A cognitive disorder marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or express language in its written or spoken form. This condition is caused by diseases which affect the language areas of the dominant hemisphere. Clinical features are used to classify the various subtypes of this condition. General categories include receptive, expressive, and mixed forms of aphasia.
Cholinergic bundle of nerve fibers posterior to the anterior perforated substance. It interconnects the paraterminal gyrus in the septal area with the hippocampus and lateral olfactory area.
An aphasia characterized by impairment of expressive LANGUAGE (speech, writing, signs) and relative preservation of receptive language abilities (i.e., comprehension). This condition is caused by lesions of the motor association cortex in the FRONTAL LOBE (BROCA AREA and adjacent cortical and white matter regions).
A progressive form of dementia characterized by the global loss of language abilities and initial preservation of other cognitive functions. Fluent and nonfluent subtypes have been described. Eventually a pattern of global cognitive dysfunction, similar to ALZHEIMER DISEASE, emerges. Pathologically, there are no Alzheimer or PICK DISEASE like changes, however, spongiform changes of cortical layers II and III are present in the TEMPORAL LOBE and FRONTAL LOBE. (From Brain 1998 Jan;121(Pt 1):115-26)
A language dysfunction characterized by the inability to name people and objects that are correctly perceived. The individual is able to describe the object in question, but cannot provide the name. This condition is associated with lesions of the dominant hemisphere involving the language areas, in particular the TEMPORAL LOBE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p484)
A type of fluent aphasia characterized by an impaired ability to repeat one and two word phrases, despite retained comprehension. This condition is associated with dominant hemisphere lesions involving the arcuate fasciculus (a white matter projection between Broca's and Wernicke's areas) and adjacent structures. Like patients with Wernicke aphasia (APHASIA, WERNICKE), patients with conduction aphasia are fluent but commit paraphasic errors during attempts at written and oral forms of communication. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p482; Brain & Bannister, Clinical Neurology, 7th ed, p142; Kandel et al., Principles of Neural Science, 3d ed, p848)
GRAY MATTER structures of the telencephalon and LIMBIC SYSTEM in the brain, but containing widely varying definitions among authors. Included here is the cortical septal area, subcortical SEPTAL NUCLEI, and the SEPTUM PELLUCIDUM.
A form of frontotemporal lobar degeneration and a progressive form of dementia characterized by motor speech impairment and AGRAMMATISM, with relative sparing of single word comprehension and semantic memory.
A triangular double membrane separating the anterior horns of the LATERAL VENTRICLES of the brain. It is situated in the median plane and bounded by the CORPUS CALLOSUM and the body and columns of the FORNIX (BRAIN).
Tests designed to assess language behavior and abilities. They include tests of vocabulary, comprehension, grammar and functional use of language, e.g., Development Sentence Scoring, Receptive-Expressive Emergent Language Scale, Parsons Language Sample, Utah Test of Language Development, Michigan Language Inventory and Verbal Language Development Scale, Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities, Northwestern Syntax Screening Test, Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test, Ammons Full-Range Picture Vocabulary Test, and Assessment of Children's Language Comprehension.
Treatment for individuals with speech defects and disorders that involves counseling and use of various exercises and aids to help the development of new speech habits.
Rehabilitation of persons with language disorders or training of children with language development disorders.
A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.
The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.
Loss or impairment of the ability to write (letters, syllables, words, or phrases) due to an injury to a specific cerebral area or occasionally due to emotional factors. This condition rarely occurs in isolation, and often accompanies APHASIA. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p485; APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
Nerve fibers liberating acetylcholine at the synapse after an impulse.
Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.
A group of cognitive disorders characterized by the inability to perform previously learned skills that cannot be attributed to deficits of motor or sensory function. The two major subtypes of this condition are ideomotor (see APRAXIA, IDEOMOTOR) and ideational apraxia, which refers to loss of the ability to mentally formulate the processes involved with performing an action. For example, dressing apraxia may result from an inability to mentally formulate the act of placing clothes on the body. Apraxias are generally associated with lesions of the dominant PARIETAL LOBE and supramarginal gyrus. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp56-7)
Neural nuclei situated in the septal region. They have afferent and cholinergic efferent connections with a variety of FOREBRAIN and BRAIN STEM areas including the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the LATERAL HYPOTHALAMUS, the tegmentum, and the AMYGDALA. Included are the dorsal, lateral, medial, and triangular septal nuclei, septofimbrial nucleus, nucleus of diagonal band, nucleus of anterior commissure, and the nucleus of stria terminalis.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
The relationships between symbols and their meanings.
Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.
The anterior of the three primitive cerebral vesicles of the embryonic brain arising from the NEURAL TUBE. It subdivides to form DIENCEPHALON and TELENCEPHALON. (Stedmans Medical Dictionary, 27th ed)
Communication through a system of conventional vocal symbols.
Conditions characterized by deficiencies of comprehension or expression of written and spoken forms of language. These include acquired and developmental disorders.
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A receptive visual aphasia characterized by the loss of a previously possessed ability to comprehend the meaning or significance of handwritten words, despite intact vision. This condition may be associated with posterior cerebral artery infarction (INFARCTION, POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY) and other BRAIN DISEASES.
Region of hypothalamus between the ANTERIOR COMMISSURE and OPTIC CHIASM.
Measurement of parameters of the speech product such as vocal tone, loudness, pitch, voice quality, articulation, resonance, phonation, phonetic structure and prosody.
The science of language, including phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics, pragmatics, and historical linguistics. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Brain waves characterized by a frequency of 4-7 Hz, usually observed in the temporal lobes when the individual is awake, but relaxed and sleepy.
A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)
A form of apraxia characterized by an acquired inability to carry out a complex motor activity despite the ability to mentally formulate the action. This condition has been attributed to a disruption of connections between the dominant parietal cortex and supplementary and premotor cortical regions in both hemispheres. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p57)
Personal names, given or surname, as cultural characteristics, as ethnological or religious patterns, as indications of the geographic distribution of families and inbreeding, etc. Analysis of isonymy, the quality of having the same or similar names, is useful in the study of population genetics. NAMES is used also for the history of names or name changes of corporate bodies, such as medical societies, universities, hospitals, government agencies, etc.
Includes both producing and responding to words, either written or spoken.
Acquired or developmental conditions marked by an impaired ability to comprehend or generate spoken forms of language.
The study of speech or language disorders and their diagnosis and correction.
The act or fact of grasping the meaning, nature, or importance of; understanding. (American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed) Includes understanding by a patient or research subject of information disclosed orally or in writing.
Heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders characterized by frontal and temporal lobe atrophy associated with neuronal loss, gliosis, and dementia. Patients exhibit progressive changes in social, behavioral, and/or language function. Multiple subtypes or forms are recognized based on presence or absence of TAU PROTEIN inclusions. FTLD includes three clinical syndromes: FRONTOTEMPORAL DEMENTIA, semantic dementia, and PRIMARY PROGRESSIVE NONFLUENT APHASIA.
Decrease in the size of a cell, tissue, organ, or multiple organs, associated with a variety of pathological conditions such as abnormal cellular changes, ischemia, malnutrition, or hormonal changes.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The most common clinical form of FRONTOTEMPORAL LOBAR DEGENERATION, this dementia presents with personality and behavioral changes often associated with disinhibition, apathy, and lack of insight.
Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.
A discipline concerned with relations between messages and the characteristics of individuals who select and interpret them; it deals directly with the processes of encoding (phonetics) and decoding (psychoacoustics) as they relate states of messages to states of communicators.
Disorders of speech articulation caused by imperfect coordination of pharynx, larynx, tongue, or face muscles. This may result from CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; CEREBELLAR DISEASES; BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; BRAIN STEM diseases; or diseases of the corticobulbar tracts (see PYRAMIDAL TRACTS). The cortical language centers are intact in this condition. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p489)
Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Equipment that provides mentally or physically disabled persons with a means of communication. The aids include display boards, typewriters, cathode ray tubes, computers, and speech synthesizers. The output of such aids includes written words, artificial speech, language signs, Morse code, and pictures.
A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
Disorders of the centrally located thalamus, which integrates a wide range of cortical and subcortical information. Manifestations include sensory loss, MOVEMENT DISORDERS; ATAXIA, pain syndromes, visual disorders, a variety of neuropsychological conditions, and COMA. Relatively common etiologies include CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; BRAIN NEOPLASMS; BRAIN HYPOXIA; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; and infectious processes.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Loss of the ability to comprehend the meaning or recognize the importance of various forms of stimulation that cannot be attributed to impairment of a primary sensory modality. Tactile agnosia is characterized by an inability to perceive the shape and nature of an object by touch alone, despite unimpaired sensation to light touch, position, and other primary sensory modalities.

Electrophysiological manifestations of open- and closed-class words in patients with Broca's aphasia with agrammatic comprehension. An event-related brain potential study. (1/111)

This paper presents electrophysiological data on the on-line processing of open- and closed-class words in patients with Broca's aphasia with agrammatic comprehension. Event-related brain potentials were recorded from the scalp when Broca patients and non-aphasic control subjects were visually presented with a story in which the words appeared one at a time on the screen. Separate waveforms were computed for open- and closed-class words. The non-aphasic control subjects showed clear differences between the processing of open- and closed-class words in an early (210-375 ms) and a late (400-700 ms) time-window. The early electrophysiological differences reflect the first manifestation of the availability of word-category information from the mental lexicon. The late differences presumably relate to post-lexical semantic and syntactic processing. In contrast to the control subjects, the Broca patients showed no early vocabulary class effect and only a limited late effect. The results suggest that an important factor in the agrammatic comprehension deficit of Broca's aphasics is a delayed and/or incomplete availability of word-class information.  (+info)

Cross-modal generalization effects of training noncanonical sentence comprehension and production in agrammatic aphasia. (2/111)

The cross-modal generalization effects of training complex sentence comprehension and complex sentence production were examined in 4 individuals with agrammatic Broca's aphasia who showed difficulty comprehending and producing complex, noncanonical sentences. Object-cleft and passive sentences were selected for treatment because the two are linguistically distinct, relying on wh-and NP movement, respectively (Chomsky, 1986). Two participants received comprehension training, and 2 received production training using linguistic specific treatment (LST). LST takes participants through a series of steps that emphasize the verb and verb argument structure, as well as the linguistic movement required to derive target sentences. A single-subject multiple-baseline design across behaviors was used to measure acquisition and generalization within and across sentence types, as well as cross-modal generalization (i.e., from comprehension to production and vice versa) and generalization to discourse. Results indicated that both treatment methods were effective for training comprehension and production of target sentences and that comprehension treatment resulted in generalization to spoken and written sentence production. Sentence production treatment generalized to written sentence production only; generalization to comprehension did not occur. Across sentence types generalization also did not occur, as predicted, and the effects of treatment on discourse were inconsistent across participants. These data are discussed with regard to models of normal sentence comprehension and production.  (+info)

Vascular aphasias: main characteristics of patients hospitalized in acute stroke units. (3/111)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Aphasia is frequent in stroke patients and is associated with poor prognosis. However, characteristics and determinants of vascular aphasias remain controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate aphasia characteristics at the acute stage in patients admitted to a stroke unit. METHODS: The study was performed in 308 patients consecutively assessed with a standardized aphasia battery. RESULTS: Aphasia was observed in 207 patients; global and nonclassified aphasias accounted for 50% of aphasic syndromes at the acute stage, whereas classic aphasias (Wernicke's, Broca's, transcortical, and subcortical aphasias) were less frequent. Age differed across aphasic syndromes in ischemic stroke patients only; patients with conduction aphasia were younger, and patients with subcortical aphasia were older. Sex did not significantly differ across aphasic syndromes. The presence of a previous stroke was more frequent in nonclassified aphasia. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows (1) that vascular aphasias are frequently severe or nonclassic at the acute stage, a finding explained in part by the presence of a previous stroke; (2) that the age effect is due mainly to its influence on infarct location; and (3) that the main determinant of aphasia characteristics is lesion location.  (+info)

West Nile virus meningoencephalitis complicated by motor aphasia in Hodgkin's lymphoma. (4/111)

