A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE infecting mainly cloven-hoofed animals. They cause vesicular lesions and upper respiratory tract infections. FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE VIRUS is the type species.
A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE causing encephalitis and myocarditis in rodents. ENCEPHALOMYOCARDITIS VIRUS is the type species.
A family of small RNA viruses comprising some important pathogens of humans and animals. Transmission usually occurs mechanically. There are nine genera: APHTHOVIRUS; CARDIOVIRUS; ENTEROVIRUS; ERBOVIRUS; HEPATOVIRUS; KOBUVIRUS; PARECHOVIRUS; RHINOVIRUS; and TESCHOVIRUS.
Virus diseases caused by the PICORNAVIRIDAE.
The type species of APHTHOVIRUS, causing FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cloven-hoofed animals. Several different serotypes exist.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)
Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.
The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.
The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)
Ruminants of the family Bovidae consisting of Bubalus arnee and Syncerus caffer. This concept is differentiated from BISON, which refers to Bison bison and Bison bonasus.
Numerous islands in the Indian Ocean situated east of Madagascar, north to the Arabian Sea and east to Sri Lanka. Included are COMOROS (republic), MADAGASCAR (republic), Maldives (republic), MAURITIUS (parliamentary democracy), Pemba (administered by Tanzania), REUNION (a department of France), and SEYCHELLES (republic).
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
A family of RNA viruses, mainly arboviruses, consisting of two genera: ALPHAVIRUS (group A arboviruses), and RUBIVIRUS. Virions are spherical, 60-70 nm in diameter, with a lipoprotein envelope tightly applied to the icosahedral nucleocapsid.
A species of the genus VESIVIRUS infecting cats. Transmission occurs via air and mechanical contact.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
RNA molecules which hybridize to complementary sequences in either RNA or DNA altering the function of the latter. Endogenous antisense RNAs function as regulators of gene expression by a variety of mechanisms. Synthetic antisense RNAs are used to effect the functioning of specific genes for investigative or therapeutic purposes.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
International collective of humanitarian organizations led by volunteers and guided by its Congressional Charter and the Fundamental Principles of the International Red Cross Movement, to provide relief to victims of disaster and help people prevent, prepare for, and respond to emergencies.
The systematic arrangement of entities in any field into categories classes based on common characteristics such as properties, morphology, subject matter, etc.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.
Indolesulfonic acid used as a dye in renal function testing for the detection of nitrates and chlorates, and in the testing of milk.
A plant genus of the family ORCHIDACEAE that is the source of the familiar flavoring used in foods and medicines (FLAVORING AGENTS).
A plant genus of the family Paeoniaceae, order Dilleniales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. These perennial herbs are up to 2 m (6') tall. Leaves are alternate and are divided into three lobes, each lobe being further divided into three smaller lobes. The large flowers are symmetrical, bisexual, have 5 sepals, 5 petals (sometimes 10), and many stamens.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
An acute infectious disease of humans, particularly children, caused by any of three serotypes of human poliovirus (POLIOVIRUS). Usually the infection is limited to the gastrointestinal tract and nasopharynx, and is often asymptomatic. The central nervous system, primarily the spinal cord, may be affected, leading to rapidly progressive paralysis, coarse FASCICULATION and hyporeflexia. Motor neurons are primarily affected. Encephalitis may also occur. The virus replicates in the nervous system, and may cause significant neuronal loss, most notably in the spinal cord. A rare related condition, nonpoliovirus poliomyelitis, may result from infections with nonpoliovirus enteroviruses. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp764-5)
Hoofed mammals with four legs, a big-lipped snout, and a humped back belonging to the family Camelidae.
The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)
Domesticated farm animals raised for home use or profit but excluding POULTRY. Typically livestock includes CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; SWINE; GOATS; and others.
Any of various ruminant mammals of the order Bovidae. They include numerous species in Africa and the American pronghorn.
Ruminant mammals of South America. They are related to camels.
A class of compounds that contain a -NH2 and a -NO radical. Many members of this group have carcinogenic and mutagenic properties.
Powdered or cut pieces of leaves of NICOTIANA TABACUM which are inhaled through the nose, chewed, or stored in cheek pouches. It includes any product of tobacco that is not smoked.
Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.
Pathological processes involving the PHARYNX.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
Cells artificially created by fusion of activated lymphocytes with neoplastic cells. The resulting hybrid cells are cloned and produce pure MONOCLONAL ANTIBODIES or T-cell products, identical to those produced by the immunologically competent parent cell.
Conversion into nitroso compounds. An example is the reaction of nitrites with amino compounds to form carcinogenic N-nitrosamines.
A genus in the family PICORNAVIRIDAE whose type species Aichi virus, causes gastroenteritis in humans.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A species of SWINE, in the family Suidae, comprising a number of subspecies including the domestic pig Sus scrofa domestica.

Low temperature and pressure stability of picornaviruses: implications for virus uncoating. (1/503)

The family Picornaviridae includes several viruses of great economic and medical importance. Poliovirus replicates in the human digestive tract, causing disease that may range in severity from a mild infection to a fatal paralysis. The human rhinovirus is the most important etiologic agent of the common cold in adults and children. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes one of the most economically important diseases in cattle. These viruses have in common a capsid structure composed of 60 copies of four different proteins, VP1 to VP4, and their 3D structures show similar general features. In this study we describe the differences in stability against high pressure and cold denaturation of these viruses. Both poliovirus and rhinovirus are stable to high pressure at room temperature, because pressures up to 2.4 kbar are not enough to promote viral disassembly and inactivation. Within the same pressure range, FMDV particles are dramatically affected by pressure, with a loss of infectivity of more than 4 log units observed. The dissociation of polio and rhino viruses can be observed only under pressure (2.4 kbar) at low temperatures in the presence of subdenaturing concentrations of urea (1-2 M). The pressure and low temperature data reveal clear differences in stability among the three picornaviruses, FMDV being the most sensitive, polio being the most resistant, and rhino having intermediate stability. Whereas rhino and poliovirus differ little in stability (less than 10 kcal/mol at 0 degrees C), the difference in free energy between these two viruses and FMDV was remarkable (more than 200 kcal/mol of particle). These differences are crucial to understanding the different factors that control the assembly and disassembly of the virus particles during their life cycle. The inactivation of these viruses by pressure (combined or not with low temperature) has potential as a method for producing vaccines.  (+info)

Flexibility of the major antigenic loop of foot-and-mouth disease virus bound to a Fab fragment of a neutralising antibody: structure and neutralisation. (2/503)

The interaction of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype C (clone C-S8c1) with a strongly neutralising monoclonal antibody (MAb) 4C4 has been studied by combining data from cryoelectron microscopy and x-ray crystallography. The MAb 4C4 binds to the exposed flexible GH-loop of viral protein 1 (VP1), which appears to retain its flexibility, allowing movement of the bound Fab. This is in striking contrast to MAb SD6, which binds to the same GH-loop of VP1 but exhibits no movement of the bound Fab when observed under identical conditions. However, MAbs 4C4 and SD6 have very similar neutralisation characteristics. The known atomic structure of FMDV C-S8c1 and that of the 4C4 Fab cocrystallised with a synthetic peptide corresponding to the GH-loop of VP1 were fitted to the cryoelectron microscope density map. The best fit of the 4C4 Fab is compatible only with monovalent binding of the MAb in agreement with the neutralisation data on 4C4 MAbs, Fab2s, and Fabs. The position of the bound GH-loop is related to other known positions of this loop by a hinge rotation about the base of the loop. The 4C4 Fab appears to interact almost exclusively with the G-H loop of VP1, making no other contacts with the viral capsid.  (+info)

Involvement of the aphthovirus RNA region located between the two functional AUGs in start codon selection. (3/503)

Initiation of translation in picornavirus RNAs occurs internally, mediated by an element termed internal ribosome entry site (IRES). In the aphthovirus RNA, the IRES element directs translation initiation at two in-frame AUGs separated by 84 nucleotides. We have found that bicistronic constructs that contained the IRES element followed by the fragment including the aphthovirus start codons in front of the second gene mimicked the translation initiation pattern of viral RNA observed in infected cells. In those constructs, the frequency of initiation at the first AUG was increased by a sequence context that resembled the favorable consensus for cap-dependent translation, although initiation at the second site was always preferred. In addition, we have found that initiation at the second start codon was not diminished under conditions in which the first initiation codon was blocked by antisense oligonucleotide interference. Interestingly, mutations that positioned the second AUG out-of-frame with the first AUG did not interfere with the frequency of initiation at the second one. On the contrary, IRES-dependent translation initiation in bicistronic constructs lacking the sequences present between functional AUGs in the viral RNA was sensitive to the presence of out-of-frame initiator codons and hairpins in the spacer region. This remarkable difference in start codon recognition was due to the nucleotide composition of the RNA that separated the IRES from the initiator codon. Thus our results indicate that the region located in the aphthovirus RNA between functional AUGs is involved in start codon recognition, strongly favoring selection of the second start AUG as the main initiator codon.  (+info)

