A phylum of unicellular parasitic EUKARYOTES characterized by the presence of complex apical organelles generally consisting of a conoid that aids in penetrating host cells, rhoptries that possibly secrete a proteolytic enzyme, and subpellicular microtubules that may be related to motility.
A large family of parasites in the order EIMERIIDA. They cause COCCIDIOSIS in a number of vertebrates including humans.
A genus of protozoan parasites of the subclass COCCIDIA. Various species are parasitic in the epithelial cells of the liver and intestines of man and other animals.
A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.
A group of three related eukaryotic phyla whose members possess an alveolar membrane system, consisting of flattened membrane-bound sacs lying beneath the outer cell membrane.
A genus of protozoan parasites found in the intestines of birds, amphibians, reptiles, and mammals, including man. The oocysts produce two sporocysts, each with four sporozoites. Many species are parasitic in wild and domestic animals.
Protozoan infection found in animals and man. It is caused by several different genera of COCCIDIA.
Zygote-containing cysts of sporozoan protozoa. Further development in an oocyst produces small individual infective organisms called SPOROZOITES. Then, depending on the genus, the entire oocyst is called a sporocyst or the oocyst contains multiple sporocysts encapsulating the sporozoites.
A family of parasitic organisms in the order EIMERIIDAE. They form tissue-cysts in their intermediate hosts, ultimately leading to pathogenesis in the final hosts that includes various mammals (including humans) and birds. The most important genera include NEOSPORA; SARCOCYSTIS; and TOXOPLASMA.
A species of coccidian protozoa that mainly infects domestic poultry.
Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa.
A genus of protozoa that comprise the malaria parasites of mammals. Four species infect humans (although occasional infections with primate malarias may occur). These are PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; PLASMODIUM OVALE, and PLASMODIUM VIVAX. Species causing infection in vertebrates other than man include: PLASMODIUM BERGHEI; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; P. vinckei, and PLASMODIUM YOELII in rodents; P. brasilianum, PLASMODIUM CYNOMOLGI; and PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI in monkeys; and PLASMODIUM GALLINACEUM in chickens.
Proteins found in any species of protozoan.
An order of heteroxenous protozoa in which the macrogamete and microgamont develop independently. A conoid is usually absent.
A subclass of protozoans commonly parasitic in the epithelial cells of the intestinal tract but also found in the liver and other organs. Its organisms are found in both vertebrates and higher invertebrates and comprise two orders: EIMERIIDA and EUCOCCIDIIDA.
The complete genetic complement contained in a set of CHROMOSOMES in a protozoan.
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
The functional hereditary units of protozoa.
A class of annelid worms with few setae per segment. It includes the earthworms such as Lumbricus and Eisenia.
A genus of coccidian parasites of the family CRYPTOSPORIDIIDAE, found in the intestinal epithelium of many vertebrates including humans.
A genus of tick-borne protozoa parasitic in the lymphocytes, erythrocytes, and endothelial cells of mammals. Its organisms multiply asexually and then invade erythrocytes, where they undergo no further reproduction until ingested by a transmitting tick.
A species of parasitic protozoa that infects humans and most domestic mammals. Its oocysts measure five microns in diameter. These organisms exhibit alternating cycles of sexual and asexual reproduction.
Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of protozoa.
A vegetative stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. It is characteristic of members of the phyla APICOMPLEXA and MICROSPORIDIA.
The product of meiotic division of zygotes in parasitic protozoa comprising haploid cells. These infective cells invade the host and undergo asexual reproduction producing MEROZOITES (or other forms) and ultimately gametocytes.
Invertebrate organisms that live on or in another organism (the host), and benefit at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
The acquired form of infection by Toxoplasma gondii in animals and man.
Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
A superorder in the class CEPHALOPODA, consisting of the orders Octopoda (octopus) with over 200 species and Vampyromorpha with a single species. The latter is a phylogenetic relic but holds the key to the origins of Octopoda.
A genus of protozoan parasites of the subclass COCCIDIA. Its species are parasitic in dogs, cattle, goats, and sheep, among others. N. caninum, a species that mainly infects dogs, is intracellular in neural and other cells of the body, multiplies by endodyogeny, has no parasitophorous vacuole, and has numerous rhoptries. It is known to cause lesions in many tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord as well as abortion in the expectant mother.
One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.
A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.
The science and application of a double-beam transmission interference microscope in which the illuminating light beam is split into two paths. One beam passes through the specimen while the other beam reflects off a reference mirror before joining and interfering with the other. The observed optical path difference between the two beams can be measured and used to discriminate minute differences in thickness and refraction of non-stained transparent specimens, such as living cells in culture.
A genus of tick-borne protozoan parasites that infests the red blood cells of mammals, including humans. There are many recognized species, and the distribution is world-wide.

The microsporidian spore invasion tube. The ultrastructure, isolation, and characterization of the protein comprising the tube. (1/228)

The extrusion apparatus of the microsporidian parasitic protozoan Nosema michaelis discharges an invasion (or polar) tube with a velocity suitalbe for piercing cells and injecting infective sporoplasm. The tube is composed of a polar tube protein (PTP) which consists of a single, low molecular weight polypeptide slightly smaller than chymotrypsinogen-A. Assembled PTP tubes resist dissociation in sodium dodecyl sulfate and brief exposures in media at extreme ends of the pH range; however, the tubes are reduced by mercaptoethanol and dithiothreitol. When acidified, mercaptoethanol-reduced PTP self-assembles into plastic, two-dimensional monolayers. Dithiothreitol-reduced PTP will not reassemble when acidified. Evidence is presented which indicates that PTP is assembled as a tube within the spore; that the ejected tube has plasticity during sporoplasm passage; and, finally, that the subunits within the tube polymer are bound together, in part, by interprotein disulfide linkages.  (+info)

Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity in cattle: activity against 51Cr-labeled chicken erythrocytes coated with protozoal antigens. (2/228)

Bovine mononuclear cells in the presence of bovine anti-chicken erythrocyte sera at high dilutions induce release of chromium-51 from labeled chicken erythrocytes. Bovine effector cells are capable of recognizing both bovine immunoglobulin G(1) and bovine immunoglobulin G(2); in contrast, human effector cells only recognize immunoglobulin G(1). Effector cell activity of bovine mononuclear cells is equally distributed between peripheral blood and spleen. As in other species, thymus and lymph node cells exert no antibody-dependent effect, although some direct cytotoxicity by lymph node cells may be observed. Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity against a bovine cell line can also be detected. By using a tannic acid technique, it was found that chicken erythrocytes coated with Theileria parva piroplasm antigen or with Trypanosoma rhodesiense variant-specific coat antigen form suitable targets for bovine antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity assays. By using such targets, a moderate degree of direct cytotoxicity by bovine mononuclear cells, in the absence of antibody, is always observed; this may be reduced by choosing optimal conditions of tannic acid treatment and antigen sensitization and by the use of short incubation periods for the cytotoxicity assay. Observations have been made on the variant specificity, time course of appearance, and association with immunoglobulin G(1) of the antibody activity responsible for cell-dependent cytotoxicity against chicken erythrocytes coated with T. rhodesiense antigens. The potential usefulness of this technique in the analysis of protective immune responses against protozoal infections is discussed.  (+info)

Perkinsus marinus extracellular protease modulates survival of Vibrio vulnificus in Eastern oyster (Crassostrea virginica) hemocytes. (3/228)

The in vitro effects of the Perkinsus marinus serine protease on the intracellular survival of Vibrio vulnificus in oyster hemocytes were examined by using a time-course gentamicin internalization assay. Results showed that protease-treated hemocytes were initially slower to internalize V. vulnificus than untreated hemocytes. After 1 h, the elimination of V. vulnificus by treated hemocytes was significantly suppressed compared with hemocytes infected with invasive and noninvasive controls. Our data suggest that the serine protease produced by P. marinus suppresses the vibriocidal activity of oyster hemocytes to effectively eliminate V. vulnificus, potentially leading to conditions favoring higher numbers of vibrios in oyster tissues.  (+info)

Conservation of a gliding motility and cell invasion machinery in Apicomplexan parasites. (4/228)

