Aquaporins: A class of porins that allow the passage of WATER and other small molecules across CELL MEMBRANES.Tulipa: A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. Members contain tuliposides and tulipalins and have been associated with allergic contact dermatitis in florists.Aquaporin 1: Aquaporin 1 forms a water-specific channel that is constitutively expressed at the PLASMA MEMBRANE of ERYTHROCYTES and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL. It provides these cells with a high permeability to WATER. In humans polymorphisms of this protein result in the Colton blood group antigen.Aquaporin 5: Aquaporin 5 is a water-specific channel protein that is expressed primarily in alveolar, tracheal, and upper bronchial EPITHELIUM. It plays an important role in maintaining water HOMEOSTASIS in the LUNGS and may also regulate release of SALIVA and TEARS in the SALIVARY GLANDS and the LACRIMAL GLAND.Aquaporin 3: Aquaporin 3 is an aquaglyceroporin that is expressed in the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS and is constitutively localized at the basolateral MEMBRANE.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Aquaporin 4: Aquaporin 4 is the major water-selective channel in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM of mammals.Aquaporin 2: Aquaporin 2 is a water-specific channel protein that is expressed in KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. The translocation of aquaporin 2 to the apical PLASMA MEMBRANE is regulated by VASOPRESSIN, and MUTATIONS in AQP2 have been implicated in a variety of kidney disorders including DIABETES INSIPIDUS.Aquaporin 6: Aquaporin 6 is an aquaglyceroporin that is found primarily in KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. AQP6 protein functions as an anion-selective channel.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Membranes: Thin layers of tissue which cover parts of the body, separate adjacent cavities, or connect adjacent structures.Membrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Kidney Tubules, Collecting: Straight tubes commencing in the radiate part of the kidney cortex where they receive the curved ends of the distal convoluted tubules. In the medulla the collecting tubules of each pyramid converge to join a central tube (duct of Bellini) which opens on the summit of the papilla.Membrane Fluidity: The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.Erythrocyte Membrane: The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.Basement Membrane: A darkly stained mat-like EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX (ECM) that separates cell layers, such as EPITHELIUM from ENDOTHELIUM or a layer of CONNECTIVE TISSUE. The ECM layer that supports an overlying EPITHELIUM or ENDOTHELIUM is called basal lamina. Basement membrane (BM) can be formed by the fusion of either two adjacent basal laminae or a basal lamina with an adjacent reticular lamina of connective tissue. BM, composed mainly of TYPE IV COLLAGEN; glycoprotein LAMININ; and PROTEOGLYCAN, provides barriers as well as channels between interacting cell layers.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Osmosis: Tendency of fluids (e.g., water) to move from the less concentrated to the more concentrated side of a semipermeable membrane.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Microvilli: Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amiloride: A pyrazine compound inhibiting SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with DIURETICS to spare POTASSIUM loss. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p705)Water-Electrolyte Balance: The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.Mercuric Chloride: Mercury chloride (HgCl2). A highly toxic compound that volatizes slightly at ordinary temperature and appreciably at 100 degrees C. It is corrosive to mucous membranes and used as a topical antiseptic and disinfectant.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Membrane Glycoproteins: Glycoproteins found on the membrane or surface of cells.Necturus: A genus of the Proteidae family with five recognized species, which inhabit the Atlantic and Gulf drainages.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Sodium-Hydrogen Antiporter: A plasma membrane exchange glycoprotein transporter that functions in intracellular pH regulation, cell volume regulation, and cellular response to many different hormones and mitogens.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Aquaglyceroporins: A subgroup of aquaporins that transport WATER; GLYCEROL; and other small solutes across CELL MEMBRANES.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.Electric Conductivity: The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.Kidney Tubules, Proximal: The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator: A chloride channel that regulates secretion in many exocrine tissues. Abnormalities in the CFTR gene have been shown to cause cystic fibrosis. (Hum Genet 1994;93(4):364-8)Bicarbonates: Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Epithelial Sodium Channels: Sodium channels found on salt-reabsorbing EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the distal NEPHRON; the distal COLON; SALIVARY DUCTS; SWEAT GLANDS; and the LUNG. They are AMILORIDE-sensitive and play a critical role in the control of sodium balance, BLOOD VOLUME, and BLOOD PRESSURE.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Microscopy, Immunoelectron: Microscopy in which the samples are first stained immunocytochemically and then examined using an electron microscope. Immunoelectron microscopy is used extensively in diagnostic virology as part of very sensitive immunoassays.