Demonstration of bovine CD8+ T-cell responses to foot-and-mouth disease virus. (4/503)

The aim of this study was to investigate the importance of cellular immunity in foot-and-mouth disease in cattle, in particular to determine whether a CD8+ T-cell response could be detected, as these cells may play a role in both immunity and virus persistence. As attempts to characterize classical cytotoxic T cells had yielded non-reproducible results, largely due to high backgrounds in control cultures, a proliferation assay was developed that was demonstrated to detect antigen-specific, MHC class I-restricted bovine CD8+ cells responding to foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). Proliferative CD8+ T-cell responses were detected consistently from 10 to 14 days following infection with FMDV and typically lasted 3-4 weeks. The role of CD8+ T cells in control of the disease, in particular their relevance for the establishment of persistence, may now be investigated.  (+info)

Evidence of partial protection against foot-and-mouth disease in cattle immunized with a recombinant adenovirus vector expressing the precursor polypeptide (P1) of foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid proteins. (5/503)

A recombinant live vector vaccine was produced by insertion of cDNA encoding the structural proteins (P1) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) into a replication-competent human adenovirus type 5 vaccine strain (Ad5 wt). Groups of cattle (n = 3) were immunized twice, by the subcutaneous and/or intranasal routes, with either the Ad5 wt vaccine or with the recombinant FMDV Ad5-P1 vaccine. All animals were challenged by intranasal instillation of FMDV 4 weeks after the second immunizations. In the absence of a detectable antibody response to FMDV, significant protection against viral challenge was seen in all of the animals immunized twice by the subcutaneous route with the recombinant vaccine. The observed partial protection against clinical disease was not associated with a reduction in titre of persistent FMDV infections in the oropharynx of challenged cattle.  (+info)

Interaction of eukaryotic initiation factor eIF4B with the internal ribosome entry site of foot-and-mouth disease virus is independent of the polypyrimidine tract-binding protein. (6/503)

Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4B (eIF4B) binds directly to the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). Mutations in all three subdomains of the IRES stem-loop 4 reduce binding of eIF4B and translation efficiency in parallel, indicating that eIF4B is functionally involved in FMDV translation initiation. In reticulocyte lysate devoid of polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB), eIF4B still bound well to the wild-type IRES, even after removal of the major PTB-binding site. In conclusion, the interaction of eIF4B with the FMDV IRES is essential for IRES function but independent of PTB.  (+info)

Recombinant viruses expressing the foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid precursor polypeptide (P1) induce cellular but not humoral antiviral immunity and partial protection in pigs. (7/503)

The importance of the induction of virus neutralizing antibodies to provide protection against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection is well established. However, recent studies with recombinant adenovirus expressing the precursor polypeptide of the viral capsid (P1) indicate that cattle inoculated with this recombinant vector developed partial protection against FMDV infection, in the absence of a detectable specific humoral response. Other viral vectors have been widely used to induce protective immunity against many pathogens, and it has been reported that the use of different vectors for priming and boosting injections can provide a synergistic effect on this response. In this work, we determined the immunogenicity of two recombinant viruses (adenovirus and vaccinia) expressing P1-FMDV, administered either individually or sequentially, and the protection that they induced against FMDV challenge in pigs. A double immunization with the adeno-P1 virus was the most effective strategy at inducing protective immunity. In contrast to previous reports, the use of two different vectors for priming and boosting did not show a synergistic effect on the protection induced against FMD. Interestingly, immunized pigs developed FMDV-specific T cell responses but not detectable antibodies. Thus, the protection observed was likely to be mediated by a cellular immune response.  (+info)

The properties of chimeric picornavirus IRESes show that discrimination between internal translation initiation sites is influenced by the identity of the IRES and not just the context of the AUG codon. (8/503)

The internal ribosome entry segment (IRES) of picornaviruses consists of approximately 450 nt of 5'-untranslated region, terminating at the 3' end with an approximately 25 nt element consisting of an absolutely conserved UUUC motif followed by a more variable pyrimidine-rich tract and G-poor spacer, and finally an AUG triplet, which is considered to be the actual ribosome entry site. Events following entry at this site differ among picornaviruses: in encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) virtually all ribosomes initiate translation at this site (AUG-11); in foot-and-mouth-disease virus (FMDV), one-third of the ribosomes initiate at this AUG (the Lab site), and the rest at the next AUG 84 nt downstream (Lb site); and in poliovirus (PV), the AUG at the 3' end of the IRES (at nt 586 in PV type 1) is considered to be a silent entry site, with all ribosomes initiating translation at the next AUG downstream (nt 743). To investigate what determines this different behavior, chimeras were constructed with a crossover at the conserved UUUC motif: the body of the IRES, the sequences upstream of this UUUC motif, was derived from one species, and the downstream sequences from another. When the body of the FMDV or PV IRESes was replaced by that of EMCV, there was a marked increase in the absolute and relative frequency of initiation at the upstream AUG, the Lab site of FMDV and 586AUG of PV, respectively. In contrast, when the body of the EMCV IRES was replaced by that of PV, initiation occurred with no preference at three AUGs: the normal site (AUG-11), AUG-10 situated 8 nt upstream, and AUG-12, which is 12 nt downstream. Thus although the context of the AUG at the 3' end of the IRES may influence initiation frequency at this site, as was shown by improving the context of 586AUG of PV, the behavior of the ribosome is also highly dependent on the nature of the upstream IRES. Delivery of the ribosome to this AUG in an initiation-competent manner is particularly efficient and accurate with the EMCV IRES.  (+info)

