Aphasia, Primary Progressive
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Primary Progressive Nonfluent Aphasia
Plasticity of language-related brain function during recovery from stroke. (1/57)BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study was undertaken to correlate functional recovery from aphasia after acute stroke with the temporal evolution of the anatomic, physiological, and functional changes as measured by MRI. METHODS: Blood oxygenation level-dependent contrast and echo-planar MRI were used to map language comprehension in 6 normal adults and in 2 adult patients during recovery from acute stroke presenting with aphasia. Perfusion, diffusion, sodium, and conventional anatomic MRI were used to follow physiological and structural changes. RESULTS: The normal activation pattern for language comprehension showed activation predominately in left-sided Wernicke's and Broca's areas, with laterality ratios of 0.8 and 0.3, respectively. Recovery of the patient confirmed as having a completed stroke affecting Broca's area occurred rapidly with a shift of activation to the homologous region in the right hemisphere within 3 days, with continued rightward lateralization over 6 months. In the second patient, in whom mapping was performed fortuitously before stroke, recovery of a Wernicke's aphasia showed a similar increasing rightward shift in activation recruitment over 9 months after the event. CONCLUSIONS: Recovery of aphasia in adults can occur rapidly and is concomitant with an activation pattern that changes from left to a homologous right hemispheric pattern. Such recovery occurs even when the stroke evolves to completion. Such plasticity must be considered when evaluating stroke interventions based on behavioral and neurological measurements. (+info)
Training-induced brain plasticity in aphasia. (2/57)It has long been a matter of debate whether recovery from aphasia after left perisylvian lesions is mediated by the preserved left hemispheric language zones or by the homologous right hemisphere regions. Using PET, we investigated the short-term changes in the cortical network involved in language comprehension during recovery from aphasia. In 12 consecutive measurements of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), four patients with Wernicke's aphasia, caused by a posterior left middle cerebral artery infarction, were tested with a language comprehension task. Comprehension was estimated directly after each scan with a modified version of the Token Test. In the interval between the scans, the patients participated in brief, intense language comprehension training. A significant improvement in performance was observed in all patients. We correlated changes in blood flow measured during the language comprehension task with the scores achieved in the Token Test. The regions which best correlated with the training-induced improvement in verbal comprehension were the posterior part of the right superior temporal gyrus and the left precuneus. This study supports the role of the right hemisphere in recovery from aphasia and demonstrates that the improvement in auditory comprehension induced by specific training is associated with functional brain reorganization. (+info)
Atypical and typical presentations of Alzheimer's disease: a clinical, neuropsychological, neuroimaging and pathological study of 13 cases. (3/57)There has been increasing awareness that some slowly progressive focal cortical syndromes can be the presenting features of Alzheimer's disease, but pathological evidence has been sparse. This clinico-pathological series presents our experience with pathologically proven atypical as well as typical Alzheimer's disease presentations. We report and compare four patterns of presentation: a typical pattern with initial amnesic syndrome (n = 4 cases), progressive visual dysfunction (n = 1), progressive biparietal syndrome (n = 2) and progressive aphasia (n = 6). The aphasic presentations include both fluent and non-fluent aphasic syndromes. The neuropsychological profiles and neuroimaging clearly reflect the presenting clinical features, and show a close relationship to the distribution of pathology in these cases. Of note was the sparing of medial temporal structures (hippocampus and/or entorhinal cortex) in several aphasic cases and the severe occipito-parietal involvement in those with prominent visuospatial disorders at presentation. Our data demonstrate the wide spectrum of Alzheimer's disease presentations. The recognition of atypical presentations of Alzheimer's disease is important when attempting to make an early accurate pre-morbid diagnosis of neurodegenerative disease. (+info)
Transcortical sensory aphasia: revisited and revised. (4/57)Transcortical sensory aphasia (TSA) is characterized by impaired auditory comprehension with intact repetition and fluent speech. We induced TSA transiently by electrical interference during routine cortical function mapping in six adult seizure patients. For each patient, TSA was associated with multiple posterior cortical sites, including the posterior superior and middle temporal gyri, in classical Wernicke's area. A number of TSA sites were immediately adjacent to sites where Wernicke's aphasia was elicited in the same patients. Phonological decoding of speech sounds was assessed by auditory syllable discrimination and found to be intact at all sites where TSA was induced. At a subset of electrode sites where the pattern of language deficits otherwise resembled TSA, naming and word reading remained intact. Language lateralization testing by intracarotid amobarbital injection showed no evidence of independent right hemisphere language. These results suggest that TSA may result from a one-way disruption between left hemisphere phonology and lexical-semantic processing. (+info)
Vascular aphasias: main characteristics of patients hospitalized in acute stroke units. (5/57)BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Aphasia is frequent in stroke patients and is associated with poor prognosis. However, characteristics and determinants of vascular aphasias remain controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate aphasia characteristics at the acute stage in patients admitted to a stroke unit. METHODS: The study was performed in 308 patients consecutively assessed with a standardized aphasia battery. RESULTS: Aphasia was observed in 207 patients; global and nonclassified aphasias accounted for 50% of aphasic syndromes at the acute stage, whereas classic aphasias (Wernicke's, Broca's, transcortical, and subcortical aphasias) were less frequent. Age differed across aphasic syndromes in ischemic stroke patients only; patients with conduction aphasia were younger, and patients with subcortical aphasia were older. Sex did not significantly differ across aphasic syndromes. The presence of a previous stroke was more frequent in nonclassified aphasia. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows (1) that vascular aphasias are frequently severe or nonclassic at the acute stage, a finding explained in part by the presence of a previous stroke; (2) that the age effect is due mainly to its influence on infarct location; and (3) that the main determinant of aphasia characteristics is lesion location. (+info)