Most Apicomplexan parasites, including the human pathogens Plasmodium, Toxoplasma, and Cryptosporidium, actively invade host cells and display gliding motility, both actions powered by parasite microfilaments. In Plasmodium sporozoites, thrombospondin-related anonymous protein (TRAP), a member of a group of Apicomplexan transmembrane proteins that have common adhesion domains, is necessary for gliding motility and infection of the vertebrate host. Here, we provide genetic evidence that TRAP is directly involved in a capping process that drives both sporozoite gliding and cell invasion. We also demonstrate that TRAP-related proteins in other Apicomplexa fulfill the same function and that their cytoplasmic tails interact with homologous partners in the respective parasite. Therefore, a mechanism of surface redistribution of TRAP-related proteins driving gliding locomotion and cell invasion is conserved among Apicomplexan parasites.  (+info)

Cryptosporidium parvum appears to lack a plastid genome. (5/228)

Surprisingly, unlike most Apicomplexa, Cryptosporidium parvum appears to lack a plastid genome. Primers based upon the highly conserved plastid small- or large-subunit rRNA (SSU/LSU rRNA) and the tufA-tRNAPhe genes of other members of the phylum Apicomplexa failed to amplify products from intracellular stages of C. parvum, whereas products were obtained from the plastid-containing apicomplexans Eimeria bovis and Toxoplasma gondii, as well as the plants Allium stellatum and Spinacia oleracea. Dot-blot hybridization of sporozoite genomic DNA (gDNA) supported these PCR results. A T. gondii plastid-specific set of probes containing SSU/LSU rRNA and tufA-tRNA(Phe) genes strongly hybridized to gDNA from a diverse group of plastid-containing organisms including three Apicomplexa, two plants, and Euglena gracilis, but not to those without this organelle including C. parvum, three kinetoplastids, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, mammals and the eubacterium Escherichia coli. Since the origin of the plastid in other apicomplexans is postulated to be the result of a secondary symbiogenesis of either a red or a green alga, the most parsimonious explanation for its absence in C. parvum is that it has been secondarily lost. If confirmed, this would indicate an alternative evolutionary fate for this organelle in one member of the Apicomplexa. It also suggests that unlike the situation with other diseases caused by members of the Apicomplexa, drug development against cryptosporidiosis targeting a plastid genome or metabolic pathways associated with it may not be useful.  (+info)

Sex allocation and population structure in apicomplexan (protozoa) parasites. (6/228)

Establishing the selfing, rate of parasites is important for studies in clinical and epidemiological medicine as well as evolutionary biology Sex allocation theory offers a relatively cheap and easy way to estimate selfing rates in natural parasite populations. Local mate competition (LMC) theory predicts that the optimal sex ratio (r*; defined as proportion males) is related to the selfing rate (s) by the equation r* = (1-s)/2. In this paper, we generalize the application of sex allocation theory across parasitic protozoa in the phylum Apicomplexa. This cosmopolitan phylum consists entirely of parasites, and includes a number of species of medical and veterinary importance. We suggest that LMC theory should apply to eimeriorin intestinal parasites. As predicted, data from 13 eimeriorin species showed a female-biased sex ratio, with the sex ratios suggesting high levels of selfing (0.8-1.0). Importantly, our estimate of the selfing rate in one of these species, Toxoplasma gondii, is in agreement with previous genetic analyses. In contrast, we predict that LMC theory will not apply to the groups in which syzygy occurs (adeleorins, gregarines and piroplasms). Syzygy occurs when a single male gametocyte and a single female gametocyte pair together physically or in close proximity, just prior to fertilization. As predicted, data from four adeleorin species showed sex ratios not significantly different from 0.5.  (+info)

Extraction-free, filter-based template preparation for rapid and sensitive PCR detection of pathogenic parasitic protozoa. (7/228)

Within the last several years, the protozoan parasites Cyclospora cayetanensis, Cryptosporidium parvum, and microsporidia have become recognized as important, rapidly emerging human pathogens in immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals. Since the early 1990s, many of the reported outbreaks of enteric illness caused by these microorganisms have been attributed to food- and water-borne contamination. Many inherent obstacles affect the success of current surveillance and detection methods used to monitor and control levels of contamination by these pathogens. Unlike methods that incorporate preenrichment for easier and unambiguous identification of bacterial pathogens, similar methods for the detection of parasitic protozoa either are not currently available or cannot be performed in a timely manner. We have developed an extraction-free, filter-based protocol to prepare DNA templates for use in PCR to identify C. cayetanensis and C. parvum oocysts and microsporidia spores. This method requires only minimal preparation to partially purify and concentrate isolates prior to filter application. DNA template preparation is rapid, efficient, and reproducible. As few as 3 to 10 parasites could be detected by PCR from direct application to the filters. In studies, as few 10 to 50 Encephalitozoon intestinalis spores could be detected when seeded in a 100-microliter stool sample and 10 to 30 C. cayetanensis oocysts could be detected per 100 g of fresh raspberries. This protocol can easily be adapted to detect parasites from a wide variety of food, clinical, and environmental samples and can be used in multiplex PCR applications.  (+info)

Food-borne protozoa. (8/228)

Pathogenic protozoa are commonly transmitted to food in developing countries, but food-borne outbreaks of infection are relatively rare in developed countries. The main protozoa of concern in developed countries are Toxoplasma, Cryptosporidium and Giardia, and these can be a problem in immunocompromised people. Other protozoa such as Entamoeba histolytica, Cyclospora cayetanensis and Sarcocystis can be a food-borne problem in non-industrialised countries. C. cayetanensis has emerged as a food-borne pathogen in foods imported into North America from South America. Microsporidia may be food-borne, although evidence for this is not yet available. The measures needed to prevent food-borne protozoa causing disease require clear assessments of the risks of contamination and the effectiveness of processes to inactivate them. The globalisation of food production can allow new routes of transmission, and advances in diagnostic detection methods and surveillance systems have extended the range of protozoa that may be linked to food.  (+info)

Apicomplexa is a phylum of single-celled, parasitic organisms that includes several medically important genera, such as Plasmodium (which causes malaria), Toxoplasma (which causes toxoplasmosis), and Cryptosporidium (which causes cryptosporidiosis). These organisms are characterized by the presence of a unique apical complex, which is a group of specialized structures at one end of the cell that are used during invasion and infection of host cells. They have a complex life cycle involving multiple stages, including sexual and asexual reproduction, often in different hosts. Many Apicomplexa are intracellular parasites, meaning they live and multiply inside the cells of their hosts.

Eimeriidae is a family of protozoan parasites that includes several genera of coccidia, which are intracellular parasites that infect and replicate within the cells of various animals, including humans. The most well-known genus in this family is Eimeria, which contains many species that can cause coccidiosis in a variety of animals, including poultry, cattle, sheep, goats, and rabbits.

Coccidiosis is a disease that affects the intestinal tract and can lead to diarrhea, weight loss, and even death in severe cases. The parasites are typically transmitted through fecal-oral contact, either by ingesting contaminated food or water or by direct contact with infected animals.

Eimeriidae species have complex life cycles that involve several stages of development within the host's body. After ingestion, the parasites infect and replicate within intestinal epithelial cells, eventually leading to the release of new parasites into the environment through feces. These new parasites can then infect other hosts and continue the life cycle.

Prevention and control measures for coccidiosis typically involve good hygiene practices, such as cleaning and disinfecting contaminated surfaces and equipment, as well as the use of anticoccidial drugs to prevent or treat infections. Vaccination is also available for some species of Eimeria, although it may not be effective against all strains.

'Eimeria' is a genus of protozoan parasites that belong to the phylum Apicomplexa. These microscopic organisms are known to cause a disease called coccidiosis in various animals, including birds, ruminants, and pigs. The life cycle of Eimeria involves both sexual and asexual reproduction, and it typically takes place within the intestinal cells of the host animal.

The infection can lead to a range of symptoms, such as diarrhea, weight loss, dehydration, and even death in severe cases, particularly in young animals. Eimeria species are highly host-specific, meaning that each species tends to infect only one type of animal. For example, Eimeria tenella primarily infects chickens, while Eimeria bovis is known to infect cattle.

Prevention and control measures for coccidiosis include good sanitation practices, such as cleaning and disinfecting animal living areas, as well as the use of anticoccidial drugs in feed or water to prevent infection. Additionally, vaccines are available for some Eimeria species to help protect animals from infection and reduce the severity of clinical signs.

