Buchnera: A genus of gram-negative bacteria which are obligately intracellular endosymbionts of APHIDS. The bacteria are found within specialized cells in the aphid body cavity.Luteoviridae: A family of RNA plant viruses infecting disparate plant families. They are transmitted by specific aphid vectors. There are three genera: LUTEOVIRUS; Polerovirus; and Enamovirus.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Phloem: Plant tissue that carries nutrients, especially sucrose, by turgor pressure. Movement is bidirectional, in contrast to XYLEM where it is only upward. Phloem originates and grows outwards from meristematic cells (MERISTEM) in the vascular cambium. P-proteins, a type of LECTINS, are characteristically found in phloem.Luteovirus: A genus of plant viruses that infects both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants. Its organisms are persistently transmitted by aphids, and weeds may provide reservoirs of infection.Nymph: The immature stage in the life cycle of those orders of insects characterized by gradual metamorphosis, in which the young resemble the imago in general form of body, including compound eyes and external wings; also the 8-legged stage of mites and ticks that follows the first moult.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Vicia faba: A plant species of the genus VICIA, family FABACEAE. The edible beans are well known but they cause FAVISM in some individuals with GLUCOSEPHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE DEFICIENCY. This plant contains vicine, convicine, Vicia lectins, unknown seed protein, AAP2 transport protein, and Vicia faba DNA-binding protein 1.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Prunus: A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of edible fruits such as apricot, plum, peach, cherry, and almond.Wasps: Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.Herbivory: The act of feeding on plants by animals.Peas: A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Reproduction, Asexual: Reproduction without fusion of two types of cells, mostly found in ALGAE; FUNGI; and PLANTS. Asexual reproduction occurs in several ways, such as budding, fission, or splitting from "parent" cells. Only few groups of ANIMALS reproduce asexually or unisexually (PARTHENOGENESIS).Potyvirus: A large genus of plant viruses of the family POTYVIRIDAE which infect mainly plants of the Solanaceae. Transmission is primarily by aphids in a non-persistent manner. The type species is potato virus Y.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Oviposition: The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.Ants: Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)Entomophthorales: An order of fungi comprising mostly insect pathogens, though some infect mammals including humans. Strict host specificity make these fungi a focus of many biological control studies.Genome, Insect: The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.Serratia: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the natural environment (soil, water, and plant surfaces) or as an opportunistic human pathogen.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Cucurbitaceae: The gourd plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It is sometimes placed in its own order, Cucurbitales. 'Melon' generally refers to CUCUMIS; CITRULLUS; or MOMORDICA.Caulimovirus: A genus of PLANT VIRUSES, in the family CAULIMOVIRIDAE, that are transmitted by APHIDS in a semipersistent manner. Aphid-borne transmission of some caulimoviruses requires certain virus-coded proteins termed transmission factors.Glucosinolates: Substituted thioglucosides. They are found in rapeseed (Brassica campestris) products and related cruciferae. They are metabolized to a variety of toxic products which are most likely the cause of hepatocytic necrosis in animals and humans.Babuvirus: A genus in the family NANOVIRIDAE infecting bananas. The type species is Banana bunchy top virus.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Pest Control, Biological: Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.Food Chain: The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.Hymenoptera: An extensive order of highly specialized insects including bees, wasps, and ants.Insect Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.Solanum tuberosum: A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.Colocasia: A plant genus of the family ARACEAE. Members contain acrid calcium oxalate and LECTINS. Polynesians prepare the root into poi. Common names of Taro and Coco Yam (Cocoyam) may be confused with other ARACEAE; XANTHOSOMA; or with common yam (DIOSCOREA).Fragaria: A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE known for the edible fruit.Pheromones: Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Oxylipins: Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.Brassica: A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).Host Specificity: The properties of a pathogen that makes it capable of infecting one or more specific hosts. The pathogen can include PARASITES as well as VIRUSES; BACTERIA; FUNGI; or PLANTS.Hemiptera: A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.Cyclopentanes: A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Ecological Parameter Monitoring: Ongoing collection, analysis, and interpretation of ecological data that is used to assess changes in the components, processes, and overall condition and functioning of an ECOSYSTEM.Vicia: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that is widely used as ground cover and forage and known for the edible beans, VICIA FABA.