Speech production: Wernicke, Broca and beyond. (6/57)We investigated the brain systems engaged during propositional speech (PrSp) and two forms of non- propositional speech (NPrSp): counting and reciting overlearned nursery rhymes. Bilateral cerebral and cerebellar regions were involved in the motor act of articulation, irrespective of the type of speech. Three additional, left-lateralized regions, adjacent to the Sylvian sulcus, were activated in common: the most posterior part of the supratemporal plane, the lateral part of the pars opercularis in the posterior inferior frontal gyrus and the anterior insula. Therefore, both NPrSp and PrSp were dependent on the same discrete subregions of the anatomically ill-defined areas of Wernicke and Broca. PrSp was also dependent on a predominantly left-lateralized neural system distributed between multi-modal and amodal regions in posterior inferior parietal, anterolateral and medial temporal and medial prefrontal cortex. The lateral prefrontal and paracingulate cortical activity observed in previous studies of cued word retrieval was not seen with either NPrSp or PrSp, demonstrating that normal brain- language representations cannot be inferred from explicit metalinguistic tasks. The evidence from this study indicates that normal communicative speech is dependent on a number of left hemisphere regions remote from the classic language areas of Wernicke and Broca. Destruction or disconnection of discrete left extrasylvian and perisylvian cortical regions, rather than the total extent of damage to perisylvian cortex, will account for the qualitative and quantitative differences in the impaired speech production observed in aphasic stroke patients. (+info)
Effect of lexical cues on the production of active and passive sentences in Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia. (7/57)This study compared the sentence production abilities of individuals with Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia in an attempt to explore the extent to which impaired lexical retrieval impedes sentence production. The ability to produce active and passive reversible and non-reversible sentences was examined when varying amounts of lexical information was provided. The results showed that both Wernicke's and Broca's aphasic individuals were impaired in passive sentence production and that these difficulties were not overcome when lexical cues (the relevant nouns and uninflected verb) were provided. However when auxiliary and past tense morphemes were provided along with the verb stem, production of passive sentences improved drastically for both groups. Analysis of error patterns, however, revealed differences between the two groups, suggesting that Broca's aphasic subjects may find passive sentences difficult due to problems with retrieving the relevant grammatical morphemes. Subjects with Wernicke's aphasia may have been unable to automatically access the passive sentence structure. (+info)
Effect of typicality on online category verification of animate category exemplars in aphasia. (8/57)Normal young, elderly, Broca's aphasic, and Wernicke's aphasic individuals participated in an online category verification task where primes were superordinate category labels while targets were either typical or atypical examples of animate categories or nonmembers belonging to inanimate categories. The reaction time to judge whether the target belonged to the preceding category label was measured. Results indicated that all four groups made significantly greater errors on atypical examples compared to typical examples. Young and elderly individuals, and Broca's aphasic patients performed similarly on the verification task; these groups demonstrated faster reaction times on typical examples than atypical examples. Wernicke's aphasic patients made the most errors on the task and were slowest to respond than any other participant group. Also, these participants were not significantly faster at accepting correct typical examples compared to correct atypical examples. The results from the four groups are discussed with relevance to prototype/family resemblance models of typicality. (+info)
The symptoms of WE can vary depending on the severity of the deficiency, but common manifestations include:
1. Confusion and disorientation
2. Memory loss and difficulty learning new information
3. Difficulty with coordination and balance
4. Loss of muscle tone and weakness in the arms and legs
5. Disturbances in vision, hearing, and taste
6. Nausea and vomiting
7. Abnormalities in heart rate and blood pressure
8. Increased risk of seizures and coma
If left untreated, WE can lead to more severe complications such as Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome (WKS), a condition that involves the loss of brain tissue and memory loss. Treatment for WE typically involves thiamine supplements and addressing any underlying causes of the deficiency. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat complications.
There are several types of aphasia, including:
1. Broca's aphasia: Characterized by difficulty speaking in complete sentences and using correct grammar.
2. Wernicke's aphasia: Characterized by difficulty understanding spoken language and speaking in complete sentences.
3. Global aphasia: Characterized by a severe impairment of all language abilities.
4. Primary progressive aphasia: A rare form of aphasia that is caused by neurodegeneration and worsens over time.
Treatment for aphasia typically involves speech and language therapy, which can help individuals with aphasia improve their communication skills and regain some of their language abilities. Other forms of therapy, such as cognitive training and physical therapy, may also be helpful.
It's important to note that while aphasia can significantly impact an individual's quality of life, it does not affect their intelligence or cognitive abilities. With appropriate treatment and support, individuals with aphasia can continue to lead fulfilling lives and communicate effectively with others.
1. Fatigue and weakness: Thiamine is necessary for the production of ATP, the primary source of energy for the body's cells. Without enough thiamine, cells may not be able to produce enough ATP, leading to fatigue, weakness, and a lack of endurance.
2. Numbness and tingling: Thiamine is important for the health of the peripheral nerves, which can cause numbness, tingling, and pain in the hands and feet if there is a deficiency.
3. Memory loss and confusion: Thiamine is necessary for the proper functioning of the brain and can lead to memory loss, confusion, and difficulty concentrating if there is a deficiency.
4. Mood changes: Thiamine plays a role in the production of neurotransmitters, such as serotonin and dopamine, which are important for mood regulation. A thiamine deficiency can lead to mood changes, such as depression, anxiety, and irritability.
5. Digestive problems: Thiamine is necessary for the proper functioning of the digestive system, and a deficiency can lead to nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain.
6. Heart problems: Thiamine is important for the health of the heart, and a deficiency can lead to heart failure, arrhythmias, and other cardiovascular problems.
7. Weight loss: Thiamine is necessary for the proper metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins, and a deficiency can lead to weight loss and muscle wasting.
8. Beriberi: A severe thiamine deficiency can lead to beriberi, a condition characterized by weakness, fatigue, and a range of other health problems.
Thiamine deficiency can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
1. Poor diet: A diet that is low in thiamine-rich foods, such as whole grains, lean meats, and fish, can lead to a deficiency.
2. Alcoholism: Alcohol can interfere with the absorption of thiamine in the gut, leading to a deficiency.
3. Gastrointestinal disorders: Certain conditions, such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, can lead to malabsorption of thiamine and other nutrients.
