Aphthovirus: A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE infecting mainly cloven-hoofed animals. They cause vesicular lesions and upper respiratory tract infections. FOOT AND MOUTH DISEASE VIRUS is the type species.Cardiovirus: A genus of the family PICORNAVIRIDAE causing encephalitis and myocarditis in rodents. ENCEPHALOMYOCARDITIS VIRUS is the type species.Picornaviridae: A family of small RNA viruses comprising some important pathogens of humans and animals. Transmission usually occurs mechanically. There are nine genera: APHTHOVIRUS; CARDIOVIRUS; ENTEROVIRUS; ERBOVIRUS; HEPATOVIRUS; KOBUVIRUS; PARECHOVIRUS; RHINOVIRUS; and TESCHOVIRUS.Picornaviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the PICORNAVIRIDAE.Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus: The type species of APHTHOVIRUS, causing FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cloven-hoofed animals. Several different serotypes exist.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Copyright: It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)Computer Security: Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.Confidentiality: The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.Privacy: The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Buffaloes: Ruminants of the family Bovidae consisting of Bubalus arnee and Syncerus caffer. This concept is differentiated from BISON, which refers to Bison bison and Bison bonasus.Indian Ocean Islands: Numerous islands in the Indian Ocean situated east of Madagascar, north to the Arabian Sea and east to Sri Lanka. Included are COMOROS (republic), MADAGASCAR (republic), Maldives (republic), MAURITIUS (parliamentary democracy), Pemba (administered by Tanzania), REUNION (a department of France), and SEYCHELLES (republic).BrazilOpen Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Togaviridae: A family of RNA viruses, mainly arboviruses, consisting of two genera: ALPHAVIRUS (group A arboviruses), and RUBIVIRUS. Virions are spherical, 60-70 nm in diameter, with a lipoprotein envelope tightly applied to the icosahedral nucleocapsid.Calicivirus, Feline: A species of the genus VESIVIRUS infecting cats. Transmission occurs via air and mechanical contact.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Terminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.GermanyRed Cross: International collective of humanitarian organizations led by volunteers and guided by its Congressional Charter and the Fundamental Principles of the International Red Cross Movement, to provide relief to victims of disaster and help people prevent, prepare for, and respond to emergencies.Classification: The systematic arrangement of entities in any field into categories classes based on common characteristics such as properties, morphology, subject matter, etc.Indigo Carmine: Indolesulfonic acid used as a dye in renal function testing for the detection of nitrates and chlorates, and in the testing of milk.BooksAuthorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Sinorhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, nonsporeforming rods which usually contain granules of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Click Chemistry: Organic chemistry methodology that mimics the modular nature of various biosynthetic processes. It uses highly reliable and selective reactions designed to "click" i.e., rapidly join small modular units together in high yield, without offensive byproducts. In combination with COMBINATORIAL CHEMISTRY TECHNIQUES, it is used for the synthesis of new compounds and combinatorial libraries.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.RNA Replicase: An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)Nitrosamines: A class of compounds that contain a -NH2 and a -NO radical. Many members of this group have carcinogenic and mutagenic properties.Tobacco, Smokeless: Powdered or cut pieces of leaves of NICOTIANA TABACUM which are inhaled through the nose, chewed, or stored in cheek pouches. It includes any product of tobacco that is not smoked.Carcinogens: Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included.Pharyngeal Diseases: Pathological processes involving the PHARYNX.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Camels: Hoofed mammals with four legs, a big-lipped snout, and a humped back belonging to the family Camelidae.Foot-and-Mouth DiseaseDeer: The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)Livestock: Domesticated farm animals raised for home use or profit but excluding POULTRY. Typically livestock includes CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; SWINE; GOATS; and others.Poliovirus: A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.Glass: Hard, amorphous, brittle, inorganic, usually transparent, polymerous silicate of basic oxides, usually potassium or sodium. It is used in the form of hard sheets, vessels, tubing, fibers, ceramics, beads, etc.Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral: A live vaccine containing attenuated poliovirus, types I, II, and III, grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture, used for routine immunization of children against polio. This vaccine induces long-lasting intestinal and humoral immunity. Killed vaccine induces only humoral immunity. Oral poliovirus vaccine should not be administered to immunocompromised individuals or their household contacts. (Dorland, 28th ed)Poliovirus Vaccine, Inactivated: A suspension of formalin-inactivated poliovirus grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture and used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS.Poliomyelitis: An acute infectious disease of humans, particularly children, caused by any of three serotypes of human poliovirus (POLIOVIRUS). Usually the infection is limited to the gastrointestinal tract and nasopharynx, and is often asymptomatic. The central nervous system, primarily the spinal cord, may be affected, leading to rapidly progressive paralysis, coarse FASCICULATION and hyporeflexia. Motor neurons are primarily affected. Encephalitis may also occur. The virus replicates in the nervous system, and may cause significant neuronal loss, most notably in the spinal cord. A rare related condition, nonpoliovirus poliomyelitis, may result from infections with nonpoliovirus enteroviruses. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp764-5)Closteroviridae: A family of plant viruses containing the largest single-stranded RNA genomes. Infections typically involve yellowing and necrosis, particularly affecting the phloem.Vitis: A plant genus in the family VITACEAE, order Rhamnales, subclass Rosidae. It is a woody vine cultivated worldwide. It is best known for grapes, the edible fruit and used to make WINE and raisins.Closterovirus: A genus of plant viruses in the family CLOSTEROVIRIDAE containing highly flexuous filaments. Some members are important pathogens of crop plants. Natural vectors include APHIDS, whiteflies, and mealybugs. The type species is Beet yellows virus.PortugalPlant Diseases: Diseases of plants.

Low temperature and pressure stability of picornaviruses: implications for virus uncoating. (1/503)

The family Picornaviridae includes several viruses of great economic and medical importance. Poliovirus replicates in the human digestive tract, causing disease that may range in severity from a mild infection to a fatal paralysis. The human rhinovirus is the most important etiologic agent of the common cold in adults and children. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes one of the most economically important diseases in cattle. These viruses have in common a capsid structure composed of 60 copies of four different proteins, VP1 to VP4, and their 3D structures show similar general features. In this study we describe the differences in stability against high pressure and cold denaturation of these viruses. Both poliovirus and rhinovirus are stable to high pressure at room temperature, because pressures up to 2.4 kbar are not enough to promote viral disassembly and inactivation. Within the same pressure range, FMDV particles are dramatically affected by pressure, with a loss of infectivity of more than 4 log units observed. The dissociation of polio and rhino viruses can be observed only under pressure (2.4 kbar) at low temperatures in the presence of subdenaturing concentrations of urea (1-2 M). The pressure and low temperature data reveal clear differences in stability among the three picornaviruses, FMDV being the most sensitive, polio being the most resistant, and rhino having intermediate stability. Whereas rhino and poliovirus differ little in stability (less than 10 kcal/mol at 0 degrees C), the difference in free energy between these two viruses and FMDV was remarkable (more than 200 kcal/mol of particle). These differences are crucial to understanding the different factors that control the assembly and disassembly of the virus particles during their life cycle. The inactivation of these viruses by pressure (combined or not with low temperature) has potential as a method for producing vaccines.  (+info)

Flexibility of the major antigenic loop of foot-and-mouth disease virus bound to a Fab fragment of a neutralising antibody: structure and neutralisation. (2/503)

The interaction of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype C (clone C-S8c1) with a strongly neutralising monoclonal antibody (MAb) 4C4 has been studied by combining data from cryoelectron microscopy and x-ray crystallography. The MAb 4C4 binds to the exposed flexible GH-loop of viral protein 1 (VP1), which appears to retain its flexibility, allowing movement of the bound Fab. This is in striking contrast to MAb SD6, which binds to the same GH-loop of VP1 but exhibits no movement of the bound Fab when observed under identical conditions. However, MAbs 4C4 and SD6 have very similar neutralisation characteristics. The known atomic structure of FMDV C-S8c1 and that of the 4C4 Fab cocrystallised with a synthetic peptide corresponding to the GH-loop of VP1 were fitted to the cryoelectron microscope density map. The best fit of the 4C4 Fab is compatible only with monovalent binding of the MAb in agreement with the neutralisation data on 4C4 MAbs, Fab2s, and Fabs. The position of the bound GH-loop is related to other known positions of this loop by a hinge rotation about the base of the loop. The 4C4 Fab appears to interact almost exclusively with the G-H loop of VP1, making no other contacts with the viral capsid.  (+info)

Involvement of the aphthovirus RNA region located between the two functional AUGs in start codon selection. (3/503)

Initiation of translation in picornavirus RNAs occurs internally, mediated by an element termed internal ribosome entry site (IRES). In the aphthovirus RNA, the IRES element directs translation initiation at two in-frame AUGs separated by 84 nucleotides. We have found that bicistronic constructs that contained the IRES element followed by the fragment including the aphthovirus start codons in front of the second gene mimicked the translation initiation pattern of viral RNA observed in infected cells. In those constructs, the frequency of initiation at the first AUG was increased by a sequence context that resembled the favorable consensus for cap-dependent translation, although initiation at the second site was always preferred. In addition, we have found that initiation at the second start codon was not diminished under conditions in which the first initiation codon was blocked by antisense oligonucleotide interference. Interestingly, mutations that positioned the second AUG out-of-frame with the first AUG did not interfere with the frequency of initiation at the second one. On the contrary, IRES-dependent translation initiation in bicistronic constructs lacking the sequences present between functional AUGs in the viral RNA was sensitive to the presence of out-of-frame initiator codons and hairpins in the spacer region. This remarkable difference in start codon recognition was due to the nucleotide composition of the RNA that separated the IRES from the initiator codon. Thus our results indicate that the region located in the aphthovirus RNA between functional AUGs is involved in start codon recognition, strongly favoring selection of the second start AUG as the main initiator codon.  (+info)

Demonstration of bovine CD8+ T-cell responses to foot-and-mouth disease virus. (4/503)

The aim of this study was to investigate the importance of cellular immunity in foot-and-mouth disease in cattle, in particular to determine whether a CD8+ T-cell response could be detected, as these cells may play a role in both immunity and virus persistence. As attempts to characterize classical cytotoxic T cells had yielded non-reproducible results, largely due to high backgrounds in control cultures, a proliferation assay was developed that was demonstrated to detect antigen-specific, MHC class I-restricted bovine CD8+ cells responding to foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). Proliferative CD8+ T-cell responses were detected consistently from 10 to 14 days following infection with FMDV and typically lasted 3-4 weeks. The role of CD8+ T cells in control of the disease, in particular their relevance for the establishment of persistence, may now be investigated.  (+info)