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Disease Resistance: The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.Hemolymph: The blood/lymphlike nutrient fluid of some invertebrates.Gammaproteobacteria: A group of the proteobacteria comprised of facultatively anaerobic and fermentative gram-negative bacteria.Biological Control Agents: Organisms, biological agents, or biologically-derived agents used strategically for their positive or adverse effect on the physiology and/or reproductive health of other organisms.Life Cycle Stages: The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Thysanoptera: An order of very small, fringed-wing INSECTS including many agricultural pests.Cucumovirus: A genus of plant viruses of the family BROMOVIRIDAE, which infect cucurbits and solanaceous plants. Transmission occurs via aphids in a non-persistent manner, and also via seeds. The type species Cucumber mosaic virus, a CUCUMOVIRUS, should not be confused with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus, a TOBAMOVIRUS.Parthenogenesis: A unisexual reproduction without the fusion of a male and a female gamete (FERTILIZATION). In parthenogenesis, an individual is formed from an unfertilized OVUM that did not complete MEIOSIS. Parthenogenesis occurs in nature and can be artificially induced.Gossypium: A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. It is the source of COTTON FIBER; COTTONSEED OIL, which is used for cooking, and GOSSYPOL. The economically important cotton crop is a major user of agricultural PESTICIDES.Lathyrus: A plant genus in the family FABACEAE known for LATHYRISM poisoning.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Hypocreales: An order of fungi in the phylum ASCOMYCOTA that includes a number of species which are parasitic on higher plants, insects, or fungi. Other species are saprotrophic.Medicago truncatula: A plant species of the family FABACEAE used to study GENETICS because it is DIPLOID, self fertile, has a small genome, and short generation time.Plant Viruses: Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Chromolaena: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. The common name of thoroughwort is also used for other plants including EUPATORIUM; CHROMOLAENA, Hebeclinium and Koanophyllon. Eupolin is the aqueous extract of the leaves.SvalbardSesquiterpenesSolanum melongena: A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The fruit is a large, egg-shaped berry, varying in color from dark purple to red, yellowish, or white. The leaves are large and ovate. The flowers are pendant, violet, and two inches across.Tanacetum: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Some species of the CHRYSANTHEMUM and the old Pyrethrum genera have been reclassified to this genus. The common name of tansy usually refers to this but also forms part of the common name of other plants such as Tansy Ragwort (SENECIO) and Tansyaster (HAPLOPAPPUS).Two-Dimensional Difference Gel Electrophoresis: Methods of comparing two or more samples on the same two-dimensional gel electrophoresis gel.Diptera: An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Lycopersicon esculentum: A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Insects: The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)Dactylis: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that contains allergen Dac g I.Plant Exudates: Substances released by PLANTS such as PLANT GUMS and PLANT RESINS.Insecticide Resistance: The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.Medicago: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. It is distinct from Sweet Clover (MELILOTUS), from Bush Clover (LESPEDEZA), and from Red Clover (TRIFOLIUM).Salicylic Acid: A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.Nitro Compounds: Compounds having the nitro group, -NO2, attached to carbon. When attached to nitrogen they are nitramines and attached to oxygen they are NITRATES.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Volatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.Cucumis melo: A plant species of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae known for the melon fruits with reticulated (net) surface including cantaloupes, honeydew, casaba, and Persian melons.Pest Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous plants, insects, or other animals. This includes control of plants that serve as habitats or food sources for animal pests.Nerium: A plant genus of the family APOCYNACEAE. It is a very poisonous plant that contains cardioactive agents.Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Plant Vascular Bundle: A strand of primary conductive plant tissue consisting essentially of XYLEM, PHLOEM, and CAMBIUM.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Limonins: A group of degraded TRITERPENES in which the four terminal carbons of the C17 side chain have been removed, and the remaining portion often forming C17 furans.Mustard Plant: Any of several BRASSICA species that are commonly called mustard. Brassica alba is white mustard, B. juncea is brown or Chinese mustard, and B. nigra is black, brown, or red mustard. The plant is grown both for mustard seed from which oil is extracted or used as SPICES, and for its greens used as VEGETABLES or ANIMAL FEED. There is no relationship to MUSTARD COMPOUNDS.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.WingGene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Densovirus: A genus of PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily DENSOVIRINAE, comprising helper-independent viruses containing only two species. Junonia coenia densovirus is the type species.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Oviparity: The capability of producing eggs (OVA) from which young are hatched outside the body. While mostly referring to nonmammalian species, this does include MAMMALS of the order MONOTREMATA.Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Rorippa: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that includes several marshy plants. The common name of watercress is also used for NASTURTIUM & TROPAEOLUM.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Rosa: A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE and order Rosales. This should not be confused with the genus RHODIOLA which is sometimes called roseroot.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Mesophyll Cells: Large and highly vacuolated cells possessing many chloroplasts occuring in the interior cross-section of leaves, juxtaposed between the epidermal layers.Animal Distribution: A process by which animals in various forms and stages of development are physically distributed through time and space.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Sorbus: A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE.Medicago sativa: A plant species of the family FABACEAE widely cultivated for ANIMAL FEED.Lamiaceae: The mint plant family. They are characteristically aromatic, and many of them are cultivated for their oils. Most have square stems, opposite leaves, and two-lipped, open-mouthed, tubular corollas (united petals), with five-lobed, bell-like calyxes (united sepals).Capsicum: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. The hot peppers yield CAPSAICIN, which activates VANILLOID RECEPTORS. Several varieties have sweet or pungent edible fruits that are used as vegetables when fresh and spices when the pods are dried.Anthranilate Synthase: An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of anthranilate (o-aminobenzoate) and pyruvic acid from chorismate and glutamine. Anthranilate is the biosynthetic precursor of tryptophan and numerous secondary metabolites, including inducible plant defense compounds. EC 4.1.3.27.Musa: A plant genus of the family Musaceae, order Zingiberales, subclass Zingiberidae, class Liliopsida.Crops, Agricultural: Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)Pistacia: A plant genus in the ANACARDIACEAE family known for the Pistachio nuts and for gum Mastic.Rhamnus: A plant genus of the family RHAMNACEAE. Several species have been reclassified to the FRANGULA genus. It is often called buckthorn but should not be confused with other plants called that.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Gene Order: The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.Coxiellaceae: A family of gram-negative bacteria in the order Legionellales. It includes genera COXIELLA and Rickettsiella.Moraceae: The mulberry plant family of the order Urticales, subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida. They have milky latex and small, petalless male or female flowers.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Pinellia: A plant genus of the family ARACEAE that contains pinellian (an acidic polysaccharide). The plant is an ingredient of some traditional Asian medicinal mixtures including sho-saiko-to, saiko-keishi-to, and banxia houpu decoction.Brassica napus: A plant species of the family BRASSICACEAE best known for the edible roots.Avena sativa: A plant species of the family POACEAE that is widely cultivated for its edible seeds.Snow: Frozen water crystals that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Hordeum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.Rosaceae: The rose plant family in the order ROSALES and class Magnoliopsida. They are generally woody plants. A number of the species of this family contain cyanogenic compounds.EsterasesPlant Tumors: A localized proliferation of plant tissue forming a swelling or outgrowth, commonly with a characteristic shape and unlike any organ of the normal plant. Plant tumors or galls usually form in response to the action of a pathogen or a pest. (Holliday, P., A Dictionary of Plant Pathology, 1989, p330)Protoplasts: The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Beauveria: A mitosporic fungal genus. Teleomorphs are found in the family Clavicipitaceae and include Cordyceps bassiana. The species Beauveria bassiana is a common pathogen of ARTHROPODS and is used in PEST CONTROL.Blotting, Far-Western: A method that is derived from western blotting (BLOTTING, WESTERN) and is used to detect protein-protein interactions. The blotted proteins are probed with a non-antibody protein which can then be tagged with a labeled antibody.Antibiosis: A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.Gene Transfer, Horizontal: The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).Entomophthora: A genus of fungi in the family Entomophthoraceae, order Entomorphthorales. They are primarily parasites of insects and spiders, but have been found to cause mycotic infections of the nose in man and horses.Solidago: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE known for allergenic pollen (ALLERGENS).Podoviridae: A family of bacteriophages which are characterized by short, non-contractile tails.Cucurbita: A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, which includes pumpkin, gourd and squash.Ricinus: A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE, order Euphorbiales, subclass Rosidae. The seed of Ricinus communis L. is the CASTOR BEAN which is the source of CASTOR OIL; RICIN; and other lectins.Echinacea: A genus of perennial herbs used topically and internally. It contains echinacoside, GLYCOSIDES; INULIN; isobutyl amides, resin, and SESQUITERPENES.Lycopodium: A plant genus of the family LYCOPODIACEAE. Members contain ALKALOIDS. Lycopodium oil is obtained from L. clavatum.Baccharis: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Other plants called broom include CYTISUS; SPARTIUM; and BROMUS.Hormesis: Biphasic dose responses of cells or organisms (including microorganisms) to an exogenous or intrinsic factor, in which the factor induces stimulatory or beneficial effects at low doses and inhibitory or adverse effects at high doses.Ethylenes: Derivatives of ethylene, a simple organic gas of biological origin with many industrial and biological use.