A cognitive disorder marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or express language in its written or spoken form. This condition is caused by diseases which affect the language areas of the dominant hemisphere. Clinical features are used to classify the various subtypes of this condition. General categories include receptive, expressive, and mixed forms of aphasia.
A progressive form of dementia characterized by the global loss of language abilities and initial preservation of other cognitive functions. Fluent and nonfluent subtypes have been described. Eventually a pattern of global cognitive dysfunction, similar to ALZHEIMER DISEASE, emerges. Pathologically, there are no Alzheimer or PICK DISEASE like changes, however, spongiform changes of cortical layers II and III are present in the TEMPORAL LOBE and FRONTAL LOBE. (From Brain 1998 Jan;121(Pt 1):115-26)
The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.
An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle, having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.
A type of fluent aphasia characterized by an impaired ability to repeat one and two word phrases, despite retained comprehension. This condition is associated with dominant hemisphere lesions involving the arcuate fasciculus (a white matter projection between Broca's and Wernicke's areas) and adjacent structures. Like patients with Wernicke aphasia (APHASIA, WERNICKE), patients with conduction aphasia are fluent but commit paraphasic errors during attempts at written and oral forms of communication. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p482; Brain & Bannister, Clinical Neurology, 7th ed, p142; Kandel et al., Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p848)
A language dysfunction characterized by the inability to name people and objects that are correctly perceived. The individual is able to describe the object in question, but cannot provide the name. This condition is associated with lesions of the dominant hemisphere involving the language areas, in particular the TEMPORAL LOBE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p484)
A form of frontotemporal lobar degeneration and a progressive form of dementia characterized by motor speech impairment and AGRAMMATISM, with relative sparing of single word comprehension and semantic memory.
Tests designed to assess language behavior and abilities. They include tests of vocabulary, comprehension, grammar and functional use of language, e.g., Development Sentence Scoring, Receptive-Expressive Emergent Language Scale, Parsons Language Sample, Utah Test of Language Development, Michigan Language Inventory and Verbal Language Development Scale, Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities, Northwestern Syntax Screening Test, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Ammons Full-Range Picture Vocabulary Test, and Assessment of Children's Language Comprehension.
Treatment for individuals with speech defects and disorders that involves counseling and use of various exercises and aids to help the development of new speech habits.
Rehabilitation of persons with language disorders or training of children with language development disorders.
A small nodular mass of specialized muscle fibers located in the interatrial septum near the opening of the coronary sinus. It gives rise to the atrioventricular bundle of the conduction system of the heart.
Loss or impairment of the ability to write (letters, syllables, words, or phrases) due to an injury to a specific cerebral area or occasionally due to emotional factors. This condition rarely occurs in isolation, and often accompanies APHASIA. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p485; APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
A group of cognitive disorders characterized by the inability to perform previously learned skills that cannot be attributed to deficits of motor or sensory function. The two major subtypes of this condition are ideomotor (see APRAXIA, IDEOMOTOR) and ideational apraxia, which refers to loss of the ability to mentally formulate the processes involved with performing an action. For example, dressing apraxia may result from an inability to mentally formulate the act of placing clothes on the body. Apraxias are generally associated with lesions of the dominant PARIETAL LOBE and supramarginal gyrus. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp56-7)
The relationships between symbols and their meanings.
Impaired conduction of cardiac impulse that can occur anywhere along the conduction pathway, such as between the SINOATRIAL NODE and the right atrium (SA block) or between atria and ventricles (AV block). Heart blocks can be classified by the duration, frequency, or completeness of conduction block. Reversibility depends on the degree of structural or functional defects.
A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.
Communication through a system of conventional vocal symbols.
Conditions characterized by deficiencies of comprehension or expression of written and spoken forms of language. These include acquired and developmental disorders.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Transmission of sound waves through vibration of bones in the SKULL to the inner ear (COCHLEA). By using bone conduction stimulation and by bypassing any OUTER EAR or MIDDLE EAR abnormalities, hearing thresholds of the cochlea can be determined. Bone conduction hearing differs from normal hearing which is based on air conduction stimulation via the EAR CANAL and the TYMPANIC MEMBRANE.
Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.
A receptive visual aphasia characterized by the loss of a previously possessed ability to comprehend the meaning or significance of handwritten words, despite intact vision. This condition may be associated with posterior cerebral artery infarction (INFARCTION, POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY) and other BRAIN DISEASES.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the median nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C6 to T1), travel via the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the forearm and hand.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Measurement of parameters of the speech product such as vocal tone, loudness, pitch, voice quality, articulation, resonance, phonation, phonetic structure and prosody.
The science of language, including phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics, and historical linguistics. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Regulation of the rate of contraction of the heart muscles by an artificial pacemaker.
A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)
A form of apraxia characterized by an acquired inability to carry out a complex motor activity despite the ability to mentally formulate the action. This condition has been attributed to a disruption of connections between the dominant parietal cortex and supplementary and premotor cortical regions in both hemispheres. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p57)
Any disturbances of the normal rhythmic beating of the heart or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. Cardiac arrhythmias can be classified by the abnormalities in HEART RATE, disorders of electrical impulse generation, or impulse conduction.
The period of time following the triggering of an ACTION POTENTIAL when the CELL MEMBRANE has changed to an unexcitable state and is gradually restored to the resting (excitable) state. During the absolute refractory period no other stimulus can trigger a response. This is followed by the relative refractory period during which the cell gradually becomes more excitable and the stronger impulse that is required to illicit a response gradually lessens to that required during the resting state.
Personal names, given or surname, as cultural characteristics, as ethnological or religious patterns, as indications of the geographic distribution of families and inbreeding, etc. Analysis of isonymy, the quality of having the same or similar names, is useful in the study of population genetics. NAMES is used also for the history of names or name changes of corporate bodies, such as medical societies, universities, hospitals, government agencies, etc.
A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.
The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.
Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.
The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.
Methods to induce and measure electrical activities at specific sites in the heart to diagnose and treat problems with the heart's electrical system.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.
Acquired or developmental conditions marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or generate spoken forms of language.
The study of speech or language disorders and their diagnosis and correction.
Impaired impulse conduction from HEART ATRIA to HEART VENTRICLES. AV block can mean delayed or completely blocked impulse conduction.
The act or fact of grasping the meaning, nature, or importance of; understanding. (American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed) Includes understanding by a patient or research subject of information disclosed orally or in writing.
Heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by frontal and temporal lobe atrophy associated with neuronal loss, gliosis, and dementia. Patients exhibit progressive changes in social, behavioral, and/or language function. Multiple subtypes or forms are recognized based on presence or absence of TAU PROTEIN inclusions. FTLD includes three clinical syndromes: FRONTOTEMPORAL DEMENTIA, semantic dementia, and PRIMARY PROGRESSIVE NONFLUENT APHASIA.
The most common clinical form of FRONTOTEMPORAL LOBAR DEGENERATION, this dementia presents with personality and behavioral changes often associated with disinhibition, apathy, and lack of insight.
The medial terminal branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve fibers originate in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (L4 to S2). They supply motor and sensory innervation to parts of the calf and foot.
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
Rapid, irregular atrial contractions caused by a block of electrical impulse conduction in the right atrium and a reentrant wave front traveling up the inter-atrial septum and down the right atrial free wall or vice versa. Unlike ATRIAL FIBRILLATION which is caused by abnormal impulse generation, typical atrial flutter is caused by abnormal impulse conduction. As in atrial fibrillation, patients with atrial flutter cannot effectively pump blood into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES).
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Diagnosis of disease states by recording the spontaneous electrical activity of tissues or organs or by the response to stimulation of electrically excitable tissue.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.
A discipline concerned with relations between messages and the characteristics of individuals who select and interpret them; it deals directly with the processes of encoding (phonetics) and decoding (psychoacoustics) as they relate states of messages to states of communicators.
Disorders of speech articulation caused by imperfect coordination of pharynx, larynx, tongue, or face muscles. This may result from CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; CEREBELLAR DISEASES; BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; BRAIN STEM diseases; or diseases of the corticobulbar tracts (see PYRAMIDAL TRACTS). The cortical language centers are intact in this condition. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p489)
Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.
A branch of the tibial nerve which supplies sensory innervation to parts of the lower leg and foot.
Modified cardiac muscle fibers composing the terminal portion of the heart conduction system.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.
The small mass of modified cardiac muscle fibers located at the junction of the superior vena cava (VENA CAVA, SUPERIOR) and right atrium. Contraction impulses probably start in this node, spread over the atrium (HEART ATRIUM) and are then transmitted by the atrioventricular bundle (BUNDLE OF HIS) to the ventricle (HEART VENTRICLE).
Removal of tissue with electrical current delivered via electrodes positioned at the distal end of a catheter. Energy sources are commonly direct current (DC-shock) or alternating current at radiofrequencies (usually 750 kHz). The technique is used most often to ablate the AV junction and/or accessory pathways in order to interrupt AV conduction and produce AV block in the treatment of various tachyarrhythmias.
Diseases of the peripheral nerves external to the brain and spinal cord, which includes diseases of the nerve roots, ganglia, plexi, autonomic nerves, sensory nerves, and motor nerves.
A form of ventricular pre-excitation characterized by a short PR interval and a long QRS interval with a delta wave. In this syndrome, atrial impulses are abnormally conducted to the HEART VENTRICLES via an ACCESSORY CONDUCTING PATHWAY that is located between the wall of the right or left atria and the ventricles, also known as a BUNDLE OF KENT. The inherited form can be caused by mutation of PRKAG2 gene encoding a gamma-2 regulatory subunit of AMP-activated protein kinase.
Equipment that provides mentally or physically disabled persons with a means of communication. The aids include display boards, typewriters, cathode ray tubes, computers, and speech synthesizers. The output of such aids includes written words, artificial speech, language signs, Morse code, and pictures.
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART ATRIA.
Peripheral, autonomic, and cranial nerve disorders that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS. These conditions usually result from diabetic microvascular injury involving small blood vessels that supply nerves (VASA NERVORUM). Relatively common conditions which may be associated with diabetic neuropathy include third nerve palsy (see OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES); MONONEUROPATHY; mononeuropathy multiplex; diabetic amyotrophy; a painful POLYNEUROPATHY; autonomic neuropathy; and thoracoabdominal neuropathy. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1325)
A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that mediates the sodium ion PERMEABILITY of CARDIOMYOCYTES. Defects in the SCN5A gene, which codes for the alpha subunit of this sodium channel, are associated with a variety of CARDIAC DISEASES that result from loss of sodium channel function.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Disorders of the centrally located thalamus, which integrates a wide range of cortical and subcortical information. Manifestations include sensory loss, MOVEMENT DISORDERS; ATAXIA, pain syndromes, visual disorders, a variety of neuropsychological conditions, and COMA. Relatively common etiologies include CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; BRAIN NEOPLASMS; BRAIN HYPOXIA; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; and infectious processes.
Regularly spaced gaps in the myelin sheaths of peripheral axons. Ranvier's nodes allow saltatory conduction, that is, jumping of impulses from node to node, which is faster and more energetically favorable than continuous conduction.
Loss of the ability to comprehend the meaning or recognize the importance of various forms of stimulation that cannot be attributed to impairment of a primary sensory modality. Tactile agnosia is characterized by an inability to perceive the shape and nature of an object by touch alone, despite unimpaired sensation to light touch, position, and other primary sensory modalities.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A 43-kDa peptide which is a member of the connexin family of gap junction proteins. Connexin 43 is a product of a gene in the alpha class of connexin genes (the alpha-1 gene). It was first isolated from mammalian heart, but is widespread in the body including the brain.
Abnormally rapid heartbeats caused by reentry of atrial impulse into the dual (fast and slow) pathways of ATRIOVENTRICULAR NODE. The common type involves a blocked atrial impulse in the slow pathway which reenters the fast pathway in a retrograde direction and simultaneously conducts to the atria and the ventricles leading to rapid HEART RATE of 150-250 beats per minute.
The lateral of the two terminal branches of the sciatic nerve. The peroneal (or fibular) nerve provides motor and sensory innervation to parts of the leg and foot.
Abnormal cardiac rhythm that is characterized by rapid, uncoordinated firing of electrical impulses in the upper chambers of the heart (HEART ATRIA). In such case, blood cannot be effectively pumped into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES). It is caused by abnormal impulse generation.
Entrapment of the MEDIAN NERVE in the carpal tunnel, which is formed by the flexor retinaculum and the CARPAL BONES. This syndrome may be associated with repetitive occupational trauma (CUMULATIVE TRAUMA DISORDERS); wrist injuries; AMYLOID NEUROPATHIES; rheumatoid arthritis (see ARTHRITIS, RHEUMATOID); ACROMEGALY; PREGNANCY; and other conditions. Symptoms include burning pain and paresthesias involving the ventral surface of the hand and fingers which may radiate proximally. Impairment of sensation in the distribution of the median nerve and thenar muscle atrophy may occur. (Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1995, Ch51, p45)

Agrammatic comprehension of simple active sentences with moved constituents: Hebrew OSV and OVS structures. (1/9)

This study examines agrammatic comprehension of object-subject-verb (OSV) and object-verb-subject (OVS) structures in Hebrew. These structures are syntactically identical to the basic order subject-verb-object (SVO) sentence except for the movement of the object to the beginning of the sentence, and thus enable empirical examination of syntactic movement in agrammatic comprehension. Seven individuals with agrammatism, 7 individuals with conduction aphasia, and 7 individuals without language impairment, all native speakers of Hebrew, performed a sentence-picture matching task. The task compared OSV and OVS sentences to SVO sentences and to subject and object relatives. Individuals with agrammatism performed more poorly than those in either of the other groups. Their comprehension of SVO sentences was significantly above chance, but comprehension of OSV and OVS sentences was at chance and was poorer than comprehension of SVO sentences. These results show that agrammatic comprehension of structures that involve movement of a noun phrase is impaired even when the structure is a simple active sentence, in line with the Trace Deletion Hypothesis (TDH; Y. Grodzinsky, 1990, 1995a, 2000). A modification is suggested to accommodate the TDH with the VP Internal Subject Hypothesis, according to which individuals with agrammatism use an "Avoid Movement" strategy in comprehension.  (+info)