A 4 year old boy with Hodgkin's lymphoma was admitted to the paediatric ward with meningoencephalitis dominated by generalised seizures and motor aphasia. Serum IgM specific antibodies to West Nile virus were positive. In view of ongoing neurological deterioration and immunocompromised state he was treated with oral ribavirin for 14 days. A gradual improvement was noted within two weeks of therapy initiation, and with intensive supportive care he recovered completely after four months.  (+info)

Postictal mixed transcortical aphasia. (5/111)

Postictal aphasia has been described in left temporal lobe seizures. It may be of fluent, non-fluent or global type. We present here a patient who displayed signs of mixed transcortical aphasia (MTCA). The patient was a 67 year old man who underwent excision of a left frontal parasagittal meningioma in 1987. Since then he has been treated with phenytoin for generalized tonic-clonic seizures (GTCS). He was admitted in status epilepticus. On awakening, the patient was non-fluent with palilalia and echolalia. His repetition was relatively preserved but all the other language functions were impaired. This picture faded away within a few hours. Brain CT, performed during this postictal state, was normal except for signs related to frontal craniotomy. SPECT, which was performed after language functions returned to normal, displayed left frontal, cingular and insular hypoperfusion. The postictal language dysfunction of the patient corresponded to MTCA. Although our case has frontal, he had no other structural lesion that could explain either diffuse ischemia of the left hemisphere or watershed areas secondary to the generalized seizures. The uniqueness of this case is the combination of postictal MTCA with good prognosis.  (+info)

Speech production: Wernicke, Broca and beyond. (6/111)

We investigated the brain systems engaged during propositional speech (PrSp) and two forms of non- propositional speech (NPrSp): counting and reciting overlearned nursery rhymes. Bilateral cerebral and cerebellar regions were involved in the motor act of articulation, irrespective of the type of speech. Three additional, left-lateralized regions, adjacent to the Sylvian sulcus, were activated in common: the most posterior part of the supratemporal plane, the lateral part of the pars opercularis in the posterior inferior frontal gyrus and the anterior insula. Therefore, both NPrSp and PrSp were dependent on the same discrete subregions of the anatomically ill-defined areas of Wernicke and Broca. PrSp was also dependent on a predominantly left-lateralized neural system distributed between multi-modal and amodal regions in posterior inferior parietal, anterolateral and medial temporal and medial prefrontal cortex. The lateral prefrontal and paracingulate cortical activity observed in previous studies of cued word retrieval was not seen with either NPrSp or PrSp, demonstrating that normal brain- language representations cannot be inferred from explicit metalinguistic tasks. The evidence from this study indicates that normal communicative speech is dependent on a number of left hemisphere regions remote from the classic language areas of Wernicke and Broca. Destruction or disconnection of discrete left extrasylvian and perisylvian cortical regions, rather than the total extent of damage to perisylvian cortex, will account for the qualitative and quantitative differences in the impaired speech production observed in aphasic stroke patients.  (+info)

Selective priming of syntactic processing by event-related transcranial magnetic stimulation of Broca's area. (7/111)

It remains controversial whether Broca's aphasia is an articulatory deficit, a lexical-access problem, or agrammatism. In spite of recent neuroimaging studies, the causal link between cortical activity and linguistic subcomponents has not been elucidated. Here we report an experiment with event-related transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to clarify the role of Broca's area, more specifically, the left inferior frontal gyrus (F3op/F3t), in syntactic processing. An experimental paradigm contrasted sentences requiring syntactic decisions with those requiring semantic decisions. We found selective priming effects on syntactic decisions when TMS was administered to the left F3op/F3t at a specific timing, but not to the left middle frontal gyrus (F2). Our results provide direct evidence of the involvement of the left F3op/F3t in syntactic processing.  (+info)

Word retrieval learning modulates right frontal cortex in patients with left frontal damage. (8/111)

Previous studies have suggested that recovery or compensation of language function after a lesion in the left hemisphere may depend on mechanisms in the right hemisphere. However, a direct relationship between performance and right hemisphere activity has not been established. Here, we show that patients with left frontal lesions and partially recovered aphasia learn, at a normal rate, a novel word retrieval task that requires the damaged cortex. Verbal learning is accompanied by specific response decrements in right frontal and right occipital cortex, strongly supporting the compensatory role of the right hemisphere. Furthermore, responses in left occipital cortex are abnormal and not modulated by practice. These findings indicate that frontal cortex is a source of top-down signals during learning.  (+info)

Aphasia is a medical condition that affects a person's ability to communicate. It is caused by damage to the language areas of the brain, most commonly as a result of a stroke or head injury. Aphasia can affect both spoken and written language, making it difficult for individuals to express their thoughts, understand speech, read, or write.

There are several types of aphasia, including:

1. Expressive aphasia (also called Broca's aphasia): This type of aphasia affects a person's ability to speak and write clearly. Individuals with expressive aphasia know what they want to say but have difficulty forming the words or sentences to communicate their thoughts.
2. Receptive aphasia (also called Wernicke's aphasia): This type of aphasia affects a person's ability to understand spoken or written language. Individuals with receptive aphasia may struggle to follow conversations, comprehend written texts, or make sense of the words they hear or read.
3. Global aphasia: This is the most severe form of aphasia and results from extensive damage to the language areas of the brain. People with global aphasia have significant impairments in both their ability to express themselves and understand language.
4. Anomic aphasia: This type of aphasia affects a person's ability to recall the names of objects, people, or places. Individuals with anomic aphasia can speak in complete sentences but often struggle to find the right words to convey their thoughts.

Treatment for aphasia typically involves speech and language therapy, which aims to help individuals regain as much communication ability as possible. The success of treatment depends on various factors, such as the severity and location of the brain injury, the individual's motivation and effort, and the availability of support from family members and caregivers.

The diagonal band of Broca is a nerve tract in the brain that plays a role in the sense of smell and memory. It is a wide, flat bundle of nerve fibers located in the basal forebrain, specifically in the septal area and the olfactory cortex. The diagonal band of Broca is part of the limbic system, which is involved in emotions, behavior, motivation, long-term memory, and smell.

The diagonal band of Broca contains two types of nerve cells: cholinergic neurons and GABAergic interneurons. Cholinergic neurons release the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which is important for learning and memory processes. GABAergic interneurons release gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), an inhibitory neurotransmitter that helps regulate the activity of other nerve cells.

Damage to the diagonal band of Broca can result in impairments in olfaction and memory, as well as changes in behavior and emotional regulation. Certain neurological conditions, such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, are associated with degeneration of the cholinergic neurons in the diagonal band of Broca, which can contribute to cognitive decline and memory loss.

Broca's aphasia, also known as expressive aphasia or nonfluent aphasia, is a type of language disorder that results from damage to the brain's Broca's area, which is located in the frontal lobe of the dominant hemisphere (usually the left).

Individuals with Broca's aphasia have difficulty producing spoken or written language. They often know what they want to say but have trouble getting the words out, resulting in short and grammatically simplified sentences. Speech may be slow, laborious, and agrammatic, with limited vocabulary and poor sentence structure. Comprehension of language is typically less affected than expression, although individuals with Broca's aphasia may have difficulty understanding complex grammatical structures or following rapid speech.

It's important to note that the severity and specific symptoms of Broca's aphasia can vary depending on the extent and location of the brain damage. Rehabilitation and therapy can help improve language skills in individuals with Broca's aphasia, although recovery may be slow and limited.

Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA) is a neurological disorder characterized by progressive loss of language capabilities, while other cognitive abilities remain preserved. It is a type of dementia that primarily affects speech and language. Unlike other forms of aphasia that result from stroke or head injury, PPA is degenerative and gets worse over time.

There are three main types of PPA:

1. Semantic Variant PPA (svPPA): This type is characterized by difficulty in understanding words and objects, despite having no trouble with the mechanics of speech or writing. Over time, people with svPPA may lose their ability to understand spoken or written language, as well as to recognize objects and faces.

2. Nonfluent/Agrammatic Variant PPA (nfvPPA): This type is characterized by difficulty with speaking and writing, including producing grammatical sentences and articulating words. People with nfvPPA may also have problems with understanding spoken language, particularly when it comes to complex sentences or ambiguous phrases.

3. Logopenic Variant PPA (lvPPA): This type is characterized by difficulty with word-finding and sentence repetition, while speech remains fluent. People with lvPPA may also have problems with understanding spoken language, particularly when it comes to complex sentences or ambiguous phrases.

The exact cause of PPA is not known, but it is believed to be related to degeneration of specific areas of the brain involved in language processing, such as Broca's area and Wernicke's area. There is currently no cure for PPA, but speech and language therapy can help to slow down the progression of the disorder and improve communication skills.

Anomia is a language disorder that affects a person's ability to name objects, places, or people. It is often caused by damage to the brain, such as from a stroke, brain injury, or neurological condition. In anomia, a person has difficulty retrieving words from their memory, and may substitute similar-sounding words, describe the object instead of naming it, or be unable to come up with a name at all. Anomia can range from mild to severe and can significantly impact a person's ability to communicate effectively.

Conduction aphasia is a type of aphasia that is characterized by an impairment in the ability to repeat spoken or written words, despite having intact comprehension and production abilities. It is caused by damage to specific areas of the brain, typically in the left hemisphere, that are involved in language repetition and transmission.

Individuals with conduction aphasia may have difficulty repeating sentences or phrases, but they can usually understand spoken and written language and produce speech relatively well. They may also make phonological errors (substituting, adding, or omitting sounds) when speaking, particularly in more complex words or sentences.

Conduction aphasia is often caused by stroke or other types of brain injury, and it can range from mild to severe in terms of its impact on communication abilities. Treatment typically involves speech-language therapy to help individuals improve their language skills and compensate for any remaining deficits.

The term "septum" in the context of the brain refers to the septal nuclei, which are a collection of neurons located in the basal forebrain. Specifically, they make up the septal area, which is part of the limbic system and plays a role in reward, reinforcement, and positive motivational states.

There isn't a structure called the "septum of brain" in medical terminology. However, there are several structures in the brain that contain a septum or have a partitioning septum within them, such as:

1. Septal nuclei (as mentioned above)
2. The nasal septum, which is a thin wall of bone and cartilage that separates the two nostrils in the nose
3. The interventricular septum, which is a thin muscular wall that separates the left and right lateral ventricles within the brain
4. The membranous septum, a part of the heart's structure that separates the left and right ventricles

Confusion might arise due to the term "septum" being used in different contexts. In this case, there is no specific medical definition for 'Septum of Brain'.

Primary Progressive Nonfluent Aphasia (PPNA) is a rare type of dementia that primarily affects language abilities. According to the National Aphasia Association, it is characterized by progressive difficulty with speaking and writing, while comprehension of single words and object knowledge remains relatively intact. The "nonfluent" descriptor refers to the hesitant, effortful, and halting speech pattern observed in individuals with this condition.

The Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) term provided by the National Library of Medicine defines PPNA as:

"A progressive aphasia characterized by agrammatism and/or anomia with relatively preserved single word comprehension and object knowledge. This condition often, but not always, begins between the sixth and seventh decades of life. As the disorder progresses, it may be accompanied by ideomotor apraxia, alien hand syndrome, and elements of corticobasal degeneration."

It is important to note that PPNA is a clinical diagnosis, and there are currently no established biomarkers or imaging techniques to definitively diagnose this condition. The underlying neuropathology may vary between individuals with PPNA, but the most common causes include frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and corticobasal degeneration (CBD).

The Septum Pellucidum is a thin, delicate, and almost transparent partition in the brain that separates the lateral ventricles, which are fluid-filled spaces within the brain. It consists of two laminae (plates) that fuse together during fetal development, forming a single structure. The Septum Pellucidum is an essential component of the brain's ventricular system and plays a role in maintaining the structural integrity of the brain. Any abnormalities or damage to the Septum Pellucidum can lead to neurological disorders or cognitive impairments.

A language test is not a medical term per se, but it is commonly used in the field of speech-language pathology, which is a medical discipline. A language test, in this context, refers to an assessment tool used by speech-language pathologists to evaluate an individual's language abilities. These tests typically measure various aspects of language, including vocabulary, grammar, syntax, semantics, and pragmatics.

Language tests can be standardized or non-standardized and may be administered individually or in a group setting. The results of these tests help speech-language pathologists diagnose language disorders, develop treatment plans, and monitor progress over time. It is important to note that language testing should be conducted by a qualified professional who has experience in administering and interpreting language assessments.

