes. In: Immunophenotyping, eds. Stewart CC and Nicholson JKA, Cytometric Cellular Analysis Series, series eds. Robinson JP and Babcock G, pp. 361-405, 2000.. Technical ...
This session will highlight novel approaches utilizing microfabricated systems for molecular and cellular analyses. Applications of microsystems in biosensing, sample handling, cell cultivation and cell manipulation will be presented ...
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RadBioPhys Lab routinely performs cellular analysis (DNA content, Cell death assay, Proliferation Assay) and immunophenotype assays (from 2 to 8 colors analysis).. For more information and specific collaboration requests: [email protected] or +39 0382 987644. ...
The myomodulin family of neuropeptides is an important group of neural cotransmitters in molluscs and is known to be present in… Expand ...
Slug radula. Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of the radula from a red slug (Arion rufus). The radula is a tongue-like organ found in most molluscs. It is studded with rows of horny teeth (grey), which are used to rasp food particles from surfaces. Magnification: x660 when printed at 10 centimetres wide. - Stock Image C020/8738
Habituation is a simple form of learning that all animals, including people, are capable of. In this lesson, you will learn what it is, how it...
A k-space method for large-scale simulation of ultrasonic pulse propagation is presented. The present method, which solves the coupled first-order differential equations for wave propagation in inhomogeneous media, is derived in a simple form analogo
The basic processes of life were first developed in prokaryotes - they were the first photosynthesizers, the first aerobes. They spread across the globe, but they were limited. Prokaryotes can be found in simple colonies, and different species can work cooperatively together, but they cant do the complex jobs that eukaryotes can. Particularly, they cant form multicellular systems.. Its unclear when eukaryotes, with their specialized chambers, evolved, or when they added to those chambers by taking in specialized prokaryotes and using them (the endosymbiont theory), but most evidence indicates that even eukaryote life stayed pretty simple for a very long time. Plants formed simple algae sheets and mats; animals stayed small and soft; neither left much in the way of fossils. The Earths oceans were apparently a stable ecosystem for a very long time. Life might have stabilized in those simple forms.... Then it all froze.. The Snowball Period was the worst ice age ever - even the tropical oceans ...
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Driving Tom back from a childrens party this afternoon, I was thinking about Noda Time. Ive been planning to rework the parsing/formatting API, so that each chronological type (ZonedDateTime, LocalDateTime, LocalDate, LocalTime) has its own formatter and parser pair. I suspect this will involve quite a bit of similar code between the various classes… but code which is easy to understand and easy to test in its simple form. The question which is hard to answer before the first implementation is whether it will be worth trying to abstract out that similar code to avoid repetition. In my experience, quite … Continue reading Mini-post: abstractions vs repetition; a driving analogy. ...
Add your own listing by clicking the Add New Item button at the top of the page. This will bring up a simple form where you can enter information about your item and even an optional photo. After submitting the form, you will receive an e-mail with a key number you use to confirm your listing. Once confirmed, your item will be immediately added to the exchange. Its that simple and theres no waiting. To make a change or delete the item after its sold: Click the Edit - or Delete - buttons that will appear next to your item. Note that these buttons will only appear next to items youve submitted and only when using your computer. No one else (except the web master) can edit or delete your submissions. Also note however, that submissions deemed to be inappropriate for this web site will be immediately removed. ...
Your YOLY challenge this week is to incorporate a simple form of pranayama or breath control into your daily practice. The technique is called Ujjayi Breathing. On YOLY Week #1, I challenged you to take 5 minutes each day to just breathe. If you took this first step, you had the chance to follow your breath and…
Tadapox is the simple form of treatment for ED men it is for sure but truly very complicated to ED or impotency trouble as it treats it with dual active parts.
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Dear Students, Here is a letter from the heart of your Psych Teacher. As you all are in the final touch of your IB journey. One more batt ...
Dear Students, Here is a letter from the heart of your Psych Teacher. As you all are in the final touch of your IB journey. One more batt ...
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Facilitation of strategic issues requires strong logical processes that help solve problems. Kepner-Tregoe provides strategic issue facilitation leadership consulting
How to Fill a Punching Bag. Buying an empty punching bag is often cheaper than getting one thats already been filled. Plus, it gives you more control over how heavy and dense your punching bag is since you get to fill it yourself. Filling...