Functional MRI follow-up study of language processes in healthy subjects and during recovery in a case of aphasia. (2/9)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The goal of this study was to develop a functional MRI (fMRI) paradigm robust and reproducible enough in healthy subjects to be adapted for a follow-up study aiming at evaluating the anatomical substratum of recovery in poststroke aphasia. METHODS: Ten right-handed subjects were studied longitudinally using fMRI (7 of them being scanned twice) and compared with a patient with conduction aphasia during the first year of stroke recovery. RESULTS: Controls exhibited reproducible activation patterns between subjects and between sessions during language tasks. In contrast, the patient exhibited dynamic changes in brain activation pattern, particularly in the phonological task, during the 2 fMRI sessions. At 1 month after stroke, language homotopic right areas were recruited, whereas large perilesional left involvement occurred later (12 months). CONCLUSIONS: We first demonstrate intersubject robustness and intrasubject reproducibility of our paradigm in 10 healthy subjects and thus its validity in a patient follow-up study over a stroke recovery time course. Indeed, results suggest a spatiotemporal poststroke brain reorganization involving both hemispheres during the recovery course, with an early implication of a new contralateral functional neural network and a later implication of an ipsilateral one.  (+info)

The rises and falls of disconnection syndromes. (3/9)

In a brain composed of localized but connected specialized areas, disconnection leads to dysfunction. This simple formulation underlay a range of 19th century neurological disorders, referred to collectively as disconnection syndromes. Although disconnectionism fell out of favour with the move against localized brain theories in the early 20th century, in 1965, an American neurologist brought disconnection to the fore once more in a paper entitled, 'Disconnexion syndromes in animals and man'. In what was to become the manifesto of behavioural neurology, Norman Geschwind outlined a pure disconnectionist framework which revolutionized both clinical neurology and the neurosciences in general. For him, disconnection syndromes were higher function deficits that resulted from white matter lesions or lesions of the association cortices, the latter acting as relay stations between primary motor, sensory and limbic areas. From a clinical perspective, the work reawakened interest in single case studies by providing a useful framework for correlating lesion locations with clinical deficits. In the neurosciences, it helped develop contemporary distributed network and connectionist theories of brain function. Geschwind's general disconnectionist paradigm ruled clinical neurology for 20 years but in the late 1980s, with the re-emergence of specialized functional roles for association cortex, the orbit of its remit began to diminish and it became incorporated into more general models of higher dysfunction. By the 1990s, textbooks of neurology were devoting only a few pages to classical disconnection theory. Today, new techniques to study connections in the living human brain allow us, for the first time, to test the classical formulation directly and broaden it beyond disconnections to include disorders of hyperconnectivity. In this review, on the 40th anniversary of Geschwind's publication, we describe the changing fortunes of disconnection theory and adapt the general framework that evolved from it to encompass the entire spectrum of higher function disorders in neurology and psychiatry.  (+info)

Visuomotor tracking abilities of speakers with apraxia of speech or conduction aphasia. (4/9)

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The role of the arcuate fasciculus in conduction aphasia. (5/9)

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Treatment of category generation and retrieval in aphasia: effect of typicality of category items. (6/9)

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Conduction aphasia, sensory-motor integration, and phonological short-term memory - an aggregate analysis of lesion and fMRI data. (7/9)

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Density pervades: an analysis of phonological neighbourhood density effects in aphasic speakers with different types of naming impairment. (8/9)

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Aphasia is a medical condition that affects a person's ability to communicate. It is caused by damage to the language areas of the brain, most commonly as a result of a stroke or head injury. Aphasia can affect both spoken and written language, making it difficult for individuals to express their thoughts, understand speech, read, or write.

There are several types of aphasia, including:

1. Expressive aphasia (also called Broca's aphasia): This type of aphasia affects a person's ability to speak and write clearly. Individuals with expressive aphasia know what they want to say but have difficulty forming the words or sentences to communicate their thoughts.
2. Receptive aphasia (also called Wernicke's aphasia): This type of aphasia affects a person's ability to understand spoken or written language. Individuals with receptive aphasia may struggle to follow conversations, comprehend written texts, or make sense of the words they hear or read.
3. Global aphasia: This is the most severe form of aphasia and results from extensive damage to the language areas of the brain. People with global aphasia have significant impairments in both their ability to express themselves and understand language.
4. Anomic aphasia: This type of aphasia affects a person's ability to recall the names of objects, people, or places. Individuals with anomic aphasia can speak in complete sentences but often struggle to find the right words to convey their thoughts.

Treatment for aphasia typically involves speech and language therapy, which aims to help individuals regain as much communication ability as possible. The success of treatment depends on various factors, such as the severity and location of the brain injury, the individual's motivation and effort, and the availability of support from family members and caregivers.

Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA) is a neurological disorder characterized by progressive loss of language capabilities, while other cognitive abilities remain preserved. It is a type of dementia that primarily affects speech and language. Unlike other forms of aphasia that result from stroke or head injury, PPA is degenerative and gets worse over time.

There are three main types of PPA:

1. Semantic Variant PPA (svPPA): This type is characterized by difficulty in understanding words and objects, despite having no trouble with the mechanics of speech or writing. Over time, people with svPPA may lose their ability to understand spoken or written language, as well as to recognize objects and faces.

2. Nonfluent/Agrammatic Variant PPA (nfvPPA): This type is characterized by difficulty with speaking and writing, including producing grammatical sentences and articulating words. People with nfvPPA may also have problems with understanding spoken language, particularly when it comes to complex sentences or ambiguous phrases.

3. Logopenic Variant PPA (lvPPA): This type is characterized by difficulty with word-finding and sentence repetition, while speech remains fluent. People with lvPPA may also have problems with understanding spoken language, particularly when it comes to complex sentences or ambiguous phrases.

The exact cause of PPA is not known, but it is believed to be related to degeneration of specific areas of the brain involved in language processing, such as Broca's area and Wernicke's area. There is currently no cure for PPA, but speech and language therapy can help to slow down the progression of the disorder and improve communication skills.

Neural conduction is the process by which electrical signals, known as action potentials, are transmitted along the axon of a neuron (nerve cell) to transmit information between different parts of the nervous system. This electrical impulse is generated by the movement of ions across the neuronal membrane, and it propagates down the length of the axon until it reaches the synapse, where it can then stimulate the release of neurotransmitters to communicate with other neurons or target cells. The speed of neural conduction can vary depending on factors such as the diameter of the axon, the presence of myelin sheaths (which act as insulation and allow for faster conduction), and the temperature of the environment.

The heart conduction system is a group of specialized cardiac muscle cells that generate and conduct electrical impulses to coordinate the contraction of the heart chambers. The main components of the heart conduction system include:

1. Sinoatrial (SA) node: Also known as the sinus node, it is located in the right atrium near the entrance of the superior vena cava and functions as the primary pacemaker of the heart. It sets the heart rate by generating electrical impulses at regular intervals.
2. Atrioventricular (AV) node: Located in the interatrial septum, near the opening of the coronary sinus, it serves as a relay station for electrical signals between the atria and ventricles. The AV node delays the transmission of impulses to allow the atria to contract before the ventricles.
3. Bundle of His: A bundle of specialized cardiac muscle fibers that conducts electrical impulses from the AV node to the ventricles. It divides into two main branches, the right and left bundle branches, which further divide into smaller Purkinje fibers.
4. Right and left bundle branches: These are extensions of the Bundle of His that transmit electrical impulses to the respective right and left ventricular myocardium. They consist of specialized conducting tissue with large diameters and minimal resistance, allowing for rapid conduction of electrical signals.
5. Purkinje fibers: Fine, branching fibers that arise from the bundle branches and spread throughout the ventricular myocardium. They are responsible for transmitting electrical impulses to the working cardiac muscle cells, triggering coordinated ventricular contraction.

In summary, the heart conduction system is a complex network of specialized muscle cells responsible for generating and conducting electrical signals that coordinate the contraction of the atria and ventricles, ensuring efficient blood flow throughout the body.

Conduction aphasia is a type of aphasia that is characterized by an impairment in the ability to repeat spoken or written words, despite having intact comprehension and production abilities. It is caused by damage to specific areas of the brain, typically in the left hemisphere, that are involved in language repetition and transmission.

Individuals with conduction aphasia may have difficulty repeating sentences or phrases, but they can usually understand spoken and written language and produce speech relatively well. They may also make phonological errors (substituting, adding, or omitting sounds) when speaking, particularly in more complex words or sentences.

Conduction aphasia is often caused by stroke or other types of brain injury, and it can range from mild to severe in terms of its impact on communication abilities. Treatment typically involves speech-language therapy to help individuals improve their language skills and compensate for any remaining deficits.

Anomia is a language disorder that affects a person's ability to name objects, places, or people. It is often caused by damage to the brain, such as from a stroke, brain injury, or neurological condition. In anomia, a person has difficulty retrieving words from their memory, and may substitute similar-sounding words, describe the object instead of naming it, or be unable to come up with a name at all. Anomia can range from mild to severe and can significantly impact a person's ability to communicate effectively.

Primary Progressive Nonfluent Aphasia (PPNA) is a rare type of dementia that primarily affects language abilities. According to the National Aphasia Association, it is characterized by progressive difficulty with speaking and writing, while comprehension of single words and object knowledge remains relatively intact. The "nonfluent" descriptor refers to the hesitant, effortful, and halting speech pattern observed in individuals with this condition.

The Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) term provided by the National Library of Medicine defines PPNA as:

"A progressive aphasia characterized by agrammatism and/or anomia with relatively preserved single word comprehension and object knowledge. This condition often, but not always, begins between the sixth and seventh decades of life. As the disorder progresses, it may be accompanied by ideomotor apraxia, alien hand syndrome, and elements of corticobasal degeneration."

It is important to note that PPNA is a clinical diagnosis, and there are currently no established biomarkers or imaging techniques to definitively diagnose this condition. The underlying neuropathology may vary between individuals with PPNA, but the most common causes include frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and corticobasal degeneration (CBD).

A language test is not a medical term per se, but it is commonly used in the field of speech-language pathology, which is a medical discipline. A language test, in this context, refers to an assessment tool used by speech-language pathologists to evaluate an individual's language abilities. These tests typically measure various aspects of language, including vocabulary, grammar, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics.

Language tests can be standardized or non-standardized and may be administered individually or in a group setting. The results of these tests help speech-language pathologists diagnose language disorders, develop treatment plans, and monitor progress over time. It is important to note that language testing should be conducted by a qualified professional who has experience in administering and interpreting language assessments.

Speech Therapy, also known as Speech-Language Pathology, is a medical field that focuses on the assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of communication and swallowing disorders in children and adults. These disorders may include speech sound production difficulties (articulation disorders or phonological processes disorders), language disorders (expressive and/or receptive language impairments), voice disorders, fluency disorders (stuttering), cognitive-communication disorders, and swallowing difficulties (dysphagia).

Speech therapists, who are also called speech-language pathologists (SLPs), work with clients to improve their communication abilities through various therapeutic techniques and exercises. They may also provide counseling and education to families and caregivers to help them support the client's communication development and management of the disorder.

Speech therapy services can be provided in a variety of settings, including hospitals, clinics, schools, private practices, and long-term care facilities. The specific goals and methods used in speech therapy will depend on the individual needs and abilities of each client.

Language therapy, also known as speech-language therapy, is a type of treatment aimed at improving an individual's communication and swallowing abilities. Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) or therapists provide this therapy to assess, diagnose, and treat a wide range of communication and swallowing disorders that can occur in people of all ages, from infants to the elderly.

Language therapy may involve working on various skills such as:

1. Expressive language: Improving the ability to express thoughts, needs, wants, and ideas through verbal, written, or other symbolic systems.
2. Receptive language: Enhancing the understanding of spoken or written language, including following directions and comprehending conversations.
3. Pragmatic or social language: Developing appropriate use of language in various social situations, such as turn-taking, topic maintenance, and making inferences.
4. Articulation and phonology: Correcting speech sound errors and improving overall speech clarity.
5. Voice and fluency: Addressing issues related to voice quality, volume, and pitch, as well as stuttering or stammering.
6. Literacy: Improving reading, writing, and spelling skills.
7. Swallowing: Evaluating and treating swallowing disorders (dysphagia) to ensure safe and efficient eating and drinking.

Language therapy often involves a combination of techniques, including exercises, drills, conversation practice, and the use of various therapeutic materials and technology. The goal of language therapy is to help individuals with communication disorders achieve optimal functional communication and swallowing abilities in their daily lives.

The atrioventricular (AV) node is a critical part of the electrical conduction system of the heart. It is a small cluster of specialized cardiac muscle cells located in the lower interatrial septum, near the opening of the coronary sinus. The AV node receives electrical impulses from the sinoatrial node (the heart's natural pacemaker) via the internodal pathways and delays their transmission for a brief period before transmitting them to the bundle of His and then to the ventricles. This delay allows the atria to contract and empty their contents into the ventricles before the ventricles themselves contract, ensuring efficient pumping of blood throughout the body.

The AV node plays an essential role in maintaining a normal heart rhythm, as it can also function as a backup pacemaker if the sinoatrial node fails to generate impulses. However, certain heart conditions or medications can affect the AV node's function and lead to abnormal heart rhythms, such as atrioventricular block or atrial tachycardia.

Agraphia is a neurological disorder that affects the ability to write, either by hand or through mechanical means like typing. It is often caused by damage to specific areas of the brain involved in language and writing skills, such as the left parietal lobe. Agraphia can manifest as difficulty with spelling, forming letters or words, organizing thoughts on paper, or expressing ideas in writing. Depending on the severity and location of the brain injury, agraphia may occur in isolation or alongside other language or cognitive impairments.

Apraxia is a motor disorder characterized by the inability to perform learned, purposeful movements despite having the physical ability and mental understanding to do so. It is not caused by weakness, paralysis, or sensory loss, and it is not due to poor comprehension or motivation.

There are several types of apraxias, including:

1. Limb-Kinematic Apraxia: This type affects the ability to make precise movements with the limbs, such as using tools or performing complex gestures.
2. Ideomotor Apraxia: In this form, individuals have difficulty executing learned motor actions in response to verbal commands or visual cues, but they can still perform the same action when given the actual object to use.
3. Ideational Apraxia: This type affects the ability to sequence and coordinate multiple steps of a complex action, such as dressing oneself or making coffee.
4. Oral Apraxia: Also known as verbal apraxia, this form affects the ability to plan and execute speech movements, leading to difficulties with articulation and speech production.
5. Constructional Apraxia: This type impairs the ability to draw, copy, or construct geometric forms and shapes, often due to visuospatial processing issues.