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Mitochondrial Membranes: The two lipoprotein layers in the MITOCHONDRION. The outer membrane encloses the entire mitochondrion and contains channels with TRANSPORT PROTEINS to move molecules and ions in and out of the organelle. The inner membrane folds into cristae and contains many ENZYMES important to cell METABOLISM and energy production (MITOCHONDRIAL ATP SYNTHASE).RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Necturus maculosus: A neotenic aquatic species of mudpuppy (Necturus) occurring from Manitoba to Louisiana and Texas.Ion Transport: The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Kidney Cortex: The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.Chloride Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.Kidney Medulla: The internal portion of the kidney, consisting of striated conical masses, the renal pyramids, whose bases are adjacent to the cortex and whose apices form prominent papillae projecting into the lumen of the minor calyces.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Diabetes Insipidus, Nephrogenic: A genetic or acquired polyuric disorder characterized by persistent hypotonic urine and HYPOKALEMIA. This condition is due to renal tubular insensitivity to VASOPRESSIN and failure to reduce urine volume. It may be the result of mutations of genes encoding VASOPRESSIN RECEPTORS or AQUAPORIN-2; KIDNEY DISEASES; adverse drug effects; or complications from PREGNANCY.Endocytosis: Cellular uptake of extracellular materials within membrane-limited vacuoles or microvesicles. ENDOSOMES play a central role in endocytosis.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.H(+)-K(+)-Exchanging ATPaseSodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase: An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Malpighian Tubules: Slender tubular or hairlike excretory structures found in insects. They emerge from the alimentary canal between the mesenteron (midgut) and the proctodeum (hindgut).Synaptic Membranes: Cell membranes associated with synapses. Both presynaptic and postsynaptic membranes are included along with their integral or tightly associated specializations for the release or reception of transmitters.Caco-2 Cells: Human colonic ADENOCARCINOMA cells that are able to express differentiation features characteristic of mature intestinal cells, such as ENTEROCYTES. These cells are valuable in vitro tools for studies related to intestinal cell function and differentiation.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Protozoan Proteins: Proteins found in any species of protozoan.Cell Fractionation: Techniques to partition various components of the cell into SUBCELLULAR FRACTIONS.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Kidney Concentrating Ability: The ability of the kidney to excrete in the urine high concentrations of solutes from the blood plasma.Symporters: Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Osmotic Pressure: The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Exocytosis: Cellular release of material within membrane-limited vesicles by fusion of the vesicles with the CELL MEMBRANE.LLC-PK1 Cells: Epithelial cell line originally derived from porcine kidneys. It is used for pharmacologic and metabolic studies.Detergents: Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.Subcellular Fractions: Components of a cell produced by various separation techniques which, though they disrupt the delicate anatomy of a cell, preserve the structure and physiology of its functioning constituents for biochemical and ultrastructural analysis. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p163)Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Malaria Vaccines: Vaccines made from antigens arising from any of the four strains of Plasmodium which cause malaria in humans, or from P. berghei which causes malaria in rodents.Vasopressins: Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Vacuolar Proton-Translocating ATPases: Proton-translocating ATPases that are involved in acidification of a variety of intracellular compartments.Parietal Cells, Gastric: Rounded or pyramidal cells of the GASTRIC GLANDS. They secrete HYDROCHLORIC ACID and produce gastric intrinsic factor, a glycoprotein that binds VITAMIN B12.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Antidiuretic Agents: Agents that reduce the excretion of URINE, most notably the octapeptide VASOPRESSINS.Plant Transpiration: The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Opossums: New World marsupials of the family Didelphidae. Opossums are omnivorous, largely nocturnal and arboreal MAMMALS, grow to about three feet in length, including the scaly prehensile tail, and have an abdominal pouch in which the young are carried at birth.Freeze Fracturing: Preparation for electron microscopy of minute replicas of exposed surfaces of the cell which have been ruptured in the frozen state. The specimen is frozen, then cleaved under high vacuum at the same temperature. The exposed surface is shadowed with carbon and platinum and coated with carbon to obtain a carbon replica.Chloride-Bicarbonate Antiporters: Electroneutral chloride bicarbonate exchangers that allow the exchange of BICARBONATE IONS exchange for CHLORIDE IONS across the cellular membrane. The action of specific antiporters in this class serve important functions such as allowing the efficient exchange of bicarbonate across red blood cell membranes as they passage through capillaries and the reabsorption of bicarbonate ions by the kidney.