Aphanomyces: A genus of OOMYCETES in the family Saprolegniaceae. It causes root rot in plants and is also a pathogen of FISHES.Oomycetes: Eukaryotes in the group STRAMENOPILES, formerly considered FUNGI, whose exact taxonomic level is unsettled. Many consider Oomycetes (Oomycota) a phylum in the kingdom Stramenopila, or alternatively, as Pseudofungi in the phylum Heterokonta of the kingdom Chromista. They are morphologically similar to fungi but have no close phylogenetic relationship to them. Oomycetes are found in both fresh and salt water as well as in terrestrial environments. (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, pp683-4). They produce flagellated, actively motile spores (zoospores) that are pathogenic to many crop plants and FISHES.Celosia: A plant genus of the family AMARANTHACEAE. Young leaves are used as vegetables in Asia. Members contain betacyanins, celogentins, betaxanthin, and celosian.Astacoidea: A superfamily of various freshwater CRUSTACEA, in the infraorder Astacidea, comprising the crayfish. Common genera include Astacus and Procambarus. Crayfish resemble lobsters, but are usually much smaller.Plant Root Cap: A cone-shaped structure in plants made up of a mass of meristematic cells that covers and protects the tip of a growing root. It is the putative site of gravity sensing in plant roots.DNA, Algal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of algae.Methenamine: An anti-infective agent most commonly used in the treatment of urinary tract infections. Its anti-infective action derives from the slow release of formaldehyde by hydrolysis at acidic pH. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p173)Spores, Fungal: Reproductive bodies produced by fungi.Peas: A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)Fish Diseases: Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.CapZ Actin Capping Protein: An actin capping protein that binds to the barbed-ends of ACTIN filaments. It is a heterodimer consisting of an alpha and a beta subunit. It regulates actin assembly by stabilizing actin oligomers for elongation. In SKELETAL MUSCLE, CapZ is localized to the Z-disk.Gelsolin: A 90-kDa protein produced by macrophages that severs ACTIN filaments and forms a cap on the newly exposed filament end. Gelsolin is activated by CALCIUM ions and participates in the assembly and disassembly of actin, thereby increasing the motility of some CELLS.Actins: Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.Destrin: A member of the actin depolymerizing factors. Its depolymerizing activity is independent of HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION.Serratia liquefaciens: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus SERRATIA found in plants and the DIGESTIVE TRACT of rodents. It is the most prevalent Serratia species in the natural environment.Cadmium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of cadmium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cd atoms with atomic weights 103-105, 107, 109, 115, and 117-119 are radioactive cadmium isotopes.France: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.Phytoplasma: A genus of minute bacteria in the family ACHOLEPLASMATACEAE that inhabit phloem sieve elements of infected PLANTS and cause symptoms such as yellowing, phyllody, and witches' brooms. Organisms lack a CELL WALL and thus are similar to MYCOPLASMA in animals. They are transmitted by over 100 species of INSECTS especially leafhoppers, planthoppers, and PSYLLIDS.Plant Pathology: The study of infectious diseases associated with plants.Acholeplasmataceae: Gram-negative organisms including apparently free-living saphrophytes as well as mammalian and avian parasites, and possibly pathogens.Peracetic Acid: A liquid that functions as a strong oxidizing agent. It has an acrid odor and is used as a disinfectant.Disinfectants: Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Sodium Hypochlorite: It is used as an oxidizing and bleaching agent and as a disinfectant. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Oxolinic Acid: Synthetic antimicrobial related to NALIDIXIC ACID and used in URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS.Saprolegnia: A genus of OOMYCETES in the family Saprolegniaceae. It is a parasite and pathogen of freshwater FISHES.N-Acetylglucosaminyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of N-acetylglucosamine from a nucleoside diphosphate N-acetylglucosamine to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Uridine Diphosphate N-Acetylglucosamine: Serves as the biological precursor of insect chitin, of muramic acid in bacterial cell walls, and of sialic acids in mammalian glycoproteins.Chitin Synthase: An enzyme that converts UDP glucosamine into chitin and UDP. EC 2.4.1.16.Glucosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Poecilia: A genus of livebearing cyprinodont fish comprising the guppy and molly. Some species are virtually all female and depend on sperm from other species to stimulate egg development. Poecilia is used in carcinogenicity studies as well as neurologic and physiologic research.Cyprinodontiformes: An order of fish with eight families and numerous species of both egg-laying and livebearing fish. Families include Cyprinodontidae (egg-laying KILLIFISHES;), FUNDULIDAEl; (topminnows), Goodeidae (Mexican livebearers), Jenynsiidae (jenynsiids), Poeciliidae (livebearers), Profundulidae (Middle American killifishes), Aplocheilidae, and Rivulidae (rivulines). In the family Poeciliidae, the guppy and molly belong to the genus POECILIA.Caves: Geological formations consisting of underground enclosures with access from the surface.Characidae: A family of fresh water fish in the order CHARACIFORMES, which includes the Tetras.MinnesotaCivilization: The distinctly human attributes and attainments of a particular society.History, Ancient: The period of history before 500 of the common era.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Virgibacillus: A genus of GRAM-POSITIVE ENDOSPORE-FORMING RODS in the family BACILLACEAE. They have been isolated from salty environments, food, water, and clinical specimens.Color: The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Pythium: A genus of destructive root-parasitic OOMYCETES in the family Pythiaceae, order Peronosporales, commonly found in cultivated soils all over the world. Differentiation of zoospores takes place in a vesicle.Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Fatigue: The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Systems Integration: The procedures involved in combining separately developed modules, components, or subsystems so that they work together as a complete system. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Proteome: The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.