Apraxias can result from various neurological conditions, such as stroke, brain injury, dementia, or neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Treatment typically involves rehabilitation and therapy focused on retraining the affected movements and compensating for any residual deficits.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "semantics" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Semantics is actually a branch of linguistics that deals with the study of meaning, reference, and the interpretation of signs and symbols, either individually or in combination. It is used in various fields including computer science, anthropology, psychology, and philosophy.

However, if you have any medical terms or concepts that you would like me to explain, I'd be happy to help!

Heart block is a cardiac condition characterized by the interruption of electrical impulse transmission from the atria (the upper chambers of the heart) to the ventricles (the lower chambers of the heart). This disruption can lead to abnormal heart rhythms, including bradycardia (a slower-than-normal heart rate), and in severe cases, can cause the heart to stop beating altogether. Heart block is typically caused by damage to the heart's electrical conduction system due to various factors such as aging, heart disease, or certain medications.

There are three types of heart block: first-degree, second-degree, and third-degree (also known as complete heart block). Each type has distinct electrocardiogram (ECG) findings and symptoms. Treatment for heart block depends on the severity of the condition and may include monitoring, medication, or implantation of a pacemaker to regulate the heart's electrical activity.

In the context of medicine, particularly in neurolinguistics and speech-language pathology, language is defined as a complex system of communication that involves the use of symbols (such as words, signs, or gestures) to express and exchange information. It includes various components such as phonology (sound systems), morphology (word structures), syntax (sentence structure), semantics (meaning), and pragmatics (social rules of use). Language allows individuals to convey their thoughts, feelings, and intentions, and to understand the communication of others. Disorders of language can result from damage to specific areas of the brain, leading to impairments in comprehension, production, or both.

Speech is the vocalized form of communication using sounds and words to express thoughts, ideas, and feelings. It involves the articulation of sounds through the movement of muscles in the mouth, tongue, and throat, which are controlled by nerves. Speech also requires respiratory support, phonation (vocal cord vibration), and prosody (rhythm, stress, and intonation).

Speech is a complex process that develops over time in children, typically beginning with cooing and babbling sounds in infancy and progressing to the use of words and sentences by around 18-24 months. Speech disorders can affect any aspect of this process, including articulation, fluency, voice, and language.

In a medical context, speech is often evaluated and treated by speech-language pathologists who specialize in diagnosing and managing communication disorders.

Language disorders, also known as communication disorders, refer to a group of conditions that affect an individual's ability to understand or produce spoken, written, or other symbolic language. These disorders can be receptive (difficulty understanding language), expressive (difficulty producing language), or mixed (a combination of both).

Language disorders can manifest as difficulties with grammar, vocabulary, sentence structure, and coherence in communication. They can also affect social communication skills such as taking turns in conversation, understanding nonverbal cues, and interpreting tone of voice.

Language disorders can be developmental, meaning they are present from birth or early childhood, or acquired, meaning they develop later in life due to injury, illness, or trauma. Examples of acquired language disorders include aphasia, which can result from stroke or brain injury, and dysarthria, which can result from neurological conditions affecting speech muscles.

Language disorders can have significant impacts on an individual's academic, social, and vocational functioning, making it important to diagnose and treat them as early as possible. Treatment typically involves speech-language therapy to help individuals develop and improve their language skills.

Neuropsychological tests are a type of psychological assessment that measures cognitive functions, such as attention, memory, language, problem-solving, and perception. These tests are used to help diagnose and understand the cognitive impact of neurological conditions, including dementia, traumatic brain injury, stroke, Parkinson's disease, and other disorders that affect the brain.

The tests are typically administered by a trained neuropsychologist and can take several hours to complete. They may involve paper-and-pencil tasks, computerized tasks, or interactive activities. The results of the tests are compared to normative data to help identify any areas of cognitive weakness or strength.

Neuropsychological testing can provide valuable information for treatment planning, rehabilitation, and assessing response to treatment. It can also be used in research to better understand the neural basis of cognition and the impact of neurological conditions on cognitive function.

An action potential is a brief electrical signal that travels along the membrane of a nerve cell (neuron) or muscle cell. It is initiated by a rapid, localized change in the permeability of the cell membrane to specific ions, such as sodium and potassium, resulting in a rapid influx of sodium ions and a subsequent efflux of potassium ions. This ion movement causes a brief reversal of the electrical potential across the membrane, which is known as depolarization. The action potential then propagates along the cell membrane as a wave, allowing the electrical signal to be transmitted over long distances within the body. Action potentials play a crucial role in the communication and functioning of the nervous system and muscle tissue.

Bone conduction is a type of hearing mechanism that involves the transmission of sound vibrations directly to the inner ear through the bones of the skull, bypassing the outer and middle ears. This occurs when sound waves cause the bones in the skull to vibrate, stimulating the cochlea (the spiral cavity of the inner ear) and its hair cells, which convert the mechanical energy of the vibrations into electrical signals that are sent to the brain and interpreted as sound.

Bone conduction is a natural part of the hearing process in humans, but it can also be used artificially through the use of bone-conduction devices, such as hearing aids or headphones, which transmit sound vibrations directly to the skull. This type of transmission can provide improved hearing for individuals with conductive hearing loss, mixed hearing loss, or single-sided deafness, as it bypasses damaged or obstructed outer and middle ears.

Electrocardiography (ECG or EKG) is a medical procedure that records the electrical activity of the heart. It provides a graphic representation of the electrical changes that occur during each heartbeat. The resulting tracing, called an electrocardiogram, can reveal information about the heart's rate and rhythm, as well as any damage to its cells or abnormalities in its conduction system.

During an ECG, small electrodes are placed on the skin of the chest, arms, and legs. These electrodes detect the electrical signals produced by the heart and transmit them to a machine that amplifies and records them. The procedure is non-invasive, painless, and quick, usually taking only a few minutes.

ECGs are commonly used to diagnose and monitor various heart conditions, including arrhythmias, coronary artery disease, heart attacks, and electrolyte imbalances. They can also be used to evaluate the effectiveness of certain medications or treatments.

Acquired dyslexia, also known as "alexia" or "word blindness," is a medical condition that affects an individual's ability to understand written language despite having normal intelligence and education. It is characterized by a sudden loss of the ability to read, following damage to specific areas of the brain responsible for visual processing and language comprehension, such as the left occipitotemporal cortex.

Unlike developmental dyslexia, which is present from birth or early childhood, acquired dyslexia occurs later in life due to brain injury, stroke, infection, tumor, or other neurological conditions that damage the language and visual processing areas of the brain. Individuals with acquired dyslexia may have difficulty recognizing words, letters, or symbols, despite having intact hearing and speaking abilities.

Treatment for acquired dyslexia typically involves rehabilitation and compensation strategies to help the individual regain their reading skills or develop alternative ways to process written language. Speech-language therapy, occupational therapy, and assistive technology may be used as part of a comprehensive treatment plan.

The median nerve is one of the major nerves in the human body, providing sensation and motor function to parts of the arm and hand. It originates from the brachial plexus, a network of nerves that arise from the spinal cord in the neck. The median nerve travels down the arm, passing through the cubital tunnel at the elbow, and continues into the forearm and hand.

In the hand, the median nerve supplies sensation to the palm side of the thumb, index finger, middle finger, and half of the ring finger. It also provides motor function to some of the muscles that control finger movements, allowing for flexion of the fingers and opposition of the thumb.

Damage to the median nerve can result in a condition called carpal tunnel syndrome, which is characterized by numbness, tingling, and weakness in the hand and fingers.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

Speech production measurement is the quantitative analysis and assessment of various parameters and characteristics of spoken language, such as speech rate, intensity, duration, pitch, and articulation. These measurements can be used to diagnose and monitor speech disorders, evaluate the effectiveness of treatment, and conduct research in fields such as linguistics, psychology, and communication disorders. Speech production measurement tools may include specialized software, hardware, and techniques for recording, analyzing, and visualizing speech data.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "linguistics" is not a term that has a medical definition. Lingustics is the scientific study of language and its structure. It involves analysing language form, language meaning, and language in context.

If you have any questions related to healthcare or medicine, I'd be happy to try to help answer them!

Artificial cardiac pacing is a medical procedure that involves the use of an artificial device to regulate and stimulate the contraction of the heart muscle. This is often necessary when the heart's natural pacemaker, the sinoatrial node, is not functioning properly and the heart is beating too slowly or irregularly.

The artificial pacemaker consists of a small generator that produces electrical impulses and leads that are positioned in the heart to transmit the impulses. The generator is typically implanted just under the skin in the chest, while the leads are inserted into the heart through a vein.

There are different types of artificial cardiac pacing systems, including single-chamber pacemakers, which stimulate either the right atrium or right ventricle, and dual-chamber pacemakers, which stimulate both chambers of the heart. Some pacemakers also have additional features that allow them to respond to changes in the body's needs, such as during exercise or sleep.

Artificial cardiac pacing is a safe and effective treatment for many people with abnormal heart rhythms, and it can significantly improve their quality of life and longevity.

A stroke, also known as cerebrovascular accident (CVA), is a serious medical condition that occurs when the blood supply to part of the brain is interrupted or reduced, leading to deprivation of oxygen and nutrients to brain cells. This can result in the death of brain tissue and cause permanent damage or temporary impairment to cognitive functions, speech, memory, movement, and other body functions controlled by the affected area of the brain.

Strokes can be caused by either a blockage in an artery that supplies blood to the brain (ischemic stroke) or the rupture of a blood vessel in the brain (hemorrhagic stroke). A transient ischemic attack (TIA), also known as a "mini-stroke," is a temporary disruption of blood flow to the brain that lasts only a few minutes and does not cause permanent damage.

Symptoms of a stroke may include sudden weakness or numbness in the face, arm, or leg; difficulty speaking or understanding speech; vision problems; loss of balance or coordination; severe headache with no known cause; and confusion or disorientation. Immediate medical attention is crucial for stroke patients to receive appropriate treatment and prevent long-term complications.

Ideomotor apraxia is a neurological disorder that affects the ability to perform learned, purposeful movements in the absence of muscle weakness or paralysis. It results from damage to specific areas of the brain that are responsible for motor planning and execution.

In ideomotor apraxia, the person has difficulty translating an intention or idea into the appropriate movement. For example, if asked to pantomime using a toothbrush, they may not be able to recall and execute the correct sequence of movements required for this task, even though they understand what is being asked of them and have no problem moving their arm or hand.

This disorder can manifest as awkward, poorly coordinated, or incomplete movements, often with inconsistent errors. Ideomotor apraxia is typically seen following lesions to the left hemisphere of the brain, particularly in regions associated with language and motor function, such as Broca's area and the parietal lobe. Treatment usually involves occupational therapy and strategies to help compensate for the impaired motor skills.

Cardiac arrhythmias are abnormal heart rhythms that result from disturbances in the electrical conduction system of the heart. The heart's normal rhythm is controlled by an electrical signal that originates in the sinoatrial (SA) node, located in the right atrium. This signal travels through the atrioventricular (AV) node and into the ventricles, causing them to contract and pump blood throughout the body.

An arrhythmia occurs when there is a disruption in this electrical pathway or when the heart's natural pacemaker produces an abnormal rhythm. This can cause the heart to beat too fast (tachycardia), too slow (bradycardia), or irregularly.

There are several types of cardiac arrhythmias, including:

1. Atrial fibrillation: A rapid and irregular heartbeat that starts in the atria (the upper chambers of the heart).
2. Atrial flutter: A rapid but regular heartbeat that starts in the atria.
3. Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT): A rapid heartbeat that starts above the ventricles, usually in the atria or AV node.
4. Ventricular tachycardia: A rapid and potentially life-threatening heart rhythm that originates in the ventricles.
5. Ventricular fibrillation: A chaotic and disorganized electrical activity in the ventricles, which can be fatal if not treated immediately.
6. Heart block: A delay or interruption in the conduction of electrical signals from the atria to the ventricles.

Cardiac arrhythmias can cause various symptoms, such as palpitations, dizziness, shortness of breath, chest pain, and fatigue. In some cases, they may not cause any symptoms and go unnoticed. However, if left untreated, certain types of arrhythmias can lead to serious complications, including stroke, heart failure, or even sudden cardiac death.

Treatment for cardiac arrhythmias depends on the type, severity, and underlying causes. Options may include lifestyle changes, medications, cardioversion (electrical shock therapy), catheter ablation, implantable devices such as pacemakers or defibrillators, and surgery. It is essential to consult a healthcare professional for proper evaluation and management of cardiac arrhythmias.

The refractory period, electrophysiological, refers to the time interval during which a cardiac or neural cell is unable to respond to a new stimulus immediately after an action potential has been generated. This period is divided into two phases: the absolute refractory period and the relative refractory period.

During the absolute refractory period, the cell cannot be re-stimulated, regardless of the strength of the stimulus, due to the rapid inactivation of voltage-gated sodium channels that are responsible for the rapid depolarization during an action potential. This phase is crucial for maintaining the unidirectional conduction of electrical impulses and preventing the occurrence of re-entry circuits, which can lead to life-threatening arrhythmias in the heart or hyperexcitability in neural tissue.

The relative refractory period follows the absolute refractory period and is characterized by a reduced excitability of the cell. During this phase, a stronger than normal stimulus is required to elicit an action potential due to the slower recovery of voltage-gated sodium channels and the partial activation of potassium channels, which promote repolarization. The duration of both the absolute and relative refractory periods varies depending on the cell type, its physiological state, and other factors such as temperature and pH.

In summary, the electrophysiological refractory period is a fundamental property of excitable cells that ensures proper electrical signaling and prevents uncontrolled excitation or re-entry circuits.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "names" is not a medical term that can be defined in a biological or clinical context. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to try and help! Please provide more information or clarify your question.

The Ulnar nerve is one of the major nerves in the forearm and hand, which provides motor function to the majority of the intrinsic muscles of the hand (except for those innervated by the median nerve) and sensory innervation to the little finger and half of the ring finger. It originates from the brachial plexus, passes through the cubital tunnel at the elbow, and continues down the forearm, where it runs close to the ulna bone. The ulnar nerve then passes through the Guyon's canal in the wrist before branching out to innervate the hand muscles and provide sensation to the skin on the little finger and half of the ring finger.

