Chamomile: Common name for several daisy-like plants (MATRICARIA; TRIPLEUROSPERMUM; ANTHEMIS; CHAMAEMELUM) native to Europe and Western Asia, now naturalized in the United States and Australia.Luteolin: 5,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxy-flavone, one of the FLAVONES.Flavonoids: A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.Flavones: A group of 4-keto-FLAVONOIDS.Chrysanthemum: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. The common names of daisy or marguerite are easily confused with other plants. Some species in this genus have been reclassified to TANACETUM.Carduus: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain arctiin and onopordopicrin.Kaempferols: A group of FLAVONOLS based on kaempferol. They are derived from naringenin and can be hydroxylated to QUERCETIN or reduced to leucopelargonidin.Flavanones: A group of FLAVONOIDS characterized with a 4-ketone.Quercetin: A flavonol widely distributed in plants. It is an antioxidant, like many other phenolic heterocyclic compounds. Glycosylated forms include RUTIN and quercetrin.Leishmania enriettii: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that has been found as a natural infection of the Brazilian guinea pig. Its host-tissue relationship is, in general, comparable to that of L. braziliensis.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Perilla frutescens: A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE that is an ingredient of Banxia Houpu (DRUGS, CHINESE HERBAL).Hydroxytestosterones: 17 beta-Hydroxy-4-androsten-3-ones. Testosterone derivatives formed by the substitution of one or more hydroxyl groups in any position.Apium graveolens: A plant species of the family APIACEAE. The stalks are a food source.Adenine Nucleotide Translocator 2: A subtype of mitochondrial ADP, ATP translocase found primarily in FIBROBLASTS.Viola: A plant genus of the family VIOLACEAE. Some species in this genus are called bouncing bet which is a common name more often used with SAPONARIA OFFICINALIS. Members contain macrocyclic peptides.Lamiaceae: The mint plant family. They are characteristically aromatic, and many of them are cultivated for their oils. Most have square stems, opposite leaves, and two-lipped, open-mouthed, tubular corollas (united petals), with five-lobed, bell-like calyxes (united sepals).Anticarcinogenic Agents: Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved.Cunninghamella: A genus of zygomycetous fungi of the family Cunninghamellaceae, order MUCORALES. Some species cause systemic infections in humans.Petroselinum: A plant genus of the family APIACEAE used for flavoring food.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Impatiens: A plant genus of subsucculent annual or perennial plants in the family BALSAMINACEAE, order Geraniales.Genistein: An isoflavonoid derived from soy products. It inhibits PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE and topoisomerase-II (DNA TOPOISOMERASES, TYPE II); activity and is used as an antineoplastic and antitumor agent. Experimentally, it has been shown to induce G2 PHASE arrest in human and murine cell lines and inhibits PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE.Glycosides: Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Melissa: A plant genus of the family LAMIACEAE. The common names of beebalm or lemonbalm are also used for MONARDA.Plant Components, Aerial: The above-ground plant without the roots.Farnesol: A colorless liquid extracted from oils of plants such as citronella, neroli, cyclamen, and tuberose. It is an intermediate step in the biological synthesis of cholesterol from mevalonic acid in vertebrates. It has a delicate odor and is used in perfumery. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)GlucosidesDose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Flavonols: A group of 3-hydroxy-4-keto-FLAVONOIDS.Rutin: A flavonol glycoside found in many plants, including BUCKWHEAT; TOBACCO; FORSYTHIA; HYDRANGEA; VIOLA, etc. It has been used therapeutically to decrease capillary fragility.Antimutagenic Agents: Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced mutations independently of the mechanism involved.Casein Kinase II: A ubiquitous casein kinase that is comprised of two distinct catalytic subunits and dimeric regulatory subunit. Casein kinase II has been shown to phosphorylate a large number of substrates, many of which are proteins involved in the regulation of gene expression.Receptors, Tumor Necrosis Factor, Member 25: A tumor necrosis factor receptor subtype with specificity for TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR LIGAND SUPERFAMILY MEMBER 15. It is found in tissues containing LYMPHOCYTES and may play a role in regulating lymphocyte homeostasis and APOPTOSIS. The activated receptor signals via a conserved death domain that associates with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Polysorbates: Sorbitan mono-9-octadecanoate poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) derivatives; complex mixtures of polyoxyethylene ethers used as emulsifiers or dispersing agents in pharmaceuticals.Keratinocytes: Epidermal cells which synthesize keratin and undergo characteristic changes as they move upward from the basal layers of the epidermis to the cornified (horny) layer of the skin. Successive stages of differentiation of the keratinocytes forming the epidermal layers are basal cell, spinous or prickle cell, and the granular cell.Methylcellulose: Methylester of cellulose. Methylcellulose is used as an emulsifying and suspending agent in cosmetics, pharmaceutics and the chemical industry. It is used therapeutically as a bulk laxative.PicratesMice, Hairless: Mutant strains of mice that produce little or no hair.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Biotransformation: The chemical alteration of an exogenous substance by or in a biological system. The alteration may inactivate the compound or it may result in the production of an active metabolite of an inactive parent compound. The alterations may be divided into METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE I and METABOLIC DETOXICATION, PHASE II.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Polyphenols: A large class of organic compounds having more than one PHENOL group.Apigenin: 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-flavone, one of the FLAVONES.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Inhibitory Concentration 50: The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.CinnamatesCyclooxygenase 2: An inducibly-expressed subtype of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase. It plays an important role in many cellular processes and INFLAMMATION. It is the target of COX2 INHIBITORS.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Hep G2 Cells: A human liver tumor cell line used to study a variety of liver-specific metabolic functions.Phenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.Drug Antagonism: Phenomena and pharmaceutics of compounds that inhibit the function of agonists (DRUG AGONISM) and inverse agonists (DRUG INVERSE AGONISM) for a specific receptor. On their own, antagonists produce no effect by themselves to a receptor, and are said to have neither intrinsic activity nor efficacy.Transcription Factor RelA: A subunit of NF-kappa B that is primarily responsible for its transactivation function. It contains a C-terminal transactivation domain and an N-terminal domain with homology to PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-REL.Citrus: A plant genus of the family RUTACEAE. They bear the familiar citrus fruits including oranges, grapefruit, lemons, and limes. There are many hybrids which makes the nomenclature confusing.Glucosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Chlorhexidine: A disinfectant and topical anti-infective agent used also as mouthwash to prevent oral plaque.Stilbenes: Organic compounds that contain 1,2-diphenylethylene as a functional group.Caco-2 Cells: Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.Receptors, TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand: Tumor necrosis factor receptor family members that are widely expressed and play a role in regulation of peripheral immune responses and APOPTOSIS. The receptors are specific for TNF-RELATED APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND and signal via conserved death domains that associate with specific TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS in the CYTOPLASM.Down-Regulation: A negative regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Anti-Infective Agents, Local: Substances used on humans and other animals that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. They are distinguished from DISINFECTANTS, which are used on inanimate objects.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Receptor, IGF Type 1: A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is closely related in structure to the INSULIN RECEPTOR. Although commonly referred to as the IGF-I receptor, it binds both IGF-I and IGF-II with high affinity. It is comprised of a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The beta subunit contains an intrinsic tyrosine kinase domain.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Dermatitis: Any inflammation of the skin.Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet: Determination of the spectra of ultraviolet absorption by specific molecules in gases or liquids, for example Cl2, SO2, NO2, CS2, ozone, mercury vapor, and various unsaturated compounds. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2: Membrane proteins encoded by the BCL-2 GENES and serving as potent inhibitors of cell death by APOPTOSIS. The proteins are found on mitochondrial, microsomal, and NUCLEAR MEMBRANE sites within many cell types. Overexpression of bcl-2 proteins, due to a translocation of the gene, is associated with follicular lymphoma.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.G2 Phase: The period of the CELL CYCLE following DNA synthesis (S PHASE) and preceding M PHASE (cell division phase). The CHROMOSOMES are tetraploid in this point.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Streptococcus mutans: A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.TNF-Related Apoptosis-Inducing Ligand: A transmembrane-protein belonging to the TNF family of intercellular signaling proteins. It is a widely expressed ligand that activates APOPTOSIS by binding to TNF-RELATED APOPTOSIS-INDUCING LIGAND RECEPTORS. The membrane-bound form of the protein can be cleaved by specific CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES to form a soluble ligand form.I-kappa B Kinase: A protein serine-threonine kinase that catalyzes the PHOSPHORYLATION of I KAPPA B PROTEINS. This enzyme also activates the transcription factor NF-KAPPA B and is composed of alpha and beta catalytic subunits, which are protein kinases and gamma, a regulatory subunit.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Janus Kinases: A family of intracellular tyrosine kinases that participate in the signaling cascade of cytokines by associating with specific CYTOKINE RECEPTORS. They act upon STAT TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS in signaling pathway referred to as the JAK/STAT pathway. The name Janus kinase refers to the fact the proteins have two phosphate-transferring domains.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Isoflavones: 3-Phenylchromones. Isomeric form of FLAVONOIDS in which the benzene group is attached to the 3 position of the benzopyran ring instead of the 2 position.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Drugs, Chinese Herbal: Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.Mice, Inbred ICRTumor Suppressor Protein p53: Nuclear phosphoprotein encoded by the p53 gene (GENES, P53) whose normal function is to control CELL PROLIFERATION and APOPTOSIS. A mutant or absent p53 protein has been found in LEUKEMIA; OSTEOSARCOMA; LUNG CANCER; and COLORECTAL CANCER.Caspases: A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene: 7,12-Dimethylbenzanthracene. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon found in tobacco smoke that is a potent carcinogen.Fluorescence Recovery After Photobleaching: A method used to study the lateral movement of MEMBRANE PROTEINS and LIPIDS. A small area of a cell membrane is bleached by laser light and the amount of time necessary for unbleached fluorescent marker-tagged proteins to diffuse back into the bleached site is a measurement of the cell membrane's fluidity. The diffusion coefficient of a protein or lipid in the membrane can be calculated from the data. (From Segen, Current Med Talk, 1995).Nuclear Receptor Coactivator 3: A nuclear receptor coactivator with specificity for ESTROGEN RECEPTORS and PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS. It contains a histone acetyltransferase activity that may play a role in CHROMATIN REMODELING during the process of nuclear receptor-induced transcription. The coactivator has been found at elevated levels in certain HORMONE-DEPENDENT NEOPLASMS such as those found in BREAST CANCER.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.ChromonesGlucuronosyltransferase: A family of enzymes accepting a wide range of substrates, including phenols, alcohols, amines, and fatty acids. They function as drug-metabolizing enzymes that catalyze the conjugation of UDPglucuronic acid to a variety of endogenous and exogenous compounds. EC 2.4.1.17.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Cyclin B: A cyclin subtype that is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE. It stimulates the G2/M phase transition by activating CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Estrogen Receptor Modulators: Substances that possess antiestrogenic actions but can also produce estrogenic effects as well. They act as complete or partial agonist or as antagonist. They can be either steroidal or nonsteroidal in structure.Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is regulated by OXYGEN availability and is targeted for degradation by VHL TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN.Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases: A family of protein serine/threonine kinases which act as intracellular signalling intermediates. Ribosomal protein S6 kinases are activated through phosphorylation in response to a variety of HORMONES and INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS. Phosphorylation of RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 by enzymes in this class results in increased expression of 5' top MRNAs. Although specific for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 members of this class of kinases can act on a number of substrates within the cell. The immunosuppressant SIROLIMUS inhibits the activation of ribosomal protein S6 kinases.Caspase 3: A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.Protein Kinase C-delta: A ubiquitously expressed protein kinase that is involved in a variety of cellular SIGNAL PATHWAYS. Its activity is regulated by a variety of signaling protein tyrosine kinase.Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Thiocyanates: Organic derivatives of thiocyanic acid which contain the general formula R-SCN.Cyclin D1: Protein encoded by the bcl-1 gene which plays a critical role in regulating the cell cycle. Overexpression of cyclin D1 is the result of bcl-1 rearrangement, a t(11;14) translocation, and is implicated in various neoplasms.Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.beta-Defensins: DEFENSINS found mainly in epithelial cells.Amino Acid Chloromethyl Ketones: Inhibitors of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES and sulfhydryl group-containing enzymes. They act as alkylating agents and are known to interfere in the translation process.Cell Cycle Checkpoints: Regulatory signaling systems that control the progression through the CELL CYCLE. They ensure that the cell has completed, in the correct order and without mistakes, all the processes required to replicate the GENOME and CYTOPLASM, and divide them equally between two daughter cells. If cells sense they have not completed these processes or that the environment does not have the nutrients and growth hormones in place to proceed, then the cells are restrained (or "arrested") until the processes are completed and growth conditions are suitable.Cytochromes c: Cytochromes of the c type that are found in eukaryotic MITOCHONDRIA. They serve as redox intermediates that accept electrons from MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX III and transfer them to MITOCHONDRIAL ELECTRON TRANSPORT COMPLEX IV.Shc Signaling Adaptor Proteins: A family of signaling adaptor proteins that contain SRC HOMOLOGY DOMAINS. Many members of this family are involved in transmitting signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS to MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES.Cyclin-Dependent Kinase Inhibitor p21: A cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that mediates TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN P53-dependent CELL CYCLE arrest. p21 interacts with a range of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and associates with PROLIFERATING CELL NUCLEAR ANTIGEN and CASPASE 3.Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3: One of the six homologous soluble proteins that bind insulin-like growth factors (SOMATOMEDINS) and modulate their mitogenic and metabolic actions at the cellular level.Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases: Phosphotransferases that catalyzes the conversion of 1-phosphatidylinositol to 1-phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate. Many members of this enzyme class are involved in RECEPTOR MEDIATED SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION and regulation of vesicular transport with the cell. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinases have been classified both according to their substrate specificity and their mode of action within the cell.MorpholinesReverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Mice, Inbred NZBCell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Transplantation, Heterologous: Transplantation between animals of different species.Cyclin B1: A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with MICROTUBULES during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Injections, Intraperitoneal: Forceful administration into the peritoneal cavity of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the abdominal wall.NF-kappa B: Ubiquitous, inducible, nuclear transcriptional activator that binds to enhancer elements in many different cell types and is activated by pathogenic stimuli. The NF-kappa B complex is a heterodimer composed of two DNA-binding subunits: NF-kappa B1 and relA.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex: A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A: The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Anti-Inflammatory Agents: Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.Quinolinesbcl-2-Associated X Protein: A member of the Bcl-2 protein family and homologous partner of C-BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEIN. It regulates the release of CYTOCHROME C and APOPTOSIS INDUCING FACTOR from the MITOCHONDRIA. Several isoforms of BCL2-associated X protein occur due to ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of the mRNA for this protein.I-kappa B Proteins: A family of inhibitory proteins which bind to the REL PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS and modulate their activity. In the CYTOPLASM, I-kappa B proteins bind to the transcription factor NF-KAPPA B. Cell stimulation causes its dissociation and translocation of active NF-kappa B to the nucleus.Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Kainic Acid: (2S-(2 alpha,3 beta,4 beta))-2-Carboxy-4-(1-methylethenyl)-3-pyrrolidineacetic acid. Ascaricide obtained from the red alga Digenea simplex. It is a potent excitatory amino acid agonist at some types of excitatory amino acid receptors and has been used to discriminate among receptor types. Like many excitatory amino acid agonists it can cause neurotoxicity and has been used experimentally for that purpose.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).Neuroblastoma: A common neoplasm of early childhood arising from neural crest cells in the sympathetic nervous system, and characterized by diverse clinical behavior, ranging from spontaneous remission to rapid metastatic progression and death. This tumor is the most common intraabdominal malignancy of childhood, but it may also arise from thorax, neck, or rarely occur in the central nervous system. Histologic features include uniform round cells with hyperchromatic nuclei arranged in nests and separated by fibrovascular septa. Neuroblastomas may be associated with the opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2099-2101; Curr Opin Oncol 1998 Jan;10(1):43-51)Epidermis: The external, nonvascular layer of the skin. It is made up, from within outward, of five layers of EPITHELIUM: (1) basal layer (stratum basale epidermidis); (2) spinous layer (stratum spinosum epidermidis); (3) granular layer (stratum granulosum epidermidis); (4) clear layer (stratum lucidum epidermidis); and (5) horny layer (stratum corneum epidermidis).Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II: A CALCIUM-independent subtype of nitric oxide synthase that may play a role in immune function. It is an inducible enzyme whose expression is transcriptionally regulated by a variety of CYTOKINES.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1: A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that plays a role in APOPTOSIS. It is composed of two subunits: ARYL HYDROCARBON RECEPTOR NUCLEAR TRANSLOCATOR and HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1, ALPHA SUBUNIT.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Skin Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the SKIN.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases: Enzyme complexes that catalyze the formation of PROSTAGLANDINS from the appropriate unsaturated FATTY ACIDS, molecular OXYGEN, and a reduced acceptor.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.HSP90 Heat-Shock Proteins: A class of MOLECULAR CHAPERONES whose members act in the mechanism of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION by STEROID RECEPTORS.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.Methylation: Addition of methyl groups. In histo-chemistry methylation is used to esterify carboxyl groups and remove sulfate groups by treating tissue sections with hot methanol in the presence of hydrochloric acid. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Superoxide Dismutase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Mice, Inbred BALB CSeizures: Clinical or subclinical disturbances of cortical function due to a sudden, abnormal, excessive, and disorganized discharge of brain cells. Clinical manifestations include abnormal motor, sensory and psychic phenomena. Recurrent seizures are usually referred to as EPILEPSY or "seizure disorder."Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins: A large group of proteins that control APOPTOSIS. This family of proteins includes many ONCOGENE PROTEINS as well as a wide variety of classes of INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS such as CASPASES.Excitatory Amino Acid Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate excitatory amino acid receptors.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors: Exogenous and endogenous compounds which inhibit CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.In Situ Nick-End Labeling: An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Insulin-Like Growth Factor I: A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.Focal Adhesion Protein-Tyrosine Kinases: A family of non-receptor, PROLINE-rich protein-tyrosine kinases.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Immunoprecipitation: The aggregation of soluble ANTIGENS with ANTIBODIES, alone or with antibody binding factors such as ANTI-ANTIBODIES or STAPHYLOCOCCAL PROTEIN A, into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Luciferases: Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.Endothelial Cells: Highly specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the HEART; BLOOD VESSELS; and lymph vessels, forming the ENDOTHELIUM. They are polygonal in shape and joined together by TIGHT JUNCTIONS. The tight junctions allow for variable permeability to specific macromolecules that are transported across the endothelial layer.Leukemia: A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha: Serum glycoprotein produced by activated MACROPHAGES and other mammalian MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES. It has necrotizing activity against tumor cell lines and increases ability to reject tumor transplants. Also known as TNF-alpha, it is only 30% homologous to TNF-beta (LYMPHOTOXIN), but they share TNF RECEPTORS.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.

