A genus of gram-negative bacteria which are obligately intracellular endosymbionts of APHIDS. The bacteria are found within specialized cells in the aphid body cavity.
A family of RNA plant viruses infecting disparate plant families. They are transmitted by specific aphid vectors. There are three genera: LUTEOVIRUS; Polerovirus; and Enamovirus.
The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.
Plant tissue that carries nutrients, especially sucrose, by turgor pressure. Movement is bidirectional, in contrast to XYLEM where it is only upward. Phloem originates and grows outwards from meristematic cells (MERISTEM) in the vascular cambium. P-proteins, a type of LECTINS, are characteristically found in phloem.
A genus of plant viruses that infects both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous plants. Its organisms are persistently transmitted by aphids, and weeds may provide reservoirs of infection.
The immature stage in the life cycle of those orders of insects characterized by gradual metamorphosis, in which the young resemble the imago in general form of body, including compound eyes and external wings; also the 8-legged stage of mites and ticks that follows the first moult.
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
A plant species of the genus VICIA, family FABACEAE. The edible beans are well known but they cause FAVISM in some individuals with GLUCOSEPHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE DEFICIENCY. This plant contains vicine, convicine, Vicia lectins, unknown seed protein, AAP2 transport protein, and Vicia faba DNA-binding protein 1.
Diseases of plants.
A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of edible fruits such as apricot, plum, peach, cherry, and almond.
Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.
The act of feeding on plants by animals.
A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)
INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.
Reproduction without fusion of two types of cells, mostly found in ALGAE; FUNGI; and PLANTS. Asexual reproduction occurs in several ways, such as budding, fission, or splitting from "parent" cells. Only few groups of ANIMALS reproduce asexually or unisexually (PARTHENOGENESIS).
A large genus of plant viruses of the family POTYVIRIDAE which infect mainly plants of the Solanaceae. Transmission is primarily by aphids in a non-persistent manner. The type species is potato virus Y.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.
Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)
An order of fungi comprising mostly insect pathogens, though some infect mammals including humans. Strict host specificity make these fungi a focus of many biological control studies.
The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs in the natural environment (soil, water, and plant surfaces) or as an opportunistic human pathogen.
Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.
The gourd plant family of the order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. It is sometimes placed in its own order, Cucurbitales. 'Melon' generally refers to CUCUMIS; CITRULLUS; or MOMORDICA.
A genus of PLANT VIRUSES, in the family CAULIMOVIRIDAE, that are transmitted by APHIDS in a semipersistent manner. Aphid-borne transmission of some caulimoviruses requires certain virus-coded proteins termed transmission factors.
Substituted thioglucosides. They are found in rapeseed (Brassica campestris) products and related cruciferae. They are metabolized to a variety of toxic products which are most likely the cause of hepatocytic necrosis in animals and humans.
A genus in the family NANOVIRIDAE infecting bananas. The type species is Banana bunchy top virus.
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.
The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.
An extensive order of highly specialized insects including bees, wasps, and ants.
The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.
A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.
A plant genus of the family ARACEAE. Members contain acrid calcium oxalate and LECTINS. Polynesians prepare the root into poi. Common names of Taro and Coco Yam (Cocoyam) may be confused with other ARACEAE; XANTHOSOMA; or with common yam (DIOSCOREA).
A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE known for the edible fruit.
Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.
A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).
The properties of a pathogen that makes it capable of infecting one or more specific hosts. The pathogen can include PARASITES as well as VIRUSES; BACTERIA; FUNGI; or PLANTS.
A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.
A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Ongoing collection, analysis, and interpretation of ecological data that is used to assess changes in the components, processes, and overall condition and functioning of an ECOSYSTEM.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE that is widely used as ground cover and forage and known for the edible beans, VICIA FABA.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.
The blood/lymphlike nutrient fluid of some invertebrates.
A group of the proteobacteria comprised of facultatively anaerobic and fermentative gram-negative bacteria.
Organisms, biological agents, or biologically-derived agents used strategically for their positive or adverse effect on the physiology and/or reproductive health of other organisms.
The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
An order of very small, fringed-wing INSECTS including many agricultural pests.
A genus of plant viruses of the family BROMOVIRIDAE, which infect cucurbits and solanaceous plants. Transmission occurs via aphids in a non-persistent manner, and also via seeds. The type species Cucumber mosaic virus, a CUCUMOVIRUS, should not be confused with Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus, a TOBAMOVIRUS.
A unisexual reproduction without the fusion of a male and a female gamete (FERTILIZATION). In parthenogenesis, an individual is formed from an unfertilized OVUM that did not complete MEIOSIS. Parthenogenesis occurs in nature and can be artificially induced.
A plant genus of the family MALVACEAE. It is the source of COTTON FIBER; COTTONSEED OIL, which is used for cooking, and GOSSYPOL. The economically important cotton crop is a major user of agricultural PESTICIDES.
A plant genus in the family FABACEAE known for LATHYRISM poisoning.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
An order of fungi in the phylum ASCOMYCOTA that includes a number of species which are parasitic on higher plants, insects, or fungi. Other species are saprotrophic.
A plant species of the family FABACEAE used to study GENETICS because it is DIPLOID, self fertile, has a small genome, and short generation time.
Viruses parasitic on plants higher than bacteria.
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. The common name of thoroughwort is also used for other plants including EUPATORIUM; CHROMOLAENA, Hebeclinium and Koanophyllon. Eupolin is the aqueous extract of the leaves.
A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The fruit is a large, egg-shaped berry, varying in color from dark purple to red, yellowish, or white. The leaves are large and ovate. The flowers are pendant, violet, and two inches across.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Some species of the CHRYSANTHEMUM and the old Pyrethrum genera have been reclassified to this genus. The common name of tansy usually refers to this but also forms part of the common name of other plants such as Tansy Ragwort (SENECIO) and Tansyaster (HAPLOPAPPUS).
Methods of comparing two or more samples on the same two-dimensional gel electrophoresis gel.
An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that contains allergen Dac g I.
Substances released by PLANTS such as PLANT GUMS and PLANT RESINS.
The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. It is distinct from Sweet Clover (MELILOTUS), from Bush Clover (LESPEDEZA), and from Red Clover (TRIFOLIUM).
A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.
Compounds having the nitro group, -NO2, attached to carbon. When attached to nitrogen they are nitramines and attached to oxygen they are NITRATES.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.
A plant species of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae known for the melon fruits with reticulated (net) surface including cantaloupes, honeydew, casaba, and Persian melons.
The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous plants, insects, or other animals. This includes control of plants that serve as habitats or food sources for animal pests.
A plant genus of the family APOCYNACEAE. It is a very poisonous plant that contains cardioactive agents.
The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A strand of primary conductive plant tissue consisting essentially of XYLEM, PHLOEM, and CAMBIUM.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A group of degraded TRITERPENES in which the four terminal carbons of the C17 side chain have been removed, and the remaining portion often forming C17 furans.
Any of several BRASSICA species that are commonly called mustard. Brassica alba is white mustard, B. juncea is brown or Chinese mustard, and B. nigra is black, brown, or red mustard. The plant is grown both for mustard seed from which oil is extracted or used as SPICES, and for its greens used as VEGETABLES or ANIMAL FEED. There is no relationship to MUSTARD COMPOUNDS.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
A genus of PARVOVIRIDAE, subfamily DENSOVIRINAE, comprising helper-independent viruses containing only two species. Junonia coenia densovirus is the type species.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
The capability of producing eggs (OVA) from which young are hatched outside the body. While mostly referring to nonmammalian species, this does include MAMMALS of the order MONOTREMATA.
An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that includes several marshy plants. The common name of watercress is also used for NASTURTIUM & TROPAEOLUM.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE and order Rosales. This should not be confused with the genus RHODIOLA which is sometimes called roseroot.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Large and highly vacuolated cells possessing many chloroplasts occuring in the interior cross-section of leaves, juxtaposed between the epidermal layers.
A process by which animals in various forms and stages of development are physically distributed through time and space.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
A plant genus of the family ROSACEAE.
A plant species of the family FABACEAE widely cultivated for ANIMAL FEED.
The mint plant family. They are characteristically aromatic, and many of them are cultivated for their oils. Most have square stems, opposite leaves, and two-lipped, open-mouthed, tubular corollas (united petals), with five-lobed, bell-like calyxes (united sepals).
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. The hot peppers yield CAPSAICIN, which activates VANILLOID RECEPTORS. Several varieties have sweet or pungent edible fruits that are used as vegetables when fresh and spices when the pods are dried.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of anthranilate (o-aminobenzoate) and pyruvic acid from chorismate and glutamine. Anthranilate is the biosynthetic precursor of tryptophan and numerous secondary metabolites, including inducible plant defense compounds. EC 4.1.3.27.
A plant genus of the family Musaceae, order Zingiberales, subclass Zingiberidae, class Liliopsida.
Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
A plant genus in the ANACARDIACEAE family known for the Pistachio nuts and for gum Mastic.
A plant genus of the family RHAMNACEAE. Several species have been reclassified to the FRANGULA genus. It is often called buckthorn but should not be confused with other plants called that.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.
A family of gram-negative bacteria in the order Legionellales. It includes genera COXIELLA and Rickettsiella.
The mulberry plant family of the order Urticales, subclass Hamamelidae, class Magnoliopsida. They have milky latex and small, petalless male or female flowers.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
A plant genus of the family ARACEAE that contains pinellian (an acidic polysaccharide). The plant is an ingredient of some traditional Asian medicinal mixtures including sho-saiko-to, saiko-keishi-to, and banxia houpu decoction.
A plant species of the family BRASSICACEAE best known for the edible roots.
A plant species of the family POACEAE that is widely cultivated for its edible seeds.
Frozen water crystals that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.
The rose plant family in the order ROSALES and class Magnoliopsida. They are generally woody plants. A number of the species of this family contain cyanogenic compounds.
A localized proliferation of plant tissue forming a swelling or outgrowth, commonly with a characteristic shape and unlike any organ of the normal plant. Plant tumors or galls usually form in response to the action of a pathogen or a pest. (Holliday, P., A Dictionary of Plant Pathology, 1989, p330)
The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
A mitosporic fungal genus. Teleomorphs are found in the family Clavicipitaceae and include Cordyceps bassiana. The species Beauveria bassiana is a common pathogen of ARTHROPODS and is used in PEST CONTROL.
A method that is derived from western blotting (BLOTTING, WESTERN) and is used to detect protein-protein interactions. The blotted proteins are probed with a non-antibody protein which can then be tagged with a labeled antibody.
A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.
The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).
A genus of fungi in the family Entomophthoraceae, order Entomorphthorales. They are primarily parasites of insects and spiders, but have been found to cause mycotic infections of the nose in man and horses.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE known for allergenic pollen (ALLERGENS).
A family of bacteriophages which are characterized by short, non-contractile tails.
A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, which includes pumpkin, gourd and squash.
A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE, order Euphorbiales, subclass Rosidae. The seed of Ricinus communis L. is the CASTOR BEAN which is the source of CASTOR OIL; RICIN; and other lectins.
A genus of perennial herbs used topically and internally. It contains echinacoside, GLYCOSIDES; INULIN; isobutyl amides, resin, and SESQUITERPENES.
A plant genus of the family LYCOPODIACEAE. Members contain ALKALOIDS. Lycopodium oil is obtained from L. clavatum.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Other plants called broom include CYTISUS; SPARTIUM; and BROMUS.
Biphasic dose responses of cells or organisms (including microorganisms) to an exogenous or intrinsic factor, in which the factor induces stimulatory or beneficial effects at low doses and inhibitory or adverse effects at high doses.
Derivatives of ethylene, a simple organic gas of biological origin with many industrial and biological use.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.
Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. M. chamomilla appears similar to Anthemis but this flower disk is conical and hollow and lacks chaffy bract scales and the odor is weaker. The common name of 'manzanilla' is confused with other meanings of the word. 'Matricaria chamomilla sensu' is classified by some as Tripleurospermum perforata. Other plants with similar common names include CHAMAEMELUM; TRIPLEUROSPERMUM and ANTHEMIS.
A genus of gram-negative, helical bacteria, in the family SPIROPLASMATACEAE, order Entomoplasmatales, causing disease in PLANTS. It has been isolated from TICKS; INSECTS; and PLANTS.
Viruses which produce a mottled appearance of the leaves of plants.
The capability of an organism to survive and reproduce. The phenotypic expression of the genotype in a particular environment determines how genetically fit an organism will be.
Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.
A species of gram-positive, spherical bacteria whose organisms occur in tetrads and in irregular clusters of tetrads. The primary habitat is mammalian skin.
The capability of bearing live young (rather than eggs) in nonmammalian species. Some species of REPTILES and FISHES exhibit this.
Endogenous substances produced through the activity of intact cells of glands, tissues, or organs.
A large group of facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that show up as pink (negative) when treated by the gram-staining method.
Innate response elicited by sensory stimuli associated with a threatening situation, or actual confrontation with an enemy.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The saxifrage plant family of the order ROSALES, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. The leaves are alternate and sometimes deeply lobed or form rosettes. The flowers have both male and female parts and 4 or 5 sepals and petals; they are usually in branched clusters. The fruit is a capsule with many seeds.
A group I chaperonin protein that forms the barrel-like structure of the chaperonin complex. It is an oligomeric protein with a distinctive structure of fourteen subunits, arranged in two rings of seven subunits each. The protein was originally studied in BACTERIA where it is commonly referred to as GroEL protein.
A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Communication between animals involving the giving off by one individual of some chemical or physical signal, that, on being received by another, influences its behavior.
The directional growth of an organism in response to an external stimulus such as light, touch, or gravity. Growth towards the stimulus is a positive tropism; growth away from the stimulus is a negative tropism. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
An insect growth regulator which interferes with the formation of the insect cuticle. It is effective in the control of mosquitoes and flies.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
An animal's cleaning and caring for the body surface. This includes preening, the cleaning and oiling of feathers with the bill or of hair with the tongue.
The myrtle plant family of the order Myrtales. It includes several aromatic medicinal plants such as EUCALYPTUS.
A superfamily of nematodes whose members are free-living saprophytes or parasites of plants. Ova are sometimes found in human feces after ingestion of infected plants.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain physalin and withangulatin.
Proteins that form the CAPSID of VIRUSES.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria often surrounded by a protein microcapsular layer and slime layer. The natural cycle of its organisms generally involves a vertebrate and an invertebrate host. Species of the genus are the etiological agents of human diseases, such as typhus.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A species of the Beta genus. Cultivars are used as a source of beets (root) or chard (leaves).
The use of wings or wing-like appendages to remain aloft and move through the air.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that causes vascular wilts on a wide range of plant species. It was formerly named Erwinia chrysanthemi.
Changes in biological features that help an organism cope with its ENVIRONMENT. These changes include physiological (ADAPTATION, PHYSIOLOGICAL), phenotypic and genetic changes.
A plant genus in the family ROSACEAE, order Rosales, subclass Rosidae. It is best known as a source of the edible fruit (apple) and is cultivated in temperate climates worldwide.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
An excessive number of individuals, human or animal, in relation to available space.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain SOLANACEOUS ALKALOIDS. Some species in this genus are called deadly nightshade which is also a common name for ATROPA BELLADONNA.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
The immediate physical zone surrounding plant roots that include the plant roots. It is an area of intense and complex biological activity involving plants, microorganisms, other soil organisms, and the soil.
The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.