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Vacuoles: Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Sodium-Potassium-Chloride Symporters: A subclass of symporters that specifically transport SODIUM CHLORIDE and/or POTASSIUM CHLORIDE across cellular membranes in a tightly coupled process.Enterocytes: Absorptive cells in the lining of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA. They are differentiated EPITHELIAL CELLS with apical MICROVILLI facing the intestinal lumen. Enterocytes are more abundant in the SMALL INTESTINE than in the LARGE INTESTINE. Their microvilli greatly increase the luminal surface area of the cell by 14- to 40 fold.4,4'-Diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-Disulfonic Acid: An inhibitor of anion conductance including band 3-mediated anion transport.PhloretinGreen Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Salivary Glands: Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).Sodium-Phosphate Cotransporter Proteins: A family of symporters that facilitate sodium-dependent membrane transport of phosphate.Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Anions: Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.Kidney Tubules, Distal: The portion of renal tubule that begins from the enlarged segment of the ascending limb of the LOOP OF HENLE. It reenters the KIDNEY CORTEX and forms the convoluted segments of the distal tubule.Extraembryonic Membranes: The thin layers of tissue that surround the developing embryo. There are four extra-embryonic membranes commonly found in VERTEBRATES, such as REPTILES; BIRDS; and MAMMALS. They are the YOLK SAC, the ALLANTOIS, the AMNION, and the CHORION. These membranes provide protection and means to transport nutrients and wastes.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Body Water: Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Sodium Channels: Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Gallbladder: A storage reservoir for BILE secretion. Gallbladder allows the delivery of bile acids at a high concentration and in a controlled manner, via the CYSTIC DUCT to the DUODENUM, for degradation of dietary lipid.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Bile Canaliculi: Minute intercellular channels that occur between liver cells and carry bile towards interlobar bile ducts. Also called bile capillaries.Sodium-Phosphate Cotransporter Proteins, Type IIa: An electrogenic sodium-dependent phosphate transporter. It is present primarily in BRUSH BORDER membranes of PROXIMAL RENAL TUBULES.Antiporters: Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the opposite direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Endosomes: Cytoplasmic vesicles formed when COATED VESICLES shed their CLATHRIN coat. Endosomes internalize macromolecules bound by receptors on the cell surface.Transport Vesicles: Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Colon: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Polyuria: Urination of a large volume of urine with an increase in urinary frequency, commonly seen in diabetes (DIABETES MELLITUS; DIABETES INSIPIDUS).Cytoskeleton: The network of filaments, tubules, and interconnecting filamentous bridges which give shape, structure, and organization to the cytoplasm.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Neuromyelitis Optica: A syndrome characterized by acute OPTIC NEURITIS; MYELITIS, TRANSVERSE; demyelinating and/or necrotizing lesions in the OPTIC NERVES and SPINAL CORD; and presence of specific autoantibodies to AQUAPORIN 4.Bufo marinus: A species of the true toads, Bufonidae, becoming fairly common in the southern United States and almost pantropical. The secretions from the skin glands of this species are very toxic to animals.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Colforsin: Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.Proteolipids: Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.Nystatin: Macrolide antifungal antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces noursei, S. aureus, and other Streptomyces species. The biologically active components of the complex are nystatin A1, A2, and A3.Microscopy, Electron, Transmission: Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Eye ProteinsFluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Bumetanide: A sulfamyl diuretic.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Octoxynol: Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide.Kidney Tubules: Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.Pigment Epithelium of Eye: The layer of pigment-containing epithelial cells in the RETINA; the CILIARY BODY; and the IRIS in the eye.Sodium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of sodium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Na atoms with atomic weights 20-22 and 24-26 are radioactive sodium isotopes.Biotinylation: Incorporation of biotinyl groups into molecules.Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Solute Carrier Family 12, Member 1: Na-K-Cl transporter in the ASCENDING LIMB OF LOOP OF HENLE. It mediates active reabsorption of sodium chloride and is inhibited by LOOP DIURETICS such as FUROSEMIDE; and BUMETANIDE. Mutations in the gene encoding SLC12A1 are associated with a BARTTER SYNDROME.
"Syntaxin-4 is localized to the apical plasma membrane of rat renal collecting duct cells: possible role in aquaporin-2 ... SNARE complexes on the apical plasma membrane". Archives of Oral Biology. 48 (8): 597-604. doi:10.1016/s0003-9969(03)00116-x. ... Vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the VAMP2 gene. Synaptobrevins/VAMPs, syntaxins ... Hao JC, Salem N, Peng XR, Kelly RB, Bennett MK (Mar 1997). "Effect of mutations in vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP) ...
"Syntaxin-4 is localized to the apical plasma membrane of rat renal collecting duct cells: possible role in aquaporin-2 ... SNARE complexes on the apical plasma membrane". Archives of Oral Biology. 48 (8): 597-604. doi:10.1016/s0003-9969(03)00116-x. ... Polgár J, Chung SH, Reed GL (Aug 2002). "Vesicle-associated membrane protein 3 (VAMP-3) and VAMP-8 are present in human ... Polgár J, Chung SH, Reed GL (Aug 2002). "Vesicle-associated membrane protein 3 (VAMP-3) and VAMP-8 are present in human ...