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.South DakotaVirion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Salivary Glands: Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).Matricaria: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. M. chamomilla appears similar to Anthemis but this flower disk is conical and hollow and lacks chaffy bract scales and the odor is weaker. The common name of 'manzanilla' is confused with other meanings of the word. 'Matricaria chamomilla sensu' is classified by some as Tripleurospermum perforata. Other plants with similar common names include CHAMAEMELUM; TRIPLEUROSPERMUM and ANTHEMIS.Spiroplasma: A genus of gram-negative, helical bacteria, in the family SPIROPLASMATACEAE, order Entomoplasmatales, causing disease in PLANTS. It has been isolated from TICKS; INSECTS; and PLANTS.Mosaic Viruses: Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.Genetic Fitness: The capability of an organism to survive and reproduce. The phenotypic expression of the genotype in a particular environment determines how genetically fit an organism will be.Amino Acids, Essential: Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.Micrococcus luteus: A species of gram-positive, spherical bacteria whose organisms occur in tetrads and in irregular clusters of tetrads. The primary habitat is mammalian skin.Viviparity, Nonmammalian: The capability of bearing live young (rather than eggs) in nonmammalian species. Some species of REPTILES and FISHES exhibit this.Bodily Secretions: Endogenous substances produced through the activity of intact cells of glands, tissues, or organs.Gram-Negative Facultatively Anaerobic Rods: A large group of facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.Escape Reaction: Innate response elicited by sensory stimuli associated with a threatening situation, or actual confrontation with an enemy.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Saxifragaceae: The saxifrage plant family of the order ROSALES, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. The leaves are alternate and sometimes deeply lobed or form rosettes. The flowers have both male and female parts and 4 or 5 sepals and petals; they are usually in branched clusters. The fruit is a capsule with many seeds.Chaperonin 60: A group I chaperonin protein that forms the barrel-like structure of the chaperonin complex. It is an oligomeric protein with a distinctive structure of fourteen subunits, arranged in two rings of seven subunits each. The protein was originally studied in BACTERIA where it is commonly referred to as GroEL protein.Volatilization: A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Animal Communication: Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.Tropism: The directional growth of an organism in response to an external stimulus such as light, touch, or gravity. Growth towards the stimulus is a positive tropism; growth away from the stimulus is a negative tropism. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Diflubenzuron: An insect growth regulator which interferes with the formation of the insect cuticle. It is effective in the control of mosquitoes and flies.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Grooming: An animal's cleaning and caring for the body surface. This includes preening, the cleaning and oiling of feathers with the bill or of hair with the tongue.Myrtaceae: The myrtle plant family of the order Myrtales. It includes several aromatic medicinal plants such as EUCALYPTUS.Tylenchoidea: A superfamily of nematodes whose members are free-living saprophytes or parasites of plants. Ova are sometimes found in human feces after ingestion of infected plants.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Physalis: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain physalin and withangulatin.Capsid Proteins: Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.Rickettsia: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria often surrounded by a protein microcapsular layer and slime layer. The natural cycle of its organisms generally involves a vertebrate and an invertebrate host. Species of the genus are the etiological agents of human diseases, such as typhus.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Beta vulgaris: A species of the Beta genus. Cultivars are used as a source of beets (root) or chard (leaves).Flight, Animal: The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Pectobacterium chrysanthemi: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that causes vascular wilts on a wide range of plant species. It was formerly named Erwinia chrysanthemi.Adaptation, Biological: Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.Malus: A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of the edible fruit (apple) and is cultivated in temperate climates worldwide.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Crowding: An excessive number of individuals, human or animal, in relation to available space.Solanum: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain SOLANACEOUS ALKALOIDS. Some species in this genus are called deadly nightshade which is also a common name for ATROPA BELLADONNA.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Rhizosphere: The immediate physical zone surrounding plant roots that include the plant roots. It is an area of intense and complex biological activity involving plants, microorganisms, other soil organisms, and the soil.Transcriptome: The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.Plants, Toxic: Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.Gene Flow: The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.