Aplysia morio in Bermuda [2]. From: Ben Hartley, May 22, 2006 * Aplysia morio seen in Bermuda. From: Thaddeus Murdoch, May 22, ... Re: Swimming Aplysia in Florida. From: Maxine Gomez, March 30, 2010 * Re: Sea Hare in the surf - NW Florida. From: Randy Hill, ... Aplysia morio in Florida. From: Joe Hauth, July 27, 2002 * Re: Sea slugs washed up in Florida. From: Marion Reamer, May 30, ... Swimming Aplysia in Florida. From: J. Nicholas Boyd, February 25, 2004 * Mystery slug found in Trinidad. From: Danielle, May 13 ...
Aplysia morio in Bermuda [2]. From: Ben Hartley, May 22, 2006 * Aplysia morio seen in Bermuda. From: Thaddeus Murdoch, May 22, ... The two species you are most likely to find in Florida are Aplysia brasiliana and Aplysia morio. Have a look at the Fact Sheets ... Re: Swimming Aplysia in Florida. From: Maxine Gomez, March 30, 2010 * Re: Sea Hare in the surf - NW Florida. From: Randy Hill, ... Aplysia morio in Florida. From: Joe Hauth, July 27, 2002 * Re: Sea slugs washed up in Florida. From: Marion Reamer, May 30, ...
Here are some more photos of the species you previously identified as Aplysia parvula.In the first photo there are specimens ... Aplysia parvula from Korea. From: Dong Bum,Koh, June 28, 2002 * Aplysia parvula from the Bahamas. From: Anne DuPont, June 8, ... Aplysia parvula laying eggs. From: Dong Bum Koh, May 26, 2005 * Re: Aplysia parvula - eaten by Nemertine worm. From: Jon ... Aplysia parvula from Sulawesi. From: Lindsay Warren, August 5, 2000 * Aplysia punctata or A. parvula?. From: Erwin Koehler, ...
Aplysia morio in Bermuda [2]. From: Ben Hartley, May 22, 2006 * Aplysia morio seen in Bermuda. From: Thaddeus Murdoch, May 22, ... This is a Sea Hare, almost certainly Aplysia morio which is a well known visitor, along with Aplysia brasiliana, to Florida. ... Re: Swimming Aplysia in Florida. From: Maxine Gomez, March 30, 2010 * Re: Sea Hare in the surf - NW Florida. From: Randy Hill, ... Aplysia morio in Florida. From: Joe Hauth, July 27, 2002 * Re: Sea slugs washed up in Florida. From: Marion Reamer, May 30, ...
Never did it occur to me that Aplysias own shell could migrate outside of its body. Well, thats something else that Ive ... Markings on Aplysia punctata. From: Mark Henry, August 17, 2006 * A summer spawn of Aplysia punctata. From: Mark.Henry, August ... Juvenile Aplysia from Norway. From: Kåre Telnes, July 30, 2005 * Aplysia punctata from Croatia. From: Andrej Jaklin, March 4, ... What does Aplysia punctata eat?. From: Trevor Shand, August 7, 2000 * Observations on Aplysia punctata. From: Andy Horton, ...
Aplysia morio in Bermuda [2]. From: Ben Hartley, May 22, 2006 * Aplysia morio seen in Bermuda. From: Thaddeus Murdoch, May 22, ... And more Aplysia from Florida March 4, 2001. From: Dawn A. We found 5 Sea hares close to the shore (and some even washing up) ... Re: Swimming Aplysia in Florida. From: Maxine Gomez, March 30, 2010 * Re: Sea Hare in the surf - NW Florida. From: Randy Hill, ... Aplysia morio in Florida. From: Joe Hauth, July 27, 2002 * Re: Sea slugs washed up in Florida. From: Marion Reamer, May 30, ...
Re: Inking in Aplysia. From: Edwin Cruz-Rivera, June 27, 2002 * Re: Inking in Aplysia. From: Dr.Stephen R Hoskins, June 26, ... Aplysia californica - ink. From: Malvina Papanastasiou, March 23, 2006 * Separating Ink Components of Aplysia dactylometa?. ... Re: Inking in Aplysia October 24, 2005. From: lorrie creach my 8 year old daughter was on a field trip at a beach in fort myers ... The Sea Hare was probably Aplysia brasiliana.. Best wishes,. Bill Rudman. Rudman, W.B., 2005 (Oct 24). Comment on Re: Inking in ...