"Toxoplasma" is a genus of protozoan parasites, and the most well-known species is "Toxoplasma gondii." This particular species is capable of infecting virtually all warm-blooded animals, including humans. It's known for its complex life cycle that involves felines (cats) as the definitive host.

Infection in humans, called toxoplasmosis, often occurs through ingestion of contaminated food or water, or through contact with cat feces that contain T. gondii oocysts. While many people infected with Toxoplasma show no symptoms, it can cause serious health problems in immunocompromised individuals and developing fetuses if a woman becomes infected during pregnancy.

It's important to note that while I strive to provide accurate information, this definition should not be used for self-diagnosis or treatment. Always consult with a healthcare professional for medical advice.

Alveolata is a group of predominantly unicellular eukaryotes that includes dinoflagellates, apicomplexans (such as Plasmodium, the causative agent of malaria), and ciliates. This grouping is based on the presence of unique organelles called alveoli, which are membrane-bound sacs or vesicles located just beneath the cell membrane. These alveoli provide structural support and may also be involved in various cellular processes such as osmoregulation, nutrient uptake, and attachment to surfaces.

The medical significance of Alveolata lies primarily within the Apicomplexa, which contains many important parasites that infect humans and animals. These include Plasmodium spp., which cause malaria; Toxoplasma gondii, which causes toxoplasmosis; and Cryptosporidium parvum, which is responsible for cryptosporidiosis. Understanding the biology and behavior of these parasites at the cellular level can provide valuable insights into their pathogenesis, transmission, and potential treatment strategies.

Isospora is a genus of protozoan parasites that belong to the phylum Apicomplexa. These parasites are the causative agents of coccidiosis, a type of gastrointestinal infection that primarily affects birds and mammals, including humans. The disease is characterized by watery diarrhea, abdominal pain, vomiting, and weight loss.

Isospora species have a complex life cycle that involves two hosts: an intermediate host, where the parasite reproduces asexually, and a definitive host, where the parasite undergoes sexual reproduction. The infectious stage of the parasite is called an oocyst, which is shed in the feces of the infected host and can survive in the environment for long periods. When ingested by another host, the oocyst releases sporozoites, which invade the intestinal cells and multiply, causing damage to the intestinal lining and leading to the symptoms of coccidiosis.

In humans, Isospora belli is the most common species that causes infection. It is typically transmitted through the fecal-oral route, either by ingesting contaminated food or water or by person-to-person contact. Immunocompromised individuals, such as those with HIV/AIDS, are at higher risk of developing severe and chronic infections with Isospora. Treatment usually involves the use of antiprotozoal drugs, such as trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.

Coccidiosis is a parasitic infection caused by protozoa of the Eimeria genus, which typically affects the intestinal tract of animals, including humans. The infection occurs when a person or animal ingests oocysts (the infective stage of the parasite) through contaminated food, water, or direct contact with infected feces.

In humans, coccidiosis is most commonly found in children living in poor sanitary conditions and in individuals with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or organ transplant recipients on immunosuppressive therapy. The infection can cause watery diarrhea, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and fever. In severe cases, it may lead to dehydration, weight loss, and even death in individuals with compromised immune systems.

In animals, particularly in poultry, swine, and ruminants, coccidiosis can cause significant economic losses due to decreased growth rates, poor feed conversion, and increased mortality. Preventive measures include improving sanitation, reducing overcrowding, and administering anticoccidial drugs or vaccines.

An oocyst is a thick-walled, environmentally resistant spore-like structure produced by some protozoan parasites, such as Cryptosporidium and Cyclospora, during their life cycle. These oocysts can survive for long periods in the environment and can infect a host when ingested, leading to infection and disease. The term "oocyst" is specific to certain groups of protozoan parasites and should not be confused with other types of spores produced by fungi or bacteria.

Sarcocystidae is a family of parasitic protozoa that are primarily known for infecting various animals, including both domestic and wild species. These parasites have a complex life cycle involving at least two hosts: a definitive host (usually a carnivore) and an intermediate host (usually a herbivore).

The most well-known genus within Sarcocystidae is Sarcocystis, which includes several species that can infect humans. Infection with these parasites typically occurs through the consumption of undercooked or raw meat containing Sarcocystis cysts. The resulting disease in humans is called sarcocystosis and can cause a range of symptoms depending on the species involved and the location of the cysts within the body.

It's worth noting that while Sarcocystidae includes several important parasites, it is not typically considered a medical term per se. Instead, it falls more under the purview of veterinary medicine and parasitology.

'Eimeria tenella' is a species of intracellular parasitic protozoa belonging to the phylum Apicomplexa. It is one of the several Eimeria species that cause coccidiosis, a common and economically significant intestinal disease in poultry.

Eimeria tenella primarily infects the caeca (plural of cecum) of chickens, turkeys, and other birds. The life cycle of this parasite involves several stages, including sporulation, ingestion, excystation, merogony, gametogony, and oocyst shedding.

The oocysts are passed in the feces of infected birds and can survive in the environment for long periods. Once ingested by another bird, the oocysts release sporozoites, which invade the epithelial cells lining the caeca. Here, they undergo asexual reproduction (merogony), producing numerous merozoites that infect neighboring cells.

After several rounds of merogony, the parasite enters the sexual phase of its life cycle (gametogony). Male and female gametes fuse to form zygotes, which develop into oocysts and are shed in the feces, completing the life cycle.

Clinical signs of Eimeria tenella infection include diarrhea, bloody droppings, decreased appetite, weight loss, and decreased egg production. Severe infections can lead to death, particularly in young birds. Coccidiosis is typically treated with anticoccidial drugs, which are added to the feed or water of infected birds. Good management practices, such as proper sanitation and biosecurity, can help prevent the spread of Eimeria tenella and other coccidian species.

Protozoan infections are diseases caused by microscopic, single-celled organisms known as protozoa. These parasites can enter the human body through contaminated food, water, or contact with an infected person or animal. Once inside the body, they can multiply and cause a range of symptoms depending on the type of protozoan and where it infects in the body. Some common protozoan infections include malaria, giardiasis, amoebiasis, and toxoplasmosis. Symptoms can vary widely but may include diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, fatigue, and skin rashes. Treatment typically involves the use of antiprotozoal medications to kill the parasites and alleviate symptoms.

"Plasmodium" is a genus of protozoan parasites that are the causative agents of malaria in humans and other animals. There are several species within this genus, including Plasmodium falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, P. malariae, and P. knowlesi, among others.

These parasites have a complex life cycle that involves two hosts: an Anopheles mosquito and a vertebrate host (such as humans). When a person is bitten by an infected mosquito, the parasites enter the bloodstream and infect red blood cells, where they multiply and cause the symptoms of malaria.

Plasmodium species are transmitted through the bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes, which become infected after taking a blood meal from an infected person. The parasites then develop in the mosquito's midgut, eventually making their way to the salivary glands, where they can be transmitted to another human through the mosquito's bite.

Malaria is a serious and sometimes fatal disease that affects millions of people worldwide, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions. It is characterized by fever, chills, headache, muscle and joint pain, and anemia, among other symptoms. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent severe illness and death from malaria.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Protozoan Proteins" is not a specific medical or scientific term. Protozoa are single-celled eukaryotic organisms, and proteins are large biological molecules consisting of one or more chains of amino acid residues. Therefore, "Protozoan Proteins" generally refers to the various types of proteins found in protozoa.

However, if you're looking for information about proteins specific to certain protozoan parasites with medical relevance (such as Plasmodium falciparum, which causes malaria), I would be happy to help! Please provide more context or specify the particular protozoan of interest.

Haemosporida is a biological order of parasitic alveolates that include several genera of intracellular parasites. These parasites infect the red blood cells of vertebrates, including mammals, birds, and reptiles, and can cause significant disease in their hosts. The most well-known Haemosporida are the genus Plasmodium, which includes the parasites that cause malaria in humans. Other genera include Haemoproteus, Leucocytozoon, and Polychromophilus, which infect various bird and reptile species.