Factors influencing the sporulation and cyst formation of Aphanomyces invadans, etiological agent of ulcerative mycosis in Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus. (1/22)

Oomycete infections caused by Aphanomyces invadans occur in freshwater and estuarine fishes around the world. Along the east coast of the USA, skin ulcers caused by A. invadans are prevalent in Atlantic menhaden, Brevoortia tyrannus. From laboratory observations low salinities appear crucial to transmission of the pathogen. To better understand aspects of transmission, we characterized sporulation and cyst formation of secondary zoospores of two isolates of A. invadans at different salinities and temperatures. Sporulation occurred only at low salinities. At room temperature (ca. 20-22 C), using "pond water" augmented with artificial sea salts, the endemic strain WIC and the Thailand strain PA7 of A. invadans produced free-swimming secondary zoospores at salinities of 0, 1 and 2 psu (practical salinity unit = per thousand), but not at 4 psu or higher. Secondary zoospores of another species, ATCC-62427 (Aphanomyces sp.), were observed at 1, 2, 4 and 8 psu but not at 0 and 12 psu. Secondary zoospores of all three isolates, especially WIC, were abundant and motile 1-2 d postsporulation. Sporulation was temperature dependent and occurred over a relatively narrow range. No sporulation occurred at 4, 30 or 35 C for either WIC or PA7. For both strains zoospore production within 1-3 d after the initiation of sporulation was more prolific at 25 C than at 20 and 15 C. At 15 C production of zoospores was sustained over 11 d for WIC and 5 d for PA7. At room temperature single WIC secondary zoospores remained motile 12-18 h. Salinities exceeding 4 psu or vigorous shaking caused immediate cyst formation of WIC secondary zoospores. Exposure to menhaden tissue, but not tissues of other fishes to secondary zoospores (WIC), caused rapid (2 h) cyst formation. Cysts were capable of excysting when transferred to 1 psu water within 2-3 h of cyst formation. Cysts that had remained encysted in 6.5 psu for 24 h did not excyst when transferred to 1 psu water. Salinity and temperature requirements for sporulation indicate that juvenile menhaden must acquire infections during rain or in low salinity oligohaline waters.  (+info)

Molecular assays for detecting Aphanomyces invadans in ulcerative mycotic fish lesions. (2/22)

The pathogenic oomycete Aphanomyces invadans is the primary etiological agent in ulcerative mycosis, an ulcerative skin disease caused by a fungus-like agent of wild and cultured fish. We developed sensitive PCR and fluorescent peptide nucleic acid in situ hybridization (FISH) assays to detect A. invadans. Laboratory-challenged killifish (Fundulus heteroclitus) were first tested to optimize and validate the assays. Skin ulcers of Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) from populations found in the Pamlico and Neuse River estuaries in North Carolina were then surveyed. Results from both assays indicated that all of the lesioned menhaden (n = 50) collected in September 2004 were positive for A. invadans. Neither the FISH assay nor the PCR assay cross-reacted with other closely related oomycetes. These results provided strong evidence that A. invadans is the primary oomycete pathogen in ulcerative mycosis and demonstrated the utility of the assays. The FISH assay is the first molecular assay to provide unambiguous visual confirmation that hyphae in the ulcerated lesions were exclusively A. invadans.  (+info)

Phenolic constituents of Celosia cristata L. susceptible to spinach root rot pathogen Aphanomyces cochlioides. (3/22)

Cochliophilin A (5-hydroxy-6,7-methylenedioxyflavone, 1), known as a host-specific attractant towards the zoospores of Aphanomyces cochlioides, a cause of root rot and damping-off diseases of Chenopodiaceae, was found in the Amaranthaceae plant, Celosia cristata, that is susceptible to the pathogen. The content of 1 in Celosia seedlings was quantified as 1.4 microg/g fresh weight. A new isoflavone, cristatein (5-hydroxy-6-hydroxymethyl-7,2'-dimethoxyisoflavone, 2), and five known flavonoids were also identified.  (+info)

Detection of Aphanomyces astaci in North American crayfish by polymerase chain reaction. (4/22)

We present a PCR based method to detect Aphanomyces astaci in North American crayfish. Primers were designed to specifically amplify parts of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions and the 5.8 rRNA gene of A. astaci. A single round and a semi-nested assay were tested for their sensitivity and specificity. Specificity of the PCR assays was tested against several closely related Aphanomyces species, other Oomycetes and some non-A. astaci DNA that might be found in or on crayfish. The single round assay was fully specific against all DNA tested. In the semi-nested assay, cross-reaction was seen when the equivalent of 40,000 or more genomic units of A. invadans or A. frigidophilus were entered into the PCR reaction. The lower detection limit of both assays lies around 1 genomic unit of A. astaci. Investigation of various parts of the exoskeleton of 3 North American crayfish species revealed that for O. limosus and P. leniusculus the telson and soft abdominal cuticle yielded a positive PCR reaction most frequently. For the third species, Procambarus clarkii, only 1 individual tested positive, so no conclusion as to preferred infestation site(s) could be drawn.  (+info)

AphanoDB: a genomic resource for Aphanomyces pathogens. (5/22)

BACKGROUND: The Oomycete genus Aphanomyces comprises devastating plant and animal pathogens. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying pathogenicity of Aphanomyces species. In this study, we report on the development of a public database called AphanoDB which is dedicated to Aphanomyces genomic data. As a first step, a large collection of Expressed Sequence Tags was obtained from the legume pathogen A. euteiches, which was then processed and collected into AphanoDB. DESCRIPTION: Two cDNA libraries of A. euteiches were created: one from mycelium growing on synthetic medium and one from mycelium grown in contact to root tissues of the model legume Medicago truncatula. From these libraries, 18,684 expressed sequence tags were obtained and assembled into 7,977 unigenes which were compared to public databases for annotation. Queries on AphanoDB allow the users to retrieve information for each unigene including similarity to known protein sequences, protein domains and Gene Ontology classification. Statistical analysis of EST frequency from the two different growth conditions was also added to the database. CONCLUSION: AphanoDB is a public database with a user-friendly web interface. The sequence report pages are the main web interface which provides all annotation details for each unigene. These interactive sequence report pages are easily available through text, BLAST, Gene Ontology and expression profile search utilities. AphanoDB is available from URL: http://www.polebio.scsv.ups-tlse.fr/aphano/.  (+info)

Transcriptome of Aphanomyces euteiches: new oomycete putative pathogenicity factors and metabolic pathways. (6/22)

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Cell wall chitosaccharides are essential components and exposed patterns of the phytopathogenic oomycete Aphanomyces euteiches. (7/22)

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No rosetta stone for a sense-antisense origin of aminoacyl tRNA synthetase classes. (8/22)

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Aphanomyces euteiches is an oomycete pathogen with a broad host-range on legumes that causes devastating root rot disease in many pea-growing countries and especially in France. Genetic resistance is a promising way to manage the disease since consistent QTL controlling partial resistance have been identified in near isogenic lines of pea. However, there are still no resistant pea varieties cultivated in France. This study aimed to evaluate the phenotypic and genetic diversity of A. euteiches populations from the major pea-growing regions in France. A collection of 205 isolates, from soil samples collected in infested pea fields located in five French regions, was established and genotyped using 20 SSR markers. Thirteen multilocus genotypes were found among the 205 isolates which displayed a low genotypic richness (ranged from 0 to 0.333). Two main clusters of isolates were identified using PCoA and STRUCTURE, including a predominant group comprising 88% of isolates and another group representing 12% of
Aphanomyces were initially known as parasites of plants, small invertebrates and crustaceans. Probably the first case reported of fish being infected by Aphanomyces species was from guppy (Poecilia reticulata), Maxican blind cave (Astyanax mexicanus), a hybrid of platy (Platypoecilus maculatus) and swordtail (Xiphophorus hellerii) [26]. Aphanomyces, along with other oomycetes, e.g. Saprolegnia species have caused severe losses to aquaculture industry till to-date. From an evolutionary point of view it seems that the pathogenesis of plant oomycetes is mediated by effectors, while host invasion by animal pathogenic oomycetes is facilitated by expansion of proteases [24]. Many infectious microorganisms require proteases for replication or use proteases as virulence factors to cross proteinaceous barrier within the host. Proteases secreted by the fish oomycete Saprolegnia parasitica are suggested to be involved in attacking the host tissue and paving the way for further penetration of the fungus ...
Fifty-four isolates of various fish-pathogenic and saprophytic fungi were characterized in terms of their susceptibility to three antibiotics (penicillin, streptomycin and oxolinic acid), three fungicides (malachite green, hydrogen peroxide and sodium chloride) and three disinfectants (an iodophore, sodium hypochlorite and a solution of peracetic acid and hydrogen peroxide). Aphanomyces invaderis, the fungus associated with the Asian fish disease epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS); other Aphanomyces isolates from the similar conditions redspot disease (RSD) and mycotic granulomatosis (MG); and the crayfish plague fungus, Aphanomyces astaci, were more sensitive to most of the chemical agents than the other fungi tested. Two compounds currently being considered for use in aquaculture, hydrogen peroxide and Proxitane 0510, are shown here to have some potential for fungicidal treatments and disinfection, respectively. The implications of this study with respect to the isolation, treatment and ...
New Disease-Causing Organisms in Alfalfa: Aphanomyces Euteiches Race 2 and Phytoplasma by R.D. Peters and C.R. Grau Department of Plant Pathology Unive
Some oomycetes species are severe pathogens of fish or crops. As such, they are responsible for important losses in the aquaculture industry as well as in agriculture. Saprolegnia parasitica is a major concern in aquaculture as there is currently no method available for controlling the diseases caused by this microorganism. The cell wall is an extracellular matrix composed essentially of polysaccharides, whose integrity is required for oomycete viability. Thus, the enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of cell wall components, such as cellulose and chitin synthases, represent ideal targets for disease control. However, the biochemical properties of these enzymes are poorly understood, which limits our capacity to develop specific inhibitors that can be used for blocking the growth of pathogenic oomycetes.. In our work, we have used Saprolegnia monoica as a model species for oomycetes to characterize two types of domains that occur specifically in oomycete carbohydrate synthases: the Pleckstrin ...