Evidence of partial protection against foot-and-mouth disease in cattle immunized with a recombinant adenovirus vector expressing the precursor polypeptide (P1) of foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid proteins. (5/503)

A recombinant live vector vaccine was produced by insertion of cDNA encoding the structural proteins (P1) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) into a replication-competent human adenovirus type 5 vaccine strain (Ad5 wt). Groups of cattle (n = 3) were immunized twice, by the subcutaneous and/or intranasal routes, with either the Ad5 wt vaccine or with the recombinant FMDV Ad5-P1 vaccine. All animals were challenged by intranasal instillation of FMDV 4 weeks after the second immunizations. In the absence of a detectable antibody response to FMDV, significant protection against viral challenge was seen in all of the animals immunized twice by the subcutaneous route with the recombinant vaccine. The observed partial protection against clinical disease was not associated with a reduction in titre of persistent FMDV infections in the oropharynx of challenged cattle.  (+info)

Interaction of eukaryotic initiation factor eIF4B with the internal ribosome entry site of foot-and-mouth disease virus is independent of the polypyrimidine tract-binding protein. (6/503)

Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4B (eIF4B) binds directly to the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). Mutations in all three subdomains of the IRES stem-loop 4 reduce binding of eIF4B and translation efficiency in parallel, indicating that eIF4B is functionally involved in FMDV translation initiation. In reticulocyte lysate devoid of polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB), eIF4B still bound well to the wild-type IRES, even after removal of the major PTB-binding site. In conclusion, the interaction of eIF4B with the FMDV IRES is essential for IRES function but independent of PTB.  (+info)

Recombinant viruses expressing the foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid precursor polypeptide (P1) induce cellular but not humoral antiviral immunity and partial protection in pigs. (7/503)

The importance of the induction of virus neutralizing antibodies to provide protection against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection is well established. However, recent studies with recombinant adenovirus expressing the precursor polypeptide of the viral capsid (P1) indicate that cattle inoculated with this recombinant vector developed partial protection against FMDV infection, in the absence of a detectable specific humoral response. Other viral vectors have been widely used to induce protective immunity against many pathogens, and it has been reported that the use of different vectors for priming and boosting injections can provide a synergistic effect on this response. In this work, we determined the immunogenicity of two recombinant viruses (adenovirus and vaccinia) expressing P1-FMDV, administered either individually or sequentially, and the protection that they induced against FMDV challenge in pigs. A double immunization with the adeno-P1 virus was the most effective strategy at inducing protective immunity. In contrast to previous reports, the use of two different vectors for priming and boosting did not show a synergistic effect on the protection induced against FMD. Interestingly, immunized pigs developed FMDV-specific T cell responses but not detectable antibodies. Thus, the protection observed was likely to be mediated by a cellular immune response.  (+info)

The properties of chimeric picornavirus IRESes show that discrimination between internal translation initiation sites is influenced by the identity of the IRES and not just the context of the AUG codon. (8/503)

The internal ribosome entry segment (IRES) of picornaviruses consists of approximately 450 nt of 5'-untranslated region, terminating at the 3' end with an approximately 25 nt element consisting of an absolutely conserved UUUC motif followed by a more variable pyrimidine-rich tract and G-poor spacer, and finally an AUG triplet, which is considered to be the actual ribosome entry site. Events following entry at this site differ among picornaviruses: in encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) virtually all ribosomes initiate translation at this site (AUG-11); in foot-and-mouth-disease virus (FMDV), one-third of the ribosomes initiate at this AUG (the Lab site), and the rest at the next AUG 84 nt downstream (Lb site); and in poliovirus (PV), the AUG at the 3' end of the IRES (at nt 586 in PV type 1) is considered to be a silent entry site, with all ribosomes initiating translation at the next AUG downstream (nt 743). To investigate what determines this different behavior, chimeras were constructed with a crossover at the conserved UUUC motif: the body of the IRES, the sequences upstream of this UUUC motif, was derived from one species, and the downstream sequences from another. When the body of the FMDV or PV IRESes was replaced by that of EMCV, there was a marked increase in the absolute and relative frequency of initiation at the upstream AUG, the Lab site of FMDV and 586AUG of PV, respectively. In contrast, when the body of the EMCV IRES was replaced by that of PV, initiation occurred with no preference at three AUGs: the normal site (AUG-11), AUG-10 situated 8 nt upstream, and AUG-12, which is 12 nt downstream. Thus although the context of the AUG at the 3' end of the IRES may influence initiation frequency at this site, as was shown by improving the context of 586AUG of PV, the behavior of the ribosome is also highly dependent on the nature of the upstream IRES. Delivery of the ribosome to this AUG in an initiation-competent manner is particularly efficient and accurate with the EMCV IRES.  (+info)

*Aphthovirus

... (from the Greek aphtha-, vesicles in the mouth) is a viral genus of the family Picornaviridae. Aphthoviruses infect ... Aphthovirus Bovine rhinitis A virus Bovine rhinitis B virus Equine rhinitis A virus Foot-and-mouth disease virus Aphthoviruses ... Aphthovirus summary from the Iziko Museums of Cape Town, South Africa. Foot-and-Mouth Disease summary from the US Department of ... The aphthoviruses are differentiated from other picornaviruses as they have a larger genome (ca. 8.2 kilobases). The genome is ...

*Aphthovirus internal ribosome entry site (IRES)

Page for Aphthovirus internal ribosome entry site (IRES) at Rfam. ...

*Picornavirus

FMDV is the prototypic member of the Aphthovirus genus in the Picornaviridae family. The plaque assay was developed using ... These include the Enterovirus, Aphthovirus, Cardiovirus, Rhinovirus and Hepatovirus genera. The viruses in this family can ... Group: ssRNA(+) Order: Picornavirales Family: Picornaviridae Genus: Aphthovirus Bovine rhinitis A virus Bovine rhinitis B virus ... as well as for the aphthovirus, an animal pathogen causing foot and mouth disease (FMDV). In this group, primer-dependent RNA ...

*Foot-and-mouth disease virus

It is a picornavirus, the prototypical member of the Aphthovirus genus. The disease, which causes vesicles (blisters) in the ...

*Picornain 3C

Foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a part of the aphthovirus genera. Foot and mouth disease virus primarily is found in ...

*Simone Warner

"Conservation of L and 3C proteinase activities across distantly related aphthoviruses". J Gen Virol. 83 (12): 3111-21. doi: ...

*Hepatitis A virus internal ribosome entry site (IRES)

The four class are Entero-/rhinovirus IRES, Cardio-/aphthovirus IRES, HAV IRES, HCV-like picornavirus IRES. These IRES are ...

*Foot-and-mouth disease

The virus responsible for the disease is a picornavirus, the prototypic member of the genus Aphthovirus. Infection occurs when ...

*Erbovirus

... which is the only species of the genus Aphthovirus that is not a foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV), and appears to only ... relationship to each other and to aphthoviruses and cardioviruses". J Gen Virol. 77 ( Pt 8) (8): 1719-30. doi:10.1099/0022-1317 ...

*Friedrich Loeffler

Aphthovirus). His description of the diphtheria bacillus, published in 1884, was the originating cause of an antitoxin ...

*Social history of viruses

Foot-and-mouth disease is a highly contagious infection caused by an aphthovirus, and is classified in the same family as ...

*Virus

... aphthovirus) - through a similar filter. In the early 20th century, the English bacteriologist Frederick Twort discovered a ...

*Taxonomic list of viruses

Aphthovirus Bovine rhinitis A virus Bovine rhinitis B virus Equine rhinitis A virus Foot-and-mouth disease virus Genus: ...

*Veterinary virology

Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a member of the Aphthovirus genus in the Picornaviridae family and is the cause of foot- ...

*List of cis-regulatory RNA elements

Aphthovirus internal ribosome entry site (IRES) Apolipoprotein B (apoB) 5' UTR cis-regulatory element AtoC RNA motif ATPC RNA ...

*List of MeSH codes (B04)

... aphthovirus MeSH B04.820.565.070.250 --- foot-and-mouth disease virus MeSH B04.820.565.170 --- cardiovirus MeSH B04.820.565.170 ... aphthovirus MeSH B04.909.777.618.070.250 --- foot-and-mouth disease virus MeSH B04.909.777.618.170 --- cardiovirus MeSH B04.909 ...