The life cycle of Haemosporida involves both sexual and asexual reproduction and requires both an invertebrate vector (typically a mosquito or tick) and a vertebrate host. The parasites are transmitted to the vertebrate host through the bite of an infected vector, where they infect red blood cells and undergo asexual replication. This can lead to the destruction of large numbers of red blood cells, causing anemia, fever, and other symptoms in the host.

Overall, Haemosporida are important parasites that can cause significant disease in both human and animal populations. Prevention and control efforts typically focus on reducing exposure to infected vectors through the use of insecticide-treated bed nets, indoor residual spraying, and personal protective measures such as wearing long sleeves and using insect repellent.

Coccidia are a group of single-celled, microscopic parasites that belong to the phylum Apicomplexa. They are obligate intracellular parasites, which means they need to infect and live inside the cells of a host organism to survive and multiply. Coccidia are primarily found in animals, including mammals, birds, reptiles, and fish, but some species can also infect humans.

Coccidia are known to cause coccidiosis, a common intestinal disease that affects various animal species, including poultry, cattle, swine, sheep, goats, and pets such as cats and dogs. The disease is characterized by diarrhea, weight loss, dehydration, and sometimes death, particularly in young animals.

In humans, coccidia infection is usually caused by the species Cryptosporidium and Cyclospora. These parasites can infect the small intestine and cause watery diarrhea, stomach cramps, nausea, vomiting, fever, and weight loss. In immunocompromised individuals, such as those with HIV/AIDS or those undergoing chemotherapy, coccidia infections can be severe and life-threatening.

Coccidia are typically transmitted through the fecal-oral route, either by ingesting contaminated food or water or by direct contact with infected animals or their feces. Prevention measures include good hygiene practices, such as washing hands thoroughly after handling animals or using the restroom, avoiding drinking untreated water from sources that may be contaminated with animal feces, and practicing safe food handling and preparation.

A protozoan genome refers to the complete set of genetic material or DNA present in a protozoan organism. Protozoa are single-celled eukaryotic microorganisms that lack cell walls and have diverse morphology and nutrition modes. The genome of a protozoan includes all the genes that code for proteins, as well as non-coding DNA sequences that regulate gene expression and other cellular processes.

The size and complexity of protozoan genomes can vary widely depending on the species. Some protozoa have small genomes with only a few thousand genes, while others have larger genomes with tens of thousands of genes or more. The genome sequencing of various protozoan species has provided valuable insights into their evolutionary history, biology, and potential as model organisms for studying eukaryotic cellular processes.

It is worth noting that the study of protozoan genomics is still an active area of research, and new discoveries are continually being made about the genetic diversity and complexity of these fascinating microorganisms.

Host-parasite interactions refer to the relationship between a parasitic organism (the parasite) and its host, which can be an animal, plant, or human body. The parasite lives on or inside the host and derives nutrients from it, often causing harm in the process. This interaction can range from relatively benign to severe, depending on various factors such as the species of the parasite, the immune response of the host, and the duration of infection.

The host-parasite relationship is often categorized based on the degree of harm caused to the host. Parasites that cause little to no harm are called commensals, while those that cause significant damage or disease are called parasitic pathogens. Some parasites can even manipulate their hosts' behavior and physiology to enhance their own survival and reproduction, leading to complex interactions between the two organisms.

Understanding host-parasite interactions is crucial for developing effective strategies to prevent and treat parasitic infections, as well as for understanding the ecological relationships between different species in natural ecosystems.

Genes in protozoa refer to the hereditary units of these single-celled organisms that carry genetic information necessary for their growth, development, and reproduction. These genes are made up of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) molecules, which contain sequences of nucleotide bases that code for specific proteins or RNA molecules. Protozoan genes are responsible for various functions, such as metabolism, response to environmental stimuli, and reproduction.

It is important to note that the study of protozoan genes has contributed significantly to our understanding of genetics and evolution, particularly in areas such as molecular biology, cell biology, and genomics. However, there is still much to be learned about the genetic diversity and complexity of these organisms, which continue to be an active area of research.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Oligochaeta" is not a medical term. It is a taxonomic category in biology, specifically referring to a class of segmented worms, including earthworms and related species. They are characterized by having a simple circulatory system, and most have separate sexes. They are not directly relevant to human medical definition or healthcare context.

Cryptosporidium is a genus of protozoan parasites that can cause the diarrheal disease known as cryptosporidiosis in humans and animals. These microscopic pathogens infect the epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal tract, primarily in the small intestine, leading to symptoms such as watery diarrhea, stomach cramps, nausea, vomiting, fever, and dehydration.

Cryptosporidium parasites have a complex life cycle, including several developmental stages within host cells. They are protected by an outer shell called oocyst, which allows them to survive outside the host's body for extended periods, making them resistant to chlorine-based disinfectants commonly used in water treatment.

Transmission of Cryptosporidium occurs through the fecal-oral route, often via contaminated water or food, or direct contact with infected individuals or animals. People at higher risk for severe illness include young children, elderly people, pregnant women, and those with weakened immune systems due to HIV/AIDS, cancer treatment, or organ transplantation.

Preventive measures include proper hand hygiene, avoiding consumption of untreated water or raw fruits and vegetables likely to be contaminated, and practicing safe sex. For immunocompromised individuals, antiparasitic medications such as nitazoxanide may help reduce the severity and duration of symptoms.

"Theileria" is a genus of intracellular parasitic protozoans belonging to the phylum Apicomplexa. These parasites are primarily transmitted by ticks and infect various species of mammals, including cattle, sheep, and humans. Theileria species are known to cause significant economic losses in the livestock industry due to the diseases they cause, which can result in severe anemia, fever, and even death in infected animals.

Theileria parasites have a complex life cycle that involves two hosts: the tick vector and the mammalian host. The parasites infect and multiply within the tick's salivary glands and are transmitted to the mammalian host during feeding. Once inside the host, the parasites invade and multiply within the host's white blood cells, causing a variety of clinical symptoms depending on the species of Theileria involved.

One of the most well-known species of Theileria is Theileria parva, which causes East Coast fever in cattle. This disease is highly fatal and can result in mortality rates of up to 90% in infected animals if left untreated. Other notable species include Theileria annulata, which causes Tropical Theileriosis in cattle, and Theileria lestoquardi, which infects sheep and goats.

The diagnosis of Theileria infections typically involves the examination of blood smears or other clinical samples using microscopy, as well as molecular techniques such as PCR to identify the specific species of parasite involved. Treatment options for Theileria infections include the use of antiprotozoal drugs such as buparvaquone and halofuginone, as well as supportive care such as fluid therapy and blood transfusions in severe cases. Preventive measures include the use of tick control strategies such as acaricides and vaccination.

Cryptosporidium parvum is a species of protozoan parasite that causes the diarrheal disease cryptosporidiosis in humans and animals. It is found worldwide and is transmitted through the fecal-oral route, often through contaminated water or food. The parasite infects the epithelial cells of the gastrointestinal tract, leading to symptoms such as watery diarrhea, stomach cramps, nausea, and fever. It is particularly dangerous for people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or receiving immunosuppressive therapy. The parasite is highly resistant to chlorine-based disinfectants, making it difficult to eradicate from water supplies.

Plastids are membrane-bound organelles found in the cells of plants and algae. They are responsible for various cellular functions, including photosynthesis, storage of starch, lipids, and proteins, and the production of pigments that give plants their color. The most common types of plastids are chloroplasts (which contain chlorophyll and are involved in photosynthesis), chromoplasts (which contain pigments such as carotenoids and are responsible for the yellow, orange, and red colors of fruits and flowers), and leucoplasts (which do not contain pigments and serve mainly as storage organelles). Plastids have their own DNA and can replicate themselves within the cell.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

There doesn't seem to be a specific medical definition for "DNA, protozoan" as it is simply a reference to the DNA found in protozoa. Protozoa are single-celled eukaryotic organisms that can be found in various environments such as soil, water, and the digestive tracts of animals.

Protozoan DNA refers to the genetic material present in these organisms. It is composed of nucleic acids, including deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), which contain the instructions for the development, growth, and reproduction of the protozoan.

The DNA in protozoa, like in other organisms, is made up of two strands of nucleotides that coil together to form a double helix. The four nucleotide bases that make up protozoan DNA are adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C). These bases pair with each other to form the rungs of the DNA ladder, with A always pairing with T and G always pairing with C.