Aphanomyces invadans is a highly pathogenic oomycete fungi which infects the Atlantic menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus and many other species of fish from around the world. This water mould has been implicated in massive fish kills in North Carolina, resulting in hundreds of thousands of dead fish. On average, an infection resulting from less than 10 zoospores (the infective stage of this fungi) is enough to kill a fish, and even infection by just a single zoospore can result in ulcerous lesions that can lead to mortality. Fish infected with the fungi develops ulcerous lesions which ultimately lead to extensive tissue necrosis. This fungus develops extremely quicky, doubling its hyphal mass every ten days, and it is also highly invasive, extending its hyphae into various tissues including the liver, kidneys and spinal cord of the fish host. Interestingly, A. invadans outbreaks are associated with high rainfall. This is likely due to the fact that this water mould has a low salinity tolerance and ...
Citation: GRUNWALD, N.J., COYNE, C.J. (Eds.) 2003. PROCEEDINGS OF THE SECOND INTERNATIONAL APHANOMYCES WORKSHOP. UNITED STATE DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE-AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE, PROSSER, WA. 112 pp. Interpretive Summary: Aphanomyces is an economically important genus of Oomycete pathogens that affect a wide range of hosts including crops such as alfalfa, bean, lentil, pea and sugarbeet. This proceeding summarizes scientific contributions from a recently held workshop on the genus Aphanomyces that emphasized the importance of these pathogens on legumes and sugarbeet. The Second International Aphanomyces Workshop was held in Pasco, WA, on June 17 and 18, 2003. This workshop included scientists from private industry, university, government, and international institutions. This proceeding covers two important Aphanomyces species, namely A. euteiches and A. coccineus, that cause disease on several hosts such as alfalfa, bean, pea and sugarbeet. The workshop covered a broad range of subject ...
EN ISO 10273 method for the detection of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in foods was validated in the project Mandate M/381 funded by European Commission. A total of 14 laboratories from five European countries participated in the interlaboratory study (ILS) organized during 2013 and 2014. Before the ILS, the method was revised by an international group of experts and the performance of the revised method was assessed in an ILS study. The results are published as a part of the standard EN ISO 10273 revision. The study included three rounds with different sample types; raw milk, iceberg lettuce and minced meat, inoculated with a low and high level of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica strains representing major pathogenic bioserotypes 4/O:3 and 2/O:9. The homogeneity and stability of the samples were verified before dispatching them to the laboratories. The results demonstrated the method sensitivity of 96% in raw milk, 97% in minced meat, and 98% in lettuce at high inoculation level of pathogenic ...
Recent studies on the root proteome of Medicago truncatula (Gaertn.) showed an induction of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins of the class 10 after infection with the oomycete pathogen Aphanomyces euteiches (Drechs.). To get insights into the function of these proteins during the parasitic root-microbe association, a gene knockdown approach using RNAi was carried out. Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation of M. truncatula roots led to a knockdown of the Medicago PR10-1 gene in transgenic in vitro root cultures. Proteomic analyses of the MtPr10-1i root cultures showed that MtPr10-1 was efficiently knocked down in two MtPr10-1i lines. Moreover, five additional PR-10-type proteins annotated as abscisic acid responsive proteins (ABR17s) revealed also an almost complete silencing in these two lines. Inoculation of the root cultures with the oomycete root pathogen A. euteiches resulted in a clearly reduced colonization and thus in a suppressed infection development in MtPr10-1i roots as ...
F-actin-capping proteins bind in a Ca(2+)-independent manner to the fast growing ends of actin filaments (barbed end) thereby blocking the exchange of subunits at these ends. Unlike other capping proteins (such as gelsolin and severin), these proteins do not sever actin filaments.
Rasmus did his Masters and Ph.D. at the University of Copenhagen where he worked with arbuscular mycorrhizae and the pea root pathogen Aphanomyces euteiches. He spent his time in the Bruns Lab studying the population genetics of ectomycorhizal fungi and, in particular, of the genus Rhizopogon ...
What is Aphanomyces root rot of alfalfa? Aphanomyces root rot (ARR) is a serious disease of both recently seeded alfalfa and established alfalfa stands. ARR can cause severe yield reductions in affected alfalfa fields. Variations of the disease also occur on many other legumes (including soybean, snap bean, faba bean, red kidney bean, pea, red clover, and white clover) and can cause significant losses in these crops as well.. What does Aphanomyces root rot look like? Typically alfalfa emergence is not dramatically affected by the ARR, but symptoms appear shortly after seedlings emerge. Young plants appear stunted and yellow and may eventually die. The root systems of affected seedlings are smaller than normal and what roots remain, appear gray and water-soaked. Older alfalfa plants suffering from ARR also tend to be stunted and yellow. They may have a well-developed tap root, but typically relatively few smaller, fine roots. Oftentimes growers realize they have a problem with ARR when they ...
ID W4GEB6_9STRA Unreviewed; 602 AA. AC W4GEB6; DT 19-MAR-2014, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 19-MAR-2014, sequence version 1. DT 22-NOV-2017, entry version 22. DE SubName: Full=CAMKK protein kinase, variant {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ETV77591.1}; GN ORFNames=H257_08507 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ETV77591.1}; OS Aphanomyces astaci. OC Eukaryota; Stramenopiles; Oomycetes; Saprolegniales; Saprolegniaceae; OC Aphanomyces. OX NCBI_TaxID=112090 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ETV77591.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000019040}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ETV77591.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000019040} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=APO3 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ETV77591.1, RC ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000019040}; RG The Broad Institute Genomics Platform; RA Russ C., Tyler B., van West P., Dieguez-Uribeondo J., Young S.K., RA Zeng Q., Gargeya S., Fitzgerald M., Abouelleil A., Alvarado L., RA Chapman S.B., Gainer-Dewar J., Goldberg J., Griggs A., Gujja S., RA Hansen M., Howarth C., Imamovic A., Ireland A., Larimer ...
ID W4GKT2_9STRA Unreviewed; 2504 AA. AC W4GKT2; DT 19-MAR-2014, integrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL. DT 19-MAR-2014, sequence version 1. DT 25-OCT-2017, entry version 20. DE SubName: Full=Uncharacterized protein {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ETV80282.1}; GN ORFNames=H257_06619 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ETV80282.1}; OS Aphanomyces astaci. OC Eukaryota; Stramenopiles; Oomycetes; Saprolegniales; Saprolegniaceae; OC Aphanomyces. OX NCBI_TaxID=112090 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ETV80282.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000019040}; RN [1] {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ETV80282.1, ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000019040} RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA]. RC STRAIN=APO3 {ECO:0000313,EMBL:ETV80282.1, RC ECO:0000313,Proteomes:UP000019040}; RG The Broad Institute Genomics Platform; RA Russ C., Tyler B., van West P., Dieguez-Uribeondo J., Young S.K., RA Zeng Q., Gargeya S., Fitzgerald M., Abouelleil A., Alvarado L., RA Chapman S.B., Gainer-Dewar J., Goldberg J., Griggs A., Gujja S., RA Hansen M., Howarth C., Imamovic A., Ireland A., Larimer J., RA ...
Bubb, DH, Lucas, MC & Thom, TJ (2002). Winter movements and activity of signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus in an upland river, determined by radio telemetry. Hydrobiologia 483(1-3): 111-119. ...
Two alfalfa clones have been identified that differ in resistance to lodging. The lodging susceptible and lodging resistant clones and the F1 resulting from this cross was crossed with each parent to produce two different backcross populations. Replicated clones of each parent, F1 and backcross plants will be produced in the greenhouse. The replicated clones will be transplanted into three different field locations, two in WA and one in WI. DNA from the parents, F1 and BC1s will be screened for the presence of sequence related amplified polymorphisms (SRAPs) using protocols optimized for amplifying SRAP markers from alfalfa. Resistant and susceptible bulk DNA extracts will be subjected to bulk segregant analysis with SRAP primers to identify candidate polymorphic loci associated with resistance to lodging. Candidate markers will be clustered into a linkage group map. Molecular markers will be developed that discriminate unambiguously between Race 1 and Race 2 of Aphanomyces euteiches that cause ...