*List of genera of viruses

Amalgavirus Ambidensovirus Amdoparvovirus Ampelovirus Ampullavirus Andromedalikevirus Anulavirus Aparavirus Aphthovirus ...
Under natural conditions, the most common form of transmission is by aerosol, with high concentrations of infectious particles exhaled by an animal in the acute phase of the disease being carried on the air to the respiratory tract of a susceptible animal. More than any other infected species, pigs produce enormous quantities of virus, with over a hundred million infectious virus particles exhaled per day. Consequently, pigs are often referred to as the amplifier hosts of FMD. The virus is also present in vesicular fluid and saliva, and at the peak of infection can be found in blood and tissues of the affected animal.4 Although the virus is readily inactivated in muscle under post mortem conditions because of the rapid drop in pH, it may survive in pockets of lymphoid tissue and bone marrow.. Most new outbreaks begin with animal contact or consumption of animal byproducts. Illegally imported, virus-contaminated meat products fed as garbage to pigs have caused many new outbreaks in the world, ...
Dr. Tolani Francisco has worked on |i|Brucella infection|/i| in bison and elk in Yellowstone National Park and on foot-and-mouth disease
Neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (nMAbs) elicited against foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) of serotype C were assayed with field isolates and variant FMDVs using several immunoassays. Of a total of 36 nMAbs tested, 23 recognized capsid protein VP1 and distinguished at least 13 virion conformation-independent epitopes involved in neutralization of FMDV C. Eleven epitopes of FMDV C-S8c1 have been located in segments 138-156 or 192-209 of VP1 by quantifying the reactivity of nMAbs with synthetic peptides and with nMAb-resistant mutants of FMDV C-S8c1 carrying defined amino acid substitutions. The main antigenic site of FMDV C-S8c1 (VP1 residues 138 to 150) consists of multiple (at least 10), distinguishable, overlapping epitopes. Some amino acid replacements abolished one of the epitopes, whereas other replacements affected several epitopes in this region. The conservative substitution His(146) → Arg, found in many nMAb-resistant mutants analysed, abolished the reactivity of the virus with all nMAbs
Type O Negative byla gothic metalová kapela z Brooklynu v New Yorku v USA. Kapela vznikla ze skupiny Carnivore.. Skupina Type O negative je z Brooklynu, New York. Vznikla v roce 1990. Kenny Hickey (kytara), Josh Silver (klávesy) a za bicími sedí Johnny Kelly ale původním bubeníkem skupiny byl Sal Abruscato.. Frontman kapely, zpěvák a baskytarista Peter Steele (vlastním jménem Petrus T. Ratajczyk), zemřel dne 14. dubna 2010 v důsledku srdeční příhody[2].. ...
Roadrunner Records werden am 25. November 2011 exklusiv ein Vinyl Box Set folgender TYPE O NEGATIVE Alben veröffentlichen: * Slow, Deep and Hard* The Origin of the Feces* Bloody Kisses* October Rust* World Coming Down* Life Is Killing MeDrummer Johnny Kelly kommentiert wie folgt: This looks great,...
Expert news, reviews and videos of the latest digital cameras, lenses, accessories, and phones. Get answers to your questions in our photography forums.
Natural and induced factors inhibiting foot and mouth disease virus were investigated in bovine secretions, especially in those from the upper respiratory and oro pharyngeal areas. Techniques were devised to collect lachrymal, nasal, buccal and pharyngeal fluids from normal, convalescent and passively or actively immunised steers. The pH and total protein content of secretions were established in normal cattle. Immunoglobulin types IgA and IgGl predominated. Interferon was not detected. Normal tears exhibited no antiviral activity but nasal secretion, oral saliva and p~al fluid were inhibitory due to their alkaline pH and, in the case of salivary fluids, to the presence of an additional anti viral factor which was partially characterised. Virus lost infectivity in vitro due to natural, non specific factors at rates which varied with the strain of virus to a maximum of 1.25 log units per hour. Clinical disease, viral excretion, interferon and antibody were studied following infection with virus ...
Jerez, J.A.; Pinto, A.A.; Koseki, I.; Abuhab, T.G.; Regina Rodrigues, M.A.L.; Grecchi, R., 1980: Characteristics of aphthovirus strains isolated from buffaloes (in Brazil)
Lys Leu Thr Trp Val Pro Asn Gly Ala Pro 100 105 110Val Ser Ala Leu Asp Asn Thr Thr Asn Pro Thr Ala Tyr His Lys Gly 115 120 125Pro Leu Thr Arg Leu Ala Leu Pro Tyr Thr Ala Pro His Arg Val Leu 130 135 140Ala Thr Ala Tyr Thr Gly Thr Thr Ala Tyr Ser Ala Ser Ala Arg Arg145 150 155 160Gly Asp Leu Ala His Leu Ala Ala Ala His Ala Arg His Leu Pro Thr 165 170 175Ser Phe Asn Phe Gly Ala Val Lys Ala Glu Thr Ile Thr Glu Leu Leu 180 185 190Val Arg Met Lys Arg Ala Glu Leu Tyr Cys Pro Arg Pro Val Leu Pro 195 200 205Val Gln Pro Ser Gly Asp Arg His Lys Gln Pro Leu Ile Ala Pro Ala 210 215 220Lys Gln Leu Leu225391404DNAArtificial Sequencenucleic acid, VP1-A+ VP1-C sequence 39atggactgga cctggattct gtttctcgtg gccgctgcta caagagtgca ctccaccacc 60tctgccggcg agtccgccga cccagtgacc accaccgtgg agaactacgg cggcgagaca 120caggtgcagc gcaggcacca caccgacgtg ggcttcatca tggaccgctt cgtgaagatc 180ggcaacacct cccccaccca cgtgatcgac ctgatgcaga cccaccagca cggactggtg 240ggagccctgc tgagagccgc cacctactac ttctccgacc tggaaatcgt ggtgcgccac ...
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. ...
23] At time it absolutely was thought that all infectious brokers could be retained by filters and developed with a nutrient medium - this was Portion of the germ idea of disease.[2] In 1898, the Dutch microbiologist Martinus Beijerinck recurring the experiments and became certain that the filtered Resolution contained a whole new method of infectious agent.[24] He observed that the agent multiplied only in cells that were dividing, but as his experiments did not exhibit that it absolutely was manufactured from particles, he identified as it a contagium vivum fluidum (soluble residing germ) and re-released the word virus. Beijerinck taken care of that viruses were being liquid in character, a idea later discredited by Wendell Stanley, who proved they were particulate.[23] In the same yr Friedrich Loeffler and Paul Frosch handed the first animal virus - agent of foot-and-mouth condition (aphthovirus) - by an identical filter.[twenty five ...
plot(placements, predict(M,newdata=data.frame(ethnic="White",placement=placements),type="response"), type="o",pch=21,bg="white",ylab="",ylim=c(0,1)) points(placements, predict(M,newdata=data.frame(ethnic="Black",placement=placements),type="response"), type="o",pch=21,bg="black") points(placements, predict(M,newdata=data.frame(ethnic="Other",placement=placements),type="response"), type="o",pch=21,col="red",bg="red") legend(x="topleft",pch=21,col=c("black","black","red"),pt.bg=c("white","black","red"), legend=c("White","Black","Other ...
Information, guidance and support for readers interested in applying the principles of The Blood Type Diet as outlined by The New York Times best-selling author Dr. Peter DAdamo.
Information, guidance and support for readers interested in applying the principles of The Blood Type Diet as outlined by The New York Times best-selling author Dr. Peter DAdamo.
MANHATTAN - A research project in the Kansas State University College of Veterinary Medicine presents the largest model to date for evaluating the impact and control of a potential outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease in livestock.. Mike Sanderson, professor of epidemiology in the colleges diagnostic medicine and pathobiology department, and Sara McReynolds, a former graduate student of Sandersons, published the results of their research in the December issue of the journal Preventive Veterinary Medicine.. The researchers developed simulation models to assess the impact of livestock herd types and vaccination on foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks using the North American Animal Disease Spread Model. In this study, potential foot-and-mouth disease virus outbreaks in the central region of the U.S. were simulated to compare different vaccination strategies to a depopulation-only scenario. Their work received funding from the U.S. Department of Homeland Securitys Foreign Animal Disease Zoonotic ...
At the present time virus grown in one layer tissue culture is successfully used for preparing deactivated antifoot-and-mouth disease vaccine. This article discusses the effect of some conditions on the multiplication foot-and-mouth disease virus in a tissue culture of pig embryo kidney cells (PEK). The article discusses the materials and methods used in the study and the results of the study, contains a discussion of the results, and makes the following conclusions: (1) The multiplication of foot-and-mouth disease virus in PEK tissue culture does not depend on preliminary adsorption of virus on cells. (2) Growing foot-and-mouth disease virus in PEK culture for the preparation of vaccine is a promising method. (Author)*TISSUE CULTURE)
Introduction. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) belongs to the genus Aphthovirus, family Picornaviridae which principally infects cloven-hoofed animals including wildlife animals. The virus is a positive sense, single-stranded RNA virus and is categorised into seven serotypes: A, O, C, Asia 1, South Africa Territory 1, 2 and 3 (SAT1, SAT2 and SAT3) (Domingo et al. 2003). FMDV can be genetically classified based on its geographic origin (topotypes); for example, the serotype SAT1 can be grouped into eight topotypes (I-VIII) based on nucleotide differences (within virus protein 1 [VP1] coding sequence) of up to 15% (Samuel & Knowles 2001). The serotype SAT1 topotype III is found in Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, Kenya and Zimbabwe according to the study conducted by Vosloo et al. (2002).. Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is highly contagious and, combined with its high antigenic diversity, this makes the disease difficult to control. The disease has caused significant economic losses as a result of the ...
MKAMA, Mathias et al. Serosurveillance of foot-and-mouth disease virus in selected livestock-wildlife interface areas of Tanzania. Onderstepoort j. vet. res. [online]. 2014, vol.81, n.2, pp.1-4. ISSN 2219-0635.. Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is caused by a virus of the genus Aphthorvirus of the family Picornaviridae. There is great scientific need for determining the transmission dynamics of FMD virus (FMDV) by drawing more attention to the livestock-wildlife interface areas. A variety of literature suggests that buffalo could serve as reservoir of FMDV in wildlife and cattle. However, many FMDV research studies conducted on experimentally infected cattle as carriers and groups of animal highly susceptible to FMDV (i.e. bovine calves) have shown lower chances of transmission of the virus between carriers and the susceptible groups. These findings underscore the importance of continued research on the role played by carrier animals on FMDV transmission dynamics under natural conditions. The aim of ...
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a single stranded RNA virus in the picornavirus family. It is the causative agent of foot-and-mouth disease, globally the most important a�iction of cloven hoofed animals. The FMDV genome has several features that are not found amongst other viruses within the Picornaviridae. These include a large 50 untranslated region (UTR), almost twice the length of that found in enteroviruses, containing highly structured RNA elements unique to FMDV, such as the S-fragment and several tandemly repeated pseudoknots. Unique aspects are also found within the coding region, where FMDV is the only picornavirus reported to contain multiple copies of the 3B gene. The reasons behind possession of these unusual deviations from the dogma of the picornaviral genome is so far unknown and therefore poses an attractive target for further research. The S-fragment is a predicted 360 nucleotide stem-loop at the 50 end of the FMDV genome. The better studied poliovirus (PV) has a well ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Replacement of foot-and-mouth disease virus cattle tongue titration by in vitro titration. AU - Dekker, Aldo. AU - van Hemert-Kluitenberg, Froukje. AU - Oosterbaan, Anna H.. AU - Moonen, Kimberly. AU - Mouton, Laure. PY - 2018/10/24. Y1 - 2018/10/24. N2 - Titration of foot-and-mouth disease cattle challenge virus in cattle tongue has been the standard for many years in many countries, although titration in animals has been replaced by in vitro methods for all other applications. The objective of the analysis was the replacement of in vivo titration of cattle challenge virus by in vitro titration. Using data from 32 in vivo titration experiments together with the in vitro titration results of the same samples obtained by plaque count on primary lamb or pig kidney cells, as well as data from the virus isolation control chart used in the laboratory, we show that the reproducibility of the in vitro titration is much higher than that of the in vivo titration. The titer on primary ...