New device and method for capture, reverse transcription and nested PCR in a single closed-tube. (1/795)

A device and improved method based on the use of a compartmentalized Eppendorf tube that allows capture, reverse transcription and nested-PCR in a single closed-tube has been developed and patented. The main advantages of the system are the high sensitivity obtained, the simplicity, the low risk of contamination and the easy establishment of adequate conditions for nested-PCR. The method has been successfully applied to the detection and characterization of citrus tristeza closterovirus and plum pox potyvirus isolates in plant tissues and single aphids squashed on paper. This device and methodology could be easily adapted to the detection of other targets.  (+info)

The haplotype distribution of two genes of citrus tristeza virus is altered after host change or aphid transmission. (2/795)

Genetic variability of citrus tristeza virus (CTV) was studied using the haplotypes detected by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of genes p18 and p20 in six virus populations of two origins. The Spanish group included a CTV isolate and subisolates obtained by graft-transmission to different host species. The other included two subisolates aphid-transmitted from a single Japanese isolate. The homozygosity observed for gene p20 was always significantly higher than that expected under neutral evolution, whereas only three populations showed high homozygosity for p18, suggesting stronger host constraints for p20 than for p18. Sequential transmissions of a Spanish isolate to new host species increased the difference between its population and that of the successive subisolates for gene p18, as estimated by the F statistic. Analysis of molecular variance indicated that variation between both groups of populations was not statistically significant, whereas variations between populations of the same group or within populations were significant for both genes studied. Our data indicate that selection affects the haplotype distribution and that adaptation to a new host can be as important or more as the geographical origin. Variation of the CTV populations after host change or aphid transmission may explain in part the wide biological variability observed among CTV isolates.  (+info)

A GroEL homologue from endosymbiotic bacteria of the whitefly Bemisia tabaci is implicated in the circulative transmission of tomato yellow leaf curl virus. (3/795)

Evidence for the involvement of a Bemisia tabaci GroEL homologue in the transmission of tomato yellow leaf curl geminivirus (TYLCV) is presented. A approximately 63-kDa protein was identified in B. tabaci whole-body extracts using an antiserum raised against aphid Buchnera GroEL. The GroEL homologue was immunolocalized to a coccoid-shaped whitefly endosymbiont. The 30 N-terminal amino acids of the whitefly GroEL homologue showed 80% homology with that from different aphid species and GroEL from Escherichia coli. Purified GroEL from B. tabaci exhibited ultrastructural similarities to that of the endosymbiont from aphids and E. coli. In vitro ligand assays showed that tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) particles displayed a specific affinity for the B. tabaci 63-kDa GroEL homologue. Feeding whiteflies anti-Buchnera GroEL antiserum before the acquisition of virions reduced TYLCV transmission to tomato test plants by >80%. In the haemolymph of these whiteflies, TYLCV DNA was reduced to amounts below the threshold of detection by Southern blot hybridization. Active antibodies were recovered from the insect haemolymph suggesting that by complexing the GoEL homologue, the antibody disturbed interaction with TYLCV, leading to degradation of the virus. We propose that GroEL of B. tabaci protects the virus from destruction during its passage through the haemolymph.  (+info)

Relationship between amount of esterase and gene copy number in insecticide-resistant Myzus persicae (Sulzer). (4/795)

Overproduction of the insecticide-degrading esterases, E4 and FE4, in peach-potato aphids, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), depends on both gene amplification and transcriptional control, the latter being associated with changes in DNA methylation. The structure and function of the aphid esterase genes have been studied but the determination of their copy number has proved difficult, a common problem with gene amplification. We have now used a combination of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and quantitative competitive PCR to determine relative esterase gene copy numbers in aphid clones with different levels of insecticide resistance (R1, R2 and R3). There are approx. 4-fold increases between susceptible, R1, R2 and R3 aphids, reaching a maximum of approx. 80 times more genes in R3; this gives proportionate increases in esterase protein relative to susceptible aphids. Thus there is no overexpression of the amplified genes, in contrast with what was thought previously. For E4 genes, the loss of 5-methylcytosine is correlated with a loss of expression, greatly decreasing the amount of enzyme relative to the copy number.  (+info)

Evidence for genetic drift in endosymbionts (Buchnera): analyses of protein-coding genes. (5/795)

Buchnera, the bacterial endosymbionts of aphids, undergo severe population bottlenecks during maternal transmission through their hosts. Previous studies suggest an increased effect of drift within these strictly asexual, small populations, resulting in an increased fixation of slightly deleterious mutations. This study further explores sequence evolution in Buchnera using three approaches. First, patterns of codon usage were compared across several homologous Escherichia coli and Buchnera loci, in order to test the prediction that selection for the use of optimal codons is less effective in small populations. A chi 2-based measure of codon bias was developed to adjust for the overall A + T richness of silent positions in the endosymbionts. In contrast to E. coli homologues, adaptive codon bias across Buchnera loci is markedly low, and patterns of codon usage lack a strong relationship with gene expression level. These data suggest that codon usage in Buchnera has been shaped largely by mutational pressure and drift rather than by selection for translational efficiency. One exception to the overall lack of bias is groEL, which is known to be constitutively overexpressed in Buchnera and other endosymbionts. Second, relative-rate tests show elevated rates of sequence evolution of numerous protein-coding loci across Buchnera, compared to E. coli. Finally, consistently higher ratios of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions in Buchnera loci relative to the enteric bacteria strongly suggest the accumulation of nonsynonymous substitutions in endosymbiont lineages. Combined, these results suggest a decreased effectiveness of purifying selection in purging endosymbiont populations of slightly deleterious mutations, particularly those affecting codon usage and amino acid identity.  (+info)

Self-association and mapping of interaction domains of helper component-proteinase of potato A potyvirus. (6/795)

Potyviral helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro) is a multifunctional protein involved in aphid transmission, long-distance movement, polyprotein processing, genome amplification and symptom expression. It has been proposed that the active form of HC-Pro is a dimer and that coat protein (CP)-HC-Pro interaction is required for aphid transmission. To test these proposed interactions between CP and HC-Pro of potato A potyvirus (PVA), the yeast two-hybrid system was used. HC-Pro was shown to interact with itself in vivo in yeast cells, as did CP. Taken together with previous observations, we conclude that the functional HC-Pro is a homodimer. Deletion analysis showed that a 24 aa domain in the N-terminal half and the C-terminal proteinase part of HC-Pro were required for the interaction between HC-Pro molecules. No interactions were found between HC-Pro and CP using the genes of aphid-transmissible as well as aphid non-transmissible strains of PVA.  (+info)

Phosphocarrier proteins in an intracellular symbiotic bacterium of aphids. (7/795)

A GroEL homolog produced by Buchnera, an intracellular symbiotic bacterium of aphids, is not only a molecular chaperone but also a novel phosphocarrier protein, suggesting that this protein plays a role in a signal transducing system specific to bacteria living in an intracellular environment. This prompted us to look into phosphocarrier proteins of Buchnera that may be shared in common with other bacteria. As a result, no evidence was obtained for the presence of sensor kinases of the two-component system in Buchnera, which are found in many bacteria. It is possible that the lack of sensor kinases is compensated for by the mulitifunctional GroEL homolog in this symbiotic bacteria. In contrast, we successfully identified three phosphotransferase system genes, ptsH, ptsI, and crr in Buchnera, and provide evidence for their active expression. While the deduced amino acid sequences of these gene products, histidine-containing phosphocarrier protein, Enzyme I, and Enzyme III were similar to their counterparts in Escherichia coli, the predicted isoelectric points of the Buchnera proteins were strikingly higher. It was also suggested that Buchnera Enzyme I, when produced in E. coli, is able to accept the phosphoryl group from phosphoenolpyruvate, but not from ATP.  (+info)

Sex-specific organisation of middle repetitive DNA sequences in the mealybug Planococcus lilacinus. (8/795)

Differential organisation of homologous chromosomes is related to both sex determination and genomic imprinting in coccid insects, the mealybugs. We report here the identification of two middle repetitive sequences that are differentially organised between the two sexes and also within the same diploid nucleus. These two sequences form a part of the male-specific nuclease-resistant chromatin (NRC) fraction of a mealybug Planococcus lilacinus. To understand the phenomenon of differential organisation we have analysed the components of NRC by cloning the DNA sequences present, deciphering their primary sequence, nucleosomal organisation, genomic distri-bution and cytological localisation. Our observations suggest that the middle repetitive sequences within NRC are functionally significant and we discuss their probable involvement in male-specific chromatin organisation.  (+info)