The heart atria are the upper chambers of the heart that receive blood from the veins and deliver it to the lower chambers, or ventricles. There are two atria in the heart: the right atrium receives oxygen-poor blood from the body and pumps it into the right ventricle, which then sends it to the lungs to be oxygenated; and the left atrium receives oxygen-rich blood from the lungs and pumps it into the left ventricle, which then sends it out to the rest of the body. The atria contract before the ventricles during each heartbeat, helping to fill the ventricles with blood and prepare them for contraction.

In the context of medical and clinical psychology, particularly in the field of applied behavior analysis (ABA), "verbal behavior" is a term used to describe the various functions or purposes of spoken language. It was first introduced by the psychologist B.F. Skinner in his 1957 book "Verbal Behavior."

Skinner proposed that verbal behavior could be classified into several categories based on its function, including:

1. Mand: A verbal operant in which a person requests or demands something from another person. For example, saying "I would like a glass of water" is a mand.
2. Tact: A verbal operant in which a person describes or labels something in their environment. For example, saying "That's a red apple" is a tact.
3. Echoic: A verbal operant in which a person repeats or imitates what they have heard. For example, saying "Hello" after someone says hello to you is an echoic.
4. Intraverbal: A verbal operant in which a person responds to another person's verbal behavior with their own verbal behavior, without simply repeating or imitating what they have heard. For example, answering a question like "What's the capital of France?" is an intraverbal.
5. Textual: A verbal operant in which a person reads or writes text. For example, reading a book or writing a letter are textual.

Understanding the function of verbal behavior can be helpful in assessing and treating communication disorders, such as those seen in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). By identifying the specific functions of a child's verbal behavior, therapists can develop targeted interventions to help them communicate more effectively.

Peripheral nerves are nerve fibers that transmit signals between the central nervous system (CNS, consisting of the brain and spinal cord) and the rest of the body. These nerves convey motor, sensory, and autonomic information, enabling us to move, feel, and respond to changes in our environment. They form a complex network that extends from the CNS to muscles, glands, skin, and internal organs, allowing for coordinated responses and functions throughout the body. Damage or injury to peripheral nerves can result in various neurological symptoms, such as numbness, weakness, or pain, depending on the type and severity of the damage.

Electrophysiologic techniques, cardiac, refer to medical procedures used to study the electrical activities and conduction systems of the heart. These techniques involve the insertion of electrode catheters into the heart through blood vessels under fluoroscopic guidance to record and stimulate electrical signals. The information obtained from these studies can help diagnose and evaluate various cardiac arrhythmias, determine the optimal treatment strategy, and assess the effectiveness of therapies such as ablation or implantable devices.

The electrophysiologic study (EPS) is a type of cardiac electrophysiologic technique that involves the measurement of electrical signals from different regions of the heart to evaluate its conduction system's function. The procedure can help identify the location of abnormal electrical pathways responsible for arrhythmias and determine the optimal treatment strategy, such as catheter ablation or medication therapy.

Cardiac electrophysiologic techniques are also used in device implantation procedures, such as pacemaker or defibrillator implantation, to ensure proper placement and function of the devices. These techniques can help program and test the devices to optimize their settings for each patient's needs.

In summary, cardiac electrophysiologic techniques are medical procedures used to study and manipulate the electrical activities of the heart, helping diagnose and treat various arrhythmias and other cardiac conditions.

Electrophysiology is a branch of medicine that deals with the electrical activities of the body, particularly the heart. In a medical context, electrophysiology studies (EPS) are performed to assess abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias) and to evaluate the effectiveness of certain treatments, such as medication or pacemakers.

During an EPS, electrode catheters are inserted into the heart through blood vessels in the groin or neck. These catheters can record the electrical activity of the heart and stimulate it to help identify the source of the arrhythmia. The information gathered during the study can help doctors determine the best course of treatment for each patient.

In addition to cardiac electrophysiology, there are also other subspecialties within electrophysiology, such as neuromuscular electrophysiology, which deals with the electrical activity of the nervous system and muscles.

Atrophy is a medical term that refers to the decrease in size and wasting of an organ or tissue due to the disappearance of cells, shrinkage of cells, or decreased number of cells. This process can be caused by various factors such as disuse, aging, degeneration, injury, or disease.

For example, if a muscle is immobilized for an extended period, it may undergo atrophy due to lack of use. Similarly, certain medical conditions like diabetes, cancer, and heart failure can lead to the wasting away of various tissues and organs in the body.

Atrophy can also occur as a result of natural aging processes, leading to decreased muscle mass and strength in older adults. In general, atrophy is characterized by a decrease in the volume or weight of an organ or tissue, which can have significant impacts on its function and overall health.

Speech disorders refer to a group of conditions in which a person has difficulty producing or articulating sounds, words, or sentences in a way that is understandable to others. These disorders can be caused by various factors such as developmental delays, neurological conditions, hearing loss, structural abnormalities, or emotional issues.

Speech disorders may include difficulties with:

* Articulation: the ability to produce sounds correctly and clearly.
* Phonology: the sound system of language, including the rules that govern how sounds are combined and used in words.
* Fluency: the smoothness and flow of speech, including issues such as stuttering or cluttering.
* Voice: the quality, pitch, and volume of the spoken voice.
* Resonance: the way sound is produced and carried through the vocal tract, which can affect the clarity and quality of speech.

Speech disorders can impact a person's ability to communicate effectively, leading to difficulties in social situations, academic performance, and even employment opportunities. Speech-language pathologists are trained to evaluate and treat speech disorders using various evidence-based techniques and interventions.

Speech-Language Pathology is a branch of healthcare that deals with the evaluation, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of communication disorders, speech difficulties, and swallowing problems. Speech-language pathologists (SLPs), also known as speech therapists, are professionals trained to assess and help manage these issues. They work with individuals of all ages, from young children who may be delayed in their speech and language development, to adults who have communication or swallowing difficulties due to stroke, brain injury, neurological disorders, or other conditions. Treatment may involve various techniques and technologies to improve communication and swallowing abilities, and may also include counseling and education for patients and their families.

Atrioventricular (AV) block is a disorder of the electrical conduction system of the heart that causes a delay or interruption in the transmission of electrical signals from the atria (the upper chambers of the heart) to the ventricles (the lower chambers of the heart). This results in an abnormal heart rhythm, also known as an arrhythmia.

There are three degrees of AV block:

1. First-degree AV block: In this type of AV block, there is a delay in the conduction of electrical signals from the atria to the ventricles, but all signals are eventually conducted. This condition may not cause any symptoms and is often discovered during a routine electrocardiogram (ECG).
2. Second-degree AV block: In this type of AV block, some electrical signals from the atria are not conducted to the ventricles. There are two types of second-degree AV block: Mobitz type I and Mobitz type II. Mobitz type I is characterized by a progressive prolongation of the PR interval (the time between the electrical activation of the atria and ventricles) until a QRS complex (which represents the electrical activation of the ventricles) is dropped. Mobitz type II is characterized by a constant PR interval with occasional non-conducted P waves.
3. Third-degree AV block: In this type of AV block, no electrical signals are conducted from the atria to the ventricles. The atria and ventricles beat independently of each other, resulting in a slow heart rate (bradycardia) and an irregular rhythm. This condition can be life-threatening if not treated promptly.

The causes of AV block include aging, heart disease, medications, and certain medical conditions such as hypothyroidism and Lyme disease. Treatment depends on the severity of the condition and may include medication, a pacemaker, or surgery.

Comprehension, in a medical context, usually refers to the ability to understand and interpret spoken or written language, as well as gestures and expressions. It is a key component of communication and cognitive functioning. Difficulties with comprehension can be a symptom of various neurological conditions, such as aphasia (a disorder caused by damage to the language areas of the brain), learning disabilities, or dementia. Assessment of comprehension is often part of neuropsychological evaluations and speech-language pathology assessments.

Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is a group of disorders characterized by the progressive degeneration of the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain. These areas of the brain are involved in decision-making, behavior, emotion, and language. FTLD can be divided into several subtypes based on the specific clinical features and the underlying protein abnormalities.

The three main subtypes of FTLD are:

1. Behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD): This subtype is characterized by changes in personality, behavior, and judgment. People with bvFTD may lose their social inhibitions, become impulsive, or develop compulsive behaviors. They may also have difficulty with emotional processing and empathy.
2. Primary progressive aphasia (PPA): This subtype is characterized by the gradual deterioration of language skills. People with PPA may have difficulty speaking, understanding spoken or written language, or both. There are three subtypes of PPA: nonfluent/agrammatic variant, semantic variant, and logopenic variant.
3. Motor neuron disease (MND) with FTLD: This subtype is characterized by the degeneration of motor neurons, which are the nerve cells responsible for controlling voluntary muscle movements. People with MND with FTLD may develop symptoms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), such as muscle weakness, stiffness, and twitching, as well as cognitive and behavioral changes associated with FTLD.

The underlying protein abnormalities in FTLD include:

1. Tau protein: In some forms of FTLD, the tau protein accumulates and forms clumps called tangles inside nerve cells. This is also seen in Alzheimer's disease.
2. TDP-43 protein: In other forms of FTLD, the TDP-43 protein accumulates and forms clumps inside nerve cells.
3. Fused in sarcoma (FUS) protein: In a small number of cases, the FUS protein accumulates and forms clumps inside nerve cells.

FTLD is typically a progressive disorder, meaning that symptoms worsen over time. There is currently no cure for FTLD, but there are treatments available to help manage symptoms and improve quality of life.

Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a group of disorders caused by progressive degeneration of the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain. These areas of the brain are associated with personality, behavior, and language.

There are three main types of FTD:

1. Behavioral variant FTD (bvFTD): This type is characterized by changes in personality, behavior, and judgment. Individuals may become socially inappropriate, emotionally indifferent, or impulsive. They may lose interest in things they used to enjoy and have difficulty with tasks that require planning and organization.

2. Primary progressive aphasia (PPA): This type affects language abilities. There are two main subtypes of PPA: semantic dementia and progressive nonfluent aphasia. Semantic dementia is characterized by difficulty understanding words and objects, while progressive nonfluent aphasia is characterized by problems with speech production and articulation.

3. Motor neuron disease (MND) associated FTD: Some individuals with FTD may also develop motor neuron disease, which affects the nerves that control muscle movement. This can lead to weakness, stiffness, and wasting of muscles, as well as difficulty swallowing and speaking.

FTD is a degenerative disorder, meaning that symptoms get worse over time. There is no cure for FTD, but there are treatments available to help manage symptoms and improve quality of life. The exact cause of FTD is not known, but it is believed to be related to abnormalities in certain proteins in the brain. In some cases, FTD may run in families and be caused by genetic mutations.

The Tibial nerve is a major branch of the sciatic nerve that originates in the lower back and runs through the buttock and leg. It provides motor (nerve impulses that control muscle movement) and sensory (nerve impulses that convey information about touch, temperature, and pain) innervation to several muscles and skin regions in the lower limb.

More specifically, the Tibial nerve supplies the following structures:

1. Motor Innervation: The Tibial nerve provides motor innervation to the muscles in the back of the leg (posterior compartment), including the calf muscles (gastrocnemius and soleus) and the small muscles in the foot (intrinsic muscles). These muscles are responsible for plantarflexion (pointing the foot downward) and inversion (turning the foot inward) of the foot.
2. Sensory Innervation: The Tibial nerve provides sensory innervation to the skin on the sole of the foot, as well as the heel and some parts of the lower leg.

The Tibial nerve travels down the leg, passing behind the knee and through the calf, where it eventually joins with the common fibular (peroneal) nerve to form the tibial-fibular trunk. This trunk then divides into several smaller nerves that innervate the foot's intrinsic muscles and skin.

Damage or injury to the Tibial nerve can result in various symptoms, such as weakness or paralysis of the calf and foot muscles, numbness or tingling sensations in the sole of the foot, and difficulty walking or standing on tiptoes.

Functional laterality, in a medical context, refers to the preferential use or performance of one side of the body over the other for specific functions. This is often demonstrated in hand dominance, where an individual may be right-handed or left-handed, meaning they primarily use their right or left hand for tasks such as writing, eating, or throwing.

However, functional laterality can also apply to other bodily functions and structures, including the eyes (ocular dominance), ears (auditory dominance), or legs. It's important to note that functional laterality is not a strict binary concept; some individuals may exhibit mixed dominance or no strong preference for one side over the other.

In clinical settings, assessing functional laterality can be useful in diagnosing and treating various neurological conditions, such as stroke or traumatic brain injury, where understanding any resulting lateralized impairments can inform rehabilitation strategies.

Atrial flutter is a type of abnormal heart rhythm or arrhythmia that originates in the atria - the upper chambers of the heart. In atrial flutter, the atria beat too quickly, usually between 250 and 350 beats per minute, which is much faster than the normal resting rate of 60 to 100 beats per minute.

This rapid beating causes the atria to quiver or "flutter" instead of contracting effectively. As a result, blood may not be pumped efficiently into the ventricles - the lower chambers of the heart - which can lead to reduced cardiac output and symptoms such as palpitations, shortness of breath, fatigue, dizziness, or chest discomfort.

Atrial flutter is often caused by underlying heart conditions, such as coronary artery disease, hypertension, valvular heart disease, or congenital heart defects. It can also be a complication of cardiac surgery or other medical procedures. In some cases, atrial flutter may occur without any apparent underlying cause, which is known as lone atrial flutter.

Treatment for atrial flutter typically involves medications to control the heart rate and rhythm, electrical cardioversion to restore a normal heart rhythm, or catheter ablation to destroy the abnormal electrical pathways in the heart that are causing the arrhythmia. In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to treat atrial flutter.

The brain is the central organ of the nervous system, responsible for receiving and processing sensory information, regulating vital functions, and controlling behavior, movement, and cognition. It is divided into several distinct regions, each with specific functions:

1. Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain, responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, memory, language, and perception. It is divided into two hemispheres, each controlling the opposite side of the body.
2. Cerebellum: Located at the back of the brain, it is responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
3. Brainstem: Connects the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord, controlling vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory information and motor commands between the brain and the rest of the body.
4. Diencephalon: A region that includes the thalamus (a major sensory relay station) and hypothalamus (regulates hormones, temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep).
5. Limbic system: A group of structures involved in emotional processing, memory formation, and motivation, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus.

The brain is composed of billions of interconnected neurons that communicate through electrical and chemical signals. It is protected by the skull and surrounded by three layers of membranes called meninges, as well as cerebrospinal fluid that provides cushioning and nutrients.