The plague could arrive with crayfish, fish, or contaminated water from infected areas. It could hitchhike on equipment (such as nets, boots, ropes, clothing, or fishing gear).. MPI has strict measures in place to limit the chances of crayfish plague making it through the border. ...
BioSafe Disease Control Ready-to-Spray is OMRI Listed, EPA registered and meets NOP Standards.This product uses the rapid oxidative property of peroxygen to eliminate bacteria and fungi on contact!Safe to use repeatedly on a variety of crops. Does not cultivate resistance. Does not leave visible residues or odor. Use as an alternative to copper-based products.Excellent for cleaning and disinfecting surfaces, tools, water filters and any outdoor equipment. Safe and effective in both hydroponic and aquaponic growing systems.One ready-to-spray bottle covers up to 12,000 sq. ft. Target Diseases: BioSafe Disease Control Ready-to-Spray is a preventive and curative treatment against plant pathogens and diseases such as Alternaria, Anthracnose, Aphanomyces, Bacterial Spot, Bacterial Speck, Black Spot, Botrytis (grey mold), Brown Spot, Downy Mildew, Erwinia, Fusarium (root rot), Leaf Spot, Phytophthora, Plasmopara, Powdery Mildew, Pseudomonas, Pythium, Rhizoctonia, Rust, Scab, Smut, and Thielaviopsis.
Aphanomyces astaci spreads by means of motile zoospores released from the mature filaments in infected crayfish. The zoospores are attracted to crayfish cuticle, and filaments penetrate immediately. Zoospores can remain motile for up to 3 days and cysts survive for 2 weeks (in distilled water).4 Zoospores can re-encyst three times if they do not encounter a host. It is recommended to wait three months before attempting to re-stock waters in which crayfish have been killed by crayfish plague to allow all zoospores to die out.. Historically, crayfish plague spread to Europe with infected American crayfish brought and then distributed for culture and fishery purposes. The American crayfish are tolerant of infection and can remain carriers for life. Crayfish plague is also spread via contaminated fishing equipment or zoospores in water.5. American crayfish, including red swamp crawfish (Procambarus clarkii) and signal crayfish (Pacifastacus leniusculus), can carry crayfish plague and may exhibit ...
Abstract Intra- and inter-specific competition for shelter, in relation to prior residence, sex differences, and body-size effects, was studied in the laboratory to assess the potential impact of the alien crayfish species Pacifastacus leniusculus on the endangered Japanese endemic crayfish species Cambaroides japonicus. The resident was placed in an aquarium, which contained a single shelter of preferred size for both C. japonicus and P. leniusculus. After 24 h, the intruder was introduced into the aquarium. In the experiments using different sex pairs of crayfish of approximately equal size, male residents had a significant prior residence effect against female intruders in both crayfish species in the intraspecific contests. However, residents of P. leniusculus dominated C. japonicus regardless of the sex in interspecific contests. In experiments using male crayfish pairs of different sizes, larger individuals had more successful possessions of the shelter against smaller individuals regardless of
Attanayake, R.N., F. Dugan, W. Chen, D.A. Glawe and K.E. McPhee. 2010. Potential alternative hosts for the pea powdery mildew pathogen Erysiphe pisi. Pisum Genetics, 42:18-21. Vandemark, G.V., K.E. McPhee and F.J. Muehlbauer. 2011. Registration of Essex lentil. Journal of Plant Registrations, 5:19-21. Hamon, C., A. Baranger, C.J. Coyne, R.J. McGee, Isabelle Le Goff, V. LAnthoe¨ne, Robert Esnault, Jean-Philippe Rivie`re, Anthony Klein, Pierre Mangin, K.E. McPhee, Martine Roux-Duparque, Lyndon Porter, Henri Miteul, Ange´lique Lesne´, Ge´rard Morin, Caroline Onfroy, Anne Moussart, Bernard Tivoli, Re´gine Delourme, Marie-Laure Pilet-Nayel. 2011. New consistent QTL in pea associated with partial resistance to Aphanomyces euteiches in multiple French and American environments. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 123:261-281. Mikić, A., V. Mihailović, B. Ćupina, V. Kosev, T. Warkentin, K. McPhee, M. Ambrose, J. Hofer, N. Ellis. 2011. Genetic background and agronomic value of leaf types in pea ...
WASHINGTON, Nov. 14, 2017 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- The Menhaden Fisheries Coalition (MFC) thanks the Commissioners of the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission (ASMFC) Atlantic Menhaden Management Board for following the best available science in setting reference points for Atlantic menhaden.. As part of Amendment 3 to the Atlantic Menhaden Intestate Fishery Management Plan (FMP), the Commission voted 16-2 to continue current management measures for Atlantic menhaden until its Biological Ecological Reference Points (BERP) Workgroup finishes developing menhaden-specific ecological reference points (ERPs). These ERPs are supported by the MFC, and would manage menhaden based on its role in the ecosystem as forage for predator species.. The best science shows that managing forage fish according to general biological principals, as advocated by various environmental and sportfishing groups, is not the correct approach. Earlier this year, Dr. Ray Hilborn and a team of top fishery scientists released ...
Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) plays an important role in linking production from lower trophic levels to diverse marine predators and supporting the largest commercial fishery on the U.S. east coast. A significant management controversy has arisen because of uncertainties over their movement into and out of the Chesapeake Bay and the size or age-dependent vulnerability of fish to the commercial fishery. A landmark mark-recapture study of Atlantic menhaden was conducted during the 1960s-70s, which allows estimation of movement rates. Over one million menhaden were tagged, and over 200,000 tags were recovered, but the data were never fully analyzed. Using these data, this study will obtain estimates of migration rates and selectivity patterns, develop maps of the menhadens range, and obtain estimates of the impact of the spatial distribution of the fishery on menhaden. These results will substantially improve our knowledge of menhaden population dynamics (migration and mortality rates), ...
Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) plays an important role in linking production from lower trophic levels to diverse marine predators and supporting the largest commercial fishery on the U.S. east coast. A significant management controversy has arisen because of uncertainties over their movement into and out of the Chesapeake Bay and the size or age-dependent vulnerability of fish to the commercial fishery. A landmark mark-recapture study of Atlantic menhaden was conducted during the 1960s-70s, which allows estimation of movement rates. Over one million menhaden were tagged, and over 200,000 tags were recovered, but the data were never fully analyzed. Using these data, this study will obtain estimates of migration rates and selectivity patterns, develop maps of the menhadens range, and obtain estimates of the impact of the spatial distribution of the fishery on menhaden. These results will substantially improve our knowledge of menhaden population dynamics (migration and mortality rates), ...
Atlantic menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) plays an important role in linking production from lower trophic levels to diverse marine predators and supporting the largest commercial fishery on the U.S. east coast. A significant management controversy has arisen because of uncertainties over their movement into and out of the Chesapeake Bay and the size or age-dependent vulnerability of fish to the commercial fishery. A landmark mark-recapture study of Atlantic menhaden was conducted during the 1960s-70s, which allows estimation of movement rates. Over one million menhaden were tagged, and over 200,000 tags were recovered, but the data were never fully analyzed. Using these data, this study will obtain estimates of migration rates and selectivity patterns, develop maps of the menhadens range, and obtain estimates of the impact of the spatial distribution of the fishery on menhaden. These results will substantially improve our knowledge of menhaden population dynamics (migration and mortality rates), ...