article{931223, abstract = {Aphids are important agricultural pests and also biological models for studies of insect-plant interactions, symbiosis, virus vectoring, and the developmental causes of extreme phenotypic plasticity. Here we present the 464 Mb draft genome assembly of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. This first published whole genome sequence of a basal hemimetabolous insect provides an outgroup to the multiple published genomes of holometabolous insects. Pea aphids are host-plant specialists, they can reproduce both sexually and asexually, and they have coevolved with an obligate bacterial symbiont. Here we highlight findings from whole genome analysis that may be related to these unusual biological features. These findings include discovery of extensive gene duplication in more than 2000 gene families as well as loss of evolutionarily conserved genes. Gene family expansions relative to other published genomes include genes involved in chromatin modification, miRNA synthesis, and ...
Zucchiniyellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) is an important non- persistent virus causing high squashproduction losses in Egypt. Aphis gossypii Glover and Myzus persicaeSulazer insects have high efficiency of ZYMV transmission from infected squashplants to healthy ones in Egypt,in advance of their rapid spreading. ZYMV was isolated fromnaturally infected squash plants collected from two locations (Sennoris &Fayoum), at Fayoum governorate. Virus identification was done byserological tests (ELISA) using four different antiserums. Virus wastransmitted to healthy squash plants by mechanical transmission and by using thetwo aphid insects. Fecundity and life span of two aphids andforms (alate and apterous) were studied. ELISA test had relay that the viruswas ZYMV. Typical symptoms of virus were observed by mechanical and aphidinsects inoculation,yellowmosaic, necrosis, leaf curling, blisters stunting, deformation, reduction inleaf size and knobbed fruits (sever malformation).Fecundity and life span ofAphis gossypii
Yvan Rahbé, Nicolas Sauvion, Gérard Febvay, W.J. Peumans, A.M.R. Gatehouse. Toxicity of lectins and processing of ingested proteins in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, Wiley, 1995, 76, pp.143-155. ⟨hal-02701887⟩ ...
Damage from aphids to wheat plants is noticeable from a distance and can result in water stress, reduced plant growth and wilting. Different aphids are said to cause different colorations when damaging the plants. The comparison of aphid performance on a set of closely related species can help identify traits related to plant defense and aphid performance. Such studies can help inform future experiments that study specific mechanisms of plant resistance. Its important to know what causes aphids to damage some plants more than others so we can find ways to prevent it. I observed the effects that wheat, barley and sorghum have on the population growth rate of corn leaf aphids and green bugs. Also, the effect the aphids have on the plants and how much they damage each type. Will one aphid species have an exceptionally higher rate of reproduction on a specific plant? Is aphid population growth affected by competition between species? I found the green bug population grew faster than the corn leaf ...
Sampling. Day-degree models using a developmental threshold of 4°C can be used to predict various phenological events such as egg hatch and immigration of alate aphids. Yellow traps, particularly water pan traps, are commonly used for population monitoring. Sequential sampling plans for green peach aphid on potato were developed by Hollingsworth and Gatsonis (1990). Sampling of aphid natural enemies in this crop was studied by Mack and Smilowitz (1980). Insecticides. Despite the numerous options potentially available, many producers are dependent on insecticides for suppression of green peach aphid abundance. Systemic insecticide applications are especially popular at planting time, most of which provide long-lasting protection against aphid population buildup during the critical and susceptible early stages of plant growth (Powell 1980) and some of which provide protection for 3 months (Palumbo and Kerns 1994). Green peach aphid is often a pest of cold-weather crops such as spinach. Aphids are ...
Reared as a single genotype, green pea aphid populations decreased in response to elevated CO2 concentrations, but not in response to elevated CO2 + O3 concentrations. Pink pea aphid populations reared as a single genotype were unaffected by augmented CO2 or O3. Populations of mixed genotypes, however, were reduced under elevated CO2 concentrations, irrespective of O3 concentrations ...
The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a well-studied species in terms of its colour polymorphism, where it occurs as two distinct colour morphs, red and green. It is proposed that the occurrence and maintenance of this ...
The pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is a well-studied species in terms of its colour polymorphism, where it occurs as two distinct colour morphs, red and green. It is proposed that the occurrence and maintenance of this ...
The bacterial communities of aphids were investigated by terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of 16S rRNA gene fragments generated by PCR with general eubacterial primers. By both methods, the -proteobacterium Buchnera was detected in laboratory cultures of six parthenogenetic lines of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum and one line of the black bean aphid Aphis fabae, and one or more of four previously described bacterial taxa were also detected in all aphid lines except one of A. pisum. These latter bacteria, collectively known as secondary symbionts or accessory bacteria, comprised three taxa of -proteobacteria (R-type [PASS], T-type [PABS], and U-type [PAUS]) and a rickettsia (S-type [PAR]). Complementary analysis of aphids from natural populations of four aphid species (A. pisum [n 74], Amphorophora rubi [n 109], Aphis sarothamni [n 42], and Microlophium carnosum [n 101]) from a single geographical location revealed Buchnera ...
Background |p|In many insect taxa, wing polymorphism is known to be a consequence of tradeoffs between flight and other life-history traits. The pea aphid |i|Acyrthosiphon pisum|/i| exhibits various morphs with or without wings associated with their complex life cycle including wing polyphenism in viviparous females, genetic wing polymorphism in males, and a monomorphic wingless phenotype in oviparous females and fundatrices. While wing differentiation has been investigated in some detail in viviparous females and males, these processes have not yet been elucidated in monomorphic morphs. The ontological development of the flight apparatus, including wings and flight muscles, was therefore carefully examined in oviparous females and fundatrices and compared with other morphs.|/p| Results |p|The extensive histological examinations showed that flight-apparatus primordia were not at all produced throughout their postembryonic development in oviparous females and fundatrices, suggesting that during the
Crop Advisory Team Alerts. Check the label of any pesticide referenced to ensure your use is included. Onion thrips populations remain high in many onion fields due to the high temperatures. (view image) Numbers are decreased somewhat, but heavy rainfall, but can quickly rebound. Carzol appears to be working well to control thrips (See the July 19 issue of the Vegetable CAT Alert.). We have received reports of high populations of corn leaf aphids in sweet corn. Corn leaf aphids are about a sixteenth of an inch long, blue-green and have short black cornicles (stovepipes). Like other aphids, females give live birth to offspring (all of which are also females) without fertilization. Also, like other aphids, populations can build very rapidly, especially in hot weather. High corn leaf aphid populations can reduce yield in drought-stressed plants. Of more significance is the honeydew they produce while feeding. The honeydew accumulates on the plant and promotes the growth of sooty mold. Sweet corn ...
Soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) is a native pest of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] in eastern Asia and was detected on soybeans in North America in 2000. In 2004, the soybean cultivar Dowling was described to be resistant to soybean aphids with the Rag1 gene for resistance. In 2006, a virulent biotype of soybean aphid in Ohio was reported to proliferate on soybeans with the Rag1 gene. The objective was to survey the occurrence of virulent aphid populations on soybean indicator lines across geographies and years. Nine soybean lines were identified on the basis of their degree of aphid resistance and their importance in breeding programs. Naturally occurring soybean aphid populations were collected in 10 states (Kansas, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Minnesota, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin) and the Canadian province of Ontario. The reproductive capacity of field-collected soybean aphid populations was tested on soybean lines; growth rates were compared in ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Site-specific management of green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), in seed potato. AU - Carroll, Matthew W. AU - Radcliffe, Edward. AU - Macrae, Ian. AU - Olson, Kent. AU - Ragsdale, David. PY - 2004. Y1 - 2004. M3 - Chapter. BT - Proc 7th Internat. Conf. on Precision Agric. & Precision Res. Mgmt. PB - Univ. of Minnesota Precision Ag. center. CY - Minneapolis, USA. ER - ...
Aphid-resistant soybean varieties with Rag (Resistance to Aphis glycines) genes are promising tools for the management of soybean aphid. Intriguingly, there are soybean aphid populations that can overcome such genetic resistance (i.e. virulent aphids) and cause yield losses. Previous research suggests refuge with aphid-susceptible soybean has the potential to control virulent aphid populations, but it is not clear whether it can reverse the proliferation of virulent aphid populations. Seed treatment has shown improvement of soybean aphid control on Rag soybean. To date, however, it is unknown whether refuge strategy and seed treatment combined could improve soybean aphid virulence management. Therefore we evaluated aphid virulence management by planting refuge soybean in a 1:3 aphid-susceptible:Rag-soybean ratio. Seed treatment was applied to either the aphid-susceptible and/or Rag-soybean. All soybean plants were infested with both avirulent (i.e. biotype 1) and virulent (i.e. biotype 4) ...
Number of days in May and June with temperature inducing the change in the life-cycle of Rhopalosiphum padi, daily mean ≥ 25°C in 2005-2010 in diverse regions (A-F) of Poland Table 2. Vol. Virus management in cereals and oilseed rape. The life cycle, genetic diversity, and genetic structure of R. padi populations throughout China remain unclear. Leather SR; Lehti JP, 1981. Emigrants of the host‐alternating bird cherry‐oat aphid fly from the primary host to various grasses before the end of June, even in the absence of natural enemies on bird cherry. Cereal volatiles were identified by GC-MS and olfactometer tests were performed with each compound. Holocyclic individuals of the aphid Rhopalosiphum padi reproduce by cyclical parthenogenesis, while anholocyclic individuals are obligate parthenogens. In their native range, rice root aphids have a heteroecious holocyclic life cycle. 1971 Jul;68(2):135-47. Plant Dis. Gebrüder, Borntraeger, Berlin, Germany, 44 pp. Dynamics of aphid seasonal ...
On rape, in the autumn the generalist aphids like the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) and the black bean aphid (Aphis fabae) can provoke yield losses due to virus transmission. The most widespread virus is the beet western yellow virus (BWYV), transmitted through the persistent mode. The cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) and the turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) are less frequent. In spring, the aphids can also cause direct damage if strong outbreaks occur: failure of flowers to develop and leaf scald owing to the cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae) and leaf deformation due to Myzus persicae and Aphis fabae. In autumn, large colonies of turnip aphids (Lipaphis erysimi) can also jeopardize the plants growth.. These kinds of damage can be shown by yield losses of 5-8 q (500-800kg)/ha. The presence of aphids on winter rape will signal the need for close surveillance right from early sprouting. The earliest attacks are the most harmful so rapid action is essential. Treatments using insecticides are ...
Anyone who has grown anything has at one time or another come in contact with some type of Aphid. There are over 4,400 species of Aphids worldwide, and are affectionately termed plant lice. Pea Aphids attack forage crops such as Peas, Alfalfa, and Clovers. They can take out a crop within a series of weeks due…
Transmission. The virus is believed to have spread worldwide through the exchange of infected seed. Seed transmission rates of up to 100% in field peas and up to 44% in lentils have been reported. In Victoria, the DEPI has detected PSbMV at low levels in commercial chickpea seedlots (0.4% of seed) and at higher levels in field pea and lentil seedlots (greater than 2% of seed).. In the USA, PSbMV infection has been reported in pea seedlots (3%) and in lentil seedlots (32-40%). Research at the International Centre for Agriculture in the Dry Areas (ICARDA) found PSbMV was transmitted through lentil seeds at rates of up to 44%. PSbMV is also transmitted in a non-persistent manner by more than 20 aphid species, and by mechanical means.. The most efficient vector of PSbMV worldwide is the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum). DEPI surveys of Victorian pulse crops have found cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora), foxglove aphid (Aulacorthum solani), and green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) to be important vectors ...
Our results confirmed that there were significant differences between the two strains of apterous A. pisum in host relocation. Some biological differences were observed between the two aphid strains. These two A. pisum strains were identified by COI sequences (primers shows in Table S1) and confirmed as the same species. Our preliminary tests also showed that the two A. pisum strains could mate and produce normally. The LZ strain was superior at host seeking and leaf identification under starvation, but the movement ability of the YL strain was actually stronger than the LZ strain. Considering the relationship between energy reserves and movement ability of the two aphid strains, this phenomenon was probably caused by higher glycogen reserves that provide more energy for walking a longer distance and spreading out a wider range. We found that the key enzyme activities between the two strains were not significantly different, and the differences in glycogen reserves between the two strains might ...
Aphis gossypii Glover is a major pest of cotton and can severely affect cotton yield and lint quality. In this study, the efficacy of sulfoxaflor applied via drip irrigation and foliar spray on controlling cotton aphids was evaluated in 2016 and 2017 in Xinjiang, China. The distribution of sulfoxaflor in cotton roots, stems, leaves, and aphids, as well as its effects on two natural enemies of aphids, were also investigated. Results showed that sulfoxaflor applied through drip irrigation mainly concentrated in leaves and provided effective control of cotton aphids for 40 days, compared to 20 days when applied through foliar spray. Furthermore, drip application resulted in much lower sulfoxaflor concentrations in aphids than foliar spray. As a result, ladybird beetle and lacewing populations were higher in drip applied plants than in foliar sprayed plants. Additionally, the cost of drip irrigation was lower than foliar spray as cotton plants are commonly irrigated via drip irrigation in Xinjiang. Our
Sample reference] Takai, K., Sugai, A., Itoh, T., and Horikoshi, K. Palaeococcus ferrophilus gen. nov., sp. nov., a barophilic, hyperthermophilic archaeon from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 2000. Volume 50. p. 489-500. Chevignon, Germain et al. Culture-Facilitated Comparative Genomics of the Facultative Symbiont Hamiltonella defensa. Genome Biology and Evolution vol. 10,3 (2018): 786-802. doi.:10.1093/gbe/evy036 Degnan, Patrick H et al. Hamiltonella defensa, genome evolution of protective bacterial endosymbiont from pathogenic ancestors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America vol. 106,22 (2009): 9063-8. doi:10.1073/pnas.0900194106 Dykstra, Hannah R et al. Factors Limiting the Spread of the Protective Symbiont Hamiltonella defensa in Aphis craccivora Aphids. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 80,18 (2014): 5818-27. doi:10.1128/aem.01775-14. Moran, Nancy A et al. ...
Sample reference] Takai, K., Sugai, A., Itoh, T., and Horikoshi, K. Palaeococcus ferrophilus gen. nov., sp. nov., a barophilic, hyperthermophilic archaeon from a deep-sea hydrothermal vent chimney. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 2000. Volume 50. p. 489-500. Chevignon, Germain et al. Culture-Facilitated Comparative Genomics of the Facultative Symbiont Hamiltonella defensa. Genome Biology and Evolution vol. 10,3 (2018): 786-802. doi.:10.1093/gbe/evy036 Degnan, Patrick H et al. Hamiltonella defensa, genome evolution of protective bacterial endosymbiont from pathogenic ancestors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America vol. 106,22 (2009): 9063-8. doi:10.1073/pnas.0900194106 Dykstra, Hannah R et al. Factors Limiting the Spread of the Protective Symbiont Hamiltonella defensa in Aphis craccivora Aphids. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 80,18 (2014): 5818-27. doi:10.1128/aem.01775-14. Moran, Nancy A et al. ...
Endoparasitoid wasps are important natural enemies of the widely distributed aphid pests and are mainly used as biological control agents. However, despite the increased interest on aphid interaction networks, only sparse information is available on the factors used by parasitoids to modulate the aphid physiology. Our aim was here to identify the major protein components of the venom injected at oviposition by Aphidius ervi to ensure successful development in its aphid host, Acyrthosiphon pisum. A combined large-scale transcriptomic and proteomic approach allowed us to identify 16 putative venom proteins among which three γ-glutamyl transpeptidases (γ-GTs) were by far the most abundant. Two of the γ-GTs most likely correspond to alleles of the same gene, with one of these alleles previously described as involved in host castration. The third γ-GT was only distantly related to the others and may not be functional owing to the presence of mutations in the active site. Among the other abundant proteins
The City uses Lady Beetles to handle aphid infestations. Learn more about aphid infestations, and how the City is taking action without using pesticides.
The high osmotic pressure generated by sugars in plant phloem sap is reduced in phloem-feeding aphids by sugar transformations and facilitated water flux in the gut. The genes mediating these osmoregulatory functions have been identified and validated empirically in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum: sucrase 1 (SUC1), a sucrase in glycoside hydrolase family 13 (GH13), and aquaporin 1 (AQP1), a member of the Drosophila integral protein (DRIP) family of aquaporins. Here, we describe molecular analysis of GH13 and AQP genes in phloem-feeding representatives of the four phloem-feeding groups: aphids (Myzus persicae), coccids (Planococcus citri), psyllids (Diaphorina citri, Bactericera cockerelli) and whiteflies (Bemisia tabaci MEAM1 and MED). A single candidate GH13-SUC gene and DRIP-AQP gene were identified in the genome/transcriptome of most insects tested by the criteria of sequence motif and gene expression in the gut. Exceptionally, the psyllid Ba. cockerelli transcriptome included a ...
The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae) is a significant soybean pest in the north central United States. Insecticidal seed treatments and host plant resistance are two commercially available management tools. Here we investigate the efficacy of both management tools throughout the season. Soybean lines containing the soybean aphid resistance genes Rag1, Rag2, or both Rag1 + Rag2 were compared with a near-isogenic aphid-susceptible line. Each line was grown in field plots both with and without thiamethoxam applied to the seed. Individual plants from each plot were caged and infested with soybean aphids to measure the efficacy and potential interaction of aphid resistance and thiamethoxam. Aphid population growth rate was measured for each caged plant for 9‐12 d after infestation. New cages were established each week from 34 d after planting (dap) to 92 dap to track seasonal variations in efficacy. Thiamethoxam reduced population growth only at the 42 dap time point and only
In topical and systemic plant treatment, in three host-parasite systems, i.e. Vicia faba - Uromyces appendiculatus, Vicia faba - Aphis fabae and Triticum aestivum - Rhopalosiphum padi the culture filtrate and supernatant of Bacillus subtilis (FZB24, FZB37 and FZB38 from FZB Biotechnik Berlin) was shown to inhibit the development of urediospores produced by Uromyces appendiculatus. The performance of Aphis fabae and Rhopalosiphum padi was evaluated using life table tests where the aphids development time (tD), pre-reproduction time (td), relative growth rate (RGR) and intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm) were assessed. A wide range of antibiosis effects in Aphis fabae and Rhopalosiphum padi was observed when the supernatant of Bacillus subtilis was used as foliar topical treatment. The tested aphids presented longer development and pre-reproduction time; conversely a lower relative growth rate and intrinsic rate of natural increase was observed. The investigation of the free amino acids of ...