Looking for foot-and-mouth disease? Find out information about foot-and-mouth disease. or highly contagious disease almost exclusive to cattle, sheep, swine, goats, and other cloven-hoofed animals. It is caused by a virus, specifically an... Explanation of foot-and-mouth disease
Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) can cause transplacental infection and death in fetal lambs. This study investigates the pathogenesis of FMDV infection in ovine fetuses using in-situ hybridization (ISH) to detect viral transcripts in tissue and real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assays to quantify the fetal cytokine response to infection. FMDV ribonucleic acid (RNA) was localized mainly to the heart and skeletal muscles of fetuses and was only occasionally expressed in the lingual epithelium, demonstrating that FMDV has a different tissue tropism in the fetus compared with that in adult sheep. There was early expression of genes encoding anti-viral cytokines (IFN-alpha and IFN-beta) in fetuses at 2 and 4 days post-infection (dpi), followed by a marked rise in the transcription of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes (IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha and IL-1 alpha) from 7 to 18 dpi, particularly in the heart. The degree of cytokine mRNA expression correlated with fetal ...
Within the Picornaviridae family there are twospecies that affect equids: the equine rhinitis A virus and the equine rhinitisB virus. These viruses, discovered in the 60s and 70s, were initially includedin the same genus called Rhinovirus,differentiating four groups according to their characteristics: equine rhinovirus-1,equine rhinovirus-2, equine rhinovirus-3 and acid-stable equine picornavirus. Laterthe equine rhinovirus type 1 was renamed Equine Rhinitis A Virus (ERAV) beingclassified within the genus Aphthovirus,the other three were included in a new genus called Erbovirus, considering three serotypes of Equine Rhinitis B Virus(ERBV-1, ERBV -2 and ERBV-3). They are viruses with single-stranded RNA and theviral particles have a size of about 30 nm in diameter.
Foot-and-mouth disease viruses (FMDVs) target epithelial cells via integrin receptors, but can acquire the capacity to bind cell-surface heparan sulphate (or alternative receptors) on passage in cell culture. Vaccine viruses must be propagated in cell culture and, hence, some rationale for the selection of variants in this process is important. Crystal structures are available for type O, A and C viruses and also for a complex of type O strain O(1)BFS with heparin. The structure of FMDV A10(61) (a cell culture-adapted strain) complexed with heparin has now been determined. This virus has an RGSD motif in place of the otherwise conserved RGD integrin-binding motif and the potential to bind heparan sulphate (suggested by sequence analyses). FMDV A10(61) was closely similar in structure to other serotypes, deviating most in antigenic sites. The VP1 GH loop comprising the integrin-binding motif was disordered. Heparin bound at a similar site and in a similar conformation to that seen in the analogous
OTTAWA, ONTARIO--(Marketwire - Jan. 31, 2011) - The North American Foot-and-Mouth Disease Vaccine Bank, administered jointly by commissioners from the United States, Canada and Mexico, is providing the Republic of Korea with foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccine needed to assist the country with its ongoing FMD outbreak. The vaccine bank will...
This study was conducted to investigate the presence of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) in different geographic locations of Tanzania. Epithelial tissues and fluids (n = 364) were collected from cattle exhibiting oral and foot vesicular lesions suggestive of FMD and submitted for routine FMD diagnosis. The analysis of these samples collected during the period of 2002 and 2010 was performed by serotype-specific antigen capture ELISA to determine the presence of FMDV. The results of this study indicated that 167 out of 364 (46.1%) of the samples contained FMDV antigen. Of the 167 positive samples, 37 (28.4%) were type O, 7 (4.1%) type A, 45 (21.9%) SAT 1 and 79 (45.6%) SAT 2. Two FMDV serotypes (O and SAT 2) were widely distributed throughout Tanzania whilst SAT 1 and A types were only found in the Eastern zone. Our findings suggest that serotypes A, O, SAT 1 and SAT 2 prevail in Tanzania and are associated with the recent FMD outbreaks. The lack of comprehensive animal movement records and ...
The quantitative role of sheep in the transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is not well known. To estimate the role of sheep in the transmission of FMDV, a direct contact transmission experiment with 10 groups of animals each consisting of 2 infected lambs and 1 contact calf was performed. Secretions and excretions (oral swabs, blood, urine, faeces and probang samples) from all animals were tested for the presence of FMDV by virus isolation (VI) and/or RT-PCR. Serum was tested for the presence of antibodies against FMDV. To estimate FMDV transmission, the VI, RT-PCR and serology results were used. The partial reproduction ratio R0p i.e. the average number of new infections caused by one infected sheep introduced into a population of susceptible cattle, was estimated using either data of the whole infection chain of the experimental epidemics (the transient state method) or the final sizes of the experimental epidemics (the final size method). Using the transient state method, R0p was
The replication of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is dependent on the virus-encoded 3C protease (3Cpro). As in other picornaviruses, 3Cpro performs most of the proteolytic processing of the polyprotein expressed from the single open reading frame in the RNA genome of the virus. Previous work revealed that the 3Cpro from serotype A -one of the seven serotypes of FMDV - adopts a trypsin-like fold. Phylogenetically the FMDV serotypes are grouped into two clusters, with O, A, C, and Asia 1 in one, and the three South African Territories serotypes, (SAT-1, SAT-2 and SAT-3) in another. We report here the cloning, expression and purification of 3C proteases from four SAT serotype viruses (SAT2/GHA/8/91, SAT1/NIG/5/81, SAT1/UGA/1/97, and SAT2/ZIM/7/83) and the crystal structure at 3.2Å resolution of 3Cpro from SAT2/GHA/8/91).
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is an acute systemic disease of domestic and wild bovids that causes great agroeconomic losses worldwide. The etiological agent, FMD virus (FMDV), is a single-stranded positive-sense RNA virus belonging to the Aphthovirus genus of the Picornaviridae family (1), which includes seven distinct serotypes (O, A, C, Asia-1, SAT-1, SAT-2, and SAT-3) and multiple subtypes worldwide (2). In Bangladesh, the FMDV type O Ind2001 lineage of the ME-SA topotype was reported to be homogenously distributed across the regions during 2011 and 2012 (3).. Here, we report the complete nucleotide sequence of an FMDV serotype O strain (BAN/GO/Ka-236(Pig)/2015) isolated from vesicular lesion of the feet of an infected pig, collected on 25 August 2015 in Gopalganj, Bangladesh. Viral RNA was extracted from the infected cell culture supernatant at passage 2 in the BHK-21 cell line, and cDNA was synthesized with random and oligo(dT) primers. A total of 16 overlapping amplicons covering the ...
Summary Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) A22 Iraq 24/64 adapted to grow in BHK monolayer cells induced antibodies which neutralized many isolates belonging to the A serotype. Plaque-purified virus isolated from this stock also induced broadly reactive antibodies, showing that this property is not due to the combined response to a mixture of variants in the original stock virus. However, viruses obtained by passage in suspension BHK cells of either the monolayer cell-adapted virus or a virus cloned from this stock resulted in the selection of virus which induced antibodies with highly specific neutralizing activity. In addition to their antigenic properties the monolayer and suspension cell-adapted viruses could be distinguished by plaque morphology, tendency to aggregate and ability to attach to BHK cells. Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) induced with the plaque-purified monolayer-adapted virus had neutralizing activity almost as broad as polyclonal serum, showing that this property can be represented by
A synthetic peptide vaccine of the general sequence Cys-Cys-(200-213)-Pro-Pro-Ser-(141-158)-Pro-Cys-Gly(peptide A40), where the numbered residues refer to the VP1 sequence of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) strain A24 Cruzeiro, has previously been shown to elicit neutralizing and protective antibodies in guinea-pigs and cattle. To examine this immunogenic tract in more detail monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were raised to this peptide. One such MAb, C1.1, which recognized the homologous peptide, bound to native virus, neutralized infectivity in vitro and passively protected mice from challenge. Using overlapping dodecameric peptides the minimum binding footprint of this MAb incorporated residues 149-154 which were respectively Gly-Ser-Leu-Ala-Ala-Arg. Since this footprint occurs in several other A subtype strains of FMDV, the extent to which MAb C1.1 could cross-react was also examined. Using a liquid-phase competition ELISA, only viruses with a sequence that encompassed the same minimum binding
A total of 18 foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotype Asia1 field isolates belonging to two different lineages (including the divergent group) as delineated earlier in VP1-based phylogeny were sequenced in the non-structural 3A and 3C protein-coding regions. The phylogenetic trees representing the regions coding for the non-structural proteins were very similar to that of the structural VP1 protein-coding region. Phylogenetic comparison at 3C region revealed clustering of Asia1 viruses with the isolates of serotypes O, A and C in the previously identified clade. Comparison of amino acid sequences identified lineage-specific signature residues in both the non-structural proteins. Overall analysis of the amino acid substitutions revealed that the 3A coding region was more prone to amino acid alterations than 3C region.
The innate immune system is the first line of defense against viral infections. Exploiting innate responses for antiviral, therapeutic and vaccine adjuvation strategies is being extensively explored. We have previously described, the ability of small in vitro RNA transcripts, mimicking the sequence and structure of different domains in the non-coding regions of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) genome (ncRNAs), to trigger a potent and rapid innate immune response. These synthetic non-infectious molecules have proved to have a broad-range antiviral activity and to enhance the immunogenicity of an FMD inactivated vaccine in mice. Here, we have studied the involvement of pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) in the ncRNA-induced innate response and analyzed the antiviral and cytokine profiles elicited in swine cultured cells, as well as peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs).
Mwiine, F. N., Ayebazibwe, C., Olaho-Mukani, W., Alexandersen, Soren, Balinda, S. N., Masembe, C., Okurut, A. R. Ademun, Christensen, L. S., Sørensen, K. J. and Tjørnehøj, K. 2010, Serotype specificity of antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle in selected districts in Uganda, Transboundary and emerging diseases, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 365-374, doi: 10.1111/j.1865-1682.2010.01157.x. ...
Researchers at The Pirbright Institute in collaboration with partners at the USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) Foreign Animal Disease Diagnostic Laboratory on Plum Island USA, have shown that foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) can be detected in milk samples using a method that is potentially sensitive enough to identify the virus in pooled milk stored in bulk tanks or milk tankers. These encouraging results indicate that testing of milk samples could contribute to disease surveillance both during and after outbreaks.. Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) has a huge economic impact, costing an estimated US $11 billion globally each year in direct losses and vaccination costs. Outbreaks in countries that are usually free from FMD can have devastating consequences, such as the UK 2001 outbreak which resulted in the slaughter of six million animals and losses of over £8 billion.. The control of the disease is heavily reliant on the rapid and accurate detection of the virus. Current ...