These root-rotting oomycetes (Pythium, Phytophthora, Aphanomyces) are the reason we use sterile potting mixes for houseplants and for starting vegetable and flower transplants, rather than taking soil directly from our yards or gardens. Since oomycetes like water-logged soils, we also use pots with holes in the bottom to promote good drainage and healthy plant roots.. Other important plant diseases caused by oomycetes include downy mildews and the white rusts, which are diseases of aboveground plant parts, e.g., leaves, shoots, and fruits. Both downy mildews (e.g., Peronospora, Plasmopara) and white rusts (Albugo) are caused by obligate parasites, that cannot be grown in culture.. ...
Fact Sheet Number Full Color Version Using Fungicide on Alfalfa in Wisconsin A4090 PDF Aphanomyces Root Rot of Alfalfa XFT1
Albrecht, H. 1983. Besiedlungsgeschichte und ursprünglich holozäne Verbreitung der europäischen Flusskrebe. Spixiana 6(1): 61-77.. Alonso, F., Temino, C. and Diéguez-Uribeondo, J. 2000. Status of the white-clawed crayfish, Austropotamobius pallipes (Lereboullet, 1858), in Spain: distribution and legislation. Bull. Fr. Pêche Piscic. 356: 31-54.. Alonso, F., Temino, C. and Diéguez-Uribeondo, J. 2001. Actual conservation status of the white-clawed crayfish Austropotamobius pallipes (Lereboullet) in Spain. Knowledge-based management of European native crayfishes, September 13-15, 2001, Abstracts: 11. Poitiers, France.. Bernardo, J.M. and Ilheu, M. 1997. Present status of Austropotamobius pallipes (Lereboullet) in Portugal. Freshwater crayfish 11: 671-674.. Bertocchi S., Brusconi, S., Gherardi, F., Grandjean, F. and Souty-Grosset, C. 2008. Genetic variability in the threatened crayfish Austropotamobius italicus in Tuscany: implications for its management. Fundamental and Applied Limnology ...
Fish oil made from menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus) can be used as a dietary supplement for the presence of high levels of the long-chained omega-3 fatty acids, viz. epentaenoic and docosahexanoic. In this work, for the first time, two different multidimensional approaches were developed and compared, in terms of peak capacity, for triacylglycerol characterization. In particular, silver ion chromatography with a silver-ion column and non-aqueous reverse-phase liquid chromatography with a C18 column were tested in both comprehensive (stop-flow) and off-line modes. The use of mass spectra attained by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization for both LC approaches, and the fatty acids methyl esters profile of menhaden oil obtained by gas chromatography analysis, greatly supported the elucidation of the triacylglycerol content in menhaden oil. The off-line approach afforded a better separation and, thus, higher peak capacity to allow identifying and semiquantifying more than 250 triacylglycerols. Such a huge
1. The closer and opener muscles in the third walking legs of the three crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus, Procambarus clarkii and Astacus leptodactylus are composed of fibres which differ in histochemistry, electrophysiology and morphology. Three major groups of fibres (A, B and C) were distinguished. 2. Group A fibres react weakly to histochemical stains for myofibrillar ATPase (mATPase) activity characteristic of fibres with slow shortening speeds. In the opener muscle, they are innervated by the opener excitor (OE) and the specific opener inhibitor (OI). In the closer muscle, group A fibres are innervated by the common inhibitory neurone (CI) in addition to single (slow closer excitor, SCE) or double excitatory (SCE and fast closer excitor, FCE) innervation. Group A fibres have the largest excitatory junction potentials (EJPs), the longest membrane time constants (tau) and the longest sarcomeres. They are located at the very distal and proximal ends of both muscles. 3. Group B fibres show ...
Menhaden make up about one-half of the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico fish harvest and had a dockside value of about $129 million in 2013. They are coastal species that spawn offshore and move to estuaries where juveniles grow to one- and two-year old fish. The air and sea surface temperature off the Atlantic coast and the Gulf of Mexico has steadily increased, especially in estuaries, where heat exchange occurs efficiently between air and sea. Adult menhaden return offshore where they are harvested with purse seine nets. Menhaden are a significant food source for birds, seals, whales, striped bass and other animals. Therefore, the consequences of Menhaden shrinking in body size extend throughout the food web. Turner calculated the weight and length changes of these fish using data collected by the National Marine Fisheries Service. From 1955 to 2008, about 495,000 Atlantic menhaden were collected by the agency. From 1964 to 2010, about 510,000 Gulf of Mexico menhaden were collected. The data shows ...
When I enrolled in a course in Fishery Biology, I was under the impression that it would exclusively study, well, fish. While it might emphasize fish populations and their environments, I assumed ichthyology would be the subject of focus.. I was mistaken. But not in a bad way. While the first two chapters outlined the biology and diversity of fish, the rest of the course dealt with fish as an economic resource and environmental player. I distinctly recall spending time considering different styles of fish hooks, their effects on bycatch, and whether they reduced the amount of target species the fisherman actually wanted to catch.. It turns out that Fishery Biology is the study of fish stocks - fishes caught for purposes of human consumption. Everyone picked a different species to study throughout, and we got to evaluate each others work. One such student project was on the Atlantic Menhaden - a small, oily-fleshed type of fish caught to be sold as bait or as an ingredient in dog food. However, ...
This papyrus, the tattered remains (about 1,000 letters) of an elegant roll, was edited by C. H. Roberts in vol. xviii of The Oxyrhynchus Papyri, published in 1941. Out of a total of fifty-three fragments he located twenty-nine; the twenty-four which he left unlocated are mere scraps, averaging six-and-a-half letters (maximum twelve, minimum two), with about a third of their letters represented by ambiguous and sometimes minimal remains. This chapter summarizes the following: (a) hitherto unknown, and possibly true: 524, 528; (b) hitherto unknown, and evidently false: 109, 438; (c) agreeing with a true variant against a false: 294, 461, 525; (d) agreeing with the medieval tradition in a reading which is commonly corrected: 200.
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The recent infections, which occurred in patients ages 10-32, have prompted the Missouri Department of Health & Senior Services to issue a health advisory alerting doctors across the state. The department also printed posters warning people not to eat raw crayfish and placed them in campgrounds and canoe rental businesses near popular Missouri streams. Thoroughly cooking crayfish kills the parasite and does not pose a health risk.. Paragonimiasis is far more common in East Asia, where many thousands of cases are diagnosed annually in people who consume raw or undercooked crab that contain Paragonimus westermani, a cousin to the parasite in North American crayfish.. While the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has an antibody test to identify Paragonimus westermani infection, the test is not sensitive for patients with P. kellicotti parasite, and this makes diagnosis a real challenge. Diagnostic clues include elevated levels of white blood cells called eosinophils. These cells ...
0065] Albugo spp. (white rust) on ornamentals, vegetables (e.g. A. candida) and sunflowers (e.g. A. tragopogonis); Alternaria spp. (Alternaria leaf spot) on vegetables, rape (A. brassicola or brassicae), sugar beets (A. tenuis), fruits, rice, soybeans, potatoes (e.g. A. solani or A. alternata), tomatoes (e.g. A. solani or A. alternata) and wheat; Aphanomyces spp. on sugar beets and vegetables; Ascochyta spp. on cereals and vegetables, e.g. A. tritici(anthracnose) on wheat and A. hordei on barley; Bipolaris and Drechslera spp. (teleomorph: Cochliobolus spp.), e.g. Southern leaf blight (D. maydis) or Northern leaf blight (B. zeicola) on corn, e.g. spot blotch (B. sorokiniana) on cereals and e.g. B. oryzae on rice and turfs; Blumeria (formerly Erysiphe) graminis (powdery mildew) on cereals (e.g. on wheat or barley); Botrytis cinerea (teleomorph: Botryotinia fuckeliana: grey mold) on fruits and berries (e.g. strawberries), vegetables (e.g. lettuce, carrots, celery and cabbages), rape, flowers, ...