Speech Therapy, also known as Speech-Language Pathology, is a medical field that focuses on the assessment, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of communication and swallowing disorders in children and adults. These disorders may include speech sound production difficulties (articulation disorders or phonological processes disorders), language disorders (expressive and/or receptive language impairments), voice disorders, fluency disorders (stuttering), cognitive-communication disorders, and swallowing difficulties (dysphagia).

Speech therapists, who are also called speech-language pathologists (SLPs), work with clients to improve their communication abilities through various therapeutic techniques and exercises. They may also provide counseling and education to families and caregivers to help them support the client's communication development and management of the disorder.

Speech therapy services can be provided in a variety of settings, including hospitals, clinics, schools, private practices, and long-term care facilities. The specific goals and methods used in speech therapy will depend on the individual needs and abilities of each client.

Language therapy, also known as speech-language therapy, is a type of treatment aimed at improving an individual's communication and swallowing abilities. Speech-language pathologists (SLPs) or therapists provide this therapy to assess, diagnose, and treat a wide range of communication and swallowing disorders that can occur in people of all ages, from infants to the elderly.

Language therapy may involve working on various skills such as:

1. Expressive language: Improving the ability to express thoughts, needs, wants, and ideas through verbal, written, or other symbolic systems.
2. Receptive language: Enhancing the understanding of spoken or written language, including following directions and comprehending conversations.
3. Pragmatic or social language: Developing appropriate use of language in various social situations, such as turn-taking, topic maintenance, and making inferences.
4. Articulation and phonology: Correcting speech sound errors and improving overall speech clarity.
5. Voice and fluency: Addressing issues related to voice quality, volume, and pitch, as well as stuttering or stammering.
6. Literacy: Improving reading, writing, and spelling skills.
7. Swallowing: Evaluating and treating swallowing disorders (dysphagia) to ensure safe and efficient eating and drinking.

Language therapy often involves a combination of techniques, including exercises, drills, conversation practice, and the use of various therapeutic materials and technology. The goal of language therapy is to help individuals with communication disorders achieve optimal functional communication and swallowing abilities in their daily lives.

In the context of medicine, particularly in neurolinguistics and speech-language pathology, language is defined as a complex system of communication that involves the use of symbols (such as words, signs, or gestures) to express and exchange information. It includes various components such as phonology (sound systems), morphology (word structures), syntax (sentence structure), semantics (meaning), and pragmatics (social rules of use). Language allows individuals to convey their thoughts, feelings, and intentions, and to understand the communication of others. Disorders of language can result from damage to specific areas of the brain, leading to impairments in comprehension, production, or both.

The frontal lobe is the largest lobes of the human brain, located at the front part of each cerebral hemisphere and situated in front of the parietal and temporal lobes. It plays a crucial role in higher cognitive functions such as decision making, problem solving, planning, parts of social behavior, emotional expressions, physical reactions, and motor function. The frontal lobe is also responsible for what's known as "executive functions," which include the ability to focus attention, understand rules, switch focus, plan actions, and inhibit inappropriate behaviors. It is divided into five areas, each with its own specific functions: the primary motor cortex, premotor cortex, Broca's area, prefrontal cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex. Damage to the frontal lobe can result in a wide range of impairments, depending on the location and extent of the injury.

Agraphia is a neurological disorder that affects the ability to write, either by hand or through mechanical means like typing. It is often caused by damage to specific areas of the brain involved in language and writing skills, such as the left parietal lobe. Agraphia can manifest as difficulty with spelling, forming letters or words, organizing thoughts on paper, or expressing ideas in writing. Depending on the severity and location of the brain injury, agraphia may occur in isolation or alongside other language or cognitive impairments.

Cholinergic fibers are nerve cell extensions (neurons) that release the neurotransmitter acetylcholine at their synapses, which are the junctions where they transmit signals to other neurons or effector cells such as muscles and glands. These fibers are a part of the cholinergic system, which plays crucial roles in various physiological processes including learning and memory, attention, arousal, sleep, and muscle contraction.

Cholinergic fibers can be found in both the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS). In the CNS, cholinergic neurons are primarily located in the basal forebrain and brainstem, and their projections innervate various regions of the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, and other brain areas. In the PNS, cholinergic fibers are responsible for activating skeletal muscles through neuromuscular junctions, as well as regulating functions in smooth muscles, cardiac muscles, and glands via the autonomic nervous system.

Dysfunction of the cholinergic system has been implicated in several neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and myasthenia gravis.

Cerebral dominance is a concept in neuropsychology that refers to the specialization of one hemisphere of the brain over the other for certain cognitive functions. In most people, the left hemisphere is dominant for language functions such as speaking and understanding spoken or written language, while the right hemisphere is dominant for non-verbal functions such as spatial ability, face recognition, and artistic ability.

Cerebral dominance does not mean that the non-dominant hemisphere is incapable of performing the functions of the dominant hemisphere, but rather that it is less efficient or specialized in those areas. The concept of cerebral dominance has been used to explain individual differences in cognitive abilities and learning styles, as well as the laterality of brain damage and its effects on cognition and behavior.

It's important to note that cerebral dominance is a complex phenomenon that can vary between individuals and can be influenced by various factors such as genetics, environment, and experience. Additionally, recent research has challenged the strict lateralization of functions and suggested that there is more functional overlap and interaction between the two hemispheres than previously thought.

Apraxia is a motor disorder characterized by the inability to perform learned, purposeful movements despite having the physical ability and mental understanding to do so. It is not caused by weakness, paralysis, or sensory loss, and it is not due to poor comprehension or motivation.

There are several types of apraxias, including:

1. Limb-Kinematic Apraxia: This type affects the ability to make precise movements with the limbs, such as using tools or performing complex gestures.
2. Ideomotor Apraxia: In this form, individuals have difficulty executing learned motor actions in response to verbal commands or visual cues, but they can still perform the same action when given the actual object to use.
3. Ideational Apraxia: This type affects the ability to sequence and coordinate multiple steps of a complex action, such as dressing oneself or making coffee.
4. Oral Apraxia: Also known as verbal apraxia, this form affects the ability to plan and execute speech movements, leading to difficulties with articulation and speech production.
5. Constructional Apraxia: This type impairs the ability to draw, copy, or construct geometric forms and shapes, often due to visuospatial processing issues.

Apraxias can result from various neurological conditions, such as stroke, brain injury, dementia, or neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease. Treatment typically involves rehabilitation and therapy focused on retraining the affected movements and compensating for any residual deficits.

The septal nuclei are a collection of gray matter structures located in the basal forebrain, specifically in the septum pellucidum. They consist of several interconnected subnuclei that play important roles in various functions such as reward and reinforcement, emotional processing, learning, and memory.

The septal nuclei are primarily composed of GABAergic neurons (neurons that release the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid or GABA) and receive inputs from several brain regions, including the hippocampus, amygdala, hypothalamus, and prefrontal cortex. They also send projections to various areas, including the thalamus, hypothalamus, and other limbic structures.

Stimulation of the septal nuclei has been associated with feelings of pleasure and reward, while damage or lesions can lead to changes in emotional behavior and cognitive functions. The septal nuclei are also involved in neuroendocrine regulation, particularly in relation to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the release of stress hormones.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "semantics" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Semantics is actually a branch of linguistics that deals with the study of meaning, reference, and the interpretation of signs and symbols, either individually or in combination. It is used in various fields including computer science, anthropology, psychology, and philosophy.

However, if you have any medical terms or concepts that you would like me to explain, I'd be happy to help!

Brain mapping is a broad term that refers to the techniques used to understand the structure and function of the brain. It involves creating maps of the various cognitive, emotional, and behavioral processes in the brain by correlating these processes with physical locations or activities within the nervous system. Brain mapping can be accomplished through a variety of methods, including functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), positron emission tomography (PET) scans, electroencephalography (EEG), and others. These techniques allow researchers to observe which areas of the brain are active during different tasks or thoughts, helping to shed light on how the brain processes information and contributes to our experiences and behaviors. Brain mapping is an important area of research in neuroscience, with potential applications in the diagnosis and treatment of neurological and psychiatric disorders.

The prosencephalon is a term used in the field of neuroembryology, which refers to the developmental stage of the forebrain in the embryonic nervous system. It is one of the three primary vesicles that form during the initial stages of neurulation, along with the mesencephalon (midbrain) and rhombencephalon (hindbrain).

The prosencephalon further differentiates into two secondary vesicles: the telencephalon and diencephalon. The telencephalon gives rise to structures such as the cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, and olfactory bulbs, while the diencephalon develops into structures like the thalamus, hypothalamus, and epithalamus.

It is important to note that 'prosencephalon' itself is not used as a medical term in adult neuroanatomy, but it is crucial for understanding the development of the human brain during embryogenesis.

Speech is the vocalized form of communication using sounds and words to express thoughts, ideas, and feelings. It involves the articulation of sounds through the movement of muscles in the mouth, tongue, and throat, which are controlled by nerves. Speech also requires respiratory support, phonation (vocal cord vibration), and prosody (rhythm, stress, and intonation).

Speech is a complex process that develops over time in children, typically beginning with cooing and babbling sounds in infancy and progressing to the use of words and sentences by around 18-24 months. Speech disorders can affect any aspect of this process, including articulation, fluency, voice, and language.

In a medical context, speech is often evaluated and treated by speech-language pathologists who specialize in diagnosing and managing communication disorders.

Language disorders, also known as communication disorders, refer to a group of conditions that affect an individual's ability to understand or produce spoken, written, or other symbolic language. These disorders can be receptive (difficulty understanding language), expressive (difficulty producing language), or mixed (a combination of both).

Language disorders can manifest as difficulties with grammar, vocabulary, sentence structure, and coherence in communication. They can also affect social communication skills such as taking turns in conversation, understanding nonverbal cues, and interpreting tone of voice.

Language disorders can be developmental, meaning they are present from birth or early childhood, or acquired, meaning they develop later in life due to injury, illness, or trauma. Examples of acquired language disorders include aphasia, which can result from stroke or brain injury, and dysarthria, which can result from neurological conditions affecting speech muscles.

Language disorders can have significant impacts on an individual's academic, social, and vocational functioning, making it important to diagnose and treat them as early as possible. Treatment typically involves speech-language therapy to help individuals develop and improve their language skills.

Neuropsychological tests are a type of psychological assessment that measures cognitive functions, such as attention, memory, language, problem-solving, and perception. These tests are used to help diagnose and understand the cognitive impact of neurological conditions, including dementia, traumatic brain injury, stroke, Parkinson's disease, and other disorders that affect the brain.

The tests are typically administered by a trained neuropsychologist and can take several hours to complete. They may involve paper-and-pencil tasks, computerized tasks, or interactive activities. The results of the tests are compared to normative data to help identify any areas of cognitive weakness or strength.

Neuropsychological testing can provide valuable information for treatment planning, rehabilitation, and assessing response to treatment. It can also be used in research to better understand the neural basis of cognition and the impact of neurological conditions on cognitive function.

The brain is the central organ of the nervous system, responsible for receiving and processing sensory information, regulating vital functions, and controlling behavior, movement, and cognition. It is divided into several distinct regions, each with specific functions:

1. Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain, responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, memory, language, and perception. It is divided into two hemispheres, each controlling the opposite side of the body.
2. Cerebellum: Located at the back of the brain, it is responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
3. Brainstem: Connects the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord, controlling vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory information and motor commands between the brain and the rest of the body.
4. Diencephalon: A region that includes the thalamus (a major sensory relay station) and hypothalamus (regulates hormones, temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep).
5. Limbic system: A group of structures involved in emotional processing, memory formation, and motivation, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus.

The brain is composed of billions of interconnected neurons that communicate through electrical and chemical signals. It is protected by the skull and surrounded by three layers of membranes called meninges, as well as cerebrospinal fluid that provides cushioning and nutrients.

Acquired dyslexia, also known as "alexia" or "word blindness," is a medical condition that affects an individual's ability to understand written language despite having normal intelligence and education. It is characterized by a sudden loss of the ability to read, following damage to specific areas of the brain responsible for visual processing and language comprehension, such as the left occipitotemporal cortex.