4. Medications: Some medications, such as furosemide and other diuretics, can interfere with the absorption of thiamine.
5. Genetic disorders: Certain genetic disorders, such as maple syrup urine disease, can lead to a thiamine deficiency.
If you suspect that you or someone you know may have a thiamine deficiency, it is important to consult with a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment. Treatment typically involves supplementation with thiamine, along with addressing any underlying causes of the deficiency. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage symptoms and prevent complications.
There are three main types of primary progressive aphasia:
1. Logopenic progressive aphasia (LPA): This is the most common type of PPA, accounting for approximately 70% of cases. It is characterized by difficulty in finding the right words, using correct grammar, and understanding complex sentences.
2. Semantic dementia (SD): This type of PPA is characterized by difficulties with word meaning, often leading to a loss of semantic knowledge. Affected individuals may have trouble recognizing familiar objects, people, or places.
3. Nonfluent progressive aphasia (NFPA): This type of PPA is characterized by difficulty in speaking and understanding language, as well as slow and effortful speech.
The symptoms of primary progressive aphasia can vary depending on the individual and the progression of the disease. They may include:
* Difficulty finding the right words or understanding complex sentences
* Trouble with word retrieval and naming objects
* Slow and effortful speech
* Difficulty with reading and writing
* Decreased comprehension of spoken language
* Difficulty with social communication and pragmatic skills
Primary progressive aphasia is a degenerative disorder, meaning that it is not reversible and will continue to worsen over time. However, there are several treatment options available to manage the symptoms and improve quality of life for individuals affected by PPA. These may include speech and language therapy, cognitive training, and medications to manage behavioral changes or depression.
In summary, primary progressive aphasia is a rare and degenerative disorder that affects language and communication abilities, with three main types: logopenic progressive aphasia, semantic dementia, and nonfluent progressive aphasia. Symptoms can vary depending on the type of PPA, but may include difficulty finding words, slow and effortful speech, and decreased comprehension of spoken language. Treatment options are available to manage symptoms and improve quality of life for individuals affected by PPA.
The exact cause of thyroid crisis is not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to an autoimmune response that triggers the release of excessive amounts of thyroid hormones into the bloodstream. This can lead to a rapid increase in heart rate, cardiac arrhythmias, and other serious complications.
There are two main types of thyroid crisis:
1. Graves' disease-related thyroid crisis: This type is more common and typically affects people with Graves' disease, an autoimmune disorder that causes the thyroid gland to produce too much thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3).
2. Toxic multinodular goiter-related thyroid crisis: This type is less common and occurs when multiple nodules in the thyroid gland produce excessive amounts of thyroid hormones.
The symptoms of thyroid crisis can vary depending on the severity of the condition, but they may include:
* Abdominal pain
* Heart palpitations
* Rapid heart rate
* Cardiac arrhythmias
* Shortness of breath
If you suspect that you or someone else is experiencing thyroid crisis, it is essential to seek medical attention immediately. Treatment typically involves hospitalization and may include the following:
1. Thyroid hormone-blocking medications: These drugs can help reduce the levels of thyroid hormones in the bloodstream and alleviate symptoms.
2. Antibiotics: If there are signs of infection, antibiotics may be prescribed to prevent or treat the infection.
3. Corticosteroids: These medications can help reduce inflammation in the thyroid gland and other parts of the body.
4. Cardiac support: In severe cases, cardiac support such as a pacemaker or defibrillator may be necessary to regulate the heart rhythm.
5. Surgery: In some cases, surgery may be required to remove part or all of the thyroid gland.
Preventing Thyroid Crisis
While there is no guaranteed way to prevent thyroid crisis, there are several measures you can take to reduce your risk:
1. Monitor your thyroid function: Regular blood tests can help identify any changes in thyroid hormone levels and allow for early treatment.
2. Manage underlying medical conditions: Conditions such as hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, and thyroid nodules can increase the risk of thyroid crisis. Proper management of these conditions can help reduce the risk.
3. Avoid stimulating the thyroid gland: Avoiding activities that stimulate the thyroid gland, such as strenuous exercise or excessive iodine intake, can help reduce the risk of thyroid crisis.
4. Seek prompt medical attention: If you experience any symptoms of thyroid crisis, seek prompt medical attention. Early treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.
5. Be aware of your medications: Certain medications, such as steroids and amiodarone, can increase the risk of thyroid crisis. Be aware of the potential risks and discuss any concerns with your healthcare provider.
Living with Thyroid Crisis
Living with thyroid crisis can be challenging, but there are several resources and support options available to help you manage the condition:
1. Healthcare team: Your healthcare provider is your primary source of information and support. They can provide guidance on managing the condition and address any questions or concerns you may have.
2. Online resources: There are several online resources and support groups available for people with thyroid crisis, such as the American Thyroid Association and the Thyroid Foundation of America. These organizations provide information, resources, and support for people with thyroid conditions.
3. Support groups: Joining a support group can provide a sense of community and help you connect with others who are going through similar experiences.
4. Self-care: Engaging in self-care activities such as exercise, meditation, and relaxation techniques can help manage stress and improve overall well-being.
5. Advocating for yourself: Learning to advocate for yourself and your health is essential when living with thyroid crisis. Be proactive and assertive when communicating with your healthcare provider and loved ones about your needs and concerns.
Thyroid crisis, also known as thyroid storm or thyrotoxic crisis, is a life-threatening condition that requires prompt medical attention. It occurs when the thyroid gland becomes overactive and releases excessive amounts of thyroid hormones into the bloodstream. This can lead to symptoms such as fever, rapid heart rate, and muscle weakness.
If you suspect you or someone you know is experiencing a thyroid crisis, it is essential to seek medical attention immediately. Early treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes. Living with thyroid crisis can be challenging, but there are several resources and support options available to help manage the condition. By being proactive and advocating for yourself, you can improve your quality of life and manage this condition effectively.