Increase in wild-type p53 stability and transactivational activity by the chemopreventive agent apigenin in keratinocytes. (1/264)

Apigenin, a naturally occurring, non-mutagenic flavonoid, has been shown to inhibit UV-induced skin tumorigenesis in mice when topically applied. In this report we have used the mouse keratinocyte 308 cell line, which contains a wild-type p53 gene, to study the effect of apigenin treatment on p53 protein levels and the expression of its downstream partner, p21/waf1. Cells were treated with 70 microM apigenin for various times and levels of p53 and p21/waf1 protein were assessed by western blot analysis. The level of p53 protein was induced 27-fold after 4 h of apigenin treatment and levels remained elevated through 10 h of exposure. After 24 h of exposure to 70 microM apigenin, p53 protein levels returned to control levels. p21/waf1 protein levels increased approximately 1. 5-2-fold after 4 h and remained elevated at 24 h. To investigate the mechanism of p53 protein accumulation, we compared the half-life of p53 protein in vehicle- and apigenin-treated cells. Cells were incubated for 4 h in the presence of apigenin, then cycloheximide was added to inhibit further protein synthesis and p53 protein levels were measured by western blot. The half-life of p53 protein was found to be increased an average of 8-fold in apigenin-treated cells compared with vehicle-treated cells (t(1/2) = 131 min versus 16 min in apigenin- versus vehicle-treated cells, respectively). The mechanism of p53 protein stabilization is currently being investigated. To determine whether p53 was transcriptionally active, we also performed gel mobility shift assays and transient transfection studies using a luciferase plasmid under the control of the p21/waf1 promoter. Both p53 DNA-binding activity and transcriptional activation peaked after 24 h of exposure to apigenin. These studies suggest that apigenin may exert anti-tumorigenic activity by stimulating the p53-p21/waf1 response pathway.  (+info)

Endogenous protein kinase CK2 participates in Wnt signaling in mammary epithelial cells. (2/264)

Protein kinase CK2 (formerly casein kinase II) is a serine/threonine kinase overexpressed in many human tumors, transformed cell lines, and rapidly proliferating tissues. Recent data have shown that many cancers involve inappropriate reactivation of Wnt signaling through ectopic expression of Wnts themselves, as has been seen in a number of human breast cancers, or through mutation of intermediates in the Wnt pathway, such as adenomatous polyposis coli or beta-catenin, as described in colon and other cancers. Wnts are secreted factors that are important in embryonic development, but overexpression of certain Wnts, such as Wnt-1, leads to proliferation and transformation of cells. We report that upon stable transfection of Wnt-1 into the mouse mammary epithelial cell line C57MG, morphological changes and increased proliferation are accompanied by increased levels of CK2, as well as of beta-catenin. CK2 and beta-catenin co-precipitate with the Dvl proteins, which are Wnt signaling intermediates. A major phosphoprotein of the size of beta-catenin appears in in vitro kinase reactions performed on the Dvl immunoprecipitates. In vitro translated beta-catenin, Dvl-2, and Dvl-3 are phosphorylated by CK2. The selective CK2 inhibitor apigenin blocks proliferation of Wnt-1-transfected cells, abrogates phosphorylation of beta-catenin, and reduces beta-catenin and Dvl protein levels. These results demonstrate that endogenous CK2 is a positive regulator of Wnt signaling and growth of mammary epithelial cells.  (+info)

Flavopiridol binds to duplex DNA. (3/264)

Flavopiridol, the first potent cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor to enter clinical trials, was recently found to be cytotoxic to noncycling cells. The present studies were performed to examine the hypothesis that flavopiridol, like several other antineoplastic agents that kill noncycling cells, might also interact with DNA. Consistent with this possibility, treatment of A549 human lung cancer cells with clinically achievable concentrations of flavopiridol resulted in rapid elevations of the DNA damage-responsive protein p53. In further studies, the binding of flavopiridol to DNA was examined in vitro by four independent techniques. Absorption spectroscopy revealed that addition of DNA to aqueous flavopiridol solutions resulted in a red shift of the flavopiridol lambda(max) from 311 to 344 nm, demonstrating an isosbestic point typical of changes seen with DNA-binding compounds. Reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography demonstrated that flavopiridol binds to genomic DNA to a similar extent as ethidium bromide and Hoechst 33258. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed that DNA caused extreme broadening of flavopiridol 1H nuclear magnetic resonance signals that could be reversed by addition of ethidium bromide or by DNA melting, suggesting that flavopiridol binds to (and likely intercalates into) duplex DNA. Equilibrium dialysis demonstrated that the equilibrium dissociation constant of the flavopiridol-DNA complex (5.4+/-3.4 x 10(-4) M) was in the same range observed for binding of the intercalators doxorubicin and pyrazoloacridine to DNA. Molecular modeling confirmed the feasibility of flavopiridol intercalation into DNA and analysis of the effects of flavopiridol in the National Cancer Institute tumor cell line panel using the COMPARE algorithm demonstrated that flavopiridol most closely resembles cytotoxic antineoplastic intercalators. Collectively, these data suggest that DNA might be a second target of flavopiridol, providing a potential explanation for the ability of this agent to kill noncycling cancer cells.  (+info)

Wortmannin inhibition of forskolin-stimulated chloride secretion by T84 cells. (4/264)

The time- and dose-dependent effects of wortmannin on transepithelial electrical resistance (Rte) and forskolin-stimulated chloride secretion in T84 monolayer cultures were studied. In both instances, maximal effects developed over 2 h and were stable thereafter. Inhibition of forskolin-stimulated chloride secretion, as measured by the short-circuit current (Isc) technique, had an IC50 of 200-500 nM, which is 100-fold higher than for inhibition of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), but similar to the IC50 for inhibition of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK). Previous work demonstrated that 500 nM wortmannin did not inhibit the cAMP activation of apical membrane chloride channels. We show here that 500 nM wortmannin has no affect on basolateral Na/K/2Cl-cotransporter activity, but inhibits basolateral membrane Na/K-ATPase activity significantly. The MLCK inhibitors ML-7 and KT5926 were without affect on forskolin-stimulated Isc. Similarly, the p38- and MEK-specific MAPK inhibitors SB203580 and PD98059 did not reduce forskolin-stimulated Isc. In contrast, the non-specific MAPK inhibitor apigenin reduced forskolin-stimulated Isc and basolateral membrane Na/K-ATPase activity similar to wortmannin. In isolated membranes from T84 cells, wortmannin did not inhibit Na/K-ATPase enzymatic activity directly. We conclude that one or more MAPK may regulate the functional expression of basolateral membrane Na/K-ATPase by controlling the abundance of enzyme molecules in the plasma membrane.  (+info)

Flavonoids inhibit cell growth and induce apoptosis in B16 melanoma 4A5 cells. (5/264)

We investigated the growth inhibitory activity of several flavonoids, including apigenin, luteolin, kaempherol, quercetin, butein, isoliquiritigenin, naringenin, genistein, and daizein against B16 mouse melanoma 4A5 cells. Isoliquiritigenin and butein, belonging to the chalcone group, markedly suppressed the growth of B16 melanoma cells and induced cell death. The other flavonoids tested showed little growth inhibitory activity and scarcely caused cell death. In cells treated with isoliquiritigenin or butein, condensation of nuclei and fragmentation of nuclear DNA, which are typical phenomena of apoptosis, were observed by Hoechst 33258 staining and by agarose gel electrophoresis of DNA. Flowcytometric analysis showed that isoliquiritigenin and butein increased the proportion of hypodiploid cells in the population of B16 melanoma cells. These results demonstrate that isoliquiritigenin and butein inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in B16 melanoma cells. Extracellular glucose decreased the proportion of hypodiploid cells that appeared as a result of isoliquiritigenin treatment. p53 was not detected in cells treated with either of these chalcones, however, protein of the Bcl-2 family were detected. The level of expression of Bax in cells treated with either of these chalcones was markedly elevated and the level of Bcl-XL decreased slightly. Isoliquiritigenin did not affect Bcl-2 expression, but butein down-regulated Bcl-2 expression. From these results, it seems that the pathway by which the chalcones induce apoptosis may be independent of p53 and dependent on proteins of the Bcl-2 family. It was supposed that isoliquiritigenin induces apoptosis in B16 cells by a mechanism involving inhibition of glucose transmembrane transport and promotion of Bax expression. On the other hand, it was suggested that butein induces apoptosis via down-regulation of Bcl-2 expression and promotion of Bax expression. This mechanism differs from the isoliquiritigenin induction pathway.  (+info)

Structural determinants for activation and block of CFTR-mediated chloride currents by apigenin. (6/264)

Apigenin (4',5,7-trihydroxyflavone) is an activator of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR)-mediated Cl(-) currents across epithelia at low concentrations and a blocker at high concentrations. We determined the roles of structural components of apigenin for both stimulation and block of Cl(-) currents across Calu-3 epithelia. The half-maximal binding affinity of apigenin for current stimulation (K(s)) was 9.1 +/- 1.3 microM, and the rank-order of molecular structures was 7-hydroxyl > pyrone = 4'-hydroxyl > 5-hydroxyl. Both the 7-hydroxyl and the 4'-hydroxyl served as H-bond acceptors, whereas the 5-hydroxyl was an H-bond donor. The half-maximal binding affinity of apigenin during current block was 74 +/- 11 microM. Blocked Cl(-) currents were structurally determined by 7-hydroxyl = 4'-hydroxyl > pyrone > 5-hydroxyl. Prestimulation of tissues with forskolin significantly affected activation kinetics and binding characteristics. After forskolin stimulation, K(s) was 4.1 +/- 0.9 microM, which was structurally determined by pyrone > all hydroxyls > single hydroxyls. In contrast, block of Cl(-) current by apigenin was not affected by forskolin stimulation. We conclude that apigenin binds to a stimulatory and an inhibitory binding site, which are distinguished by their affinities and the molecular interactions during binding.  (+info)

The neuroprotective effects of phytoestrogens on amyloid beta protein-induced toxicity are mediated by abrogating the activation of caspase cascade in rat cortical neurons. (7/264)

Amyloid beta protein (Abeta) elicits a toxic effect on neurons in vitro and in vivo. In present study we attempt to elucidate the mechanism by which Abeta confers its neurotoxicity. The neuroprotective effects of phytoestrogens on Abeta-mediated toxicity were also investigated. Cortical neurons treated with 5 microm Abeta-(25-35) for 40 h decreased the cell viability by 45.5 +/- 4.6% concomitant with the appearance of apoptotic morphology. 50 microm kaempferol and apigenin decreased the Abeta-induced cell death by 81.5 +/- 9.4% and 49.2 +/- 9.9%, respectively. Abeta increased the activity of caspase 3 by 10.6-fold and to a lesser extent for caspase 2, 8, and 9. The Abeta-induced activation of caspase 3 and release of cytochrome c showed a biphasic pattern. Apigenin abrogated Abeta-induced cytochrome c release, and the activation of caspase cascade. Kaempferol showed a similar effect but to a less extent. Kaempferol was also capable of eliminating Abeta-induced accumulation of reactive oxygen species. These two events accounted for the remarkable effect of kaempferol on neuroprotection. Quercetin and probucol did not affect the Abeta-mediated neurotoxicity. However, they potentiated the protective effect of apigenin. Therefore, these results demonstrate that Abeta elicited activation of caspase cascades and reactive oxygen species accumulation, thereby causing neuronal death. The blockade of caspase activation conferred the major neuroprotective effect of phytoestrogens. The antioxidative activity of phytoestrogens also modulated their neuroprotective effects on Abeta-mediated toxicity.  (+info)