Operant Reward Learning in Aplysia: Neuronal Correlates and Mechanisms. By Björn Brembs, Fred D. Lorenzetti, Fredy D. Reyes, ... Operant Reward Learning in Aplysia: Neuronal Correlates and Mechanisms. By Björn Brembs, Fred D. Lorenzetti, Fredy D. Reyes, ... Operant Reward Learning in Aplysia: Neuronal Correlates and Mechanisms Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you ... Here, we report an appetitive operant conditioning procedure inAplysia that induces long-term memory. Biophysical changes that ...
Circuits that contain the Cell : Aplysia interneuron. Re-display model names with descriptions. Models. ... Homosynaptic plasticity in the tail withdrawal circuit (TWC) of Aplysia (Baxter and Byrne 2006) ... A network model of tail withdrawal in Aplysia (White et al 1993) ...
Aplysia rehderi - Species Dictionary - Global : iSpot Nature - Your place to share nature. iSpot is a website aimed at helping ... Aplysia rehderi. Aplysia rehderi - Species Dictionary - Global : iSpot Nature - Your place to share nature. iSpot is a website ...
Aplysia argus is a species of gastropod mollusc in the genus Aplysia, native to the Indo-Pacific region. (Source: Wikipedia ... http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aplysia_argus, CC BY-SA 3.0 . Photo: (c) Peter, some rights reserved (CC BY-NC)) ...
APLYSIA and CETREL: A complete and integrated offering of [...] APLYSIA awarded the Ecology Prize 2016 River Restoration: ... APLYSIA holds expertise to be in charge of the deployment of a new station, monitoring the development of microorganisms ... The microbiological monitoring of the start-up, by APLYSIA, speeds up stability of the new plant and acts preventively, ...
The slug lab is kicking off summer research with a brand new aquarium and mixing station for housing Aplysia. Its a great ... The piece covers several new lines of research on forgetting, including the work weve been doing with Aplysia. Its a great ... Transcriptional changes before and after forgetting of a long-term sensitization memory in Aplysia californica. Neurobiology of ... Transcriptional changes before and after forgetting of a long-term sensitization memory in Aplysia californica. Neurobiology of ...
title = "Developmental emergence of long-term memory for sensitization in Aplysia",. abstract = "Adult Aplysia exhibit both ... N2 - Adult Aplysia exhibit both short-term and long-term memory for sensitization in the gill and siphon withdrawal reflex. ... AB - Adult Aplysia exhibit both short-term and long-term memory for sensitization in the gill and siphon withdrawal reflex. ... Adult Aplysia exhibit both short-term and long-term memory for sensitization in the gill and siphon withdrawal reflex. Previous ...
Some neurons in Aplysia have receptors which are much more sensitive to octopamine than any other structurally related compound ... the octopamine content of whole ganglia and single neurons strongly suggest that octopamine is a neurotransmitter in Aplysia. ... Some neurons in Aplysia have receptors which are much more sensitive to octopamine than any other structurally related compound ... Octopamine Receptors on Aplysia Neurons: Further Evidence for a Function of Octopamine as a Neurotransmitter.. ...
Biomineralization in the Sea Hare Aplysia punctata Initiated by Nano-Dolomite. Croatica Chemica Acta, 87 (2014), 2; 143-152. ... Tonejc A, Medaković D, Popović S, Jaklin A, Bijelić M, Lončarek I. Biomineralization in the Sea Hare Aplysia punctata Initiated ... A. Tonejc, D. Medaković, S. Popović, A. Jaklin, M. Bijelić and I. Lončarek, "Biomineralization in the Sea Hare Aplysia punctata ... "Biomineralization in the Sea Hare Aplysia punctata Initiated by Nano-Dolomite." Croatica Chemica Acta, vol. 87, no. 2, 2014, pp ...
Aplysia californica exhibit a dramatic defensive reaction, the release of a cloud of dark purple ink, in response to noxious ... N2 - Aplysia californica exhibit a dramatic defensive reaction, the release of a cloud of dark purple ink, in response to ... AB - Aplysia californica exhibit a dramatic defensive reaction, the release of a cloud of dark purple ink, in response to ... abstract = "Aplysia californica exhibit a dramatic defensive reaction, the release of a cloud of dark purple ink, in response ...