Foot-and-mouth disease Virus (FMDV) is the prototypical member of the Aphthovirus genus, in the family Picornaviridae and is a small nonenveloped virus with a pseudo T=3 icosahedral capsid of 25-30 nm in size.. Inside the capsid is a 8.4-kilobase, positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome (making FMDV a Group IV virus in the Baltimore classification) that is covalently bound at its 5′ end to the small viral protein 3B and is polyadenylated at its 3′ end. Upon virus entry into a cell, the viral genome is translated into a polyprotein which is co- and post-translationally cleaved by viral proteinases into 12 mature proteins.. ...
Potency tests for commercial oil-adjuvanted foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines are usually carried out in cattle, using a full dose (2 ml) of vaccine and homologous virus challenge. However, in sheep the recommended vaccine dose is half of the cattle dose (1 ml) and most vaccines have not been potency tested for this species, especially with heterologous viruses. To determine the efficacy of a high potency (,6PD50) FMD virus (FMDV) O1Manisa vaccine in sheep, we carried out a study using a heterologous FMDV (FMDV O/SKR/2010 - Mya-98 strain) challenge. Groups of seven animals each were vaccinated with 2×, 1×, 1/2× or 1/4× dose (2 ml, 1 ml, 0.5 ml or 0.25 ml respectively) and challenged at 7 days post vaccination (dpv). Only 3 of the 7 sheep in the group vaccinated with 2 ml were protected. With 2 additional groups, receiving double or single doses and challenged at 14 dpv, 4 of 7 sheep were protected in each group. None of the sheep had measurable neutralising antibodies against the vaccine ...
The current measures to control foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) include vaccination, movement control and slaughter of infected or susceptible animals. One of the difficulties in controlling FMD by vaccination arises due to the substantial diversity found among the seven serotypes of FMD virus (FMDV) and the strains within these serotypes. Therefore, vaccination using a single vaccine strain may not fully cross-protect against all strains within that serotype, and therefore selection of appropriate vaccines requires serological comparison of the field virus and potential vaccine viruses using relationship coefficients (r1 values). Limitations of this approach are that antigenic relationships among field viruses are not addressed, as comparisons are only with potential vaccine virus. Furthermore, inherent variation among vaccine sera may impair reproducibility of one-way relationship scores. Here, we used antigenic cartography to quantify and visualize the antigenic relationships among FMD serotype ...
We describe the characterization of a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) serotype A virus responsible for recent outbreaks of disease in Egypt. Phylogenetic analysis of VP1 nucleotide sequences demonstrated a close relationship to recent FMD virus isolates from East Africa, rather than to viruses currently circulating in the Middle East.
In April 2008, foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks were reported in Kamuli district of the eastern region of Uganda. Soon after lifting the quarantines in this area, further FMD outbreaks were reported in northern Uganda, which spread to more than 10 districts. The aim of this study was to identify the serotype and compare the variable protein (VP)1 coding sequences of the viruses responsible for FMD outbreaks during 2008 and 2009, to trace the transmission pathways of the disease in Uganda. Probang and epithelial swab samples were collected from cattle with clinical signs of FMD in the two regions, and the presence of FMDV RNA in these samples was determined using a standard diagnostic RT-PCR assay. From the total of 27 positive samples, the VP1 coding region was amplified and sequenced. Each of these sequences showed ,99% identity to each other, and just five distinct sequences were identified. BLAST searches and phylogenetic analysis of the complete variable protein (VP)1 coding sequences ...
Mouse monoclonal antibody raised against Foot-and-mouth disease (FMDV). NS-non-structural proteins. (MAB7770) - Products - Abnova
According to the information included in the European Commission for the Control of Foot-and-Mouth Disease monthly report "Global Foot-and-Mouth Disease Situation," January 2018: Regarding China, "FMD outbreaks due to O were reported on 3 and 10 Jan 2018 in swine, respectively, at Buyi and Miao Autonomous Prefecture of QianNan, Sandu, Guizhou and Yinchuan, Xingqing District, Ningxia. As in the previous outbreak, diagnosis was carried out by the National and OIE Reference laboratory using RT-PCR and virus isolation. Source of outbreak is unknown and control measures applied are as those described in the previous outbreak," (see reports below ...
It is more due to good management than good luck that Australias agriculture sector has yet to be decimated by foot-and-mouth disease, writes Tracey Porter It is not by chance that an outbreak of the highly contagious foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), […]. Read More ». ...
US Department of Agriculture scientists have identified the primary site where the virus that causes foot-and-mouth disease begins infection in cattle.
Researchers at The Pirbright Institute have secured almost $1.5 million from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation to fund the development of improved foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines for East Africa.
To validate the use of serology in substantiating freedom from infection after foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreaks have been controlled by measures that include vaccination, 3551 sera were tested with six assays that detect antibodies to the non-structural proteins of FMD virus. The sera came from naive, vaccinated, infected and vaccinated-and-infected animals; two-thirds from cattle, the remainder from sheep and pigs. The assays were covariant for sensitivity, but not necessarily for specificity. A commercial kit from Cedi-diagnostics and an in-house assay from IZS-Brescia were comparable to the NCPanaftosa-screening index method described in the Diagnostic Manual of the World Animal Health Organisation. Using these three tests the specificity and sensitivity for the detection of carriers in vaccinated cattle approaches or exceeds 99% and 90%, respectively ...
An amino acid mutation (R127→I) in the 3A non-structural protein of an FMDV serotype Asia1 rabbit-attenuated ZB strain was previously found after attenuation of the virus. To explore the effects of this mutation on viral replication and infection, the amino acid residue isoleucine (I) was changed to arginine (R) in the infectious cDNA clone of the rabbit-attenuated ZB strain by site-directed mutagenesis, and the R127-mutated virus was rescued. BHK monolayer cells and suckling mice were inoculated with the R127-mutated virus to test its growth property and pathogenicity, respectively. The effects of the R127 mutation on viral replication and virulence were analyzed. The data showed that there was a slight difference in plaque morphology between the R127-mutated and wild-type viruses. The growth rate of the mutated virus was lower in BHK-21 cells and its virulence in suckling mice was also attenuated. This study indicates that the R127 mutation in 3A may play an important role in FMDV replication in
Poster (2013, October). Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a highly contagious pathogen of cloven-hoofed mammals and one of the biggest concerns for veterinary authorities. The control measures to be applied in case of an ... [more ▼]. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is a highly contagious pathogen of cloven-hoofed mammals and one of the biggest concerns for veterinary authorities. The control measures to be applied in case of an outbreak vary in function of the disease-free or disease-enzootic status. Vaccination depends on the prior identification of the involved viral serotype and subtype, it confers an immunity limited to 6 months and it requires between 4 to 7 days to trigger the immune response (i.e. immunity-gap). The use of anti-FMD drugs has been discussed as an alternative or supplementary method to be used in previously FMD-free countries/zones. Such an antiviral treatment could protect against the viral dissemination to fill the gap between vaccination and the rise of a ...
We asked one of our Virology Section Editors, Peter Sommer, also team head of the Cell Biology of Retroviruses group at the Institut Pasteur Korea for his picks in this field. Not only did he choose 6 articles from those he has edited but he also provided notes on why they were on his list. Please feel free to share these research articles with colleagues:. Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Persists in the Light Zone of Germinal Centres by Juleff N et al. Persistent infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus (the carrier state) is considered to be a common sequel to both clinical and subclinical FMD in ruminants. The mechanism(s) employed by the virus to persist and evade immune elimination from the host as well as the site of viral persistence in vivo is not well defined. This work provides good evidence that intact, non-replicating FMDV particles trapped by immune cells called follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) within the germinal centres of lymph nodes persist for at least 38 days in carrier ...
Foot-and-mouth disease has been known for at least four centuries. The earliest reports of its occurrence are from Italy; it did not reach England until 1839. Its occurrence in South America was first described in 1871 and is probably linked to the movement of infected cattle from Europe to that part of the world. The earliest reports of the disease in Asia and Africa date from 1842 and 1892 respectively. The causal agent of the disease, a virus belonging to the family Picornaviridae, was discovered by Loeffler & Frosch in 1897; its antigenic diversity was described in the early 1920s. Seven serologically distinct types of the virus are now recognized, thus rendering the task of vaccination more complex, particularly as there is also considerable antigenic diversity within the serotypes. Nevertheless, good inactivated vaccines are available and, as demonstrated in western Europe over the last 30 years, these have proved to be extremely effective when applied prophylactically in efficiently ...
Faster diagnosis and new knowledge. Current studies are focused on better ways to fight the disease, for example through the development of new, improved vaccines and diagnostic methods. With the support of EuFMD, which is part of FAO, we are developing rapid methods, based on real-time RT-PCR systems, to differentiate between different serotypes.. We study the important processes of virus biology including RNA replication, viral protein synthesis and virus capsid assembly. Furthermore, we analyse the features of the virus, which determine its ability to cause disease. This is central to the development of new control strategies (for instance by interfering with the ability of the virus to block the defense mechanisms in the host). An important foundation of this work is the ability to modify the virus genome in order to determine the effects of these targeted changes on the properties of the virus in animal cells and in the natural host.. Thus, we use a reverse genetics approach to introduce ...
Thinking about a foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) outbreak is not really high on farmers lists of things to do. Its not on their daily agenda of concerns and issues to deal with and they have plenty of those already. When you do get a discussion going around FMD and farmers realize how real the threat is and how serious the consequences could be, the fear can be almost paralyzing. People really dont like to think about scary things.. StopScaringUs. Yet, there is common acknowledgement that we need to be prepared for this sort of thing. Most people figure "the government" will tell them what to do in the event FMD is found in this country. To some extent, that is true. But when you start to delve into the plans and policies in place, given the imperfect and not unlimited resources at the disposal of "the government", you may begin to wonder whether we can do better.. I set out about six years ago to better understand FMD response plans in the US and the role of farmers in those plans. A lot of ...