Suppression of inducible cyclooxygenase and nitric oxide synthase through activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma by flavonoids in mouse macrophages. (8/264)

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma transcription factor has been implicated in anti-inflammatory response. Of the compounds tested, apigenin, chrysin, and kaempferol significantly stimulated PPAR gamma transcriptional activity in a transient reporter assay. In addition, these three flavonoids strongly enhanced the inhibition of inducible cyclooxygenase and inducible nitric oxide synthase promoter activities in lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages which contain the PPAR gamma expression plasmids. However, these three flavonoids exhibited weak PPAR gamma agonist activities in an in vitro competitive binding assay. Limited protease digestion of PPAR gamma suggested these three flavonoids produced a conformational change in PPAR gamma and the conformation differs in the receptor bound to BRL49653 versus these three flavonoids. These results suggested that these three flavonoids might act as allosteric effectors and were able to bind to PPAR gamma and activate it, but its binding site might be different from the natural ligand BRL49653.  (+info)

Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) is a key enzyme in the transformation of arachidonic acidity to prostaglandins and COX-2 overexpression has an important function in carcinogenesis. modulation of USF transcriptional activity in the 5? upstream area from the COX-2 gene. Right here we discovered that apigenin treatment also elevated COX-2 mRNA balance as well as the inhibitory aftereffect of apigenin on UVB-induced luciferase reporter gene activity was reliant on the Saxagliptin AU-rich component of the COX-2 3?-untranslated area. Furthermore we discovered two RNA-binding protein HuR as well as the T-cell-restricted intracellular antigen 1-related proteins (TIAR) that have been connected with endogenous COX-2 mRNA in 308 keratinocytes and apigenin treatment elevated their localization to cell cytoplasm. Moreover Saxagliptin reduced amount of HuR amounts by little interfering RNA inhibited apigenin-mediated stabilization of COX-2 mRNA. Cells expressing decreased TIAR showed proclaimed level of resistance ...
Apigenin could be used to potentially increase the effects of cisplatin by targeting cancer stem cells subset in prostate cancer.
...SINGAPORE -- Two common dietary molecules found in legumes and bran co...According to the researchers inositol and IP6 could decrease the seve...Both of these potent antioxidants have been shown to have broad-spectr...While both inositol and IP6 are related to B vitamins they are not co...,Antioxidants,could,provide,all-purpose,radiation,protection,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
Apigenin (4, 5, 7-trihydroxyflavone, AP), a dietary flavonoid, is reported to have several therapeutic effects in different diseases including cancer. In the present study, in order to explore the potential mechanism and provide the references for further studies, we investigated the effect of apigenin at various dosages on the hepatic oxidative stress of male rats. Totally 48 SD male rats were randomly divided into control group (saline, 1 ml/100g·bw), low-dose group (AP, 234 mg/kg·bw), middle-dose group (AP, 468 mg/kg·bw) and high-dose group (AP, 936 mg/kg·bw). The rats were administered with apigenin or saline via intragastriation once a day, 6 days per week, and 5 consecutive weeks. Rats were sacrificed and the livers were harvested and then immediately preserved at ﹣20°C. Liver homogenate was prepared before detection. Hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide syntheses (NOS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC)
Figure 2: Parsley (dried). Apigenin May Assist in the Prevention of Cancer. Apigenin has been shown to possess remarkable anti-carcinogenic properties. 3 There has been significant progress in studying the biological effects of apigenin at cellular and molecular levels as a chemopreventive agent. 4 There are a number of biological effects of apigenin in numerous mammalian systems in vitro as well as in vivo, due to its low intrinsic toxicity and because of its striking effects on normal versus cancer cells. 5 The exact mechanism of apigenin is still being researched, but the current research demonstrates that apigenin affects several critical pathways and/or targets:. ...
Bioflavonoids are known to be potent antioxidants and reducers of inflammation in the body. A new study involving apigenin, commonly found in fruits and vegetables, points the way to complementing the treatment of leukemia. Some care is needed if administered concurrently with other treatments involving chemotherapy.. Plant flavanoid may help prevent leukemia. http://www.reuters.com/article/idUSTRE60R2O920100128 [2]. LONDON (Reuters) - Eating foods like celery and parsley which contain the naturally occurring flavanoid apigenin may help prevent leukemia, Dutch scientists said Thursday.. Maikel Peppelenbosch of the University of Groningen in the Netherlands said tests showed that apigenin -- a common component of fruit and vegetables -- was able to halt the development of two kinds of cells in leukemia and cut their survival chances.. The findings suggest apigenin could hold promise for preventing leukemia, Peppelenbosch said.. But he warned that his study had also found the compound has ...
Liver cancer is a leading cause of cancer death worldwide, and novel chemotherapeutic drugs to suppress liver cancer are urgently required. Isovitexin (IV), a glycosylflavonoid, is extracted from rice hulls of Oryza sativa, and has various biological activities. However, the anti-tumor effect of IV against liver cancer has not yet been demonstrated in vitro or in vivo. In the present study, we showed that IV significantly suppressed the growth of liver cancer cells. Mechanistic studies indicated that IV induced apoptosis by the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, as evidenced by the increase of Bax, cleaved Caspase-3, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), and cytoplasm Cyto-c released from mitochondria ...
Some of the most common dietary advice when it comes to weight loss and eating healthy is to consume only low-fat or non-fat dairy. Ive talked to many people who say they drink skim milk because they think its healthier. But, is skim milk really healthier?
The flavones apigenin (4′,5,7,-trihydroxyflavone) and luteolin (3′,4′,5,7,-tetrahydroxyflavone) are plant secondary metabolites with antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and anticancer activities. We evaluated their impact on cell signaling pathways related to insulin-resistance and type 2 diabetes. Apigenin and luteolin were identified in our U-2 OS (human osteosarcoma) cell screening assay for micronutrients triggering rapid intracellular translocation of the forkhead box transcription factor O1 (FOXO1), an important mediator of insulin signal transduction. Insulin reversed the translocation of FOXO1 as shown by live cell imaging. The impact on the expression of target genes was evaluated in HepG2 (human hepatoma) cells. The mRNA-expression of the gluconeogenic enzymes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pc), the lipogenic enzymes fatty-acid synthase (FASN) and acetyl-CoA-carboxylase (ACC) were down-regulated by both flavones with smaller effective dosages of
Scutellarin, an anti-inflammatory agent, effectively suppressed microglia activation in rats with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Robust microglia activation, acute in onset, was followed by astrogliosis. This study was aimed to determine if scutellarin would also affect the reactive astrocytes that play an important role in tissue repair. Expression of GFAP and Notch-1 and its members: Notch receptor intracellular domain (NICD), and transcription factor hairy and enhancer of split-1 (HES-1), together with nestin and proinflammatory mediators was assessed by immunofluorescence staining in TNC1 astrocytes treated, respectively, with BV-2 conditioned medium (CM) and CM + lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (CM + L) serving as the controls, and conditioned medium derived from LPS-activated BV-2 cells pretreated with scutellarin (CM + SL). Study of the above biomarkers was then extended to reactive astrocytes in scutellarin injected MCAO rats. TNC1 astrocytes remained relatively unreactive in terms of
Figure 1: Neurological functional tests to describe rat neurological scores of middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced focal cerebral ischemia. Sham group (sham), cerebral ischemia-reperfusion untreated group (CIRU), scutellarin 50 mg/Kg group (Scu-50), scutellarin 25 mg/Kg group (Scu-25), and nimodipine 10 mg/Kg group (Nimodipine) in days 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28, respectively ...
The inhibitory effect of 2-O-glycosyl isovitexin (2-O-GIV), isolated from young barley leaves, on glyoxal formation from the oxidative degradation of three fatty acid ethyl esters was measured. Ethyl linoleate, ethyl linolenate and ethyl arachidona
The naturally occurring compound apigenin has many biological effects, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidative and anticancer effects. Although hypertrophic scar formation is a common surgical complication, there is still no good treatment for it. In the present study, we examined the effect of apigenin on hypertrophic scar. After isolating fibroblasts from human hypertrophic scars, we assess the effects of apigenin on fibroblast cell survival, apoptosis and migration. The results showed that apigenin dose-dependently inhibited the growth and migration of hypertrophic scar fibroblasts. By inhibiting FAK kinase activity and FAK phosphorylation, apigenin also inhibited activation of the FAK signaling pathway. Apigenin thus appears to inhibit the growth and migration of hypertrophic scar fibroblasts by inhibiting FAK signaling. This suggests apigenin could potentially provide a new option for the treatment of hypertrophic scars.
Scutellarin methyl ester is a constituent of Breviscapine which is a crude extract of several flavonoids of Erigeron breviscapus. - Mechanism of Action & Protocol.
Gliomas are the most common and malignant primary brain tumors. They are associated with a poor prognosis despite the availability of multiple therapeutic options. Naringin, a common dietary flavonoid abundantly present in fruits and vegetables, is believed to possess strong anti-proliferative and anti-cancer properties. However, there are no reports describing its effects on the invasion and migration of glioblastoma cell lines. Our results showed that the treatment of U251 glioma cell lines with different concentrations of naringin inhibited the invasion and migration of these cells. In addition, we revealed a decrease in the levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2) and (MMP-9) expression as well as proteinase activity in U251 glioma cells. In contrast, the expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP-1) and (TIMP-2) was increased. Furthermore, naringin treatment decreased significantly the phosphorylated level of p38. Combined treatment with a p38 inhibitor (SB203580) resulted in the
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When two people both eat a similar diet but one gets heart disease and the other doesnt, we currently think the cardiac disease develops because of their genetic differences; but our studies show that is only a part of the equation," said Stanley Hazen, M.D., Ph.D., Staff in Lerner Research Institutes Department of Cell Biology and the Heart and Vascular Institutes Department of Cardiovascular Medicine and Section Head of Preventive Cardiology & Rehabilitation at Cleveland Clinic, and senior author of the study. "Actually, differences in gut flora metabolism of the diet from one person to another appear to have a big effect on whether one develops heart disease. Gut flora is a filter for our largest environmental exposure -- what we eat." ...
The nuclear enzyme topoisomerase II, which is involved in replication, transcription, and probably repair of DNA, can be inhibited by a number of flavonoids. In conjunction with X-rays, three of these compounds were tested as to their effects on Reuber H35 hepatoma cells. In this combination, the isoflavone genistein, the flavone apigenin, and the flavonol quercetin caused an enhancement of radiation-induced cell death. This enhanced cytotoxicity was only observed when the flavonoids were applied following an irradiation treatment and is attributed to decreased repair of DNA radiation damage with a concomitant reduction of the rate of cell repopulation. Fractionated irradiations, given as five sequences of 3 Gy each over a period of 5 days, reduced the surviving cell population only by a factor of 20, whereas the continuous presence of genistein during radiation sequences resulted in a reduction of at least a factor of 10,000. Thus, these flavonoids not only seem to act as radiation enhancers ...
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Zamora-Ros R, Ferrari P, Gonzalez CA, Tjonneland A, Olsen A, Bredsdorff L, Overvad K, Touillaud M, Perquier F, Fagherazzi G, Lukanova A, Tikk K, Aleksandrova K, Boeing H, Trichopoulou A, Trichopoulos D, Dilis V, Masala G, Sieri S, Mattiello A, Tumino R, Ricceri F, Bueno de Mesquita HB, Peeters PHM, Weiderpass E, Skeie G, Engeset D, Menendez V, Travier N, Molina-Montes E, Amiano P, Chirlaque MD, Barricarte A, Wallstrom P, Sonestedt E, Sund M, Landberg R, Khaw KT, Wareham NJ, Travis RC, Scalbert A, Ward HA, Riboli E, Romieu ...
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Under certain circumstances and in some individuals, diet can be a serious risk factor for a number of diseases.. Common dietary chemicals can act on the human genome, either directly or indirectly, to alter gene expression or structure.. The degree to which diet influences the balance between healthy and disease states may depend on an individuals genetic makeup.. Some diet-regulated genes (and their normal, common variants) are likely to play a role in the onset, incidence, progression, and/or severity of chronic diseases.. Dietary intervention based on knowledge of nutritional requirement, nutritional status, and genotype (i.e., "personalized nutrition") can be used to prevent, mitigate or cure chronic disease ...
Researchers have found that in Drosophila fruit flies, providing a common dietary supplement prevents death caused by Pngl deficiency, the fly analog of the human genetic disorder N-Glycanase 1 deficiency. First defined four years ago, this rare, autosomal recessive disease has been diagnosed in about 60 individuals worldwide. Patients experience developmental delays, have difficulty with movement and liver function, and cannot produce tears. Symptoms are severe and patients tend to live to less than 10.
Are there any side effects or interactions with inositol?. Toxicity has not been reported, although people with chronic renal failure show elevated levels and should not take inositol, except under medical supervision.. Large amounts of phytate, the common dietary form of inositol, reduce the absorption of calcium, iron, and zinc. However, supplemental inositol does not have this effect.. One review article suggested that inositol may stimulate uterine contractions.5 While no research has demonstrated that inositol actually has this effect, women who are or could become pregnant should consult a doctor before taking inositol.. Are there any drug interactions? ...
... New York: Oleate, a common dietary fat found in olive oil, may help restore proper metabolism of fuel that gets disturbed in case of heart failure, a
A blockbuster, world first breakthrough at Sydneys Victor Chang Cardiac Research Institute is expected to prevent miscarriages and multiple types of birth defects, in one of the most significant discoveries in pregnancy research.. Crucially, Australian scientists have also demonstrated a remarkably simple cure, in the form of a common dietary supplement.. This historic discovery, which is believed to be among Australias greatest ever medical breakthroughs, is expected to forever change the way pregnant women are cared for around the globe.. Every year 7.9 million babies are born with a birth defect worldwide and one in four pregnant women suffer a miscarriage in Australia.. In the vast majority of cases the cause of these problems has remained a mystery.. Until now.. This breakthrough, led by Professor Sally Dunwoodie from the Victor Chang Institute, has identified a major cause of miscarriages as well as heart, spinal, kidney and cleft palate problems in newborn babies.. "The ramifications ...
Please refer to common dietary assessment method table. If other method was used, please describe the detail. Otherwise, please simply use the brief name described in the table ...