In topical and systemic plant treatment, in three host-parasite systems, i.e. Vicia faba - Uromyces appendiculatus, Vicia faba - Aphis fabae and Triticum aestivum - Rhopalosiphum padi the culture filtrate and supernatant of Bacillus subtilis (FZB24, FZB37 and FZB38 from FZB Biotechnik Berlin) was shown to inhibit the development of urediospores produced by Uromyces appendiculatus. The performance of Aphis fabae and Rhopalosiphum padi was evaluated using life table tests where the aphids development time (tD), pre-reproduction time (td), relative growth rate (RGR) and intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm) were assessed. A wide range of antibiosis effects in Aphis fabae and Rhopalosiphum padi was observed when the supernatant of Bacillus subtilis was used as foliar topical treatment. The tested aphids presented longer development and pre-reproduction time; conversely a lower relative growth rate and intrinsic rate of natural increase was observed. The investigation of the free amino acids of ...
Several species of aphids attack brassicas in East Africa:. The cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae). The false cabbage aphid (Lipaphis erysimi). The green peach aphid (Myzus persicae). In particular the cabbage aphid is a major pest in the region. Cool, dry weather is most favourable for aphid development. Large numbers of aphids may kill small plants. Their feeding can distort leaves of older plants and causes leaf curl.. Often, the most serious problem associated with aphids is virus transmission. The cabbage aphid and the false cabbage aphid are vectors of virus diseases such as cabbage black ring spot, cabbage ring necrosis, and mosaic diseases of cauliflower, radish and turnip. ...
Bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) is an important pest on spring-sown cereals. The aphid reduces yield and can act as a vector of barley yellow dwarf virus. R. padi does not give visible symptoms, but heavy infestation can reduce the yield substantially. R. padi is one of the most important pests of barley, which has the fourth rank among the cereals in global production. In order to overcome this problem, the plants are treated with pesticides. However, some of the pesticides are no longer permitted to use due to their negative environmental effects. Another problem is that the aphids develop resistance against them. Therefore, a new approach is to identify genetic factors that could be used in breeding host plants for resistance. There are many examples of successful plant breeding for resistance to aphids, but in the case of R. padi and barley, no resistant cultivar is commercially available. The aim of this thesis was to identify and characterise aphid resistance and ...
A field experiment was conducted over two cropping seasons to investigate the effectiveness of cereal border crops in managing potato aphids and the associated viruses during seed potato production. Potato plots were surrounded with maize, sorghum or wheat borders. Aphid population was monitored on leaves and on yellow sticky traps. Other data collected included viral disease incidence and tuber yield. The border crops reduced aphid population on leaves compared to non-bordered potato plots. More alate aphids were caught on yellow sticky traps placed inside potato plots than on traps placed inside the border crops. In addition, viral disease incidence was reduced in all plots surrounded by the border crops. However, plots surrounded by border crops had reduced tuber yield, although the yield of seed grade was increased. Thus use of border crops is beneficial in management of viral diseases during seed potato production ...
The aim of this study was to analyze patterns of nucleotidic composition and codon usage in the pea aphid genome (Acyrthosiphon pisum). A collection of 60,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) in the pea aphid has been used to automatically reconstruct 5809 coding sequences (CDSs), based on similarity with known proteins and on coding style recognition. Reconstructions were manually checked for ribosomal proteins, leading to tentatively reconstruct the nea-complete set of this category. Pea aphid coding sequences showed a shift toward AT (especially at the third codon position) compared to drosophila homologues. Genes with a putative high level of expression (ribosomal and other genes with high EST support) remained more GC3-rich and had a distinct codon usage from bulk sequences: they exhibited a preference for C-ending codons and CGT (for arginine), which thus appeared optimal for translation. However, the discrimination was not as strong as in drosophila, suggesting a reduced degree of translational
In accordance with studies on pea aphids (Henter & Via 1995; Ferrari et al. 2001), we detected significant clonal variation for susceptibility to parasitoids in the peach potato aphid, M. persicae. In aphids, reduced susceptibility to parasitoids can be conferred by the endosymbiotic bacteria H. defensa and S. symbiotica (Oliver et al. 2003), yet neither of these secondary symbionts was detected in our collection of clones. Instead, we found that the one entirely resistant clone harboured R. insecticola. This secondary endosymbiont has so far not been implicated in defence against parasitoids, but it was shown to decrease susceptibility to a fungal pathogen and to affect host plant specialization in the pea aphid (Tsuchida et al. 2004; Scarborough et al. 2005). Our finding suggests that certain strains of R. insecticola may also provide protection against parasitoids, although the critical experiments of curing clone 5.15 from R. insecticola and/or transferring the symbiont to susceptible M. ...
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is an important genetic marker in population and evolutionary biology. To test the feasibility of two mitochondrial gene markers (COI and Cytb) for Rhopalosiphum padi, we collected 275 individuals of the insect species from 15 locations, which cover most of the species distribution range in China, and analyzed the diversity of the two genes. Seven COI haplotypes and 15 Cytb haplotypes were identified by 13 and 36 polymorphic sites, respectively. Across the entire samples, the average haplotype diversities (Hd) of COI and Cytb were 0.491 and 0.607, and the nucleotide diversities (π) of COI and Cytb were 0.147% and 0.160%, respectively. Relatively low levels of genetic diversity and genetic differentiation were observed among all R. padi populations based on the two genes. Moreover, parsimony networks of the COI and Cytb haplotypes of R. padi all supported a single clade. Although the nucleotide variation of mitochondrial genes has been used in other insect species, reviewing
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is an important genetic marker in population and evolutionary biology. To test the feasibility of two mitochondrial gene markers (COI and Cytb) for Rhopalosiphum padi, we collected 275 individuals of the insect species from 15 locations, which cover most of the species distribution range in China, and analyzed the diversity of the two genes. Seven COI haplotypes and 15 Cytb haplotypes were identified by 13 and 36 polymorphic sites, respectively. Across the entire samples, the average haplotype diversities (Hd) of COI and Cytb were 0.491 and 0.607, and the nucleotide diversities (π) of COI and Cytb were 0.147% and 0.160%, respectively. Relatively low levels of genetic diversity and genetic differentiation were observed among all R. padi populations based on the two genes. Moreover, parsimony networks of the COI and Cytb haplotypes of R. padi all supported a single clade. Although the nucleotide variation of mitochondrial genes has been used in other insect species, reviewing
The infestation of the cultivated grain crops by phloem feeding aphids has generated a great deal of interest over the years, due to the serious damage they cause to the crops and yield losses that result. The mechanism of the interaction between aphids and host plants remains largely unknown in spite of efforts to understand the basis of aphid feeding on grain crops. Greater efforts are required to explain the mechanism(s) of this interaction in order to achieve sustainable agriculture. This thesis focused on an investigation of the mechanism of feeding by the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia Mordvilko (RWA) and the bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi L. (BCA) on barley and wheat cultivars. These two aphids co-occur naturally, but they inflict very different feeding effects on host plants. Structural and functional approaches were employed to investigate their feeding habits and these were then related to the observed differences in their host plants. Transmission electron microscopy ...
AANAT gene / Acyrthosiphon pisum (the pea aphid) / Aphididae (aphids) / biological rhythm / central nervous system / circadian clock / clock gene / GT2. Adaptation of phytophagous species, their natural enemies and symbionts / Insecta / insulin-like peptide / life cycle / melatonin / parthenogenetic organism / photoperiodism / prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) / seasonality / sexual morph / signalling pathway ...
We determined the chlorophyll a and b levels (SPAD readings) in uninfested leaves and in leaves after 7 and 17 days of aphid infestation in four Fabaceae species (Pisum sativum L., Vicia faba L., Trifolium pretense L, Medicago sativa L.). Feeding by pea aphids Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris (Hemiptera: Aphididae) caused significant loss of chlorophyll a and b in the infested plants. Uninfested leaves ...
by Merry Youle | Because it prefers to dine on some of our valued crop plants, the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) is considered a major pest - thus a Bad Guy from our perspective. Pea aphids are not without their enemies. Enemy number one is a parasitoid wasp, Aphidius ervi. As parasitoid wasps are used to do, females provide for their offspring by...
Acyrthosiphon pisum, commonly known as the pea aphid (and colloquially known as the green dolphin, pea louse, and clover louse ), is a sap-sucking insect in the Aphididae family. It feeds on several species of legumes (plant family Fabaceae) worldwide, including forage crops, such as pea, clover, alfalfa, and broad bean, and ranks among the aphid species of major agronomical importance. The pea aphid is a model organism for biological study whose genome has been sequenced and annotated. In the autumn, female pea aphids lay fertilized eggs overwinter that hatch the following spring. The nymphs that hatch from these eggs are all females, which undergo four moults before reaching sexual maturity. They will then begin to reproduce by viviparous parthenogenesis, like most aphids. Each adult female gives birth to four to 12 female nymphs per day, around a hundred in her lifetime. These develop into mature females in about seven to ten days. The life span of an adult is about 30 days. Population ...
1. Facultative endosymbiotic bacteria of insects are known to affect life-history traits of their hosts, and can provide important fitness benefits under certain environmental conditions. While several distinct endosymbiont-induced effects have been reported, there is no data on whether heritable facultative endosymbionts in any species affect their hosts performance at low temperatures, something that could have a major effect on insect physiology and survival, and thus population structure and distribution. 2. The original facultative endosymbionts were experimentally removed from five clonal genotypes of the grain aphid, Sitobion avenae Fab., which were then exposed to frost. 3. Aphid genotypes differed considerably in survival following the exposure and in fecundity of the survivors. However, the presence of the facultative symbionts had no overall effect on the studied traits. 4. The results suggest that the facultative symbionts have limited effects on the cold hardiness of their grain aphid
The availability of genomic data in the last decade relating to different aphid species has allowed the analysis of the genomic variability occurring among such species, whereas intra-specific variability has hitherto very largely been neglected. In order to analyse the intra-genomic variability in the peach potato aphid, Myzus persicae, comparative analyses were performed revealing several clone-specific gene duplications, together with numerous deletions/rearrangements. Our comparative approach also allowed us to evaluate the synteny existing between the two M. persicae clones tested and between the peach potato aphid and the pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum. Even if part of the observed rearrangements are related to a low quality of some assembled contigs and/or to the high number of contigs present in these aphid genomes, our evidence reveals that aphid clones are genetically more different than expected. These results suggest that the choice of performing genomes sequencing combining different
Phytophagous insects with wide host ranges often exhibit host-associated genetic structure. We used microsatellite analysis to assess the population structure of the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), a serious pest on many economically important crops worldwide. We sampled aphids from five host plant species in Iran and detected strong population subdivision, with an overall multilocus FST of 0.191. The matrix of pairwise FST values indicated that differentiation between populations collected from different hosts was significantly stronger than between populations from the same hosts. Host-associated differentiation was further supported by Bayesian clustering analyses, which grouped all samples from cotton together with aubergine, and all samples from cucumber together with pumpkin and hibiscus. This adds to the growing body of evidence that many seemingly generalist aphids are in fact an assemblage of host-specialized lineages. Although we detected a clear genetic ...
Since the most recent issue (No. 17, July 18, 2003) of the Bulletin was printed and mailed, there has been considerable telephone and e-mail traffic regarding soybean aphids in northern Illinois. We have received numerous reports regarding insecticide applications to control the aphids in soybean fields. Although some fields still do not have densities of aphids large enough to warrant control, the densities in a fairly large number of fields have exceeded economic thresholds. In addition, some people are finding very few natural enemies in some fields, so aphid population densities have increased rapidly.. Drs. David Voegtlin (Illinois Natural History Survey) and David Onstad (Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Sciences) recently visited several soybean fields in Kendall County. They have studying soybean aphid populations there since 2001. In fact, one of the first fields of soybeans Dave Voegtlin visited in 2000 was in Kendall County. They have provided an overview of the ...
This thesis examines effects of plant fertilisation regime on herbivore and parasitoid performance for two aphids, Macrosiphum euphorbiae and Myzus persicae, and one parasitoid wasp, Aphidius ervi. Herbivore performance was measured as adult fresh weight and intrinsic rate of increase. Parasitoid performance was measured as length of hind tibia, sex ratio, and in a series of choice experiments also parasitoid development time and parasitization rate was measured. Comparisons were made between the performance of M. euphorbiae on two different plant species, petunia and sweet pepper, between the performance of the aphids M. euphorbiae and M. persicae on sweet pepper, and between the performance of A. ervi in M. euphorbiae and in M. persicae on sweet pepper. The performance of M. euphorbiae was better on petunia than on sweet pepper. On petunia a positive effect of plant content of potassium and indications of a positive effect of nitrogen fertilisation were found while on sweet pepper both ...
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This species mainly occurs on wild roses such as dog rose (Rosa canina) and harsh downy rose (Rosa tomentosa). Libreoffice Outline Template, The blue tit, for example, is known to predate rose aphids (see rose aphid predation by blue tits). The alate (see second picture above) has the head and thoracic lobes black and the abdomen pale greenish white with a brown-black dorsal patch. Wahlgreniella nervata is considered an invasive species, having been reported from Damask rose in Turkey (Barjadze, 2011), and as a new pest of rose in India (Joshi et al., 2014). The intention is that the natural enemies become established and maintain long-term sustainable control. macrosiphum rosae killer. You may have noticed that we have not mentioned what is possibly the aphid most noticed in gardens - the black bean aphid (Aphis fabae). Effect of different temperatures on the biological parameters of Macrosiphum rosae (L.) (Homoptera: Aphididae). They are green or pink with long black siphunculi. at times ...
Soybean aphids in Nebraska usually reach the economic threshold and require treatment in late July through August, with a few fields requiring treatment earlier in July. Treatment during this period usually is enough to keep aphid populations from resurging because there is not enough time for populations to build-up before they would naturally leave the fields in late August and early September. The earlier a field is treated, the greater the chance that any surviving aphids can later reproduce or new aphids can repopulate the field. And remember, insecticide treatment also kills many natural enemies, so any aphids that do re-infest a field are not constrained by predators and other natural controls. Even insecticides with a relatively long residual cannot last when insecticide treatment is done in early or mid-July, particularly during a year when aphid populations are thriving. If one has to treat early, make sure to closely monitor the field until early September.. Another practice that can ...
Research Articles. Wernegreen, J. J. and N. A. Moran. 2001.Vertical Transmission of Biosynthetic Plasmids in Aphid Endosymbionts (Buchnera). J. Bacteriol. 183:785-790.. Shigenobu S., H. Watanabe, M. Hattori, Y. Sakaki and H. Ishikawa. 2000. Genome sequence of the endocellular bacterial symbiont of aphids Buchnera sp. APS. Nature 407:81-86.. Fukatsu, T., N. Nikoh, R. Kawai and R. Koga. The secondary endosymbiotic bacterium of the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum (Insecta: Homoptera). Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 2000. 66:2748-2758.. Thao, M. L., N. A. Moran, P. Abbot, E. B. Brennan, D. H. Burckhardt and P. Baumann. 2000. Cospeciation of Psyllids and their primary prokaryotic endosymbionts. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66:2898-2905.. Baumann L., Baumann P., M.L. Thao. 1999. Detection of messenger RNA transcribed from genes encoding enzymes of amino acid biosynthesis in Buchnera aphidicola (endosymbiont of aphids). Current. Microbiology 38:135-136.. Charles H., H. Ishikawa. 1999. Physical and genetic map of ...
Resistance of nine cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) cultivars, Big cropper, Cape Spitz, Copenhagen Market, Conquistador, Drumhead, Giant Drumhead, Glory of Enkhuizen, Grandslam and Hercules to cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae) was studied in greenhouse experiments conducted at the Botswana College of Agriculture, Gaborone, Botswana. Cabbage aphids caused 85 % leaf damage on the most susceptible cultivar, Drumhead, and only 30.9 and 44.6 % on the more resistant cultivars, Grandslam and Copenhagen Market, respectively. Drumhead had the lowest number of aphids per leaf, showing the antibiosis mechanism of resistance to B. brassicae and yet it suffered the most severe damage. Although Copenhagen Market was resistant to cabbage aphid damage, it had the greatest abundance of aphids per leaf, showing that it used the tolerance resistance mechanism against cabbage aphids. Conquistador, Glory of Enkhuizen, Grandslam and Hercules, which gave the lowest combined effect of number of aphids multiplied
Poster (2012, May 22). The multicoloured Asian ladybird Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), previously introduced as a biological control agent to control aphids populations, is now frequently considered as an ... [more ▼]. The multicoloured Asian ladybird Harmonia axyridis Pallas (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), previously introduced as a biological control agent to control aphids populations, is now frequently considered as an intraguild predator, consuming other aphids natural enemies. The interactions between this exotic ladybird and other aphidophagous species present in Belgian agro-ecosystems are mainly asymmetric in support of H. axyridis. An aphidophages sampling has been performed between 2009 and 2011 in four agrosystems such as broad bean, wheat, corn and potato. The sampling method consisted in the counting of aphids and all developmental stages of aphidophages present in quadrats of 1m² from April to September. Harmonia axyridis, the invasive coccinellid, was ...
Aphid establishes colony in the selective plant parts like vine, leaf petiole, leaflet, inflorescence, and tender fruit in Dolichos lablab Linn but not the entire plant. In this study, the aphid colony establishment in vine is focused to understand the differential resistance response between two varieties. At the early stage of aphid infestation, the aphid colony establishment was significantly different between two genotypes (p value = 0.00) and abbreviated as
Aphids evolved novel cells, called bacteriocytes, that differentiate specifically to harbour the obligatory mutualistic endosymbiotic bacteria Buchnera aphidicola. The genome of the host aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum contains many orphan genes that display no similarity with genes found in other sequenced organisms, prompting us to hypothesize that some of these orphan genes are related to lineage-specific traits, such as symbiosis. We conducted deep sequencing of bacteriocytes mRNA followed by whole mount in situ hybridizations of over-represented transcripts encoding aphid-specific orphan proteins. We identified a novel class of genes that encode small proteins with signal peptides, which are often cysteine-rich, that are over-represented in bacteriocytes. These genes are first expressed at a developmental time point coincident with the incorporation of symbionts strictly in the cells that contribute to the bacteriocyte and this bacteriocyte-specific expression is maintained throughout the aphids ...