... into the apical membrane of collecting tubule and collecting duct epithelial cells. Aquaporins allow water to move down their ... Vasopressin, acting through cAMP, also increases transcription of the aquaporin-2 gene, thus increasing the total number of ... This occurs through increased transcription and insertion of water channels (Aquaporin-2) ... "Antidiuretic action of oxytocin is associated with increased urinary excretion of aquaporin-2". Nephrology, Dialysis, ...
The increased intracellular cAMP in the kidney in turn triggers fusion of aquaporin-2-bearing vesicles with the apical plasma ... V1Rs on the luminal membrane of the collecting duct limit the antidiuretic action of vasopressin. Additionally, vasopressin ... membrane of the collecting duct principal cells, increasing water reabsorption. The human V3 receptor (V3R, previously known as ...
... it acts on proteins called aquaporins and more specifically aquaporin 2 in the following cascade. When released, ADH binds to ... Nephrogenic DI results from lack of aquaporin channels in the distal collecting duct (decreased surface expression and ... stimulating translocation of the aquaporin 2 channel stored in the cytoplasm of the distal convoluted tubules and collecting ... ducts into the apical membrane. These transcribed channels allow water into the collecting duct cells. The increase in ...
... through trafficking of AQP2 vesicles to the apical region where they fuse with the apical plasma membrane long-term regulation ... AQP2 is found in the apical cell membranes of the kidney's collecting duct principal cells and in intracellular vesicles ... It is the only aquaporin regulated by vasopressin. The basic job of aquaporin 2 is to reabsorb water from the urine while its ... This aquaporin is also regulated by food intake. Fasting reduces expression of this aquaporin independently of vasopressin. ...
... plasma membrane, mitochondria, etc.) within the cell. ... exocytosis of aquaporin 2 to apical membrane.[12]. *synthesis ... Casein kinase 2, is known to exist in a physiological tetrameric complex.[2] ... 577 (2): 101-108. doi:10.1016/j.gene.2015.11.052. PMC 4713328. PMID 26687711.. ...
Within these cells, NKCC2 resides in the apical membrane abutting the nephron's lumen, which is the hollow space containing ... Increased NKCC2 activity aids in water reabsorption in the collecting duct through aquaporin 2 channels by creating a hypo- ... In cells of these organs, NKCC1 is commonly found in the basolateral membrane, the part of the cell membrane closest to the ... NKCC proteins are membrane transport proteins that transport sodium (Na), potassium (K), and chloride (Cl) ions across the cell ...
It is found in the basolateral and apical plasma membranes of the proximal tubules, the descending limb of the loop of Henle, ... It is not regulated by vasopressin (ADH). Aquaporins are a family of small integral membrane proteins related to the major ... Preston GM, Jung JS, Guggino WB, Agre P (1994). "Membrane topology of aquaporin CHIP. Analysis of functional epitope-scanning ... Aquaporin 1 at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Gallery of Aquaporin Simulations Human AQP1 ...
The apical plasma membrane displays compositional variations that change at the time of implantation. The apical domain is ... Lindsay, L. A., & Murphy, C. R. (2006). Redistribution of aquaporins 1 and 5 in the rat uterus is dependent on progesterone: a ... These features include a loss of apical microvilli such that the apical plasma membrane becomes flattened. There is also a ... There is also an increase in AQP5 in the apical plasma membrane of uterine epithelial cells at time of implantation. The ...
... A1 transports urea across the apical membrane into the intracellular space of luminal cells in the inner ... Yang B, Verkman AS (September 2002). "Analysis of double knockout mice lacking aquaporin-1 and urea transporter UT-B. Evidence ... UT-B is expressed at the basolateral and apical regions of the descending Vasa recta. Maciver B, Smith CP, Hill WG, Zeidel ML ( ... The structure has a pathway through the membrane that is similar to that of ion channel proteins, accounting for the ability of ...
"A novel tetanus neurotoxin-insensitive vesicle-associated membrane protein in SNARE complexes of the apical plasma membrane of ... colocalization with aquaporin-2 in collecting duct vesicles". The American Journal of Physiology. 275 (5 Pt 2): F752-60. PMID ... "A novel tetanus neurotoxin-insensitive vesicle-associated membrane protein in SNARE complexes of the apical plasma membrane of ... SNARE complexes on the apical plasma membrane". Archives of Oral Biology. 48 (8): 597-604. doi:10.1016/S0003-9969(03)00116-X. ...