Xing, Jian-feng et al. "Metabolic And Pharmacokinetic Studies Of Scutellarin In Rat Plasma, Urine, And Feces". Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 32.5 (2011): 655-663. Web ...
Chemotherapy is the preferred choice for treatment of advance breast cancer (BrCa). In most cases, cytotoxic drugs are used at or near a maximum tolerated dose (MTD) to achieve maximum response and eradicate the neoplastic cells, at the same time MTD doses are often toxic and have severe side effects. Lower dose i.e. "optimal biological response modifier dose" (OBRMD) provides potentially beneficial responses, but is not capable of achieving optimal clinical response. Hence, the focus of this study was to achieve the optimal therapeutic outcome of Docetaxel (DTX) at a lower dose by using it in combination with Apigenin (API), a dietary flavonoid present in fruits and vegetables. Effect of DTX and API, either alone or in combination on BrCa cells viability and apoptosis was determined by MTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively. We further investigated the mechanism of enhanced efficacy of DTX using western blot analysis and real time qPCR. Significant decrease in cell viability was observed ...
. Runx2 is essential for the differentiation of osteoblasts from mesenchymal cells, and the forced expression of Runx2 transdifferentiates fibroblasts into
Flavones (flavus = yellow), are a class of flavonoids based on the backbone of 2-phenylchromen-4-one (2-phenyl-1-benzopyran-4-one) shown on the right. Natural flavones include apigenin (4,5,7-trihydroxyflavone), luteolin (3,4,5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone), tangeritin (4,5,6,7,8-pentamethoxyflavone), chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone), 6-hydroxyflavone, 7,8-dihydroxyflavone, baicalein (5,6,7-trihydroxyflavone), scutellarein (5,6,7,4-tetrahydroxyflavone), and wogonin (5,7-dihydroxy-8-methoxyflavone). Synthetic flavones include diosmin and flavoxate. Flavone also refers to the flavone compound 2-phenyl-4H-chromen-4-one. Flavones are mainly found in cereals and herbs. In the West, the estimated daily intake of flavones is in the range 20-50 mg per day. In recent years, scientific and public interest in flavones has grown, but there remains insufficient evidence that flavones have any effect in the human body. As interpreted by the Linus Pauling Institute, dietary flavones, and more generally ...
Ina systematically searched published literature written in English via PubMed by searching for terms related to stomach and colorectal cancer risk and dietary flavonoids up to June 30, 2012. Twenty-three studies out of 209 identified articles were finally selected for the analysis, posted in PubMed, showed that otal dietary flavonoid intake was not associated with a reduced risk of colorectal or stomach cancer [odds ratio (OR) (95%CI) = 1.00 (0.90-1.11) and 1.07 (0.70-1.61), respectively]. Among flavonoid subclasses, the intake of flavonols, flavan-3-ols, anthocyanidins, and proanthocyanidins showed a significant inverse association with colorectal cancer risk [OR (95%CI) = 0.71 (0.63-0.81), 0.88 (0.79-0.97), 0.68 (0.56-0.82), and 0.72 (0.61-0.85), respectively]. A significant association was found only between flavonols and stomach cancer risk based on a limited number of selected studies [OR (95%CI) = 0.68 (0.46-0.99)]. In the summary estimates from case-control studies, all flavonoid ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dietary flavonoid intakes in early postmenopausal Scottish women. AU - Hardcastle, Antonia C. AU - Kyle, Janet. AU - Duthie, Garry. AU - McNeill, Geraldine. AU - Reid, David M. AU - Macdonald, Helen M. N1 - Meeting abstract. PY - 2005/1. Y1 - 2005/1. U2 - 10.1079/PNS2004XXX. DO - 10.1079/PNS2004XXX. M3 - Abstract. VL - 64. SP - 85A. JO - Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. JF - Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. SN - 0029-6651. IS - 1a. ER - ...
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Dietary (poly)phenols are a large group of bioactive food constituents that can be classified in flavonoids, stilbenes, lignans and phenolic acids. Flavonoids can be subclassified in different subgroups, including but not limited to flavanols (e.g. (−)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin, procyanidins, EGCG, EGC, etc) and flavones (apigenin and luteolin). Examples of flavanol-containing foods and beverages are apples, chocolate, tea, wine, berries, pomegranate and nuts. Examples of flavone-containing foods and beverages are parsley, celery, and chamomile.. (Poly)phenolic bioactives are actively investigated for their putative beneficial health effects in humans. In this context, understanding the ADME of dietary (poly)phenols is recognized as a key step to gain insight into the nutritional and biomedical relevance of this group of compounds. Understanding the ADME of polyphenols may aid towards i) the identification of metabolites as potential nutritional biomarkers of (poly)phenol consumption, ii) the ...
Background: Several experimental studies have suggested potential anticarcinogenic effects of flavonoids, although epidemiologic evidence for the impact of dietary flavonoids on risk of gastric cancer (GC) is limited. Objective: We investigated the association between intake of dietary flavonoids and lignans and incident GC. Design: The study followed 477,312 subjects (29.8% men) aged 35-70 y from 10 European countries who participated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Validated dietary questionnaires and lifestyle information were collected at baseline. A food-composition database on flavonoids and lignans was compiled by using data from USDA and Phenol-Explorer databases. Results: During an average follow-up of 11 y, 683 incident GC cases (57.8% men) were mostly validated by a panel of pathologists and used in this analysis. We observed a significant inverse association between total flavonoid intake and GC risk in women (HR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.70, ...
Background: Several experimental studies have suggested potential anticarcinogenic effects of flavonoids, although epidemiologic evidence for the impact of dietary flavonoids on risk of gastric cancer (GC) is limited. Objective: We investigated the association between intake of dietary flavonoids and lignans and incident GC. Design: The study followed 477,312 subjects (29.8% men) aged 35-70 y from 10 European countries who participated in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Validated dietary questionnaires and lifestyle information were collected at baseline. A food-composition database on flavonoids and lignans was compiled by using data from USDA and Phenol-Explorer databases. Results: During an average follow-up of 11 y, 683 incident GC cases (57.8% men) were mostly validated by a panel of pathologists and used in this analysis. We observed a significant inverse association between total flavonoid intake and GC risk in women (HR: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.70, ...
This study investigated the cardioprotective effect of vitexin against MIRI and its possible mechanism. Isolated SD rat hearts were subjected to MIRI in a Langendorff perfusion system, and H9c2 cells were subjected to hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) in vitro. Ex vivo experiments showed improved left ventricular function and reduced infarct size in the vitexin group. Transmission electron microscopy sh...
saponarin: A crystalline glucoside, C19H22O11, or C21H24O12, found in Saponaria officinalis. It melts at 231° C. and gives a blue color with sodium.
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insect-eaters (insectivores) to dependence on fruit and vegetables so that: "During the Miocene era (from about 24 to about 5 million years ago) fruits appear to have been the main dietary constituent for hominids, but their fossilized dental remains seem suitable for mastication of both animal and vegetable material." The six page article went on to discuss the deviations into meat-eating and so on since those remote times and had this to say about the diets of primitive populations today: Except for Eskimos and other high altitude peoples, hunter-gatherers typically use many species of wild plants for food. Roots, beans, nuts, tubers and fruits are the most common dietary constituents, but others, ranging from flowers to edible gums, are occasionally consumed. Small cereal grains, which have been staples for civilized people since the Agricultural Revolution, make a surprisingly minor contribution overall." The article concluded: "The extent to which some of the major chronic diseases of ...
Low prices on Chrysin! Anti-aromatase chrysin unlocks more testosterone power. Chrysin is a plant flavonoid that can influence the enzymatic conversion of testosterone to estrogen. In this way, chrysin may optimize testosterone activity while minimizing its conversion to estrogen.*
Pale-vented Bush-hen 23-30 cm; male ruficrissa 129-208 (177) g, ultima 189-248 g; female ultima 135-192 g, other races 161-205 (183) g; wingspan 45-49 cm. Sexes
The National Pancreas Foundation continues to support our patients/caregivers during this difficult time in order to fulfill our Mission. Please help us continue this important work by donating HERE ...
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Neuroblastoma is an extracranial solid tumor that mainly occurs in children. It is derived from embryonic neural crest cells of the peripheral sympathetic nervous system. The overall survival rate of malignant neuroblastoma patients is very poor despite multi-modal therapy including surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Efficacy of chemotherapy is often compromised due to presence of autophagy, which is a survival mechanism in solid tumors. Autophagy is a catablolic process for lysosomal degradation of cytoplasmic contents for recycling and it is activated during stress such as nutrient starvation and growth factor deprivation. The hallmark of autophagy is generation of double membrane structure called autophagosome that contains the microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 form II (LC3 II). In this study, we used rapamycin to mimic starvation-induced autophagy in human malignant neuroblastoma SK-N-BE2 and IMR32 cells and then investigated capability of the combination of LC3 II knockdown ...
In the present work we investigated the banana peels (|i|Musa cavendishii|/i|) of organic silk variety from Pachacamac (Lurín, Lima) for being waste contaminants without use that avoid the damage to the environment. The qualitative presence of polyphenols and flavonoids was determined by phytochemical marching developed in ethanol extract of banana peels. Using thin layer chromatography on an analytical and preparative scale and rapid column chromatography, it was possible to separate nine soluble fractions in methanol and five soluble fractions in double distilled water as well as their respective Rf values; and by UV-visible spectrophotometry were elucidated nine structures of methanol soluble flavones (5,7-dihydroxy-4-methoxyflavone, 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroxyflavone, 5,7-dihydroxy-6-methoxyflavone, 4,5,7,8-tetrahydroxyflavone; 5,7,8-trihydroxyflavone, 45,7-trihydroxyflavone; 5,6-dihydroxy-7-methoxyflavone, 5,6,7-trihydroxy-4-methoxyflavone and 5,7-dihydroxy-4,6-dimethoxyflavone) and two flavones
The report generally describes o-benzyl-(d)-serine benzyl ester, examines its uses, production methods, patents. O-Benzyl-(D)-serine benzyl ester market
NAC, a common dietary supplement and an antioxidant membrane-permeable metal-binding compound, has been shown to inhibit inflammatory responses, tumor growth including lung cancer [13, 14]. However, the mechanisms by which this reagent in control of NSCLC cell growth has not been well elucidated. We have found that NAC inhibited NSCLC cell proliferation through reduction of PDK1, a kinase and master regulator of a number of downstream signal cascades that are involved in suppression of apoptosis and promotion of tumor growth including lung cancer [4, 15]. High expression of PDK1 has been detected in invasive cancers including lung [5] and inhibition of PDK1 in several cancer cells results in significant cell growth inhibition [6]. These observations suggest that PDK1 can be considered as a target for therapies. This result, together with the finding that exogenous PDK1 diminishes the inhibitory effect of NAC on cell growth, indicates an important role of targeting PDK1 in mediating the ...
Deflect A is a unique dietary supplement designed to block problematic food lectins known to interact with blood type A.. William C. Boyd, an American immunochemist, was the first researcher to identify the blood type specificity of many common dietary lectins. His findings revealed that lectins can bind to many of the carbohydrate antigens found in the gut and immune system. This binding process may compromise the intestinal tract, inhibit healthy metabolism and disrupt the immune system, causing a variety of health problems including intestinal and bowel irritation, bloating, weight gain and lethargy.. Deflect A caps were developed by Dr. Peter DAdamo, author of "Eat Right 4 Your Type". They are specifically formulated for blood type A and contain glucosamine and cranberry and pineapple concentrates to aid in maximum absorption. It has a wide range of applications and may assist in maintaining healthy weight loss, optimize metabolism and develop a more balanced digestive system.. For maximum ...
The second year aims to provide an understanding of the principles of nutrition so that you will be equipped with the knowledge and skills to conduct nutritional assessments in order to provide realistic, safe and practical nutritional recommendations for health and exercise. Your critical thinking skills will be developed enabling you to review common dietary practices and their efficacy and safety. The skills required to be a competent personal trainer will be developed with a very hands-on practical approach. You will investigate how to encourage positive behaviour change that can influence health outcomes.. Health perspectives and physical activity will be explored looking firstly at the epidemiology of diseases such as heart disease, diabetes and obesity whilst a secondary aspect will allow you to critically explore health initiatives at a local level which aim to improve community health. You also have the opportunity to develop a research proposal in the further research methods module. A ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
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Vitexin is an apigenin flavone glucoside, a chemical compound found in the passion flower, Vitex agnus-castus (chaste tree or chasteberry), in the Phyllostachys nigra bamboo leaves, in the pearl millet (Pennisetum millet), and in Hawthorn.[citation needed] Goitrogenicity of millet flavones : Vitexin inhibits thyroid peroxidase thus contributing to goiter. Vitexin beta-glucosyltransferase Vitexin 2"-O-rhamnoside 7-O-methyltransferase Isovitexin (or homovitexin, saponaretin) is the apigenin-6-C-glucoside. Zhang, Y; Jiao, J; Liu, C; Wu, X; Zhang, Y (2007). "Isolation and purification of four flavone C-glycosides from antioxidant of bamboo leaves by macroporous resin column chromatography and preparative high-performance liquid chromatography". Food Chemistry. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2007.09.037. J.O. AKINGBALA (1991). "Effect of Processing on Flavonoids in Millet (Pennisetum americanum) Flour" (PDF). Cereal Chem. 68 (2): 180-183. Gaitan, E (1990). "Goitrogens in food and water". Annual Review of ...
The flavonoids comprise a large class of low-molecular-weight plant metabolites ubiquitously distributed in food plants. These dietary antioxidants exert significant antitumor, antiallergic, and anti-inflammatory effects. The molecular mechanisms of their biological effects remain to be clearly understood. We investigated the anti-inflammatory potentials of a safe, common dietary flavonoid component, quercetin, for its ability to modulate the production and gene expression of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Our results showed that quercetin significantly inhibited TNF-α production and gene expression in a dose-dependent manner. Our results provide direct evidence of the anti-inflammatory effects of quercetin by PBMC, which are mediated by the inhibition of the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-α via modulation of NF-κβ1 and Iκβ. ...
