Apicomplexa: A phylum of unicellular parasitic EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of complex apical organelles generally consisting of a conoid that aids in penetrating host cells, rhoptries that possibly secrete a proteolytic enzyme, and subpellicular microtubules that may be related to motility.Eimeriidae: A large family of parasites in the order EIMERIIDA. They cause COCCIDIOSIS in a number of vertebrates including humans.Eimeria: A genus of protozoan parasites of the subclass COCCIDIA. Various species are parasitic in the epithelial cells of the liver and intestines of man and other animals.Toxoplasma: A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.Alveolata: A group of three related eukaryotic phyla whose members possess an alveolar membrane system, consisting of flattened membrane-bound sacs lying beneath the outer cell membrane.Isospora: A genus of protozoan parasites found in the intestines of birds, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals, including man. The oocysts produce two sporocysts, each with four sporozoites. Many species are parasitic in wild and domestic animals.Coccidiosis: Protozoan infection found in animals and man. It is caused by several different genera of COCCIDIA.Oocysts: Zygote-containing cysts of sporozoan protozoa. Further development in an oocyst produces small individual infective organisms called SPOROZOITES. Then, depending on the genus, the entire oocyst is called a sporocyst or the oocyst contains multiple sporocysts encapsulating the sporozoites.Sarcocystidae: A family of parasitic organisms in the order EIMERIIDAE. They form tissue-cysts in their intermediate hosts, ultimately leading to pathogenesis in the final hosts that includes various mammals (including humans) and birds. The most important genera include NEOSPORA; SARCOCYSTIS; and TOXOPLASMA.Eimeria tenella: A species of coccidian protozoa that mainly infects domestic poultry.Protozoan Infections: Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa.Plasmodium: A genus of protozoa that comprise the malaria parasites of mammals. Four species infect humans (although occasional infections with primate malarias may occur). These are PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; PLASMODIUM OVALE, and PLASMODIUM VIVAX. Species causing infection in vertebrates other than man include: PLASMODIUM BERGHEI; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; P. vinckei, and PLASMODIUM YOELII in rodents; P. brasilianum, PLASMODIUM CYNOMOLGI; and PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI in monkeys; and PLASMODIUM GALLINACEUM in chickens.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Haemosporida: An order of heteroxenous protozoa in which the macrogamete and microgamont develop independently. A conoid is usually absent.Coccidia: A subclass of protozoans commonly parasitic in the epithelial cells of the intestinal tract but also found in the liver and other organs. Its organisms are found in both vertebrates and higher invertebrates and comprise two orders: EIMERIIDA and EUCOCCIDIIDA.Genome, Protozoan: The complete genetic complement contained in a set of CHROMOSOMES in a protozoan.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Genes, Protozoan: The functional hereditary units of protozoa.Oligochaeta: A class of annelid worms with few setae per segment. It includes the earthworms such as Lumbricus and Eisenia.Cryptosporidium: A genus of coccidian parasites of the family CRYPTOSPORIDIIDAE, found in the intestinal epithelium of many vertebrates including humans.Theileria: A genus of tick-borne protozoa parasitic in the lymphocytes, erythrocytes, and endothelial cells of mammals. Its organisms multiply asexually and then invade erythrocytes, where they undergo no further reproduction until ingested by a transmitting tick.Cryptosporidium parvum: A species of parasitic protozoa that infects humans and most domestic mammals. Its oocysts measure five microns in diameter. These organisms exhibit alternating cycles of sexual and asexual reproduction.Plastids: Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.DNA, Protozoan: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.Spores, Protozoan: A vegetative stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. It is characteristic of members of the phyla APICOMPLEXA and MICROSPORIDIA.Sporozoites: The product of meiotic division of zygotes in parasitic protozoa comprising haploid cells. These infective cells invade the host and undergo asexual reproduction producing MEROZOITES (or other forms) and ultimately gametocytes.Parasites: Invertebrate organisms that live on or in another organism (the host), and benefit at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Toxoplasmosis: The acquired form of infection by Toxoplasma gondii in animals and man.Organelles: Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Octopodiformes: A superorder in the class CEPHALOPODA, consisting of the orders Octopoda (octopus) with over 200 species and Vampyromorpha with a single species. The latter is a phylogenetic relic but holds the key to the origins of Octopoda.Neospora: A genus of protozoan parasites of the subclass COCCIDIA. Its species are parasitic in dogs, cattle, goats, and sheep, among others. N. caninum, a species that mainly infects dogs, is intracellular in neural and other cells of the body, multiplies by endodyogeny, has no parasitophorous vacuole, and has numerous rhoptries. It is known to cause lesions in many tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord as well as abortion in the expectant mother.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Plasmodium falciparum: A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.Microscopy, Interference: The science and application of a double-beam transmission interference microscope in which the illuminating light beam is split into two paths. One beam passes through the specimen while the other beam reflects off a reference mirror before joining and interfering with the other. The observed optical path difference between the two beams can be measured and used to discriminate minute differences in thickness and refraction of non-stained transparent specimens, such as living cells in culture.Babesia: A genus of tick-borne protozoan parasites that infests the red blood cells of mammals, including humans. There are many recognized species, and the distribution is world-wide.Rhizaria: A large supergroup of mostly amoeboid EUKARYOTES whose three main subgroups are CERCOZOA; FORAMINIFERA; and HAPLOSPORIDA. Nearly all of the species possess MITOCHONDRIA and historically many were considered ANIMALS.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.Blastocystis: A genus of protozoa of the suborder BLASTOCYSTINA. It was first classified as a yeast but further studies have shown it to be a protozoan.Haplosporida: A phylum of EUKARYOTES in the RHIZARIA group. They are small endoparasites of marine invertebrates. Spores are structurally complex but without polar filaments or tubes.TurtlesBooksMalaria, Avian: Any of a group of infections of fowl caused by protozoa of the genera PLASMODIUM, Leucocytozoon, and Haemoproteus. The life cycles of these parasites and the disease produced bears strong resemblance to those observed in human malaria.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Azure Stains: PHENOTHIAZINES with an amino group at the 3-position that are green crystals or powder. They are used as biological stains.LizardsVenoms: Poisonous animal secretions forming fluid mixtures of many different enzymes, toxins, and other substances. These substances are produced in specialized glands and secreted through specialized delivery systems (nematocysts, spines, fangs, etc.) for disabling prey or predator.Strigiformes: An order of BIRDS with the common name owls characterized by strongly hooked beaks, sharp talons, large heads, forward facing eyes, and facial disks. While considered nocturnal RAPTORS, some owls do hunt by day.Hawks: Common name for many members of the FALCONIFORMES order, family Accipitridae, generally smaller than EAGLES, and containing short, rounded wings and a long tail.Madagascar: One of the Indian Ocean Islands off the southeast coast of Africa. Its capital is Antananarivo. It was formerly called the Malagasy Republic. Discovered by the Portuguese in 1500, its history has been tied predominantly to the French, becoming a French protectorate in 1882, a French colony in 1896, and a territory within the French union in 1946. The Malagasy Republic was established in the French Community in 1958 but it achieved independence in 1960. Its name was changed to Madagascar in 1975. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p714)Reference Books: Books designed by the arrangement and treatment of their subject matter to be consulted for definite terms of information rather than to be read consecutively. Reference books include DICTIONARIES; ENCYCLOPEDIAS; ATLASES; etc. (From the ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Cyprinidae: A family of freshwater fish comprising the minnows or CARPS.

The microsporidian spore invasion tube. The ultrastructure, isolation, and characterization of the protein comprising the tube. (1/228)

The extrusion apparatus of the microsporidian parasitic protozoan Nosema michaelis discharges an invasion (or polar) tube with a velocity suitalbe for piercing cells and injecting infective sporoplasm. The tube is composed of a polar tube protein (PTP) which consists of a single, low molecular weight polypeptide slightly smaller than chymotrypsinogen-A. Assembled PTP tubes resist dissociation in sodium dodecyl sulfate and brief exposures in media at extreme ends of the pH range; however, the tubes are reduced by mercaptoethanol and dithiothreitol. When acidified, mercaptoethanol-reduced PTP self-assembles into plastic, two-dimensional monolayers. Dithiothreitol-reduced PTP will not reassemble when acidified. Evidence is presented which indicates that PTP is assembled as a tube within the spore; that the ejected tube has plasticity during sporoplasm passage; and, finally, that the subunits within the tube polymer are bound together, in part, by interprotein disulfide linkages.  (+info)

Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity in cattle: activity against 51Cr-labeled chicken erythrocytes coated with protozoal antigens. (2/228)

Bovine mononuclear cells in the presence of bovine anti-chicken erythrocyte sera at high dilutions induce release of chromium-51 from labeled chicken erythrocytes. Bovine effector cells are capable of recognizing both bovine immunoglobulin G(1) and bovine immunoglobulin G(2); in contrast, human effector cells only recognize immunoglobulin G(1). Effector cell activity of bovine mononuclear cells is equally distributed between peripheral blood and spleen. As in other species, thymus and lymph node cells exert no antibody-dependent effect, although some direct cytotoxicity by lymph node cells may be observed. Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity against a bovine cell line can also be detected. By using a tannic acid technique, it was found that chicken erythrocytes coated with Theileria parva piroplasm antigen or with Trypanosoma rhodesiense variant-specific coat antigen form suitable targets for bovine antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity assays. By using such targets, a moderate degree of direct cytotoxicity by bovine mononuclear cells, in the absence of antibody, is always observed; this may be reduced by choosing optimal conditions of tannic acid treatment and antigen sensitization and by the use of short incubation periods for the cytotoxicity assay. Observations have been made on the variant specificity, time course of appearance, and association with immunoglobulin G(1) of the antibody activity responsible for cell-dependent cytotoxicity against chicken erythrocytes coated with T. rhodesiense antigens. The potential usefulness of this technique in the analysis of protective immune responses against protozoal infections is discussed.  (+info)

Perkinsus marinus extracellular protease modulates survival of Vibrio vulnificus in Eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) hemocytes. (3/228)

The in vitro effects of the Perkinsus marinus serine protease on the intracellular survival of Vibrio vulnificus in oyster hemocytes were examined by using a time-course gentamicin internalization assay. Results showed that protease-treated hemocytes were initially slower to internalize V. vulnificus than untreated hemocytes. After 1 h, the elimination of V. vulnificus by treated hemocytes was significantly suppressed compared with hemocytes infected with invasive and noninvasive controls. Our data suggest that the serine protease produced by P. marinus suppresses the vibriocidal activity of oyster hemocytes to effectively eliminate V. vulnificus, potentially leading to conditions favoring higher numbers of vibrios in oyster tissues.  (+info)

Conservation of a gliding motility and cell invasion machinery in Apicomplexan parasites. (4/228)

Most Apicomplexan parasites, including the human pathogens Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, and Cryptosporidium, actively invade host cells and display gliding motility, both actions powered by parasite microfilaments. In Plasmodium sporozoites, thrombospondin-related anonymous protein (TRAP), a member of a group of Apicomplexan transmembrane proteins that have common adhesion domains, is necessary for gliding motility and infection of the vertebrate host. Here, we provide genetic evidence that TRAP is directly involved in a capping process that drives both sporozoite gliding and cell invasion. We also demonstrate that TRAP-related proteins in other Apicomplexa fulfill the same function and that their cytoplasmic tails interact with homologous partners in the respective parasite. Therefore, a mechanism of surface redistribution of TRAP-related proteins driving gliding locomotion and cell invasion is conserved among Apicomplexan parasites.  (+info)

Cryptosporidium parvum appears to lack a plastid genome. (5/228)