Philips, G. T., Sherff, C. M., Menges, S. A., & Carew, T. J. (2011). The tail-elicited tail withdrawal reflex of Aplysia is ... Philips, GT, Sherff, CM, Menges, SA & Carew, TJ 2011, The tail-elicited tail withdrawal reflex of Aplysia is mediated ... Dive into the research topics of The tail-elicited tail withdrawal reflex of Aplysia is mediated centrally at tail sensory- ... title = "The tail-elicited tail withdrawal reflex of Aplysia is mediated centrally at tail sensory-motor synapses and exhibits ...
Re: NIH-Aplysia Resource Facility. From: Tom Capo, December 8, 1998 * Re: NIH-Aplysia Resource Facility. From: Tom Capo, ... Perhaps they were juveniles? The Black Sea Hare in southern California, Aplysia vaccaria, grows to about 100cm, making it the ... Information on Aplysia in Chile. From: Soledad De La Piedra, March 30, 1999 ... I need specimens of Aplysia cervina. From: Sara Black Banks, November 20, 1998 ...
Aplysia parvula Collection:. Cornell Collection of Blaschka Invertebrate Models. Common Name:. Dwarf Sea Hare. Blaschka Number: ...
Aplysia long-term memory and its molecula .... 01:38 , 5599 views Watch VIDEO. 7443 views ...
Aplysia long-term memory and its molecula .... 01:38 , 5601 views Watch VIDEO. 5882 views ...
Aplysia long-term memory and its molecula .... 01:38 , 5596 views Watch VIDEO. 7440 views ...
Aplysia cirrhifera was based on specimens from Mauritius, and MacNae later identified animals from South Africa with that name ... FIGURE: Plate 24; figure 8. Aplysie cirrhifére [Aplysia cirrhifera]. Quoy, J.R & Gaimard, J.P (1832) Atlas.. ... The genus Barnardaclesia was proposed by Engel & Eales (1935) who chose Aplysia cirrhifera Quoy & Gaimard, 1832 as the type ...
jujurenoults ID: Spotted Seahare (Aplysia dactylomela) Added on June 02, 2021. Supporting ...
Filmitalia: the Official Database of contemporary Italian films
Aplysia Linnaeus, 1767 (additional source). Aponuphis Kucheruk, 1978 (additional source). Aponuphis bilineata (Baird, 1870) ( ...
FLATOW: Yeah, have to get some more Aplysia experiment. Eric Kandel will come on and talk this over with you. OK. Were going ...
Aplysia dactylomela (1) * Archaster sp. (1) * Asthenosoma sp. (1) * Astralium sp. (1) ...
Our collections complete this overview of animals including the magpie, anemone, aplysia, beaver, chimpanzee, dolphin, and more ...
  • Aplysia californica exhibit a dramatic defensive reaction, the release of a cloud of dark purple ink, in response to noxious stimuli. (nyu.edu)
  • The defensive withdrawal reflexes of Aplysia californica have provided powerful behavioral systems for studying the cellular and molecular basis of memory formation. (nyu.edu)
  • In their study, the researchers examined GFs in Aplysia californica, the California sea slug. (aspirace.com)
  • Aplysia californica, or California sea hare, are raised at the National Resource for Aplysia in Miami, Florida. (changingseas.tv)
  • California sea hares (Aplysia californica) line the walls of the saltwater tanks at the National Resource for Aplysia facility in Miami, Florida. (changingseas.tv)
  • Red macroalgae, food for Aplysia californica, is cultured and grown at the National Resource for Aplysia in Miami, Florida. (changingseas.tv)
  • Klein M, Kandel ER (1978) Presynaptic modulation of voltage-dependent Ca2+ current: mechanism for behavioral sensitization in Aplysia californica. (yale.edu)
  • AP5 blocks the cellular analog of classical conditioning in the sea slug Aplysia californica, and has similar effects on Aplysia long-term potentiation, since NMDA receptors are required for both. (morebooks.de)
  • For several weeks now, large "sea hares" ( Aplysia californica ) have been showing up on beaches in Alameda and here in Lake Merritt. (stevenefbrown.com)
  • Aplysia californica , a sea hare . (wikimili.com)
  • Cold saltwater pours into tanks filled with California sea hares at the National Resource for Aplysia in Miami, Florida. (changingseas.tv)
  • Large California sea hares are being raised at the National Resource for Aplysia facility in Miami, Florida. (changingseas.tv)