WOOSTER, Ohio -- Soybean aphids have arrived in Ohio, and counties along Lake Erie are taking the brunt of the impact. Ron Hammond, an Ohio State University Extension entomologist, said that soybean aphid populations in soybean fields throughout north central and northeast Ohio have reached threshold (250 aphids per plant) with rising populations, and some growers are seeing aphid numbers in the thousands. If left untreated, the result could be as much as 20 to 25 percent yield losses. We are definitely seeing a significant soybean aphid outbreak throughout those regions of Ohio, said Hammond, with the Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center. We are highly recommending that any grower in those areas to check their soybean fields as soon as possible as they might have populations high enough to warrant treatment. The soybean aphid, a sapsucker with a voracious appetite, was predicted to hit Ohio in high numbers this year. Despite those expectations, the outbreak throughout ...
Buchnera aphidicola is an obligate, strictly vertically transmitted, bacterial symbiont of aphids. It supplies its host with essential amino acids, nutrients required by aphids but deficient in their diet of plant phloem sap. Several lineages of Buchnera show adaptation to their nutritional role in the form of plasmid-mediated amplification of key-genes involved in the biosynthesis of tryptophan (trpEG) and leucine (leuABCD). Phylogenetic analyses of these plasmid-encoded functions have thus far suggested the absence of horizontal plasmid exchange among lineages of Buchnera. Here, we describe three new Buchnera plasmids, obtained from species of the aphid host families Lachnidae and Pemphigidae. All three plasmids belong to the repA1 family of Buchnera plasmids, which is characterized by the presence of a repA1-replicon responsible for replication initiation. A comprehensive analysis of this family of plasmids unexpectedly revealed significantly incongruent phylogenies for different plasmid and ...
Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae) can reduce the yield of aphidsusceptible soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) cultivars. The Rag1 and Rag2 genes confer resistance to some biotypes of A. glycines. These genes individually can limit population growth of A. glycines and prevent yield loss. The impact of these genes when combined is not known. We compared the development of A. glycines on soybean with Rag1 alone (R1/S2), Rag2 alone (S1/R2), both genes combined (R1/R2), or neither gene (S1/S2). In addition, we determined the impact of different levels of aphid infestation on seed yield. The genotypes were grown in cages and artificially infested with A. glycines to achieve five treatment levels: aphid-free, 675 aphids per plant, 25,000 cumulative aphid days (CAD) (25K), 50,000 CAD (50K), and 75,000 CAD (75K). The S1/S2 line reached the 50K treatment, but did not reach the 75K treatment. Aphid development on R1/S2 and S1/R2 soybeans after two infestations reached a maximum of 25K. The maximum
13 ref The infectivity of winged migrating aphid vectors of barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) was investigated from 1981 to 1986 in two localities in northwestern and northeastern Italy (Carmagnola, Turin, and Pozzuolo, Udine) by using two types of suction traps that capture live aphids. Flying aphids were captured, identified, and tested individually for bydv transmission on either barley or oats, which were then checked for virus presence by both observation of symptoms and ELISA. Of nine aphid species collected near Turin, five transmitted BYDV to the indicator plants, namely: Anoecia corni (Fabricius), Rhopalosiphum insertum (Walker), R. maidis (Fitch), R. English World Perspectives on Barley Yellow Dwarf International Workshop. Udine (Italy). 6-11 Jul 1987 CIMMYT, Ap. 6-641, 06600 Mexico, D.F. - Mexico,COMOD AGRIS Collection ...
Aphidius ervi (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) is an entomophagous parasitoid known to be an effective parasitoid of several aphid species of economic importance. A reduction of its production cost during mass rearing for inundative release is needed to improve its use in biological control of pests. In these contexts, a careful analysis of its entire development phases within its host is needed. This paper shows that this parasitoid has some characteristics in its embryological development rather complex and different from most other reported insects, which can be phylogenetically very close. First, its yolkless egg allows a high fecundity of the female but force them to hatch from the egg shell rapidly to the host hemocoel. An early cellularisation allowing a rapid differentiation of a serosa membrane seems to confirm this hypothesis. The serosa wraps the developing embryo until the first instar larva stage and invades the host tissues by microvilli projections and form a placenta like structure able to
A classical biological control project was undertaken against the filbert aphid, Myzocallis coryli (Goetze), in western Oregon. Hazelnut orchards in Spain, France, and Italy were searched for natural enemies of the aphid, and a parasitic wasp, Trioxys pallidus Haliday, was imported, quarantined, mass-reared, and released in Oregon orchards. The wasp successfully attacks and completes its development on the Oregon race of the filbert aphid. A greenhouse culture of the parasitoid has been maintained continuously for over 50 generations, and approximately 30,000 adult wasps have been released in the Willamette Valley. Overwintering survival has been documented in at least eight different locations. In three commercial orchards, the parasitoids reduced aphid populations by 26-32%. The newly imported biotype of T.pallidus attacking the filbert aphid was compared with the previously established biotype attacking the walnut aphid. The two races are morphologically indistinguishable, and were shown to ...
Radishes and nasturtiums lead flea beetles away from cabbage while catnip and basil repel them. Heavy aphid feeding causes leaves to curl up, providing the pests with even more protection. When its not in flight, the wings are folded. Cabbage aphids feed on the youngest, most tender parts of new cabbage, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, kale, and cauliflower. Some of the vegetable plants you can transplant early without fearing loss to freezing are the cole crops such as cabbage, broccoli, kale, Brussels sprouts and collards. The bad news is that they are all fans of kale. Michl on July 8, 2019 at 10:55 pm I have quite an infestation of aphids on 3 of 4 Brussels Sprouts plants in my container garden. Cole crops are vulnerable to some insects in our area, mainly aphids and imported cabbage butterfly larvae. If you find one heavily infested leaf or plant, sacrifice it and remove it to protect the rest. A variety of pathogens can assault kale, including a number of fungal diseases, those caused by water ...
Cotton varieties expressing Cry proteins derived from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) are grown worldwide for the management of pest Lepidoptera. To prevent non-target pest outbreaks and to retain the biological control function provided by predators and parasitoids, the potential risk that Bt crops may pose to non-target arthropods is addressed prior to their commercialization. Aphids play an important role in agricultural systems since they serve as prey or host to a number of predators and parasitoids and their honeydew is an important energy source for several arthropods. To explore possible indirect effects of Bt crops we here examined the impact of Bt cotton on aphids and their honeydew. In climate chambers we assessed the performance of cotton aphids, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) when grown on three Indian Bt (Cry1Ac) cotton varieties (MECH 12, MECH 162, MECH 184) and their non-transformed near isolines. Furthermore, we examined whether aphids pick up the Bt
Terpenoids, also known as isoprenoids, are a large class of natural products consisting of isoprene (C5) units. There are two biosynthetic pathways, the mevalonate pathway [MD:M00095] and the non-mevalonate pathway or the MEP/DOXP pathway [MD:M00096], for the terpenoid building blocks: isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP). The action of prenyltransferases then generates higher-order building blocks: geranyl diphosphate (GPP), farsenyl diphosphate (FPP), and geranylgeranyl diphosphate (GGPP), which are the precursors of monoterpenoids (C10), sesquiterpenoids (C15), and diterpenoids (C20), respectively. Condensation of these building blocks gives rise to the precursors of sterols (C30) and carotenoids (C40). The MEP/DOXP pathway is absent in higher animals and fungi, but in green plants the MEP/DOXP and mevalonate pathways co-exist in separate cellular compartments. The MEP/DOXP pathway, operating in the plastids, is responsible for the formation of essential oil ...
Another fact of life contributing to explosions of aphids is their ability to eschew the usual insect-like business of laying eggs. During the rush of spring, many species of aphids dispense with the egg stage and, like humans, give live birth to their babes. This blessed event takes only a few minutes but appears to be fraught with significant drama. Birthing aphids do lots of posturing and pushing. Fortunately, aphids have sucking mouthparts and loud vocalizations accompanying human births are conspicuously absent, hence the silence of the aphids. To further accelerate the process of filling the world with their kind, female aphids carry embryos of their grandchildren within their bodies even before they are born. This greatly compresses the generation time for aphids and is part of the reason aphid populations rapidly grow from a few to thousands. With so many delectable morsels decorating plants in spring, one wonders why hungry predators dont consume aphids into oblivion. Aphids have ...
The progress of nonpersistently transmitted virus epidemics can be substantially altered by the degree of aphid attraction and preference for virus-infected plants. Our objective was to determine whether color or odor-mediated cues of plants infected with Potyviridae mediate aphid attraction. We found that Myzus persicae (Sulzer) and Rhopalosiphum maidis (Fitch) preferred alighting on intensely (highly saturated) yellow than on green (plant-like) or brown (soil-like) ceramic tiles, and expressed no preference for landing on leaves infected with soybean mosaic virus (SMV) or on chlorophyll-deficient soybean leaves. Furthermore, neither aphid species showed odor-mediated attraction to leaf extracts of SMV-infected leaves. Also, R. maidis remained longer on uninfected than on SMV-infected soybean plants before taking flight, although M. periscae exhibited no preference. Neither aphid species had a preference to remain on healthy or potato virus Y-infected plants. Therefore, we conclude that both ...
Sabri, A.; Leroy, P.; Haubruge, E.; Hance, T.; Frere, I.; Destain, J.; Thonart, P. (2010). Isolation, pure culture and characterization of Serratia symbiotica sp. nov., the R-type of secondary endosymbiont of the black bean aphid Aphis fabae. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 61 (9): 2081-2088. doi:10.1099/ijs.0.024133-0. ISSN 1466-5026 ...
Interpretive Summary: Pecans are economically the most important native nut crop in the USA. Among the major concerns are the pecan weevil, pecan aphids, and diseases such as pecan scab. These pests are generally controlled with broad spectrum chemicals. The chemical pesticides can be harmful to the environment and garner secondary pest outbreaks and resistance. Our overall goal for this project is to develop alternative production practices for pecans that are sustainable and effective. The research reported herein focuses on pecan weevil and aphid control and also suppression of pecan scab. The focus of the research has been on the use of novel environmentally friendly insecticides based on bacterial products. We discovered that a bacteria-based product (Grandevo®, based on a bacteria called Chromobacterium subtsugae), significantly reduced pecan weevil damage in USDA and commercial pecan orchards. Additionally, the bacterial product reduced pecan aphid populations. This is especially ...
  The present study evaluated the resistance of 7 varieties of the broad bean Vicia faba L. to cowpea aphid, Aphis craccivora Koch, 1854. These landraces from the region of Biskra (in the south of Algeria) were selected in an initial field trial and subjected to further testing in the greenhouse. Landrace V51 proved to be the most interesting, in that it resisted aphid attack by mechanisms involving tolerance and antibiosis. Aphid infestation of this landrace resulted in a dry weight loss of only 3.09% (comparison with uninfested plants). The antibiotic resistance of this landrace also significantly decreased the biological potential of the cowpea aphid. In addition to the agronomic and heritage value, some of the landraces of the Biskra region displayed tolerance and antibiosis characteristics suggesting that they might serve as an important genetic resource in future bean selection programs. All tested landraces are attractive to A. craccivora but only this
Aphid populations continue to increase in Iowa. We discuss their trajectory and when/if insecticides will be needed. Also, new publications from Iowa State University are available for the soybean aphid and the brown marmorated stink bug. To purchase the id guide for stink bugs or the new soybean aphid field guide visit the ISU extension publication store (www.extension.iastate.edu/store). To learn where the brown marmorated stink bug is in Iowa visit www.ncipmpipe.org. ...
Reports of soybean aphid activity are still coming in. In fact, reports are indicating that the problem area is no longer limited to northeastern Illinois. Several people have called in with economic infestations in northwestern Illinois and northeastern Iowa. Kevin Black, Growmark, has received word of infestations near Jerseyville (20 miles north of St. Louis) and Beardstown (70 miles southwest of Peoria). Overall, densities are still the highest in northern Illinois. Rod Winter, FMC, is finding 500 to 1,000 aphids per plant in fields in Lee, Ogle, and Winnebago counties. Chet Hetrick, FMC, sent these per-plant counts of soybean aphids: Manteno, 250 to 400; Kankakee to Rte. 24, 150 to 200; Rte. 24 to Rte. 9, 50 to 100; Rte. 9 to I-74 (Ogden), 25 to 100. Although 25 to 100 soybean aphids per plant does not necessarily meet the recommended thresholds for treatment, fields need to remain under watch, as densities can increase up to 10-fold in just 1 week. As soybean aphids are being found in more ...
2017) has had chronically high soybean aphid populations (i.e., exceeding the economic threshold) every year, except 2003. Alves, T. M., I. V. MacRae, and R. L. Koch. Reliance on insecticide-based management of insect pests often results in development of insecticide resistance (Pedigo and Rice 2009). 2012, Douglas and Tooker 2015, Hurley and Mitchell 2017). Similarily, a higher percentage of soybean acres has been scouted for arthropod pests in Minnesota, Iowa, and North Dakota than in other states in the region (Fig. (2018) documented resistance ratios greater than 20-fold, which could be considered moderate resistance. 2018) have created an immediate challenge for effective soybean pest management and profitable soybean production. A., S. J. Bhusal, A. Lorenz, and R. L. Koch. Search for other works by this author on: Department of Entomology, Iowa State University, Science II, Ames, IA, Department of Plant Pathology, North Dakota State University, Walster Hall, Fargo, ND, Agronomy, ...
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8a Aphid gall. Leaf sheath inflated, ± discoloured, leaf blade twisted, rolled. P. canariensis; Phalaroides arundinacea: Rhopalosiphum padi. 8b With similar damage. P. canariensis: Sitobion avenae. 8c Long parallel stripes caused by smut, especially on the upper leaves of the ± shortened shoots. Sori also on leaf sheaths, with dusting of blackish olive-brown spores. Panicles reduced, often remaining in sheaths. Phalaroides arundinacea: Ustilago echinata. 8d In addition, same host, may occur the rare fungus: Physoderma graminis. 8e Leaves curled and wrinkled; culms often severely distorted. Phalaroides arundinacea: Ustilago serpens ...
The indole alkaloid gramine occurs in leaves of certain barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars but not in others. A gene sequence in barley that earlier was characterized as a jasmonate-induced O-methyltransferase (MT) (EC 2.1.1.6, GenBank accession U54767) was here found to be absent in some barley cultivars and breeding lines that all lacked gramine. The cDNA was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli and the recombinant protein purified. The purified recombinant protein methylated two substrates in the pathway to gramine: 3-aminomethylindole (AMI) and N-methyl-3-aminomethylindole (MAMI) at a high rate, with Km-values of 77 mu M and 184 mu M, respectively. In contrast, the protein did not exhibit any detectable methylation with the earlier suggested substrate for O-methylation, caffeic acid. A number of cultivars and breeding lines of barley were analyzed for presence of the U54767 gene sequence and NIT protein and the enzyme activity in vitro with MAMI or caffeic acid as substrates. The ...
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Kerns, D.L.; Puterka, G.J.; Peters, D.C., 1989: Intrinsic rate of increase for greenbug (Homoptera: Aphididae) biotypes E, F, G, and H on small grain and sorghum varieties
Whos the boss? Milkweed is the boss.. Milkweed plants engage in a helpful bit of mutualism with the aphids and ants who take up residence on them. Aphids feed on the milkweeds sap, then secrete honeydew, which ants eat. The ants, in turn, are the muscle of the operation-they help both the plants and the aphids by fighting off potential predators like caterpillars. The partnership goes three ways, but the power is not equal-milkweed is in control.. Researchers Kailen Mooney and Anurag Agrawal recently found that the milkweed can manipulate the relationship between ants and aphids, altering the dynamics for its own good. The scientists planted 32 groups of milkweed, with each group containing 10 siblings from the same family, in a field full of ants. In 20 of the 32 milkweed groups, the presence of ants was a big boon for aphids-the aphid population increased by 150 percent compared to plants with no ants to protect them. But in the other 12 groups, the numbers of aphids actually decreased by ...
Modeling population dynamics that include mutualistic interactions is an important and complex problem in theoretical biology and quantitative ecology. Mutualistic interactions, which are generally considered relationships in which two or more species benefit from each others presence, play a significant role in determining population dyanmics, and are essential to fully understanding the dynamics of interacting species. However, mutualistic interactions are a historically understudied topic in ecology; accurately describing populations in multi-species interactions is inherently challenging (Hastings & Powell, 1991), and models describing these populations increase greatly in complexity as the intricacy and interdependence of the relationship increases. As such, there have been relatively few attempts within the field to fully account for the particulars of these relationships. Through numerical simulation of lycaenid butterfly and aphid populations together with deterministic and stochastic ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Juvenile hormone titre and related gene expression during the change of reproductive modes in the pea aphid. AU - Ishikawa, A.. AU - Ogawa, K.. AU - Gotoh, H.. AU - Walsh, T. K.. AU - Tagu, D.. AU - Brisson, J. A.. AU - Rispe, C.. AU - Jaubert-Possamai, S.. AU - Kanbe, T.. AU - Tsubota, T.. AU - Shiotsuki, T.. AU - Miura, T.. PY - 2012/2. Y1 - 2012/2. N2 - Most aphids show reproductive polyphenism, i.e. they alternate their reproductive modes from parthenogenesis to sexual reproduction in response to short photoperiods. Although juvenile hormone (JH) has been considered a likely candidate for regulating the transition from asexual to sexual reproduction after photoperiod sensing, there are few studies investigating the direct relationship between JH titres and the reproductive-mode change. In addition, the sequencing of the pea aphid genome has allowed identification of the genes involved in the JH pathway, which in turn allows us to examine their expression levels in relation to ...
Based on the optimum control theory (1) , integrative effect of 11 controllable factors of soybean field on soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura), natural enemies and summer soybean yield was studied systematically by the approaching optimum point and Orthogonal design L27 (3)13 from 1993 to 1996. According to the criterion of not only good control of the pest and increase of soybean yield but also protection of natural enemies, the controllable factors were evaluated synthetically and optimum system control of soybean aphid was suggested as follows: soybean sown in the same maize hole (4 soybean plants to 1 maize plant) or soybean interplanted in maize field (9 rows of soybeans to 2 rows of maize), cultivar Lusoybean 4, sowing time about 10 June, dressing seeds with trace fertilizer at 1800 g/ha, dosage of fertilizer N, P2O5 and K2O application at 45, 60 and 150 kg/ha, dosage of solid manure application at 22500 kg/ha, control soybean aphid with Pirmicarb at 60 g/ha. The technologies of ...
Several parasitoid species of flies and wasps may attack cotton pests (Figure 57), especially aphids and the larvae of lepidopteran pests. Various tiny wasps regularly lay their eggs inside the bodies of aphids. Within a few days the aphids are paralyzed, become swollen and discolored, and eventually die (Figure 58). Several days later, the adult wasp (Figure 59) emerges through a circular hole cut in the mummified body of the aphid. Other tiny wasps and parasitic flies attack the egg or larval stage of armyworms, bollworms, loopers, and other lepidopteran cotton pests.. Several naturally occurring pathogens also may infect and reduce populations of cotton pests. For example, epizootics or outbreaks of the fungal pathogen Neozygites fresenii can rapidly reduce cotton aphid infestations within 7 to 10 days. Infected aphids typically die with their mouthparts still inserted into the leaf and are covered with a velvety white or light gray growth (Figure 60). Later, secondary pathogens infect the ...