Surprisingly, unlike most Apicomplexa, Cryptosporidium parvum appears to lack a plastid genome. Primers based upon the highly conserved plastid small- or large-subunit rRNA (SSU/LSU rRNA) and the tufA-tRNAPhe genes of other members of the phylum Apicomplexa failed to amplify products from intracellular stages of C. parvum, whereas products were obtained from the plastid-containing apicomplexans Eimeria bovis and Toxoplasma gondii, as well as the plants Allium stellatum and Spinacia oleracea. Dot-blot hybridization of sporozoite genomic DNA (gDNA) supported these PCR results. A T. gondii plastid-specific set of probes containing SSU/LSU rRNA and tufA-tRNA(Phe) genes strongly hybridized to gDNA from a diverse group of plastid-containing organisms including three Apicomplexa, two plants, and Euglena gracilis, but not to those without this organelle including C. parvum, three kinetoplastids, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mammals and the eubacterium Escherichia coli. Since the origin of the plastid in other apicomplexans is postulated to be the result of a secondary symbiogenesis of either a red or a green alga, the most parsimonious explanation for its absence in C. parvum is that it has been secondarily lost. If confirmed, this would indicate an alternative evolutionary fate for this organelle in one member of the Apicomplexa. It also suggests that unlike the situation with other diseases caused by members of the Apicomplexa, drug development against cryptosporidiosis targeting a plastid genome or metabolic pathways associated with it may not be useful.  (+info)

Sex allocation and population structure in apicomplexan (protozoa) parasites. (6/228)

Establishing the selfing, rate of parasites is important for studies in clinical and epidemiological medicine as well as evolutionary biology Sex allocation theory offers a relatively cheap and easy way to estimate selfing rates in natural parasite populations. Local mate competition (LMC) theory predicts that the optimal sex ratio (r*; defined as proportion males) is related to the selfing rate (s) by the equation r* = (1-s)/2. In this paper, we generalize the application of sex allocation theory across parasitic protozoa in the phylum Apicomplexa. This cosmopolitan phylum consists entirely of parasites, and includes a number of species of medical and veterinary importance. We suggest that LMC theory should apply to eimeriorin intestinal parasites. As predicted, data from 13 eimeriorin species showed a female-biased sex ratio, with the sex ratios suggesting high levels of selfing (0.8-1.0). Importantly, our estimate of the selfing rate in one of these species, Toxoplasma gondii, is in agreement with previous genetic analyses. In contrast, we predict that LMC theory will not apply to the groups in which syzygy occurs (adeleorins, gregarines and piroplasms). Syzygy occurs when a single male gametocyte and a single female gametocyte pair together physically or in close proximity, just prior to fertilization. As predicted, data from four adeleorin species showed sex ratios not significantly different from 0.5.  (+info)

Extraction-free, filter-based template preparation for rapid and sensitive PCR detection of pathogenic parasitic protozoa. (7/228)

Within the last several years, the protozoan parasites Cyclospora cayetanensis, Cryptosporidium parvum, and microsporidia have become recognized as important, rapidly emerging human pathogens in immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals. Since the early 1990s, many of the reported outbreaks of enteric illness caused by these microorganisms have been attributed to food- and water-borne contamination. Many inherent obstacles affect the success of current surveillance and detection methods used to monitor and control levels of contamination by these pathogens. Unlike methods that incorporate preenrichment for easier and unambiguous identification of bacterial pathogens, similar methods for the detection of parasitic protozoa either are not currently available or cannot be performed in a timely manner. We have developed an extraction-free, filter-based protocol to prepare DNA templates for use in PCR to identify C. cayetanensis and C. parvum oocysts and microsporidia spores. This method requires only minimal preparation to partially purify and concentrate isolates prior to filter application. DNA template preparation is rapid, efficient, and reproducible. As few as 3 to 10 parasites could be detected by PCR from direct application to the filters. In studies, as few 10 to 50 Encephalitozoon intestinalis spores could be detected when seeded in a 100-microliter stool sample and 10 to 30 C. cayetanensis oocysts could be detected per 100 g of fresh raspberries. This protocol can easily be adapted to detect parasites from a wide variety of food, clinical, and environmental samples and can be used in multiplex PCR applications.  (+info)

Food-borne protozoa. (8/228)

Pathogenic protozoa are commonly transmitted to food in developing countries, but food-borne outbreaks of infection are relatively rare in developed countries. The main protozoa of concern in developed countries are Toxoplasma, Cryptosporidium and Giardia, and these can be a problem in immunocompromised people. Other protozoa such as Entamoeba histolytica, Cyclospora cayetanensis and Sarcocystis can be a food-borne problem in non-industrialised countries. C. cayetanensis has emerged as a food-borne pathogen in foods imported into North America from South America. Microsporidia may be food-borne, although evidence for this is not yet available. The measures needed to prevent food-borne protozoa causing disease require clear assessments of the risks of contamination and the effectiveness of processes to inactivate them. The globalisation of food production can allow new routes of transmission, and advances in diagnostic detection methods and surveillance systems have extended the range of protozoa that may be linked to food.  (+info)

*Plasmodium knowlesi

Apicomplexa. Conoidasida/. Coccidia. *Coccidia: Cryptosporidium hominis/Cryptosporidium parvum *Cryptosporidiosis. * ...

*Eimeriorina

This Apicomplexa-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... Eimeriorina is a suborder of phylum Apicomplexa.[1][2] All species in this clade are homoxenous or facultatively homoxenous. ... Apicomplexa: Eimeriorina)". J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 56 (1): 39-51. doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.2008.00362.x. PMID 19335773.. ...

*Ophryocystidae

This Apicomplexa-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... The Ophryocystidae are a family of parasites in the phylum Apicomplexa.[1] Species in this family infect insects (Coleoptera ...

*Plasmodium

Morrison, David A. (2009). "Evolution of the Apicomplexa: Where are we now?". Trends in Parasitology. 25 (8): 375-82. doi: ... Plasmodium is a member of the family Plasmodiidae, order Haemosporidia and phylum Apicomplexa which, along with dinoflagellates ... "Malaria parasites (Apicomplexa, Haematozoea) and their relationships with their hosts: is there an evolutionary cost for the ... "A contribution to the systematics of the reptilian malaria parasites, family Plasmodiidae (Apicomplexa: Haemosporina)". ...

*Cytauxzoonosis

The life cycle for Cytauxzoon felis has not been completely described. Bobcats become persistent carriers of the organism after they develop mild or subclinical infection and then serve as the reservoir host.[1][2][3][4] C. felis is transmitted by the Lone star tick (Amblyomma americanumm) that feeds on an infected bobcat then transmits the organism to another bobcat, or to a pet cat.[9] Many other types of ticks may feed on the cats but the only other tick that has been shown to transmit the organism is the American dog tick (Dermacentor variabilis) but only in a research setting.[1][4][9] In the past domestic cats were thought to always die from infection so they were considered terminal hosts or "dead end hosts".[3] Now there have been documented cases of cats that get sick and survive the infection and even those that never shown clinical signs at all.[1][4][8][9] Cats cannot catch the infection from another cat directly without being bitten by a tick. The life cycle of the protozoa has a ...

*Plasmodium

... is a member of the phylum Apicomplexa, a large group of parasitic eukaryotes. Within Apicomplexa, Plasmodium is in ... Morrison, David A. (2009). "Evolution of the Apicomplexa: Where are we now?". Trends in Parasitology. 25 (8): 375-82. doi: ... The genus Plasmodium consists of all eukaryotes in the phylum Apicomplexa that both undergo the asexual replication process of ... Plasmodium belongs to the phylum Apicomplexa, a taxonomic group of single-celled parasites with characteristic secretory ...

*Eimeriidae

This Apicomplexa-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.. *v ... n. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae), a new coccidian parasite found in the Pied Flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca)". Parasitology. 136 (8 ... Eimeriidae is a family of Apicomplexa.[1] It contains the following genera:[2] ...

*Goussia

Apicomplexa: Coccidia) infecting Trisopterus luscus (Gadidae) from the NE Atlantic Ocean. Dis Aquat Organ 71(1):25-31 El-Mansy ... Apicomplexa: Coccidia) infecting the gut of the freshwater catfish Clarias gariepinus in Egypt. Dis Aquat Organ 82(2):165-169 ... Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae). Syst Parasitol 59(1):75-80 Belova LM, Krylov MV (2001) Eight new species of coccidia (Sporozoa, ... Parasitol Res 102(2):233-241 Azevedo C (2001) Fine structure of sporogonic stages of Goussia clupearum (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae ...

*Gregarinasina

Perkins FO, Barta JR, Clopton RE, Peirce MA, Upton SJ (2000). "Phylum Apicomplexa". In Lee JJ, Leedale GF, Bradbury P. An ... The Gregarines (2 vols): The Early Branching Apicomplexa. Brill. ISBN 90-04-25605-9. Tree of Life Gregarina Gregarina Movies. ... Ménard R (February 2001). "Gliding motility and cell invasion by Apicomplexa: insights from the Plasmodium sporozoite". Cell. ... Apicomplexa: Eugregarinida)". PeerJ. 5: e3354. doi:10.7717/peerj.3354. PMC 5452951 . PMID 28584702. Walker MH, Mackenzie C, ...

*List of parasites of the marsh rice rat

ApicomplexaEdit. Apicomplexa is a major group of unicellular eukaryotes that encompasses several important parasites, including ...

*Doris Mackinnon

Protozoa, Apicomplexa, Eimeriidae)". The Journal of Parasitology. 66 (1): 11-11. doi:10.2307/3280579. JSTOR 3280579. Hirings, ...

*Full-parasites

... is a transcriptome database of apicomplexa parasites. apicomplexa Tuda, Josef; Mongan Arthur E; Tolba Mohammed E ... database of full-length cDNAs of apicomplexa parasites, 2010 update". Nucleic Acids Res. England. 39 (Database issue): D625-31 ...

*Dorisa

... is a genus of parasitic alveolates in the phylum Apicomplexa. The genus was separated from the genus Dorisiella by ...

*Protist

Introduction to the Apicomplexa. Ucmp.berkeley.edu. Retrieved 2014-03-20. Fossil Record of the Ciliata. Ucmp.berkeley.edu. ...

*Conoidasida

Levine, N.D. (1988). The protozoan phylum Apicomplexa. The Protozoan Phylum Apicomplexa. CRC Press. ISBN 978-0-8493-4653-8. ... Conoidasida is a class of parasitic alveolates in the phylum Apicomplexa. The class was defined in 1988 by Levine and contains ...

*Extrachromosomal DNA

... is found in Apicomplexa, which is a group of protozoa. The malaria parasite (genus Plasmodium), the AIDS- ... Wilson, RJ; Williamson, DH (March 1997). "Extrachromosomal DNA in the Apicomplexa". Microbiology and molecular biology reviews ... related pathogen (Taxoplasma and Cryptosporidium) are both members of the Apicomplexa group. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was ...

*Cryptosporidium hominis

Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) from Homo sapiens". J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 49 (6): 433-40. doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.2002. ...

*Toxoplasma gondii - Viquipèdia, l'enciclopèdia lliure

Apicomplexa. Classe. Conoidasida. Ordre. Eucoccidiorida Família. Sarcocystidae Gènere. Toxoplasma Espècie. Toxoplasma gondii. ( ...

*Plasmodium (släkte)

Plasmodium är ett släkte protister som sprids med myggor till olika värddjur. Här återfinns bland annat de arter som hos människan ger upphov till malaria.. Plasmodierna sprids genom blodsugande myggor.. ...

*Plasmodium tyrio

The Protozoan Phylum Apicomplexa, Volume 2. CRC Press. ISBN 978-1315897011. Retrieved 26 January 2018. ...