Epidemiological comments: the 1st outbreak occurred in 4th regiment, 1st Agricultural Division, Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps, and is located in Wushi county. The 2nd outbreak occurred in 6th Agricultural Division, and is located in Fukang city. Clinical signs were observed by local veterinary authority through active surveillance. WAHIAD note: both outbreaks were first notified on [9 May 2017] within follow-up report no. 2 about foot-and-mouth disease serotype O. [WAHIAD: World Animal Health Information and Analysis Department-OIE. - Mod.CRD ...
1) VACCINATION REGIMES. Vaccination may be used to prevent major epidemics of disease. By providing vaccinated animals with protection, the number of susceptible animals is kept below the level required for disease transmission to be sustained.. In many areas of the world where foot-and-mouth disease is enzootic or there is a high risk of the disease, vaccination is used on a routine, prophylactic basis. Following initial vaccination, booster vaccinations are given at appropriate intervals for the area. Species other than cattle are not always included in these programmes.. In the face of an epidemic, whether or not in an endemic area, vaccination may be used alongside other measures to limit the spread of disease. In such a situation, it is advisable to vaccinate as many animals as possible of all susceptible species. It has been suggested that vaccination of at least 80-85% of the livestock in an area is required to provide herd immunity and effectively prevent disease spread.. The vaccine ...
[email protected] WASHINGTON (June 29, 2015) - National Farmers Union (NFU) President Roger Johnson said today that he was extremely disappointed in the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) decision to allow importation of fresh and chilled beef from some regions of Brazil and Argentina, a move that has potentially devastating consequences for American family farmers and ranchers.. "U.S. farmers and ranchers are known throughout the world for the high standards to which livestock herds are raised in this country and our long-standing disease prevention efforts," said Johnson. "Todays decision to allow imports of beef from Brazil and Argentina, regions with a history of Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD), puts the economic livelihood of American producers at risk, as it unnecessarily exposes the U.S. livestock industry to a highly contagious disease.". Johnson noted that because FMD is highly contagious, it has the potential to spread very quickly. ...
Serotypes of the Foot-and-Mouth disease viruses (FMDVs) were generally determined by biological experiments. The computational genotyping is not well studied even with the availability of whole viral genomes, due to uneven evolution among genes as well as frequent genetic recombination. Naively using sequence comparison for genotyping is only able to achieve a limited extent of success. We used 129 FMDV strains with known serotype as training strains to select as many as 140 most serotype-specific nucleotide strings. We then constructed a linear-kernel Support Vector Machine classifier using these 140 strings. Under the leave-one-out cross validation scheme, this classifier was able to assign correct serotype to 127 of these 129 strains, achieving 98.45% accuracy. It also assigned serotype correctly to an independent test set of 83 other FMDV strains downloaded separately from NCBI GenBank. Computational genotyping is much faster and much cheaper than the wet-lab based biological experiments, upon the
The 2001 foot-and-mouth disease epidemic was controlled by culling of infectious premises and preemptive culling intended to limit the spread of disease. Of the control strategies adopted, routine culling of farms that were contiguous to infected premises caused the most controversy. Here we perform a retrospective analysis of the culling of contiguous premises as performed in 2001 and a simulation study of the effects of this policy on reducing the number of farms affected by disease. Our simulation results support previous studies and show that a national policy of contiguous premises (CPs) culling leads to fewer farms losing livestock. The optimal national policy for controlling the 2001 epidemic is found to be the targeting of all contiguous premises, whereas for localized outbreaks in high animal density regions, more extensive fixed radius ring culling is optimal. Analysis of the 2001 data suggests that the lowest-risk CPs were generally prioritized for culling, however, even in this case, ...
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The Huong Khe Districts Peoples Committee in the central Ha Tinh Province has ordered localities to conduct aggressive checks to prevent the spread of the foot-and-mouth disease among its livestock, which was reported on Monday.
Most recent tests show that four of the 24 gaurs that died mysteriously in December in Kui Buri National Park in Prachuap Khiri Khan had foot-and-mouth disease, Nipon Chotibal, acting chief of the National Parks, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department
Great Britain: In Search of Greener Pastures In April, faced with the escalating foot-and-mouth disease crisis, the United Kingdom did what it always
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Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) is the etiological agent of a highly contagious disease that affects important livestock species. FMDV is a small non-enveloped virus belonging to the Picornaviridae family (Aphthovirus genus). The FMDV genome, which consists of a positive RNA strand, is enclosed inside an icosahedral capsid built up with 60 copies of each of the four structural protein (VP1 to VP4). Five protomers associate in a pentamer, the smallest unit of assembly and disassembly of the capsid. The acidic pH inside cellular endosomes promotes the capsid dissociation in pentameric subunits and triggers virus uncoating and genome release. As a direct consequence of this mechanism of penetration in the cells, FMDV capsids are extremely sensitive to acidic pH. We have analyzed the molecular basis of FMDV acid-induced disassembly by isolating and characterizing a panel of novel FMDV mutants differing in acid sensitivity. Amino acid replacements altering virion stability were preferentially ...
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of domestic and wild ruminants that is caused by FMD virus (FMDV). FMD outbreaks have occurred in livestock-containing regions worldwide. Apigenin, which is a flavonoid naturally existing in plant, possesses various pharmacological effects, including anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antioxidant and antiviral activities. Results show that apigenin can inhibit FMDV-mediated cytopathogenic effect and FMDV replication in vitro. Further studies demonstrate the following: (i) apigenin inhibits FMDV infection at the viral post-entry stage; (ii) apigenin does not exhibit direct extracellular virucidal activity; and (iii) apigenin interferes with the translational activity of FMDV driven by internal ribosome entry site. Studies on applying apigein in vivo are required for drug development and further identification of potential drug targets against FDMV infection.
Why must animals with foot-and-mouth disease, or those that might have been exposed to foot-and-mouth disease, be destroyed? Primarily for economic rea ...
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...BLUE BELL Pa. March 2 2011 /- Inovio Pharmaceuticals ...The FMD virus is one of the most infectious diseases affecting farm an...Because FMD can spread rapidly and beyond regional boundaries there is...,Inovio,Pharmaceuticals,Foot-and-Mouth,Disease,DNA,Vaccine,Introduces,Critical,Advantages,in,Fight,Against,Most,Serious,Farm,Animal,Disease,biological,advanced biology technology,biology laboratory technology,biology device technology,latest biology technology
Read more about Surinder Sud: The foot-and-mouth scourge on Business Standard. After the eradication of dreaded livestock ailments like rinderpest and contagious bovine pleura-pneumonia, the focus now is on stamping out another equally perilous malaise called foot-and-mouth disease (FMD). The World Animal Health Organisation
1BCV: Solution structure of a retro-inverso peptide analogue mimicking the foot-and-mouth disease virus major antigenic site. Structural basis for its antigenic cross-reactivity with the parent peptide.
23 April 2001 Haulier fuels foot-and-mouth fears by Robert Davies FARMING organisations are reporting floods of telephone calls after foot-and-mouth was fo
30 April 2001 Hotel breaks for foot-and-mouth victims By FWi staff FARMING families suffering because of foot-and-mouth in Cumbria are being offered free h
Improved immunization and control strategies and platforms are greatly needed for foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) and mucosal vaccines propose an effective strategy for the control FMDV by blocking viral entry. In this study, several immunization strategies, using two FMDV vaccine formulations, including Montanide ISA 206 oil-based FMD inactivated vaccine and Montanide IMS 1313 VG N PR-based concentrated semi-purified FMD mucosal vaccine, were applied. Results of intranasal immunization with the prepared FMD mucosal vaccine, given once or twice, induced IgA levels in both nasal and salivary secretions besides a high response of lymphocyte proliferation with protection levels reaching 20% and 40%, respectively, in a challenge trial in cattle ...
An effective biosecurity program based on Halamid® brings the total bacterial and viral load in cattle farming to a safe level. Halamid® eradicates major cattle pathogens such as Salmonella, E. coli, Enterobacteria, ECBO virus (orphan virus), Foot and mouth disease virus, Aujeszky disease virus, Pox virus, Vaccinia virus ...
The materials in this section specifically address FMD. There are many other generic materials that are also applicable to FMD, as well as other foreign animal diseases. Please find these materials here.. Preparedness Information. ...
If you think youve seen a case of FMD, call your local vet immediately - they will contact MPIs pest and disease hotline. If a vet isnt available, contact our hotline directly on 0800 80 99 66.. If you have questions about FMD, email [email protected] ...
The prime minister, who broke off a vacation to handle a response to the outbreak, said investigators were trying to pinpoint the cause of the outbreak - but acknowledged that the disease strain found in the first infected herd was the same used at the research laboratory ...
Future outbreaks of foot-and-mouth (FMD) disease can be combatted quickly and efficiently from early on-when authorities have minimal information-thanks to a new real-time strategy, developed by researchers at the University ...
MeatInfo: The processing industry is calling on the entire meat supply chain to equally share the burden of costs caused by the foot-and-mouth crisis.
UK - Researchers at The Pirbright Institute have secured almost $1.5 million from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation to fund the development of improved foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) vaccines for East Africa.
Cattle at a farm in Surrey have been found to be infected with foot-and-mouth disease. Some 60 animals on the farm near Guildford have tested positive for the disease which wreaked havoc in 2001. A 3km protection zone has been put in place around the premises and a UK ban imposed on movement of all livestock ...
CIDRAP News) Mexico closed its border to livestock from the United States last week because of concern that a herd of US cattle bound for Mexico had foot-and-mouth disease, but the border was quickly reopened when the disease was found to be a relatively harmless look-alike. ...
NORTHUMBERLAND is still under tight foot-and-mouth disease restrictions as government experts search for the cause of the latest outbreak.
lessons as are yielded above. Since 1848 there have been seven Acts of Parliament bearing the general titles of Contagious Diseases (Animals) Acts. Measures to "stamp out," as the phrase goes, this or that disease, have been called for as imperative. Measures have been passed, and then, expectation not having been fulfilled, amended measures have been passed, and then reamended measures; so that of late no session has gone by without a bill to cure evils which previous bills tried to cure, but did not. Notwithstanding the keen interest felt by the ruling classes in the success of these measures, they have succeeded so ill, that the "foot-and-mouth disease" has not been "stamped out," has not even been kept in check, but during the past year has spread alarmingly in various parts of the kingdom. Continually the Times has had blaming letters and reports of local meetings called to condemn the existing laws, and to insist on better. From all quarters there have come accounts of ineffective ...