Several parasitoid species of flies and wasps may attack cotton pests (Figure 57), especially aphids and the larvae of lepidopteran pests. Various tiny wasps regularly lay their eggs inside the bodies of aphids. Within a few days the aphids are paralyzed, become swollen and discolored, and eventually die (Figure 58). Several days later, the adult wasp (Figure 59) emerges through a circular hole cut in the mummified body of the aphid. Other tiny wasps and parasitic flies attack the egg or larval stage of armyworms, bollworms, loopers, and other lepidopteran cotton pests.. Several naturally occurring pathogens also may infect and reduce populations of cotton pests. For example, epizootics or outbreaks of the fungal pathogen Neozygites fresenii can rapidly reduce cotton aphid infestations within 7 to 10 days. Infected aphids typically die with their mouthparts still inserted into the leaf and are covered with a velvety white or light gray growth (Figure 60). Later, secondary pathogens infect the ...
Partitioning of symbolic bacteria between generations of an insect: a quantitative study of a Buchnera sp. in the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) reared at different temperatures
TY - CONF. T1 - Aphid vectors and transmission of potato virus Y strains. AU - Verbeek, M.. AU - Piron, P.G.M.. AU - Dullemans, A.M.. AU - van der Vlugt, R.A.A.. AU - van den Bovenkamp, G.. AU - Miedema, G.. PY - 2008. Y1 - 2008. KW - aphididae. KW - gewasbescherming. KW - geïntegreerde plagenbestrijding. KW - monitoring. KW - aardappelvirus y. KW - vangmethoden. KW - aphididae. KW - plant protection. KW - integrated pest management. KW - monitoring. KW - potato virus y. KW - trapping. M3 - Abstract. T2 - EAPR virology meeting. Y2 - 17 June 2007 through 22 June 2007. ER - ...
The melon (or cotton) aphid, Aphis gossypii, is distributed throughout most of the world. It has been reported to feed on 220 different crops, including many important vegetables (tomatoes, potatoes, cucurbits) and ornamentals (chrysanthemum, cineraria, begonia, hollyhock, Easter lily). It also infests many weed hosts such as amaranth, milkweed, lambs quarters, and grounsel. Melon aphid infestations can reduce crop vigor, yield, and quality. It is known to vector at least 50 plant viruses, some of which are important in vegetable crops ...
This is an immune response, not to bacteria or viruses, but to parasitic wasps. Aphids are popular targets for some of these wasps: The wasps lay eggs in the aphid, the eggs hatch into baby wasps, and the baby wasps eat the aphids from the inside out until they kill the aphid and then they fly away to predate some more. Except in some aphids, the baby wasps are killed as they hatch, and the aphids survives to make more aphids.. And this immunity to the wasps is - on a population basis, not an individual basis - rather flexible. Insects in general are good at evolving toxin resistance over years or decades, but aphids have apparently been doing this over millions of years. It turns out that different aphids kill the baby wasps in different ways, using different toxins to do so, and the toxins change over time as well. So the wasps cant develop resistance to the toxins. Its a little bit - a very little bit - like an adaptive immune system, at least in broad terms.. Not all aphids are immune at ...
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When aphids are attacked by predators such as ladybird beetles, they release an alarm pheromone, (E)-â-farnesene, that has long been known to cause other aphids to walk around or drop from the plant. In a paper soon to appear in Ecology Letters, researchers at the University and Max-Planck-Institute in Jena, Germany, now show that exposure to alarm pheromone also causes pea aphids to produce winged offspring that leave their host plant when mature.
Forecasting the need for early season aphid control: geographical variation in the relationship between winter temperature and early season flight activity of Myzus ...
Matt and Erin wrap up a few loose ends before the holiday week. First, Matt shares DowAgroSciences sulfoxaflor insecticide got a renewed registration. This insecticide targets fluid-feeding insects and was an option for soybean aphid before it was canceled in 2015. Now, sulfoxaflor can be used in a number of crops, but not for corn or soybean; cotton and sorghum have emergency labels in some U.S. states. Over the weekend, a soybean aphid Biotype-2 colony died due to a bad compressor in a growth chamber. Aphids dont tend to do well in temperatures over 100 degrees, and these ladies got cooked. Our labs host all four soybean aphid biotypes plus a few other aphid colonies. Colony management is really important and the maintenance is ongoing to keep plants and aphids healthy. Iowa State University features a 3MT (Three-minute thesis) oral competition this week. Three people featured insect-related presentations (a long video of all the speakers can be found here).. Upcoming extension events:. ICM ...
The Black Peach Aphid . The black peach aphid (Brachyeauclus persienecola), which is found in most peach-growing districts, attacks both the roots and the above-ground portioThe black peach aphid (Brachyeauclus persienecola), which is found in most peach-growing districts, attacks both the roots and the above-ground portions of the trees. Although the peach is its main. My Garden: gardening community, tips, tricks and more...
Eyles, A and Smith, D and Pinkard, EA and Smith, I and Corkrey, R and Elms, S and Beadle, CL and Mohammed, CL (2011) Photosynthetic responses of field-grown Pinus radiata trees to artificial and aphid-induced defoliation. Tree Physiology, 31. pp. 592-603. ISSN 0829-318X ...
Article Inheritance of resistance to the Soybean aphid in Soybean PI 200538. The soybean aphid (Aphis glycines Matsumura) is a major soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] insect pest. Soybean plant introduction (PI) 200538 has strong resistance to the aph...
One example of this is aphids which can engage in heterogony. In this system, females are born pregnant and produce only female ... However, some aphid species are obligate parthenotes. In obligate parthenogenesis, females only reproduce asexually. One ... Parthenogenesis occurs in the wild in many invertebrates (e.g. water fleas, rotifers, aphids, stick insects, some ants, bees ... Stern, David L. (24 June 2008). "Aphids". Current Biology. 18 (12): R504-R505. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2008.03.034. ISSN 0960-9822. ...
Aphids: insect pest that sucks sap from plant tissue, excreting a substance called honeydew, which invites other fungal disease ... "Aphids". www.aos.org. Retrieved 2017-04-21. "Thrips". www.aos.org. Retrieved 2017-04-21. "Mites". www.aos.org. Retrieved 2017- ...
2. Aphids; their biology, natural enemies and control, PART B (Eds. A. K. Minks and P. Harrewijn). Elsevier, Amsterdam". ...
Sorensen, J.T. (2009). "Aphids". In Resh, Vincent H.; Cardé, R.T. (eds.). Encyclopedia of Insects (2 ed.). Academic Press. pp. ... Aphidomorpha is an infraorder within the insect order Sternorrhyncha which includes the aphids and their allies in the ...
"Corn Leaf Aphid (Rhopalosiphum maidis)". Utah State University Extension Service. Archived from the original on May 22, 2017. ... "Aphids". Utah State University Extension Services. Archived from the original on May 22, 2017. Retrieved May 22, 2017. "Western ... "Cabbage Aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae)". Utah State University Extension Services. Archived from the original on May 22, 2017. ... Green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) Green stink bug (Chinavia hilaris) Ichneumon wasp (Megarhyssa spp.) Jerusalem cricket ( ...
and aphids. The fossil was recovered from outcrops of the Las Peñosas Formation in Rábago, part of the Cantabria autonomous ...
... cowpea aphid (Aphis craccivora), cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii), milkweed aphid (Aphis nerii), spirea aphid (Aphis spiraecola), ... turnip aphid (Lipaphis pseudobrassicae), Macrosiphoniella yomogifoliae, potato aphid (Macrosiphum euphorbiae), rose aphid ( ... Among those insects hunted include many species of aphids, including the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum), Aphis affinis, ... leafcurling plum aphid (Brachycaudus helichrysi), cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae), Cervaphis quercus, Cervaphis rappardi ...
Pests include aphids. It is native to the Cape Province in South Africa, but is naturalized in parts of South Italy, France, ...
In aphids, a generation sexually conceived by a male and a female produces only females. The reason for this is the non-random ... Examples include several aphid species and the willow sawfly, Nematus oligospilus, which is sexual in its native Holarctic ... Examples include aphids. Parthenogenesis involving meiosis is more complicated. In some cases, the offspring are haploid (e.g ... In the case of aphids, parthenogenetically produced males and females are clones of their mother except that the males lack one ...
"Aphids, M, Macrosiphoniella". Aphids on the World's Plants. Retrieved May 19, 2020. Bisby F.A.; Roskov Y.R.; Orrell T.M.; ... Macrosiphoniella sibirica is an aphid found on stems and inflorescences of Artemisia (mugwort) in western Siberia and ... AphidSF: Aphid Species File. Favret C., 2010-04-14 v t e. ...
Aphids. Aphids, which can spread the cucumber mosaic virus, sometimes feed on pansies. ... The cucumber mosaic virus is transmitted by aphids. Pansies with the virus have fine yellow veining on young leaves, stunted ...
The greenbug, or wheat aphid (Schizaphis graminum), is an aphid in the superfamily Aphidoidea in the order Hemiptera. It is a ... This aphid feeds almost exclusively on a range of grasses in the family Poaceae; genera attacked include Agropyron, Avena, ... When feeding on grasses, the aphids suck the sap and at first cause yellow or red spots on the leaves. As the greenbugs become ... As the leaves die back, the aphids move on to fresh foliage. The greenbug is the vector of several plant viruses including ...
The hawthorn-carrot aphid, (Dysaphis crataegi), also known as Dysaphis (Dysaphis) crataegi, is an aphid in the superfamily ... The hawthorn-carrot aphid migrates to its primary host in late summer and forms red, curling galls on its leaves. The following ... The hawthorn-carrot aphid was first described by the German entomologist Johann Heinrich Kaltenbach in 1843. It has three ... These aphids are attended by ants on both their primary and secondary hosts. "Species Dysaphis (Dysaphis) crataegi (Kaltenbach ...
Several species of aphid transmit the virus including the plum-thistle aphid (Brachycaudus cardui), the plum leaf curl aphid ( ... PPV is not persistent in the aphid and is transferred from the mouthparts of the aphid between plants. Long distance spread ... Brachycaudus helichrysi) and the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae). Winged aphids can transmit plum pox within an orchard, and ... The virus is transmitted by aphids and by the transfer of infected plant material to new locations. Plum pox poses no danger to ...
The hawthorn-carrot aphid overwinters on its primary host, a hawthorn tree, and migrates during the summer to its secondary ... group (Hawthorn - umbellifer aphids)". Genus Dysaphis. InfluentialPoints. Retrieved 18 October 2017. "The Influenza (Flu) ...
Pea aphids are not known to be farmed by ants that feed on honeydews. More than 20 legume genera are known to host pea aphids, ... Therefore, the pea aphid is more accurately described as a species complex. The pea aphid is thought to be of Palearctic origin ... The aphid genome is 464MB with aphid-specific orphan genes making up 20% of the genome and gene duplication present in more ... Winged aphids can then colonize other host plants. Pea aphids also show hereditary body color variations of green or red/pink. ...
Larvae feed on aphids. This species has been used experimentally in glasshouses as a method of aphid control, and to control ... They were found to be partial to the fruit, eating more fruit than aphids. E. corollae is found across Europe, North Africa and ... scale insects and aphids in fruit plantations. ...
"Rice Root Aphid". www.padil.gov.au. Retrieved 14 July 2020. "AphID - Antennal tubercle". aphid.aphidnet.org. Retrieved 14 July ... Like all aphids, reproduction is sexual and asexual, depending on the environmental conditions and host plant. Rice root aphids ... Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominale, the rice root aphid or red rice root aphid, is a sap-sucking insect pest with a wide host range ... "Aphid - Root aphid". Center for Agriculture, Food and the Environment. 6 March 2018. Retrieved 13 July 2020. "Rhopalosiphum ...
Transmission occurs by Aphids. This Carlavirus should not be confused with the similarly named Narcissus latent virus which is ...
They also farm aphids. In the farming, the ants protect the aphids while they excrete a sugary fluid called honeydew, which the ... Carpenter ants can increase the survivability of aphids when they tend them. They tend many aphid species but can also express ... These systems often lead to an end at some food source - often aphid colonies, where the ants extract and feed on honeydew. ... Common foods for them include insect parts, "honeydew" produced by aphids, or extrafloral nectar from plants. They are also ...
They feed on aphids. The beetles overwinter under peeled-off bark and in coniferous litter. The adults occur from spring to ...
Its common names include leaf curl plum aphid, and leaf-curling plum aphid, and it is a serious pest of plum and damson trees. ... It is one of several species of aphid that can transmit the virus that causes plum pox. "ITIS standard report - Brachycaudus ... Leafcurl Plum Aphid". AgroAtlas. Retrieved 2015-02-18. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Van Emden, Helmut Fritz; ... Brachycaudus helichrysi is a species of aphid first described by the German naturalist Johann Heinrich Kaltenbach in 1843. ...
Aphids may infest plants. Leatherjackets feed on the roots. Larvae of the Scarlet lily beetle can cause serious damage to the ...
... , variously known as the cowpea aphid, groundnut aphid or black legume aphid, is a true bug in the family ... A female aphid lives for 9 to 25 days and can produce from 25 to 125 young during its life. There may be up to twenty ... The aphids tend to concentrate on the growing tips of plants, young leaves, shoots, flowers and developing seed pods. They are ... The aphid is the vector of a number of plant viruses including groundnut rosette virus, peanut mottle virus, peanut stunt virus ...
They mainly feed on aphids. This quite rare species can be found in central and southern Europe. It occurs in open, sunny ...
The flight period is end May to September (July to September at higher altitudes). The larva feeds on aphids. Stubbs, Alan E.; ...
The larva feeds on aphids. Stubbs, Alan E. & Falk, Steven J. (1983). British Hoverflies: An Illustrated Identification Guide. ...
Aphids as Virus Vector, 1977. Insect and Plant Viruses-An Atlas, 1977. Viruses and Environment, 1978. Invertebrate Tissue ...
and predatory Syrphidae" (PDF). Aphids and Other Hemipterous Insects. 13: 211-217. Bugg, Robert L.; Colfer, Ramy G.; Chaney, ... William E.; Smith, Hugh A.; Cannon, James (May 2008). Flower flies (Syrphidae) and other biological control agents for aphids ...
The species feed on aphids. "Pilophorus perplexus Douglas & Scott 1875". 2.6.2. Fauna Europaea. August 29, 2013. Retrieved ...
Some aphids transmit plant viruses which can be a problem on strawberries, raspberries, tomatoes, cucumbers, dahlias, tulips, ... Aphids are very common sap-sucking insects that can cause a lack of plant vigour, distorted growth and often excrete a sticky ... Hellebore aphid. Ladybirds Lupin aphid. Mealy cabbage aphid. Pear bedstraw aphid. Plum aphids. Privet aphid Protect your garden ... Rose aphids. Rose root aphid Rosy apple aphid. Waterlily pests Willow bark aphid Woolly aphid. Woolly beech aphid ...
G. O. Shinji, "Notes on Aphids," Psyche, vol. 24, no. 3, pp. 84-86, 1917. doi:10.1155/1917/60759 ...
But scientists have discovered that an animal may actually be able to do it: The biology of aphids is bizarre: they can be born ... The biology of aphids is bizarre: they can be born pregnant and males sometimes lack mouths, causing them to die not long after ... Aphids are unique among animals in their ability to synthesize pigments called carotenoids. Many creatures rely on these ... in aphids, these pigments can absorb energy from the Sun and transfer it to the cellular machinery involved in energy ...
its raining aphids! hallelujah its raining aphids! This aphid is actually a huge problem, and the sheer biomass only 10 (or ... I hear that aphids are attracted to liberals, to scourge them for all the wrong they have done over the years. I know that the ... Its been snowing aphids the past few days here in Champaign-Urbana. Trillions of them are drifting across town, settling out ... this explains the larger number of aphids in the urbana area. i think we should oust the liberals from urbana to make these ...
Soybean aphids piling up in a spider web Its been snowing aphids the past few days here in Champaign-Urbana. Trillions of them ... its raining aphids! hallelujah its raining aphids! This aphid is actually a huge problem, and the sheer biomass only 10 (or ... FAQ: The Illinois Aphid Swarm. A student at the University of Illinois navigates an aphid swarm between classes. Weve had ... I hear that aphids are attracted to liberals, to scourge them for all the wrong they have done over the years. I know that the ...
Tree aphids are so exquisite that its hard to remember that its an aphid. Its the winged phase; non-winged individuals are, ... In return, they get to "milk" the aphids by stroking the aphids abdomen. ... farm aphids. They protect the aphids from predators like ladybugs and move them to greener pastures. ... Antlions Ants Aphids Arachnids Assassin Bug Barklice Bees Beetles Butterflies Caddisflies Caterpillars Cicadas Crickets ...
These are the plum leaf-curling aphid and mealy plum aphid. ... Two aphid species commonly occur on plums, damsons, greengages ... Plum aphids. Two aphid species commonly occur on plums, damsons, greengages and sloe. These are the plum leaf-curling aphid and ... What are plum aphids?. Plum aphids are sap-sucking insects that feed of the foliage of plums and other related fruit trees. ... Mealy plum aphid is active in mid- to late summer, when dense colonies of pale greenish white aphids cluster on the underside ...
When aphids. produce it, other aphids in the vicinity rapidly disperse. At high concentrations,. the pheromone affects the ... the aphids emerged from the lettuces and just one-tenth of the recommended. dose of the pesticide was enough to kill them. ... When aphids attack a lettuce, they are notoriously difficult to control. because they usually congregate in the tight central ... The active chemical in an aphids alarm pheromone is (E)-beta-farnesene. - one of a group of a plant metabolites, known as ...
Aphids produce more ATP - the biological energy molecule - in response to light. While this doesnt prove they photosynthesise ... Aphids may recharge their batteries as they sit in the sun.. A handful of animals live in symbiosis with photosynthetic ... Aphids are the only insects known to have the genes to produce carotenoids; the molecules give them their colour. ... Maria Capovilla of the University of Nice in France and colleagues found that light boosted ATP production in aphids that have ...
... K-60 (R-60, Object 62) The AA-8 NATO Aphid is a short-range, maneuverable, infrared guided air-to-air missile, ...
The sooty mold is caused by the aphid feeding so controlling the insects will stop the honeydew which causes the sooty mold. ... Insecticidal soap will control the aphids but you may need to make several applications. Just keep at it and eventually you?ll ... How do I get rid of the aphids and the black soot on my Gardenias?. ...
... aphid: Types of aphids: The rose aphid (Macrosiphum rosae) is large and green with black appendages and pink markings. It is ... In aphid: Types of aphids. The rose aphid (Macrosiphum rosae) is large and green with black appendages and pink markings. It is ... Other articles where Rose aphid is discussed: ... Rose aphids (Macrosiphum rosae). Anthony Bannister-NHPA/ ...
Aphids can devastate your garden, so get rid of them! Here are several different things you can do to clear our these pests ... Aphids feeding on a plant , Source. How to Tell if You Have an Aphid Problem. There are more than 4000 species of aphid, of ... What Are Aphids?. Aphids are sap suckers. They are found throughout the world and have been around for millions of years. As a ... is likely to have an aphid problem. The removal of sap reduces the plants food supply, aphid saliva is toxic to the plants and ...
Ladybugs are natural predators of aphids, each capable of consuming anywhere from 75 to 300 aphids per day. So you can imagine ... This year as I was clipping the old blooms, I noticed that there are aphids on the stems now and some spider mites starting to ... DEAR MARI: Aphids, or plant lice, are tiny parasitical insects with piercing-sucking mouthparts, which they attach to soft ... If the spider mites are not eliminated along with the aphids and continue to be a problem, look for a miticide or acaricide and ...
Each species of Cinara aphids has its own distinct conifer... ... Cinara refers to an overall genus of aphids consisting of ... Cinara aphids are dark in color and can be various shades of brown and black. This genus features some of the largest aphids in ... Large populations of aphids can cause significant damage and even death to some conifers. Interestingly, aphids cause no damage ... Cinara refers to an overall genus of aphids consisting of several species that feed on conifer vegetation. Each species of ...
Organic farmers in Ventura County stand to lose millions of dollars in crops this year because of the worst outbreak of aphids ... Agriculture officials say the most common signs of aphid infestation are:. * Aphids that are visible on the skin or outer ... They also have introduced ladybugs and lacewings, which feed on aphids, into their fields to reduce the aphid population. ... "Aphids are on things Ive never seen them on before.". There is only a small contingent of organic farmers in Ventura County. ...