Hemocytes (blood cells) are important in the immune defense against pathogens in invertebrates. In crusteacean, the hemocytes and plasma components mount a strong innate immune response against different pathogens including bacteria and virus. This thesis is aimed to identify marker proteins associated with development of different hemocyte types, and to find a protein involved in the phenoloxidase-induced melanization and other innate immune reactions in freshwater crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus. In crustaceans, the hemocytes are produced and partly differentiated in the hematopoietic tissue (Hpt) before they are released into the hemolymph circulation. To investigate the connection between semigranular cells, granular cells and precursor cells in Hpt of P. leniusculus and possibly also in other crustaceans, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) analysis was used to identify specific proteins expressed in different hemocytes. The specific expression ...
Atlantic menhaden are found in estuarine and coastal waters from northern Florida to Nova Scotia, and serve as prey ( food ) for many fish, sea birds and marine mammals. Adult and juvenile menhaden form large, near-surface schools, primarily in estuaries and near-shore ocean waters from early spring through early winter. By summer, menhaden schools stratify by size and age along the coast, with older and larger menhaden found farther north. During fall through early winter, menhaden of all sizes and ages migrate south around the North Carolina capes to spawn.. Sexual maturity begins just before age three, with major spawning areas from the Carolinas to New Jersey; the majority of spawning occurs primarily offshore ( 20-30 miles ) during winter. Buoyant eggs hatch at sea, and larvae are carried into estuarine nursery areas by ocean currents. Larvae change into juveniles in estuaries where they spend most of their first year of life, migrating to the ocean in late fall. Adult and juvenile menhaden ...
December 3- Video: Menhaden Matter - Pew Environment Groups Atlantic Menhaden Campaign produced this short video to show how protecting this little fish can have big benefits for our coastal ecosystem.. December 7 - Fish Talk in the News - Friday, December 7 - In this weeks Fish Talk in the News, ASMFC makes sharp cuts in the 2013 northern shrimp quota; the Boston Globe continues its investigation of seafood fraud; congressmen attempt to tack aid for groundfishermen onto a Hurricane Sandy relief package; a Gloucester Daily Times editorial supports the Amendment 18 process; Cape Cod towns want more shark monitoring; NOAA proposes new rules to help target healthy dogfish and redfish stocks.. ...
e. to attract the Angel by the vibration of the magical voice which invokes Him. The method of the Ritual is thus manifold. There is firstly an analysis of the Adept, which enables him to calculate his course of action. He can decide what must be banished, what purified, what concentrated. He can then concentrate his will upon its one essential element, over-coming its resistance - which is automatic, like a physiological reflex - by destroying inhibitions through his ego-overwhelming enthusiasm. 1 The other half of the work needs no such complex effort; for his Angel is simple and unperplexed, ready at all times to respond to rightly ordered approach. It is impossible to overcome ones inhibitions by conscious effort; their existence justifies them. God is on their side, as on that of the victim in Brownings Instans Tyrannus. A man cannot compel himself to love, however much he may want to, on various rational grounds. But on the other hand, when the true impulse comes, it overwhelms all its ...
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In October 2005, a vagrant kingbird (Aves: Tyrannus sp.) appeared in Michigans Upper Peninsula, nearly 2000 km from the northern limit of its usual range. Using mitochondrial DNA obtained from a fecal sample deposited by the bird and mitochondrial DNA isolated from museum reference specimens, the species iden- tity of this bird was definitively confirmed as a Tropical Kingbird (T. melancholicus) rather than a Couchs Kingbird (T. couchii). This is the first time DNA evidence has been used to establish a state bird record, and one of the few studies of any type to successfully use avian feces for DNA analysis. Circumstantial evidence indicates that this bird was possibly displaced from its original range by Hurricane Wilma in October, 2005. Identification of vagrant birds is important for studying avian populations, and non-invasive genetic sampling techniques should be considered when traditional means of identification fail to provide definitive evidence of identity.
Pacifastin is a family of serine proteinase inhibitors found in arthropods. Pacifastin inhibits the serine peptidases trypsin and chymotrypsin. All pacifastin members that have been characterized at the molecular level are precursor peptides composed of an N-terminal signal sequence followed by a precursor domain and a variable number of inhibitor domains. Each of these inhibitor domains carries a six-cysteine motif - see below. The first family members to be identified were isolated from Locusta migratoria migratoria(migratory locust) which were HI, LMCI-1 (PMP-D2) and LMCI-2 (PMP-C). A further five members, SGPI-1 to 5, were then isolated from Schistocerca gregaria (desert locust), and a heterodimeric serine protease inhibitor was isolated from the haemolymph of Pacifastacus leniusculus (Signal crayfish), and named pacifastin. Peptide proteinase inhibitors are in many cases synthesised as part of a larger precursor protein, referred to as a propeptide or zymogen, which remains inactive until ...
The phylogenetic position of the four East Asian freshwater crayfish species of the genus Cambaroides is not settled. Morphological phylogenetic analyses suggest close affinities of Cambaroides with North American Cambaridae. This view is based mainly on characters of the male and female reproductive organs. In contrast, the only molecular phylogenetic analysis so far available leaves the phylogenetic position of Cambaroides unresolved. The question of whether Cambaroides is monophyletic or paraphyletic has so far been neither addressed morphologically nor with molecular data sets. Here we present the first comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of all four currently described species of Cambaroides in the framework of Northern Hemisphere freshwater crayfish (Astacoidea) relationships based on partial sequences of two mitochondrial genes (CO1 and 12S rRNA). Despite some evidence in favour of a monophyletic Cambaroides more data is needed to resolve this question. Our ...
Hey guys! Im new to this and this is my first grow and im wondering if this is root rot or is it stain from my nutes? Im using technaflora recipe for
-- A headline on the European flood story was incorrect in some editions Tuesday. Czechs were fleeing the Vltava River, not the Danube.
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Danube school: A tradition of landscape painting that developed in the region of the Danube River valley in the early years of the 16th century. A number of painters are considered to have been...
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** This work is partially co-funded by the European Commission under the European Regional Development Fund according to article 4 ERDF and the count
Monday, the 5th of June, was the day after Pentecost, celebrated as an official holiday in Bavaria. With everything closed, I chose to ride on. The weather was not ideal, cooler than before, and even cloudier than Sunday. The route along the river was pleasant until I reached the edge of Passau. A
Aquascaper Plantamax True ROOT caps - velmi v ivn ko enov hnojivo pro v echny akvarijn rostliny. Patentovan obal granulek tvo en speci ln prysky ic se dv mi membr nami uvol uje iviny rovnom rn a 6 m s c .
Root cap: …producing the cells of the root cap. The cells derived from the other faces continue to divide mostly by forming transverse walls, but occasionally also in the longitudinal plane. In this way vertical columns of cells form-tending, because of their mode of origin, to be disposed in three sectors.
A kingdom in the Balkan Peninsula, situated between the Black Sea, the Danube, the Carpathian Mountains, and the Pruth. I. HISTORY The modern Rumanians are generally regarded as the descendants ...
Same as above, only having a 2 inch average body length. (add 10% for sexing) Per 6.NOTE: Cannot be shipped to AZ. Customers from CA, IL, NV, UT must apply for a USDA permit to …
The microsporidian Thelohania sp. has previously been found to increase its prevalence in crayfish populations inhabiting acidified and urbanized waters. Watershed clearcut logging is the most widespread land-use modification to which Canadian boreal lakes are exposed. The present study investigated whether a stress-response of increased Thelohania can be used as an early biomonitor of the health and viability of crayfish (Orconectes virilis) inhabiting such watersheds. Prevalences remained low (|1.5%) in 4 coldwater fishery lakes over an 8-year period irrespective of experimental clearcutting. In contrast, microsporidosis was elevated in warmwater fishery lakes in 6 clearcut watersheds (6.1%) compared to warmwater fishery lakes in 5 forested watersheds (0.3%). These latter prevalence differences were unrelated to differences in lake temperature, host population abundance, and possible secondary-host minnow abundance between the two sets of warmwater fishery lakes. Instead, the differences may
7)Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Lower Danube University of Galai, in abdominal volume, weight loss of 56 kg in the last. Taking into. mal analysis of (1) in 200 500oC temperature range show a weight loss at. 128oC, of. TURKEY. Danube r. Fig. 2. Main screen of the program CDLoad. 4. REFERENCES. Quaternary Science Reviews, 2010, 1067 1091.