Under natural conditions, the most common form of transmission is by aerosol, with high concentrations of infectious particles exhaled by an animal in the acute phase of the disease being carried on the air to the respiratory tract of a susceptible animal. More than any other infected species, pigs produce enormous quantities of virus, with over a hundred million infectious virus particles exhaled per day. Consequently, pigs are often referred to as the amplifier hosts of FMD. The virus is also present in vesicular fluid and saliva, and at the peak of infection can be found in blood and tissues of the affected animal.4 Although the virus is readily inactivated in muscle under post mortem conditions because of the rapid drop in pH, it may survive in pockets of lymphoid tissue and bone marrow.. Most new outbreaks begin with animal contact or consumption of animal byproducts. Illegally imported, virus-contaminated meat products fed as garbage to pigs have caused many new outbreaks in the world, ...
Dr. Tolani Francisco has worked on |i|Brucella infection|/i| in bison and elk in Yellowstone National Park and on foot-and-mouth disease
Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (nMAbs) elicited against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) of serotype C were assayed with field isolates and variant FMDVs using several immunoassays. Of a total of 36 nMAbs tested, 23 recognized capsid protein VP1 and distinguished at least 13 virion conformation-independent epitopes involved in neutralization of FMDV C. Eleven epitopes of FMDV C-S8c1 have been located in segments 138-156 or 192-209 of VP1 by quantifying the reactivity of nMAbs with synthetic peptides and with nMAb-resistant mutants of FMDV C-S8c1 carrying defined amino acid substitutions. The main antigenic site of FMDV C-S8c1 (VP1 residues 138 to 150) consists of multiple (at least 10), distinguishable, overlapping epitopes. Some amino acid replacements abolished one of the epitopes, whereas other replacements affected several epitopes in this region. The conservative substitution His(146) → Arg, found in many nMAb-resistant mutants analysed, abolished the reactivity of the virus with all nMAbs
TY - JOUR. T1 - Structure-function analysis of Arg-Gly-Asp helix motifs in αvβ6 integrin ligands. AU - DiCara, Danielle. AU - Rapisarda, Chiara. AU - Sutcliffe, Julie. AU - Violette, Shelia M.. AU - Weinreb, Paul H.. AU - Hart, Ian R.. AU - Howard, Mark J.. AU - Marshall, John F.. PY - 2007/3/30. Y1 - 2007/3/30. N2 - Data relating to the structural basis of ligand recognition by integrins are limited. Here we describe the physical requirements for high affinity binding of ligands to αvβ6. By combining a series of structural analyses with functional testing, we show that 20-mer peptide ligands, derived from high affinity ligands of αvβ6 (foot-and-mouth-disease virus, latency associated peptide), have a common structure comprising an Arg-Gly-Asp motif at the tip of a hairpin turn followed immediately by a C-terminal helix. This arrangement allows two conserved Leu/ Ile residues at Asp+1 and Asp+4 to be presented on the outside face of the helix enabling a potential hydrophobic interaction ...
Type O Negative byla gothic metalová kapela z Brooklynu v New Yorku v USA. Kapela vznikla ze skupiny Carnivore.. Skupina Type O negative je z Brooklynu, New York. Vznikla v roce 1990. Kenny Hickey (kytara), Josh Silver (klávesy) a za bicími sedí Johnny Kelly ale původním bubeníkem skupiny byl Sal Abruscato.. Frontman kapely, zpěvák a baskytarista Peter Steele (vlastním jménem Petrus T. Ratajczyk), zemřel dne 14. dubna 2010 v důsledku srdeční příhody[2].. ...
Roadrunner Records werden am 25. November 2011 exklusiv ein Vinyl Box Set folgender TYPE O NEGATIVE Alben veröffentlichen: * Slow, Deep and Hard* The Origin of the Feces* Bloody Kisses* October Rust* World Coming Down* Life Is Killing MeDrummer Johnny Kelly kommentiert wie folgt: This looks great,...
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Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) capsids are inherently labile under mildly acidic conditions, dissociating to pentamers at pH values in the region of 6.5, with the release of protein 1A and the viral RNA. This acid-induced disassembly is thought to be required for the entry of the virus genome into the host cell. Previous work has highlighted a histidine-alpha-helix charge-dipole interaction at the twofold axes of symmetry between pentamers and has suggested that this interaction plays a role in acid-induced disassembly. The validity of this theory has now been tested by converting the implicated residue, His-142 of protein 1C, to Arg, Phe and Asp. The effects of such changes were studied by using a previously described vaccinia virus expression system, in which synthesis and processing of FMDV capsid proteins results in the self-assembly of capsids. In agreement with the histidine-alpha-helix charge-dipole theory, assembly in the arginine mutant was found to be greatly reduced, while capsids of the
The VP1 capsid protein of foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is highly polymorphic and contains several of the major immunogenic sites important to effective antibody neutralization and subsequent viral clearance by the immune system. Whether this high level of polymorphism is of adaptive value to the virus remains unknown. In this study we examined sequence data from a set of 55 isolates in order to establish the nature of selective pressures acting on this gene. Using the known molecular structure of VP1, the rates and ratios of different types of nonsynonymous and synonymous changes were compared between different parts of the protein. All parts of the protein are subject to purifying selection, but this is greatest amongst those amino acid residues within beta-strands and is significantly reduced at residues exposed on the capsid surface, which include those residues demonstrated by previous mutational analyses to permit the virus to escape from monoclonal antibody binding. The ratios of
Natural and induced factors inhibiting foot and mouth disease virus were investigated in bovine secretions, especially in those from the upper respiratory and oro pharyngeal areas. Techniques were devised to collect lachrymal, nasal, buccal and pharyngeal fluids from normal, convalescent and passively or actively immunised steers. The pH and total protein content of secretions were established in normal cattle. Immunoglobulin types IgA and IgGl predominated. Interferon was not detected. Normal tears exhibited no antiviral activity but nasal secretion, oral saliva and p~al fluid were inhibitory due to their alkaline pH and, in the case of salivary fluids, to the presence of an additional anti viral factor which was partially characterised. Virus lost infectivity in vitro due to natural, non specific factors at rates which varied with the strain of virus to a maximum of 1.25 log units per hour. Clinical disease, viral excretion, interferon and antibody were studied following infection with virus ...
Jerez, J.A.; Pinto, A.A.; Koseki, I.; Abuhab, T.G.; Regina Rodrigues, M.A.L.; Grecchi, R., 1980: Characteristics of aphthovirus strains isolated from buffaloes (in Brazil)
Lys Leu Thr Trp Val Pro Asn Gly Ala Pro 100 105 110Val Ser Ala Leu Asp Asn Thr Thr Asn Pro Thr Ala Tyr His Lys Gly 115 120 125Pro Leu Thr Arg Leu Ala Leu Pro Tyr Thr Ala Pro His Arg Val Leu 130 135 140Ala Thr Ala Tyr Thr Gly Thr Thr Ala Tyr Ser Ala Ser Ala Arg Arg145 150 155 160Gly Asp Leu Ala His Leu Ala Ala Ala His Ala Arg His Leu Pro Thr 165 170 175Ser Phe Asn Phe Gly Ala Val Lys Ala Glu Thr Ile Thr Glu Leu Leu 180 185 190Val Arg Met Lys Arg Ala Glu Leu Tyr Cys Pro Arg Pro Val Leu Pro 195 200 205Val Gln Pro Ser Gly Asp Arg His Lys Gln Pro Leu Ile Ala Pro Ala 210 215 220Lys Gln Leu Leu225391404DNAArtificial Sequencenucleic acid, VP1-A+ VP1-C sequence 39atggactgga cctggattct gtttctcgtg gccgctgcta caagagtgca ctccaccacc 60tctgccggcg agtccgccga cccagtgacc accaccgtgg agaactacgg cggcgagaca 120caggtgcagc gcaggcacca caccgacgtg ggcttcatca tggaccgctt cgtgaagatc 180ggcaacacct cccccaccca cgtgatcgac ctgatgcaga cccaccagca cggactggtg 240ggagccctgc tgagagccgc cacctactac ttctccgacc tggaaatcgt ggtgcgccac ...
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23] At time it absolutely was thought that all infectious brokers could be retained by filters and developed with a nutrient medium - this was Portion of the germ idea of disease.[2] In 1898, the Dutch microbiologist Martinus Beijerinck recurring the experiments and became certain that the filtered Resolution contained a whole new method of infectious agent.[24] He observed that the agent multiplied only in cells that were dividing, but as his experiments did not exhibit that it absolutely was manufactured from particles, he identified as it a contagium vivum fluidum (soluble residing germ) and re-released the word virus. Beijerinck taken care of that viruses were being liquid in character, a idea later discredited by Wendell Stanley, who proved they were particulate.[23] In the same yr Friedrich Loeffler and Paul Frosch handed the first animal virus - agent of foot-and-mouth condition (aphthovirus) - by an identical filter.[twenty five ...
plot(placements, predict(M,newdata=data.frame(ethnic=White,placement=placements),type=response), type=o,pch=21,bg=white,ylab=,ylim=c(0,1)) points(placements, predict(M,newdata=data.frame(ethnic=Black,placement=placements),type=response), type=o,pch=21,bg=black) points(placements, predict(M,newdata=data.frame(ethnic=Other,placement=placements),type=response), type=o,pch=21,col=red,bg=red) legend(x=topleft,pch=21,col=c(black,black,red),pt.bg=c(white,black,red), legend=c(White,Black,Other ...
Information, guidance and support for readers interested in applying the principles of The Blood Type Diet as outlined by The New York Times best-selling author Dr. Peter DAdamo.
Information, guidance and support for readers interested in applying the principles of The Blood Type Diet as outlined by The New York Times best-selling author Dr. Peter DAdamo.