The main features of Wernicke's aphasia include:
1. Difficulty comprehending spoken language: Individuals with Wernicke's aphasia may have difficulty understanding the meaning of words, phrases, and sentences when spoken to them. They may also struggle to follow conversations or understand complex sentences.
2. Impaired speech production: People with Wernicke's aphasia may experience difficulty speaking in complete sentences or using correct grammar. Their speech may be slow, halting, or contain made-up words (neologisms). They may also have trouble initiating conversations or responding to questions.
3. Preservation of literacy skills: In contrast to other types of aphasia, individuals with Wernicke's aphasia typically retain their ability to read and write, as these skills are mediated by different areas of the brain.
4. Right hemisphere involvement: Wernicke's aphasia is often associated with damage to the right hemisphere of the brain, particularly in the area known as the anterior superior temporal gyrus (Tanenhaus et al., 2010). This can lead to difficulties with speech production and comprehension, as well as other cognitive and behavioral changes.
5. Sensory deficits: Some individuals with Wernicke's aphasia may also experience sensory deficits, such as difficulty with hearing or vision (Kertesz, 1994).
Wernicke's aphasia is often seen in individuals who have suffered a stroke or other brain injury, particularly in the left hemisphere of the brain. It is important for clinicians to recognize and diagnose Wernicke's aphasia accurately, as it can help guide treatment and rehabilitation efforts.
Kertesz, A. (1994). Wernicke's aphasia: A review of the clinical and neuroanatomical features. Cortex, 30(2), 267-285.
Tanenhaus, M. K., Spivey, M. J., Eberhard, K. M., & Sedivy, J. C. (1999). Integration of visual and linguistic information in spoken language comprehension. Science, 283(5408), 1323-1326.
Tanenhaus, M. K., Bienkowski, M., & Levitan, C. A. (2010). Language and the brain: Anatomical and functional bases of Wernicke's aphasia. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1204, 235-257.
Anomia is a condition characterized by memory loss or impairment of word-finding ability, especially for proper nouns (e.g., names of people and places). Also called nominal anomia or dysnomia.
Anomia can be caused by various factors, such as brain injury, stroke, traumatic brain injury, neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Alzheimer's disease), infections (e.g., encephalitis), and certain medications.
Symptoms of anomia may include difficulty naming objects or people, trouble finding the right words to describe something, and confusion about the meaning of words. In some cases, anomia can be treated with speech and language therapy, but in more severe cases, it may be a permanent condition.
The most common cause of thyrotoxicosis is an overactive thyroid gland, known as hyperthyroidism. This can be caused by a variety of factors, including:
* Graves' disease: An autoimmune disorder that causes the thyroid gland to produce too much thyroid hormone.
* Toxic multinodular goiter: A condition in which one or more nodules in the thyroid gland become overactive and produce excessive amounts of thyroid hormone.
* Thyroid adenoma: A benign tumor of the thyroid gland that can cause hyperthyroidism.
* Thyroid cancer: A malignant tumor of the thyroid gland that can cause hyperthyroidism.
Symptoms of thyrotoxicosis can vary depending on the severity of the condition and the individual affected, but may include:
* Weight loss
* Increased heart rate
* Heat intolerance
* Increased bowel movements
* Muscle weakness
Thyrotoxicosis can be diagnosed through a series of tests, including:
* Blood tests: To measure thyroid hormone levels in the blood.
* Thyroid scan: To visualize the thyroid gland and identify any nodules or tumors.
* Ultrasound: To evaluate the structure of the thyroid gland and detect any abnormalities.
Treatment for thyrotoxicosis depends on the underlying cause, but may include:
* Medications to reduce thyroid hormone production.
* Radioactive iodine therapy to destroy part or all of the thyroid gland.
* Surgery to remove part or all of the thyroid gland.
It is important to note that untreated thyrotoxicosis can lead to complications such as heart problems, osteoporosis, and eye problems, so it is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time.
The key features of PPNFA include:
1. Non-fluent speech: Individuals with PPNFA may experience difficulty articulating words, using short, halting sentences, and experiencing difficulty initiating and maintaining conversations.
2. Grammatical errors: They may make frequent grammatical mistakes, such as incorrect verb tenses or word order, and may have difficulty understanding complex sentences.
3. Reduced vocabulary: Individuals with PPNFA may use fewer words and have a more limited vocabulary than those with other types of aphasia.
4. Decreased comprehension: They may also experience difficulty understanding spoken language, particularly in noisy environments or when complex information is being communicated.
5. No other neurological symptoms: Unlike some other types of PPA, individuals with PPNFA do not typically experience cognitive decline, memory loss, or other neurological symptoms beyond language impairment.
PPNFA is often diagnosed in middle-aged to older adults and can be challenging to differentiate from other types of aphasia or cognitive disorders. It is important for healthcare providers to conduct comprehensive evaluations, including neuroimaging and speech and language assessments, to accurately diagnose and manage this condition.
Agraphia can result from various causes such as stroke, traumatic brain injury, neurodegenerative diseases (e.g., Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease), or tumors. The symptoms of agraphia may include difficulty with writing words, inability to initiate writing, poor handwriting, and difficulty with spelling and grammar.
In some cases, agraphia can be seen as a symptom of a larger neurological disorder, such as aphasia, which is a language disorder that affects both speaking and understanding language. Treatment for agraphia typically involves addressing the underlying cause, such as physical therapy to improve hand function or speech therapy to improve language skills. In some cases, adaptive writing tools or technology may also be helpful.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5) defines alcohol use disorder as a maladaptive pattern of alcohol use that leads to clinically significant impairment or distress in at least three of the following areas:
1. Drinking more or for longer than intended.
2. Desire or unsuccessful efforts to cut down or control drinking.
3. Spending a lot of time drinking or recovering from its effects.
4. Craving or strong desire to drink.
5. Drinking interferes with work, school, or home responsibilities.
6. Continuing to drink despite social or personal problems caused by alcohol use.
7. Giving up important activities in order to drink.
8. Drinking in hazardous situations (e.g., while driving).
9. Continued drinking despite physical or psychological problems caused or worsened by alcohol use.
10. Developing tolerance (i.e., needing to drink more to achieve the desired effect).
11. Experiencing withdrawal symptoms when alcohol use is stopped or reduced.
The severity of alcoholism is categorized into three subtypes based on the number of criteria met: mild, moderate, and severe. Treatment for alcoholism typically involves a combination of behavioral interventions (e.g., cognitive-behavioral therapy, motivational interviewing) and medications (e.g., disulfiram, naltrexone, acamprosate) to manage withdrawal symptoms and cravings.