The genetic information stored in protozoan DNA is encoded in the sequence of these nucleotide bases. This information is used to synthesize proteins, which are essential for the structure and function of the organism's cells. Protozoan DNA also contains other types of genetic material, such as regulatory sequences that control gene expression and repetitive elements with no known function.

Understanding the DNA of protozoa is important for studying their biology, evolution, and pathogenicity. It can help researchers develop new treatments for protozoan diseases and gain insights into the fundamental principles of genetics and cellular function.

Medical definitions for "spores" and "protozoan" are as follows:

1. Spores: These are typically single-celled reproductive units that are resistant to heat, drying, and chemicals. They are produced by certain bacteria, fungi, algae, and plants. In the context of infectious diseases, spores are particularly relevant in relation to certain types of bacteria such as Clostridium tetani (causes tetanus) and Bacillus anthracis (causes anthrax). These bacterial spores can survive for long periods in harsh environments and can cause illness if they germinate and multiply in a host.
2. Protozoan: This term refers to a diverse group of single-celled eukaryotic organisms, which are typically classified as animals rather than plants or fungi. Some protozoa can exist as free-living organisms, while others are parasites that require a host to complete their life cycle. Protozoa can cause various diseases in humans, such as malaria (caused by Plasmodium spp.), giardiasis (caused by Giardia lamblia), and amoebic dysentery (caused by Entamoeba histolytica).

Therefore, there isn't a specific medical definition for "spores, protozoan" as spores are produced by various organisms, including bacteria and fungi, while protozoa are single-celled organisms that can be free-living or parasitic. However, some protozoa do produce spores as part of their life cycle in certain species.

Sporozoites are a stage in the life cycle of certain parasitic protozoans, including Plasmodium species that cause malaria. They are infective forms that result from the sporulation of oocysts, which are produced in the vector's midgut after the ingestion of gametocytes during a blood meal.

Once mature, sporozoites are released from the oocyst and migrate to the salivary glands of the vector, where they get injected into the host during subsequent feedings. In the host, sporozoites infect liver cells, multiply within them, and eventually rupture the cells, releasing merozoites that invade red blood cells and initiate the erythrocytic stage of the parasite's life cycle.

Sporozoites are typically highly motile and possess a unique gliding motility, which enables them to traverse various host tissues during their invasion process. This invasive ability is facilitated by an actin-myosin motor system and secretory organelles called micronemes and rhoptries, which release adhesive proteins that interact with host cell receptors.

In summary, sporozoites are a crucial stage in the life cycle of Plasmodium parasites, serving as the infective forms responsible for transmitting malaria between hosts via an insect vector.

A parasite is an organism that lives on or in a host organism and gets its sustenance at the expense of the host. Parasites are typically much smaller than their hosts, and they may be classified as either ectoparasites (which live on the outside of the host's body) or endoparasites (which live inside the host's body).

Parasites can cause a range of health problems in humans, depending on the type of parasite and the extent of the infection. Some parasites may cause only mild symptoms or none at all, while others can lead to serious illness or even death. Common symptoms of parasitic infections include diarrhea, abdominal pain, weight loss, and fatigue.

There are many different types of parasites that can infect humans, including protozoa (single-celled organisms), helminths (worms), and ectoparasites (such as lice and ticks). Parasitic infections are more common in developing countries with poor sanitation and hygiene, but they can also occur in industrialized nations.

Preventing parasitic infections typically involves practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands regularly, cooking food thoroughly, and avoiding contaminated water. Treatment for parasitic infections usually involves medication to kill the parasites and relieve symptoms.

Toxoplasmosis is a disease caused by the parasitic protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. It can infect humans, birds, and most warm-blooded animals, including marine mammals. In humans, it is usually contracted through eating undercooked, contaminated meat or ingesting oocysts (a form of the parasite) from cat feces, often through contact with litter boxes or gardening in soil that has been contaminated with cat feces.

The infection can also be passed to the fetus if a woman becomes infected during or just before pregnancy. Most healthy individuals who become infected with Toxoplasma gondii experience few symptoms and are not aware they have the disease. However, for those with weakened immune systems, such as people with HIV/AIDS, organ transplant recipients, and pregnant women, toxoplasmosis can cause severe complications, including damage to the brain, eyes, and other organs.

Symptoms of toxoplasmosis in individuals with weakened immune systems may include swollen lymph nodes, fever, fatigue, muscle aches, and headache. In pregnant women, infection can lead to miscarriage, stillbirth, or severe developmental problems in the baby. Treatment typically involves antiparasitic medications such as pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine.

Organelles are specialized structures within cells that perform specific functions essential for the cell's survival and proper functioning. They can be thought of as the "organs" of the cell, and they are typically membrane-bound to separate them from the rest of the cellular cytoplasm. Examples of organelles include the nucleus (which contains the genetic material), mitochondria (which generate energy for the cell), ribosomes (which synthesize proteins), endoplasmic reticulum (which is involved in protein and lipid synthesis), Golgi apparatus (which modifies, sorts, and packages proteins and lipids for transport), lysosomes (which break down waste materials and cellular debris), peroxisomes (which detoxify harmful substances and produce certain organic compounds), and vacuoles (which store nutrients and waste products). The specific organelles present in a cell can vary depending on the type of cell and its function.

Octopodiformes is a taxonomic order that includes two main groups: octopuses (Octopoda) and vampire squids (Vampyroteuthis infernalis). This grouping is based on similarities in their fossil record and molecular data. Although they are commonly referred to as squids, vampire squids are not true squids, which belong to a different order called Teuthida.

Octopodiformes are characterized by several features, including:

1. A highly developed brain and complex nervous system.
2. Eight arms with suckers, but no tentacles.
3. The ability to change their skin color and texture for camouflage.
4. Three hearts that pump blood through their bodies.
5. Blue blood due to the copper-based protein hemocyanin.
6. A siphon used for jet propulsion and other functions, such as waste expulsion and mating.
7. Ink sacs for defense against predators.

Octopuses are known for their intelligence, problem-solving abilities, and short lifespans (usually less than two years). Vampire squids, on the other hand, live in deep ocean environments and have a unique feeding strategy that involves filtering organic matter from the water. They can also produce bioluminescent displays to confuse predators.

It is important to note that while Octopodiformes is a well-supported taxonomic group, there is still ongoing research and debate about the relationships among cephalopods (the class that includes octopuses, squids, cuttlefish, and nautiluses) and their classification.

Neospora is a genus of intracellular parasites that belong to the phylum Apicomplexa. The most common species that affects animals is Neospora caninum, which is known to cause serious disease in cattle and dogs. It can also infect other warm-blooded animals, including sheep, goats, horses, and deer.

Neosporosis, the infection caused by Neospora, primarily affects the nervous system and muscles of the host animal. In cattle, it is a major cause of abortion, stillbirths, and neurological disorders. The parasite can be transmitted through the placenta from an infected mother to her offspring (congenital transmission), or through the ingestion of contaminated feed or water (horizontal transmission).

Neospora is a significant economic concern for the livestock industry, particularly in dairy and beef cattle operations. There is no effective vaccine or treatment available for neosporosis in animals, so prevention efforts focus on identifying and isolating infected animals to reduce the spread of the parasite.

Eukaryota is a domain that consists of organisms whose cells have a true nucleus and complex organelles. This domain includes animals, plants, fungi, and protists. The term "eukaryote" comes from the Greek words "eu," meaning true or good, and "karyon," meaning nut or kernel. In eukaryotic cells, the genetic material is housed within a membrane-bound nucleus, and the DNA is organized into chromosomes. This is in contrast to prokaryotic cells, which do not have a true nucleus and have their genetic material dispersed throughout the cytoplasm.

Eukaryotic cells are generally larger and more complex than prokaryotic cells. They have many different organelles, including mitochondria, chloroplasts, endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi apparatus, that perform specific functions to support the cell's metabolism and survival. Eukaryotic cells also have a cytoskeleton made up of microtubules, actin filaments, and intermediate filaments, which provide structure and shape to the cell and allow for movement of organelles and other cellular components.