MANHATTAN - A research project in the Kansas State University College of Veterinary Medicine presents the largest model to date for evaluating the impact and control of a potential outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in livestock.. Mike Sanderson, professor of epidemiology in the colleges diagnostic medicine and pathobiology department, and Sara McReynolds, a former graduate student of Sandersons, published the results of their research in the December issue of the journal Preventive Veterinary Medicine.. The researchers developed simulation models to assess the impact of livestock herd types and vaccination on foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks using the North American Animal Disease Spread Model. In this study, potential foot-and-mouth disease virus outbreaks in the central region of the U.S. were simulated to compare different vaccination strategies to a depopulation-only scenario. Their work received funding from the U.S. Department of Homeland Securitys Foreign Animal Disease Zoonotic ...
Define foot-and-mouth (disease). foot-and-mouth (disease) synonyms, foot-and-mouth (disease) pronunciation, foot-and-mouth (disease) translation, English dictionary definition of foot-and-mouth (disease). foot-and-mouth (disease). Translations. English: foot-and-mouth n afta epizootica. Italian / Italiano: afta epizootica.
At the present time virus grown in one layer tissue culture is successfully used for preparing deactivated antifoot-and-mouth disease vaccine. This article discusses the effect of some conditions on the multiplication foot-and-mouth disease virus in a tissue culture of pig embryo kidney cells (PEK). The article discusses the materials and methods used in the study and the results of the study, contains a discussion of the results, and makes the following conclusions: (1) The multiplication of foot-and-mouth disease virus in PEK tissue culture does not depend on preliminary adsorption of virus on cells. (2) Growing foot-and-mouth disease virus in PEK culture for the preparation of vaccine is a promising method. (Author)*TISSUE CULTURE)
In Niger, the epidemiological situation regarding foot-and-mouth disease is unclear as many outbreaks are unreported. This study aimed (i) to identify Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) strains currently circulating in cattle herds, and (ii) to identify risk factors associated with Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD)-seropositive animals in clinical outbreaks. Epithelial tissues (n = 25) and sera (n = 227) were collected from cattle in eight districts of the south-western part of Niger. Testing of clinical material revealed the presence of FMDV serotype O that was characterized within the O/WEST AFRICA topotype. The antigenic relationship between one of the FMDV isolates from Niger(O/NGR/4/2015) and three reference vaccine strains was determined by the two-dimensional virus neutralization test (2dmVNT), revealing a close antigenic match between the field isolate from Niger and three FMDV serotype O vaccine strains. Serological analyses using a non-structural protein (NSP) test provided evidence for ...
Introduction. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) belongs to the genus Aphthovirus, family Picornaviridae which principally infects cloven-hoofed animals including wildlife animals. The virus is a positive sense, single-stranded RNA virus and is categorised into seven serotypes: A, O, C, Asia 1, South Africa Territory 1, 2 and 3 (SAT1, SAT2 and SAT3) (Domingo et al. 2003). FMDV can be genetically classified based on its geographic origin (topotypes); for example, the serotype SAT1 can be grouped into eight topotypes (I-VIII) based on nucleotide differences (within virus protein 1 [VP1] coding sequence) of up to 15% (Samuel & Knowles 2001). The serotype SAT1 topotype III is found in Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, Kenya and Zimbabwe according to the study conducted by Vosloo et al. (2002).. Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is highly contagious and, combined with its high antigenic diversity, this makes the disease difficult to control. The disease has caused significant economic losses as a result of the ...
MKAMA, Mathias et al. Serosurveillance of foot-and-mouth disease virus in selected livestock-wildlife interface areas of Tanzania. Onderstepoort j. vet. res. [online]. 2014, vol.81, n.2, pp.1-4. ISSN 2219-0635.. Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is caused by a virus of the genus Aphthorvirus of the family Picornaviridae. There is great scientific need for determining the transmission dynamics of FMD virus (FMDV) by drawing more attention to the livestock-wildlife interface areas. A variety of literature suggests that buffalo could serve as reservoir of FMDV in wildlife and cattle. However, many FMDV research studies conducted on experimentally infected cattle as carriers and groups of animal highly susceptible to FMDV (i.e. bovine calves) have shown lower chances of transmission of the virus between carriers and the susceptible groups. These findings underscore the importance of continued research on the role played by carrier animals on FMDV transmission dynamics under natural conditions. The aim of ...
Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV) is a globally important pathogen responsible for causing Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) in wildlife and domestic livestock species and has significant economic impacts. FMD is difficult to control due to its highly infectious nature, wide diversity of host species and the existence of multiple serotypes; therefore, understanding the processes of FMDV infection and viral RNA replication are key to the development of improved diagnostics and vaccines. This thesis investigates the potential roles of the FMDV 3A non-structural protein using a combination of sub-genomic replicons, recombinant viruses and proteomics techniques. The picornavirus 3A protein has previously been linked with roles in replication complex formation, virulence and determining viral host range. This thesis presents findings showing that a naturally occurring deletion in 3A had differing effects on replication in cells lines derived from different natural hosts thereby supporting the conclusion ...
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a single stranded RNA virus in the picornavirus family. It is the causative agent of foot-and-mouth disease, globally the most important a�iction of cloven hoofed animals. The FMDV genome has several features that are not found amongst other viruses within the Picornaviridae. These include a large 50 untranslated region (UTR), almost twice the length of that found in enteroviruses, containing highly structured RNA elements unique to FMDV, such as the S-fragment and several tandemly repeated pseudoknots. Unique aspects are also found within the coding region, where FMDV is the only picornavirus reported to contain multiple copies of the 3B gene. The reasons behind possession of these unusual deviations from the dogma of the picornaviral genome is so far unknown and therefore poses an attractive target for further research. The S-fragment is a predicted 360 nucleotide stem-loop at the 50 end of the FMDV genome. The better studied poliovirus (PV) has a well ...
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is highly contagious and infects cloven-hoofed domestic livestock leading to foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). FMD outbreaks have severe economic impact due to production losses and associated control measures. FMDV is found as seven distinct serotypes, but there are numerous subtypes within each serotype, and effective vaccines must match the subtypes circulating in the field. In addition, the O and Southern African Territories (SAT) serotypes, are relatively more thermolabile and their viral capsids readily dissociate into non-immunogenic pentameric subunits, which can compromise the effectiveness of FMD vaccines. Here we report the construction of a chimeric clone between the SAT2 and O serotypes, designed to have SAT2 antigenicity. Characterisation of the chimeric virus showed growth kinetics equal to that of the wild type SAT2 virus with better thermostability, attributable to changes in the VP4 structural protein. Sequence and structural analyses confirmed that no
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious and economically devastating disease of cloven-hoofed animals with an almost-worldwide distribution. Conventional FMD vaccines consisting of chemically inactivated viruses have aided in the eradication of FMD from Europe and remain the main tool for control in endemic countries. Although significant steps have been made to improve the quality of vaccines, such as improved methods of antigen concentration and purification, manufacturing processes are technically demanding and expensive. Consequently, there is large variation in the quality of vaccines distributed in FMD-endemic countries compared with those manufactured for emergency use in FMD-free countries. Here, we have used reverse genetics to introduce haemagglutinin (HA) and FLAG tags into the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) capsid. HA- and FLAG-tagged FMDVs were infectious, with a plaque morphology similar to the non-tagged parental infectious copy virus and the field virus. The tagged
TY - JOUR. T1 - Replacement of foot-and-mouth disease virus cattle tongue titration by in vitro titration. AU - Dekker, Aldo. AU - van Hemert-Kluitenberg, Froukje. AU - Oosterbaan, Anna H.. AU - Moonen, Kimberly. AU - Mouton, Laure. PY - 2018/10/24. Y1 - 2018/10/24. N2 - Titration of foot-and-mouth disease cattle challenge virus in cattle tongue has been the standard for many years in many countries, although titration in animals has been replaced by in vitro methods for all other applications. The objective of the analysis was the replacement of in vivo titration of cattle challenge virus by in vitro titration. Using data from 32 in vivo titration experiments together with the in vitro titration results of the same samples obtained by plaque count on primary lamb or pig kidney cells, as well as data from the virus isolation control chart used in the laboratory, we show that the reproducibility of the in vitro titration is much higher than that of the in vivo titration. The titer on primary ...
Looking for foot-and-mouth disease? Find out information about foot-and-mouth disease. or highly contagious disease almost exclusive to cattle, sheep, swine, goats, and other cloven-hoofed animals. It is caused by a virus, specifically an... Explanation of foot-and-mouth disease