In conclusion, alcoholism is a chronic and often progressive disease characterized by excessive and compulsive consumption of alcohol despite negative consequences to physical and mental health, relationships, and social functioning. The diagnostic criteria for alcoholism include a combination of physiological, behavioral, and subjective symptoms, and treatment typically involves a combination of behavioral interventions and medications to manage withdrawal symptoms and cravings.
There are several types of apraxias, each with distinct symptoms and characteristics:
1. Ideomotor apraxia: Difficulty performing specific movements or gestures, such as grasping and manipulating objects, due to a lack of understanding of the intended purpose or meaning of the action.
2. Ideational apraxia: Inability to initiate or perform movements due to a lack of understanding of the task or goal.
3. Kinesthetic apraxia: Difficulty judging the weight, shape, size, and position of objects in space, leading to difficulties with grasping, manipulating, or coordinating movements.
4. Graphomotor apraxia: Difficulty writing or drawing due to a lack of coordination between the hand and the intended movement.
5. Dressing apraxia: Difficulty dressing oneself due to a lack of coordination and planning for the movements required to put on clothes.
6. Gait apraxia: Difficulty walking or maintaining balance due to a lack of coordinated movement of the legs, trunk, and arms.
7. Speech apraxia: Difficulty articulating words or sounds due to a lack of coordination between the mouth, tongue, and lips.
The diagnosis of apraxias typically involves a comprehensive neurological examination, including assessments of motor function, language, and cognitive abilities. Treatment options vary depending on the underlying cause and severity of the apraxia, but may include physical therapy, speech therapy, occupational therapy, and medication.
Types of Language Disorders:
1. Developmental Language Disorder (DLD): This is a condition where children have difficulty learning language skills, such as grammar, vocabulary, and sentence structure, despite being exposed to language in their environment. DLD can be diagnosed in children between the ages of 2 and 5.
2. Acquired Language Disorder: This is a condition that occurs when an individual experiences brain damage or injury that affects their ability to understand and produce language. Acquired language disorders can be caused by stroke, traumatic brain injury, or other neurological conditions.
3. Aphasia: This is a condition that occurs when an individual experiences damage to the language areas of their brain, typically as a result of stroke or traumatic brain injury. Aphasia can affect an individual's ability to understand, speak, read, and write language.
4. Dysarthria: This is a condition that affects an individual's ability to produce speech sounds due to weakness, paralysis, or incoordination of the muscles used for speaking. Dysarthria can be caused by stroke, cerebral palsy, or other neurological conditions.
5. Apraxia: This is a condition that affects an individual's ability to coordinate the movements of their lips, tongue, and jaw to produce speech sounds. Apraxia can be caused by stroke, head injury, or other neurological conditions.
Causes and Risk Factors:
1. Genetic factors: Some language disorders may be inherited from parents or grandparents.
2. Brain damage or injury: Stroke, traumatic brain injury, or other neurological conditions can cause acquired language disorders.
3. Developmental delays: Children with developmental delays or disorders, such as autism or Down syndrome, may experience language disorders.
4. Hearing loss or impairment: Children who have difficulty hearing may experience language delays or disorders.
5. Environmental factors: Poverty, poor nutrition, and limited access to educational resources can contribute to language disorders in children.
Signs and Symptoms:
1. Difficulty articulating words or sentences
2. Slurred or distorted speech
3. Limited vocabulary or grammar skills
4. Difficulty understanding spoken language
5. Avoidance of speaking or social interactions
6. Behavioral difficulties, such as aggression or frustration
7. Delayed language development in children
8. Difficulty with reading and writing skills
Treatment and Interventions:
1. Speech therapy: A speech-language pathologist (SLP) can work with individuals to improve their language skills through exercises, activities, and strategies.
2. Cognitive training: Individuals with language disorders may benefit from cognitive training programs that target attention, memory, and other cognitive skills.
3. Augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) devices: These devices can help individuals with severe language disorders communicate more effectively.
4. Behavioral interventions: Behavioral therapy can help individuals with language disorders manage their behavior and improve their social interactions.
5. Family support: Family members can provide support and encouragement to individuals with language disorders, which can help improve outcomes.
6. Educational accommodations: Individuals with language disorders may be eligible for educational accommodations, such as extra time to complete assignments or the use of a tape recorder during lectures.
7. Medication: In some cases, medication may be prescribed to help manage symptoms of language disorders, such as anxiety or depression.
Prognosis and Quality of Life:
The prognosis for individuals with language disorders varies depending on the severity of their condition and the effectiveness of their treatment. With appropriate support and intervention, many individuals with language disorders are able to improve their language skills and lead fulfilling lives. However, some individuals may experience ongoing challenges with communication and social interaction, which can impact their quality of life.
In conclusion, language disorders can have a significant impact on an individual's ability to communicate and interact with others. While there is no cure for language disorders, there are many effective treatments and interventions that can help improve outcomes. With appropriate support and accommodations, individuals with language disorders can lead fulfilling lives and achieve their goals.
The symptoms of acquired dyslexia may be similar to those of developmental dyslexia, including difficulties with phonological processing, working memory, and language processing. However, individuals with acquired dyslexia may also experience a range of other cognitive impairments, such as difficulty with attention, memory, or executive functions.
The exact causes of acquired dyslexia are not yet fully understood, but it is thought to be related to changes in the brain's language processing networks that occur as a result of brain damage or other forms of cognitive impairment. Treatment for acquired dyslexia typically involves a multimodal approach, including cognitive rehabilitation and remediation strategies tailored to the individual's specific needs and abilities.