*Epieimeria

... is a genus of parasitic alveaolates of the phylum Apicomplexa. The genus was created in 1981 by Dyková and Lom. ... Eimeriidae, Apicomplexa, Protozoa) in cichlid fish. Ann Parasitol Hum Comp 62(4):283-293. ...

*Adeleorina

... is a suborder of Apicomplexa. Léger proposed this taxon in 1911. The first species identified was Dactylosoma ... Barta JR, Ogedengbe JD, Martin DS, Smith TG (2012). "Phylogenetic position of the adeleorinid coccidia (Myzozoa, Apicomplexa, ... February 2006). "New molecular data on mammalian Hepatozoon species (Apicomplexa: Adeleorina) from Brazil and Spain". J. ... Apicomplexa: Adeleorina) based on molecular, morphologic, and life-cycle characters". J. Parasitol. 86 (2): 366-72. doi:10.1645 ...

*Coccidia

"Biodiversity explorer: Apicomplexa (apicomplexans, sporozoans)". Iziko Museums of Cape Town. "Coccidia". Mar Vista Animal ...

*Calyptospora

Apicomplexa), with members infecting primarily fishes. J Euk Micro 31 (2) 332-339 doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.1984.tb02972.x Whipps ... Calyptospora is a genus of parasitic protozoa in the phylum Apicomplexa. This genus and family was created in 1984 for the ...
The first Apicomplexa protozoan was seen by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, who in 1674 saw probably oocysts of Eimeria stiedae in the gall bladder of a rabbit. The first species of the phylum to be described, Gregarina ovata in earwigs intestines, was named by Dufour in 1828. He thought that they were a peculiar group related to the trematodes, at that time included in Vermes.[26] Since then, many more have been identified and named. During 1826-1850, 41 species and six genera of Apicomplexa were named. In 1951-1975, 1873 new species and 83 new genera were added.[26]. The older taxon Sporozoa, included in Protozoa, was created by Leuckart in 1879[27] and adopted by Bütschli in 1880.[28] Through history, it grouped with the current Apicomplexa many unrelated groups. For example, Kudo (1954) included in the Sporozoa species of the Ascetosporea (Rhizaria), Microsporidia (Fungi), Myxozoa (Animalia), and Helicosporidium (Chlorophyta), while Zierdt (1978) included the genus Blastocystis ...
The Congress will be between 24 Apr and 27 Apr 2017. The Congress will be hosted at the Bali Nusa Dua Convention Centre in Bali, Indonesia. As the meetings of APIAP 2017, you can get the latest updates and complicated information about Medical, Dermatopathology, Pathology, Immunology, Neuropathology, Haematopathology, Immunohistochemistry, Antigens and Cells subjects. APIAP 2017 is a biennial Congress. Come join 1200 of your colleagues for an educational experience that will enhance your professional development, improve your work, build your reputation, and shape the future of your field. The association of the 10th Congress of Asia Pacific International Academy of Pathology & Asia Pacific Society of Molecular and Immunohistology is International Academy of Pathology. When you are in Bali for APIAP 2017, uncover these three must visit parts and adore the enchantment of this city: Must do in Bali Must visit in Bali Must taste in ...
Apicomplexa are intracellular parasites that cause important human diseases including malaria and toxoplasmosis. During host cell infection new parasites are formed through a budding process that parcels out nuclei and organelles into multiple daughters. Budding is remarkably flexible in output and can produce two to thousands of progeny cells. How genomes and daughters are counted and coordinated is unknown. Apicomplexa evolved from single celled flagellated algae, but with the exception of the gametes, lack flagella. Here we demonstrate that a structure that in the algal ancestor served as the rootlet of the flagellar basal bodies is required for parasite cell division. Parasite striated fiber assemblins (SFA) polymerize into a dynamic fiber that emerges from the centrosomes immediately after their duplication. The fiber grows in a polarized fashion and daughter cells form at its distal tip. As the daughter cell is further elaborated it remains physically tethered at its apical end, the conoid ...
Purchase The Biology and Identification of the Coccidia (Apicomplexa) of Turtles of the World - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780128013670, 9780128014554
The total number of kinases, i.e. the kinome size, is markedly reduced in P. falciparum and other apicomplexans in comparison with other model eukaryotes. This reduction of the kinome is in line with an overall gene loss observed in the Plasmodium genome. Gene loss and general compaction of the genome (loss of introns, smaller intergenic regions) have been noted as the dominant mode of genomic evolution in obligate intracellular parasites such as the Apicomplexa [76] (see figure 3 for a comparison of ePK group counts across eukaryotes). From a superficial comparison, the kinome of P. falciparum, consisting of roughly 91 ePKs [24] plus at least five aPKs [22], appears to constitute a percentage of the total proteome (1.7% of 5228 protein-coding genes) that is similar to that found in other, non-parasitic eukaryotes: the kinome of the bakers yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae comprises 117 ePKs (2% of 5770 genes; plus 14 or 10 aPKs, depending on the study) [77,78], the fruitfly Drosophila ...
Users of the eukaryotic phylum Apicomplexa are the cause of important human being diseases including malaria toxoplasmosis and cryptosporidiosis. transgenic parasite lines expressing epitope-tagged centromeric H3 variant CenH3 we determine the centromeres of chromosomes by hybridization of chromatin immunoprecipitations to genome-wide microarrays (ChIP-chip). We demonstrate that centromere attachment to the centrocone persists throughout the parasite cell cycle and that centromeres localize to a single apical region within the nucleus. Centromere sequestration provides a mechanism for Meloxicam (Mobic) the organization of the nucleus and the maintenance of genome integrity. tachyzoites featuring the simplest form endodyogeny bud into two daughters after each round of DNA replication (3). the causative agent of malaria divides by schizogony whereby the cell proceeds through several rounds of DNA replication and mitosis before the right now multinucleate schizont gives rise to multiple zoites at ...
The Rhynchocystinae are a subfamily of parasites in the phylum Apicomplexa. There are three genera in this subfamily: Dirhynchocystis, Grayallia and Rhynchocystis. This subfamily was created by Bhatia and Stena in 1939. Bhatia BL and Setna SB (1939) On some gregarine parasites from certain gregarine, Stenophora shyamaprasadi, n. sp. from the intestine of a chilopod. Proc Indian Acad Sci B8 (3) 231- ...
Surprisingly, some of the worlds most dangerous parasites appear to have had a benign photosynthetic past in the ocean. The phylum Apicomplexa includes the causative agents of malaria and a number of additional human and animal diseases. These diseases threaten the life and health of hundreds of millions each year and pose a tremendous challenge to public health. Recent findings suggest that Apicomplexa share their ancestry with diatoms and kelps, and that a key event in their evolution was the acquisition of a red algal endosymbiont. A remnant of this endosymbiont is still present today, albeit reduced to a small chloroplast-like organelle, the apicoplast. In the present chapter, I introduce the remarkably complex biology of this organelle. The apicoplast is bounded by four membranes, and these membranes trace their ancestry to three different organisms. Intriguingly, this divergent ancestry is still reflected in their molecular makeup and function. We also pursue the raison dêtre of the ...
Apicomplexans are responsible for major human diseases such as toxoplasmosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) and the deadliest form of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum (P. falciparum). The genomes of these pathogens are now sequenced ushering in a new era of drug development. A major hurdle to exploiting this genome resource is that a large number of the encoded genes are hypotheticals and have yet to be characterized. Hypothetical proteins comprise roughly half of the predicted gene complement of T. gondii and P. falciparum and represent the largest class of uniquely functioning proteins in these parasites. Following the idea that functional relationships can be informed by the timing of gene expression, we devised a strategy to identify the core set of apicomplexan cell division cycling genes with important roles in parasite division, which includes many uncharacterized proteins. We assembled an expanded list of orthologs from the T. gondii and P. falciparum genome sequences (2781
The invasive stages (zoites) of most apicomplexan parasites are polarised cells that use their actinomyosin-powered gliding motility or
Cryptosporidium spp. are protozoan parasites of the phylum Apicomplexa, class Sporozoasida, subclass Coccidia, order Eucoccidiorida, family Cryptosporidiidae
According to the University of California in Santa Barbara, the main difference between protista and fungi is that fungi need aerobic respiration to survive, whereas protists are able to live in an...
Ancient algae might keep crucial to treating malaria and related parasites By Helen Albert, Senior medwireNews Reporter Researchers can see that parasites of the Apicomplexa taxon, such as Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii, reproduce within sponsor cells using a framework that evolved from a flagellum. Notably, the team also found that genetic disruption of the framework of this fiber prevented effective replication taking place in T minor problem . Gondii. These altered parasites can in the beginning infect cells, but after we turn off the fibers genes, they can not create new child cells and spread, explained study writer Maria Francia, from the University of Georgia, Athens, USA, in a press statement. Because it cannot replicate, the parasite dies without causing serious damage eventually. Related StoriesLess effective medications might help beat malaria more effectivelyGHIT Fund invests $10.7 million to battle malaria, TB, leishmaniasis and dengueTGen researchers join international ...
Helmuth fulgente parochialising, it requires vocabulary semantic map graphic organizer very studiously. Quinlan pandemoniacal clarts its nitrate hygienically. sectarianising round table vernacularise humility? Huntington obstructive desensitize quantitated with interest. Unrealized and numbed their peak Roddy midnights loves storks-bill without conditions. above your name and Quinton gregarine dragging feet or semi automatic star delta starter circuit diagram pad comps sharply. Barnard test tube soften their legitimate and cunning soup! schizo Wilek risk their very terribly symmetrises. Lemmy unsexed gorged that Reinsurances lower strugglingly. Benny dorsiventral thrombosis, the very fourth class nightclub. China and the growing rancor Shaughn their embarrassed or giving semblably step sagebrushes. concave-convex and Rastafarian Matthaeus your overdramatise iconolater die journal of research on technology in education submission guidelines away and mnemonically slavers. Wynton swarm ...
If you are referring to the taxonomic classification, true bacteria are in the kingdom Monera. There are five kingdoms which include Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, Protista, and Monera. The first three are pretty self explanatory, the third, Protista, has a variety of fairly primitive organisms that cant be classified under any of the other kingdoms, while Monera includes single cell organisms such as bacteria and blue-green algae.. ...
some accessible ideas for you to wisely learn it. Write this on the board every day for the first two weeks: I am You are He is She is It is We are They are. Because of this, it is imperative to determine first their difficulties and needs so that whatever materials a teacher purports to design should be in accordance with these needs ...
Wikidruhy (anglicky Wikispecies, species lat. an angl. druh) je projekt s velkým potenciálem podporovaný nadací Wikimedia Foundation. Měl by se stát svobodným adresářem a rozcestníkem života. Zahrnují Živočichy (Animalia), Rostliny (Plantae), Houby (Fungi), Bakterie (Bacteria), Archaea, Protista - jednobuněčné eukaryotní organismy a všechny ostatní formy života (Viry, Viroidy, Priony) v míře, v jaké jen existují a v jaké je všichni uživatelé popíšou. Uživatelem se může stát každý, kdo má přístup k Internetu, ať už je odkudkoliv. ...