New device and method for capture, reverse transcription and nested PCR in a single closed-tube. (1/795)

A device and improved method based on the use of a compartmentalized Eppendorf tube that allows capture, reverse transcription and nested-PCR in a single closed-tube has been developed and patented. The main advantages of the system are the high sensitivity obtained, the simplicity, the low risk of contamination and the easy establishment of adequate conditions for nested-PCR. The method has been successfully applied to the detection and characterization of citrus tristeza closterovirus and plum pox potyvirus isolates in plant tissues and single aphids squashed on paper. This device and methodology could be easily adapted to the detection of other targets.  (+info)

The haplotype distribution of two genes of citrus tristeza virus is altered after host change or aphid transmission. (2/795)

Genetic variability of citrus tristeza virus (CTV) was studied using the haplotypes detected by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of genes p18 and p20 in six virus populations of two origins. The Spanish group included a CTV isolate and subisolates obtained by graft-transmission to different host species. The other included two subisolates aphid-transmitted from a single Japanese isolate. The homozygosity observed for gene p20 was always significantly higher than that expected under neutral evolution, whereas only three populations showed high homozygosity for p18, suggesting stronger host constraints for p20 than for p18. Sequential transmissions of a Spanish isolate to new host species increased the difference between its population and that of the successive subisolates for gene p18, as estimated by the F statistic. Analysis of molecular variance indicated that variation between both groups of populations was not statistically significant, whereas variations between populations of the same group or within populations were significant for both genes studied. Our data indicate that selection affects the haplotype distribution and that adaptation to a new host can be as important or more as the geographical origin. Variation of the CTV populations after host change or aphid transmission may explain in part the wide biological variability observed among CTV isolates.  (+info)

A GroEL homologue from endosymbiotic bacteria of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci is implicated in the circulative transmission of tomato yellow leaf curl virus. (3/795)