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) can cause transplacental infection and death in fetal lambs. This study investigates the pathogenesis of FMDV infection in ovine fetuses using in-situ hybridization (ISH) to detect viral transcripts in tissue and real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays to quantify the fetal cytokine response to infection. FMDV ribonucleic acid (RNA) was localized mainly to the heart and skeletal muscles of fetuses and was only occasionally expressed in the lingual epithelium, demonstrating that FMDV has a different tissue tropism in the fetus compared with that in adult sheep. There was early expression of genes encoding anti-viral cytokines (IFN-alpha and IFN-beta) in fetuses at 2 and 4 days post-infection (dpi), followed by a marked rise in the transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes (IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha and IL-1 alpha) from 7 to 18 dpi, particularly in the heart. The degree of cytokine mRNA expression correlated with fetal ...
Within the Picornaviridae family there are twospecies that affect equids: the equine rhinitis A virus and the equine rhinitisB virus. These viruses, discovered in the 60s and 70s, were initially includedin the same genus called Rhinovirus,differentiating four groups according to their characteristics: equine rhinovirus-1,equine rhinovirus-2, equine rhinovirus-3 and acid-stable equine picornavirus. Laterthe equine rhinovirus type 1 was renamed Equine Rhinitis A Virus (ERAV) beingclassified within the genus Aphthovirus,the other three were included in a new genus called Erbovirus, considering three serotypes of Equine Rhinitis B Virus(ERBV-1, ERBV -2 and ERBV-3). They are viruses with single-stranded RNA and theviral particles have a size of about 30 nm in diameter.
Foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDVs) target epithelial cells via integrin receptors, but can acquire the capacity to bind cell-surface heparan sulphate (or alternative receptors) on passage in cell culture. Vaccine viruses must be propagated in cell culture and, hence, some rationale for the selection of variants in this process is important. Crystal structures are available for type O, A and C viruses and also for a complex of type O strain O(1)BFS with heparin. The structure of FMDV A10(61) (a cell culture-adapted strain) complexed with heparin has now been determined. This virus has an RGSD motif in place of the otherwise conserved RGD integrin-binding motif and the potential to bind heparan sulphate (suggested by sequence analyses). FMDV A10(61) was closely similar in structure to other serotypes, deviating most in antigenic sites. The VP1 GH loop comprising the integrin-binding motif was disordered. Heparin bound at a similar site and in a similar conformation to that seen in the analogous
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a significant economically and distributed globally pathogen of Artiodactyla. Current vaccines are chemically inactivated whole virus particles that require large-scale virus growth in strict bio-containment with the associated risks of accidental release or incomplete inactivation. Non-infectious empty capsids are structural mimics of authentic particles with no associated risk and constitute an alternate vaccine candidate. Capsids self-assemble from the processed virus structural proteins, VP0, VP3 and VP1, which are released from the structural protein precursor P1-2A by the action of the virus-encoded 3C protease. To date recombinant empty capsid assembly has been limited by poor expression levels, restricting the development of empty capsids as a viable vaccine. Here expression of the FMDV structural protein precursor P1-2A in insect cells is shown to be efficient but linkage of the cognate 3C protease to the C-terminus reduces expression significantly.
OTTAWA, ONTARIO--(Marketwire - Jan. 31, 2011) - The North American Foot-and-Mouth Disease Vaccine Bank, administered jointly by commissioners from the United States, Canada and Mexico, is providing the Republic of Korea with foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccine needed to assist the country with its ongoing FMD outbreak. The vaccine bank will...
This study was conducted to investigate the presence of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in different geographic locations of Tanzania. Epithelial tissues and fluids (n = 364) were collected from cattle exhibiting oral and foot vesicular lesions suggestive of FMD and submitted for routine FMD diagnosis. The analysis of these samples collected during the period of 2002 and 2010 was performed by serotype-specific antigen capture ELISA to determine the presence of FMDV. The results of this study indicated that 167 out of 364 (46.1%) of the samples contained FMDV antigen. Of the 167 positive samples, 37 (28.4%) were type O, 7 (4.1%) type A, 45 (21.9%) SAT 1 and 79 (45.6%) SAT 2. Two FMDV serotypes (O and SAT 2) were widely distributed throughout Tanzania whilst SAT 1 and A types were only found in the Eastern zone. Our findings suggest that serotypes A, O, SAT 1 and SAT 2 prevail in Tanzania and are associated with the recent FMD outbreaks. The lack of comprehensive animal movement records and ...
The quantitative role of sheep in the transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is not well known. To estimate the role of sheep in the transmission of FMDV, a direct contact transmission experiment with 10 groups of animals each consisting of 2 infected lambs and 1 contact calf was performed. Secretions and excretions (oral swabs, blood, urine, faeces and probang samples) from all animals were tested for the presence of FMDV by virus isolation (VI) and/or RT-PCR. Serum was tested for the presence of antibodies against FMDV. To estimate FMDV transmission, the VI, RT-PCR and serology results were used. The partial reproduction ratio R0p i.e. the average number of new infections caused by one infected sheep introduced into a population of susceptible cattle, was estimated using either data of the whole infection chain of the experimental epidemics (the transient state method) or the final sizes of the experimental epidemics (the final size method). Using the transient state method, R0p was
Understanding virus antigenicity is of fundamental importance for the development of better, more cross-reactive vaccines. However, as far as we are aware, no systematic work has yet been conducted using the 3D structure of a virus to identify novel epitopes. Therefore we have extended several existing structural prediction algorithms to build a method for identifying epitopes on the appropriate outer surface of intact virus capsids (which are structurally different from globular proteins in both shape and arrangement of multiple repeated elements) and applied it here as a proof of principle concept to the capsid of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). We have analysed how reliably several freely available structure-based B cell epitope prediction programs can identify already known viral epitopes of FMDV in the context of the viral capsid. To do this we constructed a simple objective metric to measure the sensitivity and discrimination of such algorithms. After optimising the parameters for five
The replication of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is dependent on the virus-encoded 3C protease (3Cpro). As in other picornaviruses, 3Cpro performs most of the proteolytic processing of the polyprotein expressed from the single open reading frame in the RNA genome of the virus. Previous work revealed that the 3Cpro from serotype A -one of the seven serotypes of FMDV - adopts a trypsin-like fold. Phylogenetically the FMDV serotypes are grouped into two clusters, with O, A, C, and Asia 1 in one, and the three South African Territories serotypes, (SAT-1, SAT-2 and SAT-3) in another. We report here the cloning, expression and purification of 3C proteases from four SAT serotype viruses (SAT2/GHA/8/91, SAT1/NIG/5/81, SAT1/UGA/1/97, and SAT2/ZIM/7/83) and the crystal structure at 3.2Å resolution of 3Cpro from SAT2/GHA/8/91).
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an acute systemic disease of domestic and wild bovids that causes great agroeconomic losses worldwide. The etiological agent, FMD virus (FMDV), is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus belonging to the Aphthovirus genus of the Picornaviridae family (1), which includes seven distinct serotypes (O, A, C, Asia-1, SAT-1, SAT-2, and SAT-3) and multiple subtypes worldwide (2). In Bangladesh, the FMDV type O Ind2001 lineage of the ME-SA topotype was reported to be homogenously distributed across the regions during 2011 and 2012 (3).. Here, we report the complete nucleotide sequence of an FMDV serotype O strain (BAN/GO/Ka-236(Pig)/2015) isolated from vesicular lesion of the feet of an infected pig, collected on 25 August 2015 in Gopalganj, Bangladesh. Viral RNA was extracted from the infected cell culture supernatant at passage 2 in the BHK-21 cell line, and cDNA was synthesized with random and oligo(dT) primers. A total of 16 overlapping amplicons covering the ...
Summary Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) A22 Iraq 24/64 adapted to grow in BHK monolayer cells induced antibodies which neutralized many isolates belonging to the A serotype. Plaque-purified virus isolated from this stock also induced broadly reactive antibodies, showing that this property is not due to the combined response to a mixture of variants in the original stock virus. However, viruses obtained by passage in suspension BHK cells of either the monolayer cell-adapted virus or a virus cloned from this stock resulted in the selection of virus which induced antibodies with highly specific neutralizing activity. In addition to their antigenic properties the monolayer and suspension cell-adapted viruses could be distinguished by plaque morphology, tendency to aggregate and ability to attach to BHK cells. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) induced with the plaque-purified monolayer-adapted virus had neutralizing activity almost as broad as polyclonal serum, showing that this property can be represented by