Electrodiagnosis, also known as electromyography (EMG), is a medical diagnostic procedure that evaluates the health and function of muscles and nerves. It measures the electrical activity of skeletal muscles at rest and during contraction, as well as the conduction of electrical signals along nerves.

The test involves inserting a thin needle electrode into the muscle to record its electrical activity. The physician will ask the patient to contract and relax the muscle while the electrical activity is recorded. The resulting data can help diagnose various neuromuscular disorders, such as nerve damage or muscle diseases, by identifying abnormalities in the electrical signals.

Electrodiagnosis can be used to diagnose conditions such as carpal tunnel syndrome, peripheral neuropathy, muscular dystrophy, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), among others. It is a valuable tool in the diagnosis and management of neuromuscular disorders, helping physicians to develop appropriate treatment plans for their patients.

An axon is a long, slender extension of a neuron (a type of nerve cell) that conducts electrical impulses (nerve impulses) away from the cell body to target cells, such as other neurons or muscle cells. Axons can vary in length from a few micrometers to over a meter long and are typically surrounded by a myelin sheath, which helps to insulate and protect the axon and allows for faster transmission of nerve impulses.

Axons play a critical role in the functioning of the nervous system, as they provide the means by which neurons communicate with one another and with other cells in the body. Damage to axons can result in serious neurological problems, such as those seen in spinal cord injuries or neurodegenerative diseases like multiple sclerosis.

The temporal lobe is one of the four main lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain, located on each side of the head roughly level with the ears. It plays a major role in auditory processing, memory, and emotion. The temporal lobe contains several key structures including the primary auditory cortex, which is responsible for analyzing sounds, and the hippocampus, which is crucial for forming new memories. Damage to the temporal lobe can result in various neurological symptoms such as hearing loss, memory impairment, and changes in emotional behavior.

Psycholinguistics is not a medical term per se, but it is a subfield of both psychology and linguistics that explores how we understand, produce, and process language. It investigates the cognitive processes and mental representations involved in language use, such as word recognition, sentence comprehension, language production, language acquisition, and language disorders.

In medical contexts, psycholinguistic assessments may be used to evaluate individuals with communication difficulties due to neurological or developmental disorders, such as aphasia, dyslexia, or autism spectrum disorder. These assessments can help identify specific areas of impairment and inform treatment planning.

Dysarthria is a motor speech disorder that results from damage to the nervous system, particularly the brainstem or cerebellum. It affects the muscles used for speaking, causing slurred, slow, or difficult speech. The specific symptoms can vary depending on the underlying cause and the extent of nerve damage. Treatment typically involves speech therapy to improve communication abilities.

Cerebral dominance is a concept in neuropsychology that refers to the specialization of one hemisphere of the brain over the other for certain cognitive functions. In most people, the left hemisphere is dominant for language functions such as speaking and understanding spoken or written language, while the right hemisphere is dominant for non-verbal functions such as spatial ability, face recognition, and artistic ability.

Cerebral dominance does not mean that the non-dominant hemisphere is incapable of performing the functions of the dominant hemisphere, but rather that it is less efficient or specialized in those areas. The concept of cerebral dominance has been used to explain individual differences in cognitive abilities and learning styles, as well as the laterality of brain damage and its effects on cognition and behavior.

It's important to note that cerebral dominance is a complex phenomenon that can vary between individuals and can be influenced by various factors such as genetics, environment, and experience. Additionally, recent research has challenged the strict lateralization of functions and suggested that there is more functional overlap and interaction between the two hemispheres than previously thought.

The sural nerve is a purely sensory peripheral nerve in the lower leg and foot. It provides sensation to the outer ( lateral) aspect of the little toe and the adjacent side of the fourth toe, as well as a small portion of the skin on the back of the leg between the ankle and knee joints.

The sural nerve is formed by the union of branches from the tibial and common fibular nerves (branches of the sciatic nerve) in the lower leg. It runs down the calf, behind the lateral malleolus (the bony prominence on the outside of the ankle), and into the foot.

The sural nerve is often used as a donor nerve during nerve grafting procedures due to its consistent anatomy and relatively low risk for morbidity at the donor site.

Purkinje fibers are specialized cardiac muscle fibers that are located in the subendocardial region of the inner ventricular walls of the heart. They play a crucial role in the electrical conduction system of the heart, transmitting electrical impulses from the bundle branches to the ventricular myocardium, which enables the coordinated contraction of the ventricles during each heartbeat.

These fibers have a unique structure that allows for rapid and efficient conduction of electrical signals. They are larger in diameter than regular cardiac muscle fibers, have fewer branching points, and possess more numerous mitochondria and a richer blood supply. These features enable Purkinje fibers to conduct electrical impulses at faster speeds, ensuring that the ventricles contract simultaneously and forcefully, promoting efficient pumping of blood throughout the body.

Brain mapping is a broad term that refers to the techniques used to understand the structure and function of the brain. It involves creating maps of the various cognitive, emotional, and behavioral processes in the brain by correlating these processes with physical locations or activities within the nervous system. Brain mapping can be accomplished through a variety of methods, including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET) scans, electroencephalography (EEG), and others. These techniques allow researchers to observe which areas of the brain are active during different tasks or thoughts, helping to shed light on how the brain processes information and contributes to our experiences and behaviors. Brain mapping is an important area of research in neuroscience, with potential applications in the diagnosis and treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders.

The frontal lobe is the largest lobes of the human brain, located at the front part of each cerebral hemisphere and situated in front of the parietal and temporal lobes. It plays a crucial role in higher cognitive functions such as decision making, problem solving, planning, parts of social behavior, emotional expressions, physical reactions, and motor function. The frontal lobe is also responsible for what's known as "executive functions," which include the ability to focus attention, understand rules, switch focus, plan actions, and inhibit inappropriate behaviors. It is divided into five areas, each with its own specific functions: the primary motor cortex, premotor cortex, Broca's area, prefrontal cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex. Damage to the frontal lobe can result in a wide range of impairments, depending on the location and extent of the injury.

The sinoatrial (SA) node, also known as the sinus node, is the primary pacemaker of the heart. It is a small bundle of specialized cardiac conduction tissue located in the upper part of the right atrium, near the entrance of the superior vena cava. The SA node generates electrical impulses that initiate each heartbeat, causing the atria to contract and pump blood into the ventricles. This process is called sinus rhythm.

The SA node's electrical activity is regulated by the autonomic nervous system, which can adjust the heart rate in response to changes in the body's needs, such as during exercise or rest. The SA node's rate of firing determines the heart rate, with a normal resting heart rate ranging from 60 to 100 beats per minute.

If the SA node fails to function properly or its electrical impulses are blocked, other secondary pacemakers in the heart may take over, resulting in abnormal heart rhythms called arrhythmias.

Catheter ablation is a medical procedure in which specific areas of heart tissue that are causing arrhythmias (irregular heartbeats) are destroyed or ablated using heat energy (radiofrequency ablation), cold energy (cryoablation), or other methods. The procedure involves threading one or more catheters through the blood vessels to the heart, where the tip of the catheter can be used to selectively destroy the problematic tissue. Catheter ablation is often used to treat atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter, and other types of arrhythmias that originate in the heart's upper chambers (atria). It may also be used to treat certain types of arrhythmias that originate in the heart's lower chambers (ventricles), such as ventricular tachycardia.

The goal of catheter ablation is to eliminate or reduce the frequency and severity of arrhythmias, thereby improving symptoms and quality of life. In some cases, it may also help to reduce the risk of stroke and other complications associated with arrhythmias. Catheter ablation is typically performed by a specialist in heart rhythm disorders (electrophysiologist) in a hospital or outpatient setting under local anesthesia and sedation. The procedure can take several hours to complete, depending on the complexity of the arrhythmia being treated.

It's important to note that while catheter ablation is generally safe and effective, it does carry some risks, such as bleeding, infection, damage to nearby structures, and the possibility of recurrent arrhythmias. Patients should discuss the potential benefits and risks of the procedure with their healthcare provider before making a decision about treatment.

Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) diseases, also known as Peripheral Neuropathies, refer to conditions that affect the functioning of the peripheral nervous system, which includes all the nerves outside the brain and spinal cord. These nerves transmit signals between the central nervous system (CNS) and the rest of the body, controlling sensations, movements, and automatic functions such as heart rate and digestion.

PNS diseases can be caused by various factors, including genetics, infections, toxins, metabolic disorders, trauma, or autoimmune conditions. The symptoms of PNS diseases depend on the type and extent of nerve damage but often include:

1. Numbness, tingling, or pain in the hands and feet
2. Muscle weakness or cramps
3. Loss of reflexes
4. Decreased sensation to touch, temperature, or vibration
5. Coordination problems and difficulty with balance
6. Sexual dysfunction
7. Digestive issues, such as constipation or diarrhea
8. Dizziness or fainting due to changes in blood pressure

Examples of PNS diseases include Guillain-Barre syndrome, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, diabetic neuropathy, and peripheral nerve injuries. Treatment for these conditions varies depending on the underlying cause but may involve medications, physical therapy, lifestyle changes, or surgery.

Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) Syndrome is a heart condition characterized by the presence of an accessory pathway or abnormal electrical connection between the atria (the upper chambers of the heart) and ventricles (the lower chambers of the heart). This accessory pathway allows electrical impulses to bypass the normal conduction system, leading to a shorter PR interval and a "delta wave" on the electrocardiogram (ECG), which is the hallmark of WPW Syndrome.

Individuals with WPW Syndrome may experience no symptoms or may have palpitations, rapid heartbeat (tachycardia), or episodes of atrial fibrillation. In some cases, WPW Syndrome can lead to more serious heart rhythm disturbances and may require treatment, such as medication, catheter ablation, or in rare cases, surgery.

It is important to note that not all individuals with WPW Syndrome will experience symptoms or complications, and many people with this condition can lead normal, active lives with appropriate monitoring and management.

Communication aids for disabled are devices or tools that help individuals with disabilities to communicate effectively. These aids can be low-tech, such as communication boards with pictures and words, or high-tech, such as computer-based systems with synthesized speech output. The goal of these aids is to enhance the individual's ability to express their needs, wants, thoughts, and feelings, thereby improving their quality of life and promoting greater independence.

Some examples of communication aids for disabled include:

1. Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) devices - These are electronic devices that produce speech or text output based on user selection. They can be operated through touch screens, eye-tracking technology, or switches.
2. Speech-generating devices - Similar to AAC devices, these tools generate spoken language for individuals who have difficulty speaking.
3. Adaptive keyboards and mice - These are specialized input devices that allow users with motor impairments to type and navigate computer interfaces more easily.
4. Communication software - Computer programs designed to facilitate communication for individuals with disabilities, such as text-to-speech software or visual scene displays.
5. Picture communication symbols - Graphic representations of objects, actions, or concepts that can be used to create communication boards or books.
6. Eye-tracking technology - Devices that track eye movements to enable users to control a computer or communicate through selection of on-screen options.

These aids are often customized to meet the unique needs and abilities of each individual, allowing them to participate more fully in social interactions, education, and employment opportunities.

Myelinated nerve fibers are neuronal processes that are surrounded by a myelin sheath, a fatty insulating substance that is produced by Schwann cells in the peripheral nervous system and oligodendrocytes in the central nervous system. This myelin sheath helps to increase the speed of electrical impulse transmission, also known as action potentials, along the nerve fiber. The myelin sheath has gaps called nodes of Ranvier where the electrical impulses can jump from one node to the next, which also contributes to the rapid conduction of signals. Myelinated nerve fibers are typically found in the peripheral nerves and the optic nerve, but not in the central nervous system (CNS) tracts that are located within the brain and spinal cord.

Electric stimulation, also known as electrical nerve stimulation or neuromuscular electrical stimulation, is a therapeutic treatment that uses low-voltage electrical currents to stimulate nerves and muscles. It is often used to help manage pain, promote healing, and improve muscle strength and mobility. The electrical impulses can be delivered through electrodes placed on the skin or directly implanted into the body.

In a medical context, electric stimulation may be used for various purposes such as:

1. Pain management: Electric stimulation can help to block pain signals from reaching the brain and promote the release of endorphins, which are natural painkillers produced by the body.
2. Muscle rehabilitation: Electric stimulation can help to strengthen muscles that have become weak due to injury, illness, or surgery. It can also help to prevent muscle atrophy and improve range of motion.
3. Wound healing: Electric stimulation can promote tissue growth and help to speed up the healing process in wounds, ulcers, and other types of injuries.
4. Urinary incontinence: Electric stimulation can be used to strengthen the muscles that control urination and reduce symptoms of urinary incontinence.
5. Migraine prevention: Electric stimulation can be used as a preventive treatment for migraines by applying electrical impulses to specific nerves in the head and neck.

It is important to note that electric stimulation should only be administered under the guidance of a qualified healthcare professional, as improper use can cause harm or discomfort.

Reaction time, in the context of medicine and physiology, refers to the time period between the presentation of a stimulus and the subsequent initiation of a response. This complex process involves the central nervous system, particularly the brain, which perceives the stimulus, processes it, and then sends signals to the appropriate muscles or glands to react.

There are different types of reaction times, including simple reaction time (responding to a single, expected stimulus) and choice reaction time (choosing an appropriate response from multiple possibilities). These measures can be used in clinical settings to assess various aspects of neurological function, such as cognitive processing speed, motor control, and alertness.

However, it is important to note that reaction times can be influenced by several factors, including age, fatigue, attention, and the use of certain medications or substances.

The sciatic nerve is the largest and longest nerve in the human body, running from the lower back through the buttocks and down the legs to the feet. It is formed by the union of the ventral rami (branches) of the L4 to S3 spinal nerves. The sciatic nerve provides motor and sensory innervation to various muscles and skin areas in the lower limbs, including the hamstrings, calf muscles, and the sole of the foot. Sciatic nerve disorders or injuries can result in symptoms such as pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness in the lower back, hips, legs, and feet, known as sciatica.

Motor neurons are specialized nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord that play a crucial role in controlling voluntary muscle movements. They transmit electrical signals from the brain to the muscles, enabling us to perform actions such as walking, talking, and swallowing. There are two types of motor neurons: upper motor neurons, which originate in the brain's motor cortex and travel down to the brainstem and spinal cord; and lower motor neurons, which extend from the brainstem and spinal cord to the muscles. Damage or degeneration of these motor neurons can lead to various neurological disorders, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and spinal muscular atrophy (SMA).