Evidence for the involvement of a Bemisia tabaci GroEL homologue in the transmission of tomato yellow leaf curl geminivirus (TYLCV) is presented. A approximately 63-kDa protein was identified in B. tabaci whole-body extracts using an antiserum raised against aphid Buchnera GroEL. The GroEL homologue was immunolocalized to a coccoid-shaped whitefly endosymbiont. The 30 N-terminal amino acids of the whitefly GroEL homologue showed 80% homology with that from different aphid species and GroEL from Escherichia coli. Purified GroEL from B. tabaci exhibited ultrastructural similarities to that of the endosymbiont from aphids and E. coli. In vitro ligand assays showed that tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) particles displayed a specific affinity for the B. tabaci 63-kDa GroEL homologue. Feeding whiteflies anti-Buchnera GroEL antiserum before the acquisition of virions reduced TYLCV transmission to tomato test plants by >80%. In the haemolymph of these whiteflies, TYLCV DNA was reduced to amounts below the threshold of detection by Southern blot hybridization. Active antibodies were recovered from the insect haemolymph suggesting that by complexing the GoEL homologue, the antibody disturbed interaction with TYLCV, leading to degradation of the virus. We propose that GroEL of B. tabaci protects the virus from destruction during its passage through the haemolymph.  (+info)

Relationship between amount of esterase and gene copy number in insecticide-resistant Myzus persicae (Sulzer). (4/795)

Overproduction of the insecticide-degrading esterases, E4 and FE4, in peach-potato aphids, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), depends on both gene amplification and transcriptional control, the latter being associated with changes in DNA methylation. The structure and function of the aphid esterase genes have been studied but the determination of their copy number has proved difficult, a common problem with gene amplification. We have now used a combination of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and quantitative competitive PCR to determine relative esterase gene copy numbers in aphid clones with different levels of insecticide resistance (R1, R2 and R3). There are approx. 4-fold increases between susceptible, R1, R2 and R3 aphids, reaching a maximum of approx. 80 times more genes in R3; this gives proportionate increases in esterase protein relative to susceptible aphids. Thus there is no overexpression of the amplified genes, in contrast with what was thought previously. For E4 genes, the loss of 5-methylcytosine is correlated with a loss of expression, greatly decreasing the amount of enzyme relative to the copy number.  (+info)

Evidence for genetic drift in endosymbionts (Buchnera): analyses of protein-coding genes. (5/795)

Buchnera, the bacterial endosymbionts of aphids, undergo severe population bottlenecks during maternal transmission through their hosts. Previous studies suggest an increased effect of drift within these strictly asexual, small populations, resulting in an increased fixation of slightly deleterious mutations. This study further explores sequence evolution in Buchnera using three approaches. First, patterns of codon usage were compared across several homologous Escherichia coli and Buchnera loci, in order to test the prediction that selection for the use of optimal codons is less effective in small populations. A chi 2-based measure of codon bias was developed to adjust for the overall A + T richness of silent positions in the endosymbionts. In contrast to E. coli homologues, adaptive codon bias across Buchnera loci is markedly low, and patterns of codon usage lack a strong relationship with gene expression level. These data suggest that codon usage in Buchnera has been shaped largely by mutational pressure and drift rather than by selection for translational efficiency. One exception to the overall lack of bias is groEL, which is known to be constitutively overexpressed in Buchnera and other endosymbionts. Second, relative-rate tests show elevated rates of sequence evolution of numerous protein-coding loci across Buchnera, compared to E. coli. Finally, consistently higher ratios of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions in Buchnera loci relative to the enteric bacteria strongly suggest the accumulation of nonsynonymous substitutions in endosymbiont lineages. Combined, these results suggest a decreased effectiveness of purifying selection in purging endosymbiont populations of slightly deleterious mutations, particularly those affecting codon usage and amino acid identity.  (+info)