The foot-and-mouth disease panic spreading across Europe triggered Ireland to cancel a number of St. Patricks Day celebrations set for Saturday. The idea was to slow travel in and out of affected
PV 701 is a replication-competent Newcastle disease virus strain that was undergoing development with Wellstat Biologics Corporation in the US as a potential
A man whose pig farm was involved in investigations into the source of the epidemic said he is to be prosecuted over the outbreak
Guinea pig antiserum containing known quantities of antibody to foot-and-mouth disease virus (140S antigen) and virus protein subunit (12S antigen) was used as a standard in radial immunodiffusion (RID) analyses for determining the antibody content of other antisera. The antibody contents estimated by RID for the unknown sera were in close agreement with those subsequently established by quantitative precipitin analyses. Relatively small amounts of reagents are required and the procedure is simple to perform. Consequently, it provides a feasible procedure for the quantitative estimation of the antibody content of many antisera to the different antigenic components occurring in foot-and-mouth disease. The RID techniques used were approximately 10 times more sensitive for detecting either antibody or virus (140S antigen) than the Ouchterlony double diffusion method. The sensitivity of the procedure used was such that it approached that of complement fixation for the detection of 7S antibody. The ...
A strain of SAT 2 foot-and-mouth disease virus which was experimentally inoculated into the epidermis of the tongues of captive African elephants produced vesicular lesions at the site of inoculation. After a short period of viraemia, secondary lesions developed in the mouth and on the feet giving rise to extensive tissue damage and the separation of the soles. In spite of close contact there was no spread of the disease to other elephants and by conventional sampling techniques no carrier virus could be demonstrated. The neutralizing antibody response was of a low order and this finding together with the observations made during the course of the experimental disease are discussed in relation to the possible role of the elephant in the epizootiology of foot-and-mouth disease in Africa ...
Non-structural proteins (NSPs) based diagnostics are useful for large-scale sero-surveillance of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) and to monitor viral activity as a follow up to the vaccination campaign in FMD endemic countries like India which aim at disease control through vaccination. These diagnostics are also handy in the serology of import/export of cloven-footed animals. In the present study, non-structural protein RNA polymerase (3D gene) of FMD virus (FMDV) was expressed using baculovirus expression system. Protein expression was analyzed by SDS-PAGE and confirmed by its immuno-reactivity with serum from a FMDV infected bovine, in the western blot. Recombinant 3D protein was purified and evaluated in the indirect ELISA with 1072 cattle serum samples. Diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the assay were found to be 92 and 100 %, respectively, when tested with cattle sera of known FMD status. The 3D based ELISA developed here is useful for screening the animals as an adjunct to other NSP ...
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic to sub-Saharan Africa. To further understand its complex epidemiology, which involves multiple virus serotypes and host species, we characterized the viruses recovered from FMD outbreaks in Ethiopia during 1981-2007. We detected 5 of the 7 FMDV serotypes (O, A, C, Southern African Territories [SAT] 1, and SAT 2). Serotype O predominated, followed by serotype A; type C was not recognized after 1983. Phylogenetic analysis of virus protein 1 sequences indicated emergence of a new topotype within serotype O, East Africa 4. In 2007, serotype SAT 1 was detected in Ethiopia and formed a new distinct topotype (IX), and serotype SAT 2 reappeared after an apparent gap of 16 years. The diversity of viruses highlights the role of this region as a reservoir for FMD virus, and their continuing emergence in Ethiopia will greatly affect spread and consequent control strategy of the disease on this continent.
Looking for online definition of FMD virus in the Medical Dictionary? FMD virus explanation free. What is FMD virus? Meaning of FMD virus medical term. What does FMD virus mean?
For humans, the foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is not dangerous. Importance of the disease is particularly devastating as the disease: Especially for hoofed animals - including sheep, pigs, cattle, goats, buffalo, red and fallow deer - FMD is highly contagious.Trigger of foot-and-mouth disease, the so-called foot and mouth virus: The infected animals develop blisters (called aphthous ulcers) on the mucous membranes in the mouth area as well as bubbles and between the claws, in dairy animals are also affected the udder and teats. The causative viruses contained in these bubbles and can spread by contact lubricants and infections as well as by aerosol. For animals, the foot-and-mouth disease is very painful. In adult animals, they can run benign, for young animals, it is often fatal. An effective therapy is not available.The foot-and-mouth disease is next to mad cow disease (BSE) as the economically most dramatic animal disease at all: you can at cloven cause devastating epidemics, most recently ...
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in Kenya where serotypes A, O, SAT1 and SAT2 are frequently encountered. Despite the importance of the dairy industry and the frequent reporting of disease, the epidemiology of FMD and field-based vaccine effectiveness has been poorly described in these endemic settings. Additionally, the disease impact has been inadequately characterised, despite the importance of such information when allocating scarce resources for animal health in national disease control strategies. The objectives of this doctoral thesis were to gain field experience of FMD in endemic settings and to use appropriate outbreaks to assess the vaccine effectiveness, gather evidence to optimise the use of vaccines and inform national policy, and to estimate disease impact. Outbreaks on two large-scale dairy farms located within Nakuru County, Kenya, were investigated and detailed descriptions of the outbreaks are presented. Both farms regularly used locally produced, aqueous adjuvanted, ...
Animal health officials in Texas are watching with concern the relentless westward march of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), the most recent outbreak of which was confirmed in late February at several sites in England, where livestock operations already have been financially ravaged by the brain-wasting disease, BSE (bovine spongiform encephalopathy) and outbreaks of the viral infection, hog cholera.
We propose a new mathematical modeling framework to investigate the transmission and spread of foot-and-mouth disease. Our models incorporate relevant biological and ecological factors, vaccination effects, and seasonal impacts during the complex interaction among susceptible, vaccinated, exposed, infected, carrier, and recovered animals. We conduct both epidemic and endemic analysis, with a focus on the threshold dynamics characterized by the basic reproduction numbers. In addition, numerical simulation results are presented to demonstrate the analytical findings.
The Mexican Epizootic of Foot-and-Mouth Disease: A Study in the Spread, Eradication and Impact of Infectious Livestock Disease, and Associated Modernization in the Livestock ...
A Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplast expression vector, pACTBVP1, containing the fusion of the foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) VP1 gene and the cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) gene was constructe
We are extending the comment period for our notice that announced our determination that a region of Argentina, consisting of the areas of Patagonia South and Patagonia North B, is free of foot-and-mouth disease. In that notice we also announced the availability of an evaluation assessing the rinderpest status of South America, which includes Argentina, and our determination, based on our evaluation, that rinderpest is not present in the entirety of Argentina. This action will allow interested persons additional time to prepare and submit comments.. ...
In January 2017, two villages located in Rakhine State of Myanmar reported clinical signs in cattle suggestive of foot‐and‐mouth disease virus (FMDV) infection. Laboratory analysis identified the outbreak virus as FMDV serotype Asia 1, which represented the first detection of this serotype in Myanmar since 2005 and in the region of South‐East Asia (SEA) since 2007. Genetic analysis revealed that the outbreak virus was different from historical viruses from Myanmar and was more closely related to viruses circulating in Bangladesh and India during 2012-2013, indicating that a novel viral introduction had occurred. The precise origin of the outbreaks was not clear, but frequent informal livestock trade with South Asia was reported. Responses to the outbreaks involved disinfection, quarantine and animal movement restrictions; no further outbreaks were detected under the present passive surveillance system. Detection of serotype Asia 1 highlights the complex and dynamic nature of FMDV in SEA. ...
Lao Peoples Democratic Republic (Lao PDR) submitted a request to Japan for 200,000 doses of expired foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) O type vaccines that were in storage for emergency use. Approximately 100,000 animals, consisting of both cattle and Asian water buffalo (Bubalus bubalus bubalis), received the same vaccine twice within one month in Xieng Khouang province in the northeast area of Lao PDR. Concurrently, the efficacy of three-month expired FMD O type vaccine (6PD50 O Manisa) was assessed in serum samples of 90 cattle and 31 buffalo from the field using a Liquid Phase Blocking-ELISA (LPBE) assay. Of these samples, 75 cattle (83.3%) and 24 buffalo (77.4%) were seropositive against the FMD virus (FMDV) O type before vaccination. Testing for non-structural protein (NSP) using the PrioCHECK FMD NS kit showed that many of the animals with high titers in the screening test before vaccination were FMDV-infected animals. Fifteen cattle and seven buffalo with titers 1:32 or under before ...
The research culminates a decade-long effort to examine the potential role of the gazelles in FMD ecology. In the recently published study (undertaken between 2005-2008), the research team collected blood samples from 36 gazelle calves and 57 adult gazelles in order to determine the prevalence of antibodies to the foot-and-mouth virus (FMDV). The team also collected samples from domestic animals kept in areas frequented by gazelles, including 138 sheep, 140 goats, 139 Bactrian camels, and 138 cattle for comparison. The authors found that the patterns of FMDV antibody prevalence in gazelle populations reflect the dynamics of FMD in livestock across the Eastern Steppe of Mongolia. During 1998-99 (outbreak free years in livestock), researchers detected no antibodies in gazelles; conversely, during a FMD outbreak in livestock in 2001, researchers detected a 67 percent prevalence rate in gazelles. The recently published study examines the following outbreak free periods, during which the team noted a ...
Binary ethylenimine (BEI) is a preparation of aziridine. It can be produced by heating bromoethylamine hydrobromide or 2-aminoethyl hydrogen sulfate in the presence of sodium hydroxide (Gabriel method). It contains at least one three-membered ring which is very reactive because of the ring strain. It is used to inactivate the foot-and-mouth disease virus in vaccines for cattle, as well as other viruses and mycoplasma in blood samples. Contrary to early assumptions that ethylenimines only modified nucleic acids, it was found that trimeric ethyleimine also alters proteins in virus preparations, especially at higher pH values. The modification of the proteins affected viral particle uptake into cells. This should be taken into consideration when using BEI and other ethyleneimines as well. BEI is very hazardous since it attacks nucleic acids and proteins as described above. It can be neutralised by sodium thiosulfate; the thiosulfate is a nucleophile which opens the three-membered ring. The presence ...