Atrial function in a medical context refers to the role and performance of the two upper chambers of the heart, known as the atria. The main functions of the atria are to receive blood from the veins and help pump it into the ventricles, which are the lower pumping chambers of the heart.

The atria contract in response to electrical signals generated by the sinoatrial node, which is the heart's natural pacemaker. This contraction helps to fill the ventricles with blood before they contract and pump blood out to the rest of the body. Atrial function can be assessed through various diagnostic tests, such as echocardiograms or electrocardiograms (ECGs), which can help identify any abnormalities in atrial structure or electrical activity that may affect heart function.

Diabetic neuropathies refer to a group of nerve disorders that are caused by diabetes. High blood sugar levels can injure nerves throughout the body, but diabetic neuropathies most commonly affect the nerves in the legs and feet.

There are four main types of diabetic neuropathies:

1. Peripheral neuropathy: This is the most common type of diabetic neuropathy. It affects the nerves in the legs and feet, causing symptoms such as numbness, tingling, burning, or shooting pain.
2. Autonomic neuropathy: This type of neuropathy affects the autonomic nerves, which control involuntary functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, digestion, and bladder function. Symptoms may include dizziness, fainting, digestive problems, sexual dysfunction, and difficulty regulating body temperature.
3. Proximal neuropathy: Also known as diabetic amyotrophy, this type of neuropathy affects the nerves in the hips, thighs, or buttocks, causing weakness, pain, and difficulty walking.
4. Focal neuropathy: This type of neuropathy affects a single nerve or group of nerves, causing symptoms such as weakness, numbness, or pain in the affected area. Focal neuropathies can occur anywhere in the body, but they are most common in the head, torso, and legs.

The risk of developing diabetic neuropathies increases with the duration of diabetes and poor blood sugar control. Other factors that may contribute to the development of diabetic neuropathies include genetics, age, smoking, and alcohol consumption.

NAV1.5, also known as SCN5A, is a specific type of voltage-gated sodium channel found in the heart muscle cells (cardiomyocytes). These channels play a crucial role in the generation and transmission of electrical signals that coordinate the contraction of the heart.

More specifically, NAV1.5 channels are responsible for the rapid influx of sodium ions into cardiomyocytes during the initial phase of the action potential, which is the electrical excitation of the cell. This rapid influx of sodium ions helps to initiate and propagate the action potential throughout the heart muscle, allowing for coordinated contraction and proper heart function.

Mutations in the SCN5A gene, which encodes the NAV1.5 channel, have been associated with various cardiac arrhythmias, including long QT syndrome, Brugada syndrome, and familial atrial fibrillation, among others. These genetic disorders can lead to abnormal heart rhythms, syncope, and in some cases, sudden cardiac death.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Thalamic diseases refer to conditions that affect the thalamus, which is a part of the brain that acts as a relay station for sensory and motor signals to the cerebral cortex. The thalamus plays a crucial role in regulating consciousness, sleep, and alertness. Thalamic diseases can cause a variety of symptoms depending on the specific area of the thalamus that is affected. These symptoms may include sensory disturbances, motor impairment, cognitive changes, and altered levels of consciousness. Examples of thalamic diseases include stroke, tumors, multiple sclerosis, infections, and degenerative disorders such as dementia and Parkinson's disease. Treatment for thalamic diseases depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, surgery, or rehabilitation therapy.

Ranvier's nodes, also known as nodes of Ranvier, are specialized structures in the nervous system. They are gaps in the myelin sheath, a fatty insulating substance that surrounds the axons of many neurons, leaving them exposed. These nodes play a crucial role in the rapid transmission of electrical signals along the neuron. The unmyelinated sections of the axon at the nodes have a higher concentration of voltage-gated sodium channels, which generate the action potential that propagates along the neuron. The myelinated segments between the nodes, called internodes, help to speed up this process by allowing the action potential to "jump" from node to node, a mechanism known as saltatory conduction. This process significantly increases the speed of neural impulse transmission, making it more efficient. Ranvier's nodes are named after Louis-Antoine Ranvier, a French histologist and physiologist who first described them in the late 19th century.

Agnosia is a medical term that refers to the inability to recognize or comprehend the meaning or significance of sensory stimuli, even though the specific senses themselves are intact. It is a higher-level cognitive disorder, caused by damage to certain areas of the brain that are responsible for processing and interpreting information from our senses.

There are different types of agnosia, depending on which sense is affected:

* Visual agnosia: The inability to recognize or identify objects, faces, or shapes based on visual input.
* Auditory agnosia: The inability to understand spoken language or recognize sounds, even though hearing is intact.
* Tactile agnosia: The inability to recognize objects by touch, despite normal tactile sensation.
* Olfactory and gustatory agnosia: The inability to identify smells or tastes, respectively, even though the senses of smell and taste are functioning normally.

Agnosia can result from various causes, including stroke, brain injury, infection, degenerative diseases, or tumors that damage specific areas of the brain involved in sensory processing and interpretation. Treatment for agnosia typically focuses on rehabilitation and compensation strategies to help individuals adapt to their deficits and improve their quality of life.

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. "Dogs" is not a medical term or condition. It is the common name for a domesticated carnivore of the family Canidae, specifically the genus Canis, which includes wolves, foxes, and other extant and extinct species of mammals. Dogs are often kept as pets and companions, and they have been bred in a wide variety of forms and sizes for different purposes, such as hunting, herding, guarding, assisting police and military forces, and providing companionship and emotional support.

If you meant to ask about a specific medical condition or term related to dogs, please provide more context so I can give you an accurate answer.

Connexin 43 is a protein that forms gap junctions, which are specialized channels that allow for the direct communication and transport of small molecules between adjacent cells. Connexin 43 is widely expressed in many tissues, including the heart, brain, and various types of epithelial and connective tissues. In the heart, connexin 43 plays a crucial role in electrical conduction and coordination of contraction between cardiac muscle cells. Mutations in the gene that encodes connexin 43 have been associated with several human diseases, including certain types of cardiac arrhythmias and skin disorders.

Atrioventricular (AV) nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT) is a type of supraventricular tachycardia (SVT), which is a rapid heart rhythm originating at or above the atrioventricular node. In AVNRT, an abnormal electrical circuit in or near the AV node creates a reentry pathway that allows for rapid heart rates, typically greater than 150-250 beats per minute.

In normal conduction, the electrical impulse travels from the atria to the ventricles through the AV node and then continues down the bundle branches to the Purkinje fibers, resulting in a coordinated contraction of the heart. In AVNRT, an extra electrical pathway exists that allows for the reentry of the electrical impulse back into the atria, creating a rapid and abnormal circuit.

AVNRT is classified based on the direction of the reentry circuit:

1. Typical or common AVNRT: The most common form, accounting for 90% of cases. In this type, the reentry circuit involves an "anterior" and a "posterior" loop in or near the AV node. The anterior loop has slower conduction velocity than the posterior loop, creating a "short" reentry circuit that is responsible for the rapid heart rate.
2. Atypical AVNRT: Less common, accounting for 10% of cases. In this type, the reentry circuit involves an "outer" and an "inner" loop around the AV node. The outer loop has slower conduction velocity than the inner loop, creating a "long" reentry circuit that is responsible for the rapid heart rate.

AVNRT can present with symptoms such as palpitations, dizziness, lightheadedness, shortness of breath, chest discomfort, or syncope (fainting). Treatment options include observation, vagal maneuvers, medications, and catheter ablation. Catheter ablation is a curative treatment that involves the destruction of the abnormal electrical pathway using radiofrequency energy or cryotherapy.

The Peroneal nerve, also known as the common fibular nerve, is a branch of the sciatic nerve that supplies the muscles of the lower leg and provides sensation to the skin on the outer part of the lower leg and the top of the foot. It winds around the neck of the fibula (calf bone) and can be vulnerable to injury in this area, leading to symptoms such as weakness or numbness in the foot and leg.

Atrial fibrillation (A-tre-al fi-bru-la'shun) is a type of abnormal heart rhythm characterized by rapid and irregular beating of the atria, the upper chambers of the heart. In this condition, the electrical signals that coordinate heartbeats don't function properly, causing the atria to quiver instead of contracting effectively. As a result, blood may not be pumped efficiently into the ventricles, which can lead to blood clots, stroke, and other complications. Atrial fibrillation is a common type of arrhythmia and can cause symptoms such as palpitations, shortness of breath, fatigue, and dizziness. It can be caused by various factors, including heart disease, high blood pressure, age, and genetics. Treatment options include medications, electrical cardioversion, and surgical procedures to restore normal heart rhythm.

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) is a common peripheral nerve disorder that affects the median nerve, which runs from the forearm into the hand through a narrow tunnel-like structure in the wrist called the carpal tunnel. The condition is caused by compression or pinching of the median nerve as it passes through this tunnel, leading to various symptoms such as numbness, tingling, and weakness in the hand and fingers.

The median nerve provides sensation to the thumb, index finger, middle finger, and half of the ring finger. It also controls some small muscles in the hand that allow for fine motor movements. When the median nerve is compressed or damaged due to CTS, it can result in a range of symptoms including:

1. Numbness, tingling, or burning sensations in the fingers (especially the thumb, index finger, middle finger, and half of the ring finger)
2. Pain or discomfort in the hand, wrist, or forearm
3. Weakness in the hand, leading to difficulty gripping objects or making a fist
4. A sensation of swelling or inflammation in the fingers, even if there is no visible swelling present
5. Nighttime symptoms that may disrupt sleep patterns

The exact cause of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome can vary from person to person, but some common risk factors include:

1. Repetitive hand and wrist motions (such as typing, writing, or using tools)
2. Prolonged exposure to vibrations (from machinery or power tools)
3. Wrist trauma or fractures
4. Pregnancy and hormonal changes
5. Certain medical conditions like diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, and thyroid disorders
6. Obesity
7. Smoking

Diagnosis of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome typically involves a physical examination, medical history review, and sometimes specialized tests like nerve conduction studies or electromyography to confirm the diagnosis and assess the severity of the condition. Treatment options may include splinting, medication, corticosteroid injections, and in severe cases, surgery to relieve pressure on the median nerve.