Self-association and mapping of interaction domains of helper component-proteinase of potato A potyvirus. (6/795)

Potyviral helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro) is a multifunctional protein involved in aphid transmission, long-distance movement, polyprotein processing, genome amplification and symptom expression. It has been proposed that the active form of HC-Pro is a dimer and that coat protein (CP)-HC-Pro interaction is required for aphid transmission. To test these proposed interactions between CP and HC-Pro of potato A potyvirus (PVA), the yeast two-hybrid system was used. HC-Pro was shown to interact with itself in vivo in yeast cells, as did CP. Taken together with previous observations, we conclude that the functional HC-Pro is a homodimer. Deletion analysis showed that a 24 aa domain in the N-terminal half and the C-terminal proteinase part of HC-Pro were required for the interaction between HC-Pro molecules. No interactions were found between HC-Pro and CP using the genes of aphid-transmissible as well as aphid non-transmissible strains of PVA.  (+info)

Phosphocarrier proteins in an intracellular symbiotic bacterium of aphids. (7/795)

A GroEL homolog produced by Buchnera, an intracellular symbiotic bacterium of aphids, is not only a molecular chaperone but also a novel phosphocarrier protein, suggesting that this protein plays a role in a signal transducing system specific to bacteria living in an intracellular environment. This prompted us to look into phosphocarrier proteins of Buchnera that may be shared in common with other bacteria. As a result, no evidence was obtained for the presence of sensor kinases of the two-component system in Buchnera, which are found in many bacteria. It is possible that the lack of sensor kinases is compensated for by the mulitifunctional GroEL homolog in this symbiotic bacteria. In contrast, we successfully identified three phosphotransferase system genes, ptsH, ptsI, and crr in Buchnera, and provide evidence for their active expression. While the deduced amino acid sequences of these gene products, histidine-containing phosphocarrier protein, Enzyme I, and Enzyme III were similar to their counterparts in Escherichia coli, the predicted isoelectric points of the Buchnera proteins were strikingly higher. It was also suggested that Buchnera Enzyme I, when produced in E. coli, is able to accept the phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate, but not from ATP.  (+info)

Sex-specific organisation of middle repetitive DNA sequences in the mealybug Planococcus lilacinus. (8/795)

Differential organisation of homologous chromosomes is related to both sex determination and genomic imprinting in coccid insects, the mealybugs. We report here the identification of two middle repetitive sequences that are differentially organised between the two sexes and also within the same diploid nucleus. These two sequences form a part of the male-specific nuclease-resistant chromatin (NRC) fraction of a mealybug Planococcus lilacinus. To understand the phenomenon of differential organisation we have analysed the components of NRC by cloning the DNA sequences present, deciphering their primary sequence, nucleosomal organisation, genomic distri-bution and cytological localisation. Our observations suggest that the middle repetitive sequences within NRC are functionally significant and we discuss their probable involvement in male-specific chromatin organisation.  (+info)