QINGXIN, Liu et al. Apigenin inhibits cell migration through MAPK pathways in human bladder smooth muscle cells. Biocell [online]. 2011, vol.35, n.3, pp.71-79. ISSN 0327-9545.. Apigenin, a nonmutagenic flavonoid, has been shown to possess free radical scavenging activities, anticarcinogenic properties, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Recently, apigenin was reported to cause gastric relaxation in murine. To assess possible effects of apigenin on migration of bladder smooth muscle (SM) cell, we isolated SM cells from peri-cancer tissue of human bladder and established a cell model that was capable to overexpress transiently MEKK1 (MEK kinase 1). Results showed that overexpression of active human MEKK1 by adenoviruses infection induced migration of human bladder smooth muscle (hBSM) cells and phosphorylation of MAPKs, ERK, JNK and p38, which are the downstream molecules of MEKK1. Then, hBSM cell overexpressing MEKK1 were exposed to apigenin (50 μM). Our data indicated that apigenin ...
Plant polyphenols have been highlighted not only as chemopreventive, but also as potential anticancer substances. Flavones are a subclass of natural flavonoids reported to have an antioxidant and anticancer activity. The aim of our study was to evaluate antioxidant and anticancer activity of seventeen trihydroxyflavone derivatives, including apigenin (API) and baicalein (BCL). Also, we wanted to find out if there is a correlation between those two effects. Cell growth inhibition testing was carried out using MTT assay in three different human cancer cell lines: lung (A549), breast (MCF-7) and brain epithelial (U87). Antioxidant activity was determined by the DPPH radical scavenging method. Thirteen trihydroxyflavones possessed anticancer activity against at least one tested cancer cell line. They were more active against the MCF-7 cell line, and the lowest activity was determined against the U87 cell line. The majority of compounds inhibited cancer cell growth at EC50 values between 10-50 µM. The most
In the study to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of a series of trihydroxyflavones by testing their ability to scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in cells and cell-free systems and to inhibit the proinflammatory pathways mediated by the enzymes cyclooxygenase (COX) and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX), in which reactive species have a proven involvement, showed that The tested trihydroxyflavones proved to be effective inhibitors of neutrophils oxidative burst and were shown to scavenge different ROS and RNS in cell-free systems. The most active compound in the majority of the assays was 3,3,4-trihydroxyflavone, which was somehow expected due to the presence of the ortho-dihydroxy in the B-ring, an important structural feature in terms of free radical scavenging activity and the compounds were able to inhibit the production of leukotriene B(4) by 5-LOX in activated neutrophils. 3,5,7-Trihydroxyflavone was able to inhibit both COX-1 and COX-2, which makes ...
Glucosamine HCI: Made naturally by the human body, this helps provide a cushioning effect in the joints to help prevent trauma. It is supplemented and found in many joint health supplements to help build more cartilage. Generally well-tolerated in standard amounts.. Chondroitin Sulfate Sodium: Natural chemical found near the joints, this can help prevent the breakdown of healthy joint tissue. Youll often find this in joint health supplements to help prevent arthritis conditions.. Alpha Lipoic Acid: A fatty acid in mitochondria which is sued to help provide potent antioxidant benefits. Used for anti-aging purpose and to help stop the spread of inflammation.. Quercetin: A bioflavonoid inside of berries green tea, red wine, and many other foods and herbs. It is used as a natural way to reduce inflammation and to provide antioxidant benefits.. When used in excess it can potentially lead to a tingling in the arms and legs.. Ascorbic Acid: Common dietary supplement that provides the antioxidant ...
Deflect O is a unique dietary supplement designed to block problematic food lectins known to interact with blood type O.. William C. Boyd, an American immunochemist, was the first researcher to identify the blood type specificity of many common dietary lectins. His findings revealed that lectins can bind to many of the carbohydrate antigens found in the gut and immune system. This binding process may compromise the intestinal tract, inhibit healthy metabolism and disrupt the immune system, causing a variety of health problems including intestinal and bowel irritation, bloating, weight gain and lethargy.. Deflect O was developed by Dr. Peter DAdamo, author of "Eat Right 4 Your Type" and are specifically formulated for blood type O. To promote maximum absorption, Deflect O contains n-acetyl D-glucosamine, sodium alginate and bladderwrack seaweed. When used in conjunction with a blood type O diet, Deflect O may assist in maintaining healthy weight loss, optimize metabolism and develop a more ...
Floradix Iron + Herbs Natural solutions for your daily iron needs. Embraced by women for over 60 years. Women around the world are passionate about their Floradix. Beloved for its ability to prevent common iron deficiency symptoms that may occur as a result of growth spurts, monthly blood loss, pregnancy or digestive malabsorption, Floradix Iron + Herbs supports women throughout their lifetimes - before, during and after the childbearing years. For the thousands of women who find they are able to remain free from constipation commonly caused by iron supplementation, Floradix is the natural iron solution. Are you low in iron? Iron is one of the most common dietary deficiencies, affecting as many as 4-5 billion people or 66-80% of the worlds population, according to the World Health Organization. Some of the symptoms of iron deficiency are: - Fatigue and general lack of energy - Decreased ability to concentrate - Decreased endurance during exercise - Increased frequency of
Digitized images of microscopic slices of Aleurites moluccana (F160) plant structures that were stained and permanently mounted to a glass slide ...
Flowers bisexual, unisexual, or sterile, ± small, of several types; calyx 0 or modified into pappus of bristles, scales, or awns, which is generally persistent in fruit; corolla radial or bilateral (rarely 0), lobes generally (0)4 5; stamens 4 5, anthers generally fused into cylinder around style, often appendaged at tips, bases, or both, filaments generally free, generally attached to corolla near throat; pistil 1, ovary inferior, 1-chambered, 1-seeded, style 1, branches 2, generally hair-tufted at tip, stigmas 2, generally on inside of style ...
Effect of chrysin on MAPKs protein expressions following isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury. (a) ERK½ and P-ERK½; (b) JNK and P-JNK; (c) p38 and P-p38 an
Rutin and quercitrin are hydrolysed to quercetin, and robinin is hydrolysed to kaempferol, by faecal flora from healthy subjects. The enzymes required for these hydrolyses, namely alpha-rhamnosidase and beta-galactosidase, were produced by some strains of Bacteroides distasonis; other strains, however, synthesized beta-glucosidase. The last-named enzyme was also elaborated by Bacteroides uniformis and Bacteroides ovatus. All the enzymes were produced constitutively. A cell-free extract of B. distasonis containing beta-glucosidase displayed an enzymic activity of 1 mumol/10 min per 10 mg of protein. ...
Fisetin is a natural flavonol present in edible vegetables, fruits and wine at 2-160 microg/g concentrations and an ingredient in nutritional supplements with much higher concentrations. The compound has been reported to exert anticarcinogenic effects as well as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity via its ability to act as an inhibitor of cell proliferation and free radical scavenger, respectively. Our cell-based high-throughput screen for small molecules that override chemically induced mitotic arrest identified fisetin as an antimitotic compound. Fisetin rapidly compromised microtubule drug-induced mitotic block in a proteasome-dependent manner in several human cell lines. Moreover, in unperturbed human cancer cells fisetin caused premature initiation of chromosome segregation and exit from mitosis without normal cytokinesis. To understand the molecular mechanism behind these mitotic errors, we analyzed the consequences of fisetin treatment on the localization and phoshorylation of ...
Erigeron definition, any composite plant of the genus Erigeron, having flower heads resembling those of the asters but with narrower and usually more numerous white or purple rays. See more.
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Lycopene is one of the major carotenoids in Western diets and is found almost exclusively in tomatoes and tomato products. It accounts for about 50% of carotenoids in human serum. Among the common dietary carotenoids lycopene has the highest singlet oxygen quenching capacity in vitro. Other outstanding features are its high concentration in testes, adrenal gland and prostate. In contrast to other carotenoids its serum values are not regularly reduced by smoking or alcohol consumption but by increasing age. Remarkable inverse relationships between lycopene intake or serum values and risk have been observed in particular for cancers of the prostate, pancreas and to a certain extent of the stomach. In some of the studies lycopene was the only carotenoid associated with risk reduction. Its role in cancer risk reduction still needs to be clarified. Patients with HIV infection, inflammatory diseases and hyperlipidemia with and without lipid lowering treatment may have depleted lycopene serum ...
n indoor occupations or shift work dietary supplements and vitamin D ...High intakes of calcium which could occur with intake of Vitamin D su... Dietary Flavonoid Intake and Breast Cancer Risk among Women in t...Flavonoids a class of antioxidants found in plants is associated wit...Brian Fink Susan Steck and Marilie Gammon of the University of North ...,Vitamin,D,and,flavonoids,examined,for,impact,on,breast,and,ovarian,cancers,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
Considered a "superfruit", cranberries contain a group of compounds called anthocyanidins which are in the dietary flavonoid family. These specific flavonoids are powerful antioxidants with great health benefits. Cranberry has a long history of use primarily for supporting urinary tract health. Clinical research shows cranberry extract in capsule form helps to promote a healthy urinary tract, especially in women who experience recurrent infections. (1,2,3,4). It is thought that these potent flavonoids in cranberry prevent bacteria from adhering to the wall of the urinary tract which is why cranberry is effective as a preventative for urinary tract health. trunature Cranberry also includes the ShanStarTM concentrated extract to provide antioxidant activity. An excellent addition to the daily diet, trunature Cranberry is a convenient way to supplement your diet with the antioxidant benefits of cranberries without the sugar and extra calories of juices. trunature Cranberry is made in an easy to ...
Monitoring by HPLC of chamomile flavonoids exposed to rat liver microsomal metabolism.: Three major flavonoid chamomile components (quercetin, apigenin-7-O-gluc
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Learn about Methoxylated Flavones. Includes effectiveness, safety concerns such as side effects, and how Methoxylated Flavones works.
Anyone notice differences in using PSCU vs SCU? For example a property treated with an identical formulation of 40% PSCU vs a property with the same...
View Notes - Biolog 24 from CHEM BIO P 101 at Rochester. Chapter 24: Fungi I. Characteristics A. Fungi are heterotrophs that must obtain organic compounds that other organisms have already
Arnica montana L. is an endangered species rich in sesquiterpene lactones, phenolic acids and flavonoids with high pharmaceutical value. The polyphenolic content and free radical scavenging activity of plants that had passed all stages of cultivation: micropropagation and rooting (in vitro), adaptation in greenhouse (ex vitro) and mountain conditions (in vivo) were evaluated. Four surface flavonoid aglycones [scutellarein 6-methyl ether (hispidulin), scutellarein 6,4-dimethyl ether (pectolinarigenin), 6-OH luteolin 6-methyl ether and kempferol-6-methyl ether] were detected in the acetone exudates of the studied samples bymeans of thin layer chromatography.No differences in the accumulation of surface flavonoids were found among the tested leaf extracts of in vitro, ex vitro and in vivo samples. However, the extracts from the flowers were richer in surface flavonoids than extracts from the leaves. The methanol extracts of the samples from ex vitro and in vivo grown A. montana plants had ...
This is a feasibility study to examine combination therapy with Trastuzumab (T), Cyclophosphamide (CY), and an allogeneic GM-CSF-secreting whole cell breast cancer vaccine in patients with Stage IV HER-2/neu-overexpressing breast cancer. The main purposes of this study are to test the safety, clinical benefit, and bioactivity of vaccine therapy in combination with Cyclophosphamide and Trastuzumab in patients with HER-2/neu-overexpressing Stage IV breast cancer. This study will also to test whether the Cyclophosphamide can eliminate the suppressive influence of regulatory T cells, and whether Trastuzumab can increase antigen processing and presentation. These drug activities may make the immune system react better and enhance the effects of the vaccine in treating breast cancer. The vaccine consists of two irradiated allogeneic mammary carcinoma cell lines genetically modified to secrete human granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF). This open label, single arm study is designed ...
Dietary flavonoids have long been implicated to be protective against cardiovascular disease and cancer. The bioavailability of flavonoids, however, appears to be low, limited both by poor absorption and extensive presystematic metabolism. As there is little systematic information on the metabolism of these dietary compounds in humans, this dissertation examined the subcellular hepatic oxidative and conjugative metabolism of the dietary flavonol, galangin (3,5,7-trihydroxyflavone), by human liver subcellular fractions and recombinant enzymes. In addition, we described the specific metabolic pathways, conjugation versus oxidation, involved in metabolism of galangin in plated fresh human hepatocytes. The general hypothesis of this thesis is that the dietary flavonol galangin is a substrate for hepatic microsomal CYP oxidation but is preferentially glucuronidated in intact hepatocytes. Using human liver microsomes for the first time we demonstrated that galangin was extensively oxidized in the 4 ...
Inhibition of advanced glycation end-product formation on eye lens protein by rutin - Br J Nutr. 2011 Aug 25:1-9 - Formation of advanced glycation end products (AGE) plays a key role in the several pathophysiologies associated with ageing and diabetes, such as arthritis, atherosclerosis, chronic renal insufficiency, Alzheimers disease, nephropathy, neuropathy and cataract. This raises the possibility of inhibition of AGE formation as one of the approaches to prevent or arrest the progression of diabetic complications. Previously, we have reported that some common dietary sources such as fruits, vegetables, herbs and spices have the potential to inhibit AGE formation. Flavonoids are abundantly found in fruits, vegetables, herbs and spices, and rutin is one of the commonly found dietary flavonols. In the present study, we have demonstrated the antiglycating potential and mechanism of action of rutin using goat eye lens proteins as model proteins. Under in vitro conditions, rutin inhibited ...
Ferulic acid (4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid; FA), a common dietary plant phenolic compound, is abundant in fruits and vegetables. The aim of present study is to investigate the effects of FA on...
The Plants Database includes the following 2 subspecies of Erigeron decumbens . Click below on a thumbnail map or name for subspecies profiles ...
139. Erigeron glaucus Ker Gawler, Bot. Reg. 1: plate 10. 1815. Seaside fleabane Perennials, 5-30 cm (usually forming dense colonies); rhizomatous, fibrous-rooted, sometimes with branching caudices. Stems pro-cumbent to decumbent-ascending, hirsuto-villous or nearly glabrous, usually minutely glandular. Leaves basal (usually persistent) and cauline; basal blades broadly obovate to spatulate, 20-130(-150) × 10-30(-50) mm, cauline little reduced distally (fleshy, bases sometimes subclasping), margins entire or with 2-4 pairs of shallow teeth, faces glabrous or hirsute, eglandular. Heads 1-15. Involucres 7-13 × 15-35 mm. Phyllaries in 3-4 series, sparsely to densely villous (cross walls not colored), minutely glandular. Ray florets 80-165; corollas white to purple or blue, 8-15 mm, laminae coiling. Disc corollas 4.5-5.5 mm. Cypselae 1.8-2.4 mm, 2-4(-6)-nerved, faces sparsely strigose; pappi: outer of setae, inner of 20-30 bristles. 2n = 18.. Flowering (Mar-)May-Jul(-Dec). Coastal bluffs, dunes, ...
