Apicoplasts: Non-photosynthetic plastids derived from RED ALGAE endosymbionts. They are found in species of the phylum APICOMPLEXA including PLASMODIUM MALARAIAE.Plasmodium falciparum: A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Apicomplexa: A phylum of unicellular parasitic EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of complex apical organelles generally consisting of a conoid that aids in penetrating host cells, rhoptries that possibly secrete a proteolytic enzyme, and subpellicular microtubules that may be related to motility.Plastids: Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.Malaria, Falciparum: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.Dictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Organelles: Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Plasmodium chabaudi: A protozoan parasite of rodents transmitted by the mosquito Anopheles stephensi.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Copyright: It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)Blogging: Using an INTERNET based personal journal which may consist of reflections, comments, and often hyperlinks.Toxoplasma: A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.Rhodophyta: Plants of the division Rhodophyta, commonly known as red algae, in which the red pigment (PHYCOERYTHRIN) predominates. However, if this pigment is destroyed, the algae can appear purple, brown, green, or yellow. Two important substances found in the cell walls of red algae are AGAR and CARRAGEENAN. Some rhodophyta are notable SEAWEED (macroalgae).Euglenida: A phylum of unicellular flagellates of ancient eukaryotic lineage with unclear taxonomy. They lack a CELL WALL but are covered by a proteinaceous flexible coat, the pellicle, that allows the cell to change shape. Historically some authorities considered them to be an order of protozoa and others classed them as ALGAE (some members have CHLOROPLASTS and some don't).Kelp: Large, robust forms of brown algae (PHAEOPHYCEAE) in the order Laminariales. They are a major component of the lower intertidal and sublittoral zones on rocky coasts in temperate and polar waters. Kelp, a kind of SEAWEED, usually refers to species in the genera LAMINARIA or MACROCYSTIS, but the term may also be used for species in FUCUS or Nereocystis.Diatoms: The common name for the phylum of microscopic unicellular STRAMENOPILES. Most are aquatic, being found in fresh, brackish, and salt water. Diatoms are noted for the symmetry and sculpturing of their siliceous cell walls. They account for 40% of PHYTOPLANKTON, but not all diatoms are planktonic.Heptanoates: Salts and esters of the 7-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid heptanoic acid.Triclosan: A diphenyl ether derivative used in cosmetics and toilet soaps as an antiseptic. It has some bacteriostatic and fungistatic action.Fatty Acid Synthases: Enzymes that catalyze the synthesis of FATTY ACIDS from acetyl-CoA and malonyl-CoA derivatives.Journalism, Medical: The collection, writing, and editing of current interest material on topics related to biomedicine for presentation through the mass media, including newspapers, magazines, radio, or television, usually for a public audience such as health care consumers.Parasites: Invertebrate organisms that live on or in another organism (the host), and benefit at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Plasmodium: A genus of protozoa that comprise the malaria parasites of mammals. Four species infect humans (although occasional infections with primate malarias may occur). These are PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; PLASMODIUM OVALE, and PLASMODIUM VIVAX. Species causing infection in vertebrates other than man include: PLASMODIUM BERGHEI; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; P. vinckei, and PLASMODIUM YOELII in rodents; P. brasilianum, PLASMODIUM CYNOMOLGI; and PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI in monkeys; and PLASMODIUM GALLINACEUM in chickens.

Regulation of ATG8 membrane association by ATG4 in the parasitic protist Toxoplasma gondii. (1/6)

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The metabolic roles of the endosymbiotic organelles of Toxoplasma and Plasmodium spp. (2/6)

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The suf iron-sulfur cluster synthesis pathway is required for apicoplast maintenance in malaria parasites. (3/6)

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Toxoplasma gondii relies on both host and parasite isoprenoids and can be rendered sensitive to atorvastatin. (4/6)

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The multifunctional autophagy pathway in the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. (5/6)

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The apicoplast genome of Leucocytozoon caulleryi, a pathogenic apicomplexan parasite of the chicken. (6/6)

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  • We take innovative approaches to meet the challenges of studying this complex organism, including a chemical rescue that generates "mutant" parasites lacking their apicoplasts! (stanford.edu)
  • In order to deduce the essentiality of putative apicoplast localized DUB, (here on, Api-DUB) in the parasite we applied genetic engineering techniques of molecular cloning and transformations to alter the structure and characteristics of the gene. (osu.edu)
  • Indeed, after its discovery, the apicoplast was found to host the target pathways of some known antimalarial drugs, which motivated efforts for further research into its biological functions and biogenesis. (portlandpress.com)
  • An unbiased chemical screen identifies the AAA+ membrane metalloprotease FtsH1 as a novel apicoplast biogenesis factor and druggable antimalarial target. (elifesciences.org)
  • Surprisingly, IPP supplementation also completely reverses death following treatment with antibiotics that cause loss of the apicoplast. (nih.gov)
  • Over 500 proteins are predicted to localize to this organelle and several prokaryotic biochemical pathways have been annotated, yet the essential role of the apicoplast during human infection remains a mystery. (nih.gov)
  • Apicoplast prokaryotic type II fatty acid synthesis (FAS II) has received particular attention ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • In addition, recombinant apicoplast glutamyl-tRNA synthetase expressed in wheat germ exhibited both discriminating and non-discriminating activity by glutamylating apicoplast tRNAGlu and tRNAGln, an essential property of tRNA synthetases that participate in indirect aminoacylation pathways in bacteria and plastids. (grantome.com)
  • The apicoplast is bounded by four membranes, and these membranes trace their ancestry to three different organisms. (blogspot.com)
  • However, because apicoplasts are bounded by four membranes, whereas plant plastids have only two surrounding membranes, it was anticipated that apicoplasts might have extra transporters in their extra membranes. (pnas.org)
  • Here we describe the localization of these two transporters to different membranes of the apicoplast, and present a model of how these transporters could fuel the organelle by shuttling the glycolytic products of glucose acquired from the host erythrocytes into the plastid. (pnas.org)
  • Because apicoplasts are vital to parasite survival, they provide an enticing target for antimalarial drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • In conclusion, our study demonstrates a direct link between apicoplast FAS II functions and parasite survival and pathogenesis. (pnas.org)
  • The apicoplast is also thought to have a role in isoprenoid synthesis, which are prosthetic groups on many enzymes and also act as precursors to ubiquinones (involved in electron transport) and dolichols (involved in glycoprotein formation). (wikipedia.org)
  • The apicoplast has also been implicated with heme synthesis and amino acid synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Het hprse is how to get modafinil de boy disease van de wangen, de neuspunt, het chastity synthesis het market en de doxycycline. (peciatky-kosice.sk)
  • Overall, our data show that the PfClpP protease has confirmed localization in the apicoplast and it plays important role in development of functional apicoplasts. (uni-konstanz.de)