Unlike developmental dyslexia, which is present from birth or early childhood, acquired dyslexia occurs later in life due to brain injury, stroke, infection, tumor, or other neurological conditions that damage the language and visual processing areas of the brain. Individuals with acquired dyslexia may have difficulty recognizing words, letters, or symbols, despite having intact hearing and speaking abilities.

Treatment for acquired dyslexia typically involves rehabilitation and compensation strategies to help the individual regain their reading skills or develop alternative ways to process written language. Speech-language therapy, occupational therapy, and assistive technology may be used as part of a comprehensive treatment plan.

The preoptic area (POA) is a region within the anterior hypothalamus of the brain. It is named for its location near the optic chiasm, where the optic nerves cross. The preoptic area is involved in various functions, including body temperature regulation, sexual behavior, and sleep-wake regulation.

The preoptic area contains several groups of neurons that are sensitive to changes in temperature and are responsible for generating heat through shivering or non-shivering thermogenesis. It also contains neurons that release inhibitory neurotransmitters such as GABA and galanin, which help regulate arousal and sleep.

Additionally, the preoptic area has been implicated in the regulation of sexual behavior, particularly in males. Certain populations of neurons within the preoptic area are involved in the expression of male sexual behavior, such as mounting and intromission.

Overall, the preoptic area is a critical region for the regulation of various physiological and behavioral functions, making it an important area of study in neuroscience research.

Speech production measurement is the quantitative analysis and assessment of various parameters and characteristics of spoken language, such as speech rate, intensity, duration, pitch, and articulation. These measurements can be used to diagnose and monitor speech disorders, evaluate the effectiveness of treatment, and conduct research in fields such as linguistics, psychology, and communication disorders. Speech production measurement tools may include specialized software, hardware, and techniques for recording, analyzing, and visualizing speech data.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "linguistics" is not a term that has a medical definition. Lingustics is the scientific study of language and its structure. It involves analysing language form, language meaning, and language in context.

If you have any questions related to healthcare or medicine, I'd be happy to try to help answer them!

Theta rhythm is a type of electrical brain activity that can be detected through an electroencephalogram (EEG), which measures the electrical impulses generated by the brain's neurons. Theta waves have a frequency range of 4-8 Hz and are typically observed in the EEG readings of children, as well as adults during states of drowsiness, light sleep, or deep meditation.

Theta rhythm is thought to be involved in several cognitive processes, including memory consolidation, spatial navigation, and emotional regulation. It has also been associated with various mental states, such as creativity, intuition, and heightened suggestibility. However, more research is needed to fully understand the functional significance of theta rhythm and its role in brain function.

A stroke, also known as cerebrovascular accident (CVA), is a serious medical condition that occurs when the blood supply to part of the brain is interrupted or reduced, leading to deprivation of oxygen and nutrients to brain cells. This can result in the death of brain tissue and cause permanent damage or temporary impairment to cognitive functions, speech, memory, movement, and other body functions controlled by the affected area of the brain.

Strokes can be caused by either a blockage in an artery that supplies blood to the brain (ischemic stroke) or the rupture of a blood vessel in the brain (hemorrhagic stroke). A transient ischemic attack (TIA), also known as a "mini-stroke," is a temporary disruption of blood flow to the brain that lasts only a few minutes and does not cause permanent damage.

Symptoms of a stroke may include sudden weakness or numbness in the face, arm, or leg; difficulty speaking or understanding speech; vision problems; loss of balance or coordination; severe headache with no known cause; and confusion or disorientation. Immediate medical attention is crucial for stroke patients to receive appropriate treatment and prevent long-term complications.

Ideomotor apraxia is a neurological disorder that affects the ability to perform learned, purposeful movements in the absence of muscle weakness or paralysis. It results from damage to specific areas of the brain that are responsible for motor planning and execution.

In ideomotor apraxia, the person has difficulty translating an intention or idea into the appropriate movement. For example, if asked to pantomime using a toothbrush, they may not be able to recall and execute the correct sequence of movements required for this task, even though they understand what is being asked of them and have no problem moving their arm or hand.

This disorder can manifest as awkward, poorly coordinated, or incomplete movements, often with inconsistent errors. Ideomotor apraxia is typically seen following lesions to the left hemisphere of the brain, particularly in regions associated with language and motor function, such as Broca's area and the parietal lobe. Treatment usually involves occupational therapy and strategies to help compensate for the impaired motor skills.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "names" is not a medical term that can be defined in a biological or clinical context. If you have any questions about medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to try and help! Please provide more information or clarify your question.

In the context of medical and clinical psychology, particularly in the field of applied behavior analysis (ABA), "verbal behavior" is a term used to describe the various functions or purposes of spoken language. It was first introduced by the psychologist B.F. Skinner in his 1957 book "Verbal Behavior."

Skinner proposed that verbal behavior could be classified into several categories based on its function, including:

1. Mand: A verbal operant in which a person requests or demands something from another person. For example, saying "I would like a glass of water" is a mand.
2. Tact: A verbal operant in which a person describes or labels something in their environment. For example, saying "That's a red apple" is a tact.
3. Echoic: A verbal operant in which a person repeats or imitates what they have heard. For example, saying "Hello" after someone says hello to you is an echoic.
4. Intraverbal: A verbal operant in which a person responds to another person's verbal behavior with their own verbal behavior, without simply repeating or imitating what they have heard. For example, answering a question like "What's the capital of France?" is an intraverbal.
5. Textual: A verbal operant in which a person reads or writes text. For example, reading a book or writing a letter are textual.

Understanding the function of verbal behavior can be helpful in assessing and treating communication disorders, such as those seen in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). By identifying the specific functions of a child's verbal behavior, therapists can develop targeted interventions to help them communicate more effectively.

Speech disorders refer to a group of conditions in which a person has difficulty producing or articulating sounds, words, or sentences in a way that is understandable to others. These disorders can be caused by various factors such as developmental delays, neurological conditions, hearing loss, structural abnormalities, or emotional issues.

Speech disorders may include difficulties with:

* Articulation: the ability to produce sounds correctly and clearly.
* Phonology: the sound system of language, including the rules that govern how sounds are combined and used in words.
* Fluency: the smoothness and flow of speech, including issues such as stuttering or cluttering.
* Voice: the quality, pitch, and volume of the spoken voice.
* Resonance: the way sound is produced and carried through the vocal tract, which can affect the clarity and quality of speech.

Speech disorders can impact a person's ability to communicate effectively, leading to difficulties in social situations, academic performance, and even employment opportunities. Speech-language pathologists are trained to evaluate and treat speech disorders using various evidence-based techniques and interventions.

Speech-Language Pathology is a branch of healthcare that deals with the evaluation, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of communication disorders, speech difficulties, and swallowing problems. Speech-language pathologists (SLPs), also known as speech therapists, are professionals trained to assess and help manage these issues. They work with individuals of all ages, from young children who may be delayed in their speech and language development, to adults who have communication or swallowing difficulties due to stroke, brain injury, neurological disorders, or other conditions. Treatment may involve various techniques and technologies to improve communication and swallowing abilities, and may also include counseling and education for patients and their families.

Comprehension, in a medical context, usually refers to the ability to understand and interpret spoken or written language, as well as gestures and expressions. It is a key component of communication and cognitive functioning. Difficulties with comprehension can be a symptom of various neurological conditions, such as aphasia (a disorder caused by damage to the language areas of the brain), learning disabilities, or dementia. Assessment of comprehension is often part of neuropsychological evaluations and speech-language pathology assessments.

Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is a group of disorders characterized by the progressive degeneration of the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain. These areas of the brain are involved in decision-making, behavior, emotion, and language. FTLD can be divided into several subtypes based on the specific clinical features and the underlying protein abnormalities.

The three main subtypes of FTLD are:

1. Behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD): This subtype is characterized by changes in personality, behavior, and judgment. People with bvFTD may lose their social inhibitions, become impulsive, or develop compulsive behaviors. They may also have difficulty with emotional processing and empathy.
2. Primary progressive aphasia (PPA): This subtype is characterized by the gradual deterioration of language skills. People with PPA may have difficulty speaking, understanding spoken or written language, or both. There are three subtypes of PPA: nonfluent/agrammatic variant, semantic variant, and logopenic variant.
3. Motor neuron disease (MND) with FTLD: This subtype is characterized by the degeneration of motor neurons, which are the nerve cells responsible for controlling voluntary muscle movements. People with MND with FTLD may develop symptoms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), such as muscle weakness, stiffness, and twitching, as well as cognitive and behavioral changes associated with FTLD.

The underlying protein abnormalities in FTLD include:

1. Tau protein: In some forms of FTLD, the tau protein accumulates and forms clumps called tangles inside nerve cells. This is also seen in Alzheimer's disease.
2. TDP-43 protein: In other forms of FTLD, the TDP-43 protein accumulates and forms clumps inside nerve cells.
3. Fused in sarcoma (FUS) protein: In a small number of cases, the FUS protein accumulates and forms clumps inside nerve cells.

FTLD is typically a progressive disorder, meaning that symptoms worsen over time. There is currently no cure for FTLD, but there are treatments available to help manage symptoms and improve quality of life.

Atrophy is a medical term that refers to the decrease in size and wasting of an organ or tissue due to the disappearance of cells, shrinkage of cells, or decreased number of cells. This process can be caused by various factors such as disuse, aging, degeneration, injury, or disease.

For example, if a muscle is immobilized for an extended period, it may undergo atrophy due to lack of use. Similarly, certain medical conditions like diabetes, cancer, and heart failure can lead to the wasting away of various tissues and organs in the body.

Atrophy can also occur as a result of natural aging processes, leading to decreased muscle mass and strength in older adults. In general, atrophy is characterized by a decrease in the volume or weight of an organ or tissue, which can have significant impacts on its function and overall health.

Neurons, also known as nerve cells or neurocytes, are specialized cells that constitute the basic unit of the nervous system. They are responsible for receiving, processing, and transmitting information and signals within the body. Neurons have three main parts: the dendrites, the cell body (soma), and the axon. The dendrites receive signals from other neurons or sensory receptors, while the axon transmits these signals to other neurons, muscles, or glands. The junction between two neurons is called a synapse, where neurotransmitters are released to transmit the signal across the gap (synaptic cleft) to the next neuron. Neurons vary in size, shape, and structure depending on their function and location within the nervous system.

Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a group of disorders caused by progressive degeneration of the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain. These areas of the brain are associated with personality, behavior, and language.

There are three main types of FTD:

1. Behavioral variant FTD (bvFTD): This type is characterized by changes in personality, behavior, and judgment. Individuals may become socially inappropriate, emotionally indifferent, or impulsive. They may lose interest in things they used to enjoy and have difficulty with tasks that require planning and organization.

2. Primary progressive aphasia (PPA): This type affects language abilities. There are two main subtypes of PPA: semantic dementia and progressive nonfluent aphasia. Semantic dementia is characterized by difficulty understanding words and objects, while progressive nonfluent aphasia is characterized by problems with speech production and articulation.

3. Motor neuron disease (MND) associated FTD: Some individuals with FTD may also develop motor neuron disease, which affects the nerves that control muscle movement. This can lead to weakness, stiffness, and wasting of muscles, as well as difficulty swallowing and speaking.

FTD is a degenerative disorder, meaning that symptoms get worse over time. There is no cure for FTD, but there are treatments available to help manage symptoms and improve quality of life. The exact cause of FTD is not known, but it is believed to be related to abnormalities in certain proteins in the brain. In some cases, FTD may run in families and be caused by genetic mutations.

The temporal lobe is one of the four main lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain, located on each side of the head roughly level with the ears. It plays a major role in auditory processing, memory, and emotion. The temporal lobe contains several key structures including the primary auditory cortex, which is responsible for analyzing sounds, and the hippocampus, which is crucial for forming new memories. Damage to the temporal lobe can result in various neurological symptoms such as hearing loss, memory impairment, and changes in emotional behavior.

Psycholinguistics is not a medical term per se, but it is a subfield of both psychology and linguistics that explores how we understand, produce, and process language. It investigates the cognitive processes and mental representations involved in language use, such as word recognition, sentence comprehension, language production, language acquisition, and language disorders.