A spill of toxic waste has reached a branch of Europes second largest river, the Danube. The sludge from a burst containment reservoir in Hungary has already devastated the first river it came into... World News Summaries. | Newser
University of Crete. E-Locus Institutional Repository.Master thesis.2010 . Creators: Ουστομανωλάκης, Χαράλαμπος. Contributors: Κοτζαμπάσης, Κυριάκος, Πανόπουλος, Νικόλαος, Σκανδάλης, Νικόλαος.Πολλές φυτικές ουσίες έχουν αντιμικροβιακές ιδιότητες και είναι φυσικά αντιοξειδωτικά. Τέτοιες ουσίες περιλαμβάνουν την ελευρωπαΐνη, την υδροξτυροσόλη, που είναι παράγωγο της πρώτης, και την ρεσβερατρόλη. Στην παρούσα διατριβή εξετάστηκαν οι αντιμικροβιακές ιδιότητες, in vitro και in planta, της ελευρωπαΐνης, ενός εκχυλίσματος στεμφύλων, που περιείχε σημαντική ποσότητα ρεσβερατρόλης, καθώς και αραιωμένα υγρά
Aphanomyces root rot Aphanomyces euteiches Ascochyta blight Ascochyta fabae f.sp. lentis = Ascochyta lentis. Didymella sp. [ ...
Infection with Aphanomyces astaci is accompanied by few signs in its early stages, and the first indication of infection may be ... Crayfish plague, Aphanomyces astaci, is a water mold that infects crayfish, most notably the European Astacus which dies within ... Paul Kirk (2010). "Aphanomyces astaci Schikora, 1906". World Register of Marine Species. Retrieved June 29, 2011. Susan M. ... ISBN 978-1-4020-0837-5. David Alderman (December 18, 2006). "Aphanomyces astaci" (PDF). Delivering Alien Invasive Species ...
It caused by the fungus Aphanomyces raphani. The pathogen can persist for long times in the soil, therefore crop rotations are ...
Yokosawa, Ryozo; Kuninaga, Shiro; Sekizaki, Harua (1986). "Aphanomyces euteiches zoospore attractant isolated from pea root; ... Prunetin isolated from pea roots can act as an attractant for Aphanomyces euteiches zoospores. It is also an allosteric ...
ISBN 978-3-659-18798-8. -- (2013). Bioactive Compounds toward Zoospores of Aphanomyces cochlioides. Saarbrücken: Lap Lambert ...
In turn, the fish is attacked by Achlya, Aphanomyces and Pythium. In the wild, the fish spawns in small streams. The fish does ...
He studied oomycete fungal plant diseases, many from the Genera Pythium, Phytophthora and Aphanomyces and identified several ...
"Pathogenicity studies with the fungi Aphanomyces invadans, Achlya bisexualis, and Phialemonium dimorphosporum: induction of ...
Osman, A (January 2010). "Genotoxicity of two pathogenic strains of zoosporic fungi (Achlya klebsiana and Aphanomyces laevis) ...
From 1907, crayfish plague, an infectious disease caused by the water mould Aphanomyces astaci, damaged stocks of the native ...
... is a disease caused by the water mould Aphanomyces invadans. It infects many freshwater and brackish fish species in the Asia- ...
Some crayfish suffer from a disease called crayfish plague, caused by the North American water mould Aphanomyces astaci which ...
... aphanomyces MeSH B02.650.500 --- lagenidium MeSH B02.650.710 --- peronospora MeSH B02.650.725 --- phytophthora MeSH B02.650.750 ...
It may out-compete the native crayfish species, and is a vector for the crayfish plague fungus Aphanomyces astaci, for crayfish ...
Aphanomyces invadans) and viruses can cause stunted growth and severe mortality in the C. striatus. Channa striatus rely on ...
Species include: Aphanomyces acinetophagus Aphanomyces americanus Aphanomyces amphigynus Aphanomyces apophysii Aphanomyces ... Aphanomyces balboensis Aphanomyces bosminae Aphanomyces brassicae Aphanomyces camptostylus Aphanomyces cladogamus Aphanomyces ... Aphanomyces ovidestruens Aphanomyces parasiticus Aphanomyces patersonii Aphanomyces phycophilus Aphanomyces pisci Aphanomyces ... Aphanomyces coniger Aphanomyces daphniae Aphanomyces euteiches Aphanomyces exoparasiticus Aphanomyces frigidophilus Aphanomyces ...
... is a species of water mould. It causes red spot disease, or epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS), in many ...
... is a plant pathogen that can affect commodity crops like spinach, Swiss chard, beets and related ...
... is a water mould, or oomycete, plant pathogen responsible for the disease Aphanomyces root rot. The ... Pea (Pisum sativum) is the crop where Aphanomyces causes the greatest economic damage. Aphanomyces root rot can account for ... Aphanomyces root rot is an example of a monocyclic disease, causing only one infection cycle per season. This is in contrast to ... Aphanomyces is a soil-borne disease, and the entire lifecycle is completed in the host root and surrounding soil. The pathogen ...
Aphanomyces euteiches is an oomycete pathogen with a broad host-range on legumes that causes devastating root rot disease in ... Aphanomyces euteiches is an oomycete pathogen with a broad host-range on legumes that causes devastating root rot disease in ... Papavizas, G., and Ayers, W. (1974). Aphanomyces species and their root diseases on pea and sugarbeet. US Department of ... Aphanomyces euteiches is an oomycete pathogen with a broad host-range on legumes that causes devastating root rot disease in ...
Aphanomyces Euteiches Race 2 and Phytoplasma by R.D. Peters and C.R. Grau Department of Plant Pathology Unive ... Aphanomyces Root Rot. Aphanomyces root rot is caused by the pathogen Aphanomyces euteiches. It is most severe in flooded soil ... Aphanomyces Race 2 in Alfalfa. Aphanomyces Race 2 in Alfalfa by Dan Undersander, Forage Agronomist About 20 years ago we ... Aphanomyces Euteiches Race 2 and Phytoplasma. by R.D. Peters and C.R. Grau. Department of Plant Pathology. University of ...
Aphanomyces invaderis, the fungus associated with the Asian fish disease epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS); other Aphanomyces ... Inglis, V.; Lilley, J.H. Comparative effects of various antibiotics, fungicides and disinfectants on Aphanomyces invaderis and ... Comparative effects of various antibiotics, fungicides and disinfectants on Aphanomyces invaderis and other saprolegniaceous ... Comparative effects of various antibiotics, fungicides and disinfectants on Aphanomyces invaderis and other saprolegniaceous ...
In addition, the chitin synthase activity of the oomycete phytopathogen Aphanomyces euteiches was characterized in vitro using ... The phytopathogenic oomycete Aphanomyces euteiches contains two distinct N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase activities that form ...
Aphanomyces invadans Epizootic ulcerative syndromeLC-MS/MSOomycetesProteasesVirulence. Background. Infection with Aphanomyces ... Aphanomyces invadans culture. The PG-1 agar plate shows the growth of Aphanomyces invadans ... Aphanomyces invadans NJM 9701 was cultured on peptone glucose-1 (PG-1) agar (Fig. 1). Fungal plugs (6-7 cm2) were cut and ... Aphanomyces as a fish parasite. Mycologia. 1944;36:413-5.View ArticleGoogle Scholar. ...