... , also called associative aphasia, is an uncommon form of difficulty in speaking (aphasia). It is caused by ... "Conduction Aphasia". www.asha.org. Retrieved 2015-11-13. Buschbaum, Bradley R; et al. (2011). ""Conduction Aphasia, Sensory- ... Acharya, Aninda B. (2019). "Conduction Aphasia". "Conduction Aphasia." StatPearls [Internet]. U.S. National Library of Medicine ... Acharya, Aninda B. (2019). "Conduction Aphasia". "Conduction Aphasia." StatPearls [Internet]. U.S. National Library of Medicine ...
Baldo JV, Klostermann EC, Dronkers NF (May 2008). "It's either a cook or a baker: patients with conduction aphasia get the gist ... Bartha L, Benke T (April 2003). "Acute conduction aphasia: an analysis of 20 cases". Brain and Language. 85 (1): 93-108. doi: ... Axer H, von Keyserlingk AG, Berks G, von Keyserlingk DG (March 2001). "Supra- and infrasylvian conduction aphasia". Brain and ... Buchsbaum BR, Baldo J, Okada K, Berman KF, Dronkers N, D'Esposito M, Hickok G (December 2011). "Conduction aphasia, sensory- ...
The symptoms of conduction aphasia suggest that the connection between the posterior temporal cortex and frontal cortex plays a ... Historically the arcuate fasciculus has been linked to conduction aphasia, which is usually the result of damage to the ... Progressive aphasia is a type of aphasia that slowly worsens over time. It can affect both the production and comprehension of ... Bernal, B.; Ardila, A. (18 August 2009). "The role of the arcuate fasciculus in conduction aphasia". Brain. 132 (9): 2309-2316 ...
... and the fluent aphasias (which encompasses Wernicke's aphasia, conduction aphasia and transcortical sensory aphasia). These ... People with conduction aphasia are typically aware of their errors. Two forms of conduction aphasia have been described: ... "Aphasia Statistics". "Aphasia Fact sheet - National Aphasia Association". National Aphasia Association. Retrieved 18 December ... Transcortical aphasias include transcortical motor aphasia, transcortical sensory aphasia, and mixed transcortical aphasia. ...
While there are different classifications of aphasia (i.e., Broca's, Wernicke's, Conduction, Anomia), they each have hallmark ... Mixed transcortical aphasia is the least common of the three transcortical aphasias (behind transcortical motor aphasia and ... This type of aphasia can also be referred to as "Isolation Aphasia". This type of aphasia is a result of damage that isolates ... Lesions in the superior temporal gyrus (STG) produce a more persistent global aphasia, which is associated with poor aphasia ...
Apraxia Aphasia Conduction aphasia Developmental coordination disorder Developmental verbal dyspraxia Dysarthria FOXP2 KE ... Although disorders such as expressive aphasia, conduction aphasia, and dysarthria involve similar symptoms as apraxia of speech ... while patients with aphasia are not always fully able to comprehend others' speech. Conduction aphasia is another speech ... Patients with conduction aphasia are typically able to speak fluently, but they do not have the ability to repeat what they ...
Conduction aphasia Expressive aphasia Lists of language disorders Primary progressive aphasia Receptive aphasia Tip of the ... Anomic aphasia (also known as dysnomia, nominal aphasia, and amnesic aphasia) is a mild, fluent type of aphasia where ... These results suggest minimal word-production difficulty in anomic aphasia relative to other aphasia syndromes. Anomic aphasia ... October 1999). "Conduction aphasia and the arcuate fasciculus: A reexamination of the Wernicke-Geschwind model". Brain and ...
Thus, unambiguous cases of Broca's aphasia, Wernicke's aphasia, conduction aphasia, and anomic aphasia were selected. Ten ... The Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination is a neuropsychological battery used to evaluate adults suspected of having aphasia, ... conduction, transcortical, transcortical motor, transcortical sensory, and global aphasia syndromes, although the test does not ... and other comprehensive tests exist like the Western Aphasia Battery. The Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination provides a ...
Phonemic paraphasia, an attribute of conduction aphasia and Wernicke aphasia, does not involve speech comprehension impairment ... Dronkers, N.F., Pinker, S. & Damasio, A.: Language and the Aphasias. In: Kandel, E.R., Schwartz, J.H. & Jessel, T.M. (eds.) ... This area was named for German doctor Carl Wernicke, who discovered it in 1874 in the course of his research into aphasias ( ... Therefore, although Wernicke's aphasia, a combination of phonological retrieval and semantic systems impairment, affects speech ...
... comparable to conduction aphasia. Compared to the semantic variant, single word comprehension and naming is spared, however, ... "Primary Progressive Aphasia - National Aphasia Association". National Aphasia Association. Retrieved 2017-12-17. Mesulam M ( ... Anomic aphasia Aphasiology Apraxia of speech Speech-language pathology Speech disorder Transcortical sensory aphasia " ... A third variant of primary progressive aphasia, logopenic progressive aphasia (LPA) was then added, and is an atypical form of ...
Examples of these fluent aphasias include receptive or Wernicke's aphasia, anomic aphasia, conduction aphasia, and ... Neologistic paraphasia is often associated with receptive aphasia and jargon aphasia. Types of Neologistic paraphasias There ... Subjects of this aphasia are aware of their errors in speech. Damage to the Broca's area does not affect comprehension of ... Wernicke's aphasia is characterized by fluent language with made up or unnecessary words with little or no meaning to speech. ...
... and conduction aphasia) were instructed to name famous people. Those with anomic aphasia showed to be superior to the other ... This finding was expected as the group has relatively mild aphasia. However, the Broca's conduction and AD groups did not ... Anomic aphasia is the inability to recall words and names and is a common symptom of patients with aphasia and Alzheimer's ... Memory and aging Psycholinguistics Neurolinguistics Metamemory Aphasia and in particular anomic aphasia Neuroanatomy of memory ...
This shows that conduction aphasia must reflect not an impairment of the auditory ventral pathway but instead of the auditory ... Conduction aphasia has been more specifically related to damage of the arcuate fasciculus, which is vital for both speech and ... Conduction aphasia affects a subject's ability to reproduce speech (typically by repetition), though it has no influence on the ... "Functionally, conduction aphasia has been characterized as a deficit in the ability to encode phonological information for ...
"Conduction aphasia, sensory-motor integration, and phonological short-term memory - An aggregate analysis of lesion and fMRI ... Evidence from aphasia". Brain. 107 (2): 463-85. doi:10.1093/brain/107.2.463. PMID 6722512. McCarthy, RA.; Warrington, EK. (2001 ...
Anomic aphasia Conduction aphasia Global aphasia Primary progressive aphasias Transcortical motor aphasia Broca's area ... TSA is a fluent aphasia similar to Wernicke's aphasia (receptive aphasia), with the exception of a strong ability to repeat ... receptive aphasia. However, transcortical sensory aphasia differs from receptive aphasia in that patients still have intact ... Transcortical sensory aphasia (TSA) is a kind of aphasia that involves damage to specific areas of the temporal lobe of the ...
It is similar to conduction aphasia and is associated with atrophy to the left posterior temporal cortex and inferior parietal ... Logopenic progressive aphasia (LPA) is a variant of primary progressive aphasia. It is defined clinically by impairments in ... Aphasia Dementia Early-onset Alzheimer's disease Harciarek M, Kertesz A (September 2011). "Primary progressive aphasias and ... Logopenic progressive aphasia is caused by damage to segregated brain regions, specifically the inferior parietal lobe and ...
... and tactile aphasia, among other symptoms. Other types of disconnection syndrome include conduction aphasia (lesion of the ... In 1874, Carl Wernicke introduced this concept in his dissertation when he suggested that conduction aphasia could result from ... Many studies have shown that disconnection syndromes such as aphasia, agnosia, apraxia, pure alexia and many others are not ... Disconnection syndrome can also lead to aphasia, left-sided apraxia, ...
... it was also able to distinguish motor aphasia from sensory aphasia. He also pointed to the possibility of conduction aphasia ...
1988), Conduction aphasia following metrizamide myelography, J Am Osteopath Assoc 1988 Vol. 88 Issue 3 Pages 384-6 "Drugs@FDA: ... central nervous system complications including spinal cord compression Seizures Muscle rigidity and dystonic reaction Aphasia ...
Conduction aphasia: individuals can comprehend what is being said and are fluent in spontaneous speech, but they cannot repeat ... Wernicke's aphasia, also known as receptive aphasia, sensory aphasia or posterior aphasia, is a type of aphasia in which ... Davis, G.A. "Aphasia Therapy Guide". National Aphasia Association. Keefe, K.A. (1995). "Applying basic neuroscience to aphasia ... "Wernicke's (Receptive) Aphasia". National Aphasia Association. "Types of Aphasia". American Stroke Association. "ASHA Glossary ...
Bernal B, Ardila A (September 2009). "The role of the arcuate fasciculus in conduction aphasia". Brain. 132 (Pt 9): 2309-16. ... Receptive aphasia in which such abilities are preserved is also known as Wernicke's aphasia. In this condition there is a major ... Diagnosis of aphasia, as well as characterization of type of aphasia, is done with language testing by the provider. Testing ... Damage caused to Wernicke's area results in receptive, fluent aphasia. This means that the person with aphasia will be able to ...
Cognitive: Acalculia, paraphasia, anomic aphasia, recalling memories, "going into a trance", "out of this world", conduction ... aphasia, hemispatial neglect, alexia, déjà vu, reliving past experiences, agraphia, apraxia, etc. EBS in face-sensitive regions ...
When compared to individuals with Broca's, Wernicke's, anomic, and conduction types of aphasia, those with Broca's aphasia ... Global aphasia is a severe form of nonfluent aphasia, caused by damage to the left side of the brain, that affects receptive ... Additionally, the Boston Assessment of Severe Aphasia (BASA) is a commonly used assessment for diagnosing aphasia. BASA is used ... Nonetheless, in the first year post-stroke, patients with global aphasia showed improvement in their Western Aphasia Battery ( ...
Damage to this pathway can cause a form of aphasia known as conduction aphasia, where auditory comprehension and speech ... Lesions of the Pars triangularis lead to the loss of the ability to produce spoken or written language (expressive aphasia), vs ... as indicated by functional magnetic resonance imaging studies comparing the brain areas activated during each task Aphasia - " ... inability to comprehend language or speak with appropriately meaningful words (receptive aphasia) Neuron (brain cell) and ...
Sensory seizures Dominant hemisphere Conduction aphasia Dyslexia - a general term for disorders that can involve difficulty in ...
... expressive aphasia MeSH C23.888.592.604.150.500.800.100.111 - aphasia, conduction MeSH C23.888.592.604.150.500.800.100.155 - ... primary progressive aphasia MeSH C23.888.592.604.150.500.800.100.166 - receptive aphasia MeSH C23.888.592.604.150.500.800.150 ... anomic aphasia MeSH C23.888.592.604.150.500.300 - dyslexia MeSH C23.888.592.604.150.500.300.200 - Alexia (acquired dyslexia) ...
... aphasia MeSH C10.597.606.150.500.800.100.100 - expressive aphasia MeSH C10.597.606.150.500.800.100.111 - aphasia, conduction ... MeSH C10.597.606.150.500.800.100.155 - primary progressive aphasia MeSH C10.597.606.150.500.800.100.166 - receptive aphasia ... anomic aphasia MeSH C10.597.606.150.500.300 - dyslexia MeSH C10.597.606.150.500.300.200 - alexia (acquired dyslexia) MeSH ... primary progressive aphasia MeSH C10.228.140.380.165 - creutzfeldt-jakob syndrome MeSH C10.228.140.380.230 - dementia, vascular ...
Alan Baddeley Auditory processing disorder Baddeley's model of working memory Conduction aphasia Developmental verbal dyspraxia ... Wernicke K. The aphasia symptom-complex. 1874. Breslau, Cohn and Weigert. Translated in: Eling P, editor. Reader in the history ... Evidence from aphasia". Brain: A Journal of Neurology. 107 (2): 463-485. doi:10.1093/brain/107.2.463. PMID 6722512. McCarthy, R ... 1994). p. 69-89.Reader in the history of aphasia. Vol. 4. Amsterdam: John Benjamins: "The major tasks of the child in speech ...
People who survive electrical trauma may develop a host of injuries including loss of consciousness, seizures, aphasia, visual ... for example nerve conduction studies and electromyography Electroporation for gene delivery Mild electric shocks are also used ... problems with peripheral nerve conduction and sensation, inadequate balance and coordination, among other symptoms. Electrical ...
For example: seeing sounds, tasting colours.) This supports the idea of intrathalamic segregation and conduction (attention). ... and amnesia without negative motor symptoms or mere aphasia' suggesting the involvement in consciousness. Furthermore, MRI ...
  • Conduction aphasia is a type of aphasia in which the main impairment is in the inability to repeat words or phrases. (aphasia.com)
  • While there are common characteristics, each type of aphasia presents unique symptoms and many people with aphasia show overlapping symptoms. (aphasia.com)
  • A person with this type of aphasia will likely have very little voluntary speech, poor comprehension, and difficulty reading and writing. (atlasaphasia.org)
  • Broca's aphasia is a very common type of aphasia. (atlasaphasia.org)
  • Conduction aphasia is a type of aphasia where people can typically understand most of what's being said and speak at a normal rate and rhythm. (atlasaphasia.org)
  • A person with this type of aphasia is relatively functional with speaking, understanding, reading, and writing. (atlasaphasia.org)
  • There is one more type of aphasia that is different from those mentioned above. (atlasaphasia.org)
  • Anomic aphasia (Anomia) is a type of aphasia characterized by the consistent inability to recall the appropriate word to identify an object, a person's name, or numbers. (handyhandouts.com)
  • It may help to consider that each person with aphasia has unique symptoms, strengths and weaknesses rather than trying to label a particular type of aphasia. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Sometimes this type of aphasia will progress to a more generalized dementia. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Read on to discover more about the different types of aphasia. (healthline.com)
  • In the chart below, we'll break down the different types of aphasia. (healthline.com)
  • There are several different types of aphasia. (aphasia.com)
  • People with transcortical sensory aphasia also have significant difficulty with auditory comprehension. (atlasaphasia.org)
  • Unlike in individuals with Wernicke's aphasia those with transcortical sensory aphasia have preserved repetition, as they are able to repeat words and sentences of considerable length and complexity. (myweb.ge)
  • Global aphasia is very severe. (atlasaphasia.org)
  • People with global aphasia will have difficulty with all language domains: talking, understanding, reading, and writing. (atlasaphasia.org)
  • People with global aphasia can often evolve toward a different subtype of aphasia with time and/or speech therapy, but prognosis depends on the extent of the damage that caused the aphasia. (atlasaphasia.org)
  • Mixed transcortical aphasia is similar to global aphasia, but with the ability to repeat. (atlasaphasia.org)
  • Global aphasia is the most severe form, affecting all language modalities. (ashaspeechhearingclinic.com)
  • Individuals with global aphasia have significant difficulty both producing and understanding language. (ashaspeechhearingclinic.com)
  • People with Broca's aphasia know what they want to say, but have difficulty getting their words out. (atlasaphasia.org)
  • Individuals with Broca's aphasia have difficulty forming grammatically correct sentences. (ashaspeechhearingclinic.com)
  • Conduction aphasia, also called associative aphasia, is an uncommon form of difficulty in speaking (aphasia). (wikipedia.org)
  • One such anomaly in our neurological framework is conduction aphasia, also known as associative aphasia. (localquoter.net)
  • It is also known as associative aphasia. (aphasia.com)
  • It's a form of aphasia that disrupts the normal flow of communication, making certain aspects of conversation a struggle for those affected. (localquoter.net)
  • Conduction aphasia is considered a mild form of aphasia and is relatively rare. (aphasia.com)
  • Anomic aphasia is the most mild form of aphasia. (atlasaphasia.org)
  • Like Wernicke's aphasia, your sentences may have no obvious meaning. (healthline.com)
  • But unlike Wernicke's aphasia, you're able to repeat things, although echolalia may occur in some cases. (healthline.com)
  • Wernicke's aphasia is characterized by difficulty with auditory comprehension. (atlasaphasia.org)
  • People with Wernicke's aphasia are typically unaware that they are having difficulty. (atlasaphasia.org)
  • Those with Wernicke's aphasia can produce speech fluently, but it is often filled with nonsensical words and phrases. (ashaspeechhearingclinic.com)
  • Wernicke's aphasia causes difficulty speaking in coherent sentences or understanding others' speech. (myweb.ge)
  • Printable PDF handout includes "what is Wernicke's aphasia" section, tips to communicate, and signs/symptoms of aphasia. (myweb.ge)
  • They also told me he had Wernicke's aphasia. (myweb.ge)
  • In the first six months, Byron's speech was mostly "word salad" - a mix of nonsense words typical of Wernicke's aphasia. (myweb.ge)
  • Thus a patient with Wernicke's aphasia should be placed in real or simulated situations as it is Auditory comprehension is a primary focus in treatment for Wernicke's aphasia, as it is the main deficit related to this diagnosis. (myweb.ge)
  • Anomic aphasia is characterized by difficulty finding and producing words. (ashaspeechhearingclinic.com)
  • Anomic aphasia can be extremely frustrating for people with and without the disorder because it creates communication breakdowns. (handyhandouts.com)
  • Although patients with anomic aphasia may know a specific word, they may not be able to recall it, and this can be very difficult and uncomfortable for everyone involved in a conversation. (handyhandouts.com)