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Deric Bownds - Lectures & Writings
Febrile seizure: Video, Anatomy, Definition & Function | Osmosis
PEPSIC - pepsic.bvsalud.org
Psycholinguistics/Hemispheric Lateralization of Language - Wikiversity
National Aphasia Association5
- About 1 million people in the United States currently have aphasia, and nearly 180,000 Americans acquire it each year, according to the National Aphasia Association. (nih.gov)
- Additional data suggest that 2-4 million people in the United States are living with aphasia (National Aphasia Association, n.d. (asha.org)
- About one-third of all strokes result in aphasia, yet the National Aphasia Association (NAA) estimates that about 8 out of 10 people have never heard of this disability. (everydayhealth.com)
- He did so, as the National Aphasia Association says, after caring for a patient who couldn't say anything besides "tan. (grunge.com)
- The National Aphasia Association states that approximately 25% to 40% of stroke survivors develop aphasia. (grunge.com)
- When this area of the brain is damaged, a disorder known as Wernicke's aphasia can result, with the person being able to speak in phrases that sound fluent yet lack meaning. (verywellmind.com)
- Wernicke's aphasia is one of the three fluent aphasias. (theaphasiacenter.com)
- The hallmarks of a Wernicke's aphasia are poor auditory processing, fluent speech, and poor repetition. (theaphasiacenter.com)
- I often find that therapists or physicians have confused this phonological, fluent aphasia with apraxia . (theaphasiacenter.com)
- There are two broad categories of aphasia: fluent and nonfluent, and there are several types within these groups. (nih.gov)
- Damage to the temporal lobe of the brain may result in Wernicke's aphasia (see figure ), the most common type of fluent aphasia. (nih.gov)
- Aphasia is often described as nonfluent or fluent, based on the typical length of utterance and amount of meaningful content a person produces. (asha.org)
- If you've ever struggled to find the right word to finish a sentence, then you can glean what it feels like to have Broca's (non-fluent) aphasia. (grunge.com)
- And if you've ever rambled while wrestling to get your point across, and had no one understand you, then you can glean what it feels like to have Wernicke's (fluent) aphasia. (grunge.com)
- Most reported cases manifest with non-fluent (Broca) aphasia. (bvsalud.org)
- Ictal fluent (Wernicke) aphasia is less common. (bvsalud.org)
- For aphasia caused by stroke, the types are fluent and non-fluent. (medlineplus.gov)
- The most common type of fluent aphasia is called Wernicke's aphasia. (medlineplus.gov)
- Broca's aphasia is the most common type of non-fluent aphasia. (medlineplus.gov)
- In 1874, Wernicke found an area in the temporal lobe of the left hemisphere, distinct from that which Broca had described, which disrupted language capabilities (Bear et al. (wikiversity.org)
- 2007). As shown in the studies of Bouillaud, Aubertin, Broca and Wernicke described above, lesion studies combined with autopsy reports can tell us a a lot about the localization of language, which ultimately has supplied information on lateralization . (wikiversity.org)
- What Is Wernicke's Aphasia? (theaphasiacenter.com)
- For a free download of how Wernicke's aphasia gets better, click here . (theaphasiacenter.com)
- Wernicke's aphasia happens because the posterior portion of the left side of the brain has been damaged. (theaphasiacenter.com)
- Treatment of Wernicke's aphasia may initially be difficult for some therapists because the patient does not understand written or spoken language and he does not realize that his speech makes no sense to others. (theaphasiacenter.com)
- While Wernicke's aphasia can seem a difficult or impossible type of aphasia to treat on the surface, it can be much easier than other types of aphasia. (theaphasiacenter.com)
- Progress can be made with any type of aphasia, and Wernicke's aphasia is no exception, although the indirect method of treatment can make it seem as though it takes more time. (theaphasiacenter.com)
- People with Wernicke's aphasia may speak in long, complete sentences that have no meaning, adding unnecessary words and even creating made-up words. (nih.gov)
- For example, someone with Wernicke's aphasia may say, "You know that smoodle pinkered and that I want to get him round and take care of him like you want before. (nih.gov)
- People with Wernicke's aphasia are often unaware of their spoken mistakes. (nih.gov)
- 1. [The role of the right hemisphere on recovery from Wernicke's aphasia]. (nih.gov)
- 4. Differences between conduction aphasia and Wernicke's aphasia. (nih.gov)
- 6. Crossed Wernicke's aphasia: a case report. (nih.gov)
- 8. Revealing and quantifying the impaired phonological analysis underpinning impaired comprehension in Wernicke's aphasia. (nih.gov)
- 13. An on-line analysis of syntactic processing in Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia. (nih.gov)
- 14. Relationship between lesion extent in 'Wernicke's area' on computed tomographic scan and predicting recovery of comprehension in Wernicke's aphasia. (nih.gov)
- 18. Crossed Wernicke's aphasia. (nih.gov)
- 20. Situational therapy for Wernicke's aphasia. (nih.gov)
- For example, people with Wernicke's aphasia can still speak. (nih.gov)
- Another type of aphasia , known as Wernicke's aphasia, causes people to utter long sentences that may include nonsense words. (everydayhealth.com)
- Oculomotor Eye contains the general interpretative area- Movement Wernicke's aphasia Insula (Island of Reil) - visceral function IV. (slideshare.net)
- Those with Wernicke's aphasia have damage to the side portion of the language-dominant part of the brain. (baycare.org)
- Among their most-cited findings were the still unexplained discovery, often-replicated across languages, that the average patient with Broca's aphasia is about ten years younger than the average patient with Wernicke's aphasia. (cuny.edu)
- We report a 47-year-old, right-handed woman that presented with recurrent episodes of non-convulsive seizures in the form of Wernicke's aphasia for 2 weeks. (bvsalud.org)
- People with Wernicke's aphasia may speak in complete sentences that are often long but have little meaning. (medlineplus.gov)
- In his epoch-making monograph, Wernicke (1874) claimed that atrophy of the brain cannot cause aphasia. (nih.gov)
- The most common type of nonfluent aphasia is Broca's aphasia (see figure ). (nih.gov)
- His frontal and temporal forms of aphasia foreshadowed what are now called the nonfluent/agrammatic and semantic variants of primary progressive aphasia. (nih.gov)