Eukaryotes are diverse and can be found in many different environments, ranging from single-celled organisms that live in water or soil to multicellular organisms that live on land or in aquatic habitats. Some eukaryotes are unicellular, meaning they consist of a single cell, while others are multicellular, meaning they consist of many cells that work together to form tissues and organs.

In summary, Eukaryota is a domain of organisms whose cells have a true nucleus and complex organelles. This domain includes animals, plants, fungi, and protists, and the eukaryotic cells are generally larger and more complex than prokaryotic cells.

'Plasmodium falciparum' is a specific species of protozoan parasite that causes malaria in humans. It is transmitted through the bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes and has a complex life cycle involving both human and mosquito hosts.

In the human host, the parasites infect red blood cells, where they multiply and cause damage, leading to symptoms such as fever, chills, anemia, and in severe cases, organ failure and death. 'Plasmodium falciparum' malaria is often more severe and life-threatening than other forms of malaria caused by different Plasmodium species. It is a major public health concern, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions of the world where access to prevention, diagnosis, and treatment remains limited.

Interference microscopy is a type of microscopy that uses the interference of light waves to enhance contrast and visualize details in a specimen. It is often used to measure thin transparent samples, such as cells or tissues, with very high precision. One common method of interference microscopy is phase contrast microscopy, which converts differences in the optical path length of light passing through the sample into changes in amplitude and/or phase of the transmitted light. This results in enhanced contrast and visibility of details that may be difficult to see using other forms of microscopy. Other types of interference microscopy include differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy, which uses polarized light to enhance contrast, and holographic microscopy, which records and reconstructs the wavefront of light passing through the sample to create a 3D image.

Babesia is a genus of protozoan parasites that infect red blood cells and can cause a disease known as babesiosis in humans and animals. These parasites are transmitted to their hosts through the bite of infected ticks, primarily Ixodes species. Babesia microti is the most common species found in the United States, while Babesia divergens and Babesia venatorum are more commonly found in Europe.

Infection with Babesia can lead to a range of symptoms, from mild to severe, including fever, chills, fatigue, headache, muscle and joint pain, and hemolytic anemia (destruction of red blood cells). Severe cases can result in complications such as acute respiratory distress syndrome, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and renal failure. Babesiosis can be particularly severe or even fatal in individuals with weakened immune systems, the elderly, and those without a spleen.

Diagnosis of babesiosis typically involves microscopic examination of blood smears to identify the presence of Babesia parasites within red blood cells, as well as various serological tests and PCR assays. Treatment usually consists of a combination of antibiotics, such as atovaquone and azithromycin, along with anti-malarial drugs like clindamycin or quinine. In severe cases, exchange transfusions may be required to remove infected red blood cells and reduce parasitemia (the proportion of red blood cells infected by the parasite).

Preventive measures include avoiding tick-infested areas, using insect repellents, wearing protective clothing, and performing regular tick checks after spending time outdoors. Removing ticks promptly and properly can help prevent transmission of Babesia and other tick-borne diseases.