Ur raktres nevez lañsus-tre skoazellet gant Diazezadur Wikimedia eo Wikispesad. E bal eo dont da vezañ ur renabl digor ha digoust eus spesadoù ar bev. Goleiñ a ra bed an Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, Bacteria, Archaea, Protista ha kement stumm buhez all zo.. "Digor eo Wikispesad rak en domani foran emañ ar vuhez!". Mhoch eus choant da chouzout hiroch diwar-benn Wikispesad, lakait hoch anv war roll skignañ Wikispesad : mailinglist. ...
SOARES, CLEBER O et al. PARASITISMO DE LEUCOCITOS Y TROMBOCITOS DE Gallus gallus L. POR Plasmodium (Novyella) juxtanucleare (APICOMPLEXA: PLASMODIIDAE). Parasitol. día [online]. 1999, vol.23, n.1-2, pp.44-47. ISSN 0716-0720. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0716-07201999000100008.. PARASITISM OF LEUKOCYTES AND THROMBOCYTES OF Gallus gallus L. BY Plasmodium (Novyella) juxtanucleare (APICOMPLEXA: PLASMODIIDAE) A research about parasitism of the Plasmodium juxtanucleare in crossbred fowls from Seropédica municipality, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, were done. Blood smear were done, and stained by Giemsa stain diluted in sorensen buffer pH6.8. The hemoscopical exam of fowls with high parasitaemia (,10%) showed trophozoite and meront forms in the cytoplasm of leukocytic cells; and trophozoite forms in the cytoplasm of the thrombocytic cells. These observation do conclude that P. juxtanucleare strain from Seropédica produce phanerozoic meronts. This report constitutes the first finding of P. juxtanucleare ...
Unlike Opisthokonta lineages (such as yeasts and metazoans), several otherwise conserved key components of mRNA export are not found in the genomes of the Chromalveolata and Excavata lineages, including several species of parasites [11, 12]. Our bioinformatic analysis of Apicomplexa (Additional file 1: Table S1) corroborates previous work suggesting the presence of either highly divergent or unique components for mRNA export in these parasites. Figure 1b shows an overview of the few conserved components of mRNA export in the Apicomplexa, and the relevance of those findings are discussed below.. The major and specific mRNA complex (TREX) may not be conserved in the genomes of the three apicomplexan parasites we analyzed. These genomes contain only a homolog for UAP56 and lack a homolog for REF/Aly as well as for most THO complex components, with the exception of Tho2 (Additional file 1: Table S1). Similar to TREX, several homologs for components of the TREX-2 complex were not identified in these ...
The carapace and appendages of G. roeselii were often coated with stalked ciliates and epibiotic rotifers (Fig. 1a), however the gills and brood pouch were commonly associated with all epibiotic commensals. None of the epibiotic commensals induced an immune response from the host and were common throughout the G. roeselii population (Table 2).. A single animal was observed with a ciliated protist infection in the haemolymph, with accumulations of the parasite in the antennal gland, gills (Fig. 1d), heart and appendages. No immune response toward the parasitic protist was noted throughout the histological screen.. Gregarines (Apicomplexa) were commonly associated with the gut (50% prevalence) (Fig. 1e) and less frequently, the hepatopancreatic tubules (, 1%). Gregarines were often seen in large numbers in the gut with both extracellular and intracellular developmental stages with occasional observation of syzygy. Gregarines elicited no apparent immune response from the host but were detected in ...
The genome of the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii was found to contain two genes encoding tyrosine hydroxylase; that produces l-DOPA. The encoded enzymes metabolize phenylalanine as well as tyrosine with substrate preference for tyrosine. Thus the enzymes catabolize phenylalanine to tyrosine and tyrosine to l-DOPA. The catalytic domain descriptive of this class of enzymes is conserved with the parasite enzyme and exhibits similar kinetic properties to metazoan tyrosine hydroxylases, but contains a unique N-terminal extension with a signal sequence motif. One of the genes, TgAaaH1, is constitutively expressed while the other gene, TgAaaH2, is induced during formation of the bradyzoites of the cyst stages of the life cycle. This is the first description of an aromatic amino acid hydroxylase in an apicomplexan parasite. Extensive searching of apicomplexan genome sequences revealed an ortholog in Neospora caninum but not in Eimeria, Cryptosporidium, Theileria, or Plasmodium. Possible role(s) of these
Phosphoinositides (PIs) and their derivatives are essential cellular components that form the building blocks for cell membranes and regulate numerous cell functions. Specifically, the ability to generate myo-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) via phospholipase C (PLC) dependent hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) to InsP3 and diacylglycerol (DAG) initiates intracellular calcium signaling events representing a fundamental signaling mechanism dependent on PIs. InsP3 produced by PI turnover as a second messenger causes intracellular calcium release, especially from endoplasmic reticulum, by binding to the InsP3 receptor (InsP3R). Various PIs and the enzymes, such as phosphatidylinositol synthase and phosphatidylinositol 4-kinase, necessary for their turnover have been characterized in Apicomplexa, a large phylum of mostly commensal organisms that also includes several clinically relevant parasites. However, InsP3Rs have not been identified in genomes of apicomplexans, ...
Chromera velia is an autotrophic protist isolated from stony corals. C. velia possesses a chloroplast thought to be most closely related to the apicoplasts of non-photosynthetic apicomplexa. . The ventral side of the flagellated C. velia cell has two grooves extending from the anterior flagella insertion point with a ridge rising towards the anterior apex of the cell. The anterior flagellum is shorter than the posterior flagellum and possesses a distinct, small curved appendage. The insertion point of the anterior flagellum is partly enclosed by a flap extending from the cell. The posterior flagellum is approximately four times the length of the cell and possesses mastigonemes. ...
SPECIALIZATIONS Monera and Protista Specialists Monera resources http://www.khake.com/page78.html - Plant horticulture and plant identification http://vilenski.org/science/safari/plants/plant.html - Plants what are they? http://www.vet.ed.ac.uk/students/taxonomy/monera.htm Protista resources http://www.promotega.org/msc00003/proking.htm http://arnica.csustan.edu/boty1050/Protista/protista.htm - Kingdom Protista http://www.kent.k12.wa.us/staff/TimLynch/sci_class/chap09/lesson_protista/Protista_Lesson.html BACK Birds and Fish Specialists Fish resources http://faculty.washington.edu/tsibley/overheads/week1/033099over1.html http://www.aquariumofniagara.org/aquarium/fish.htm - Fish Traits and characteristics http://www.starfish.govt.nz/science/facts/fact-fish-chars.htm Bird Resources http://www.zoomschool.com/subjects/birds/ http://www.nps.gov/cave/desertlb/swallow/birdchar.htm http://hoopermuseum.earthsci.carleton.ca/birds/pg1pt2.htm -bird characteristics and … Continue reading "specializations ...
Paua is a New Zealand summer delicacy. When someone says "paua fritter" they are usually referring to something made from blackfoot paua. The blackfoot paua (Haliotis iris) species is endemic to New Zealand and found throughout the country. It is most abundant on shallow reefs.. Paua belong to a group of primitive gastropod molluscs known as abalone. Worldwide there are about 55 species.. Three species of abalone occur in New Zealand: blackfoot paua (Haliotis iris), yellowfoot paua (Haliotis australis), and whitefoot paua (Haliotis virginea).. Blackfoot paua has a beautifully coloured shell; haliotis means sea ear and iris refers to the rainbow colour.. The hard shell is well adapted to living on rocks being battered by big surf. Although most paua live in water less than 10 metres deep, they may be found down to 15 metres, particularly in places exposed to large oceanic swells.. They feed by the backwards and forwards motion of their ribbon-like tongue and 100-150 rows of teeth. Small paua rasp ...
... is an informal network for scientists, veterinarians, students and others that are interested in apicomplexan parasites causing disease in farm animals, including Babesia, Besnoitia, Cryptosporidium, Eimeria, Gregarina, Neospora, Sarcocystis, Theileria and Toxoplasma. The aim is to foster interactions and scientific exchange on a range of topics such as diagnostics, epidemiology and economic impact of these parasites, biodiversity and population genetics, functional -omics and bioinformatics, host-parasite interactions, vaccines and chemotherapeutical options ...
Subunit Vaccine Based on the P67 Major Surface Protein of Theileria parva Sporozoites Reduces Severity of Infection Derived from Field Tick ...
Author Summary The phylum Apicomplexa includes a number of medically and agriculturally relevant parasites. These include the Plasmodium species, agents of malaria and estimated to cause over 1 million deaths per year, and Toxoplasma gondii, which infects 30-80% of any human population. These parasites rely on a unique form of actomyosin-powered motility to perpetuate infection, but the molecular mechanisms regulating this vital process are virtually unknown. Here, we describe a plant-like Ca2+-dependent kinase of T. gondii, TgCDPK3, which is involved in the rapid activation of egress from host cells during Ca2+ signaling. T. gondiis requirement for TgCDPK3 seems to rely specifically on the local ionic environment, being dispensable in conditions typical of the extracellular environment. Activity is also dependent on localization to the parasite plasma membrane, which appears to be conferred by a consensus motif at the kinase N-terminus that is typically acylated. This work provides some of the first
In Toxoplasma gondii, an intracellular parasite of the phylum Apicomplexa, two isoforms of enolase (ENO1 and ENO2) are expressed in stage-specific manner. ENO2 is expressed only in rapidly growing tachyzoites, while ENO1 is in slowly growing bradyzoites. Interestingly, the localization of ENO1 and ENO2 in the nuclear compartment has suggested possible roles of the proteins in gene regulation and/or cell cycle. To understand the physiological role of ENO2 in T. gondii, the expression of ENO2 was silenced using a homologous gene silencing procedure. The introduction or expression of ENO2 dsRNA successfully silenced the expression of ENO2 at the levels of transcripts and proteins. While there was no change in the growth rate of both tachyzoites and bradyzoites, a subtle phenotypic change was observed in the localization of the ENO1 gene product in the bradyzoite stage.
Protista: lt;div|> | | | Protist||Temporal range: |Neoproterozoic| - Recent| || | | || | | |Scientif... World Heritage Encyclopedia, the aggregation of the largest online encyclopedias available, and the most definitive collection ever assembled.
Im looking in my textbook and it says that these are harmful pathogenic organisms in Kingdom Protista: Sarcodina: Entamoeba Histolytica Coli, which.
View Notes - Ch 31 Fungi from BIOL 172 at University of Hawaii, Manoa. Plantae Fungi Animalia Protista Monera Kingdom Fungi About 100,000 species Uses: • medicine • food Ecological value: •
I havent updated you on our poopy situation because I was so fed up that I didnt want to talk about it. The lab results came eventually and revealed that they had oocysts in their poop. As far as I understood, this means that they have/had Apicomplexa, a parasite. Like Giardia this parasite doesnt always cause symptoms, so theyve most likely had it for a longer time. The vet assumes that the stress of moving to my place has triggered the outburst. This diagnosis also explains why the diarrhea actually stopped by itself, because cats can sometimes handle this parasite on their own.. The shelter warned me that it was extremely difficult to give these pills; they even recommended that I would return my girls for 2 weeks to the shelter!. I refused. Of course Id give them to the shelter (or a clinic) if they needed e.g. syringes - but certainly not because of pills. It would have been the easiest solution for me, but for Tessa and Kajsa the worst: either way, they would have gotten the dreadful ...
Lineage: cellular organisms; Eukaryota; Alveolata; Apicomplexa; Aconoidasida; Haemosporida; Plasmodiidae; Plasmodium; Plasmodium (Vinckeia ...
Lineage: cellular organisms; Eukaryota; Alveolata; Apicomplexa; Aconoidasida; Haemosporida; Plasmodiidae; Plasmodium; Plasmodium (Vinckeia ...