The aim of the work is to search for loci of the genome of various types of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), characterized by the lowest variability, for use as genetic markers in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of virus identification. The nucleotide sequences of the genomes of FMDV of types A, Asia-1, C, O, and SAT (1, 2, and 3) were analyzed. When aligning the genomes of isolates of each type of virus, potentially conservative sites were identified. Comparing these loci, different types of the virus have one, the most conserved locus. Subsequent basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) analysis established the correspondence of the conservative locus to the FMDV genome, and primers and a probe were developed to amplify this locus.
A synthetic peptide vaccine of the general sequence Cys-Cys-(200-213)-Pro-Pro-Ser-(141-158)-Pro-Cys-Gly(peptide A40), where the numbered residues refer to the VP1 sequence of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) strain A24 Cruzeiro, has previously been shown to elicit neutralizing and protective antibodies in guinea-pigs and cattle. To examine this immunogenic tract in more detail monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were raised to this peptide. One such MAb, C1.1, which recognized the homologous peptide, bound to native virus, neutralized infectivity in vitro and passively protected mice from challenge. Using overlapping dodecameric peptides the minimum binding footprint of this MAb incorporated residues 149-154 which were respectively Gly-Ser-Leu-Ala-Ala-Arg. Since this footprint occurs in several other A subtype strains of FMDV, the extent to which MAb C1.1 could cross-react was also examined. Using a liquid-phase competition ELISA, only viruses with a sequence that encompassed the same minimum binding
A total of 18 foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype Asia1 field isolates belonging to two different lineages (including the divergent group) as delineated earlier in VP1-based phylogeny were sequenced in the non-structural 3A and 3C protein-coding regions. The phylogenetic trees representing the regions coding for the non-structural proteins were very similar to that of the structural VP1 protein-coding region. Phylogenetic comparison at 3C region revealed clustering of Asia1 viruses with the isolates of serotypes O, A and C in the previously identified clade. Comparison of amino acid sequences identified lineage-specific signature residues in both the non-structural proteins. Overall analysis of the amino acid substitutions revealed that the 3A coding region was more prone to amino acid alterations than 3C region.
The innate immune system is the first line of defense against viral infections. Exploiting innate responses for antiviral, therapeutic and vaccine adjuvation strategies is being extensively explored. We have previously described, the ability of small in vitro RNA transcripts, mimicking the sequence and structure of different domains in the non-coding regions of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) genome (ncRNAs), to trigger a potent and rapid innate immune response. These synthetic non-infectious molecules have proved to have a broad-range antiviral activity and to enhance the immunogenicity of an FMD inactivated vaccine in mice. Here, we have studied the involvement of pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) in the ncRNA-induced innate response and analyzed the antiviral and cytokine profiles elicited in swine cultured cells, as well as peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs).
Mwiine, F. N., Ayebazibwe, C., Olaho-Mukani, W., Alexandersen, Soren, Balinda, S. N., Masembe, C., Okurut, A. R. Ademun, Christensen, L. S., Sørensen, K. J. and Tjørnehøj, K. 2010, Serotype specificity of antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle in selected districts in Uganda, Transboundary and emerging diseases, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 365-374, doi: 10.1111/j.1865-1682.2010.01157.x. ...
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Risk of between-herd transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus by milk collection. Interventions in wild and domestic animals: synergy or ...
Reid, SM, Grierson, SS, Ferris, NP, Hutchings, GH and Alexandersen, Soren 2003, Evaluation of automated RT-PCR to accelerate the laboratory diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease virus., Journal of Virological Methods, vol. 107, no. 2, pp. 129-139, doi: 10.1016/S0166-0934(02)00210-0. ...
The foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the pathogen that causes foot-and-mouth disease. This test kit can detect the FMD O antibody.
Researchers at The Pirbright Institute in collaboration with partners at the USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) Foreign Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory on Plum Island USA, have shown that foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) can be detected in milk samples using a method that is potentially sensitive enough to identify the virus in pooled milk stored in bulk tanks or milk tankers. These encouraging results indicate that testing of milk samples could contribute to disease surveillance both during and after outbreaks.. Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) has a huge economic impact, costing an estimated US $11 billion globally each year in direct losses and vaccination costs. Outbreaks in countries that are usually free from FMD can have devastating consequences, such as the UK 2001 outbreak which resulted in the slaughter of six million animals and losses of over £8 billion.. The control of the disease is heavily reliant on the rapid and accurate detection of the virus. Current ...
Foot-and-mouth disease Virus (FMDV) is the prototypical member of the Aphthovirus genus, in the family Picornaviridae and is a small nonenveloped virus with a pseudo T=3 icosahedral capsid of 25-30 nm in size.. Inside the capsid is a 8.4-kilobase, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome (making FMDV a Group IV virus in the Baltimore classification) that is covalently bound at its 5′ end to the small viral protein 3B and is polyadenylated at its 3′ end. Upon virus entry into a cell, the viral genome is translated into a polyprotein which is co- and post-translationally cleaved by viral proteinases into 12 mature proteins.. ...
One of the most challenging aspects of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) control is the high genetic variability of the FMD virus (FMDV). In endemic settings such as the Indian subcontinent, this variability has resulted in the emergence of pandemic strains that have spread widely and caused devastating outbreaks in disease-free areas. In countries trying to control and eradicate FMD using vaccination strategies, the constantly evolving and wide diversity of field FMDV strains is an obstacle for identifying vaccine strains that are successful in conferring protection against infection with field viruses. Consequently, quantitative knowledge on the factors that are associated with variability of the FMDV is prerequisite for preventing and controlling FMD in the Indian subcontinent. A hierarchical linear model was used to assess the association between time, space, host species and the genetic variability of serotype O FMDV using viruses collected in Pakistan from 2005 to 2011. Significant (P , 0.05) ...
Potency tests for commercial oil-adjuvanted foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines are usually carried out in cattle, using a full dose (2 ml) of vaccine and homologous virus challenge. However, in sheep the recommended vaccine dose is half of the cattle dose (1 ml) and most vaccines have not been potency tested for this species, especially with heterologous viruses. To determine the efficacy of a high potency (,6PD50) FMD virus (FMDV) O1Manisa vaccine in sheep, we carried out a study using a heterologous FMDV (FMDV O/SKR/2010 - Mya-98 strain) challenge. Groups of seven animals each were vaccinated with 2×, 1×, 1/2× or 1/4× dose (2 ml, 1 ml, 0.5 ml or 0.25 ml respectively) and challenged at 7 days post vaccination (dpv). Only 3 of the 7 sheep in the group vaccinated with 2 ml were protected. With 2 additional groups, receiving double or single doses and challenged at 14 dpv, 4 of 7 sheep were protected in each group. None of the sheep had measurable neutralising antibodies against the vaccine ...
The current measures to control foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) include vaccination, movement control and slaughter of infected or susceptible animals. One of the difficulties in controlling FMD by vaccination arises due to the substantial diversity found among the seven serotypes of FMD virus (FMDV) and the strains within these serotypes. Therefore, vaccination using a single vaccine strain may not fully cross-protect against all strains within that serotype, and therefore selection of appropriate vaccines requires serological comparison of the field virus and potential vaccine viruses using relationship coefficients (r1 values). Limitations of this approach are that antigenic relationships among field viruses are not addressed, as comparisons are only with potential vaccine virus. Furthermore, inherent variation among vaccine sera may impair reproducibility of one-way relationship scores. Here, we used antigenic cartography to quantify and visualize the antigenic relationships among FMD serotype ...
PubMedID: 23305464 | Proper Quality Control of Formulated Foot-and-Mouth Disease Vaccines in Countries with Prophylactic Vaccination is Necessary. | Transboundary and emerging diseases | 1/10/2013
We describe the characterization of a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) serotype A virus responsible for recent outbreaks of disease in Egypt. Phylogenetic analysis of VP1 nucleotide sequences demonstrated a close relationship to recent FMD virus isolates from East Africa, rather than to viruses currently circulating in the Middle East.