Aphanomyces invadans is a highly pathogenic oomycete fungi which infects the Atlantic menhaden Brevoortia tyrannus and many ... 2003) Infectivity and pathogenicity of the oomycete Aphanomyces invadans in Atlantic menhaden Brevoortia tryannus. Diseases of ... Aphanomyces_ as a fungus. The Oomycota are as different from Fungi as are Apicomplexan or Dinoflagellates, 2 other clades well ...
Species include: Aphanomyces acinetophagus Aphanomyces americanus Aphanomyces amphigynus Aphanomyces apophysii Aphanomyces ... Aphanomyces balboensis Aphanomyces bosminae Aphanomyces brassicae Aphanomyces camptostylus Aphanomyces cladogamus Aphanomyces ... Aphanomyces ovidestruens Aphanomyces parasiticus Aphanomyces patersonii Aphanomyces phycophilus Aphanomyces pisci Aphanomyces ... Aphanomyces coniger Aphanomyces daphniae Aphanomyces euteiches Aphanomyces exoparasiticus Aphanomyces frigidophilus Aphanomyces ...
Aphanomyces invadans is a species of water mould. It causes red spot disease, or epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS), in many ...
Aphanomyces invadans ; epizootic ulcerative syndrome ; monoclonal antibodies ; Channa striata ; striped snakehead ; macrophage ... Aphanomyces invadans is the pathogen that causes epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS), an economically devastating fish disease ... Four gave weak reactions to A. invadans and cross-reacted with other Aphanomyces spp, though they may be useful for future ... Communicable diseases in animals ; Fisheries Asia, Southern ; Monoclonal antibodies ; Aphanomyces invadans ; epizootic ...
Aphanomyces Page Menu. Aphanomyces as the cause of skin lesions in menhaden. Recent work by scientists at VIMS, the National ... water mold Aphanomyces invadans is the cause of the fish lesions that were formerly ascribed to a Pfiesteria toxin(s). Download ... Aphanomyces-induced lesions like those shown here are invariably fatal to fishes. VIMS researchers hypothesize that the mold, ... VIMS researchers and colleagues were able to isolate Aphanomyces invadans from wild menhaden, and use these isolates to grow ...
What is Aphanomyces astaci? Meaning of Aphanomyces astaci medical term. What does Aphanomyces astaci mean? ... Looking for online definition of Aphanomyces astaci in the Medical Dictionary? Aphanomyces astaci explanation free. ... Aphanomyces astaci pathogenicity under laboratory and field conditions.. Exotic molluscs in the Great Lakes host epizootically ... Persistent infection by crayfish plague Aphanomyces astaci in a noble crayfish population - a case report.. Finland-Tools for ...
tr,W4HA57,W4HA57_9STRA F-actin-capping protein subunit alpha OS=Aphanomyces astaci OX=112090 GN=H257_01385 PE=3 SV=1 ...
WoRMS (2018). Aphanomyces astaci Schikora, 1906. Accessed at: http://www.marinespecies.org/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=394837 on ...
Our work provides the first evidence for the potential of OGs in the defense induction in pea against Aphanomyces root rot. ... in pea against Aphanomyces euteiches. One fraction was nonacetylated (OGs − Ac) whereas the second one was 30% acetylated (OGs ... Our work provides the first evidence for the potential of OGs in the defense induction in pea against Aphanomyces root rot. ... Systemic Induction of the Defensin and Phytoalexin Pisatin Pathways in Pea (Pisum sativum) against Aphanomyces euteiches by ...
Aphanomyces invadans is the pathogen that causes epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS), an economically devastating fish disease ... Four gave weak reactions to A. invadans and cross-reacted with other Aphanomyces spp, though they may be useful for future ...
... a donné des faux positifs pour Aphanomyces frigidophilus, Aphanomyces repetans, et pour quelques Saprolegnia spp. La PCR en ... provided false positives for Aphanomyces frigidophilus, Aphanomyces repetans, and some Saprolegnia spp. Real-time PCR showed ... Lack of specificity of the molecular diagnosis method for identification of Aphanomyces astaci. Ballesteros, I. ... A recent PCR-test developed for identification of Aphanomyces astaci, the organism responsible for crayfish plague, ...
Role of flavins in the resistance of Sinorhizobium meliloti - alfalfa association to Aphanomyces root rot. Priority area:. ... The goal of this research is to test the interaction of S. meliloti and Aphanomyces euteiches root rot on alfalfa. We speculate ... Role of flavins in the resistance of Sinorhizobium meliloti - alfalfa association to Aphanomyces root rot ... meliloti inoculation on the development of Aphanomyces root rot. Our data showed that (i) inoculation with rhizobia could ...
The legume root rot disease caused by the oomycete pathogen Aphanomyces euteiches is one major yield reducing factor in legume ... Proteomic profiling unravels insights into the molecular background underlying increased Aphanomyces euteiches-tolerance of ... Identification of Medicago truncatula proteins induced in roots after infection with the pathogenic oomycete Aphanomyces ... Identification of Medicago truncatula proteins induced in roots after infection with the pathogenic oomycete Aphanomyces ...
Pythium spp., Rhizoctonia solani, Aphanomyces cochlioides. *Sunken brown spots on fruit, can grow to rot part or all of fruit ...
7. Aphanomyces invadans: the fish epizootic ulcerative syndrome pathogen. Aphanomyces invadans causes epizootic ulcerative ... Aphanomyces invadans has been responsible for large-scale mortalities of farmed and wild fish in more than 20 countries across ... 2003 Molecular characterization of the fish-pathogenic fungus Aphanomyces invadans. J. Fish Dis. 26, 263-275. (doi:10.1046/j. ... 7. Aphanomyces invadans: the fish epizootic ulcerative syndrome pathogen. *8. Saprolegnia parasitica: the saprolegniosis water ...
In this study, we report on the development of a public database called AphanoDB which is dedicated to Aphanomyces genomic data ... However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying pathogenicity of Aphanomyces species. ... The Oomycete genus Aphanomyces comprises devastating plant and animal pathogens. ... Petersen A: Use of polyclonal antibodies to detect oospores of Aphanomyces. Mycol Res. 1996, 100: 495-499.View ArticleGoogle ...
Aphanomyces euteiches; Pisum sativum L.; biological control; endospore-forming bacteria; Bacillus mycoides; Bacillus pumilus; ... Biological control of Aphanomyces euteiches root rot of pea with spore-forming bacteria. Wakelin, S. A. ... A formulation of the bacterium could be marketed on both its ability to increase yields under Aphanomyces disease pressure, and ... However, the presence of other root rot pathogens, causing disease with symptoms similar to Aphanomyces root rot, confounded ...
Aphanomyces root rot Aphanomyces euteiches Ascochyta blight Ascochyta fabae f.sp. lentis = Ascochyta lentis. Didymella sp. [ ...
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Aphanomyces invadans. Loading... A0A026WIM9 Nucleoporin NUP53. Ooceraea biroi (Clonal raider ant). Loading... ...
  • they are not all the same) in populations of Aphanomyces provides challenges for breeding programs, because specific resistances may not be active against all strains of the pathogen. (uwex.edu)
  • 1997), even though efforts have been made to breed for resistance to a wide variety of major pathogens of alfalfa such as Verticillium , Phytophthora , and Aphanomyces . (uwex.edu)
  • Roots and hypocotyls develop light to dark brown lesions, but unlike other root-rot pathogens which cause seedling collapse, hypocotyls infected with Aphanomyces tend to remain rigid, resulting in stunted but upright seedlings (Grau 1990). (uwex.edu)
  • Soils infested with Aphanomyces inoculum can be detected by planting bait plants into pots containing the field soil of interest and maintaining flooded conditions for 5 days. (uwex.edu)
  • Apron) are not active against Aphanomyces and therefore, avoiding poorly drained soils and using resistant varieties are the main methods useful for control. (uwex.edu)
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