The apical membrane of a polarized cell is the surface of the plasma membrane that faces inward to the lumen. This is ... can diffuse passively through protein channels such as aquaporins in facilitated diffusion or are pumped across the membrane by ... plasmatic membrane (Pfeffer, 1900), plasma membrane, cytoplasmic membrane, cell envelope and cell membrane. Some authors that ... The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) ...
... which signal for the translocation of aquaporin channels via cytosolic vesicles to the apical membrane of the collecting duct. ... The presence of these aquaporin channels in the distal nephron causes increasing water reabsorption from the urine, which ... 2 Deaths Spur sleep apnea Drug Warning Archived 2007-12-07 at the Wayback Machine.. Webmd.com (2007-12-04). Retrieved on 2011- ... Retrieved 2 December 2016. "WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (19th List)" (PDF). World Health Organization. April 2015. ...
The apical membranes of many tight epithelia contain sodium channels that are characterized primarily by their high affinity ... aquaporins or Na/K-ATPase. In sweat glands, CFTR is responsible for the reabsorption of chloride in the sweat duct. Sodium ions ... In the eccrine sweat glands, ENaC is predominantly located in the apical membrane facing the lumen of the sweat ducts. The ... ENaC is located in the apical membrane of polarized epithelial cells in particular in the kidney (primarily in the collecting ...
... and vitamins into the epithelial cell from the apical side (side facing the proximal tubual). Water freely crosses the apical ... These channels, called aquaporins, allow more solutes to leave the collecting duct and water will follow through osmosis. These ... concentration within the cell by actively pumping out Na+ into the blood via a Na+/K+ ATPase pump on the basolateral membrane. ... 3.0.co;2-g. Pimm, S.; Raven, P.; Peterson, A.; Şekercioğlu, Ç. H.; Ehrlich, P. R. (2006). "Human impacts on the rates of recent ...
Competitive vasopressin antagonism leads to decreased number of aquaporin channels in the apical membrane of the renal ... 2: proximal tubule Loop diuretics bumetanide,[16] ethacrynic acid,[16] furosemide,[16] torsemide Inhibits the Na-K-2Cl ... 2. proximal tubule[16] Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors acetazolamide,[16] dorzolamide Inhibits H+ secretion, resultant promotion ... 9 (2): 159-62. doi:10.1007/BF00860731. PMID 7794709.. *^ Bakhireva LN, Barrett-Connor E, Kritz-Silverstein D, Morton DJ (June ...
ADH binds to principal cells in the collecting duct that translocate aquaporins to the membrane, allowing water to leave the ... The anterior branch further divides into the superior (apical), anterosuperior, anteroinferior and inferior segmental arteries ... However, when plasma blood volume is low and ADH is released the aquaporins that are opened are also permeable to urea. This ... It is accomplished via selective receptors on the luminal cell membrane. Water is 55% reabsorbed in the proximal tubule. ...
... which includes the basilar membrane, is called the scala tympani. As a result of this increase in length, the basilar membrane ... The hair cells have a hair bundle at the apical surface of the cell. The hair bundle consists of an array of actin-based ... They contain a variety of aquaporin water channels and appear to be involved in ion transport. They also play a role in sealing ... Hardesty's membrane is the layer of the tectoria closest to the reticular lamina and overlying the outer hair cell region. ...
AVT opens protein channels in the collection ducts of the kidney called aquaporins. Aquaporins increase the membrane ... The chloride ion diffuses through the apical membrane into the secretory tube and the sodium follows via a paracellular route. ... This effect of the panting is accelerated by a process called gular fluttering; rapid flapping of membranes in the throat which ... It helps the movement of ions in erythrocytes by altering the permeability of the membrane and regulating osmotic pressure ...
The ependymal cells of the choroid plexuses have multiple motile cilia on their apical surfaces that beat to move the CSF ... and specific antibodies such as Aquaporin 4 may be tested for to assist in the diagnosis of autoimmune conditions.[1] A lumbar ... have the potential to impact membrane channels.[3] ... facilitated by aquaporins.[3] Chloride, with a negative charge ... Cilia on the apical surfaces of the ependymal cells beat to help transport the CSF.[20] ...
There is one structure, aquaporin, that above all else proves most significant for the water transport across a membrane. Even ... They contain a bulging basal portion with a thin apical neck, and when stimulated in some species, separates the stratum ... noncovalent bonds) that steady and stabilize cellular membranes (and other biological membranes) and the high-level structures ... This change is to allow easier transport of water through the cutaneous membrane and into the newt to allow for hydration. A ...
basolateral plasma membrane. • midbody. • apical plasma membrane. • cortical actin cytoskeleton. • caveola. • membrane raft. • ... and aquaporin-1 in human erythrocyte membrane domains". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1828 (3): 956-66. doi:10.1016/j.bbamem. ... membrane. • cell-cell junction. • melanosome. • Golgi membrane. • plasma membrane. • integral component of plasma membrane. • ... Six of these membrane spanning helices are believed to bind together in the membrane to create a polar channel in the center ...