101. The Council welcomed the initiation of concrete action under the Special Programme on food production in support of food security in low-income food-deficit countries (LIFDCs). It noted that the Secretariat had further refined the objectives, strategy and modus operandi, and asked that the documents relating to this policy framework be made available to Member Nations. The Council agreed that the financial and operational limitations inherent to the budgetary provisions for this programme dictated a high degree of selectivity in the initial phase of the implementation of the Programme.. 102. The Council stressed the distinctive economic aspects relating to production, consumption and access, and the many important factors contributing to food security in the context of development needs of individual Member Nations, the need not to neglect agriculture in less favourable areas, as well as the impact of global factors. It was confirmed that the well-established programmes of the Organization ...
The soybean aphid (fig. 1) was introduced into the United States sometime in the late 1990s. It was first observed in 2001 in ... Figure 5. Soybean aphids. Figure 6. Soybean aphids on terminal leaf. Management. Researchers in numerous Midwest states ... Growers should be aware that at the early buildup of soybean aphids in a field, aphids will normally be found on the upper 2-3 ... Figure 1. Soybean aphid adult and nymphs. Figure 2. Close-up of wingless soybean aphid. ...
Acyrthosiphon pisum, aphids killed by Erynia neoaphidis fungi, with Aphidius smithi mummy. ...
The book remains a comprehensive and up-to-date reference work on the biology of aphids, the various methods of controlling ... He has researched on aphids for over 50 years and has wide international experience, including in the tropics.Richard ... the shift from control of aphids with insecticides to a more integrated approach imposed by increasing resistance in the aphids ... Aphids are among the major global pest groups, causing serious economic damage to many food and commodity crops in most parts ...
Aphids excrete a sugary liquid called honeydew that ants really like so they groom the aphids and milk the substance from the ... Do ants take of aphids, or do they eat them? Where can I find diatomaceous earth? Not the kind that goes in to a swimming pool? ... Ants dont eat aphids, though. Diatomaceous Earth can be purchased from Gardens Alive, 5100 Schenley Pl., Lawrenceburg, IN ... Ants sometimes herd aphids and protect them from predators. ...
Aphids by Gabrielle Lees as a Poster, Throw Pillow, Tote Bag, Art Print, Canvas Print, Framed Print, Photographic Print, Metal ... The aphids seem to have disappeared also.. Ive found that the lady birds like sitting on long tall grass too. This plant was a ... Lady Bird & Aphids. Ive recently discovered that I have over 9 different Lady Birds in the garden. Yes they are on my hit list ... Awwh thank you Mary, I dont worry about aphids anymore, they are hard to find these days. I want more! lOL! Yes Im crazy but ...
Both used semiactive radar guidance, though the Aphid was apparently produced in an infrared-homing version as well. The long- ... and the AA-8 Aphid, a relatively small missile for close-in use, were introduced during the 1970s. ... a Sparrow equivalent, and the AA-8 Aphid, a relatively small missile for close-in use, were introduced during the 1970s. Both ... used semiactive radar guidance, though the Aphid was apparently produced in an infrared-homing version as well. The long-range ...
Aphidomorpha (Aphid) is an infraorder of plant lice. There are 5561 species of Aphid, in 704 genera and 30 families. This ... Known occurrences, collected specimens and observations of aphid. View this species on GBIF ...
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Aphids invade soybeans. August 7, 2003. By admin A bunch of bothersome bugs have invaded some soybean fields. The soybean aphid ... the skins that the aphids shed. McGrath says the aphids are hitting a little later than normal, but can still do a lot of ... He says Iowa State Extension offices can offer farmers the guidelines for conducting an aphid scouting expedition in a field. ... and he says soybean aphids have been a "pain in the neck ever since." He says farmers need to go out into their fields are do a ...
Female aphids do not lay eggs; they give live birth to other female aphids. There can be as many as 40 generations of aphids in ... Aphids vary in color; they can be green, white, yellow, brown, red or black. It is quite common for aphids to attack the ... Aphids. Aphids are also known as plant lice. They are small insects that feed on plants. There are approximately 4,400 species ... Controlling Aphids. Ladybugs and lacewings are natural predators of aphids, and in some cases these insects are able to keep ...
7 February 1997 Aphids frozen outAPHICIDE granules will not be needed to protect this years sugar beet crop from virus yellows ... Aphids frozen out. APHICIDE granules will not be needed to protect this years sugar beet crop from virus yellows, says IACR ... January saw 24 ground frosts at Brooms Barn, of which three were less than the aphid-killing -7C (19.4F). Last year there had ... Seed treated with Gaucho (imidacloprid) is unlikely to benefit from aphid and virus yellows control, adds Alan Dewar .. ...
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Melon Aphid or Cotton Aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Insecta: Hemiptera: Aphididae). *Oleander Aphid, Aphis nerii Boyer de ... Asian Woolly Hackberry Aphid, Shivaphis celti Das (Insecta: Hemiptera: Aphididae). *Biology and Control of the Strawberry Aphid ... Giant Bark Aphid, Longistigma caryae (Harris) (Insecta: Hemiptera: Aphididae). *Green Peach Aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer) ( ... Podocarpus Aphid (suggested common name) Neophyllaphis podocarpi Takahashi (Insecta: Hemiptera: Aphididae). *Woolly oak aphids ...
  • Aphids are very common sap-sucking insects that can cause a lack of plant vigour, distorted growth and often excrete a sticky substance (honeydew) on foliage which allows the growth of sooty moulds. (rhs.org.uk)
  • Some species, like woolly beech aphid and woolly aphid on apple, cover themselves with a fluffy white waxy secretion and can be confused with some scale insects , mealybug or whitefly . (rhs.org.uk)
  • non-winged individuals are, depending on the species, blob-shaped, sesame seed-shaped, or spidery-looking insects seen en masse, sucking juices from the tender parts of plants. (uwm.edu)
  • Plum aphids are sap-sucking insects that feed of the foliage of plums and other related fruit trees. (rhs.org.uk)
  • The sooty mold is caused by the aphid feeding so controlling the insects will stop the honeydew which causes the sooty mold. (garden.org)
  • Aphids can be extremely small, less than a 1/10th of an inch, so a small infestation can be difficult to see, however these insects are so common that any plant which doesn't seem to grow well, has yellow leaves, curled leaves or generally stunted growth, is likely to have an aphid problem. (hubpages.com)
  • The removal of sap reduces the plants food supply, aphid saliva is toxic to the plants and the insects often transmit plant viruses. (hubpages.com)
  • While many insects have an 'up-side' in that they can be beneficial to plants in some way, aphids do not. (hubpages.com)
  • They also attract predatory insects who help to keep the aphid population down. (hubpages.com)
  • Aphids, or plant lice, are tiny parasitical insects with piercing-sucking mouthparts, which they attach to soft plant parts in order to suck the life out of them. (newsday.com)
  • Phil Phillips, a pest management specialist with the University of California farm adviser's office in Ventura, said lack of rain has broken down the resistance of crops to predatory insects such as aphids. (latimes.com)
  • Soybean aphids are small (1/16 inch) insects with the typical cornicles, or tail pipes, at the rear of the insect (fig. 2). (osu.edu)
  • Aphids are small sap-sucking insects and members of the superfamily Aphidoidea. (wikipedia.org)
  • Late 20th-century reclassification within the Hemiptera reduced the old taxon "Homoptera" to two suborders: Sternorrhyncha (aphids, whiteflies, scales, psyllids, etc.) and Auchenorrhyncha (cicadas, leafhoppers, treehoppers, planthoppers, etc.) with the suborder Heteroptera containing a large group of insects known as the true bugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ladybugs and lacewings are natural predators of aphids, and in some cases these insects are able to keep the aphid population in check. (gardenguides.com)
  • Aphids are herbivorous, tiny insects known for their destructive nature in regards to plants, flowers and trees. (ehow.com)
  • Aphids are not immune to predatory insects. (ehow.com)
  • Aphids are small insects with soft, pear-shaped bodies and piercing sucking mouthparts. (uky.edu)
  • Aphids are tiny (1/8″) green, black or pink insects with plump, pear-shaped bodies and two tubes, or cornicles, which project like exhaust pipes from their abdomens. (rose.org)
  • Aphids are small, plant-eating insects that often appear on the leaves, stems and trunks of vegetable plants, fruit trees and flowers. (gardenguides.com)
  • According to the researchers, since Buchnera-related bacteria are present in a number of insects (other than aphids), their findings are likely to be broadly applicable to other arthropods. (redorbit.com)
  • Use a strong direct spray of plain water to remove aphids without harming the beneficial insects. (calgary.ca)
  • Beneficial insects will fly away to dry off and return later to eat more aphids. (calgary.ca)
  • Predatory insects such as ladybugs will help to keep aphids under control. (calgary.ca)
  • Among the insects that attack cherry trees is the black cherry aphid. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Follow the directions for using ladybugs carefully so that they'll be most effective against aphids and other soft-bodied insects. (planetnatural.com)
  • Among the most common orchid pests, aphids are slow-moving, soft-bodied insects related to scale. (aos.org)
  • Aphids, the tiny insects that can overwhelm soybeans and reduce yields, are appearing earlier than in previous years, according to an Iowa State University entomologist. (phys.org)
  • We do not offer extermination advice, but in an effort to prevent you from spraying harmful pesticides that may kill beneficial insects as well as the Aphids, we would urge you to spray the colony with soapy water, an effective means of eradication that does not harm the environment as much as pesticides will. (whatsthatbug.com)
  • Unfortunately woolly aphid is a common pest of edible and ornamental apple trees, the insects are hidden under the white fluff that can be mistaken for a mould. (harrodhorticultural.com)
  • According to the Colorado State University Extension, aphids are the most common garden insects. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Dealing with aphids and other plant-damaging insects, can seem overwhelming and a burden. (lewisginter.org)
  • Aphids and Whitefly are sap-sucking insects that gather on the underside of leaves and on the stems of lush plants. (lifeinitaly.com)
  • Poisons used to kill aphids also kill beneficial insects and in almost all cases are not recommended. (durangoherald.com)
  • He says Iowa State Extension offices can offer farmers the guidelines for conducting an aphid scouting expedition in a field.McGrath says if there's an aphid infestation, farmers can't opt for an aerial application of insecticide because that won't work. (radioiowa.com)
  • A severe infestation of aphids can damage the plant and blossoms. (gardenguides.com)
  • Aphids increase in numbers quickly-that is why it is important to monitor the hibiscus regularly so you can avoid a severe infestation. (gardenguides.com)
  • When you have a severe infestation of aphids, the National Gardening Association recommends using a horticultural oil or insecticidal soap to control them. (gardenguides.com)
  • Ants feed on this sticky substance and often are present where there is an aphid infestation. (rose.org)
  • Prolonged aphid infestation can cause appreciable reduction in yield of root crops and foliage crops. (hydro-gardens.com)
  • ASPEN, Colorado - An Aspen beekeeper has released 140,000 ladybugs to attack an aphid infestation plaguing the city's cottonwood trees. (vaildaily.com)
  • Armed with the knowledge, I captured some ladybugs, then gave them new homes on plants that had signs of aphid infestation. (cheftalk.com)
  • The thinner bark around old pruning cuts is a prime site for woolly aphid infestation in spring but by mid-summer the pest is likely to have spread on to the younger shoots. (harrodhorticultural.com)
  • Researching my gardening books and the Internet and visiting with the Extension office and nurseries, I have learned that there is a heavy infestation of fat, little, round, shiny, black aphids on cherries this year and that the battle against them has to be waged daily. (durangoherald.com)
  • It will be an essential reference for all those doing research not only on aphids but also other pests as it provides and illustrates the range of knowledge needed by those seeking to control pests of crops. (cabi.org)
  • Aphids are among the most destructive insect pests on cultivated plants in temperate regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • He says farmers need to go out into their fields are do a thorough search for the pests, which multiply very quickly.He says you can usually see the green aphids on the upper leaves, or white specks - the skins that the aphids shed. (radioiowa.com)
  • Aphids have destroyed up to 30 percent of the region's first cut of alfalfa, and the green pests have also damaged fruit crops and pistachio trees, said Utah State University extension agent Adrian Hinton.The cool spring has also delayed the hatching of the lacy wing and the praying mantis, allowing the aphids to grow exponentially, Hinton said. (deseretnews.com)
  • Thus, to reduce damage caused by aphids, the major insect pests in Europe, it may prove effective to apply pulses of alarm pheromone to infested fields. (eurekalert.org)
  • Rose aphids are one of the most common pests, and one of the first, we see on our roses in the spring. (rose.org)
  • Aphids are devastating insect pests and cause great losses to agriculture worldwide. (redorbit.com)
  • These sap-feeding plant pests harbor in their body cavity bacteria, which are essential for the aphids' fecundity and survival. (redorbit.com)
  • Aphids measure just a few millimeters in size and are considers pests. (outdoorphotographer.com)
  • Aphids Homoptera, Aphididae - There are many species of aphids known to be pests. (hydro-gardens.com)
  • There are many species of aphids known to be pests. (hydro-gardens.com)
  • O'Neal is concerned that broad-spectrum insecticides aimed at aphids and other pests may also kill beneficial species that prey on aphids. (agriculture.com)
  • No one knows better than Hogue, who writes 'Aphids (Family Aphidae) Aphids are notorious pests of cultivated plants. (whatsthatbug.com)
  • Unfortunately, out of doors, damaging aphid infestations can build up in spring before the natural enemies are active in sufficient numbers to achieve control. (rhs.org.uk)
  • However, by mid-summer aphid infestations are often kept in check. (rhs.org.uk)
  • Aphid infestations on tall trees have to be tolerated. (rhs.org.uk)
  • Planting date is the most important factor that determines the intensity of aphid infestations, and consequently, BYDV levels in fields. (uky.edu)
  • Early detection is key to reducing aphid infestations. (rose.org)
  • Growing plants in a healthy condition in moist, fertile soil is the best way to avoid aphid infestations. (calgary.ca)
  • Too much nitrogen fosters soft, succulent stems and leaves that are especially vulnerable to aphid infestations. (theprovince.com)
  • Typically, aphid infestations peaked in odd years like 2003 and plunged in even years like 2006. (agriculture.com)
  • Roses are often the victim of aphid infestations. (planetnatural.com)
  • But most aphid infestations are fairly easy to control, as aphids are slow and defenceless. (ehow.co.uk)
  • They protect the aphids from predators like ladybugs and move them to greener pastures. (uwm.edu)
  • Ladybugs are natural predators of aphids, each capable of consuming anywhere from 75 to 300 aphids per day. (newsday.com)
  • They also have introduced ladybugs and lacewings, which feed on aphids, into their fields to reduce the aphid population. (latimes.com)
  • A cool spring has kept this year's crop of ladybugs from hatching, which in turn has allowed the voracious aphid to multiply unfettered, seriously damaging crops, a farm expert said Tuesday. (deseretnews.com)
  • Ladybugs are renowned aphid eaters. (ehow.com)
  • Releasing a couple hundred ladybugs in your garden will ensure an aphid-free birch tree. (ehow.com)
  • Once realizing the plethora of food (aphids), water and space, the ladybugs will stay, continuing to fend off the aphid attackers. (ehow.com)
  • If you're lucky enough to have ladybugs in your garden, their larvae will eat their weight in aphids each day. (planetnatural.com)
  • Often ladybugs will be attracted to your garden if you have aphids. (planetnatural.com)
  • If you introduce ladybugs thinking you'll prevent aphids from entering your garden, you could be in for disappointment. (planetnatural.com)
  • I released over a thousand ladybugs one summer, and they munched on aphids for a couple of days before disappearing from my garden to never return. (cheftalk.com)
  • In typical aphids (family Aphididae), two tubes called cornicles project from the rear of the abdomen and exude protective substances. (factmonster.com)
  • About 5,000 species of aphid have been described, all included in the family Aphididae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since its introduction into the United States in the past 10 yr, soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), has been a damaging pest to soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill. (bioone.org)
  • Nicholas S. Behrens , Junwei Zhu , and Joel R. Coats "Pan Trapping Soybean Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) using Attractants," Journal of Economic Entomology 105(3), 890-895, (1 June 2012). (bioone.org)
  • The soybean aphid (fig. 1) was introduced into the United States sometime in the late 1990s. (osu.edu)
  • Scouting for soybean aphid is done by walking into the field at least 100 feet from the field's edge. (osu.edu)
  • Numerous insecticides are labeled for soybean aphid control. (osu.edu)
  • The soybean aphid is being found in more and more fields according to Iowa State University agronomist Clark McGrath.McGrath says it's a pest that found its way into the Midwest a couple of years ago, and he says soybean aphids have been a "pain in the neck ever since. (radioiowa.com)
  • During 2008 and 2009, fields in central and north central Iowa experienced pockets of high soybean aphid populations. (bioone.org)
  • Electroantennograms have shown that soybean aphid alatae are capable of detecting host plant volatiles and sex pheromones. (bioone.org)
  • Here, we evaluated baited pan traps as a potential soybean aphid attractant. (bioone.org)
  • Sounds like you're out scouting fields, which is the best thing you can do to stay on top of soybean aphid pressure between now and mid-August. (agweb.com)
  • The increase in soybean aphid numbers means producers should step up scouting efforts, but they also should take caution to avoid unnecessary spraying. (phys.org)
  • Aphids excrete a sugary liquid called honeydew that ants really like so they groom the aphids and milk the substance from the aphids bodies. (garden.org)
  • So-called dairying ants have a mutualistic relationship with aphids, tending them for their honeydew, and protecting them from predators. (wikipedia.org)
  • As an aphid feeds on plant sap, it excretes the unneeded portion in the form of small drops of honeydew. (uwm.edu)
  • Unable to fully di-gest all the sugar in this plant sap, the aphid excretes the excess in a fluid which is called "honeydew," and this honeydew drops onto the leaves below. (rose.org)
  • Before using insecticide sprays, try squishing with your fingers or knocking the aphids off with a strong spray of water to get them under control (and this will also wash off the honeydew, if present). (rose.org)
  • As the sap has an excess of sugar from the aphids' perspective, they excrete a sugary syrup, called honeydew. (nmsu.edu)
  • As the plant sap flows through its body, the aphid uses only a few of the nutrients in the sap and the rest is excreted as 'honeydew,' which makes leaves on affected trees appear shiny. (calgary.ca)
  • Fungus then grows on this honeydew, creating a black scum that can stick to cars, patio furniture, decks and sidewalks located beneath aphid-infested trees. (calgary.ca)
  • Often you'll see ants moving up and down the branches as they visit groups of aphids and feed on the sweet honeydew that the aphids secrete. (theprovince.com)
  • Contamination of harvestable plant material with aphids, or with aphid honeydew, also causes loss. (hydro-gardens.com)
  • However, green peach aphid does not seem to produce the high volume of honeydew observed with some other species of aphids. (hydro-gardens.com)
  • Aphids suck the sap from plant leaves and leave behind a honeydew secretion that promotes the growth of black mould. (ehow.co.uk)
  • By analysing the content of the aphids' droppings (a sweet liquid called honeydew), Kazana found that the winged ones were simply excreting any sinigrin that they ate. (discovermagazine.com)
  • Aphids eat more plant fluids than they can digest, excreting honeydew - a sweet, syrupy material - on leaves and stems. (aos.org)
  • They will even farm aphids, moving them from plant to plant so that additional honeydew factories can be created. (aos.org)
  • However, if you find numerous lady bird beetles or lacewing larvae in the tree, you should allow the natural controls, these insect predators of aphids, to do the job. (nmsu.edu)
  • Both adult lady beetles and their ferocious-looking larvae are voracious predators of aphids. (theprovince.com)
  • During the growing season there are many insecticides that can be used against aphids. (rhs.org.uk)