  • Sunlight and fresh seawater are used to grow red macroalgae, food for the California sea hares raised at the National Resource for Aplysia facility in Miami, Florida. (changingseas.tv)
  • In my answer to the first message [# 20224 ] I could say it was a sea hare and suggested either a couple of species of Aplysia, or two other sea hares - Stylocheilus striatus and Bursatella leachii . (seaslugforum.net)
  • A diversity of marine molluscs, including sea hares (Aplysia spp. (gsu.edu)
  • Aplysia punctata or A. parvula ? (seaslugforum.net)
  • Aplysia punctata and commensal? (seaslugforum.net)
  • What does Aplysia punctata eat? (seaslugforum.net)
  • 2014) 'Biomineralization in the Sea Hare Aplysia punctata Initiated by Nano-Dolomite', Croatica Chemica Acta , 87(2), pp. 143-152. (unizg.hr)
  • Tonejc A, Medaković D, Popović S, Jaklin A, Bijelić M, Lončarek I. Biomineralization in the Sea Hare Aplysia punctata Initiated by Nano-Dolomite. (unizg.hr)
  • X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), selected area electron diffraction (SAED), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDS) were used in study of starting biomineralization processes in embryos of the sea hare species Aplysia punctata. (unizg.hr)
  • The eggs of the sea hare (Aplysia punctata) look like pink silly string. (cornishrockpools.com)
  • The two species you are most likely to find in Florida are Aplysia brasiliana and Aplysia morio . (seaslugforum.net)
  • Dear Nick, This is a Sea Hare , almost certainly Aplysia morio which is a well known visitor, along with Aplysia brasiliana , to Florida. (seaslugforum.net)
  • I am pretty sure your animal is Aplysia brasiliana . (seaslugforum.net)
  • Although Brian Mason [message # 20235 ] suggested I was correct in suggesting Aplysia brasiliana , the only photos I have been sent - yours and Tom Johnson's [message # 20220 ] are of Bursatella leachii, so I suspect all these messages are about this species. (seaslugforum.net)
  • Hoskins, S.R., 2002 (Jun 18) Re: commensal bivalve & Aplysia . (seaslugforum.net)
  • Thomas Capo, Founder & Manager of the National Resource for Aplysia, at his lab in Miami, Florida. (changingseas.tv)
  • The 'Black Sea Hare' in southern California, Aplysia vaccaria , grows to about 100cm, making it the largest species in the world. (seaslugforum.net)
  • During the summer months a large number of mottled seahares ( Aplysia fasciata ) can also be spotted. (visitazores.com)
  • Of the seven northern range expansions, three were crabs ( Achelous xantusii and Malacoplax californiensis, and Uca princeps), two mollusks (Aplysia vaccaria and Lobatus galeatus), one urchin (Arbacia stellata), and one fish (Alphestes immaculatus). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Comment on Other Aplysia parvula from Senegal by Marina Poddubetskaia. (seaslugforum.net)
  • Dear Bill, Here are some more photos of the species you previously identified as Aplysia parvula . (seaslugforum.net)
  • Thanks Marina, Yes this is the species I have identified earlier as Aplysia parvula . (seaslugforum.net)
  • I meant to mention before that Pruvot-Fol (1953) illustrated this colour form from Senegal and proposed a new species name Aplysia vistosa [37-8, Plate 1, figs 15, 17] for it. (seaslugforum.net)
  • Aplysia rehderi - Species Dictionary - Global : iSpot Nature - Your place to share nature. (ispotnature.org)
  • The genus Barnardaclesia was proposed by Engel & Eales (1935) who chose Aplysia cirrhifera Quoy & Gaimard, 1832 as the type species. (seaslugforum.net)
  • I love finding mermaid's purses too - and it's generally easy to identify what species of shark or ray laid them thanks to the Shark Trust's guide - http://www.sharktrust.org/en/identify_your_eggcase . (cornishrockpools.com)
  • Aplysia cirrhifera was based on specimens from Mauritius, and MacNae later identified animals from South Africa with that name, but placed them in Bursatella . (seaslugforum.net)
  • Changes of internal state are expressed in coherent shifts of neuromuscular activity in Aplysia feeding behavior. (cornell.edu)
  • Cycle-to-cycle variability of neuromuscular activity in Aplysia feeding behavior. (cornell.edu)
  • Here, we report an appetitive operant conditioning procedure in Aplysia that induces long-term memory. (sciencemag.org)