The distal or apical part of the duct that opens to the skin's surface is known as the acrosyringium. Each sweat gland receives ... can sometimes come with abnormal aquaporin 5 in the sweat glands. Cystic fibrosis can be diagnosed by a sweat test, as the ... Protein Diffusion in Cell Membranes: Some Biological Implications. Orlando, Florida: Academic Press. pp. 253-330. ISBN ... 2): 6825. ISSN 0270-6474. Wilke et al. 2007, pp. 173, 175. Eroschenko 2008, p. 228. Randall 2012. Folk Jr & Semken Jr 1991, p. ...
symbiont-containing vacuole membrane. • мембрана. • клітинне ядро. • apical plasma membrane. • integral component of membrane. ... and aquaporin-1 in human erythrocyte membrane domains.. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1828: 956 - 966. PubMed DOI:10.1016/j.bbamem. ... apical part of cell. • basal plasma membrane. • integral component of plasma membrane. • brush border membrane. • basolateral ... Аквапорин-1, AQP1 (англ. Aquaporin 1 (Colton blood group)) - білок, який кодується геном AQP1, розташованим у людей на ...
Competitive vasopressin antagonism leads to decreased number of aquaporin channels in the apical membrane of the renal ... 2. proximal tubule Loop diuretics bumetanide,[17] ethacrynic acid,[17] furosemide,[17] torsemide Inhibits the Na-K-2Cl ... 2. proximal tubule[17]. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors acetazolamide,[17] dorzolamide Inhibits H+ secretion, resultant promotion ... 9 (2): 159-62. doi:10.1007/BF00860731. PMID 7794709.. *^ Bakhireva LN, Barrett-Connor E, Kritz-Silverstein D, Morton DJ (June ...
This is the first reported case of anti-aquaporin-4 antibody-positive NMO spectrum disorder in a patient with active ... It shows the usefulness of testing for anti-aquaporin-4 antibodies while evaluating neurological deterioration in patients with ... Spinal imaging and anti-aquaporin-4 antibody positivity established a diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder. ... We report a fatal case of anti-aquaporin-4 antibody positive NMO spectrum disorder in a patient who was receiving treatment for ...
... from intracellular vesicles to the apical membrane of kidney epithelial cells, an event initiated by an increase in cAMP and ... is involved in the cAMP-triggered targeting of AQP2-bearing vesicles to the apical membrane of kidney epithelial cells. ... increase in water permeability and the redistribution of AQP2 from an intracellular compartment to the apical membrane. ADP- ... Central to its antidiuretic action in mammals is the redistribution of the water channel aquaporin 2 (AQP2) ...
... preventing its phosphorylation at S256 and the subsequent accumulation of Aqp2 on the apical membrane of the collecting duct ... preventing its phosphorylation at S256 and the subsequent accumulation of Aqp2 on the apical membrane of the collecting duct ... preventing its phosphorylation at S256 and the subsequent accumulation of Aqp2 on the apical membrane of the collecting duct ... preventing its phosphorylation at S256 and the subsequent accumulation of Aqp2 on the apical membrane of the collecting duct ...
2) Oxytocin, like vasopressin, can increase cAMP production, perhaps accounting for the increase in water permeability.( ... The layer of plasma membrane of epithelial cells that is adjacent to the basement membrane and separated from the apical ... aquaporin-2 DEFINITION: Also called WCH-CD, this water channel makes the principal cells of the inner medullary collecting duct ... A membrane-bound enzyme that catalyzes the formation of cyclic AMP from ATP. An important component of some intracellular ...
found in apical membrane of nephron cells. closed by drug amiloride. opened by a number of hormones ... increases formation of cAMp( stimulating movement of aquaporin 2 proteins to lumen side of cell membranes) ... across the tubular epithelial membranes into the renal interstitial fluid. * through the peritubular capillary membrane back ... permeability of the membrane for the substance. time that the fluid containing the substance remains within the tubule ...
... nursing diagnosis type 2 diabetes mellitus, diabetes mellitus medical treatment, best clinic for diabetes in delhi, cure for ... diabetes in nigeria 70, msp wikipedia, can type 2 diabetes be completely reversed, home remedy for diabetic retinopathy ... membrane of the kidneys. Causes a reduced cellular expression of Aquaporin-2, due to reducing the cellular levels of its mRNA. ... These pores dramatically increase this membranes water permeability, allowing water to leave the lumen down a water potential ...