  • Though this does not normally affect or damage the plant itself, getting rid of the aphids and their honeydew will help control the sooty mold. (gardeningknowhow.com)
  • Moreover, plants are often coated with shiny honeydew secreted by the aphids, and cast skins may give the leaves and ground a whitish appearance. (deltavalley.blog)
  • Excess water and surplus sugars that aphids can't use are excreted as honeydew, dropping down to coat lower leaf surfaces.Sooty molds can colonize these sugary leaf surfaces, further reducing leaf photosynthesis. (agrihunt.com)
  • A survey of the aphids associated with Maltese shrubs, herbaceous plants and crops was carried out. (edu.mt)
  • Pea Aphids attack forage crops such as Peas, Alfalfa, and Clovers. (deltavalley.blog)
  • Cabbage aphids cause significant yield losses to many crops of the family Brassicaceae, which includes the mustards and crucifers. (bestinsecthouse.com)
  • The cabbage aphid has a host range restricted to plants in the family Brassicaceae (=Cruciferae), which include both cultivated and wild cruciferous crops (Gabrys et al. (bestinsecthouse.com)
  • Aphids on corn are the same ones that colonize cereal crops and other grasses. (agrihunt.com)
  • Aphids cause significant yield losses in agricultural crops worldwide. (edu.au)
  • Protein C002, whose sequence contains an N-terminal secretion signal, is injected into the host plant during aphid feeding. (pnas.org)
  • These short cornicles and the waxy coating found on cabbage aphids help differentiate cabbage aphids from other aphids that may attack the same host plant (Carter and Sorensen 2013, Opfer and McGrath 2013). (bestinsecthouse.com)
  • Cabbage aphids, Brevicoryne brassicae Linnaeus, on cabbage. (bestinsecthouse.com)
  • Moreover, green peach aphids mainly attack cabbage before heading (after transplanting, the cabbage seedling starts producing leaves, and eventually the cabbage plant begins to produce a small, tight head at the center of the group of leaves) begins, but cabbage aphids may attack the crop at any stage (Elwakil and Mossler 2013). (bestinsecthouse.com)
  • Publications] Akimoto, S.: 'Host preference and galling success in closely related aphids, Tetraneura yezoensis and T.radicicola (Pemphigidae : Aphidoidea), associated with the Japanese elm. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Using electrical penetration graph methodology we found that higher proportions of aphids showed sustained phloem ingestion on CMV-infected plants than on CMVD2b-infected or mock-inoculated plants although this did not increase the rate of growth of individual aphids. (stir.ac.uk)
  • The cabbage aphid is widely distributed throughout the U.S. and has been found to be more of a pest in the southern states (Carter and Sorensen 2013). (bestinsecthouse.com)
  • We found that in our controlled laboratory conditions, one strain (local laboratory strain) moved longer distances and dispersed wider ranges, and correspondingly these aphids assimilated more sugars, synthesized more glycogen, and moved faster than another strain (collected from Gansu Province, northwestern China). (biologists.org)
  • Aphids deprive the plant of these building blocks and in sufficient density may affect leaf function, plant growth, and yield. (agrihunt.com)
  • Bird-cherry oat aphids on a corn leaf. (agrihunt.com)
  • let's review what's known about aphids in corn before you make that spray or don't spray decision. (agrihunt.com)
  • Sometimes, colonies of these larger, light-green aphids with long black cornicles are mixed with those of bird-cherry oat aphids and this is common in corn this year. (agrihunt.com)
  • The increasing use of pesticides in corn may indirectly contribute to aphid buildup. (agrihunt.com)
  • Corn Aphids have left the plant. (agrihunt.com)
  • How do aphids injure corn? (agrihunt.com)
  • Corn aphids are putting themselves in the best position to intercept the higher quality sap moving out of upper leaves and lower stalk into the developing ear. (agrihunt.com)
  • Aphids can, and often do, leave corn as it begins to mature to dough stage. (agrihunt.com)
  • Published thresholds for aphids on corn are based on whorl and pre-pollination corn growth stage. (agrihunt.com)
  • In feeding, aphids inject saliva into plant tissues, gaining access to phloem sap and eliciting (and sometimes overcoming) plant responses. (pnas.org)
  • By using the electrical penetration graph method on c002 -knockdown aphids, we find that the knockdown affects several aspects of foraging and feeding, with the result that the c002 -knockdown aphids spend very little time in contact with phloem sap in sieve elements. (pnas.org)
  • Such aphid proteins, in binding Ca 2+ in phloem sap, would cause a conversion of the proteinaceous "forisomes" of sieve elements to a contracted (nonblocking) state, thus preventing the forisomes from occluding the sieve tubes, which the forisomes would otherwise do to prevent a continued leakage of phloem sap through the puncture wound from the aphid's stylets. (pnas.org)