  • Adult Aplysia exhibit both short-term and long-term memory for sensitization in the gill and siphon withdrawal reflex. (nyu.edu)
  • We have found that ink released by animals that are subjected to noxious stimuli rapidly induces inhibition of the tail-elicited siphon withdrawal reflex in neighboring Aplysia. (nyu.edu)
  • Because the neural circuits responsible for both tail-elicited siphon withdrawal and the inking response have already been partly delineated, one can now bring the neurobiological advantages of Aplysia to bear on the ethologically important issue of signaling between conspecifics. (nyu.edu)
  • Stopfer, M, Chen, X & Carew, TJ 1993, ' Evoked ink release in Aplysia produces inhibition of the siphon withdrawal reflex in neighboring conspecifics ', Behavioral and Neural Biology , vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 196-204. (nyu.edu)
  • Octopamine Receptors on 'Aplysia' Neurons: Further Evidence for a Function of Octopamine as a Neurotransmitter. (dtic.mil)
  • Some neurons in Aplysia have receptors which are much more sensitive to octopamine than any other structurally related compound. (dtic.mil)
  • Most such receptors mediate a hyperpolarizing conductance increase to K. These responses when considered with the octopamine content of whole ganglia and single neurons strongly suggest that octopamine is a neurotransmitter in Aplysia. (dtic.mil)
  • Furukawa Y, Kandel ER, Pfaffinger P (1992) Three types of early transient potassium currents in Aplysia neurons. (yale.edu)
  • Hurwitz I, Ophir A, Korngreen A, Koester J, Susswein AJ (2008) Currents contributing to decision making in neurons B31/B32 of Aplysia. (yale.edu)
  • Currents contributing to decision making in neurons B31-B32 of Aplysia (Hurwitz et al. (yale.edu)
  • Aplysia is a model organism that is quite powerful for this type of research because its neurons are 10 to 50 times larger than those of higher organisms, such as vertebrates, and it possesses a relatively small network of neurons-characteristics that readily allow for the examination of molecular signaling during memory formation. (aspirace.com)
  • In Aplysia, the simple neural circuit that mediates the reflex modified by learning is made up of unique sensory neurons and motor neurons. (aspirace.com)
  • Hochner B, Kandel ER (1992) Modulation of a transient K+ current in the pleural sensory neurons of Aplysia by serotonin and cAMP: implications for spike broadening. (yale.edu)
  • Hochner B, Klein M, Schacher S, Kandel ER (1986) Action-potential duration and the modulation of transmitter release from the sensory neurons of Aplysia in presynaptic facilitation and behavioral sensitization. (yale.edu)
  • We developed a finite element bidomain model of an aplysia abdominal ganglion in order to estimate the sensitivity of this contrast mechanism to changes in cell membrane conductance occurring during a gill-withdrawal reflex. (elsevier.com)
  • 2004. Feeding neural networks in the mollusc Aplysia. . (cornell.edu)
  • One of those has a spectacular photo of an Aplysia 'inking' [see Ink Glands ]. (seaslugforum.net)
  • I also enjoyed the way Eric Kandel says "aplysia" (a-pliss-ia) and learning that Tony Grace 's license plate is DOPAMNE . (neuwritesd.org)
  • 2005. Identification of a new neuropeptide precursor reveals a novel source of extrinsic modulation in the feeding system of Aplysia. . (cornell.edu)
  • Aplysia and memory? (seaslugforum.net)
  • Eric Kandel's research has been concerned with the molecular mechanisms of memory storage in Aplysia and mice. (childmind.org)
  • APLYSIA holds expertise to be in charge of the deployment of a new station, monitoring the development of microorganisms responsible for biological treatment of effluents, so that the system operates correctly and safely. (aplysia.com.br)
  • 2003. Convergent mechanisms mediate preparatory states and repetition priming in the feeding network of Aplysia. . (cornell.edu)
  • 2007. Multiple contributions of an input-representing neuron to the dynamics of the aplysia feeding network. . (cornell.edu)

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