In medical contexts, psycholinguistic assessments may be used to evaluate individuals with communication difficulties due to neurological or developmental disorders, such as aphasia, dyslexia, or autism spectrum disorder. These assessments can help identify specific areas of impairment and inform treatment planning.

Dysarthria is a motor speech disorder that results from damage to the nervous system, particularly the brainstem or cerebellum. It affects the muscles used for speaking, causing slurred, slow, or difficult speech. The specific symptoms can vary depending on the underlying cause and the extent of nerve damage. Treatment typically involves speech therapy to improve communication abilities.

Functional laterality, in a medical context, refers to the preferential use or performance of one side of the body over the other for specific functions. This is often demonstrated in hand dominance, where an individual may be right-handed or left-handed, meaning they primarily use their right or left hand for tasks such as writing, eating, or throwing.

However, functional laterality can also apply to other bodily functions and structures, including the eyes (ocular dominance), ears (auditory dominance), or legs. It's important to note that functional laterality is not a strict binary concept; some individuals may exhibit mixed dominance or no strong preference for one side over the other.

In clinical settings, assessing functional laterality can be useful in diagnosing and treating various neurological conditions, such as stroke or traumatic brain injury, where understanding any resulting lateralized impairments can inform rehabilitation strategies.

The hippocampus is a complex, curved formation in the brain that resembles a seahorse (hence its name, from the Greek word "hippos" meaning horse and "kampos" meaning sea monster). It's part of the limbic system and plays crucial roles in the formation of memories, particularly long-term ones.

This region is involved in spatial navigation and cognitive maps, allowing us to recognize locations and remember how to get to them. Additionally, it's one of the first areas affected by Alzheimer's disease, which often results in memory loss as an early symptom.

Anatomically, it consists of two main parts: the Ammon's horn (or cornu ammonis) and the dentate gyrus. These structures are made up of distinct types of neurons that contribute to different aspects of learning and memory.

Communication aids for disabled are devices or tools that help individuals with disabilities to communicate effectively. These aids can be low-tech, such as communication boards with pictures and words, or high-tech, such as computer-based systems with synthesized speech output. The goal of these aids is to enhance the individual's ability to express their needs, wants, thoughts, and feelings, thereby improving their quality of life and promoting greater independence.

Some examples of communication aids for disabled include:

1. Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) devices - These are electronic devices that produce speech or text output based on user selection. They can be operated through touch screens, eye-tracking technology, or switches.
2. Speech-generating devices - Similar to AAC devices, these tools generate spoken language for individuals who have difficulty speaking.
3. Adaptive keyboards and mice - These are specialized input devices that allow users with motor impairments to type and navigate computer interfaces more easily.
4. Communication software - Computer programs designed to facilitate communication for individuals with disabilities, such as text-to-speech software or visual scene displays.
5. Picture communication symbols - Graphic representations of objects, actions, or concepts that can be used to create communication boards or books.
6. Eye-tracking technology - Devices that track eye movements to enable users to control a computer or communicate through selection of on-screen options.

These aids are often customized to meet the unique needs and abilities of each individual, allowing them to participate more fully in social interactions, education, and employment opportunities.

Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone (GnRH), also known as Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone (LHRH), is a hormonal peptide consisting of 10 amino acids. It is produced and released by the hypothalamus, an area in the brain that links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland.

GnRH plays a crucial role in regulating reproduction and sexual development through its control of two gonadotropins: follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). These gonadotropins, in turn, stimulate the gonads (ovaries or testes) to produce sex steroids and eggs or sperm.

GnRH acts on the anterior pituitary gland by binding to its specific receptors, leading to the release of FSH and LH. The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis is under negative feedback control, meaning that when sex steroid levels are high, they inhibit the release of GnRH, which subsequently decreases FSH and LH secretion.

GnRH agonists and antagonists have clinical applications in various medical conditions, such as infertility treatments, precocious puberty, endometriosis, uterine fibroids, prostate cancer, and hormone-responsive breast cancer.

Thalamic diseases refer to conditions that affect the thalamus, which is a part of the brain that acts as a relay station for sensory and motor signals to the cerebral cortex. The thalamus plays a crucial role in regulating consciousness, sleep, and alertness. Thalamic diseases can cause a variety of symptoms depending on the specific area of the thalamus that is affected. These symptoms may include sensory disturbances, motor impairment, cognitive changes, and altered levels of consciousness. Examples of thalamic diseases include stroke, tumors, multiple sclerosis, infections, and degenerative disorders such as dementia and Parkinson's disease. Treatment for thalamic diseases depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, surgery, or rehabilitation therapy.

Reproducibility of results in a medical context refers to the ability to obtain consistent and comparable findings when a particular experiment or study is repeated, either by the same researcher or by different researchers, following the same experimental protocol. It is an essential principle in scientific research that helps to ensure the validity and reliability of research findings.

In medical research, reproducibility of results is crucial for establishing the effectiveness and safety of new treatments, interventions, or diagnostic tools. It involves conducting well-designed studies with adequate sample sizes, appropriate statistical analyses, and transparent reporting of methods and findings to allow other researchers to replicate the study and confirm or refute the results.

The lack of reproducibility in medical research has become a significant concern in recent years, as several high-profile studies have failed to produce consistent findings when replicated by other researchers. This has led to increased scrutiny of research practices and a call for greater transparency, rigor, and standardization in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

Agnosia is a medical term that refers to the inability to recognize or comprehend the meaning or significance of sensory stimuli, even though the specific senses themselves are intact. It is a higher-level cognitive disorder, caused by damage to certain areas of the brain that are responsible for processing and interpreting information from our senses.

There are different types of agnosia, depending on which sense is affected:

* Visual agnosia: The inability to recognize or identify objects, faces, or shapes based on visual input.
* Auditory agnosia: The inability to understand spoken language or recognize sounds, even though hearing is intact.
* Tactile agnosia: The inability to recognize objects by touch, despite normal tactile sensation.
* Olfactory and gustatory agnosia: The inability to identify smells or tastes, respectively, even though the senses of smell and taste are functioning normally.

Agnosia can result from various causes, including stroke, brain injury, infection, degenerative diseases, or tumors that damage specific areas of the brain involved in sensory processing and interpretation. Treatment for agnosia typically focuses on rehabilitation and compensation strategies to help individuals adapt to their deficits and improve their quality of life.