Like other eukaryotes, Apicomplexa have a nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex. Apicomplexa generally have a single ... Besides the conserved apical complex, Apicomplexa are morphologically diverse. Different organisms within Apicomplexa, as well ... the name Sporozoa is taken as a synonym for the Apicomplexa, or occasionally as a subset. The phylum Apicomplexa contains all ... although some authors still use it as a synonym for the Apicomplexa. More recently, other groups were excluded from Apicomplexa ...
Apicomplexa genera, Parasites of lizards, Haemosporida, All stub articles, Apicomplexa stubs). ... Apicomplexa: Haemosporina: Garniidae), a blood parasite of the Brazilian lizard Thecodactylus rapicaudus (Squamata: Gekkonidae ...
Adelina is a genus of alveolates within the phylum Apicomplexa. They are coccidian parasites of arthropods and oligochaetes. ... Apicomplexa genera, All stub articles, Apicomplexa stubs). ...
This genus is more commonly known as Atoxoplasma, it is a genus of parasitic alveolates in the phylum Apicomplexa. Atoxoplasma ... Lankesterella is a genus in the phylum Apicomplexa. Species in this genus infect amphibians, reptiles and birds. The type ... More commonly known as Atoxoplasma, it is a genus of parasitic alveolates in the phylum Apicomplexa. Apicomplexans are obligate ... Apicomplexa: Lankesterellidae) infecting Bufo marinus (Amphibia: Anura) in Pará, North Brazil". Parasite. 2 (3): 307-313. doi: ...
Octosporella is a genus in the phylum Apicomplexa. This genus has been poorly studied and little is known about it. Species in ... Apicomplexa genera, All stub articles, Apicomplexa stubs). ...
Myriospora is a genus of parasitic alveolates belonging to the phylum Apicomplexa. This genus was created in 1913 by Lermantoff ... Apicomplexa genera, All stub articles, Apicomplexa stubs). ...
Diaspora is a genus in the phylum Apicomplexa, first described by Leger in 1898. There is one species in this genus - Diaspora ... Apicomplexa genera, All stub articles, Apicomplexa stubs). ...
The mucron is derived from the apical complex, which is found in all members of the phylum Apicomplexa. The mucron is located ... Perkins FO, Barta JR, Clopton RE, Peirce MA, Upton SJ (2000). "Phylum Apicomplexa". In Lee JJ, Leedale GF, Bradbury P (eds.). ... 2007) Fine structure and putative feeding mechanism of the archigregarine Selenidium orientale (Apicomplexa: Gregarinomorpha). ... 1971) Uniform terminology for the protozoan subphylum Apicomplexa. Journal of Protozoology 18:352-355. https://doi.org/10.1111/ ...
Apicomplexa: Coccidia) infecting Trisopterus luscus (Gadidae) from the NE Atlantic Ocean. Dis Aquat Organ 71(1):25-31 El-Mansy ... Apicomplexa: Coccidia) infecting the gut of the freshwater catfish Clarias gariepinus in Egypt. Dis Aquat Organ 82(2):165-169 ... Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae). Syst Parasitol 59(1):75-80 Belova LM, Krylov MV (2001) Eight new species of coccidia (Sporozoa, ... Parasitol Res 102(2):233-241 Azevedo C (2001) Fine structure of sporogonic stages of Goussia clupearum (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae ...
Perkins FO, Barta JR, Clopton RE, Peirce MA, Upton SJ (2000). "Phylum Apicomplexa". In Lee JJ, Leedale GF, Bradbury P (eds.). ... The Gregarines (2 vols): The Early Branching Apicomplexa. Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-25605-7. Wikisource has the text of the 1911 ... Ménard R (February 2001). "Gliding motility and cell invasion by Apicomplexa: insights from the Plasmodium sporozoite". Cell. ... Apicomplexa) and the epithelium of its host, the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria". European Journal of Protistology. 44 (3 ...
Protozoa, Apicomplexa, Eimeriidae)". The Journal of Parasitology. 66 (1): 11. doi:10.2307/3280579. JSTOR 3280579. PMID 7365626 ...
... is a transcriptome database of apicomplexa parasites. apicomplexa Tuda, Josef; Mongan Arthur E; Tolba Mohammed E ... database of full-length cDNAs of apicomplexa parasites, 2010 update". Nucleic Acids Res. England. 39 (Database issue): D625-31 ... Apicomplexa, Gene expression, All stub articles, Biological database stubs). ...
Protozoa, Apicomplexa, Eimeriidae). J Parasitol 66(1):11 v t e (Articles with short description, Short description is different ... Dorisa is a genus of parasitic alveolates in the phylum Apicomplexa. The genus was separated from the genus Dorisiella by ... from Wikidata, Articles with 'species' microformats, Apicomplexa genera, All stub articles, Apicomplexa stubs). ...
Introduction to the Apicomplexa. Ucmp.berkeley.edu. Retrieved 2014-03-20. Fossil Record of the Ciliata. Ucmp.berkeley.edu. ...
Levine, N.D. (1988). The protozoan phylum Apicomplexa. The Protozoan Phylum Apicomplexa. CRC Press. ISBN 978-0-8493-4653-8. " ... Conoidasida is a class of parasitic alveolates in the phylum Apicomplexa. The class was defined in 1988 by Levine and contains ... Apicomplexa classes, All stub articles, Apicomplexa stubs). ...
Apicomplexa Levine 1980, emend. Adl et al. 2005. Incertae sedis genera: Aggregata Frenzel 1885, Christalloidophora Dehorne 1934 ...
... is found in Apicomplexa, which is a group of protozoa. The malaria parasite (genus Plasmodium), the AIDS- ... Wilson RJ, Williamson DH (March 1997). "Extrachromosomal DNA in the Apicomplexa". Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews. ... related pathogen (Taxoplasma and Cryptosporidium) are both members of the Apicomplexa group. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was ...
"Biodiversity explorer: Apicomplexa (apicomplexans, sporozoans)". Iziko Museums of Cape Town. Archived from the original on 2006 ...
Levine, Norman D (1982). "The Genus Atoxoplasma (Protozoa, Apicomplexa)". Journal of Parasitology. 68 (4): 719-723. doi:10.2307 ...
Apicomplexa families, Conoidasida, All stub articles, Apicomplexa stubs). ... The Enterocystidae are a family of parasites in the phylum Apicomplexa. There is one genus in this family - Enterocystis This ... APICOMPLEXA : ENTEROCYSTIDAE) FROM PSOCATROPOS SP. (PSOCOPTERA) OF WEST BENGAL, INDIA". Current Science. 52 (8). Retrieved 1 ... The Gregarines (2 vols): The Early Branching Apicomplexa. Treatise on Zoology - Anatomy, Taxonomy, Biology - The Gregarines. ...
The Protozoan Phylum Apicomplexa, Volume 2. CRC Press. ISBN 978-1315897011. Retrieved 26 January 2018. v t e (Articles with ...
Apicomplexa genera, Parasites of fish, All stub articles, Apicomplexa stubs). ... Eimeriidae, Apicomplexa, Protozoa) in cichlid fish. Ann Parasitol Hum Comp 62(4):283-293 v t e (Articles with short description ... Epieimeria is a genus of parasitic alveaolates of the phylum Apicomplexa. The genus was created in 1981 by Dyková and Lom. ...
Apicomplexa), with members infecting primarily fishes. J Euk Micro 31 (2) 332-339 doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.1984.tb02972.x Whipps ... Calyptospora is a genus of parasitic protozoa in the phylum Apicomplexa. This genus and family was created in 1984 for the ... Apicomplexa: Eimeriorina). Parasitol Res (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, ...
n. (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae), a new coccidian parasite found in the Pied Flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca)". Parasitology. 136 (8 ... Eimeriidae is a family of Apicomplexa. It contains the following genera: Acroeimeria Paperna & Landsberg, 1989 Alveocystis ... Apicomplexa families, All stub articles, Apicomplexa stubs). ...
Hertel, Lynn A.; Duszynski, Donald W. (1987). "Coccidian parasites (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from insectivores. III. Seven new ...
Semiopen pleuromitosis is typical of most Apicomplexa. Semiopen orthomitosis occurs with different variants in some amoebae ( ...
... is a suborder of phylum Apicomplexa. All species in this clade are homoxenous or facultatively homoxenous. Merogony ... Apicomplexa: Eimeriorina)". J. Eukaryot. Microbiol. 56 (1): 39-51. doi:10.1111/j.1550-7408.2008.00362.x. PMID 19335773. v t e ( ...
... is a species of Apicomplexa. An outbreak investigation was conducted on 93 symptomatic persons from ...
Apicomplexa: Leucocytozoidae) from the avian family Timaliidae". Syst. Parasitol. 64 (2): 105-9. doi:10.1007/s11230-005-9023-5 ... Jones, H.I.; Sehgal, R.N.; Smith, T.B. (2005). "Leucocytozoon (Apicomplexa: Leucocytozoidae) from West African birds, with ... Leucocytozoon (or Leukocytozoon) is a genus of parasitic alveolates belonging to the phylum Apicomplexa (which also includes ... Peirce, M.A.; Adlard, R.D.; Lederer, R. (2005). "A new species of Leucocytozoon Berestneff, 1904 (Apicomplexa: Leucocytozoidae ...
Modrý D, Jirků M (September 2006). "Three new species of coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriorina) from the Marble-throated skink, ... Lainson R (March 2002). "Intestinal coccidia (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) of Brazilian lizards. Eimeria carmelinoi n.sp., from ...
Like other eukaryotes, Apicomplexa have a nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex. Apicomplexa generally have a single ... Besides the conserved apical complex, Apicomplexa are morphologically diverse. Different organisms within Apicomplexa, as well ... the name Sporozoa is taken as a synonym for the Apicomplexa, or occasionally as a subset. The phylum Apicomplexa contains all ... although some authors still use it as a synonym for the Apicomplexa. More recently, other groups were excluded from Apicomplexa ...
apicomplexa Latest apicomplexa posts. Parasite genomics for poultry: one less reason for the chicken to cross the road. guest ...
"Apicomplexa" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Apicomplexa" by people in this website by year, and whether " ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Apicomplexa" by people in Profiles. ...
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Apicomplexa are parasitic protozoa that trigger important human diseases including malaria. Posted on September 27, 2016. by ... Apicomplexa are parasitic protozoa that trigger important human diseases including malaria cryptosporidiosis and toxoplasmosis ...
Ball, S.J., Brown, M.A., Daszak, P. and Pittilo, R.M. (1998) Atoxoplasma (Apicomplexa : Eimeriorina : Atoxoplasmatidae) in the ...
Apicomplexa. 65. 1,727. (4). F. AACCTGGTTGATCCTGCCAGTAGTCAT. R. GAATGATCCTTCCGCAGGTTCACCTAC. *For parasites from tick samples, ...
Morphological and molecular characterization of a novel eimerian species (Apicomplexa: Eim Morphological and molecular ... characterization of a novel eimerian species (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the Australian pelican Pelecanus conspicillatus ...
Clínica e hematologia de Bos indicus, Bos taurus e Bubalus bubalis inoculados com oocistos de Toxoplasma gondii (Apicomplexa: ... Apicomplexa:Toxoplasmatinae). Author(s): *Oliveira, Francisco Carlos Rodrigues de ...
n. (Apicomplexa: Haemogregarinidae) in crag lizards (Sauria: Cordylidae) and in culicine mosquitoes from South Africa. ... http://folia.paru.cas.cz/artkey/fol-201501-0008_Life_cycle_of_Hepatozoon_affluomaloti_sp_n_Apicomplexa_Haemogregarinidae_in_ ...