Water reabsorption is regulated by AQP2 trafficking between intracellular storage vesicles and the apical membrane. This ... 12] "Aquaporin-2, a vasopressin-sensitive water channel, and nephrogenic diabetes insipidus." Kuwahara M.et.al. 9550615. [13] " ... in the apical membrane of the renal collecting duct (Fenton et al., 2008). Controls cell volume and thereby influences cell ... 19] "Two novel mutations in the aquaporin 2 gene in a girl with congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus." Cheong H.I.et.al. ...
In this model, the outer membrane of MVB fuses with the apical plasma membrane, releasing internal vesicles, exosomes, to the ... The water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2) is one biomarker that can be readily measured in urine (3) and that has been exploited in ... to the urinary space by fusion of the outer membrane of MVBs with the apical plasma membrane of renal tubule epithelial cells. ... the kidneys excrete membranes containing apical plasma-membrane transporter proteins from each renal tubule segment (5), ...
... and in direct association with the apical plasma membrane (F, arrows). N, nucleus; apm, apical plasma membrane; bm, basal ... between the apical plasma membrane and intracellular membrane compartments. Phosphorylation of Ser-256 at AQP2s cytoplasmic ... Immunogold EM studies demonstrated that BiP is present not only in the ER but also in the cytoplasm and apical plasma membrane ... In the initial IMCD (O), annexin II (green) and AQP2 (red), partially colocalize (yellow) at the apical plasma membrane. ...
Furthermore, insertion of the channel into the apical membrane also occurs following ADH stimulation. Aquaporins 3 and 4 ... Thus, aquaporins increase the water permeability of cell membranes, while other membranes of aquaporins family transport ... While aquaporin 1 occurs on the red cell membrane, and proximal convoluted tubule, thin descending limb of the Loop of Henle in ... These aquaporin proteins form complexes that span the membrane and water moves through these channels passively in response to ...
Most frequent cause of hyponatremia First described by Schwartz et al in 1957 in 2 pts with bronchogenic carcinoma Arginine ... A and B, Immunogold labeling of AQP2 in clathrin-coated pits (arrows) at the apical plasma membrane of collecting duct ... leads to insertion of aquaporin-2 channels into apical membranes. *The goal is to facilitate the transport of solute-free water ... Immunogold label for AQP2 is located in intramembrane particle (IMP) clusters on the membrane (C,arrows; and is associated with ...
COOH Terminus Is Necessary But Not Sufficient for Routing to the Apical Membrane." American Journal of Physiology 282: F330-40 ... "Aquaporin-2: ... "A Single Membrane-Embedded Glutamate Influences Binding of a ... Interactions of VirB9, -10, and -11 with the membrane fraction of agrobacterium tumefaciens: Solubility studies provide ... "The C-teminal Tail of the GAT-2 GABA Transporter Contains a Novel Basolateral Targeting Signal." American Journal of Physiology ...
"Syntaxin-4 is localized to the apical plasma membrane of rat renal collecting duct cells: possible role in aquaporin-2 ... SNARE complexes on the apical plasma membrane". Archives of Oral Biology. 48 (8): 597-604. doi:10.1016/s0003-9969(03)00116-x. ... Vesicle-associated membrane protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the VAMP2 gene. Synaptobrevins/VAMPs, syntaxins ... Hao JC, Salem N, Peng XR, Kelly RB, Bennett MK (Mar 1997). "Effect of mutations in vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP) ...
"Syntaxin-4 is localized to the apical plasma membrane of rat renal collecting duct cells: possible role in aquaporin-2 ... SNARE complexes on the apical plasma membrane". Archives of Oral Biology. 48 (8): 597-604. doi:10.1016/s0003-9969(03)00116-x. ... Polgár J, Chung SH, Reed GL (Aug 2002). "Vesicle-associated membrane protein 3 (VAMP-3) and VAMP-8 are present in human ... Polgár J, Chung SH, Reed GL (Aug 2002). "Vesicle-associated membrane protein 3 (VAMP-3) and VAMP-8 are present in human ...
... it acts on proteins called aquaporins and more specifically aquaporin 2 in the following cascade. When released, ADH binds to ... Nephrogenic DI results from lack of aquaporin channels in the distal collecting duct (decreased surface expression and ... stimulating translocation of the aquaporin 2 channel stored in the cytoplasm of the distal convoluted tubules and collecting ... ducts into the apical membrane. These transcribed channels allow water into the collecting duct cells. The increase in ...