Lesions to Broca's area alone do not result in Broca's aphasia, nor do Broca's aphasic patients necessarily have lesions in ... and the deficit in language production as Broca's aphasia, also called expressive aphasia. Broca's area is now typically ... Patients with expressive aphasia, also known as Broca's aphasia, are individuals who know "what they want to say, they just ... Dronkers NF, Shapiro JK, Redfern B, Knight RT (1992). "The role of Broca's area in Broca's aphasia". Journal of Clinical and ...
National Aphasia Association Aphasia Center of California in Oakland, CA, U.S. video of person with Broca's Aphasia "Broca's ... Expressive aphasia, also known as Broca's aphasia, is a type of aphasia characterized by partial loss of the ability to produce ... "Broca's Aphasia - National Aphasia Association". National Aphasia Association. Retrieved 2017-04-11. Fromkin, Victoria; Rodman ... Broca's (expressive) aphasia is a type of non-fluent aphasia in which an individual's speech is halting and effortful. ...
... the nonfluent aphasias (which encompasses Broca's aphasia and transcortical motor aphasia) and the fluent aphasias (which ... For example, while a person with aphasia, particularly expressive aphasia (Broca's aphasia), may not be able to ask a loved one ... Transcortical motor aphasia and transcortical sensory aphasia, which are similar to Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia respectively ... "Aphasia Statistics". "Aphasia Fact sheet - National Aphasia Association". National Aphasia Association. Retrieved 18 December ...
Procedural memory is affected by Broca's aphasia. Agrammatism is apparent in Broca's aphasia patients, where a lack of fluency ... Wernicke's aphasia affects declarative memory. Opposite of Broca's aphasia, paragrammatism is apparent, which causes normal or ... While those with Broca's aphasia are still able to understand or comprehend speech, they have difficulty producing it. Speech ... the passive voice is a grammatically complex structure that is harder for those with Broca's aphasia to comprehend. Wernicke's ...
... had been left with Broca's aphasia/agrammatism, a specific form of aphasia typically impairing the production of morphology and ... "The retrieval of syntax in Broca's aphasia". Brain and Language. 2 (4): 451-471. doi:10.1016/S0093-934X(75)80083-6. ISSN 0093- ... Gleason has also done significant research on aphasia, a condition (usually due to brain injury) in which a person's ability to ... Gleason is the author or co-author of some 125 papers on language development in children, language attrition, aphasia, and ...
Alajouanine T, Signoret JL (1980). "Paul Broca and aphasia" [Paul Broca and aphasia]. Bulletin de l'Académie Nationale de ... 13-14 Broca, 1864, p. 64 Broca, 1964, Glossorial Note Broca, 1964, Section II Broca, 1964, pp. 59-60 Broca, 1864, p. 70 Broca, ... 130-135 Broca, 1864, p. 9 Broca, 1864, pp. 16-17. Schiller, 1979, pp. 129-130 Broca, 1864 pp. 63-64 Blake, C. Carter; Broca, ... Paul Broca Works by Paul Broca at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Paul Broca at Internet Archive "Paul Broca's discovery of ...
Broca's aphasia, or non-fluent aphasia, is a language disorder caused by damage to Broca's area and surrounding regions in the ... Kolk, Herman; Heeschen, Claus (May 1990). "Adaptation symptoms and impairment symptoms in Broca's aphasia". Aphasiology. 4 (3 ... While unable to speak fluently, patients with non-fluent aphasia are often able to sing words, phrases, and even sentences they ... MIT harnesses the singing ability of patients with non-fluent aphasia as a means to improve their communication. Although its ...
According to authors Cubelli and Montagna, the Broca's theory should be renamed: "Probably, Broca was aware of the paper prior ... Joynt, R.J.; Benton, A.L. The memoir of Marc Dax on aphasia. Neurology. 1964 Sep;14:851-4. PMID 14215601 Critchley, M. La ... A reappraisal of the controversy of Dax and Broca. J Hist Neurosci. 1994 Oct;3(4):215-26. PMID 11618822 Broca, Paul (1861a). ... In 1863, Gustave Dax, the son of Marc Dax, published his father's work on the subject, two years after Paul Broca's ...
This is also one of the major differences between Wernicke's aphasia and Broca's aphasia. Those with Wernicke's aphasia ... Broca's fissure produces the typical effects of a lesion in Broca's area (i.e., expressive aphasia). Some individuals afflicted ... Broca's fissure is a medical and scientific term for a sulcus occurring in the area of the brain known as Broca's area. Broca's ... For example, a person with Broca's aphasia may say "Boy... down.. taking... cookie", while a person with Wernicke's aphasia ...
Particularly Broca's aphasia has been associated with difficulties in processing pseudowords. In aphasia studies, they are ... 123: 37(1). Laganaro, M. (2008). "Is there syllable frequency effect in aphasia or in apraxia of speech or both?". Aphasiology ... Pseudowords are also often used in studies involving aphasia and other cognitive deficits. ...
Pseudobulbar palsy Operculum Corticobulbar tracts Wernicke's aphasia Broca's aphasia Bakar, M; Kirshner, HS; Niaz, F (1998). " ... People with Broca's aphasia may not exhibit a complete loss of voluntary movement facial muscles, pharyngeal muscles, laryngeal ... In determining a diagnosis between Broca's aphasia and FCMS, a person must demonstrate their ability in voluntary movement of ... Broca's aphasia, pseudobulbar palsy, bulbar palsy secondary to myasthenia gravis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and brainstem ...
This type is related to facial apraxia and motor aphasia if Broca's area is involved.[clarification needed] Improvements in ... When this happens, the brain's impairment is referred to as "aphasia". Lesions to Broca's Area results primarily in disruptions ... Broca's Area was first suggested to play a role in speech function by the French neurologist and anthropologist Paul Broca in ... Broca's area was first suggested to play a role in speech function by the French neurologist and anthropologist Paul Broca in ...
Patterson, K. E., & Marcel, A. J. (1977). Aphasia, dyslexia, and phonological coding of written words. Quarterly Journal of ... Psychological Science, 11, 255-60 Grodinsky, Y. (2006). The language faculty, Broca's region, and the mirror system. Cortex, 42 ... Cambridge, MA: MIT Press Goodglass, H., & Kaplan, E. (1972). The Assessment of Aphasia and Related Disorders. Philadelphia, PA ... Luzzatti, C., Aggujaro, S., & Crepaldi, D. (2006). Verb-noun double dissociations in aphasia: Theoretical and neuroanatomical ...
Expressive aphasia Receptive aphasia Anomic aphasia Broca's area Wernicke's area Wernicke-Geschwind model Speech repetition ... Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia are commonly caused by middle cerebral artery strokes. Symptoms of conduction aphasia, as with ... Conduction aphasia, also called associative aphasia, is an uncommon form of difficulty in speaking (aphasia). It is caused by ... In the late 19th century, Paul Broca studied person with expressive aphasia. These person had lesions in the anterior ...
The affected areas are known today as Broca's area and Broca's Aphasia. A few years later, a German neuroscientist, Carl ... Broca's aphasia is indicative of damage to the posterior inferior frontal gyrus of the brain. An impairment following damage to ... Ten years later, Paul Broca examined two patients exhibiting impaired speech due to frontal lobe injuries. Broca's first ... Wernicke's aphasia is associated with anomia, unknowingly making up words (neologisms), and problems with comprehension. The ...
"Wernicke's Aphasia". National Aphasia Association. Retrieved 2016-12-09. Kean, Mary Louise. "Broca's and Wernicke's Aphasia". ... The affected areas are known today as Broca's area and Broca's Aphasia. A few years later, a German neuroscientist, Carl ... Broca's aphasia is indicative of damage to the posterior inferior frontal gyrus of the brain. An impairment following damage to ... "Aphasia Definitions". National Aphasia Association. Retrieved 2016-11-12. "Definition of Amnesia". www.merriam-webster.com. ...
"Dissociation of Broca's area from Broca's aphasia in patients undergoing neurosurgical resections". Journal of Neurosurgery. ... In contrast, resections in Broca's area can cause word finding difficulties, but rarely result in dysfluency of Broca's aphasia ... a function that has been traditionally attributed to Broca's area in the posterior inferior frontal gyrus. This novel brain ...
... with Broca's aphasia who were able to make semantic judgments showed less consistent priming than those with Wernicke's aphasia ... "An on-line analysis of syntactic processing in Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia". Brain and Language. 45 (3): 448-64. doi:10.1006 ... "Aphasia". The British Medical Journal. 2 (296): 258-261. 1866. ISSN 0007-1447. JSTOR 25205881. Carlesimo GA, Oscar-Berman M ( ... Perhaps the first use of semantic priming in neurological patients was with stroke patients with aphasia. In one study, ...
"Broca area , Definition, Function, & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2020-04-11. "Aphasia", The Free Dictionary, ... Trauma or injury to Broca's area, located in the left inferior frontal cortex of the brain, can cause muteness. Muteness may ... Loss of previously normal speech (aphasia) can be due to accidents, disease, or surgical complication; it is rarely for ... Neurological damage due to stroke may cause loss or impairment of speech, termed aphasia. Neurological damage or problems with ...
"An on-line analysis of syntactic processing in Broca's and Wernicke's aphasia". Brain and Language. 45 (3): 448-464. doi: ... The work of Broca and Wernicke established the field of aphasiology and the idea that language can be studied through examining ... One of the first people to draw a connection between a particular brain area and language processing was Paul Broca, a French ... Dronkers, N.F.; O. Plaisant; M.T. Iba-Zizen; E.A. Cabanis (2007). "Paul Broca's historic cases: high resolution MR imaging of ...
Aphasia is a learning disorder which was also discovered by Paul Broca. According to, Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Aphasia ... In 1861, French neurologist Paul Broca came across a man with a disability who was able to understand the language but unable ... Perhaps the first serious attempts to localize mental functions to specific locations in the brain was by Broca and Wernicke. ... "Aphasia". www.hopkinsmedicine.org. Retrieved 2022-04-27. "Wernicke area , Definition, Location, Function, & Facts , Britannica ...
The area of the brain that Broca identified is now known as Broca's area; damage to this section of the brain can lead to ... This area is known as Wernicke's area; damage to this section can lead to Receptive aphasia. Postmortem studies allows for ... Paul Broca used postmortem studies to link a specific area of the brain with speech production. His research began when he ... Expressive aphasia. Karl Wernicke also used postmortem studies to link specific areas of the brain with speech production. ...
Anomic aphasia Conduction aphasia Global aphasia Primary progressive aphasias Transcortical motor aphasia Broca's area ... TSA is a fluent aphasia similar to Wernicke's aphasia (receptive aphasia), with the exception of a strong ability to repeat ... receptive aphasia. However, transcortical sensory aphasia differs from receptive aphasia in that patients still have intact ... Transcortical sensory aphasia (TSA) is a kind of aphasia that involves damage to specific areas of the temporal lobe of the ...
... and expressive aphasia became known as Broca's aphasia. Over 100 years later, Dronkers obtained permission to re-examine the ... AOS is a symptom observed in most patients who are diagnosed with Broca's aphasia. She found that, rather than Broca's area, ... Broca presented autopsy findings, and noted that both patients had damage to the frontal lobe in the left hemisphere of the ... Like Broca's original patients, these patients had significant subcortical damage that involved insular cortex and adjacent ...
Thus, unambiguous cases of Broca's aphasia, Wernicke's aphasia, conduction aphasia, and anomic aphasia were selected. Ten ... The Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination is a neuropsychological battery used to evaluate adults suspected of having aphasia, ... Broca's, Wernicke's, anomic, conduction, transcortical, transcortical motor, transcortical sensory, and global aphasia ... and other comprehensive tests exist like the Western Aphasia Battery. The Boston Diagnostic Aphasia Examination provides a ...
Szelag E, von Steinbüchel N, Pöppel E, Temporal processing disorders in patients with Broca's aphasia. Neuroscience Letters, ...
With Paul Broca (1824-1880) he performed correlative studies of aphasia and the frontal lobe. Gratiolet was a vocal critic of ... Broca regarding the latter's belief that a larger brain equated to higher intelligence. Gratiolet's radiation: also known as ...
The damage leaves the major language networks, Broca's and Wernicke's areas and the arcuate fasiculus, unaffected. Brain injury ... Another form of aphasia related to TMoA is dynamic aphasia. Patients with this form of aphasia may present with a contiguity ... New research in aphasia treatment is showing the benefit of the Life Participation Approach to Aphasia (LPAA) in which goals ... There are some other forms of aphasia that relate to TMoA. For instance, adynamic aphasia is a form of TMoA that is ...
Damage to this region often results in a type of non-fluent aphasia known as Broca's aphasia. Broca's area is made up of the ... Characteristics of Broca's aphasia include agrammatic speech, relatively good language comprehension, poor repetition, and ... The opercular part and the triangular part (BA44 and BA45) make up Broca's area. The inferior frontal gyrus has a number of ... The inferior frontal gyrus contains Broca's area, which is involved in language processing and speech production. The inferior ...
Distinction from other types of aphasia Expressive aphasia (non-fluent Broca's aphasia): individuals have great difficulty ... Wernicke's aphasia, also known as receptive aphasia, sensory aphasia or posterior aphasia, is a type of aphasia in which ... Davis, G.A. "Aphasia Therapy Guide". National Aphasia Association. Keefe, K.A. (1995). "Applying basic neuroscience to aphasia ... "Wernicke's (Receptive) Aphasia". National Aphasia Association. "Types of Aphasia". American Stroke Association. "ASHA Glossary ...
... primary progressive aphasia and Wernickes aphasia. Today, were introducting a third form of aphasia: Brocas aphasia. ... So What is Brocas Aphasia?. As the video states, Brocas aphasia comes on suddenly, the result of a brain injury or stroke. It ... The video provides background information about Brocas aphasia as well as communication tips. ... As we said at the end of our Aphasia Awareness Month video, we could all use more understanding in this world. ...
Kearns, K. P. (1997). Brocas aphasia. In L.LaPointe (Ed.), Aphasia and related Neurogenic language disorders. New York, NY: ... Characteristics and issues concerning stroke, aphasia, and Brocas aphasia in particular were discussed. A review of the ... Singing as a Music Therapy Intervention for Persons with Brocas Aphasia. Singing as a Music Therapy Intervention for Persons ... with Brocas Aphasia Title:. Singing as a Music Therapy Intervention for Persons with Brocas Aphasia. ...