Aphthovirus - WikipediaAphthovirus - Wikipedia

Aphthovirus (from the Greek aphtha-, vesicles in the mouth) is a viral genus of the family Picornaviridae. Aphthoviruses infect ... Aphthovirus Bovine rhinitis A virus Bovine rhinitis B virus Equine rhinitis A virus Foot-and-mouth disease virus Aphthoviruses ... Aphthovirus summary from the Iziko Museums of Cape Town, South Africa. Foot-and-Mouth Disease summary from the US Department of ... The aphthoviruses are differentiated from other picornaviruses as they have a larger genome (ca. 8.2 kilobases). The genome is ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aphthovirus

Aphthovirus - WikispeciesAphthovirus - Wikispecies

Genus: Aphthovirus. Species: Bovine rhinitis A virus - Bovine rhinitis B virus - Equine rhinitis A virus - Foot-and-mouth ... Retrieved from "https://species.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Aphthovirus&oldid=2460744" ...
more infohttps://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Aphthovirus

Characteristics of aphthovirus strains isolated from buffaloes (in Brazil)Characteristics of aphthovirus strains isolated from buffaloes (in Brazil)

Plaques in cell culture were larger than those produced by the Indaial vaccine strain of type C3 aphthovirus. (PDF 0-2 ... Jerez, J.A.; Pinto, A.A.; Koseki, I.; Abuhab, T.G.; Regina Rodrigues, M.A.L.; Grecchi, R., 1980: Characteristics of aphthovirus ...
more infohttps://eurekamag.com/research/001/053/001053184.php

Patent US20030171335 - Antisense antiviral agent and method for treating ssRNA viral infection - Google PatentsPatent US20030171335 - Antisense antiviral agent and method for treating ssRNA viral infection - Google Patents

Aphthovirus 7 caatgagcac aactgactgt tt 22 8 26 DNA Aphthovirus 8 gaccctatga atacaactga ctgttt 26 9 20 DNA Coxsackievirus 9 ... Several medically important members include the poliovirus, hepatitis A virus, rhinovirus, Aphthovirus (foot-and mouth disease ...
more infohttp://www.google.com/patents/US20030171335?dq=7222078

Virus-Taxonomie - WikipediaVirus-Taxonomie - Wikipedia

Als Virus-Taxonomie bezeichnet man die international verbindliche Benennung von Viren, Virusfamilien und -gattungen. Die Entscheidung über verschiedene Taxa wird von einem internationalen Gremium, dem International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), beraten und getroffen. Die Virus-Taxonomie ist ein an die Taxonomien von Pflanzen und Tieren angelehnter Versuch, die Vielfalt viraler und subviraler Entitäten (auch Prionen und Retrotransposons) systematisch und einheitlich zu ordnen. Sie darf nicht mit der weiter gefassten Virusklassifikation verwechselt werden, bei der verschiedene Eigenschaften von Viren zur Einteilung herangezogen werden können (zum Beispiel nur Genomstruktur, Baltimore-Klassifikation, Wirtsspecies, Übertragungsart etc.). In der offiziellen Veröffentlichung des ICTV (Stand März 2019, Master Species List 2018b.v2)[1] finden sich etliche sonst übliche Bezeichnungen nicht, da über deren taxonomische Zuordnung noch keine einheitliche Meinung gefunden werden konnte. ...
more infohttps://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Virus-Taxonomie

User talk:Mcintoshi - microbewikiUser talk:Mcintoshi - microbewiki

Genus Aphthovirus. Species Bovine rhinitis virus Description and Significance. This aphthovirus can survive a range of ...
more infohttps://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/index.php?title=User_talk:Mcintoshi&

Difference between revisions of Taxonomy Index - microbewikiDifference between revisions of "Taxonomy Index" - microbewiki

Aphthovirus. Arenaviridae. Baculoviridae. Badnavirus. Bicaudaviridae. Birnaviridae. Bromoviridae. Bromovirus. Bunyaviridae. ...
more infohttps://microbewiki.kenyon.edu/index.php?title=Taxonomy_Index&diff=cur&oldid=4860

Picornavirus - WikipediaPicornavirus - Wikipedia

FMDV is the prototypic member of the Aphthovirus genus in the Picornaviridae family. The plaque assay was developed using ... These include the Enterovirus, Aphthovirus, Cardiovirus, Rhinovirus and Hepatovirus genera. The viruses in this family can ... Group: ssRNA(+) Order: Picornavirales Family: Picornaviridae Genus: Aphthovirus Bovine rhinitis A virus Bovine rhinitis B virus ... as well as for the aphthovirus, an animal pathogen causing foot and mouth disease (FMDV). In this group, primer-dependent RNA ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Picornavirus

Toxins  | Free Full-Text | Cloning and Characterization of a Hybridoma Secreting a  4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1...Toxins | Free Full-Text | Cloning and Characterization of a Hybridoma Secreting a 4-(Methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1...

Donnelly, M.L.; Gani, D.; Flint, M.; Monaghan, S.; Ryan, M.D. The cleavage activities of aphthovirus and cardiovirus 2A ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/2072-6651/5/3/568/htm

Exotic viral diseases | Iowa State UniversityExotic viral diseases | Iowa State University

An Aphthovirus of the family Picornaviridae causes FMD. There are at least seven immunologically distinct types of virus: A, O ...
more infohttps://vetmed.iastate.edu/vdpam/FSVD/swine/index-diseases/exotic-viral-diseases

CHAPTER 2 NATURE OF THE DISEASECHAPTER 2 NATURE OF THE DISEASE

The FMD virus is a member of the Aphthovirus genus of the family Picornaviridae. The virion is non-enveloped, about 25 nm in ...
more infohttp://www.fao.org/3/Y4382E/y4382e05.htm

WO2015092710A1 - Contralateral co-administration of vaccines 
        - Google PatentsWO2015092710A1 - Contralateral co-administration of vaccines - Google Patents

Aphthovirus, Poliovirus, Parechovirus, Erbovirus, Kobuvirus, Teschovirus, Coxsackie; Caliciviridae e.g. Norwalk virus, ...
more infohttps://patents.google.com/patent/WO2015092710A1/en

Site-Specific Release of Nascent Chains from Ribosomes at a Sense Codon | Molecular and Cellular BiologySite-Specific Release of Nascent Chains from Ribosomes at a Sense Codon | Molecular and Cellular Biology

Analysis of the aphthovirus 2A/2B polyprotein cleavage mechanism indicates not a proteolytic reaction, but a novel ... The cleavage activities of aphthovirus and cardiovirus 2A proteins. J. Gen. Virol. 78:13-21. ...
more infohttps://mcb.asm.org/content/28/13/4227

Pandemic Strain of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype O - Volume 11, Number 12-December 2005 - Emerging Infectious Diseases...Pandemic Strain of Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype O - Volume 11, Number 12-December 2005 - Emerging Infectious Diseases...

Aphthovirus evolution. In: Gibbs AJ, Calisher CH, Garcia-Arenal F, editors. Molecular basis of virus evolution. Cambridge (UK ... Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV, family Picornaviridae, genus Aphthovirus) causes an acute vesicular disease of pigs and ...
more infohttps://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/11/12/05-0908_article

foot-and-mouth disease | FactMonsterfoot-and-mouth disease | FactMonster

It is caused by a virus, specifically an aphthovirus, that was identified in 1897. Among its symptoms are fever, loss of ... It is caused by a virus, specifically an aphthovirus, that was identified in 1897. Among its symptoms are fever, loss of ...
more infohttps://www.factmonster.com/encyclopedia/ecology/zoology/vet-medicine/footandmouth-disease

Fully Automated One-Step Synthesis of Single-Transcript TALEN Pairs Using a Biological FoundryFully Automated One-Step Synthesis of Single-Transcript TALEN Pairs Using a Biological Foundry

The cleavage activities of aphthovirus and cardiovirus 2A proteins. J Gen Virol. 1997;78:13-21. [PubMed](b) Radcliffe PA, ...
more infohttp://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC5536959/

Molecular Basis of Virus Evolution - Cambridge University PressMolecular Basis of Virus Evolution - Cambridge University Press

Aphthovirus evolution J. Dopazo, M. J. Rodrigo, A. Rodríguez, J. C. Sáiz and F. Sobrino; 22. Evolution of the Bunyaviridae ...
more infohttp://www.cambridge.org/us/catalogue/catalogue.asp?isbn=0521022894

Microbiology Society Journals | Molecular characterization of M1146, an American isolate of Ljungan virus (LV) reveals the...Microbiology Society Journals | Molecular characterization of M1146, an American isolate of Ljungan virus (LV) reveals the...

Donnelly, M. L. L., Gani, D., Flint, M., Monaghan, S. & Ryan, M. D. ( 1997 ). The cleavage activities of aphthovirus and ... Analysis of the aphthovirus 2A/2B polyprotein cleavage mechanism indicates not a proteolytic reaction, but a novel ... relationship to each other and to aphthoviruses and cardioviruses. J Gen Virol 77, 1719-1730.[CrossRef] ...
more infohttp://jgv.microbiologyresearch.org/content/journal/jgv/10.1099/vir.0.18792-0

FMD groupFMD group

The FMD virus, an aphthovirus, is in the Picornavirus family.. *Viruses in this family are not enveloped but consist of nucleic ... These viruses are hardy in the environment though the aphthovirus genus is sensitive to acid PH (the particle "explodes" when ...
more infohttp://www.warmwell.com/bullpts.htm
  • It is caused by a virus, specifically an aphthovirus, that was identified in 1897. (factmonster.com)
  • Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) is caused by an Aphthovirus that affects many species of animals, especially those that are cloven-footed. (critterology.com)
  • We are not yet relieved from the onslaught of the Foot and Mouth Disease as we continue to slaughter animals infected by the Aphthovirus to contain the epizootic disease. (mauritiustimes.com)
  • Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) is caused by an Aphthovirus that affects many species of animals, especially those that are cloven-footed. (critterology.com)