186. Erigeron Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 863. 1753; Gen. Pl. ed. 5, 371. 1754. Fleabane, érigéron, vergerette [Greek eri, early, or erio, woolly, and geron, old man, perhaps alluding to pappus, which becomes gray and accrescent in some species, or to solitary, woolly heads of some of species] Guy L. Nesom Achaetogeron A. Gray; Trimorpha Cassini. Annuals, biennials, or perennials [subshrubs, shrubs, trees], (0.5-)2-90(-100) cm (taprooted, fibrous-rooted, or rhizomatous and fibrous-rooted, sometimes with simple or branched caudices, sometimes stoloniferous). Stems erect to ascending, decumbent, or prostrate, simple or branched, glabrous or hairy, sometimes glandular (hairs 2-seriate, minute, sometimes stipitate). Leaves basal and/or cauline (basal persistent or not to flowering); alternate; sessile or petiolate; blades 1-nerved (3-nerved), linear to lanceolate, oblanceolate, or spatulate (bases sometimes clasping), margins entire or ± dentate to pinnatifid, faces glabrous or hairy, sometimes ...
Define Flavones. Flavones synonyms, Flavones pronunciation, Flavones translation, English dictionary definition of Flavones. n. 1. A crystalline compound, C15H10O2, that is the parent substance of a number of yellow plant pigments. 2. Any of various derivatives of this compound,...
Smith-de Mayo degradation of bacoside A gave jujubogenin and pseudojujubogenin. Other constituents present are D-mannitol, betulic acid, b -sitosterol. stigma-sterol and its esters, heptacosine, octacosane nonacosane, triacontane, hentriacontane, dotriacontane, nicotine, 3-formyl-4-hydroxy-2H-pyran (C 6H603), luteolin and its 7-glucoside. The presence of a -alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid and serine is also reported. Isolation of apigenin-7-glucuronide and luteolin-7-glucuronide from leaves; a new minor saponinbacoside A 1- isolated and characterised as 3-o-a -L-arabinofuranosyl (1-3)-a -L-arabinosyl-jujubogenin; isolation of another saponin - bacoside A3 - and its structure elucidated as 3-0-b -D-glucosyl (1-3)-[o-(a -L-arabinofuranosyl (1--2) -0-b -D-glucosyI-jujubogenin;revision of structure ofcis -isomer of ebeline lactone, obtained during acid hydrolysis as another artifact of jujubogenin. Analysis of the leaves and stalks gave: moisture, 88.4; protein, 2.1: fat, 0.6; carbohydrates, ...
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The researchers then measured and compared the number of cancer cells present after one, two and three days, across all the exposure groups. The researchers compared the average number of cells, and determined whether or not there was a statistically significant difference in the number of cells present in each group.. The researchers also carried out a variety of experiments to determine what components of the IGF-IR pathway luteolin interferes with.. When assessing the effect of luteolin on the growth of bowel cancer cells, the researchers found that the cells exposed to only IGF-I significantly increased in number, while those exposed to only luteolin significantly reduced in number. The group exposed to both luteolin and IGF-I showed the same reduction in the number of cells as the luteolin-only group, implying that luteolin interferes with the effect of IGF-I.. They also found that luteolin reduces the secretion of a protein called IGF-II by the cancer cells, reduces the amount of a key ...
4,5,7-trihydroxyflavone, 5,7-dihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, (-)-alpha-bisabolol, abkit CamoCare Gold , angelate esters, anthecotulid, anthemic acid, Anthemis arvensis, Anthemis cotula, Anthemis nobile, Anthemis nobilis, Anthemis xylopoda, anthemol, apigenin, apigenin-7-glucoside, apigetrin, apiin, Asteraceae (family), azulene, baboonig, babuna, babunah, babunah camomile, babunj, bunga kamil, cadinene, camamila, camomile, camomile sauvage, camomilla, camomille allemande (French), Campomilla, capric acid, chamaemeloside, Chamaemelum nobile L., chamazulene, chamomile flowers, chamomile mouthwash, chamomilla, chamomilla recutita, chamomillae ramane flos, chamomille commune, choline, classic chamomile, common chamomile, Compositae (family), coumarins, double chamomile, echte Kamille (German), English chamomile, farnesene, farnesol, Feldkamille (German), flavonoids, fleur de camomile, fleurs de petite camomille, Flores Anthemidis, flos chamomillae, ...
Presented by M di-T Erigeron.. Erigeron Canadense. Canada Flea-bane. N. O. Composit . Tincture from the fresh plant when in bloom.. Clinical.─Black eye. Bruises. Cough. Dysuria. Gleet. Gonorrh a. H matocele. H morrhages. H morrhoids. Placenta pr via. Proctalgia. Spermatorrh a. Wounds.. Characteristics.─Erigeron is chiefly known as a remedy for h morrhages and congestions in pretty well all parts of the body. Its characteristic h morrhages are bright red. The Indians use it as an application to wounds. It compares as a vulnerary with Arnica. It has been proved by Burt and others. The throat and genito-urinary organs are specifically affected. Sensation as if something had lodged in upper part of sophagus. Pains in umbilical region were very prominent. Feeling as if anus had been torn. Urination is painful or suppressed; sharp stinging pains in region of left kidney. Gonorrh a and gleet have been cured by Erig. Wilmot Moore has given it with success in three cases of placenta pr via. He gave ...
Several epidemiological studies have investigated the association between the dietary flavonoid intake and gastric cancer (GC) risk; however, the results remain inconclusive. Investigating the relationship between the different classes of flavonoids and the histological types and origin of GC can be of interest to the research community. We used data from a population-based multi-case control study (MCC-Spain) obtained from 12 different regions of Spain. 2700 controls and 329 GC cases were included in this study. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using the mixed effects logistic regression considering quartiles of flavonoid intakes and log2. Flavonoid intake was associated with a lower GC risk (ORlog2 = 0.76; 95% CI = 0.65-0.89; ORq4vsq1 = 0.60; 95%CI = 0.40-0.89; ptrend = 0.007). Inverse and statistically significant associations were observed with anthocyanidins, chalcones, dihydroflavonols and flavan-3-ols. The isoflavanoid intake was positively associated with higher cancer risk, but without ...
Natural Factors Citrus Bioflavonoids plus Hesperidin Bioflavonoids are derived from citrus fruit peels, an abundant source of bioflavonoids. Although hesperidin is part of the Bioflavonoid complex, it is so important that extra amounts are added to ensure high levels. Bioflavonoids are brightly-coloured substances that are found in fruits and vegetables, typically as a companion to vitamin C. Bioflavonoids are essential for proper absorption of vitamin C and have been shown to have antioxidant properties, increase capillary strength and keep collagen healthy. Bioflavonoids help us as follows: - strengthen capillaries and regulate their permeability - may fight certain cancers - reduce inflammation - enhance immune system - essential for proper absorption and use of vitamin C - work as antioxidants by keeping vitamin C from being oxidized
Bambusa textilis McClure is a traditional Chinese medicinal plant belonging to the Bambusoideae subfamily and used to treat chronic fever and infectious diseases. To investigate the bioactive compounds absorbed in the rabbit blood after oral administration of hot-water extracts from the leaves of B. textilis McClure, a validated chromatographic fingerprint method was established using LC-Q-TOF-MS. Twenty compounds in bamboo leaves and three potential bioactive compounds in rabbit plasma were detected. Of the twenty detected compounds in vitro, fifteen of which were tentatively identified either by comparing the retention time and mass spectrometry data with that of reference compounds or by reviewing the literature. Three potential bioactive compounds, including (E)-p-coumaric acid, (Z)-p-coumaric acid, and apigenin-8-C-β-D-(2-O-α-L-rhamnosyl)-gluco-pyranoside, were detected in both the leaves of B. textilis McClure and rabbit plasma. Of the three compounds, apigenin-8-C-β-D-(2-O-α-L-rhamnosyl
Damiana's anxiolytic properties might be due to apigenin. The extract from damiana has been found to suppress aromatase ... apigenin; α-pinene; β-carotene; β-pinene; tannins; thymol; and hexacosanol. In total, 22 flavonoids, maltol glucoside, ...
The hormonal IUD is inserted in a similar procedure to the nonhormonal copper IUD, and can only be inserted by a qualified medical practitioner.[39] Before insertion, a pelvic exam is performed to examine the shape and position of the uterus. It is also recommended that patients be tested for gonorrhea and chlamydia prior to insertion, as a current STI at the time of insertion can increase the risk of pelvic infection.[61] However, if a person has been previously screened and there is no evidence of infection on examination insertion of the IUD does not need to be delayed.[62] During the insertion, the vagina is held open with a speculum, the same device used during a pap smear.[39] A grasping instrument is used to steady the cervix, the length of the uterus is measured for proper insertion, and the IUD is placed using a narrow tube through the opening of the cervix into the uterus.[39] A short length of monofilament plastic/nylon string hangs down from the cervix into the vagina. The string ...
7,8-DHF, 8-prenylnaringenin, apigenin, baicalein, baicalin, biochanin A, calycosin, catechin, daidzein, daidzin, ECG, EGCG, ...
... (SGA), sold under the brand names Nestorone, Elcometrine, and Annovera, is a progestin medication which is used in birth control and in the treatment of endometriosis in the United States, Brazil, and other South American countries.[1][4][7] It is available both alone and in combination with an estrogen.[1][4][7] It is not effective by mouth and must be given by other routes, most typically as a vaginal ring or implant that is placed into fat.[1][4][8] Side effects of SGA are similar to those of other progestins. SGA is a progestin, or a synthetic progestogen, and hence is an agonist of the progesterone receptor, the biological target of progestogens like progesterone.[1][3][9][10] It has some affinity for the glucocorticoid receptor and has no other important hormonal activity.[1][3][9][10] SGA was developed by the Population Council and was introduced for medical use by 2000.[7][11] It is under development in the United States and Europe as a gel in combination with ...
... , also known as progesterone acetate,[1] as well as 3-acetoxypregna-3,5-dien-20-one, is a progestin which was never marketed.[2][3][4][5] It was reported to possess similar potency to progesterone and hydroxyprogesterone caproate in the rabbit endometrial carbonic anhydrase test, a bioassay of progestogenic activity.[2][3] In addition, it was able to maintain pregnancy in animals.[2] Progesterone 3-acetyl enol ether is closely related to quingestrone, which is also known as progesterone 3-cyclopentyl enol ether and was formerly marketed as an oral contraceptive.[6] The 3-acetyl ether may be cleaved from progesterone 3-acetyl enol ether in vivo and, based on its chemical structure, this may result in the transformation of progesterone 3-acetyl enol ether into 3α-dihydroprogesterone and/or 3β-dihydroprogesterone. 3β-Dihydroprogesterone has been reported to possess about the same progestogenic potency as progesterone in the Clauberg test, whereas ...
... , also known as 6α-methyl-17α-hydroxyprogesterone or as 6α-methyl-17α-hydroxypregn-4-en-3,20-dione, is a synthetic pregnane steroid and a derivative of progesterone.[1][2] It is specifically a derivative of 17α-hydroxyprogesterone with a methyl group at the C6α position.[1][2] The generic name of medroxyprogesterone is a contraction of 6α-methyl-17α-hydroxyprogesterone. It is closely related to medrogestone as well as other unesterified 17α-hydroxyprogesterone derivatives such as chlormadinone, cyproterone, and megestrol.[1][2] ...
Flavonoids (e.g., apigenin, hispidulin). *Fluoxetine. *Flupirtine. *Imidazoles (e.g., etomidate). *Kava constituents (e.g., ...
Irregular bleeding and spotting: Many women will experience some type of irregular, unpredictable, prolonged, frequent, or infrequent bleeding when using Nexplanon or Implanon.[18] Some women also experience amenorrhea. For some women, prolonged bleeding will decline after the first three months of use. However, other women may experience this bleeding pattern through all three years of use. While these patterns are not dangerous, they are the most common reason that women give for discontinuing the use of the implant. After removal, bleeding patterns return to previous patterns in most women.[13][14][15][16]. Insertion complications: Some minor side effects such as bruising, skin irritation, or pain around the insertion site are common.[13] However, there are some rare complications that can occur, such as infection or expulsion.[13][19] In some cases, a serious complication occurs when the provider fails to insert, and the rod is left in the inserter. An Australian study reported 84 ...
... (developmental code name RU-2065; nickname Trenavar), also known as estra-4,9,11-triene-3,17-dione, is an androgen prohormone as well as metabolite of the anabolic steroid trenbolone.[1][2][3][4][5] Trendione is to trenbolone as androstenedione is to testosterone.[6] The compound is inactive itself, showing more than 100-fold lower affinity for the androgen and progesterone receptors than trenbolone.[7][8] It is a designer steroid and has been sold on the internet as a "nutritional supplement".[1] Trendione is listed in the United States Designer Anabolic Steroid Control Act of 2014.[1] ...
... (INN, BAN) (developmental code name PH-218), or edogesterone, also known as 17α-acetoxy-3,3-ethylenedioxy-6-methylpregn-5-en-20-one, is a steroidal progestin and antiandrogen of the 17α-hydroxyprogesterone group which was synthesized in 1964 but was never marketed.[1][2] Similarly to the structurally related steroid cyproterone acetate, edogestrone binds directly to the androgen receptor and antagonizes it, displacing androgens like testosterone from the receptor, though not as potently as cyproterone acetate.[3] The drug has also been found to suppress androgen production, likely via progesterone receptor activation-mediated antigonadotropic activity.[4] ...
7,8-DHF, 8-prenylnaringenin, apigenin, baicalein, baicalin, biochanin A, calycosin, catechin, daidzein, daidzin, ECG, EGCG, ...
7,8-DHF, 8-prenylnaringenin, apigenin, baicalein, baicalin, biochanin A, calycosin, catechin, daidzein, daidzin, ECG, EGCG, ...
... , also known as progesterone-only vaginal ring, is a form of vaginal ring used for birth control when breastfeeding.[1] Use can begin at four weeks and continue for at least up to a year following childbirth.[4][3] Failure rates with usual use is about 1.5 per 100 women.[1] It is used within the vagina with one ring lasting three months.[4] The woman is able to place and remove the ring herself.[3] Side effects include vaginal discharge and pain with urination.[3] It does not appear to be associated with serious side effects.[3][5] With use menstrual periods often do not resume.[1] It was specifically made for use with breastfeeding as it does not affect milk production.[1] It works by gradually releasing the hormone progesterone.[1] Progesterone vaginal rings have been approved for medical use since 1998.[2] It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system.[6] As of 2014 they are ...
Apigenin chamomile, celery, parsley. Chrysin Passiflora caerulea, Pleurotus ostreatus, Oroxylum indicum. Diosmetin Vicia. ...
the apigenin-6-C-glucoside. It can be found in the passion flower, Cannabis, and the açaí palm. Isovitexin beta- ...
Phytotherapy Research Apigenin and cancer chemoprevention. ...
Viola H, Wasowski C, Levi de Stein M, Wolfman C, Silveira R, Dajas F, Medina JH, Paladini AC (1995). "Apigenin, a component of ... Bao YY, Zhou SH, Fan J, Wang QY (2013). "Anticancer mechanism of apigenin and the implications of GLUT-1 expression in head and ... Lefort ÉC, Blay J (2013). "Apigenin and its impact on gastrointestinal cancers". Mol Nutr Food Res. 57 (1): 962-968. doi: ...
Apigenin and chrysin are also transformed by C. elegans and produce apigenin 7-sulfate, apigenin 7,4′-disulfate, chrysin 7- ... Ibrahim, A. R. S. (2005). "Biotransformation of Chrysin and Apigenin by Cunninghamella elegans". Chemical & Pharmaceutical ...
... is a source of flavonoids and antioxidants, especially luteolin, apigenin, folic acid, vitamin K, vitamin C, and ... Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5. Meyer, H., Bolarinwa, A., Wolfram, G., & Linseisen, J. (2006). "Bioavailability of apigenin from ...
... is a natural flavonoid, a diglycoside of the flavone apigenin found in the winter-hardy plants parsley and celery. The ... Apiose Apiitol Hamamelose H. Meyer; A. Bolarinwa; G. Wolfram; J. Linseisen (2006). "Bioavailability of Apigenin from Apiin-Rich ...