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The effects of Modified Melodic Intonation Therapy for a fifty-nine year old adult with severe Brocas aphasia were examined. ... The effects of Modified Melodic Intonation Therapy for a fifty-nine year old adult with severe Brocas aphasia were examined. ... Homan, K. A. (2015). A Combination of Therapeutic Techniques: Severe Brocas Aphasia [Masters thesis, Minnesota State ...
... have acquired Brocas aphasia (had anomic from first stroke). Since cant speak hardly at all, have to carry dry-erase board ... I have Brocas aphasia too. It is easier for people to understand if you call it Expressive aphasia. My speech is pretty good ... I am a two-time stroke survivor (5/16/01 and 5/11/07); only this time, have acquired Brocas aphasia (had anomic from first ... They have an aphasia support group that meets on Thursdays at 10:00am. If you have aphasia, think about joining this group - ...
Introduction: Brocas aphasia, a non-fluent aphasia, is a frustrating condition with extensive psychological, familial, and ... Experiences of having lived with Brocas aphasia: a scoping review PDF (Português (Portugal)) PDF HTML (Português (Portugal)) ... It is essential to continue investigating how people report the experience of having lived through a period of Brocas aphasia ... Objective: To map scientific evidence about the experience of people who lived through a period of Brocas aphasia. ...
Return to Article Details The Differences Between Aphasia Brocas In Adults and Children Download Download PDF ...
Gainotti G, Miceli G, Caltagirone C. Contiguity versus similarity paraphasic substitutions in Brocas and in Wernickes aphasia ... Contiguity versus similarity paraphasic substitutions in Brocas and in Wernickes aphasia. Guido Gainotti*, Gabriele Miceli, ... Contiguity versus similarity paraphasic substitutions in Brocas and in Wernickes aphasia. In: Journal of Communication ... Dive into the research topics of Contiguity versus similarity paraphasic substitutions in Brocas and in Wernickes aphasia. ...
Lesions to Brocas area alone do not result in Brocas aphasia, nor do Brocas aphasic patients necessarily have lesions in ... and the deficit in language production as Brocas aphasia, also called expressive aphasia. Brocas area is now typically ... Patients with expressive aphasia, also known as Brocas aphasia, are individuals who know "what they want to say, they just ... Dronkers NF, Shapiro JK, Redfern B, Knight RT (1992). "The role of Brocas area in Brocas aphasia". Journal of Clinical and ...
BROCAS APHASIA Br Med J 1911; 1 :845 (Published 08 April 1911) ...
Aphasia is a condition that affects language. It occurs from things like a stroke, head injury, tumor, or neurological ... Brocas aphasia. You know what you want to say and can understand others. However, speech is difficult and requires great ... https://www.aphasia.org/aphasia-resources/global-aphasia/. *. Mayo Clinic Staff. (2018). Aphasia.. https://www.mayoclinic.org/ ... Anomic aphasia. (n.d.).. https://www.aphasia.org/aphasia-resources/anomic-aphasia/. ...
Aphasia does not include (1) developmental disorders of language, often called dysphasia in the United States; (2) purely motor ... Aphasia is an acquired disorder of language due to brain damage. ... Brocas area aphasias: aphasia after lesions including the ... Classical aphasia syndromes (see Aphasia syndromes in History) include global, Broca, Wernicke, and conduction aphasia, as well ... The potential for recovery from a Wernicke aphasia due to a stroke is not as good as that for Broca aphasia, but most of these ...
1976) Brocas area and Brocas aphasia. in Studies in neurolinguistics, eds Whitaker H, Whitaker H (Academic, New York), pp 201 ... 1981) Cerebral localization of the aphasias. in Acquired aphasia, ed Sarno MT (Academic, Orlando, FL), pp 27-50. ... the linguistic deficits characterizing Brocas aphasia are associated with much larger lesions, usually involving the anterior ... named after Broca (Broca, 1861), and a posterior, "receptive" area for analysis and identification of linguistic sensory ...
Also called Brocas or motor aphasia.. non-ambulatory - not able to walk. ... motor aphasia - see non-fluent aphasia. motor control - regulation of the timing and amount of contraction of muscles of the ... sensory aphasia - see fluent aphasia.. sensory integration - interaction of two or more sensory processes in a manner that ... aphasia - loss of the ability to express oneself and/or to understand language. Caused by damage to brain cells rather than ...
2008) Generalized minimality: Syntactic underspecification in Brocas aphasia. Utrecht: LOT.. Guasti, M. T. ... 2005) Treating agrammatic aphasia within a linguistic framework: Treatment of Underlying Forms. Aphasiology, 19(10-11):1021- ... 2000) Cross-modal generalization effects of training noncanonical sentence comprehension and production in agrammatic aphasia. ... 2003) Unaccusative verb production in agrammatic aphasia: The argument structure complexity hypothesis. Journal of ...
Ive heard reports of it happening, but IS this classified as aphasia? Is it Brocas aphasia with a twist?. As the story ... Loved in the interview on NPR today when you said that those with aphasia can still say swear words.. Can ones language (in a ...
Broca aphasia: Damage to Brocas area of ​​the cerebral cortex causes severe word-finding disturbances. Speech is no longer ... Causes of aphasia. Aphasia almost always results from injury or damage to one or more areas of the brain. Several areas in the ... global aphasiaThe most severe form of aphasia has serious consequences for language formation and understanding. Spoken ... In 1983, the Aachen Aphasia test, a standardized test for determining the form and severity of aphasia, was developed in ...
2005) On Broca, brain, and binding: A new framework. Trends in Cognitive Science, 9, 416-423. ... 2014) Aphasia therapy in the age of globalization: Cross-linguistic therapy effects in bilingual aphasia. Behavioural Neurology ... 2003) Brocas area and the hierarchical organization of human behavior. Neuron, 50(6): 963-974. ... 2008) Understanding the link between bilingual aphasia and language control. Journal of Neurolinguistics, 21, 558-576. ...
Naming deficits are also an important feature of Brocas aphasia, a condition associated with post-stroke damage to the left ... The impact on the quality of life of caregivers inserted in an aphasia group environment therapy Original Article. Lima, Roxele ... Conclusion There is an important impact on the quality of life of caregivers of patients with aphasia. Further studies are ... Dificuldade em tarefas de nomeação é uma característica importante da afasia de Broca, transtorno de linguagem associado a ...
Aphasia - Etiology, pathophysiology, symptoms, signs, diagnosis & prognosis from the MSD Manuals - Medical Professional Version ... Broca aphasia Patients with Broca aphasia can comprehend and conceptualize relatively well, but their ability to form words is ... There are other types of aphasia (see table Types of Aphasia Types of Aphasia ), which may overlap considerably. No aphasia ... Types of Aphasia Aphasia is broadly divided into receptive and expressive aphasia. ...
Tono Tono: Brocas Aphasia Patient. * Plane Crash Reconstruction. * Ed Koch Reviews Star Trek. ...
Significantly greater theta and lower beta power was observed in persons with aphasia (PWAs) than controls. Finally, in PWAs ... Significantly greater theta and lower beta power was observed in persons with aphasia (PWAs) than controls. Finally, in PWAs ... Controls and persons with chronic stroke-induced aphasia completed two EEG recording sessions, separated by approximately one ... Controls and persons with chronic stroke-induced aphasia completed two EEG recording sessions, separated by approximately 1 ...
Most people have never heard about aphasia until they or someone they know are impacted personally. Here is what you need to ... What is Aphasia. *What Are the Types of Aphasia? *Anomic Aphasia. *Brocas Expressive Aphasia ... Conduction aphasia is a type of aphasia in which the main impairment is in the inability to repeat words or phrases. Other ... Conduction aphasia is considered a mild form of aphasia and is relatively rare. ...
Bilingual Patient with Brocas Aphasia: Evidence from Adverb Placement. Artemis Alexiadou and Stavroula Stavrakaki. 39-57 ( ...
Brocas region. *Lobes of the brain. *Progressive nonfluent aphasia. *Wernickes area. അവലംബം[തിരുത്തുക]. .mw-parser-output . ... ബ്രോക്കയുടെ മസ്തിഷ്കഭാഗം Brocas area or the Broca area /broʊˈkɑː//broʊˈkɑː/ or /ˈbroʊkə//ˈbroʊkə/ മനുഷ്യമസ്തിഷ്കത്തിന്റെ ... Plaza M, Gatignol P, Leroy M, Duffau H (August 2009). "Speaking without Brocas area after tumor resection". Neurocase. 15 (4 ... N. F. Dronkers; O. Plaisant; M. T. Iba-Zizen; E. A. Cabanis (2007). "Paul Brocas Historic Cases: High Resolution MR Imaging of ...
Receptive aphasia: cant understand questions-can check understanding by seeing if pt can follow commands. ... Expressive aphasia-may or may not be able to write it down. ...
Goschke, T.; Friederici, A. D.; Kotz, S. A.; van Kampen, A.: Procedural learning in Brocas aphasia: Dissociation between the ...
This is, in other words, a Broca-like aphasia, often associated with dysarthria and with hesitant, groping speech and ... Progressive nonfluent aphasia. In progressive nonfluent aphasia, speech is effortful and halting, with phoneme or speech sound ... 77] reported 19 patients with PNFA and 19 with logopenic progressive aphasia. Twelve of the 19 logopenic progressive aphasia ... Initially, PPA was divided into 2 subtypes: (1) a progressive nonfluent aphasia, and (2) fluent aphasia with anomia. More ...
  • What is Broca's Aphasia? (aphasia.org)
  • Today, we're introducting a third form of aphasia: Broca's aphasia. (aphasia.org)
  • So What is Broca's Aphasia? (aphasia.org)
  • As the video states, Broca's aphasia comes on suddenly, the result of a brain injury or stroke. (aphasia.org)
  • The video provides background information about Broca's aphasia as well as communication tips. (aphasia.org)
  • The purpose of this paper was to explore how singing interventions may be used in music therapy contexts for persons with Broca's aphasia. (concordia.ca)
  • Characteristics and issues concerning stroke, aphasia, and Broca's aphasia in particular were discussed. (concordia.ca)
  • The effects of Modified Melodic Intonation Therapy for a fifty-nine year old adult with severe Broca's aphasia were examined. (mnsu.edu)
  • A Combination of Therapeutic Techniques: Severe Broca's Aphasia [Master's thesis, Minnesota State University, Mankato]. (mnsu.edu)
  • only this time, have acquired Broca's aphasia (had anomic from first stroke). (strokeboard.net)
  • The reports of people who have already recovered or can express themselves are essential to increasing knowledge about the experience of living with Broca's aphasia. (esel.pt)
  • To map scientific evidence about the experience of people who lived through a period of Broca's aphasia. (esel.pt)
  • It is essential to continue investigating how people report the experience of having lived through a period of Broca's aphasia to improve the quality of care and people's quality of life. (esel.pt)
  • Since then, the approximate region he identified has become known as Broca's area, and the deficit in language production as Broca's aphasia, also called expressive aphasia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Understanding ambiguous words in sentence contexts: Electrophysiological evidence for delayed contextual selection in Broca's aphasia. (crossref.org)
  • Procedural learning in Broca's aphasia: Dissociation between the implicit acquisition of spatio-motor and phoneme sequences. (mpg.de)
  • People suffering from Broca's aphasia have great difficulty with repetition and a severe impairment in writing. (ucsf.edu)
  • Research has supported the use of singing in treatment of patients with nonfluent aphasia, also known as Broca's aphasia (Schlaug, Marchina, & Norton, 2008). (loyola.edu)
  • Among the most common types are Wernicke's aphasia, Broca's aphasia, global aphasia, and primary progressive aphasia (PPA). (einpresswire.com)
  • Broca's aphasia is also called non-fluent aphasia because the words uttered by the patient are totally random and not a single word can be comprehended. (bestmedicalforms.com)
  • Three adults with chronic non-fluent Broca's aphasia received RET in this prospective, repeated case study. (uky.edu)
  • Findings of this study indicate that RET improves the syntactic performance of individuals with chronic Broca's aphasia and generalizes to a task not worked on in treatment. (uky.edu)
  • That is called Broca's Aphasia," Dr. Cheever says. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Broca's Aphasia and related topics were included in a June 2017 article about the initiative in the Journal of the American Medical Association. (medlineplus.gov)
  • primary progressive aphasia and Wernicke's aphasia . (aphasia.org)
  • Hematoxylin and eosin stain of the left frontal cortex from a patient with primary progressive aphasia. (medscape.com)
  • The condition described in the North American literature as primary progressive aphasia and that described in the European literature as frontal dementia have been combined under the term frontotemporal lobe dementia (FTD) or frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). (medscape.com)
  • The nonfluent variant of primary progressive aphasia (nfvPPA) is a type of expressive aphasia. (ucsf.edu)
  • In primary progressive aphasia, the patient is initially quite well and there are no signs and symptoms of impaired speech in the beginning. (bestmedicalforms.com)
  • A most important example of primary progressive aphasia is Alzheimer's disease. (bestmedicalforms.com)
  • global aphasia The most severe form of aphasia has serious consequences for language formation and understanding. (bioprepwatch.com)
  • Severe brain injury or disease is the main cause of global aphasia. (bioprepwatch.com)
  • Others with aphasia struggle with both using words and understanding (global aphasia). (ucsf.edu)
  • If damage encompasses both Wernicke's and Broca's areas, global aphasia can occur. (ucsf.edu)
  • While people with this form of aphasia may understand everything said to them, they have difficulty finding words to express themselves or answer questions. (aphasia.org)
  • No relationship was found between type of semantic paraphasias and clinical form of aphasia. (edu.au)
  • Furthermore, irrespective of the clinical form of aphasia, aphasics tend to give more similarity substitutions than contiguity substitutions. (edu.au)
  • Conduction aphasia is considered a mild form of aphasia and is relatively rare. (aphasia.com)
  • According to the National Aphasia Association, "Aphasia can be so severe as to make communication with the patient almost impossible, or it can be very mild. (einpresswire.com)
  • In its most general form, this model proposes a frontal, "expressive" area for planning and executing speech and writing movements, named after Broca ( Broca, 1861 ), and a posterior, "receptive" area for analysis and identification of linguistic sensory stimuli, named after Wernicke ( Wernicke, 1874 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • Aphasia is broadly divided into receptive and expressive aphasia. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Expressive aphasia-may or may not be able to write it down. (brainscape.com)
  • Some people with aphasia have trouble using words and sentences (expressive aphasia). (ucsf.edu)
  • Aphasia, expressive - inability to find or formulate the words to express oneself event though knowing what one wants to say. (casperdetoledo.com)
  • One thing is after having one stroke, kind of knew what to expect from second one:) (except for the different type of aphasia that I got this time). (strokeboard.net)