REDESCRIPTION OF THE SARCOCYSTS OF SARCOCYSTIS RILEYI (APICOMPLEXA : SARCOCYSTIDAE (Peer Reviewed Journal) (24-Oct-03) ...
Subphylum: Apicomplexa Infraphylum: Sporozoa Classis: Conoidasida Subclassis: Gregarinasina Ordo: Eugregarinorida Subordines: ...
Blue labels represent organisms of the phylum Apicomplexa. Sus scrofa and Ornithodoros moubata histones H2B were chosen as an ... Blue labels represent organisms of the phylum Apicomplexa. Sus scrofa and Ornithodoros moubata histones H2B were chosen as an ... In tick-transmitted eukaryotic pathogens of the phylum Apicomplexa, like Babesia spp., plastids contain circular DNA that is ...
Apicomplexa Phylum. Ciliophora Phylum. Craspedophyta Phylum. Euglenophycota - euglenoids, eugl nes. Phylum. Protozoa ...
European Marine Sites, Datasets, Species and Distribution - MarBEF Integrated Data System (MarIDaS)
Categories: Apicomplexa Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted 631 ...
Members of the phylum Apicomplexa are unicellular parasites that cause many important livestock and human diseases including ... The very first genome-wide knockout screen in Apicomplexa was a CRISPR/Cas9 screen mapping all T. gondii protein encoding genes ... and conserved among Apicomplexa. These genes were termed indispensable conserved apicomplexan proteins (ICAPs) [49]. In ...
Apicomplexa: Eugregarinida) from an Indian earthworm Lampito mauritii (Annelida: Oligochaeta) of India. P.K. BANDYOPADHYAY, A ... Observations on a new species of Monocystis Stein, 1848 (Protozoa: Apicomplexa: Monocystidae) Monocystis levinei sp. nov. from ... Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the rufous-browed peppershrike (Aves: Passeriformes: Vireonidae) Cyclarhis gujanensis Gmelin, ... A new species of Isospora Schneider, 1881 (Apicomplexa: Eimeiriidae) from the grey-hooded attila Attila rufus Vieillot, 1819 ( ...
Apicomplexa. Sec62 of Plasmodium vivax. 1.A.15.1.4. Translocation protein Sec62 of 264 aas and 4 putative TMSs. ...
Dispersal and invasive stages of Urospora eugregarines (Apicomplexa) from brown bodies of a polychaete host BARDŮNEK VALIGUROVÁ ...
Fine structure of the apicomplexa oocyst of Nematopsis sp. of two marine bivalve mollusks DAO 14:69-73 , Full text in pdf ...
The genus Cryptosporidium consists of a group of protozoan parasites within the phylum Apicomplexa. As of 2019, there were at ...
KEYWORDS: Apicomplexa, Coccidia, Eimeria albigulae, Rodentia, Cricetidae, Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae, Bryants woodrat, Neotoma ... Eimeria albigulae (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae): New Host and Distributional Record from the Bryants Woodrat, Neotoma bryanti ( ...
Within the phylum Apicomplexa, B. bovis contains the 119 member ves1 gene family which encodes the VESA1, known to vary by gene ... parva (mMPSA) but not in other Apicomplexa[42, 43]. At least one EST was found for each ema family member, with the exception ... Additional members of the phylum Apicomplexa, important to global human and animal health include the organisms in the genus ... Membrane Occupation and Recognition Nexus protein (MORN1) seems to be related to cell division in all Apicomplexa studied, and ...
Molecular characterisation of Cryptosporidium (Apicomplexa) in children and cattle in Romania *Autores: Darabus G, Imre K, Lobo ...
Eukaryota; Alveolata; Apicomplexa; Aconoidasida; Haemosporida; Plasmodiidae; Plasmodium; Plasmodium (Vinckeia). Old locus tag. ...
Life Cycle of Calyptospora funduli (Apicomplexa:Calyptosporidae). Journal of Parasitology 86(3):501-505. ...
  • The Apicomplexa (also called Apicomplexia) are a large phylum of mainly parasitic alveolates. (wikipedia.org)
  • The phylum Apicomplexa contains all eukaryotes with a group of structures and organelles collectively termed the apical complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Members of the phylum Apicomplexa are unicellular parasites that cause many important livestock and human diseases including malaria and toxoplasmosis [ 1 , 2 ]. (portlandpress.com)
  • The genus Cryptosporidium consists of a group of protozoan parasites within the phylum Apicomplexa. (medscape.com)
  • Additional members of the phylum Apicomplexa, important to global human and animal health include the organisms in the genus Plasmodium as well as T . parva and T . annulata , and Babesia bovis causes of malaria, bovine theileriosis and babesiosis, respectively. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Avian coccidiosis is a major worldwide veterinary health challenge caused by the obligate intracellular protozoan parasites of the phylum Apicomplexa, Eimeria . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Morphological and molecular characterization of a novel eimerian species (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from the Australian pelican Pelecanus conspicillatus Temminck, 1824 (Pelecaniformes: Pelecanidae) in Western Australia. (bvsalud.org)
  • Eimeria albigulae (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae): New Host and Distributional Record from the Bryant's Woodrat, Neotoma bryanti (Rodentia: Cricetidae), from California, U.S.A. (bioone.org)
  • Eimeria species (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) of podocnemis expansa (Schweigger) and geochelone denticulata (LINN. (mysciencework.com)
  • Some new species of Caryospora (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae) from brazilian snakes, and a re-description of C. jararacae Car. (mysciencework.com)
  • All Apicomplexa are obligate parasites for some portion of their life cycle, with some parasitizing two separate hosts for their asexual and sexual stages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our major working fields are epidemiology and control of Apicomplexa, as well as interaction of apicomplexan parasites with other pathogens. (uwyo.edu)
  • Diseases caused by Apicomplexa include: Babesiosis (Babesia) Malaria (Plasmodium) Cryptosporidiosis (Cryptosporidium parvum) Cyclosporiasis (Cyclospora cayetanensis) Cystoisosporiasis (Cystoisospora belli) Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii) The name Apicomplexa derives from two Latin words-apex (top) and complexus (infolds)-for the set of organelles in the sporozoite. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apicomplexa generally have a single mitochondrion, as well as another endosymbiont-derived organelle called the apicoplast which maintains a separate 35 kilobase circular genome (with the exception of Cryptosporidium species and Gregarina niphandrodes which lack an apicoplast). (wikipedia.org)
  • The Apicomplexa comprise the bulk of what used to be called the Sporozoa, a group of parasitic protozoans, in general without flagella, cilia, or pseudopods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sometimes, the name Sporozoa is taken as a synonym for the Apicomplexa, or occasionally as a subset. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apicomplexa: Haemogregarinidae) in the Amazonian freshwater stingray Potamotrygon wallacei (cururu stingray) in different hydrological phases of the Rio Negro / Cyrilia sp. (bvsalud.org)
  • The Apicomplexa are unicellular and spore-forming. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Apicomplexa are a diverse group that includes organisms such as the coccidia, gregarines, piroplasms, haemogregarines, and plasmodia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Different organisms within Apicomplexa, as well as different life stages for a given apicomplexan, can vary substantially in size, shape, and subcellular structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apicomplexa have complex life cycles, involving several stages and typically undergoing both asexual and sexual replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rhabdospora thelohani Laguesse, 1895 (Apicomplexa): new host and geographical records with taxonomic considerations. (organismnames.com)
  • The lab also has broad interests in character evolution throughout Apicomplexa and the related phyla, dinoflagellates and ciliates. (cam.ac.uk)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Apicomplexa" by people in this website by year, and whether "Apicomplexa" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (wakehealth.edu)
  • Apicomplexa" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (wakehealth.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Apicomplexa" by people in Profiles. (wakehealth.edu)
  • Av disse var fureflagellatene tidligere plassert i det som ble kalt alveolatriket (rike Alveolata), men Alveolata betraktes i dag ikke lenger som en gyldig systematisk enhet. (artsdatabanken.no)
  • Diseases caused by Apicomplexa include: Babesiosis (Babesia) Malaria (Plasmodium) Cryptosporidiosis (Cryptosporidium parvum) Cyclosporiasis (Cyclospora cayetanensis) Cystoisosporiasis (Cystoisospora belli) Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii) The name Apicomplexa derives from two Latin words-apex (top) and complexus (infolds)-for the set of organelles in the sporozoite. (wikipedia.org)
  • The focus of the Unit is the study of the molecular basis of the host/parasite relationship, with emphasis on the Apicomplexa, a group of protozoa responsible for some of the world's most serious parasitic diseases including malaria, toxoplasmosis, neosporosis and coccidiosis. (bio.net)
  • Klossiella equi is a single celled, obligate intracellular parasite (Apicomplexa, Adeleorina) that parasitizes the kidneys of equids, including horses. (equineguelph.ca)
  • PARASITOLOGY DEFINITION The plasmodia are Apicomplexa in which the sexual and asexual cycles of reproduction are completed in different host species. (basicmedicalkey.com)
  • Besides the conserved apical complex, Apicomplexa are morphologically diverse. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Apicomplexa are a large group of protists , characterized by the presence of a unique organelle called an apical complex . (wikidoc.org)
  • The presence of alveoli and other traits place the Apicomplexa among a group called the alveolates . (wikidoc.org)
  • Different organisms within Apicomplexa, as well as different life stages for a given apicomplexan, can vary substantially in size, shape, and subcellular structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • My work focuses on conducting primary field and laboratory research on infectious diseases, mostly tropical parasitic infections such as soil-transmitted helminths, tapeworms, pediculosis, and some intestinal apicomplexa. (brocku.ca)
  • Apicomplexa: Babesiidae) from humans and its differentiation from other piroplasms. (aaem.pl)
  • Apicomplexa have complex life cycles, involving several stages and typically undergoing both asexual and sexual replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ultrastructure and identification of the predatory flagellate Colpodella pugnax Cienkowski (Apicomplexa) with a description of Colpodella turpis n. sp. (wikimedia.org)