Vasopressin-stimulated increase in phosphorylation at ser-269 potentiates plasma membrane retention of aquaporin-2. J Biol Chem ... Acute regulation of aquaporin-2 phosphorylation at Ser-264 by vasopressin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105: 3134-3139, 2008. ... This kinase is differentially expressed in IMCD versus non-collecting duct cells3 and is thought to be involved in membrane ... Aquaporins in the kidney: From molecules to medicine. Physiol Rev 82: 205-244, 2002. ...
Plasma membrane aquaporin 1 (Törnroth-Horsefield et al., 2006). Transports H2O, H2O2 (Dynowski et al., 2008), O2 and CO2 ( ... Water reabsorption is regulated by AQP2 trafficking between intracellular storage vesicles and the apical membrane. This ... The plasma membrane aquaporin, NtAQP1 (H2O and CO2 permeable; important for photosynthesis, stomatal opening and leaf growth) ( ... The lens fiber MIP aquaporin (Aqp0) of B. taurus (forms membrane junctions in vivo and double layered crystals in vitro that ...
In summary, the results strongly suggest that AQP2 downregulation and reduced apical plasma membrane delivery of AQP2 play ... Downregulation of aquaporin-2 and -3 in aging kidney is independent of V(2) vasopressin receptor. Preisser, L., Teillet, L., ... Decreased aquaporin-2 expression and apical plasma membrane delivery in kidney collecting ducts of polyuric hypercalcemic rats. ... Role of water channels in fluid transport studied by phenotype analysis of aquaporin knockout mice. Verkman, A.S., Yang, B., ...
Plasma membrane aquaporin 1, PIP1, of 286 aas and 6 TMSs (Törnroth-Horsefield et al., 2006). Transports H2O, H2O2 (Dynowski et ... Water reabsorption is regulated by AQP2 trafficking between intracellular storage vesicles and the apical membrane. This ... Aquaporin of 250 aas and 6 TMSs. It is a water channel required to facilitate the transport of water across membranes; it is ... The plasma membrane aquaporin, NtAQP1 (H2O and CO2 permeable; important for photosynthesis, stomatal opening and leaf growth) ( ...
In murine kidney tubules, stimulation of β3-AR promoted accumulation of aquaporin 2 at the apical plasma membrane of the ... The β1 and β2 adrenergic receptors (ARs) are known to contribute to the sympathetic regulation of renal function. Now, ...
apical membrane of the cells lining the collecting ducts of the kidneys (especially the cortical and outer medullary collecting ... insertion of aquaporin-2 (AQP2) channels (water channels). This allows water to be reabsorbed down an osmotic gradient, and so ... This occurs through insertion of additional water channels into the apical membrane of the duct epithelial cells. ... Revision as of 14:56, 2 October 2007 by Jackbot. (talk , contribs) (Robot: Changing Category:Endocrine Disease) ...
Apical membrane targeting of the collecting duct water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2) is essential for body water balance. As this ... Vasopressin-independent targeting of aquaporin-2 by selective E-prostanoid receptor agonists alleviates nephrogenic diabetes ... The vasopressin type 2 receptor and prostaglandin receptors EP2 and EP4 can increase aquaporin-2 plasma membrane targeting ... Downregulation of COX-2 and CYP 4A signaling by isoliquiritigenin inhibits human breast cancer metastasis through preventing ...
Syntaxin-4 is localized to the apical plasma membrane of rat renal collecting duct cells: possible role in aquaporin-2 ... water channels to the apical membrane of the collecting duct principal cells, inducing water permeability of the membrane. This ... de Groot BL, Grubmuller H (2001) Water permeation across biological membranes: mechanism and dynamics of aquaporin-1 and GlpF. ... Vasopressin-stimulated increase in phosphorylation at Ser269 potentiates plasma membrane retention of aquaporin-2. J Biol Chem ...
Shuttles from vesicles to the apical membrane. Background Forms a water-specific channel that provides the plasma membranes of ... AQP-CD, Aquaporin-CD, ADH water channel, Water channel protein for renal collecting duct, Aquaporin 2, Collecting duct water ... Immunofluorescence analysis of HeLa cells, using Aquaporin 2 (GTX87696) Antibody. The picture on the right is treated with the ... Aquaporin 2 (Ab-256) Antibody detects endogenous levels of total Aquaporin 2 protein.. ...
The targeting and fusion of these vesicles to the apical membrane may be mediated by SNARE proteins, the same proteins that ... Renal inner medullary collecting duct cells transport protons, mediated by an H+-ATPase, and H2O, mediated by aquaporin-2 (AQP2 ... Role of SNAREs and H+-ATPase in the Targeting and Insertion of Proton Pump Coated Vesicles into the Apical Membrane of ... Our group is evaluateing how a polar renal epithelial cell target two distinct cargo-laden vesicles to the apical membrane ...