- For research about neurodegenerative aphasia, see the Primary Progressive Aphasia Evidence Map . (asha.org)
- For example, primary progressive aphasia is a subtype of frontotemporal dementia in which language capabilities become progressively impaired. (asha.org)
- For further information, please see ASHA's Practice Portal page on Dementia , the Primary Progressive Aphasia Evidence Map , and the items listed in the Resources section at the end of this page. (asha.org)
- We present the first report of a deaf signer who showed substantial sign language aphasia with severe impairment in word production due to a left occipital lesion. (neurology.org)
- The most predictive indicator of long-term recovery is initial aphasia severity, along with lesion site and size (Benghanem et al. (asha.org)
- About 10 years later, a neurologist named Carl Wernicke identified a similar type of problem in which patients were able to speak but were not able to actually comprehend language. (verywellmind.com)
- German anatomist Carl Wernicke (1848-1904) is also known as an early supporter of the theory of language lateralization. (wikiversity.org)
- Almost 180,000 people in the U.S. develop aphasia every year. (nih.gov)
- Refuting this claim, Pick (1892, 1898, 1901, 1904a) documented in increasing detail several cases of aphasia with circumscribed atrophy of the left temporal lobe, frontal lobe, or both, which persuaded Wernicke (1906). (nih.gov)
- Se origina por lesiones que afectan fundamentalmente al área de Wernicke, situada en la región perisilviana posterior del lóbulo temporal del hemisferio dominante. (bvsalud.org)
- Aphasia symptoms vary in severity of impairment and impact on functional communication, depending on factors such as the location and extent of damage and the demands of the communication environment. (asha.org)
- The symptoms of aphasia vary according to where damage has occurred in the brain and the type of aphasia. (medlineplus.gov)
- Often the clinician is the first person to recognize the symptoms of aphasia while treating the patient for a brain injury. (medlineplus.gov)
- People with Broca's aphasia have damage that primarily affects the frontal lobe of the brain. (nih.gov)
- Though aphasia affects language, Cherney stresses that it doesn't impact intelligence. (nih.gov)
- Aphasia is an acquired neurogenic language disorder resulting from an injury to the brain, typically the left hemisphere, that affects the functioning of core elements of the language network. (asha.org)
- Although the condition affects everyone differently, in general, aphasia inhibits a person's ability to speak. (everydayhealth.com)
- Per Variety , the family cited Willis' recent health problems and diagnosis of aphasia - a neurological disorder that affects the speech centers of the brain - as the reason for his departure from film and TV. (grunge.com)
- Aphasia usually occurs suddenly, often following a stroke or head injury, but it may also develop slowly, as the result of a brain tumor or a progressive neurological disease. (nih.gov)
- Aphasia occurs when a part of the brain that helps process language is damaged. (nih.gov)
- Aphasia occurs when parts of the brain that are responsible for language processing are damaged. (medlineplus.gov)
- Aphasia is a disorder that results from damage to portions of the brain that are responsible for language. (nih.gov)
- Aphasia is a language disorder caused by damage in a specific area of the brain that controls language expression and comprehension, and leaves a person unable to communicate effectively with others. (baycare.org)
- Confirmation of aphasia, extent of the disorder, and prediction for successful treatment may be assessed and confirmed by a set of comprehensive language tests conducted by a speech-language pathologist. (baycare.org)
- Wernicke 's aphasia is a serious language and word-finding disorder. (medicinelearners.com)
- It's easy to see how a disorder like aphasia can be extremely frustrating to those who have it, and those around them. (grunge.com)
- Localization of sign language production and comprehension in deaf people has been described as similar to that of spoken language aphasia. (neurology.org)
- 11. Late recovery of auditory comprehension in global aphasia. (nih.gov)
- Aphasia may include deficits in verbal expression and auditory comprehension deficits as well as reading and writing deficits. (asha.org)
- With Broca's aphasia, damage to frontal regions of the brain make it difficult to form full sentences, and patients may leave out words. (everydayhealth.com)
- Global aphasia can be even more extreme, causing communication impairment in both speaking and understanding. (everydayhealth.com)
- The treatment for apraxia and for a phonological aphasia are completely different. (theaphasiacenter.com)
- Clinicians should be aware that a person's presentation may not fit into a single aphasia type or subtype, and should use care if designating a type or subtype. (asha.org)
- Prevalence of aphasia refers to the number of people who are living with aphasia in a given time period. (asha.org)
- Very few statistics are available regarding the incidence and prevalence of TBI-induced aphasia. (asha.org)
- 2008). Simmons-Mackie (2018) estimates the prevalence of TBI-induced aphasia to be as low as 64,653 and as high as 1,228,421 based upon data extrapolated from these studies. (asha.org)
- Using these data, Simmons-Mackie (2018) estimates the prevalence rate of tumor-associated aphasia to be between 198,028 and 330,048. (asha.org)
- Because of the influence of age-related, degenerative neurological disorders on the prevalence of aphasia, aphasia is usually more common in older people. (grunge.com)
- People with aphasia are the same as they were before their strokes, trying to express themselves in spite of disability. (everydayhealth.com)
- As the National Institute on Deafness and other Communicative Disorders relates, aphasia can result from any number of causes, particularly strokes that cause blood to stop flowing throughout the brain. (grunge.com)
- Poor auditory processing means that the person with this type of aphasia may have difficulty understanding what you are saying to him. (theaphasiacenter.com)
- Another hallmark of this type of aphasia is difficulty understanding speech. (nih.gov)
- Others may have difficulty naming objects even though they know what the object is and what it may be used for (anomic aphasia). (nih.gov)
- Anomia , or difficulty retrieving words, is essentially universal across all individuals with aphasia (Laine & Martin, 2006). (asha.org)
- Even so, for most people with aphasia, language difficulty remains after this initial recovery period. (medlineplus.gov)