  • Aphasia often comes on suddenly, due to something like a head injury or stroke . (healthline.com)
  • Aphasia develops abruptly in patients with a stroke or head injury. (medscape.com)
  • Because aphasia is most often caused by stroke, neuroimaging is required to localize and diagnose the cause of aphasia. (medscape.com)
  • Most aphasias and related disorders are due to stroke, head injury, cerebral tumors, or degenerative diseases. (medscape.com)
  • We investigated spectral resting-state EEG in persons with chronic stroke-induced aphasia to determine its reliability, sensitivity, and relationship to functional behaviors. (frontiersin.org)
  • Controls and persons with chronic stroke-induced aphasia completed two EEG recording sessions, separated by approximately 1 month, as well as behavioral assessments of language, sensorimotor, and cognitive domains. (frontiersin.org)
  • Future studies investigating the utility of these measures as biomarkers of frank or latent aphasic deficits and treatment response in chronic stroke-induced aphasia are warranted. (frontiersin.org)
  • Injury to the brain because of hemorrhage or ischemia resulting in stroke is the most common cause of aphasia. (bestmedicalforms.com)
  • First annual "STRIKE for STROKE" Stroke and Aphasia Awareness/Fundraising event at the Northampton Bowling Alley. (umass.edu)
  • Objective: Testing the efficacy of a music-based language rehabilitation program, adaptedfrom MIT in a patient with Broca?s aphasia due to stroke in the left cerebral hemisphere (LH). (bvsalud.org)
  • Read on to discover more about the different types of aphasia. (healthline.com)
  • In the chart below, we'll break down the different types of aphasia. (healthline.com)
  • Explains Baxter, "There are different types of aphasia. (einpresswire.com)
  • Patients with Wernicke aphasia speak normal words fluently, often including meaningless phonemes, but do not know their meaning or relationships. (msdmanuals.com)
  • A right visual field cut commonly accompanies Wernicke aphasia because the visual pathway is near the affected area. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Nonfluent aphasia. (healthline.com)
  • The progressive aphasias have been divided into 3 groups: progressive nonfluent aphasia, semantic dementia, and logopenic progressive aphasia. (medscape.com)
  • do individuals with nonfluent aphasia who are formally trained in singing benefit more from MIT than those who are not musically inclined? (loyola.edu)
  • Language processing has been linked to Broca's area since Pierre Paul Broca reported impairments in two patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Jay V. Pierre Paul Broca. (medscape.com)
  • Like Wernicke's aphasia, your sentences may have no obvious meaning. (healthline.com)
  • However, a person with conduction aphasia may be unable to repeat words, phrases, or sentences. (aphasia.com)
  • A person with mild conduction aphasia might be able to repeat words and short phrases but have difficulty with long or complex sentences. (aphasia.com)
  • This is the most severe aphasia. (healthline.com)
  • Someone with severe conduction aphasia might be unable to repeat short phrases or even single words. (aphasia.com)
  • This longitudinal study will provide intensive speech therapy for 24 individuals with chronic moderate-to-severe aphasia, while measuring changes in language, brain activation, and quality of life. (umass.edu)
  • Receptive aphasia: cant understand questions-can check understanding by seeing if pt can follow commands. (brainscape.com)
  • Some have problems understanding others (receptive aphasia). (ucsf.edu)
  • Non-linguistic transformation processing in agrammatic aphasia. (bvsalud.org)
  • Conduction aphasia is a type of aphasia in which the main impairment is in the inability to repeat words or phrases. (aphasia.com)
  • A person with conduction aphasia can usually read, write, speak, and understand spoken messages. (aphasia.com)
  • People with conduction aphasia are typically aware of their errors, but have a hard time correcting them. (aphasia.com)
  • People with conduction aphasia can use strategies like writing information down instead of repeating it. (aphasia.com)
  • But unlike Wernicke's aphasia, you're able to repeat things, although echolalia may occur in some cases. (healthline.com)
  • In Wernicke's aphasia, the patient's speech is not impaired but his ability to understand the speech of other people is impaired. (bestmedicalforms.com)
  • Closely related to aphasia are the family of disorders called apraxias (disorders of learned or skilled movements), agnosias (disorders of recognition), acalculias (disorders of calculation ability), and more global neurobehavioral deficits such as dementia and delirium . (medscape.com)
  • In 1982, Mesulam reported 6 patients with progressive aphasia, gradually worsening over a number of years, who did not develop a more generalized dementia. (medscape.com)
  • Subsequently, the PPA syndrome was defined as a disorder limited to progressive aphasia, without general cognitive impairment or dementia, over a 2-year period. (medscape.com)
  • In recent years, the term frontotemporal dementia has become an umbrella term referring to clinical syndromes of frontal dementia or progressive aphasia. (medscape.com)
  • Covering an array of evidence-based content, including aphasia, traumatic brain injury, dementia, and language in aging, Aphasia and Other Acquired Neurogenic Language Disorders: A Guide for Clinical Excellence, Second Edition is a must-have textbook for clinicians and students studying to be speech-language pathologists. (pluralpublishing.com)
  • Patients with neurodegenerative diseases or mass lesions may develop aphasia insidiously. (medscape.com)
  • This type of aphasia is mainly to the neurodegenerative reasons in which the brain tissue is gradually affected resulting in impaired speech along with other signs and symptoms. (bestmedicalforms.com)
  • Aphasia is distinct from developmental disorders of language and from dysfunction of the motor pathways and muscles that produce speech (dysarthria). (msdmanuals.com)
  • Although bedside examination can usually reveal the type of aphasia, formal cognitive testing by a neuropsychologist or speech/language therapist may be important to determine fine levels of dysfunction, to plan therapy, and to assess the patient's potential for recovery. (medscape.com)
  • Though MIT has been supported as a preferred method for increasing fluency in those with aphasia, it remains unclear if the patient's previous musical ability is a factor in the success of this technique. (loyola.edu)
  • Objetivo: Testar a eficácia terapêutica de um programa de reabilitação de linguagem através da música, com base na TEM, numa paciente com diagnóstico de afasia de Broca pós Acidente Vascular Cerebral (AVC) no hemisfério esquerdo (HE). (bvsalud.org)
  • Participante: sexo feminino (G.), destra, 46 anos de idade, pós AVC isquêmico há aproximadamente cinco anos com consequente afasia de Broca. (bvsalud.org)
  • Desta forma, pode-se concluir que a TEM semostrou eficaz para um caso de afasia de Broca. (bvsalud.org)
  • Aphasia is an impairment of language caused by damage to the areas of the brain responsible for expression and comprehension. (einpresswire.com)
  • Studies of chronic aphasia have implicated an essential role of Broca's area in various speech and language functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aphasia is a condition that affects language. (healthline.com)
  • Speech-language therapy is the mainstay treatment for aphasia. (healthline.com)
  • Aphasia is an acquired disorder of language due to brain damage. (medscape.com)
  • Careful assessment of language function with an evaluation of neighborhood signs is important in the diagnosis of the localization and cause of aphasia. (medscape.com)
  • Speech and language therapy is the mainstay of care for patients with aphasia. (medscape.com)
  • Language-related functions were among the first to be ascribed a specific location in the human brain ( Broca, 1861 ) and have been the subject of intense research for well over a century. (jneurosci.org)
  • aphasia - loss of the ability to express oneself and/or to understand language. (brainline.org)
  • aphasia abnormality Disruption in the language centers causes, above all, difficulties in searching for words. (bioprepwatch.com)
  • While Complexity Theory claims that there is no stability whatsoever, I will argue that there are moments in the life of a language user when language systems are specifically prone to change and discuss three such cases: changes in language use patterns leading to language attrition, adding a new language to the language system, and adaptation to acquired language disorders such as aphasia. (benjamins.com)
  • Aphasia is language dysfunction that may involve impaired comprehension or expression of words or nonverbal equivalents of words. (msdmanuals.com)
  • For example, investigations of language in persons with aphasia (PWAs) often require participants to name pictures or match pictures to a word while undergoing fMRI. (frontiersin.org)
  • Aphasia is the term used to describe an acquired loss of language that causes problems with any or all of the following: speaking, listening, reading and writing. (ucsf.edu)
  • Aphasia can cause problems with spoken language (talking and understanding) and written language (reading and writing). (ucsf.edu)
  • This second edition provides an extremely wide knowledge base in the area of aphasia and other acquired neurogenic language disorders. (pluralpublishing.com)
  • Aphasia - difficulty understanding and/or producing spoken and written language. (casperdetoledo.com)
  • Aphasia, fluent - characterized by spontaneous use of language at normal speed that conveys little meaning. (casperdetoledo.com)
  • Aphasia often results from damage to certain areas on the left side of the brain where language is produced. (einpresswire.com)
  • In aphasia, the language and speaking skills of a person are affected to a level that it becomes difficult for the listener at times to understand what the other person is saying. (bestmedicalforms.com)
  • Kelly Johnson and Julia Parker, 2nd year graduate students in Speech Language Pathology and research assistants in the BRoCA lab, were awarded travel fellowships to attend a 2-day training workshop on coding, transcription, analysis and scoring of aphasic discourse at Carnegie Mellon University. (umass.edu)
  • The treatment of a patient with aphasia depends on the cause of the aphasia syndrome. (medscape.com)
  • As time passes, the patient starts showing signs of aphasia and his speech begins to get blurred and difficult to understand. (bestmedicalforms.com)
  • The aphasia wallet card is always put in a patient with aphasia to avoid any unwanted situation. (bestmedicalforms.com)
  • For over two million adults living with aphasia in the United States, effective neurorehabilitation will be critical to successful return to everyday life pursuits. (frontiersin.org)
  • Taken together, these results suggest that spectral resting-state EEG holds promise for sensitive measurement of functioning and change in persons with chronic aphasia. (frontiersin.org)
  • Jacquie Kurland (PI), Director of the Brain Research on Chronic Aphasia (BRoCA) Lab, was awarded a 5-year, $1.757 million grant from the National Institute for Deafness and other Communication Disorders/National Institutes of Health (NIDCD/NIH) to investigate treatment-induced neuroplasticity in chronic aphasia. (umass.edu)
  • While Willis and his family are to be applauded for bringing aphasia into the light-it's the first time many had heard of it-most people are still unclear about what aphasia is, its effects, and the best ways of dealing with it. (einpresswire.com)
  • Anomia (the inability to name objects) usually occurs in all forms of aphasia. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Broca's area, or the Broca area (/ˈbroʊkə/, also UK: /ˈbrɒkə/, US: /ˈbroʊkɑː/), is a region in the frontal lobe of the dominant hemisphere, usually the left, of the brain with functions linked to speech production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aphasia may occur secondary to brain injury or degeneration and involves the left cerebral hemisphere to a greater extent than the right. (medscape.com)
  • Left-handed individuals may develop aphasia after a lesion of either hemisphere, but the syndromes from left hemisphere injury may be milder or more selective than those seen in right-handed people, and they may recover better. (medscape.com)
  • Describing the types of deficits is often the most precise way to describe a particular aphasia. (msdmanuals.com)
  • LOS ANGELES, CA, UNITED STATES, June 21, 2022 / EINPresswire.com / -- June is Aphasia Awareness Month, an ideal time to shed some light on this little-known condition, which has been in the news lately due to Bruce Willis. (einpresswire.com)
  • As we said at the end of our Aphasia Awareness Month video , we could all use more understanding in this world. (aphasia.org)
  • It is due to a disorder that affects the dominant left frontal or frontoparietal area, including the Broca area. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Three independent judges, blind to aphasia type, classified all responses retained as semantic substitutions into one of the following four categories: those having 1) a strong similarity, 2) a strong contiguity, 3) a mild similarity, and 4) a mild contiguity relation to the correct word. (edu.au)
  • In 1983, the Aachen Aphasia test, a standardized test for determining the form and severity of aphasia, was developed in Germany. (bioprepwatch.com)
  • The severity of the aphasia depends on the amount and location of the damage to the brain. (ucsf.edu)
  • Aphasia almost always results from injury or damage to one or more areas of the brain. (bioprepwatch.com)
  • While Bruce Willis' family has not disclosed the cause of his aphasia, according to the Mayo Clinic, the condition can also gradually occur "from a slow-growing brain tumor or a disease that causes progressive, permanent damage. (einpresswire.com)
  • Damage to Broca's area because of any reason may result in aphasia. (bestmedicalforms.com)
  • Encompassed under the term aphasia are selective, acquired disorders of reading (alexia) or writing (agraphia). (medscape.com)
  • There are two different categories of aphasia and different conditions associated with each type. (healthline.com)
  • Regardless of the type of aphasia, there is really no cure for it once someone develops it, but treatments can significantly enhance patients' ability to communicate and live their lives to the fullest. (einpresswire.com)
  • Medication isn't typically effective in treating aphasia. (healthline.com)
  • Aphasia, subclinical - refers to evidence of impaired linguistic processing on testing, which is not obvious in casual interactions with the person. (casperdetoledo.com)
  • People who have aphasia can have trouble with things like speaking, reading, or listening. (healthline.com)
  • Research estimates about 1 million people in the United States are living with aphasia. (healthline.com)
  • Sometimes, people who are suffering from aphasia are also not able to write properly. (bestmedicalforms.com)
  • However, some types of drugs, such as piracetam and memantine , are currently being studied to assess their efficacy in treating aphasia. (healthline.com)
  • There are many types of aphasia especially depending on the underlying cause and the area damaged in the brain. (bestmedicalforms.com)