In April 2008, foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks were reported in Kamuli district of the eastern region of Uganda. Soon after lifting the quarantines in this area, further FMD outbreaks were reported in northern Uganda, which spread to more than 10 districts. The aim of this study was to identify the serotype and compare the variable protein (VP)1 coding sequences of the viruses responsible for FMD outbreaks during 2008 and 2009, to trace the transmission pathways of the disease in Uganda. Probang and epithelial swab samples were collected from cattle with clinical signs of FMD in the two regions, and the presence of FMDV RNA in these samples was determined using a standard diagnostic RT-PCR assay. From the total of 27 positive samples, the VP1 coding region was amplified and sequenced. Each of these sequences showed ,99% identity to each other, and just five distinct sequences were identified. BLAST searches and phylogenetic analysis of the complete variable protein (VP)1 coding sequences ...
Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against Foot-and-mouth disease (FMDV). NS-non-structural proteins. (MAB7770) - Products - Abnova
Since 2015, outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in the Middle East have been caused by a new emerging viral lineage, A/ASIA/G-VII. In-vitro vaccine matching data indicated that this virus poorly matched (low r1-value) with vaccines that were being used in the region as well as most other commercially available vaccines. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of two candidate vaccines against challenge with a representative field virus from the A/ASIA/G-VII lineage. The results from an initial full dose protection study provided encouraging data for the A/MAY/97 vaccine, while the A22/IRQ/64 vaccine only protected 2/7 vaccinated animals. In view of these promising results, this vaccine was tested in a potency test (PD50) experiment in which 5 cattle were vaccinated with a full dose, 5 cattle with a 1/3 dose and 5 cattle with a 1/9 dose of vaccine. Vaccines were prepared as would be done during an emergency vaccination campaign using a double oil emulsion adjuvant. At 21 days post
According to the information included in the European Commission for the Control of Foot-and-Mouth Disease monthly report Global Foot-and-Mouth Disease Situation, January 2018: Regarding China, FMD outbreaks due to O were reported on 3 and 10 Jan 2018 in swine, respectively, at Buyi and Miao Autonomous Prefecture of QianNan, Sandu, Guizhou and Yinchuan, Xingqing District, Ningxia. As in the previous outbreak, diagnosis was carried out by the National and OIE Reference laboratory using RT-PCR and virus isolation. Source of outbreak is unknown and control measures applied are as those described in the previous outbreak, (see reports below ...
It is more due to good management than good luck that Australias agriculture sector has yet to be decimated by foot-and-mouth disease, writes Tracey Porter It is not by chance that an outbreak of the highly contagious foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), […]. Read More ». ...
US Department of Agriculture scientists have identified the primary site where the virus that causes foot-and-mouth disease begins infection in cattle.
Researchers at The Pirbright Institute have secured almost $1.5 million from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation to fund the development of improved foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines for East Africa.
To validate the use of serology in substantiating freedom from infection after foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks have been controlled by measures that include vaccination, 3551 sera were tested with six assays that detect antibodies to the non-structural proteins of FMD virus. The sera came from naive, vaccinated, infected and vaccinated-and-infected animals; two-thirds from cattle, the remainder from sheep and pigs. The assays were covariant for sensitivity, but not necessarily for specificity. A commercial kit from Cedi-diagnostics and an in-house assay from IZS-Brescia were comparable to the NCPanaftosa-screening index method described in the Diagnostic Manual of the World Animal Health Organisation. Using these three tests the specificity and sensitivity for the detection of carriers in vaccinated cattle approaches or exceeds 99% and 90%, respectively ...
The mutant spectrum complexity of RNA viruses has consequences for viral fitness, virulence, adaptability, and response to enhanced mutagenesis (40-50). Lethal mutagenesis has been developed as an antiviral strategy based on increasing the mutation rate by base and nucleoside analogues to drive viruses across an extinction threshold (4-6, 8, 9, 13, 14, 17, 18, 51), with a contribution of FMDV polymerase in these studies (19, 25, 27, 29, 33, 52). In ribavirin-resistant mutants of FMDV of serotype C, the conformation of the N-terminal region of 3D was altered as a result of replacements located elsewhere in the molecule (P44S, in loop β2-α2; P169S, within β6 in motif F; M296I, in loop β9-α11 [29, 30, 36]). The N-terminal region of FMDV 3D is particularly relevant not only because of its influence on the catalytic site where nucleotide recognition and incorporation take place, but also because it includes an NLS sequence with functional implications apparently unrelated to nucleotide ...
An amino acid mutation (R127→I) in the 3A non-structural protein of an FMDV serotype Asia1 rabbit-attenuated ZB strain was previously found after attenuation of the virus. To explore the effects of this mutation on viral replication and infection, the amino acid residue isoleucine (I) was changed to arginine (R) in the infectious cDNA clone of the rabbit-attenuated ZB strain by site-directed mutagenesis, and the R127-mutated virus was rescued. BHK monolayer cells and suckling mice were inoculated with the R127-mutated virus to test its growth property and pathogenicity, respectively. The effects of the R127 mutation on viral replication and virulence were analyzed. The data showed that there was a slight difference in plaque morphology between the R127-mutated and wild-type viruses. The growth rate of the mutated virus was lower in BHK-21 cells and its virulence in suckling mice was also attenuated. This study indicates that the R127 mutation in 3A may play an important role in FMDV replication in
It is a picornavirus, the prototypical member of the genus Aphthovirus. The disease, which causes vesicles (blisters) in the ...
The virus responsible for FMD is an aphthovirus, foot-and-mouth disease virus. Infection occurs when the virus particle is ...
Type I comprises enteroand rhinovirus IRES and type II, those of cardio- and aphthovirus, among others. Type III is used to ...
... which is the only species of the genus Aphthovirus that is not a foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), and appears to only ... relationship to each other and to aphthoviruses and cardioviruses". J Gen Virol. 77 ( Pt 8) (8): 1719-30. doi:10.1099/0022-1317 ...
Aphthovirus). His description of the diphtheria bacillus, published in 1884, was the originating cause of an antitoxin ...
Donnelly ML, Luke G, Mehrotra A, Li X, Hughes LE, Gani D, Ryan MD (May 2001). "Analysis of the aphthovirus 2A/2B polyprotein ' ...
Andrewvirus Andromedavirus Anphevirus Antennavirus Anulavirus Aokuangvirus Aparavirus Apdecimavirus Aphroditevirus Aphthovirus ...
... aphthovirus MeSH B04.820.565.070.250 - foot-and-mouth disease virus MeSH B04.820.565.170 - cardiovirus MeSH B04.820.565.170.200 ... aphthovirus MeSH B04.909.777.618.070.250 - foot-and-mouth disease virus MeSH B04.909.777.618.170 - cardiovirus MeSH B04.909. ...
... genus Aphthovirus) and vesicular disease in pigs caused by Seneca Valley virus (genus Senecavirus). CS1 maint: discouraged ...
... (from the Greek aphtha-, vesicles in the mouth) is a viral genus of the family Picornaviridae. Aphthoviruses infect ... Aphthovirus summary from the Iziko Museums of Cape Town, South Africa. Foot-and-Mouth Disease summary from the US Department of ... The aphthoviruses are differentiated from other picornaviruses as they have a larger genome (7.5-8.5 kilobases). The genome is ... The aphthovirus RNA genome is able to undergo genetic recombination. Recombination occurs at a large number of genomic sites ...
Als Virus-Taxonomie bezeichnet man die international verbindliche Benennung von Viren, Virusfamilien und -gattungen. Die Entscheidung über verschiedene Taxa wird von einem internationalen Gremium, dem International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), beraten und getroffen. Die Virus-Taxonomie ist ein an die Taxonomien von Pflanzen und Tieren angelehnter Versuch, die Vielfalt viraler und subviraler Entitäten (auch Prionen und Retrotransposons) systematisch und einheitlich zu ordnen. Sie darf nicht mit der weiter gefassten Virusklassifikation verwechselt werden, bei der verschiedene Eigenschaften von Viren zur Einteilung herangezogen werden können (zum Beispiel nur Genomstruktur, Baltimore-Klassifikation, Wirtsspecies, Übertragungsart etc.). In der offiziellen Veröffentlichung des ICTV (Stand März 2019, Master Species List 2018b.v2)[1] finden sich etliche sonst übliche Bezeichnungen nicht, da über deren taxonomische Zuordnung noch keine einheitliche Meinung gefunden werden konnte. ...
FMDV is the prototypic member of the Aphthovirus genus in the Picornaviridae family. The plaque assay was developed using ... These include the Enterovirus, Aphthovirus, Cardiovirus, Rhinovirus and Hepatovirus genera. The viruses in this family can ... Group: ssRNA(+) Order: Picornavirales Family: Picornaviridae Genus: Aphthovirus Bovine rhinitis A virus Bovine rhinitis B virus ... as well as for the aphthovirus, an animal pathogen causing foot and mouth disease (FMDV). In this group, primer-dependent RNA ...
Talk:Aphthovirus. *Talk:Apium virus Y. *Talk:Aquabirnavirus. *Talk:Aquamavirus. *Talk:Aquaparamyxovirus ...
The virus responsible for the disease is a picornavirus, the prototypic member of the genus Aphthovirus. Infection occurs when ...
... aphthovirus) - through a similar filter.[25] ...
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a member of the genus Aphthovirus in the family Picornaviridae, all single-stranded, ...
Aphthovirus (from the Greek aphtha-, vesicles in the mouth) is a viral genus of the family Picornaviridae. Aphthoviruses infect ... Aphthovirus summary from the Iziko Museums of Cape Town, South Africa. Foot-and-Mouth Disease summary from the US Department of ... The aphthoviruses are differentiated from other picornaviruses as they have a larger genome (7.5-8.5 kilobases). The genome is ... The aphthovirus RNA genome is able to undergo genetic recombination. Recombination occurs at a large number of genomic sites ...