- Wernicke encephalopathy is a systemic degenerative brain disease based on vitamin B1 deficiency. (medicinelearners.com)
- Incidence of aphasia refers to the number of new cases identified in a specified time period. (asha.org)
- As the National Institute on Deafness and other Communicative Disorders describes, aphasia refers to a group of disorders resulting from problems with the language-processing parts of the brain, specifically Broca's area and Wernicke's area. (grunge.com)
- People with Broca's aphasia typically understand the speech of others fairly well. (nih.gov)
- Currently Dr. Obler has students working with her on dissertations on 1) semantic-category decline in Alzheimer's Disease, the Primary Progressive Aphasias, 2) transcranial Direct Cortical Stimulation (tDCS)), a cutting-edge technology that may improve declining lexical retrieval in healthy elderly, 3) memory as it interacts with processing a proficient second language, and 4) using verb structures to enhance language recovery in bilingual aphasia. (cuny.edu)
- Aphasia may co-occur with speech disorders, such as dysarthria or apraxia of speech, which also result from brain damage. (nih.gov)
- Aphasia may also result from neurodegenerative disease. (asha.org)
- Global aphasia is the result of damage to a large portion of the language-dominant side of the brain. (baycare.org)
- Most aphasia cases result suddenly from a stroke or head injury. (medlineplus.gov)
- This research could result in better diagnosis and treatment of aphasia and other neurological disorders. (medlineplus.gov)
- Most people who have aphasia are middle-aged or older, but anyone can acquire it, including young children. (nih.gov)
- People with Broca's aphasia may understand speech and know what they want to say, but they frequently speak in short phrases that are produced with great effort. (nih.gov)
- People with Broca's aphasia understand most language and know what they want to say, but struggle to produce even a few words. (nih.gov)
- Even with treatment, some people with aphasia won't be able to gain back their language skills. (nih.gov)
- People with aphasia do maintain their intelligence. (everydayhealth.com)
- Approximately 1 million people in the United States have aphasia, with about 80,000 cases diagnosed each year from stroke alone. (baycare.org)
- Both genders are affected equally, and most people with aphasia are in middle to old age. (baycare.org)
- People with Broca's aphasia , for example, have damage to the front portion of the language-dominant side of the brain. (baycare.org)
- People with global aphasia have difficulties with speaking or comprehending language. (baycare.org)
- People with damage to both areas have "global aphasia. (grunge.com)
- People with aphasia understand what they mean, within their own minds, but can't communicate it properly. (grunge.com)
- Besides that, there's no one group of people more susceptible to the development of aphasia than another. (grunge.com)
- People with Broca's aphasia know what they want to say, but have trouble saying it or writing it. (medlineplus.gov)
- What types of aphasia are there? (nih.gov)
- There are other types of aphasia, each of which results from damage to different language areas in the brain. (nih.gov)
- Different types of aphasia affect language in different ways. (nih.gov)
- Other types of aphasia affect reading, writing, and other aspects of expressing and understanding language. (nih.gov)
- Some types of therapy for aphasia focus on re-learning one word at a time. (nih.gov)
- There are many types of aphasia, which are usually diagnosed by which area of the language-dominant side of the brain is affected and the extent of the damage. (baycare.org)
- It's important to remember that there isn't only one kind of aphasia, but many different types resulting from similar causes. (grunge.com)
- For example, a person with Broca's aphasia may say, "Walk dog," meaning, "I will take the dog for a walk," or "book book two table," for "There are two books on the table. (nih.gov)
- Aphasia is usually first recognized by the physician who treats the person for his or her brain injury. (nih.gov)
- For the best outcomes, we want to jump in straight away to work with the person who has aphasia," says Cherney. (nih.gov)
- Ask for and value the opinion of the person with aphasia. (nih.gov)
- The recovery arc of aphasia varies significantly from person to person. (asha.org)
- Speech therapists can help a person with aphasia learn to communicate again. (everydayhealth.com)
- How much a person recovers from aphasia depends on many factors, including what caused the brain injury, what part of the brain was injured, the degree to which the brain was injured, and the age and health of the patient. (medlineplus.gov)
- Individuals with global aphasia have severe communication difficulties and may be extremely limited in their ability to speak or comprehend language. (nih.gov)
- There are various subtypes of aphasia within these two categories based on differences in other aspects of expressive and receptive language skills. (asha.org)
- Her cross-language aphasia work with Lise Menn has been credited with demonstrating differences among spared and impaired morphological elements linked to languages' peculiar morphosyntactic repertoires. (cuny.edu)
- To diagnose aphasia, the clinician will usually order a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan or a computed tomography (CT) scan to locate a brain injury. (medlineplus.gov)
- 2006). Fifteen percent of individuals under the age of 65 years experience aphasia after their first ischemic stroke. (asha.org)
- 2013), and two additional studies found that aphasia occurred in 13%-19% of individuals with TBI (Hoofien et al. (asha.org)
- Although aphasia has no cure, individuals can improve over time, especially through speech therapy. (everydayhealth.com)
- Script Templates: A Practical Approach to Script Training in Aphasia. (nih.gov)
- It is currently unknown if aphasia causes the complete loss of language structure, or if it causes difficulties in how language is accessed and used. (baycare.org)
- As you could imagine, aphasia is a devastating diagnosis to receive, one often compounded by the loss of the ability to hold down a job, relationships strained to the breaking point because of extreme communication difficulties, and resultant diagnoses of other illness like clinical depression. (grunge.com)
- She is an aphasia diagnostic and treatment expert with over 11 years of daily experience. (theaphasiacenter.com)
- At present, aphasia is more common in the U.S. than Parkinson's Disease, cerebral palsy, or muscular dystrophy. (grunge.com)