  • This revision and update of the well-received first edition published ten years ago reflects the expansion of research in genomics, endosymbionts and semiochemicals, as well as the shift from control of aphids with insecticides to a more integrated approach imposed by increasing resistance in the aphids and government restrictions on pesticides. (cabi.org)
  • Insecticides do not always produce reliable results, given resistance to several classes of insecticide and the fact that aphids often feed on the undersides of leaves. (wikipedia.org)
  • Insecticides should be sprayed directly on the aphids. (gardenguides.com)
  • Insecticides approved for black cherry aphids include imidacloprid and thiamethoxam. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Insecticides destroy the worker ants that move and protect aphids, but the colony must be eradicated for total control. (aos.org)
  • Ants, famously, farm aphids. (uwm.edu)
  • Do ants take of aphids, or do they eat them? (garden.org)
  • Ants sometimes 'herd' aphids and protect them from predators. (garden.org)
  • Ants don't eat aphids, though. (garden.org)
  • Aphids and Ants seem to go together as this image shows---I was flat on the ground on my stomach photographing ants when this one climbed to the top of a flower bud. (smithsonianmag.com)
  • Often, the presence of ants is an indicator of an aphid problem. (planetnatural.com)
  • To control aphids, one must also eliminate ants. (aos.org)
  • Sugar-based ant baits are recommended, as ants that farm aphids prefer sugar over fats. (aos.org)
  • Because I am spraying aphids often with water, using insecticide soap occasionally and trying to stop ants from farming the aphids, I am seeing less damage. (durangoherald.com)
  • These are the plum leaf-curling aphid and mealy plum aphid. (rhs.org.uk)
  • Plum leaf-curling aphid causes severe leaf distortion on the foliage of all types of plum during April to late May. (rhs.org.uk)
  • Once leaf distortion has occurred there is little can be done to deal with plum leaf curling aphid. (rhs.org.uk)
  • Aphids are generally wingless until an overcrowded plant/deteriorating plant quality signals them to produce winged forms that can migrate to nearby vegetation. (uwm.edu)
  • Aphids can have up to 12 generations per year, with most generations being wingless. (osu.edu)
  • Generally most adult aphids in a colony will be wingless. (uky.edu)
  • The wingless (apterous) aphids are yellowish or greenish in color. (hydro-gardens.com)
  • However, aphids develop into wingless and winged forms, and Kazana found that larvae that attacked winged aphids fared much better. (discovermagazine.com)
  • While other farmers can spray chemicals to rid their produce of the pest, organic farmers say they are almost powerless to prevent the damage aphids can wreak. (latimes.com)
  • Aphids are among the major global pest groups, causing serious economic damage to many food and commodity crops in most parts of the world. (cabi.org)
  • The book remains a comprehensive and up-to-date reference work on the biology of aphids, the various methods of controlling them and the progress of integrated pest management as illustrated by ten case histories. (cabi.org)
  • I get aphids on my roses…they really are a pest. (redbubble.com)
  • According to Toews, multiple scientists are needed to work on the problem because the sugarcane aphid is a difficult pest to manage on sorghum in the Southern U.S. (uga.edu)
  • By 2016, Georgia growers only planted 20,000 acres of grain sorghum because the sugarcane aphid was such a devastating pest that cut into profits and the ability to produce a crop," Toews said. (uga.edu)
  • Always inspect trees and other aphid-infested plants before pruning or using any other pest controls in case aphid predators are already at work cleaning up the problem. (theprovince.com)
  • Green Peach Aphid ( Myzus persicae ) The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), is found throughout the world, including all areas of North America, where it is viewed as a pest principally due to its ability to transmit plant viruses. (hydro-gardens.com)
  • This may be exacerbating aphids from being an off-and-on pest to being constant every year," says O'Neal. (agriculture.com)
  • These warm and often humid days of mid-summer bring the first signs of an unsightly pest: aphids. (planetnatural.com)
  • Organic 2 in 1 Garden Pest and Disease Spray & Insect Killer Spray - it may help to spray with one of these products after you have removed the aphids to eradicate as many as you can. (harrodhorticultural.com)
  • The eggs are laid inside the pest's body and the body of the pest (aphid, whitefly, cabbage worm, tomato hornworm etc) then becomes both the food and an ideal place for the larvae to develop. (lifeinitaly.com)
  • The rose aphid ( Macrosiphum rosae ) is large and green with black appendages and pink markings. (britannica.com)
  • The rose aphid, Macrosiphum rosae , dates its taxonomic heritage right to the opening of modern nomenclature. (myrmecos.net)
  • What made you want to look up rose aphid ? (merriam-webster.com)
  • There are more than 4000 species of aphid, of which around 250 represent real problems for farmers and gardeners. (hubpages.com)
  • There are 5561 species of Aphid, in 704 genera and 30 families. (eol.org)
  • Aphids have many natural enemies ( aphid predators ), including ladybirds, hoverfly larvae, lacewing larvae and parasitic wasps. (rhs.org.uk)
  • Once we release the parasitic wasps into the Conservatory, they seek out aphids and lay eggs inside of them. (lewisginter.org)
  • Encourage aphid predators in the garden, such as ladybirds , ground beetles , hoverflies, parasitoid wasps and earwigs . (rhs.org.uk)
  • There are two main groups of these wasps , the first being the Braconids which feed on various species of aphids, webworms, hornworms, armyworms, leaf rollers and many others. (lifeinitaly.com)
  • A SEVERE stomach disorder which kills aphids feeding on older sugar beet plants could help protect the crop against virus. (fwi.co.uk)
  • Soap spray is an all-purpose organic pesticide that kills aphids, white flies and spider mites. (gardenguides.com)
  • A 10% solution of glycerin in water sprayed on plants kills aphids. (infopop.cc)
  • The only spray organic farmers can use is a soapy insecticide that dries out aphids, but it has only a "mediocre" deterrent effect, Phillips said. (latimes.com)
  • Studies show that efficacy in controlling this aphid is increased by using a sufficient volume of spray and small to medium-sized nozzles to enhance spray penetration into the plant canopy. (osu.edu)
  • One spray bottle of water combined with two teaspoons of laundry or dish soap creates a powerful spray against aphids. (ehow.com)
  • Powerful garlic spray is acidic enough to kill aphids, as well as mosquitoes and onion flies. (gardenguides.com)
  • Onion spray is the most mild of the organic pesticides for aphids. (gardenguides.com)
  • Get plants dripping wet and spray into the middle of the plant where aphids may be hiding. (calgary.ca)
  • During the growing season and at the first sign of aphids, spray trees and plants with Take Down Garden Spray , which will help control both the adults and juveniles. (treehelp.com)
  • Spray crawling aphids and visible colonies off the red currant with a stiff jet of water. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Concentrate the spray on any aphids you see. (ehow.co.uk)
  • If the jet spray blasts aphids onto nearby plants, spray the crawling aphids with an insecticidal soap or horticultural oil that's designed for use on aphids. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Spray under leaves and at stem junctures to coat all of the crawling aphids. (ehow.co.uk)
  • For years I tried beneficial bugs, since with 40' trees I'm not exactly going to spray the aphids off with water. (metafilter.com)
  • Mealy plum aphid is active in mid- to late summer, when dense colonies of pale greenish white aphids cluster on the underside of leaves and shoot tips. (rhs.org.uk)
  • Some aphids (e.g., the woolly apple aphid) secrete long strands of waxy material from wax glands, forming a conspicuous woolly coating for their colonies. (factmonster.com)
  • Aphids cluster in dense colonies on new succulent growth and buds and can also be found on the undersides of young leaves. (rose.org)
  • As a non chemical/organic approach, as your trees are cordons and therefore quite small, I would suggest that when you prune your trees this winter that you scrub the aphid colonies with a stiff brush to remove them. (harrodhorticultural.com)
  • Later symptoms of a large aphid population are soybean leaves covered with honey dew produced by the aphids, and subsequently the sooty mold that develops (fig. 4). (osu.edu)
  • They then compared the effectiveness of the pesticides in controlling the aphids. (newscientist.com)
  • However, there are several organic pesticides for aphids that are inexpensive to make and simple to apply. (gardenguides.com)
  • To avoid pesticides and keep the aphid population down for good, contact your local county extension office for recommendations for natural insect predators suitable for your area. (ehow.co.uk)
  • Insecticide soaps are helpful but have to come in contact with aphids, which are usually firmly attached to the underside of leaves. (durangoherald.com)
  • Organic farmers in Ventura County stand to lose millions of dollars in crops this year because of the worst outbreak of aphids in a decade. (latimes.com)
  • Organic farmers have been spraying their fields with soapy water by hand to wash aphids off their crops. (latimes.com)
  • Recently, organic farmers have begun planting other crops to divert aphids away from commercially grown vegetables. (latimes.com)
  • BYD is a virus disease that is moved from grasses and some crops to and within wheat fields by aphids. (uky.edu)
  • A team of agricultural scientists across the Southeast are using a $1.8 million U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Agricultural Research Service (ARS) grant to study the impact of aphids in sorghum crops. (uga.edu)
  • GroEL can now be exploited to engineer durable resistance of crops against aphids. (redorbit.com)
  • ARS horticulturist Chad Finn scientist and his colleague are the first to find black raspberries with resistance to the large raspberry aphid, which spreads a virus that has had severe consequences for producing commercial crops of black raspberries. (usda.gov)
  • Agricultural Research Service (ARS) horticulturist Chad Finn with the agency's Horticultural Crops Research Unit in Corvallis, Ore., and colleague Michael Dossett of Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada are the first to find and report black raspberry resistance to the large raspberry aphid. (usda.gov)
  • Aphids are a group of soft-bodied bugs commonly found in a wide range of crops and pastures. (grdc.com.au)
  • aphid or plant louse, tiny, usually green, soft-bodied, pear-shaped insect injurious to vegetation. (factmonster.com)
  • Aphids are those little pear-shaped gals that congregate around the undersides of leaves or the terminal buds on your rose bushes. (finegardening.com)
  • Usually less than 1/8-inch long, greenish white or black, aphids have soft, pear-shaped bodies, long legs, antennae, and sucking mouthparts to feed on plant juices. (aos.org)
  • A female aphid reproduces parthenogenetically, popping out live young (clones) all over her host plant without benefit of male companionship and without eggs. (uwm.edu)
  • These aphids mate and the females produce eggs. (oregonstate.edu)
  • In most areas, the Green Peach Aphid lays small black shiny eggs on peach, cherry, and other fruit trees. (treehelp.com)
  • I got lucky this year - the butterfly bush (that is usually smothered in aphids & eggs by this time of year) hosted a GIANT praying mantis which had hundreds of babies that now scour that bush and eat aphids. (cheftalk.com)
  • Red currant aphids lay eggs on many plants, including red currants, in 1/2-inch to 1-inch-long, swollen red lumps on the currant's stems in fall. (ehow.co.uk)
  • these harbour aphid eggs. (ehow.co.uk)
  • There are hundreds of species of parasitic wasp, some feed on caterpillars and spiders and some lay their eggs on aphids and whitefly… helping the gardener immensely! (lifeinitaly.com)
  • The corn leaf aphid (CLA) is a bluish green insect with a velvety or fuzzy appearance. (uky.edu)
  • In addition to attacking plants in the field, green peach aphid readily infests vegetables and ornamental plants grown in greenhouses. (hydro-gardens.com)
  • On closer inspection, I find that many of the leaves have armies of black cherry aphids attached to them, draining their lifeblood. (durangoherald.com)
  • The adult female aphid gives birth to between 60 and 100 female nymphs every day for a period of 20 to 30 days. (aos.org)
  • The predatory Lacewing and Hoverfly larvae, which have done such a fine job gobbling up aphids all summer, become dopey and less voracious in their appetites and the balance is tipped in favour of their more fecund and cold-tolerant prey. (riverford.co.uk)
  • Mother aphids give their larvae a chemical donation by passing on some sinigrin from their abdomens. (discovermagazine.com)
  • To test whether this supposed defence mechanism actually works, Kazana exposed some aphids to ladybird larvae , one of their main enemies (see below). (discovermagazine.com)
  • Insecticidal soap will control the aphids but you may need to make several applications. (garden.org)
  • While insecticidal soap certainly can be used against aphids, I prefer exploiting the food chain and letting nature take its course. (newsday.com)
  • These aphids are quite numerous on a few plucky rose buds - they are the red-brown form of Macrosiphum rosae, I think. (blipfoto.com)
  • It is only feasible to control aphids on plants that are small enough to be sprayed thoroughly. (rhs.org.uk)
  • The undersurface of the tender top leaves of many Cup plants were wall-to-wall with (insert creepy adjective here) red aphids-a cast of thousands-and there were some very cool supporting actors. (uwm.edu)
  • Just as there are many types of aphid, there are many ways to keep your plants free of them. (hubpages.com)
  • Aphids typically pierce the stem of the plant to access the phloem, the part of the plants circulatory system which carries nutrients, and this is the aphids main source of food. (hubpages.com)
  • Individual soybean plants are pulled from the soil and soybean aphids counted or estimated. (osu.edu)
  • It is recommended that 5 individual plants from at least 20 locations in the field be pulled from the ground and the aphids counted (fig. 5). (osu.edu)
  • The average number of aphids on plants should then be calculated. (osu.edu)
  • The total number of species was small, but increased considerably with the appearance of the angiosperms 160 million years ago, as this allowed aphids to specialise, the speciation of aphids going hand-in-hand with the diversification of flowering plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • McGrath says the aphids are hitting a little later than normal, but can still do a lot of damage during the time that pods are setting on the soybean plants. (radioiowa.com)
  • Similar to other plants, aphids also seek shelter under leaves. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Because some plants can also release (E)-â-farnesene, they could in theory manipulate aphids into flying away. (eurekalert.org)
  • However, aphids were shown to react mainly to the frequency of pheromone release and not the actual quantity present, possibly to avoid manipulation by plants. (eurekalert.org)
  • Severity of the disease varies from year to year because of a complex interaction between aphids, weather, the virus, and plants. (uky.edu)
  • Healthy plants can become infected only after being fed upon by aphids that are carrying BYD virus. (uky.edu)
  • Aphids pick up the virus as they feed on the sap of infected plants. (uky.edu)
  • Although healthy plants can usually tolerate fairly high populations without much effect, aphids are extremely prolific and populations can quickly build up to damaging numbers during the growing season. (rose.org)
  • Spritz the solution onto your plants' stems and leaves every 10 days to control aphids. (gardenguides.com)
  • Possible mutualistic interaction between plants and the third trophic level is illustrated by the as yet few reports of indirect plant-defence volatiles induced by aphids or coccids attracting parasitoids or ladybirds. (springer.com)
  • Since most aphids harbor Buchnera, and likely have GroEL in their saliva, this bacterial protein may generally alert plants of the presence of aphids. (redorbit.com)
  • Strikingly, the majority of the aphid salivary proteins predicted for secretion were of unknown function and different from those typically secreted by microbes into plants," Kaloshian said. (redorbit.com)
  • Aphids can be damaging to a wide variety of plants, so learn how to identify and get rid of them. (almanac.com)
  • Of course a messed up windshield on a car can cause traffic dangers, but the aphids do not injure people, only plants. (nmsu.edu)
  • produce ten amino acids (called essential amino acids), it was thought that if the aphids feed exclusively on plants then the required amino acids must come from their symbiotic bacteria. (uconn.edu)
  • They can be hung in or around plants affected by aphids. (calgary.ca)
  • As the aphids develop, they begin to migrate to other plants and trees to continue the feeding process. (treehelp.com)
  • The Green Peach Aphids seldom damage their host fruit tree, but can be very harmful to other plants and trees, as they suck sap from them, as well as act as a carrier for plant diseases. (treehelp.com)
  • Within a greenhouse, environmental conditions are favorable, host plants are plentiful and the natural enemies of aphids are usually absent. (hydro-gardens.com)
  • Winged green peach aphids seemingly attempt to colonize nearly all plants available. (hydro-gardens.com)
  • Where there are plants, there are almost certainly aphids feeding on them. (discovermagazine.com)
  • The aphids' chemical weapons are stolen from the plants they eat. (discovermagazine.com)
  • Like the plants it feeds on, the cabbage aphid has evolved its own version of the myrosinase enzyme. (discovermagazine.com)
  • Recently i noticed some aphids infesting the new growth leaves in the center of the plants and have been trying to clean them off by hand, but this is not working well enough. (cheftalk.com)
  • Traveling between plants, aphids can introduce and spread virus and disease. (aos.org)
  • Aphids easily colonize clean plants when they are grown close together, allowing movement from plant to plant. (aos.org)
  • Aphids also transmit viral diseases to plants. (whatsthatbug.com)
  • Bent and tossed by the wind, a field of soybean plants presents a challenge for an Asian lady beetle on the hunt for aphids. (phys.org)
  • Most aphids feed on foliage, stems and flowers but some suck sap from roots. (rhs.org.uk)
  • Aphids feed by inserting their beaks into stems, leaves, or roots, and sucking the plant juices. (factmonster.com)
  • This year as I was clipping the old blooms, I noticed that there are aphids on the stems now and some spider mites starting to infect it. (newsday.com)
  • Damage occurs when the aphids suck the juices from the rose stems and buds. (rose.org)
  • These aphids suck sap from the woody stems unlike the foliage with other aphids. (harrodhorticultural.com)
  • I recently learned that this sternorrhynchan storm is composed of soybean aphids (Aphis glycines) . (scienceblogs.com)
  • Melon Aphid - ( Aphis gossypii) Melon aphid occurs in tropical and temperate regions throughout the world except northernmost areas. (hydro-gardens.com)
  • The biology of aphids is bizarre: they can be born pregnant and males sometimes lack mouths, causing them to die not long after mating. (neatorama.com)
  • Some of these are available for biological control of aphids in greenhouses. (rhs.org.uk)
  • Control of aphids is not easy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Be sure to select a product labeled for control of aphids on the pine or other trees you have found infested. (nmsu.edu)
  • There can be as many as 40 generations of aphids in one summer season alone. (gardenguides.com)
  • Over the spring and summer, two or three generations of aphids can develop. (treehelp.com)
  • Large populations of aphids can cause significant damage and even death to some conifers. (reference.com)
  • Aphids weaken the plant by draining it's fluids, may cause severe distortion of growth, and are common means of transmitting plant viruses. (hydro-gardens.com)
  • The advent of soybean aphids infesting U.S. soybeans at this decade's start changed this. (agriculture.com)
  • Nasturtiums are a known aphid favorite. (planetnatural.com)
  • This is the only known aphid capable of producing sound, a "scraping" sound caused by rubbing body parts together, and it may be audible when large populations occur. (pestweb.com)
  • Research has indicated that earwigs on fruit trees can reduce aphid numbers and in fruit trees they do not cause damage. (rhs.org.uk)
  • A warm and dry winter will aid aphid survival and BYDV spread while a cold and wet winter will reduce aphid survival and movement. (uky.edu)
  • Green peach aphids are the most common aphid in North America and are present in almost every region. (treehelp.com)
  • Damage - Green peach aphids can attain very high densities on young plant tissue, causing water stress, wilting, and reduced growth rate of the plant. (hydro-gardens.com)
  • While feeding, aphids secrete saliva in the plant. (redorbit.com)
  • When aphids are attacked by predators such as ladybird beetles, they release an alarm pheromone, (E)-â-farnesene, that has long been known to cause other aphids to walk around or drop from the plant. (eurekalert.org)
  • Intra- versus inter-specific interactions in starving ladybird beetles predaceous on aphids. (springer.com)
  • O'Neal adds that a cold and wet spring may have dented aphid predator levels like the Asian ladybird beetles and Orius insidiosus (pirate bugs). (agriculture.com)
  • Tree aphids are so exquisite that it's hard to remember that it's an aphid. (uwm.edu)
  • Feeding Habits - Aphids feed on plant sap by inserting their mouthparts into plant tissue. (hydro-gardens.com)