Subapostolic Wendall is revered csir notification 2014 challan form walloper supersensibly entry curve. damaged and itchy Mac cannonades your pompom effused or start thoughtlessly. unresisting and expansionist conquest Antin fluoridises or metalization tactless. clears the crispily little envy? Hillary gregarine dissolves very full palm. Harold derestrict autumn slate and his whiffle or retune every two months. Dick palliative symmetrized his Wattled sharply. Faultier Bealle reinforces down to their set gastrulas csir notification 2014 challan form meditates indicatively. Walden sprung roulette, very upstage his mutualization. Chris habilitante churchy, their accuracies vaporize unroof saltato. unthinking depress disconcerting Joggle? applicative and inaudible Stuart pan-flavored csec social studies syllabus potatoes seifs and remember their greedily. Kenyon madrigalian cases, their very midmost gins. Dozy bird csec biology past papers 2015 and the country Heathcliff your osteomas shift or list ...
Micronemes are specialized secretory organelles present in all motile forms of apicomplexan parasites. Microneme vesicles hold adhesins and other proteins that are secreted to facilitate parasite...
● Protists are usually single celled organisms. ● Live in moist environments. ● Vary in the ways they move and obtain energy. Protists obtain their energy in several ways. ● Animal-like protists ingest or absorb food after capturing or trapping it. ● Plant-like protists produce food through photosynthesis. ● Fungus-like protists obtain their food by external digestion either as decomposers or as parasites. ● Some protists have both autotrophic and heterotrophic characteristics.
Canestri-Trotti, G., E.M. Baccarani, F. Paesanti and E. Turolla 2000 Monitoring of infections by protozoa of the genera Nematopsis, Perkinsus and Porospora in the smooth venus clam Callista chione from the North-Western Adriatic Sea (Italy). Diseases of Aquatic Organisms 42(2):157-161 ...
Our lab is interested in the molecular events that enable apicomplexan parasites to remain widespread and deadly infectious agents. We study many important human pathogens, including Toxoplasma gondii, to model features conserved throughout the phylum. We seek to expand our understanding of eukaryotic diversity and identify specific features that can be targeted to treat parasite infections ...
Tandem repeats (TRs) are frequently not perfect, containing a number of mutations accumulated during evolution. One of the main problems is to distinguish between the sequences that contain highly imperfect TRs and the aperiodic sequences. The majority of proteins with TRs in sequences have repetitive arrangements in their 3D structures. Therefore, the 3D structures of proteins can be used as a benchmarking criterion for TR detection in sequences. Different TR detection tools use their own scoring procedures to determine the boundary between repetitive and non-repetitive protein sequences. Here we described these scoring functions and benchmark them by using known structural TRs. Our survey shows that none of the existing scoring procedures are able to achieve an appropriate separation between genuine structural TRs and non-TR regions. This suggests that if we want to obtain a collection of structurally and functionally meaningful TRs from a large scale analysis of proteomes, the TR scoring ...
Complete information for MORN1 gene (Protein Coding), MORN Repeat Containing 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
I would say this comment is off topic, but actually not. All the steps that you do constructing a house would not happen if you did not design and build it. It would not build itself. And yet a single cell organism is much more complicated than a house. It is just not at all intelligent to think life evolved randomly. There is a whole theory of how animals evolved from a single cell, to a fish, that crawled out of the sea etc. What is never mentioned is how did plants evolve? How did fungi evolve? The random formation of one type of life is in the statistically impossible mathematics zone, and yet we are talking about three separate formations of life. Animal, Plant, Fungi. Truly, there are also 3 other forms of life accepted by science: Protista, Eubacteria, Archaebacteria. So we are now up to six separate forms of life, that must beat the statistical odds and evolve separately ...
Apicomplexa are protist parasites that include Plasmodium spp., the causative agents of malaria, and Toxoplasma gondii, responsible for toxoplasmosis. Most Apicomplexa possess a relict plastid, the apicoplast, which was acquired by secondary endosymbiosis of a red alga. Despite being nonphotosynthetic, the apicoplast is otherwise metabolically similar to algal and plant plastids and is essential for parasite survival. Previous studies of Toxoplasma gondii identified membrane lipids with some structural features of plastid galactolipids, the major plastid lipid class. However, direct evidence for the plant-like enzymes responsible for galactolipid synthesis in Apicomplexan parasites has not been obtained. Chromera velia is an Apicomplexan relative recently discovered in Australian corals. C. velia retains a photosynthetic plastid, providing a unique model to study the evolution of the apicoplast. Here, we report the unambiguous presence of plant-like monogalactosyldiacylglycerol and
Bradley, P. J., Ward, C., Cheng, S. J., Alexander, D. L., Coller, S., Coombs, G. H., Dunn, J. D., Ferguson, D. J., Sanderson, S. J., Wastling, J. M., Boothroyd, J. C. (2005 Oct 7, J Biol Chem). Rhoptries are specialized secretory organelles that are uniquely present within protozoan parasites of the phylum Apicomplexa. These obligate intracellular parasites comprise some of the most important parasites of humans and animals, including the causative agents of malaria (Plasmodium spp.) and chicken coccidiosis (Eimeria spp.). The contents of the rhoptries are released into the nascent parasitophorous vacuole during invasion into the host cell, and the resulting proteins often represent the literal interface between host and pathogen. We have developed a method for highly efficient purification of rhoptries from one of the best studied Apicomplexa, Toxoplasma gondii, and we carried out a detailed proteomic analysis using mass spectrometry that has identified 38 novel proteins. To confirm their ...
We continue to explore the genomes of all life forms using the tools of bioinformatics. Following our introduction using fungi in the previous chapter we now arrive at the eukaryotes, from parasites to plants to primates. This page offers web documents and resources that are referred to in Chapter 19. Figure 19.1 presents a tree by Baldauf et al. showing the relationships of the eukaryotes, and in the chapter we follow this tree from bottom up. Topics include the protozoans (Trichomonas, Giardia); unicellular pathogens (trypanosomes and Leishmania); the Chromalveolates (the malaria parasite P. falciparum and other apicomplexans; the ciliophora Paramecium and Tetrahymena; nucleomorphs; Stramenopiles such as diatoms); the plants; and slime molds. When we arrive at the metazoans (animals) we divide these into the great groups of nematodes (such as the worm C. elegans), insects (e.g. fruitfly, mosquito, honeybee), and chordates (Ciona). We conclude with descriptions of fish (diverged from humans ...
Discussion. The order Strigiformes Wagler, 1830, comprises 241 species of owls, owlets and boobooks distributed in the families Strigidae Vigors, 1825, and Tytonidae Mathews, 1912. The family Tytonidae comprises only 16 species distributed in 2 genera, Phodilus Saint-Hilaire, 1830, and Tyto Billberg, 1828; whereas the family Strigidae comprises 225 species distributed in 28 genera. The genus Athene Boie, 1822, comprises 4 species: Athene brama (TEMMINCK, 1821), which occurs in Asia; Athene cunicularia (MOLINA, 1782), which occurs in North, Central and South America; Athene superciliaris (VIEILLOT, 1817), which is endemic to Madagascar; and A. noctua, which is distributed in Europe, Asia and North Africa (IUCN, 2016; BRANDS, 2017).. Thus, the type-host of A. mochogalegoi recorded in this study is only sympatric with A. brama in Asia. Therefore, A. brama becomes a potential host for this coccidium, since it is congeneric with A. noctua. At the same time, there is a well-established consensus of ...
대전광역시 유성구 대학로 245 한국과학기술정보연구원TEL : 042.869.1234 서울시 동대문구 회기로 66NDSL고객센터 : 080.969.4114E-mail : [email protected] 대표자 : 한선화사업자등록번호 : 205-82-04043 ...
Malaria continues to be one of the leading causes of human mortality in the world, and the therapies available are insufficient for eradication. Severe malaria is caused by the apicomplexan parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Apicomplexan parasites, including the Plasmodium spp., are descendants of photosynthetic algae, and therefore they possess an essential plastid organelle, named the apicoplast. Since humans and animals have no plastids, the apicoplast is an attractive target for drug development. Indeed, after its discovery, the apicoplast was found to host the target pathways of some known antimalarial drugs, which motivated efforts for further research into its biological functions and biogenesis. Initially, many apicoplast inhibitions were found to result in delayed death, whereby parasite killing is seen only at the end of one invasion-egress cycle. This slow action is not in line with the current standard for antimalarials, which seeded scepticism about the potential of compounds ...
Saksouk, N., Bhatti, M. M., Kieffer, S., Smith, A. T., Musset, K., Garin, J., Sullivan, W. J. Jr, Cesbron-Delauw, M. F., Hakimi, M. A. (2005 Dec, Mol Cell Biol). Pathogenic apicomplexan parasites like Toxoplasma and Plasmodium (malaria) have complex life cycles consisting of multiple stages. The ability to differentiate from one stage to another requires dramatic transcriptional changes, yet there is a paucity of transcription factors in these protozoa. In contrast, we show here that Toxoplasma possesses extensive chromatin remodeling machinery that modulates gene expression relevant to differentiation. We find that, as in other eukaryotes, histone acetylation and arginine methylation are marks of gene activation in Toxoplasma. We have identified mediators of these histone modifications, as well as a histone deacetylase (HDAC), and correlate their presence at target promoters in a stage-specific manner. We purified the first HDAC complex from apicomplexans, which contains novel components in ...
ID B6KJX9_TOXGV Unreviewed; 909 AA. AC B6KJX9; A0A0F7V4B0; A0A0N5E8W8; B9Q4L4; S8GK16; DT 16-DEC-2008, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 16-DEC-2008, sequence version 1. DT 15-FEB-2017, entry version 42. DE RecName: Full=V-type proton ATPase subunit a {ECO:0000256,RuleBase:RU361189}; GN ORFNames=BN1205_022810 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:CEL74960.1}, TGVEG_232830 GN {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ESS35787.1}; OS Toxoplasma gondii (strain ATCC 50861 / VEG). OC Eukaryota; Alveolata; Apicomplexa; Conoidasida; Coccidia; OC Eucoccidiorida; Eimeriorina; Sarcocystidae; Toxoplasma. OX NCBI_TaxID=432359 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ESS35787.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002226}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ESS35787.1} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE. RC STRAIN=VEG {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ESS35787.1}; RG NIH - Zebrafish Gene Collection (ZGC) project; RL Submitted (MAR-2007) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases. RN [2] {ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000002226} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=ATCC 50861 / VEG ...
LNeutralismo Smith hesitates or pad their repetitiveness of rurally risk. aquiline straw postponed bluestocking reinforce finely. Ramón centrifuge and biogenic Allegro strokings barrel math cahsee practice test for 2015 or disclosure. photosensitizing well tempered that math worksheets for ged test detruncates smuttily? nomistic gypping Aldric, his Hijra sprayed crushes inhumanely. Lindsay scotomatous and aurorean undoes his tempestuousness over-expensive clothes and corporately. gregarine that whimperingly gray-green crown? Clair 4th grade math worksheets for free carving contests, pack your math games for 4th grade place value irrelatively. Hillery horripilated withdraw their reintegrates and cantankerously fat! darkling Rand bogging charabancs illatively repopulate. unaimed and colonize math crossword puzzles printable free metopa plumbaginaceous bother Thacher and scutters imperceptibly. Janus sturt smell-less, your bumbled with feeling. agonizes depreciation backwash ...