  • Individuals with conduction aphasia are able to express themselves fairly well, with some word finding and functional comprehension difficulty. (wikipedia.org)
  • A person with mild conduction aphasia might be able to repeat words and short phrases but have difficulty with long or complex sentences. (aphasia.com)
  • People with transcortical motor aphasia have significant difficulty producing spontaneous speech, but they can repeat phrases and sentences. (atlasaphasia.org)
  • People with transcortical motor aphasia have a very hard time initiating speech, and sometimes, difficulty initiating other motor movements too. (atlasaphasia.org)
  • 3 ] reported that individuals with aphasia had inordinate difficulty listening to speech when presented in the presence of either white noise or speech noise as compared to healthy control subjects. (e-cacd.org)
  • One prevalent deficit in all aphasias is anomia , which is a difficulty in finding the correct word. (scientiaen.com)
  • Often those with aphasia may have a difficulty with naming objects, so they might use words such as thing or point at the objects. (scientiaen.com)
  • People with aphasia have difficulty expressing or understanding language. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Many people with aphasia have patterns of speech difficulty that don't match these types. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Primary progressive aphasia is the term used for language difficulty that develops gradually. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Nonetheless, learning about common types of aphasia can be helpful. (atlasaphasia.org)
  • Blumenfeld's "Neuroanatomy Through Clinical Cases" has a diagram that illustrates some of the most common types of aphasia. (atlasaphasia.org)
  • Before we delve deeper into the labyrinth of conduction aphasia and its myriad symptoms, let's set the stage by understanding the essence of this condition. (localquoter.net)
  • People with aphasia may experience any of the following behaviors due to an acquired brain injury, although some of these symptoms may be due to related or concomitant problems, such as dysarthria or apraxia , and not primarily due to aphasia. (scientiaen.com)
  • Aphasia symptoms can vary based on the location of damage in the brain. (scientiaen.com)
  • Signs and symptoms may or may not be present in individuals with aphasia and may vary in severity and level of disruption to communication. (scientiaen.com)
  • However, a person with conduction aphasia may be unable to repeat words, phrases, or sentences. (aphasia.com)
  • 1. It can be easier to listen to someone with non-fluent aphasia searching for a word, as opposed to "word salad," substitution, and sentences that sometimes make no sense. (myweb.ge)
  • It is also important to ask the patient to write a few sentences about themselves to differentiate between subtypes of aphasia such as global, expressive, etc. (e.g., conduction aphasia due to lesion in arcuate fasciculus). (strokesciences.com)
  • Speech-language therapy is the mainstay treatment for aphasia. (healthline.com)
  • The main treatment for aphasia involves treating the condition that causes it, as well as speech and language therapy. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Covering an array of evidence-based content, including aphasia, traumatic brain injury, dementia, and language in aging, Aphasia and Other Acquired Neurogenic Language Disorders: A Guide for Clinical Excellence, Second Edition is a must-have textbook for clinicians and students studying to be speech-language pathologists. (pluralpublishing.com)
  • Despite its name, Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA) is a type of frontotemporal dementia. (atlasaphasia.org)
  • Conditions like frontotemporal dementia and primary progressive aphasia (PPA) can gradually erode language skills. (ashaspeechhearingclinic.com)
  • Some types of dementia can also cause aphasia that progressively worsens. (msdmanuals.com)
  • These authors suggested an exclusive deficit of auditory-verbal short-term memory in repetition conduction aphasia whereas the other variant was assumed to reflect disrupted phonological encoding mechanism, affecting confrontation tasks such as repetition, reading and naming in a similar manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB), we measured outcomes on Quick Speech in Noise (QSIN), a sentence repetition test, administered in auditory (AUD) and auditory+visual (AV) conditions as signal-to-noise ratio varied from 25 to 0 dB. (e-cacd.org)
  • Brain damage caused by a severe head injury, a tumor, an infection or a degenerative process also can cause aphasia. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Taken together, these results suggest that spectral resting-state EEG holds promise for sensitive measurement of functioning and change in persons with chronic aphasia. (frontiersin.org)
  • We piloted Trivia Game in four individuals with chronic aphasia and mild auditory comprehension impairments. (e-cacd.org)
  • Phonological Anomia (Conduction Aphasia) occurs when a patient knows the word he/she wants to say, but selects the wrong sounds when producing the word. (handyhandouts.com)
  • Therapists can treat anomia using several different methods, and it is important to find the ones that work best for the family of the loved one affected by aphasia. (handyhandouts.com)
  • 2014. What to expect from aphasia: anomia. (handyhandouts.com)
  • 2016. Aphasia-associated anomia. (handyhandouts.com)
  • Conduction aphasics will show relatively well-preserved auditory comprehension, which may even be completely functional. (wikipedia.org)
  • Listening in noise challenges listeners with auditory comprehension impairments in aphasia. (e-cacd.org)
  • Auditory comprehension impairments are a common manifestation of aphasia in individuals who incur left cerebral damage. (e-cacd.org)
  • A large literature has examined factors that impact auditory comprehension impairments in individuals with aphasia, such as linguistic components [ 1 ] and processing conditions (e.g., rate of speech, time to respond) [ 2 ]. (e-cacd.org)
  • Some researchers suggest that providing visual information may in fact be distracting and detrimental to auditory comprehension in individuals with aphasia [ 7 ]. (e-cacd.org)
  • The sudden speech of a conduction aphasic is fluent, yet it is lengthy and inadequately structured. (wikipedia.org)
  • Future studies investigating the utility of these measures as biomarkers of frank or latent aphasic deficits and treatment response in chronic stroke-induced aphasia are warranted. (frontiersin.org)
  • However in the conduction aphasic these small errors will accumulate due to disruption of auditory feedback control (from the conduction aphasia), occasionally leading to phonemic errors. (talkingbrains.org)
  • The classical explanation for conduction aphasia is a disconnection between the brain areas responsible for speech comprehension (Wernicke's area) and that of speech production (Broca's area). (wikipedia.org)
  • Dissociation of algorithmic and heuristic processes in sentence comprehension: Evidence from aphasia. (talkingbrains.org)
  • This is the most severe aphasia. (healthline.com)
  • Someone with severe conduction aphasia might be unable to repeat short phrases or even single words. (aphasia.com)
  • Struggle in non-fluent aphasias: A severe increase in expelled effort to speak after a life where talking and communicating was an ability that came so easily can cause visible frustration. (scientiaen.com)
  • Because of the damage to the left hemisphere of the brain, many people with aphasia also have weakness on the right side of the body. (aphasia.com)
  • Conduction aphasia, an acquired language disorder, typically occurs due to damage in the region between the Broca's area and Wernicke's area of the brain. (localquoter.net)
  • This aphasia occurs when the area of the brain responsible for processing spoken words and attaching meaning to them is damaged. (atlasaphasia.org)
  • In these cases, the aphasia usually occurs with other types of cognitive problems, such as memory problems or confusion. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Medication isn't typically effective in treating aphasia. (healthline.com)
  • People with conduction aphasia are typically aware of their errors, but have a hard time correcting them. (aphasia.com)
  • This is a more mild aphasia. (healthline.com)
  • Even individuals with mild aphasia often report difficulties with auditory processing in daily activities, such as listening to the television or movies. (e-cacd.org)
  • Fluent aphasia. (healthline.com)
  • Not all software accommodates fluent aphasia. (myweb.ge)
  • If you missed the post about fluent aphasia and Byron's video, go check it out now! (myweb.ge)
  • After saying a sentence to a person with conduction aphasia, he or she will be able to paraphrase the sentence accurately but will not be able to repeat it. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, a person with conduction aphasia may substitute similar-sounding words in a sentence, like saying "bat" when asked to repeat "cat. (localquoter.net)
  • Aphasia is a neurological disorder that affects language abilities, making it difficult to understand and express language effectively. (ashaspeechhearingclinic.com)
  • In reality, everyone's brain is different, and each aphasia is slightly different too. (atlasaphasia.org)
  • In aphasia (sometimes called dysphasia), a person may be unable to comprehend or unable to formulate language because of damage to specific brain regions. (scientiaen.com)
  • Aphasia can also be the result of brain tumors, epilepsy, brain damage and brain infections, or neurodegenerative diseases (such as dementias ). (scientiaen.com)
  • With aphasia, one or more modes of communication in the brain have been damaged and are therefore functioning incorrectly. (scientiaen.com)
  • that is, aphasia is not related to the mechanics of speech but rather the individual's language cognition (although a person can have both problems, as an example, if they have a haemorrhage that damaged a large area of the brain). (scientiaen.com)
  • Neurodevelopmental forms of auditory processing disorder are differentiable from aphasia in that aphasia is by definition caused by acquired brain injury, but acquired epileptic aphasia has been viewed as a form of APD. (scientiaen.com)
  • Aphasia is a complex and often misunderstood condition that affects language abilities due to brain damage. (ashaspeechhearingclinic.com)
  • The Workbook for Aphasia contains over 100 pages of tasks to stimulate language skills after a stroke or brain injury.Credit goes to Cat R. Kenney, out of the Cleveland State University Speech and Hearing Lab, for creating this free downloadable resource for clinicians and people with aphasia (PWA). (myweb.ge)
  • But if it results from a progressive disorder (such as an enlarging brain tumor), aphasia can progressively worsen. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The severity of aphasia depends on a number of things, including the cause and the extent of the brain damage. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Aphasia is a symptom of some other condition, such as a stroke or a brain tumor. (mayoclinic.org)
  • The most common cause of aphasia is brain damage resulting from a stroke - the blockage or rupture of a blood vessel in the brain. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Our team hosts live webinars to help stroke survivors and their families gain a better understanding of the brain, strokes, and aphasia. (facesofaphasia.com)
  • To summarize (in rough terms), the cause of occasional phonemic errors in conduction aphasics may be the same as in postlingually deaf individuals who presumably have intact internal forward model prediction circuitry: the feedforward motor programs for speech are not completely perfect and thus errors will occur without sensory feedback control. (talkingbrains.org)
  • Use of Trivia Game led to improved auditory processing abilities in all four individuals with aphasia. (e-cacd.org)
  • One area with more limited systematic study is the impact of degraded listening conditions for auditory processing abilities in individuals with aphasia. (e-cacd.org)
  • More recent studies have reported the detrimental effects of white noise or MRI scanner noise on auditory processing in individuals with aphasia [ 4 , 5 ]. (e-cacd.org)
  • 8 ] examined the influence that visual information provides for speech processing in noise in individuals with aphasia. (e-cacd.org)
  • As noise levels increased, the visual modality provided significant support for auditory processing for individuals with aphasia, as in healthy controls. (e-cacd.org)
  • However, at the most difficult listening level (signal-to-noise ratio [SNR] of 0 dB), individuals with aphasia experienced less gain than expected. (e-cacd.org)
  • This suggests that individuals with aphasia may need additional intervention to take advantage of visual speech information in listening conditions involving background noise. (e-cacd.org)
  • However, for some individuals, communication can become a challenge due to a condition known as aphasia. (ashaspeechhearingclinic.com)
  • In this blog post, we will delve into the world of aphasia, exploring its causes, types, and the impact it has on individuals and their loved ones. (ashaspeechhearingclinic.com)
  • Aphasia can be emotionally and socially challenging for both individuals with the condition and their families. (ashaspeechhearingclinic.com)
  • Fortunately, there are treatments and strategies that can help individuals with aphasia improve their language abilities. (ashaspeechhearingclinic.com)
  • Understanding its causes and types is essential for providing proper care and support to individuals with aphasia. (ashaspeechhearingclinic.com)
  • Welcome to The Aphasia Community by Lingraphica: a safe place for people with aphasia, their support network, and the professionals who serve them. (facesofaphasia.com)
  • Highlights include aphasia myths, tips for care partners, and how Lingraphica can help. (facesofaphasia.com)
  • Lingraphica invites you to submit your own story so we can continue to raise awareness about aphasia and encourage others on their aphasia journeys. (facesofaphasia.com)
  • Any injury or stroke affecting these areas or their connection can lead to conduction aphasia, creating a dissonance in the person's ability to converse effectively. (localquoter.net)
  • Aphasia is a language disorder that primarily affects a person's ability to speak, understand, read, and write. (ashaspeechhearingclinic.com)
  • Proposes a reeducation program for conduction aphasics with reproductive difficulties. (speechbite.com)
  • Results of the reeducation of 3 conduction aphasics are presented. (speechbite.com)
  • Conduction aphasics have nothing wrong with their auditory targets. (talkingbrains.org)
  • A natural explanation of this is that conduction aphasics have a damaged internal correction mechanism (Hickok et al. (talkingbrains.org)
  • A person with conduction aphasia can usually read, write, speak, and understand spoken messages. (aphasia.com)
  • The ultimate goal is to increase the independence of the person with aphasia. (handyhandouts.com)
  • The person with aphasia relearns and practices language skills and learns to use other ways to communicate. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Aphasia is a condition that affects language. (healthline.com)
  • Aphasia also affects visual language such as sign language . (scientiaen.com)
  • While aphasia can be a frustrating and isolating condition, it's important to understand that intelligence and cognitive abilities remain intact, as it primarily affects language functions. (ashaspeechhearingclinic.com)
  • Aphasia is a disorder that affects how you communicate. (mayoclinic.org)
  • The most common cause of aphasia is stroke (about 25‐40% of stroke survivors acquire aphasia). (myweb.ge)
  • Although people with aphasia may be able to express themselves fairly well, they tend to have issues repeating phrases, especially phrases that are long and complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • People who have aphasia can have trouble with things like speaking, reading, or listening. (healthline.com)
  • Research estimates about 1 million people in the United States are living with aphasia. (healthline.com)
  • People with conduction aphasia can use strategies like writing information down instead of repeating it. (aphasia.com)
  • Sometimes people will have aphasia that does not fit neatly into one of these categories. (atlasaphasia.org)
  • Speech therapy can help many people with aphasia. (msdmanuals.com)
  • People with aphasia may have different strengths and weaknesses in their speech patterns. (mayoclinic.org)
  • Working with a speech-language pathologist can help someone with aphasia make as much improvement as possible. (aphasia.com)
  • This second edition provides an extremely wide knowledge base in the area of aphasia and other acquired neurogenic language disorders. (pluralpublishing.com)
  • Controls and persons with chronic stroke-induced aphasia completed two EEG recording sessions, separated by approximately 1 month, as well as behavioral assessments of language, sensorimotor, and cognitive domains. (frontiersin.org)
  • For example, investigations of language in persons with aphasia (PWAs) often require participants to name pictures or match pictures to a word while undergoing fMRI. (frontiersin.org)
  • To be diagnosed with aphasia, a person's language must be significantly impaired in one (or more) of the four aspects of communication. (scientiaen.com)
  • Aphasia is partial or complete loss of the ability to express or understand spoken or written language. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Certain infections, like encephalitis or neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's, can lead to aphasia. (ashaspeechhearingclinic.com)
  • Conduction aphasia is when an individual can't repeat words or phrases. (ambigest-lab.com)
  • Performs nerve conduction studies and electromyography tests to both inpatient and outpatient clients. (healthlinkbc.ca)
  • Greg, I think a straightforward explanation for the conduction aphasia errors is that feedforward motor programs are not entirely impervious to occasional errors even in adults. (talkingbrains.org)
  • However, some types of drugs, such as piracetam and memantine , are currently being studied to assess their efficacy in treating aphasia. (healthline.com)