Various species contain apigenin, luteolin, quercetin, other flavonoids and ecdysteroids. Species Serratula alata Desf. ...
Apiin and apigenin can be extracted from celery and parsley. Lunularin is a dihydrostilbenoid found in common celery. The main ...
Flavonoids found in Scorzonera include apigenin, kaempferol, luteolin, and quercetin. Other secondary metabolites reported from ...
V. I. Lutskii, A. S. Gromova and N. A. Tyukavkina (1971). "Aromadendrin, apigenin, and kaempferol from the wood of Pinus ...
... apigenin, oroxylin A, scutellarein, and skullcapflavone II. Baicalin and baicalein, wogonin, and apigenin have been confirmed ... Viola H, Wasowski C, Levi de Stein M, Wolfman C, Silveira R, Dajas F, Medina JH, Paladini AC (1995). "Apigenin, a component of ... Other active constituents include baicalin, apigenin, oroxylin A, scutellarein, and skullcapflavone. Some Scutellaria species, ...
Plants contain aglycones: apigenin, chrysoeriol, isorhamnetin, kaempferol, luteolin, quercetin and rutin. The fresh plant Viola ...
... apigenin, apigenin-7-glucoside, apigetrin, apiin, Asteraceae (family), azulene, baboonig, babuna, babunah, babunah camomile, ... Preparation of novel apigenin-enriched, liposomal and non-liposomal, antiinflammatory topical formulations as substitutes for ...
... apigenin, Apium graveolens spp., ascorbic acid, bergapten, celeriac, celery extract, celery juice, celery profilin, celery root ...
... apigenin 8-C-glucoside) Isovitexin (apigenin 6-C-glucosid) Rhoifolin (apigenin 7-O-neohesperidoside) Schaftoside (apigenin 6-C- ... Apigenin dimers can reverse the highest level of drug resistance found in cancer stem cells. Apigenin has been shown to prevent ... Apigenin acts as a monoamine transporter activator, one of the few chemicals demonstrated to possess this property. Apigenin is ... Apigenin may also stimulate adult neurogenesis, with at least one study claiming that apigenin "stimulate[s] adult neurogenesis ...
In enzymology, an apigenin 4-O-methyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.75) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction S-adenosyl-L- ... Kuroki G; Poulton JE (1981). "The para-O-methylation of apigenin to acacetin by cell-free extracts of Robinia pseudoacacia L". ... apigenin), whereas its two products are S-adenosylhomocysteine and 4-methoxy-5,7-dihydroxyflavone (acacetin). This enzyme ...
apigenin 7-O-β-D-glucoside (CHEBI:16778) is conjugate acid of apigenin 7-O-β-D-glucoside(1−) (CHEBI:77722) apigenin 7-O-β-D- ... apigenin 7-O-β-D-glucoside(1−) (CHEBI:77722) is conjugate base of apigenin 7-O-β-D-glucoside (CHEBI:16778). apigenin 7-O-β-L- ... apigenin 7-O-β-D-glucoside (CHEBI:16778) has functional parent apigenin (CHEBI:18388) apigenin 7-O-β-D-glucoside (CHEBI:16778) ... apigenin 7-O-β-D-glucoside (CHEBI:16778) is a β-D-glucoside (CHEBI:22798) apigenin 7-O-β-D-glucoside (CHEBI:16778) is a ...
Apigenin has been shown to inhibit cell growth, sensitize cancer cells to elimination by apoptosis, and hinder the development ... Apigenin is able to reduce cancer cell glucose uptake, inhibit remodeling of the extracellular matrix, inhibit cell adhesion ... As such, apigenin may provide some additional benefit beyond existing drugs in slowing the emergence of metastatic disease. ... Apigenin (4,5,7-trihydroxyflavone, 5,7-dihydroxy-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one) is a flavonoid found in many ...
Apigenin, a naturally occurring plant flavone, abundantly present in common fruits and vegetables, is recognized as a bioactive ... Apigenin: a promising molecule for cancer prevention.. Shukla S1, Gupta S. ... It has been suggested that apigenin may be protective in other diseases that are affected by oxidative process, such as ... Human clinical trials examining the effect of supplementation of apigenin on disease prevention have not been conducted, ...
... Mao-Qiang Man,1,2 Melanie Hupe,2 Richard Sun,2 George Man, ... Additionally, the effect of apigenin on stratum corneum function in a murine subacute allergic contact dermatitis model was ... Together, these results suggest that topical application of apigenin could provide an alternative regimen for the treatment of ... In the present study, we first tested whether topical applications of apigenin alleviate cutaneous inflammation in murine ...
Apigenin primary reference standard; CAS Number: 520-36-5; EC Number: 208-292-3; Synonym: 4′,5,7-Trihydroxyflavone, 5,7- ... Apigenin primary reference standard Synonym: 4′,5,7-Trihydroxyflavone, 5,7-. Dihydroxy-. 2-. (4-. hydroxyphenyl). -. 4- ... They play crucial role in biological activities which include tumor growth inhibition and chemoprevention. Apigenin is a plant ...
Apigenin. PDB Entries. 3amy / 3cf9 / 4der / 4dgm / 4hkk / 4wo0 / 5auv / 5i2h / 5uqt. Clinical Trials. Clinical Trials ... Apigenin. Accession Number. DB07352. Type. Small Molecule. Groups. Experimental. Description. Not Available. Structure. ...
Apigenin 7-glucoside primary reference standard; CAS Number: 578-74-5; EC Number: 209-430-5; Synonym: 4′,5,7-Trihydroxyflavone ... Apigenin 7-glucoside primary reference standard Synonym: 4′,5,7-Trihydroxyflavone 7-glucoside, Apigetrin, Cosmosiin ...
The method was validated and calibrated for total apigenin in the range of 1.0-100 μmol/L (. ). The limits of detection and ... Determination of Total Apigenin in Herbs by Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography with UV Detection. Rafał Głowacki, Paulina ... Apigenin is a naturally occurring plant flavone that exhibits strong antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antitumor properties. ... A MEKC-UV based method was developed for the determination of total apigenin in selected herbs. Application of pseudostationary ...
The weights of liver and spleen in apigenin treatment groups did not reveal statistically significant difference when compared ... apigenin can result in the reduction of T-AOC, thus leading to the oxidative damage of liver tissues. In contrast, in middle- ... CAT and GSH-Px in apigenin treatment groups were significantly lower than those in the control group (P , 0.05). In high-dose ... we investigated the effect of apigenin at various dosages on the hepatic oxidative stress of male rats. Totally 48 SD male rats ...
Further studies demonstrate the following: (i) apigenin inhibits FMDV infection at the viral post-entry stage; (ii) apigenin ... Apigenin, which is a flavonoid naturally existing in plant, possesses various pharmacological effects, including anti- ... Results show that apigenin can inhibit FMDV-mediated cytopathogenic effect and FMDV replication in vitro. ... does not exhibit direct extracellular virucidal activity; and (iii) apigenin interferes with the translational activity of FMDV ...
Apigenin and Naringenin: Natural Sources, Pharmacology and Role in Cancer Prevention. Nilus M. Stacks (Editor) ... Apigenin is one of the most bioactive naturally occurring flavonoids, found in fruits, plant-derived beverages, vegetables, ... Home / Shop / Books / Science and Technology / Chemistry / Apigenin and Naringenin: Natural Sources, Pharmacology and Role in ... Chapter 7 - Role of Apigenin in Cancer Prevention (pp. 107-136). Rit Bahadur Gurung, Ramesh Prasad Pandey and Jae Kyung Sohng ( ...
In the present study, we evaluated the effects of apigenin, an anti-inflammatory flavonoid abundantly found in our diet, in ... Apigenin conferred protection against LPS-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and reestablished normal mitochondrial complex I ... Here, we show that apigenin reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced apoptosis by decreasing ROS production and the activity of ... Collectively, these findings indicate that the dietary compound apigenin stabilizes mitochondrial function during inflammation ...
... and apigenin (AP) are four major flavonoids with various promising bioactivities found in Compositae (COP) species. A reliable ... Keywords: UPLC; linarin; luteolin; chlorogenic; apigenin; Compositae UPLC; linarin; luteolin; chlorogenic; apigenin; Compositae ... Linarin (LA), luteolin (LE), chlorogenic acid (CA) and apigenin (AP) are four major flavonoids with various promising ... Chlorogenic Acid and Apigenin in Different Parts of Compositae Species. Seung Hwan Hwang 1. ...
Apigenin has an anabolic effect, according to this Korean animal study. And guess what? The human equivalent of the dose the ... The flavonoid apigenin is found in parsley, celery, chamomile and citrus fruits. ... The flavonoid apigenin is found in parsley, celery, chamomile and citrus fruits. Apigenin has an anabolic effect, discovered ... Apigenin. Apigenins structural formula is very similar to compounds like quercetin, kaempferol and luteolin, but apparently ...
... phosphorylation was reduced by apigenin and luteolin but not that of the insulin-like growth factor receptor IGF-1R by apigenin ... Apigenin and luteolin were identified in our U-2 OS (human osteosarcoma) cell screening assay for micronutrients triggering ... N-acetyl-L-cysteine did not prevent FOXO1 nuclear translocation induced by apigenin and luteolin, suggesting that these ... were down-regulated by both flavones with smaller effective dosages of apigenin than for luteolin. PKB/AKT-, PRAS40-, p70S6K-, ...
Attenuation of tumor growth in U937 xenografts by apigenin raises the possibility that apigenin may have clinical implications ... Apigenin Induces Apoptosis in Human Leukemia Cells and Exhibits Anti-Leukemic Activity In Vivo Amit Budhraja, Ning Gao, Zhuo ... signaling cascades in apigenin-induced apoptosis in U937 human leukemia cells and anti-leukemic activity of apigenin in vivo. ... Apigenin induced apoptosis by inactivation of Akt with a concomitant activation of JNK, Mcl-1 and Bcl-2 downregulation, ...
Apigenin and luteolin were tested in a three-dimensional (3-D) assay consisting of MDA-MB231 breast cancer spheroids and ... Apigenin and luteolin were tested in a three-dimensional (3-D) assay consisting of MDA-MB231 breast cancer spheroids and ... Luteolin, unlike apigenin, inhibited MMP1-induced Ca2+ release. Free intracellular Ca2+ is a central signal amplifier ... Hence, we studied two flavonoids, apigenin and luteolin exhibiting strong bio-activity in various test systems in cancer ...
Recently, apigenin was reported to cause gastric relaxation in murine. To assess possible effects of apigenin on migration of ... Then, hBSM cell overexpressing MEKK1 were exposed to apigenin (50 μM). Our data indicated that apigenin inhibited significantly ... QINGXIN, Liu et al. Apigenin inhibits cell migration through MAPK pathways in human bladder smooth muscle cells. Biocell [ ... Apigenin, a nonmutagenic flavonoid, has been shown to possess free radical scavenging activities, anticarcinogenic properties, ...
apigenin 6-C-(xylopyranosyl-1-2-galactopyranoside)-7-O-glucopyranoside: isolated from the seeds of Syzygium aromaticum; ... apigenin 6- C- (xylopyranosyl- 1- 2- galactopyranoside)- 7- O- glucopyranoside. Subscribe to New Research on apigenin 6-C ... Apigenin: 440*apigenin 6-C-(xylopyranosyl-1-2-galactopyranoside)-7-O-glucopyranoside ... Apigenin: 440*apigenin 6-C-(xylopyranosyl-1-2-galactopyranoside)-7-O-glucopyranoside ...
Besides, apigenin-7-O-glucoside was more effective compared to apigenin in reduction of cells viability and induction of cell ... Bioactive potential of apigenin derivative apigenin-7-O-glucoside related to its antifungal activity on Candida spp. and ... Compounds apigenin-7-O-glucoside and apigenin displayed prominent antifungal potential and cytotoxic effect on HCT116 cells. ... However, our results showed that apigenin-7-O-glucoside has more potent activity compared to apigenin in all assays that we ...
Apigenin has been suggested as a promising anticancer agent (1-14). In the present study, we found a new function of apigenin, ... The effects of apigenin on DR5 proteins in Jurkat cells. A, Jurkat cells were treated with various concentrations of apigenin ... Apigenin Induces DR5 Expression in Jurkat Cells. To explore the novel functions of apigenin, we first examined the proteins ... 2C, apigenin did not increase DR5 promoter activity. These results suggested that apigenin induces DR5 expression at the ...
  • Prince Vijeya Singh, J., Selvendiran, K., Mumtaz Banu, S., Padmavathi, R. and Sakthisekaran, D. (2004) Protective Role of Apigenin on the Status of Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Defense against Hepatocarcinogenesis in Wistar Albino Rats. (scirp.org)
  • Researchers published a similar study last year in the journal Cancer Prevention Research , also looking at the role of apigenin in progestin-related breast cancer tumors in mice. (huffpost.com)
  • A team of researchers led by Dr. Gwonhwa SongIn at Korea University in Seoul tested the role of apigenin for the potential treatment of endometriosis using two well-established human endometriosis cell lines grown in the laboratory. (endonews.com)
  • A further role of apigenin in chemoprevention is the induction of autophagy in several human cancer cell lines. (bvsalud.org)
  • Apigenin is able to reduce cancer cell glucose uptake, inhibit remodeling of the extracellular matrix, inhibit cell adhesion molecules that participate in cancer progression, and oppose chemokine signaling pathways that direct the course of metastasis into other locations. (nih.gov)
  • Apigenin is a plant flavonoid mostly used to inhibit ornithine decarboxylase activity and skin tumor. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Recently, apigenin was also shown to inhibit the motility and invasiveness of carcinoma cells in vitro ( 4 , 5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Apigenin thus appears to inhibit the growth and migration of hypertrophic scar fibroblasts by inhibiting FAK signaling. (aging-us.com)
  • According to one 2010 study , apigenin may inhibit growth in HER2 breast cancer cells. (healthline.com)
  • Furthermore, in vivo administration of apigenin resulted in attenuation of tumor growth in U937 xenografts accompanied by inactivation of Akt and activation of JNK. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Attenuation of tumor growth in U937 xenografts by apigenin raises the possibility that apigenin may have clinical implications and can be further tested for incorporating in leukemia treatment regimens. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Researchers found that the mice that ingested apigenin through their diets were found to have a higher incidence of tumor growth. (healthcanal.com)
  • They found that tumors grew in the mice not given apigenin, while tumor growth actually decreased and the tumors were smaller in the mice given apigenin. (huffpost.com)
  • Collectively, these findings indicate that the dietary compound apigenin stabilizes mitochondrial function during inflammation preventing endothelial cell damage and thus provide new translational opportunities for the use of dietary components in the prevention and treatment of inflammatory diseases. (mdpi.com)
  • The naturally occurring compound apigenin has many biological effects, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidative and anticancer effects. (aging-us.com)
  • Moreover, in comparison with the vehicle treatment, topical apigenin treatment significantly reduced transepidermal water loss, lowered skin surface pH, and increased stratum corneum hydration in a subacute murine allergic contact dermatitis model. (hindawi.com)
  • Total protein (TP), albumin (ALB) and globulin (GLO) in apigenin treatment groups were significantly lower than those in the control group (P (scirp.org)
  • T-AOC, CAT and GSH-Px in apigenin treatment groups were significantly lower than those in the control group (P (scirp.org)
  • The quadriceps of the mice that received apigenin were significantly larger than those of the mice in the control group. (ergo-log.com)
  • Inhibitors of multidrug resistance-related proteins (MRPs) such as leukotriene C 4 and MK-571, which inhibited glucuronidation of apigenin at a high concentration (≥25 μM), significantly decreased excretion of both apigenin conjugates, and higher concentrations of MK-571 increased the extent of inhibition. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In addition, treatment with apigenin also significantly increased the proliferation of both SV40T-DPCs (human DPCs) and HaCaT cells . (forumandco.com)
  • after ONC was significantly higher than that in all of the single treatment groups and the number of TUNEL positive cells was considerably reduced and the amount of Distance-43 immunopositive axons was considerably higher than those in the PBS Apigenin price group. (lecollege.org)
  • 6.63/mm2 in the retina without any Apigenin price treatment, which was less than the 2280 significantly? (lecollege.org)
  • Apigenin significantly increased the inhibitory effects of cisplatin on cell migration via downregulation of Snail expression. (greenmedinfo.health)