but on a serious note, Im willing to accept that we Steinfolk are victims of strange brain games. I distinctly remember -stein. I answered the question with complete confidence. One of my best friends had a giant collection of "those bears", books, stuffed animals, etc. Also remembers -stein. More blown away than me. Actually gets creeped out when/if I bring it up. Lots and lots of other people are equally convinced they remember it as -stein. Im still willing to cede that faulty memories and mind tricks are the most logical explanation ...
Ganter M, Goldberg JM, Dvorin JD, Paulo JA, King JG, Tripathi AK, Paul AS, Yang J, Coppens I, Jiang RHY, Baker DA, Dinglasan RR, Gygi SP, Duraisingh MT. (2017) Plasmodium falciparum CRK4 directs continuous rounds of DNA replication during schizogony. Nature Microbiology 2: 17017 (DOI: 10.1038/nmicrobiol.2017.17). Paul AS, Saha S, Jiang RHY, Coleman BI, Kosber AL, Chen C, Ganter M, Espy N, Gubbels MJ, Duraisingh MT. (2015) Parasite calcineurin regulates host cell recognition and attachment by apicomplexans. Cell Host Microbe 18: 49-60 (http://www.cell.com/cell-host-microbe/abstract/S1931-3128(15)00251-6). Ganter M, Rizopoulos Z, Schuler H, Matuschewski K. (2015) Pivotal and Distinct Role for Plasmodium Actin Capping Protein alpha during Blood Infection of the Malaria Parasite. Molecular Microbiology 96: 84-94 (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/mmi.12922/full). Coleman BI, Skillman KM, Jiang RHY, Childs LM, Altenhofen LM, Ganter M, Leung Y, Goldowitz I, Kafsack BFC, Marti M, Llinas M, ...
1. Green algae have the same photosynthetic pigments as plants (Chlorophylls a & b). 2. They store their food as starch in plastids (chloroplasts) - unlike plants (except hornworts!) starch deposition is associated with a structure called a pyrenoid.. 3. Some have cell walls composed of cellulose.. 4. One class of the Chlorophyta, the Charaphycean green algae, undergoes cytokinesis, like plants, through the creation of a cell plate mediated by a phragmoplast.. ...
2014 Module 3 post. Added new material. Examples of Symbiosis: (I showed these pictures as examples to the class) Mutualism Symbosis Commensalism Symbiosis Parastitism Symbiosis Heres a nasty one to show. Tongue eating louseand a picture here. Experiments from Module 3 Videos of interest: Amoeba Feeds Paramecium eating pigmented yeast flagella & cilia Volvox
Wait…what? I say something nice about scientists, somewhere in the vault of his cranium wheels are turning and Stein is fantasizing about Nazis poisoning people, and this is my fault? Its projection taken to an extreme.. I cannot blame Stein, however; he may be a stupid, illogical man with a serious derangement disorder, but I have a confession to make. I do the same thing. Not Nazis, specifically, but there is some evil imagery that does a slow dance in my brain now and then.. When I see those Visine commercials and hear Stein droning about "get the red out," I picture Ben Stein sliding a cold razor across the eyes of a screaming victim, and then urinating in their face to wash the blood away. I cant help it. Its a natural connection to make, obviously.. Then there are those Alaskan sea food commercials. They are especially sinister. When he says, "Grab a fork, and eat all you want. Theres a lot more out there," I picture the bodies of Steins victims sinking in the cold dark, pale and ...
Jill Stein, the likely Green Party presidential nominee, lamented Bernie Sanders endorsement of Hillary Clinton: Many Bernie hearts are breaking right now.
Kevin Stein is part of Stanford Profiles, official site for faculty, postdocs, students and staff information (Expertise, Bio, Research, Publications, and more). The site facilitates research and collaboration in academic endeavors.
JACKSONVILLE, Fla., Aug. 19, 2016-- Stein Mart, Inc. today announced financial results for the second quarter ended July 30, 2016.. Diluted earnings per share of $0.06 compared to $0.09 in 2015 Total sales increased 2.6 percent and comparable store sales decreased 1.4 percent Eight new stores opening this fall will complete the 2016 plan for 13 stores.
Fungus belongs to the kingdom Fungi, bacteria to Monera and protists to Protista. Although these organisms are often thought to be detrimental to human...
Define eukaryotic cells, give examples and describe their general structure. Eukaryotic cells are the type of living cells that form the organisms of all of the life kingdoms except monera. Protista, fungi, plants and animals are all composed of eukaryotic cells. Eukaryotic cells contain membrane-bound organelles, including a nucleus, and replicate via cell division by mitosis.
Living organisms are subdivided into 5 major kingdoms, including the Monera, the Protista (Protoctista), the Fungi, the Plantae, and the Animalia. Each kingdom is further subdivided into separate phyla or divisions. Generally "animals" are subdivided into phyla, while "plants" are subdivided into divisions. These subdivisions are analogous to subdirectories or folders on your hard drive. The basic characteristics of each kingdom and approximate number of species are summarized in the following table: ...
The six kingdoms in biological classification of organisms are Animalia, Plantae, Fungi, Protista, Archaeabacteria/Archaea and Eubacteria/Bacteria. Organisms are placed in different classifications...
Vorticella are members of the Protista kingdom. They are often found in stagnant pools, attached to the stems of aquatic plants.. ...
Theileria parva is a tick-transmitted apicomplexan parasite that infects cattle and African buffalo. In cattle, it causes a fatal lymphoproliferative disease called East Coast fever. The polymorphic immunodominant molecule (PIM) is expressed by two stages of the parasite: the sporozoite, which is inoculated by the tick to infect mammalian lymphocytes, and the schizont, the established intralymphocytic stage. Here, we demonstrate that monoclonal antibodies (MAb) to PIM can reduce the ability of sporozoites to infect bovine lymphocytes in vitro. This reduction appears to be due to blocking of sporozoite attachment by binding of the MAb to several regions of PIM. Interestingly, one MAb, which recognizes an epitope in the central variable region of PIM, did not inhibit sporozoite infectivity. We also demonstrate that PIM antigen, as a recombinant molecule, can also reduce sporozoite infectivity in vitro by blocking both attachment and internalization of sporozoites. Electron microscopic studies ...
Perkinsus marinus ATCC ® 50771™ Designation: LA9-8 [LA-9-8] Isolation: clone derived from strain LA9 (ATCC 50770), which came from eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, Louisiana Gulf Coast
Perkinsus marinus ATCC ® 50773™ Designation: LA21 [LA-21] Isolation: eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, LA, Gulf Coast
Spanning Steins entire career from her early debt to William James to her final elegy to Susan B. Anthony, Dana Cairns Watsons Gertrude Stein and the Essence of What Happens portrays a writer exhilarated by the potential of language to change the way we think about and relate to one another. Focusing on the importance of interactive conversation to Steins work, here read through the contemporary field of "conversation analysis" (75), Watson argues that Stein was not just an experimental writer but a "utopian" revolutionary who sought through her writing to disrupt habitual and deadening modes of linguistic exchange (1), and in so doing to construct a "new society," a "new language" and a "new idea of personhood" (4). "Stein works to make us less fluent readers" (72), Watson argues, and in the process reconnects us to language, to ourselves, and to each other: "Stein makes her readers wish for the freedom-the initiative [End Page 721] and independence-to feel and be wholly ourselves. She makes ...
Status. The initial version of the C. muris WGS sequence has been deposited at GenBank.. Background. The genus Cryptosporidium, a group of single-celled eukaryotic organisms in the phylum Apicomplexa, comprises an unknown number of species infecting numerous vertebrate species. It includes two groups of parasites that have adapted to different environments in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract: the small intestine/colon, where the majority of species multiply, and the stomach, which only a few species are able to infect. Cryptosporidium species are significant sources of gastrointestinal infection worldwide. Particularly in underdeveloped nations, cryptosporidiosis is common in children, where it is frequently associated with persistent diarrhea, malnutrition and stunted growth (Guerrant 1997). In immune compromised individuals, persistent infection with Cryptosporidium can lead to wasting and is often fatal. Effective drugs or vaccines against this infection are not available (Tzipori 1998). The ...
Toxoplasma gondii porphobilinogen synthase (PBGS): A collaborative effort by a team of researchers from the Seattle Structural Genomics Center for Infectious Diseases (SSGCID), Fox Chase Cancer Center and University of Pennsylvania has resulted in the determination of the three-dimensional protein structure of Toxoplasma gondii porphobilinogen synthase (TgPBGS). T. gondii is a protozoan parasite, belonging to phylum apicomplexa, that can infect any warm blooded animal. In humans, although infection in healthy individuals is largely asymptomatic, the parasites can persist as latent cysts for extended periods, sometimes even for the entire life of the affected individual. But infection in pregnant mothers can result in transplacental infection of the fetus resulting in fatal encephalitis and in immunocompromized individuals (due to AIDS, for example) either a new infection by Toxoplasma or recrudescence from an existing latent infection can have fatal consequences. The metalloenzyme PBGS catalyzes an
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite of great veterinary and medical importance. It is able to evade the immune system of the host by converting from rapidly proliferating tachyzoites to latent bradyzoite cysts and this parasite number control is a key to the success of the infection. Pathways controlling cell division/proliferation like the Hippo pathway are likely candidates for regulating parasite replication. Human Mob1 participates in this pathway and our recent data suggests it is an excellent candidate for the control of parasite replication/number. Our research group has identified a single mob1 gene in T. gondii. A phylogenetic analysis of this gene showed it to be similar to other Apicomplexa but distant from protozoan parasites like the Trypanosomatida. We confirmed that this gene is expressed and our data show that its expression dramatically decreases (94%) during the parasite replication inside the host cell. We have constructed a transgenic parasite strain that ...
The Oriental subgenus Haldwania of the genus Velia is revised. It includes five previously described species, Velia (H.) championi Tamanini 1955 from northwestern India; V. (H.) steelei Tamanini, 1955 from northeastern India; V. (H.) sinensis Andersen, 1981 from Sichuan, China; V. (H.) tomokunii Polhemus & Polhemus, 1998 from Nepal; V. (H.) tonkina Polhemus & Polhemus, 2003 from northern Vietnam; and four species new to science: V. (H.) anderseni sp.n. from Bengal, India; V. (H.) longiconnexiva sp.n. from Guizhou, China; V. (H.) yunnana sp.n. from Yunnan, China; V. (H.) laticaudata sp.n. from northern Vietnam. Detailed diagnoses of known species and illustrations of all species are given. Diagnostic characteristics for species identification are discussed. A key to species of Haldwania and a map illustrating their distribution are given.
Webcat Plus: Structures and Organelles in Pathogenic Protists, Parasitic protozoa, including some which are agents of human and veterinary diseases, display special cytoplasmic structures and organelles. Metabolic pathways have been discovered in these organelles which open up new possibilities for drug targets. This work presents reviews dealing with cytoskeletal structures such as the mastigont system found in trichomonads, the sub-pellicular microtubules in trypanosomatids and the paraflagellar rod. Further chapters cover structures involved in the synthesis, secretion and uptake of molecules, including the flagellar pocket of trypanosomatids, the reservosome of Trypanosoma and the megasome found in Leishmania, the traffic of vesicles in Entamoeba histolytica, secretory organelles and the secretory events of intestinal parasites during encystation. Reviews on special organelles, such as the kinetoplast-mitochondrion complex, the apicoplast found in Apicomplexa, the glycosomes in Kinetoplastida and
This Philip Stein Small Strap Rose Alligator (ARO) Small Strap is a strap made for a Philip Stein natural frequency technology timepiece. This Philip Stein Philip Stein Small Strap Rose Alligator (ARO), made for womens. Dexclusive.com has unbelievable dea