Genus: Aphthovirus. Species: Bovine rhinitis A virus - Bovine rhinitis B virus - Equine rhinitis A virus - Foot-and-mouth ... Retrieved from "https://species.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Aphthovirus&oldid=2460744" ...
source [email protected]: Aphthoviruses) Genome Structure. The genome of the aphthovirus is not segmented and contains a ... Aphthovirus. From MicrobeWiki, the student-edited microbiology resource. Revision as of 18:33, 12 June 2006 by Chochu444. (talk ... Aphthoviruses are responsible for foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) - a major economic pest worldwide. The disease is endemic in ... Virion Structure of an Aphthovirus. The virions of an apthovirus consist of a non-enveloped capsid that is round with ...
Plaques in cell culture were larger than those produced by the Indaial vaccine strain of type C3 aphthovirus. (PDF 0-2 ... Jerez, J.A.; Pinto, A.A.; Koseki, I.; Abuhab, T.G.; Regina Rodrigues, M.A.L.; Grecchi, R., 1980: Characteristics of aphthovirus ...
It is a picornavirus, the prototypical member of the genus Aphthovirus. The disease, which causes vesicles (blisters) in the ...
Aphthovirus 7 caatgagcac aactgactgt tt 22 8 26 DNA Aphthovirus 8 gaccctatga atacaactga ctgttt 26 9 20 DNA Coxsackievirus 9 ... Several medically important members include the poliovirus, hepatitis A virus, rhinovirus, Aphthovirus (foot-and mouth disease ...
Als Virus-Taxonomie bezeichnet man die international verbindliche Benennung von Viren, Virusfamilien und -gattungen. Die Entscheidung über verschiedene Taxa wird von einem internationalen Gremium, dem International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), beraten und getroffen. Die Virus-Taxonomie ist ein an die Taxonomien von Pflanzen und Tieren angelehnter Versuch, die Vielfalt viraler und subviraler Entitäten (auch Prionen und Retrotransposons) systematisch und einheitlich zu ordnen. Sie darf nicht mit der weiter gefassten Virusklassifikation verwechselt werden, bei der verschiedene Eigenschaften von Viren zur Einteilung herangezogen werden können (zum Beispiel nur Genomstruktur, Baltimore-Klassifikation, Wirtsspecies, Übertragungsart etc.). In der offiziellen Veröffentlichung des ICTV (Stand März 2019, Master Species List 2018b.v2)[1] finden sich etliche sonst übliche Bezeichnungen nicht, da über deren taxonomische Zuordnung noch keine einheitliche Meinung gefunden werden konnte. ...
Buy the Other Book Virus Taxonomy by Andrew MQ King at Indigo.ca, Canadas largest bookstore. + Get Free Shipping on books over $25!
Aphthovirus, Parechovirus,. Erbovirus, Kobuvirus, Teschovirus. 3.. Caliciviridae. Norwalk virus, Hepatitis E virus. Naked. ...
Three closely related genes for the small genome-linked protein (VPg) of picornaviruses have been identified by sequence analysis as a tandem repeat in the genome of Foot and Mouth Disease Virus (FMDV), strain O1K. This unusual structure was also found in the genome of strain C1O, belonging to a dif …
FMDV is the prototypic member of the Aphthovirus genus in the Picornaviridae family. The plaque assay was developed using ... These include the Enterovirus, Aphthovirus, Cardiovirus, Rhinovirus and Hepatovirus genera. The viruses in this family can ... Group: ssRNA(+) Order: Picornavirales Family: Picornaviridae Genus: Aphthovirus Bovine rhinitis A virus Bovine rhinitis B virus ... as well as for the aphthovirus, an animal pathogen causing foot and mouth disease (FMDV). In this group, primer-dependent RNA ...
name the 7 anitgenic types of aphthovirus C. O. A. SAT1. SAT2. SAT3. Asia1 ...
Aphthovirus FMDV/FMDV-A10. 5. 22. 34. 19. ND. 7. 25. 7. 16. 32. ...
... is caused by FMDV, an Aphthovirus of the viral family Picornaviridae. The members of this family are ... Both are members of the Picornaviridae family, but while FMDV belongs to the Aphthovirus genus, Coxsackie viruses belong to the ... Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the prototypic member of the Aphthovirus genus in the Picornaviridae family. This ...
Genus Aphthovirus. Species Bovine rhinitis virus Description and Significance. This aphthovirus can survive a range of ...
FMD is cause by a picornaviridae aphthovirus. There are 7 main serotypes: A, O, C, SAT 1, SAT 2, SAT 3 and Asia 1. There are ...
The FMD virus is a member of the Aphthovirus genus of the family Picornaviridae. The virion is non-enveloped, about 25 nm in ...
It is caused by a virus, specifically an aphthovirus, that was identified in 1897. Among its symptoms are fever, loss of ... It is caused by a virus, specifically an aphthovirus, that was identified in 1897. Among its symptoms are fever, loss of ...
Donnelly, M.L.; Gani, D.; Flint, M.; Monaghan, S.; Ryan, M.D. The cleavage activities of aphthovirus and cardiovirus 2A ...
Aphthovirus evolution J. Dopazo, M. J. Rodrigo, A. Rodríguez, J. C. Sáiz and F. Sobrino; 22. Evolution of the Bunyaviridae ...
Aphthovirus, Avihepatovirus, Cardiovirus, Enterovirus, Erbovirus, Hepatovirus, Parechovirus, Sapelovirus, Senecavirus, ...
Family Picornaviridae, genus Aphthovirus (Belsham 1993) Formosan Subterranean Termite Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, 1909 ( ...
recognized genera are Enterovirus (polioviruses), Cardiovirus, Rhinovirus (common cold viruses), and Aphthovirus (foot-and- ...
Analysis of the aphthovirus 2A/2B polyprotein cleavage mechanism indicates not a proteolytic reaction, but a novel ... The cleavage activities of aphthovirus and cardiovirus 2A proteins. J. Gen. Virol. 78:13-21. ...
Equine rhinitis A virus and its low pH empty particle: clues towards an aphthovirus entry mechanism? PLoS Pathog 5:e1000620. ... This is the case for the procapsid structures of parechoviruses (35, 36) or kobuviruses (56). The case of aphthoviruses is ... Nevertheless, compared to other enteroviruses and aphthoviruses, the electrostatic potential of the interior of the SVV capsid ... and aphthoviruses (25). Several roles have been proposed: as a strategy for the storage of pentamers to be used later for full ...
An Aphthovirus of the family Picornaviridae causes FMD. There are at least seven immunologically distinct types of virus: A, O ...
In addition, the virus that causes FMD, an aphthovirus from the family picornaviridae, has remarkable reach, especially in cold ...
The cleavage activities of aphthovirus and cardiovirus 2A proteins. J Gen Virol. 1997;78:13-21. [PubMed](b) Radcliffe PA, ...
... susceptibility of cattle and pigs to a Brazilian field strain of aphthovirus ... Antibodies to the virus-infection-associated antigen of aphthovirus among cattle in the Choco area of Colombia, free from foot ... susceptibility of cattle and pigs to a Brazilian field strain of aphthovirus. Terreran, M.T.; Netto, L.P.; Nascimento, C.L.G. ... susceptibility of cattle and pigs to a Brazilian field strain of aphthovirus. ...
  • Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the prototypic member of the genus Aphthovirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Modern molecular biology techniques such as nucleotide sequencing demonstrated that ERAV was in fact more closely related to FMDV, and was reclassified to the genus Aphthovirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the current report, we evaluate the antiviral potential of ARB against another picornavirus, foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), a member of the genus Aphthovirus and an important veterinary pathogen. (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), the prototype member of the Aphthovirus genus, is a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA genome virus, which affects many domestic livestock cloven-hoofed animals, causing substantial lost of milk in dairy cattle, reduction in the growth rate of meat animals, among others. (nih.gov)
  • It is a picornavirus, the prototypical member of the genus Aphthovirus. (wikipedia.org)
  • ARB also inhibits infection with the related Aphthovirus, equine rhinitis A virus (ERAV). (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • Following infection by certain enteroviruses, rhinoviruses and aphthoviruses, EIF4G1 is cleaved by the viral protease 2A, or the leader protease in the case of aphthoviruses. (abcam.com)
  • Caused by Aphthovirus, FMD is highly infectious viral disease which affects cloven-hoofed animals and leads to high mortality rate among the young stock such as lambs and piglets. (cyberessays.com)
  • Aphthoviruses are unique among picornaviruses in that they alone encode a functional L proteinase as the first component of the viral polyprotein. (elsevier.com)
  • The aphthoviruses are differentiated from other picornaviruses as they have a larger genome (7.5-8.5 kilobases). (wikipedia.org)
  • The aphthovirus RNA genome is able to undergo genetic recombination. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genome of the aphthovirus is not segmented and contains a single molecule of linear positive-sense, single-stranded RNA. (kenyon.edu)
  • This family is described by a Wikipedia entry Aphthovirus internal ribosome entry site (IRES) . (rfam.org)
  • Recombination occurs at a large number of genomic sites indicating that RNA recombination in aphthovirus is a general, rather than a site specific, phenomenon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recombination patterns in aphthoviruses mirror those found in other picornaviruses. (semanticscholar.org)
  • It is caused by a virus, specifically an aphthovirus, that was identified in 1897. (infoplease.com)
  • Foot-and-Mouth Disease is caused by the Foot-and-Mouth disease (FMD) virus, an aphthovirus. (pigprogress.net)
  • Se estimó en ratones lactantes hijos de madres vacunadas y en ellas mismas, la respuesta inmune inducida por distintas dosis de inmunógeno del virus de la Fiebre Aftosa tipo 0 1 Campos. (bvsalud.org)
  • Aphthoviruses are non-enveloped and have an icosahedral capsid with a diameter of around 27 to 30 nm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plaques in cell culture were larger than those produced by the 'Indaial' vaccine strain of type C3 aphthovirus. (eurekamag.com)
  • Aphthoviruses replicate in a similar fashion to all picornaviruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aphthovirus summary from the Iziko Museums of Cape Town, South Africa. (wikipedia.org)