  • Among MCV protein, LT protein only is sufficient because of this procedure but MCV little Apigenin pontent inhibitor Apigenin pontent inhibitor T (sT) proteins works as an accessories factor that significantly increases the effectiveness of MCV source firing . (buyresearchchemicalss.net)
  • Microarray-based mRNA expressions of genes of diverse biological functions (signal transduction, transcriptional regulation, ubiquitination, autophagy, metabolic activity, xenobiotic detoxification and microtubule formation) significantly predicted responsiveness of tumor cells to apigenin. (elsevier.com)
  • In the present study we investigated whether apigenin significantly affects tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced production and gene expression of MUC5AC mucin in airway epithelial cells. (welbourneprimary.com)
  • Apigenin significantly inhibited MUC5AC mucin production and down-regulated MUC5AC Sotrastaurin gene manifestation induced by TNF-α in NCI-H292 cells. (welbourneprimary.com)
  • Taken together, these results indicate that in addition to transcriptional regulation, another mechanism by which apigenin prevents COX-2 expression is through mediating TIAR suppression of translation. (ecu.edu)
  • Furthermore, treatment of cells with proteosome inhibitor MG132 reversed the downregulation of geminin by apigenin, supporting our hypothesis that the degradation pathway is another mechanism by which apigenin affects geminin expression. (northwestern.edu)
  • Apigenin and cancer chemoprevention: progress, potential and promise (review). (hellobio.com)
  • Suppression of protein kinase C and nuclear oncogene expression as possible molecular mechanisms of cancer chemoprevention by apigenin and curcumin. (hellobio.com)
  • The mechanism might be that apigenin blocks signal transmission from MEKK1 to MAPKs. (scielo.org.ar)
  • Taken together, this study provides an insight into the molecular mechanism of apigenin in modulating various tyrosine kinases and perturbs cell cycle progression, suggesting its future development and use as anticancer agent in humans. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Together, these results suggest that topical application of apigenin could provide an alternative regimen for the treatment of dermatitis. (hindawi.com)
  • The topical application of apigenin in mice decreases the number and size of tumors in the skin induced by chemical carcinogens ( 2 ) or by UV exposure in vivo ( 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Apigenin induces autophagy (a kind of cellular waste-recycling system) in leukemia cells, which may support a possible chemopreventive role. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human clinical trials examining the effect of supplementation of apigenin on disease prevention have not been conducted, although there is considerable potential for apigenin to be developed as a cancer chemopreventive agent. (nih.gov)
  • In the last few decades, recognition of apigenin as a cancer chemopreventive agent has increased. (bvsalud.org)
  • Apigenin, according to the Koreans, triggered anabolic pathways by activating the enzyme protein arginine methyltransferase-7 [Prmt (ergo-log.com)
  • Exposure to UVB strongly increased COX-2 protein expression in mouse 308 keratinocytes, and this induction was inhibited by apigenin, a nonmutagenic bioflavonoid that has been shown to prevent mouse skin carcinogenesis induced by both chemical carcinogens and UV exposure. (ecu.edu)
  • Furthermore, we identified two RNA-binding proteins, HuR and the T-cell-restricted intracellular antigen 1-related protein (TIAR), which were associated with endogenous COX-2 mRNA in 308 keratinocytes, and apigenin treatment increased their localization to cell cytoplasm. (ecu.edu)
  • Real time RT-PCR and western blotting analysis showed that geminin expression is downregulated by apigenin at both mRNA and protein levels. (northwestern.edu)
  • Apigenin treatment also resulted in downregulation of Cdc6 at both mRNA and protein levels. (northwestern.edu)
  • Apigenin also has an influence on upstream signaling of IKK because it inhibited the manifestation of adaptor protein receptor interacting protein 1 (RIP1). (welbourneprimary.com)
  • In our earlier study we shown that apigenin inhibited epidermal growth element Sotrastaurin (EGF)- or phorbol Sotrastaurin 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-induced MUC5AC protein and gene manifestation (Kim lipopolysaccharide in the pathogenesis of cystic fibrosis lung disease. (welbourneprimary.com)
  • Cytotoxicity of apigenin towards cancer cells was evaluated by MTT assay whereas further genotoxic and oxidative stress parameters were measured by comet and lipid peroxidation assays, respectively. (springer.com)
  • Cell viability assays demonstrated that apigenin exhibited cytotoxicity against both MM cell lines and primary MM cells but not against normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Obtained results indicated considerable antifungal activity of apigenin-7-O-glucoside towards all Candida isolates. (tu-dortmund.de)
  • sporadic AD, in addition to healthy controls, to assess the neuroprotective activity of apigenin. (edu.au)
  • Bioactive potential of apigenin derivative apigenin-7-O-glucoside related to its antifungal activity on Candida spp. (tu-dortmund.de)
  • and cytotoxic effect on colon cancer cells was studied and compared with bioactive potential of apigenin. (tu-dortmund.de)
  • Our results suggest that the primary mechanisms by which apigenin kill MM cells is by targeting the trinity of CK2-Cdc37-Hsp90, and this observation reveals the therapeutic potential of apigenin in treating multiple myeloma. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To investigate potential anticancer properties of apigenin on human breast cancer, ER-positive MCF-7 and triple-negative MDA MB-231 cells were used. (springer.com)
  • The observed cytogenotoxic and pro-cell death activities of apigenin coupled with its low toxicity towards normal cells indicate that this natural product could be used as a future anticancer modality. (springer.com)
  • Breakdown of C. albicans plasma membrane was achieved upon treatment with apigenin-7-O-glucoside for shorter period of time then with apigenin. (tu-dortmund.de)
  • These results suggest that this combined treatment with apigenin and TRAIL might be promising as a new therapy against malignant tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • After the treatment with apigenin, we observed changes in cell morphology in a dose- (10 to 100 μM) and time-dependent manner. (springer.com)
  • Enhanced Solubility and Bioavailability of Apigenin via Preparation of Solid Dispersions of Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles', Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research , 18(1), pp. 168-182. (ac.ir)
  • In this study, a novel mesoporous silica nanoparticles drug carrier contributes to improving the solubility, dissolution, and the oral bioavailability of apigenin (AP). (ac.ir)
  • 1) Laura Hanske, Gunnar Loh, Silke Sczesny, Michael Blaut, Annett Braune, The bioavailability of apigenin-7-glucoside is influenced by human intestinal microbiota in rats. (toyama-wakan.net)
  • Apigenin's structural formula is very similar to compounds like quercetin, kaempferol and luteolin, but apparently apigenin has a different effect in the body than those related substances. (ergo-log.com)
  • Our results demonstrate that topical applications of apigenin exhibit therapeutic effects in both acute irritant contact dermatitis and allergic contact dermatitis models. (hindawi.com)
  • Apigenin is a potential novel therapeutic agent to overcome current limitations in the treatment to endometriosis," the researchers wrote but added that further research using animal models are required before apigenin can be considered for the treatment of endometriosis patients. (endonews.com)
  • In conclusion, our study showed the possible therapeutic approach of using apigenin to potentially increase the effects of cisplatin by targeting CSCs subset in prostate cancer. (greenmedinfo.health)
  • It is believed that apigenin may work by reducing the possibility of cancerous tumors growtrh by decreasing the vascular endothelial and decreasing the glucose uptake-minimizing the cycle of cancer cell formation in the pancreas. (holistichealthshow.com)
  • Cancerous tumors grew rapidly in mice not receiving apigenin. (holistichealthshow.com)
  • However, in the group receiving apigenin, cancer cell growth dropped to the level of the control group and their tumors shrank. (holistichealthshow.com)
  • A new study shows that when the supplement apigenin is ingested in a diet at the same concentration as subjects received during IV injections in previous studies-the benefits were reversed leading to a higher incidence of cancerous tumors in subjects receiving progestin. (healthcanal.com)
  • However, the mice that ingested apigenin began metabolizing it-which seemed to aggravate the situation causing very aggressive growth of mammary tumors. (healthcanal.com)
  • Researchers from the University of Missouri found that apigenin seems to have an effect on certain kinds of breast cancer tumors associated with the hormone progestin (given along with estrogen to women as part of hormone replacement therapy for menopause, and is known to increase the risk of breast cancer ). (huffpost.com)
  • MCV from tumors also have LT gene mutations Apigenin pontent inhibitor that certainly are a central feature of MCV-driven human being tumor development . (buyresearchchemicalss.net)
  • In conclusion, apigenin's activity is not hampered by classical mechanisms of multidrug resistance and the inhibition of ABC transporters by apigenin indicates that apigenin may overcome multidrug resistance in otherwise refractory tumors. (elsevier.com)
  • Now, based on subsequent studies conducted by MU researchers, they are recommending that women not ingest pure apigenin as a supplement. (healthcanal.com)
  • However, we do not recommend that women who are on hormone replacement therapy with a progestin component ingest pure apigenin as a supplement until further research proves otherwise. (healthcanal.com)
  • Pure Apigenin is a yellow crystalline solid. (forumandco.com)
  • The findings suggest apigenin could hold promise for preventing leukemia, Peppelenbosch said. (i2p.com.au)
  • They found that apigenin alone induced cell death in two aggressive pancreatic cancer cell lines but the best results were received when the cancer cells were pretreated for 24 hours with apigenin and then applied chemotherapeutic drug gemcitabine for 36 hours. (holistichealthshow.com)
  • In conclusion, our studies demonstrated that geminin is overexpressed in human pancreatic cancer and downregulated by apigenin which may contribute to the antitumor effect of this natural flavonoid. (northwestern.edu)
  • Apigenin suppresses the development of endometriosis through activation of integrated intracellular signaling pathways. (endonews.com)
  • The researchers found that apigenin induces programmed cell death in these endometriosis cells via biological pathways called the ERK1/2, JNK, and AKT pathways. (endonews.com)
  • Apigenin has been shown to prevent renal damage caused by ciclosporin in rats, associated with reduced expression of the cell death mediator bcl-2 in histopathological sections. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rats were administered with apigenin or saline via intragastriation once a day, 6 days per week, and 5 consecutive weeks. (scirp.org)
  • Apigenin stimulates neurogenesis in adult rats. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • After application of A7G to germ-free rats, apigenin, luteorin, and their conjugates were detected in urine and feces. (toyama-wakan.net)
  • In whole-blood samples from germ-free and HMA rats, only apigenin conjugates and phloretin, respectively, were detected. (toyama-wakan.net)
  • In germ-free rats, A7G metabolites dominated by apigenin and as conjugates were mainly excreted with feces, in contrast, the compounds in HMA rats were predominantly recovered from urine, 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid being the main metabolite. (toyama-wakan.net)
  • Apigenin was formed by cytosolic extracts of Eubacterium ramulus and Bacteroides distasonis and by the microsomal fraction of the small intestinal mucosa of rats. (toyama-wakan.net)
  • Apigenin ameliorates hypertension-induced cardiac hypertrophy and down-regulates cardiac hypoxia-inducible factor-lalpha in rats. (innovareacademics.in)
  • Objective: This review focus on biological activities of and industrial values of M. recutita and its isolate - apigenin as an important biomarker of this species. (rroij.com)
  • Some of the widely acclaimed biological activities of this species are traceable to apigenin. (rroij.com)
  • Despite the numerous pitfalls in associating biological activity to a specific isolate, the active principle apigenin has been reported as a biomarker of M. recutita. (rroij.com)
  • We do know that apigenin slowed the progression of human breast cancer cells in three ways: by inducing cell death, by inhibiting cell proliferation, and by reducing expression of a gene associated with cancer growth," study researcher Salman Hyder, a professor of biomedical sciences at the College of Veterinary Medicine and the Dalton Cardiovascular Research Center at the University of Missouri, said in a statement . (huffpost.com)
  • Apigenin dimers can reverse the highest level of drug resistance found in cancer stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apigenin: a promising molecule for cancer prevention. (nih.gov)
  • Apigenin and luteolin were tested in a three-dimensional (3-D) assay consisting of MDA-MB231 breast cancer spheroids and immortalized lymph endothelial cell (LEC) monolayers. (frontiersin.org)
  • Apigenin is expected to be a promising cancer-preventive agent contained in foods. (aacrjournals.org)
  • and liver cancer cells because of the anticancer compound called apigenin. (holistichealthshow.com)
  • We therefore studied the molecular events of apigenin action in human prostate cancer cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Blood vessels responsible for feeding cancer cells also had smaller diameters in apigenin-treated mice compared to untreated mice," Hyder added. (huffpost.com)
  • Apigenin and Naringenin: Natural Sources, Pharmacology and Role in Cancer Prevention New York, USA Nova Science Publishers. (westminster.ac.uk)
  • Although apigenin has the potential to be a promising molecule also for cancer treatment, its delivery to the body requires suitable dosage form design due to physicochemical characteristics that lead to poor bioavailability. (westminster.ac.uk)
  • Apigenin could be used to potentially increase the effects of cisplatin by targeting cancer stem cells subset in prostate cancer. (greenmedinfo.health)
  • Microarray analysis identified geminin to be downregulated in pancreatic cancer cells treated with apigenin. (northwestern.edu)
  • 3. Apigenin have the function of anti-tumor properties and has potential to reduce the risk of cancer. (nfnutra.com)
  • We investigated sub-cellular distribution of apigenin, it's binding to DNA and protective effects against H2O2-induced DNA damage using transformed human prostate epithelial RWPE-1 cells and prostate cancer LNCaP, PC-3 and DU145 cells. (duhnnae.com)
  • In test-tube studies, apigenin has been shown to fight cancer cells, especially those of the breast, digestive tract, skin, prostate and uterus ( 8 , 9 , 10 ). (healthline.com)
  • Treatment with both compounds resulted in chromatin condensation, apoptotic bodies formation and apoptotic genes expression in HCT116 cells, but the apigenin-7-O-glucoside required a lower concentration to achieve the same effect. (tu-dortmund.de)
  • Apigenin (Wako, Osaka, Japan) was dissolved in DMSO to a final concentration of 0.02% in media. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Formation and polarized excretion rates of glucuronidated apigenin increased with apigenin concentration but formation rates were usually 2.5 to 6 times faster than the corresponding excretion rates. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Studies of effects of cellular differentiation and of changes in apigenin concentration on intestinal phase II conjugates of flavones are also lacking. (aspetjournals.org)
  • When they analyzed the cells treated with apigenin in more detail, the researchers saw that the compound disrupted the membrane potential of mitochondria, the energy factories of the cells, which was accompanied by an increase in the concentration of calcium ions inside the cells. (endonews.com)
  • Sub-cellular fractionation demonstrated that nuclear matrix retains the highest concentration of apigenin 45.3%, followed by cytosol 23.9%, nuclear membranes 17.9% and microsomes 12.9%, respectively. (duhnnae.com)
  • Apigenin-trimethylether in the same concentration did not influence the IL-6 mRNA level. (complextraitgenomics.com)