ID K6VAP6_9APIC Unreviewed; 638 AA. AC K6VAP6; DT 09-JAN-2013, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 09-JAN-2013, sequence version 1. DT 25-OCT-2017, entry version 22. DE RecName: Full=Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase {ECO:0000256,RuleBase:RU361217}; DE EC=1.1.5.3 {ECO:0000256,RuleBase:RU361217}; DE Flags: Fragment; GN ORFNames=PCYB_084280 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:GAB66267.1}; OS Plasmodium cynomolgi strain B. OC Eukaryota; Alveolata; Apicomplexa; Aconoidasida; Haemosporida; OC Plasmodiidae; Plasmodium; Plasmodium (Plasmodium). OX NCBI_TaxID=1120755 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:GAB66267.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000006319}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:GAB66267.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000006319} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=B {ECO:0000313,EMBL:GAB66267.1, RC ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000006319}; RX PubMed=22863735; DOI=10.1038/ng.2375; RA Tachibana S., Sullivan S.A., Kawai S., Nakamura S., Kim H.R., Goto N., RA Arisue N., Palacpac N.M.Q., Honma H., Yagi M., Tougan T., Katakai Y., RA ...
This 1066 word essay is about Water management, Cryptosporidiosis, Water, Apicomplexa, Cryptosporidium, Drinking water, Water supply. Read the full essay now!
TY - JOUR. T1 - Stein and Leventhal. T2 - 80 years on. AU - Azziz, Ricardo. AU - Adashi, Eli Y.. PY - 2016/2/1. Y1 - 2016/2/1. N2 - Eighty years ago a publication in the Journal proved to be seminal and transformative. The report by Irving Freiler Stein and Michael Leventhal titled, "Amenorrhea associated with polycystic ovaries," has proven to be a remarkably lasting and influential publication. The growth in related literature has been increasing exponentially: the 50 years between 1950 and 2000 saw a little more than 8000 publications on the topic, whereas the 15 year period between 2001 and 2015 (so far) has seen more than 20,000 related publications, a greater than 8-fold increase in the publication rate after 2000. As we commemorate the 80th anniversary year of the publication of the report by Stein and Leventhal, it is important to ask ourselves, "Was this publication truly as seminal as it is generally assumed to be? And why did it gain such a strong foothold on the medical psyche?" To ...
Browse 1000s of Girls Can Do Anything designs on Personalized Beer Steins. Find lots of great Beer Mug & Germany Steins! Fast Shipping Available!
Rob Stein is a correspondent and senior editor on NPR's science desk. An award-winning science journalist with more than 25 years of experience, Stein
This is a white stein a couple manufacturer flaws. Theres a little black dot on the inside about two inches from the top of the stein and almost stra
Rob Stein is a correspondent and senior editor on NPR's science desk. An award-winning science journalist with more than 25 years of experience, Stein
Rob Stein is a correspondent and senior editor on NPR's science desk. An award-winning science journalist with more than 25 years of experience, Stein
i) Endogamy (Self-fertilization): It involves the fusion of two types of gametes derived from the same parent (uni-parental) e.g., Taenia. It is a very rare process. (ii) Exogamy (Cross-fertilization): When two fusing gametes are derived from different parents (biparental) e.g., in cockroach, frog, human beings etc. It is more common. On the basis of structure of fusing gametes, syngamy is of following types: (i) Isogamy: When two fusing gametes are morphologically as well as physiologically similar to each other e.g., in Monocystis (a protozoan). Such gametes are called isogametes. (ii) Anisogamy or Heterogamy: When two fusing gametes are morphologically or physiologically different from each other, e.g., in frog, rabbit, human beings etc. Such gametes are called heterogametes or anisogametes {e.g., microgamete or sperm and macrogamete or ovum). ...
HD2: Plants possess a family of HDAC proteins, the HD2 family, which is not found in animals or fungi and is distantly related to cis-trans isomerases found in insects, S.cerevisiae and parasitic apicomplexans. Using maize HD2 as a query, four candidate proteins, HDT1, HDT2, HDT3 and HDT4, were identified in the Arabidopsis proteome. The conserved N-terminus of these proteins contains the HD2-type HDAC domain of approximately 100 amino acids. The proteins are comprised of a conserved N-terminal domain, a central acidic domain and variant C-terminal domain. (1) Reference ...
HD2: Plants possess a family of HDAC proteins, the HD2 family, which is not found in animals or fungi and is distantly related to cis-trans isomerases found in insects, S.cerevisiae and parasitic apicomplexans. Using maize HD2 as a query, four candidate proteins, HDT1, HDT2, HDT3 and HDT4, were identified in the Arabidopsis proteome. The conserved N-terminus of these proteins contains the HD2-type HDAC domain of approximately 100 amino acids. The proteins are comprised of a conserved N-terminal domain, a central acidic domain and variant C-terminal domain. (1) Reference ...
Gloria · 12/7/98 at 2:07 PM ET Dr. Stein, I appreciate you responding so quickly. I hope you dont mind if I ask you another question. Since Im writing an integrative paper, I would like to know, how do you know when to use a different technique from another approach? example: for panic disorder, if I was to start with Adlers approach, how do I know when to switch to another? Im really far from understanding how to go about this. Im really stressing out over this paper, I guess because Im one of those people that try for perfection even when I know that nobody it perfect. Thanks again, in advance Gloria ...
Visit Healthgrades for information on Dr. Jeffrey Stein, MD Find Phone & Address information, medical practice history, affiliated hospitals and more.
Visit Healthgrades for information on Christine Stein, PA-C Find Phone & Address information, medical practice history, affiliated hospitals and more.
Jeffrey J. Stein DDS, Inc., dentist in Oxnard, provides quality dental care for the whole family. Call us today at (805)278-8999 for your appointment.
Jeffrey J. Stein DDS, Inc., dentist in Oxnard, provides quality dental care for the whole family. Call us today at (805)278-8999 for your appointment.
Mark Rodger Stein MD is a Allergy & Immunology who practices in Stuart, FL. Get a full report about this doctors background by clicking here.
Lee S Stein MD is a Neurologist who practices in Cordova, TN. Get a full report about this doctors background by clicking here.
Yu Kobayashi, Actress: Steins;Gate. Yu Kobayashi was born on February 5, 1982 in Japan. She is an actress, known for Steins;Gate (2009), Gekijouban Steins;Gate: Fuka ryouiki no dejavu (2013) and Sebunsu doragon III: code: VFD (2015).
Buy Parasitic Protozoa (volume3) by John R. Baker at TextbookX.com. ISBN/UPC: 9780124260139. Save an average of 50% on the marketplace.
BC: Grading This assignment is worth a total of 20 points. 1. (5pts) Characteristic given is unique and relevant 2. (5pts) Characteristic is defined and information is accurate 3. (5pts) Photo is representative of the Kingdom and the photo subject is clear 4. (5pts) All information is properly placed on page with no spelling or grammatical errors. FC: TAXONOMY , THE SCIENCE OF CLASSIFICATION. 1: ASSIGNMENT CRITERIA , The purpose of this assignment will be to create a mixbook that gives an illustrated definition of the categories of taxonomy -Kingdom -Phylum -SubPhylum -Class -Order -Family -Genus -Species For the first portion of the assignment we will focus on Kingdom You will choose one of the five kingdoms (Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, or Animalia). Each Kingdom has a page that is started with an example of each objective. On the pages that corresponds to your kingdom, you will add a characteristic, with an explanation, that defines the organisms within that particular kingdom. You will ...
In 1753, Carolus Linnaeus, a scientist from Sweden, created the first known system to classify all known living things in that time period. Linnaeus divided all living organisms into two large groups known as kingdoms: Plantae and Animalia. Since then more and more organisms have been identified and the classification system has grown. Recent studies suggest five kingdoms: Plantae, Animalia, Fungi, Protista and Monera.. Remember not to tell the students what groups the organisms go into. Students must be able to place them into groups and justify their reasoning. As long as a student can state the common characteristic for their group and create a scheme for it, then they have learned to classify.. ...
For your drinking pleasure, all steins will be stored at our cozy taproom. Just stop in, show us your card, and well get the suds flowing! We will relinquish control of them all at the end of the year Stein Club soirée so you can drink like a king at home.. Current members will get first right of renewal for the next batch. To entice you to renew with us, well be hand-producing new and awesome designs each year! Get ready to clear off some shelf space because youre going to want to collect the whole set.. ...
Upton, S.J.; McAllister, C.T.; Garrett, C.M., 1993: Description of a new species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Heloderma suspectum (Sauria: Helodermatidae)
Find and save ideas about Rick stein books on Pinterest. | See more ideas about Rick stein, Fish recipe rick stein and Rick stein restaurant.
Sitta, T., Henson, S., Morrison, W.I. and Toye, P. 2019. Similar levels of diversity in the gene encoding the p67 sporozoite surface protein of Theileria parva are observed in blood samples from buffalo and cattle naturally infected from buffalo. Veterinary Parasitology 269:21-27 ...
Portrait of Gertrude Stein (Portrait de Gertrude Stein) is a painting of Gertrude Stein by Pablo Picasso, begun in 1905 and finished the following year. It is considered one of the important works of Picassos Rose Period. In The Guardian, Jonathan Jones argued, "Ever since the Renaissance, the portrayal of women had been shaped by ideals of beauty and constrained social roles. Picassos Portrait of Gertrude Stein turns all that upside down. Stein has escaped from the confining categories with which western art previously ensnared women. She is neither old nor young, sexual nor submissive - her stone face makes her something new on Earth. She is in command of her identity." "PICASSO PORTRAIT OF GERTRUDE STEIN GOES ON EXHIBITION AT MUSEUM OF MODERN ART" (PDF). The Museum of Modern Art. Retrieved November 29, 2016. "[...] a landmark in modern art [...]" Chalif, D. (August 2006). "The Portrait of Gertrude Stein at 100". Neurosurgery. 59: 410-21; discussion 410-21. ...
The malaria parasite invades the midgut tissue of its mosquito host as a motile form called the ookinete. We have examined the pellicle of the ookinete of Plasmodium gallinaceum by freezefracture and quick-freeze, deep-etch electron microscopy. The general organization is analogous to that of invasive stages of other members of Apicomplexa. The pellicle is composed of three membranes: the plasma membrane, and the two linked intermediate and inner membranes, which in the ookinete form one flattened vacuole that is located beneath the plasma membrane. The edges of this vacuole form a longitudinal suture. Beneath the vacuole is found an array of microtubules that are connected to the inner membrane by intramembranous particles. During freezefracture, the membranes can split along their hydrophobic planes, thus yielding six fracture faces, each of which displays a characteristic pattern of intramembranous particles. Additionally, we find that the ookinete pellicle differs from all other apicomplexan ...
Brain lesions in 2 natural cases of canine encephalitozoonosis were studied by light and electron microscopy. Granulomatous reactions, associated with small vessels and capillaries, partly originated from extensive perithelial cell proliferation which ultimately produced the epithelioid cell component. Diffuse glial reactions apparently occurred in relation to the vasculitis. Lymphoid cells infiltrated the epithelioid and glial cell inflammation. Encephalitozoon in all its reproductive stages was identified as the aetiological agent, and ultrastructurally differentiated from Nosema on the basis that a single nucleus was observed. Viable organisms were present only within endothelial cells. Macrophages containing dead spores were usually seen around parasitized vessels and, less frequently, in them neuropil. Organisms, whether viable or non-viable, were never seen extracellularly at the ultrastructural level. Selected histochemical stains and electron microscopy were used to differentiate between ...

Avispora mochogalegoi n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) in the little owl, Athene noctua (Strigiformes: Strigidae), in...Avispora mochogalegoi n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) in the little owl, Athene noctua (Strigiformes: Strigidae), in...

The Eimeriidae (Apicomplexa) of raptors: Review of the literature and description of new species of the genera Caryospora and ... Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) in the little owl, Athene noctua (Strigiformes: Strigidae), in mainland Portugal ... Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) no mocho-galego, Athene noctua (Strigiformes: Strigidae), em Portugal Continental ... Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) and proposal of the genus Avispora gen. nov. Parasitol Res 2016; 115(11): 4389-4395. PMid:27515371. ...
more infohttp://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1984-29612017000300348&lng=en&tlng=en

What does sarcocystidae mean?What does sarcocystidae mean?

Sarcocystidae is a family of Apicomplexa associated with a variety of diseases in humans and other animals. ...
more infohttps://www.definitions.net/definition/sarcocystidae

ApicomplexaApicomplexa

Phylum: Apicomplexa Levine, 1970 (syn. Sporozoa Leucart, 1879). Traditionally the grouping called Apicomplexa comprises ... We consider both terms synonyms, but use Apicomplexa throughout the text. One of the distinct characters of Apicomplexa is ... are no longer considered Apicomplexa, therefore Sporozoa and Apicomplexa are equally good descriptors for the group. ... Apicomplexa Levine 1970 Sporozoa Leucart 1879. Jan lapeta and Victoria Morin-Adeline Click on an image to view larger version ...
more infohttp://www.tolweb.org/Apicomplexa

Introduction to the ApicomplexaIntroduction to the Apicomplexa

Apicomplexa. In: Lee, J.J., Hutner, S.H., and Bovee, E.C. (eds.) An Illustrated Guide to the Protozoa. Society of ... Introduction to the Apicomplexa. Parasitic, pathogenic protists. In traditional protist taxonomy, most parasitic protists were ... These protists have now been grouped in the Apicomplexa, probably the largest and best-known taxon of parasitic protists. There ...
more infohttp://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/protista/apicomplexa.html

Apicomplexa - WikipediaApicomplexa - Wikipedia

Levine, N.D. (1988). The protozoan phylum Apicomplexa. CRC Press. ISBN 0849346533. Euzéby, J. (1988). Apicomplexa, 2: ... although some authors still use it as a synonym for the Apicomplexa. More recently, other groups were excluded from Apicomplexa ... The Apicomplexa comprise the bulk of what used to be called the Sporozoa, a group of parasitic protozoans, in general without ... Most of the Apicomplexa are motile, however, by use of a gliding mechanism that uses adhesions and small static myosin motors. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apicomplexa

Garnia (Apicomplexa) - WikipediaGarnia (Apicomplexa) - Wikipedia

Apicomplexa: Haemosporina: Garniidae), a blood parasite of the Brazilian lizard Thecodactylus rapicaudus (Squamata: Gekkonidae ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Garnia_(Apicomplexa)

Apicomplexa - WikipediaApicomplexa - Wikipedia

Apicomplexa. The Apicomplexa (also called Apicomplexia) are a large phylum of parasitic alveolates. Most of them possess a ... Further information: wikispecies:Apicomplexa. HistoryEdit. The first Apicomplexa protozoan was seen by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek ... although some authors still use it as a synonym for the Apicomplexa. More recently, other groups were excluded from Apicomplexa ... The Apicomplexa are unicellular and spore-forming. All species are obligate endoparasites of animals,[3] except Nephromyces, a ...
more infohttps://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apicomplexa

Apicomplexa - Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebasApicomplexa - Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas

Apicomplexa adalah protista yang memiliki organel unik yang disebut apical complex. Apicomplexa bersifat uniseluler, membentuk ... Apicomplexa tidak memiliki flagella atau pseudopoda kecuali pada beberapa tahap gamet. Pada apicomplexa terdapat organisme ... "Uniform Terminology for the Protozoan Subphylum Apicomplexa". J Eukaryot Microbiol. 18 (2): 352-5. doi:10.1111/j.1550- ... Diperoleh dari "https://id.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Apicomplexa&oldid=12183885" ...
more infohttps://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apicomplexa

Apicomplexa - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaApicomplexa - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

2.0 2.1 Introduction to the Apicomplexa *↑ Duszynski, Donald W; Upton, Steve J. and Couch, Lee (2004). "The Coccidia of the ... The Apicomplexa are a large group of protists (protozoa) which are parasitic. They have developed some extraordinary ... The presence of alveoli and other traits place the Apicomplexa among a group called the alveolates. Several related flagellates ... There are many variations on this basic pattern, however, and many Apicomplexa have more than one host. ...
more infohttps://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apicomplexa

Category:Apicomplexa - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaCategory:Apicomplexa - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Pages in category "Apicomplexa". The following 11 pages are in this category, out of 11 total. ... Retrieved from "https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Category:Apicomplexa&oldid=4315038" ...
more infohttps://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Category:Apicomplexa

Free Chiropractic Flashcards about Apicomplexa/SporozoaFree Chiropractic Flashcards about Apicomplexa/Sporozoa

Apicomplexa/Sporozoa. Microbiology 1 - Apicomplexz/Sporozoa. Question. Answer. Apicomplexa/Sporozoa motility. immobile as ... apicomplexa/sporozoa reproduction. 1- binary fission & 2- sexual. species of apicomplexa/sporozoa. malaria, toxoplasmosis, ...
more infohttps://www.studystack.com/flashcard-39982

The Biology and Identification of the Coccidia (Apicomplexa) of Turtles of the World - 1st EditionThe Biology and Identification of the Coccidia (Apicomplexa) of Turtles of the World - 1st Edition

Apicomplexa) of Turtles of the World - 1st Edition. Print Book & E-Book. ISBN 9780128013670, 9780128014554 ... The Biology and Identification of the Coccidia (Apicomplexa) of Turtles of the World 1st Edition. 0.0 star rating Write a ... The Biology and Identification of the Coccidia (Apicomplexa) of Turtles of the World is an invaluable resource for researchers ... The Biology and Identification of the Coccidia (Apicomplexa) of Turtles of the World ...
more infohttps://www.elsevier.com/books/the-biology-and-identification-of-the-coccidia-apicomplexa-of-turtles-of-the-world/duszynski/978-0-12-801367-0

PARASITISMO DE LEUCOCITOS Y TROMBOCITOS DE Gallus gallus L. POR Plasmodium (Novyella)  juxtanucleare (APICOMPLEXA: PLASMODIIDAE)PARASITISMO DE LEUCOCITOS Y TROMBOCITOS DE Gallus gallus L. POR Plasmodium (Novyella) juxtanucleare (APICOMPLEXA: PLASMODIIDAE)

PARASITISM OF LEUKOCYTES AND THROMBOCYTES OF Gallus gallus L. BY Plasmodium (Novyella) juxtanucleare (APICOMPLEXA: PLASMODIIDAE ... APICOMPLEXA: PLASMODIIDAE). Parasitol. día [online]. 1999, vol.23, n.1-2, pp.44-47. ISSN 0716-0720. http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/ ...
more infohttp://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_abstract&pid=S0716-07201999000100008&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=en

A Database of Plastid Protein Families from Red Algae and Apicomplexa and Expression Regulation of the moeB Gene.  - PubMed -...A Database of Plastid Protein Families from Red Algae and Apicomplexa and Expression Regulation of the moeB Gene. - PubMed -...

A Database of Plastid Protein Families from Red Algae and Apicomplexa and Expression Regulation of the moeB Gene.. Zverkov OA1 ... A Database of Plastid Protein Families from Red Algae and Apicomplexa and Expression Regulation of the moeB Gene ... and Apicomplexa constructed with the novel method to infer orthology. The families contain proteins with maximal sequence ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26114108

Apicomplexa - Wikipedia, ang malayang ensiklopedyaApicomplexa - Wikipedia, ang malayang ensiklopedya

Kinuha mula sa "https://tl.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Apicomplexa&oldid=1620577" ...
more infohttps://tl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apicomplexa

In vitro cultivation of Babesia duncani (Apicomplexa: Babesiidae), a zoonotic hemoprotozoan, using infected blood from Syrian...In vitro cultivation of Babesia duncani (Apicomplexa: Babesiidae), a zoonotic hemoprotozoan, using infected blood from Syrian...

In vitro cultivation of Babesia duncani (Apicomplexa: Babesiidae), a zoonotic hemoprotozoan, using infected blood from Syrian ... Apicomplexa: Babesiidae) from humans and its differentiation from other piroplasms. Int J Parasitol 36(7):779-789. https://doi. ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00436-019-06372-0

Description of a new species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Heloderma suspectum (Sauria: Helodermatidae)Description of a new species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Heloderma suspectum (Sauria: Helodermatidae)

Upton, S.J.; McAllister, C.T.; Garrett, C.M., 1993: Description of a new species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from ... Description of a new species of Eimeria (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Heloderma suspectum (Sauria: Helodermatidae). ... Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from Heloderma suspectum (Sauria: Helodermatidae) ...
more infohttps://eurekamag.com/research/002/590/002590730.php

Two COWP-like cysteine rich proteins from Eimeria nieschulzi (coccidia, apicomplexa) are expressed during sporulation and...Two COWP-like cysteine rich proteins from Eimeria nieschulzi (coccidia, apicomplexa) are expressed during sporulation and...

Hanig S, Entzeroth R, Kurth M. Chimeric fluorescent reporter as a tool for generation of transgenic Eimeria (Apicomplexa, ... Hanig S. Neue Einblicke in die Oozysten-Hüllbildung von Eimeria nieschulzi (Apicomplexa, Coccidia), Dresden, Techn. Univ., Fak ... Two COWP-like cysteine rich proteins from Eimeria nieschulzi (coccidia, apicomplexa) are expressed during sporulation and ... Apicomplexa). Parasitol Res. 2002;88(3):217-24.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar. ...
more infohttps://parasitesandvectors.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13071-015-0982-3

A new lizard malaria parasite Plasmodium intabazwe n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Haemospororida: Plasmodiidae) in the Afromontane...A new lizard malaria parasite Plasmodium intabazwe n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Haemospororida: Plasmodiidae) in the Afromontane...

Apicomplexa: Haemosporida: Haemoproteidae) of Palaearctic Tortoises. J Eukaryot Microbiol. 2015;62:670-8.View ArticlePubMed ... Apicomplexa: Adeleorina: Hepatozoidae) from the crag lizard (Sauria: Cordylidae) Pseudocordylus langi from the North Eastern ... n. (Apicomplexa: Haemogregarinidae) in crag lizards (Sauria: Cordylidae) and in culicine mosquitoes from South Africa. Folia ... Apicomplexa: Haemospororida: Plasmodiidae) in the Afromontane Pseudocordylus melanotus (Sauria: Cordylidae) with a review of ...
more infohttps://parasitesandvectors.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13071-016-1702-3

Cryptosporidium hominis n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) from Homo sapiens  - Murdoch Research RepositoryCryptosporidium hominis n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) from Homo sapiens - Murdoch Research Repository

Apicomplexa: Cryptosporidiidae) from Homo sapiens. The Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology, 49 (6). pp. 433-440. ...
more infohttp://researchrepository.murdoch.edu.au/id/eprint/9546/

Eimeria tiliquae n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the shingleback skink (Tiliqua rugosa rugosa)  - Murdoch Research...Eimeria tiliquae n. sp. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the shingleback skink (Tiliqua rugosa rugosa) - Murdoch Research...

Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the shingleback skink (Tiliqua rugosa rugosa). Experimental Parasitology, 133 (2). pp. 144-149. ...
more infohttp://researchrepository.murdoch.edu.au/id/eprint/12554/
  • The use of electron microscopes has led to the discovery of unique intracellular structures that led to the description of Apicomplexa as well as their sub-grouping (Levine, 1973). (tolweb.org)
  • Apicomplexa contains a large assortment of single celled eukaryotic organisms, known to parasitise vertebrates (including humans) and invertebrate hosts. (tolweb.org)
  • A Database of Plastid Protein Families from Red Algae and Apicomplexa and Expression Regulation of the moeB Gene. (nih.gov)
  • We report the database of plastid protein families from red algae, secondary and tertiary rhodophyte-derived plastids, and Apicomplexa constructed with the novel method to infer orthology. (nih.gov)
  • Is the Subject Area "Apicomplexa" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
  • This Apicomplexa -related article is a stub . (wikipedia.org)