A form-genus of planktonic CYANOBACTERIA in the order Nostocales.
A form-genus of CYANOBACTERIA in the order Nostocales, characterized by thin trichomes, cylindrical akinetes, and terminal heterocysts.
A genus of CYANOBACTERIA consisting of trichomes that are untapered with conspicuous constrictions at cross-walls. A firm individual sheath is absent, but a soft covering is often present. Many species are known worldwide as major components of freshwater PLANKTON and also of many saline lakes. The species ANABAENA FLOS-AQUAE is responsible for acute poisonings of various animals.
Poisoning from toxins present in bivalve mollusks that have been ingested. Four distinct types of shellfish poisoning are recognized based on the toxin involved.
A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.
N-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanes best known for the ones found in PLANTS.
Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.
The enrichment of a terrestrial or aquatic ECOSYSTEM by the addition of nutrients, especially nitrogen and phosphorus, that results in a superabundant growth of plants, ALGAE, or other primary producers. It can be a natural process or result from human activity such as agriculture runoff or sewage pollution. In aquatic ecosystems, an increase in the algae population is termed an algal bloom.
Toxic or poisonous substances elaborated by marine flora or fauna. They include also specific, characterized poisons or toxins for which there is no more specific heading, like those from poisonous FISHES.
A form-genus of CYANOBACTERIA in the order Nostocales. Trichomes composed of spherical or ovoid vegetative cells along with heterocysts and akinetes. The species form symbiotic associations with a wide range of eukaryotes.
A compound that contains a reduced purine ring system but is not biosynthetically related to the purine alkaloids. It is a poison found in certain edible mollusks at certain times; elaborated by GONYAULAX and consumed by mollusks, fishes, etc. without ill effects. It is neurotoxic and causes RESPIRATORY PARALYSIS and other effects in MAMMALS, known as paralytic SHELLFISH poisoning.
Cyclic heptapeptides found in MICROCYSTIS and other CYANOBACTERIA. Hepatotoxic and carcinogenic effects have been noted. They are sometimes called cyanotoxins, which should not be confused with chemicals containing a cyano group (CN) which are toxic.
Uracil is a nitrogenous base, specifically a pyrimidine derivative, which constitutes one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of RNA (ribonucleic acid), pairing with adenine via hydrogen bonds during base-pairing. (25 words)
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
Community of tiny aquatic PLANTS and ANIMALS, and photosynthetic BACTERIA, that are either free-floating or suspended in the water, with little or no power of locomotion. They are divided into PHYTOPLANKTON and ZOOPLANKTON.
The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.

Phylogenetic and morphological evaluation of the genera Anabaena, Aphanizomenon, Trichormus and Nostoc (Nostocales, Cyanobacteria). (1/17)

The heterocytous cyanobacteria form a monophyletic group according to 16S rRNA gene sequence data. Within this group, phylogenetic and morphological studies have shown that genera such as Anabaena and Aphanizomenon are intermixed. Moreover, the phylogeny of the genus Trichormus, which was recently separated from Anabaena, has not been investigated. The aim was to study the taxonomy of the genera Anabaena, Aphanizomenon, Nostoc and Trichormus belonging to the family Nostocaceae (subsection IV.I) by morphological and phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA gene, rpoB and rbcLX sequences. New strains were isolated to avoid identification problems caused by morphological changes of strains during cultivation. Morphological and phylogenetic data showed that benthic and planktic Anabaena strains were intermixed. In addition, the present study confirmed that Anabaena and Aphanizomenon strains were not monophyletic, as previously demonstrated. The evolutionary distances between the strains indicated that the planktic Anabaena and Aphanizomenon strains as well as five benthic Anabaena strains in cluster 1 could be assigned to a single genus. On the basis of the 16S rRNA, rpoB and rbcLX gene sequences, the Anabaena/Aphanizomenon strains (cluster 1) were divided into nine supported subclusters which could also be separated morphologically, and which therefore might represent different species. Trichormus strains were morphologically and phylogenetically heterogeneous and did not form a monophyletic cluster. These Trichormus strains, which were representatives of three distinct species, might actually belong to three genera according to the evolutionary distances. Nostoc strains were also heterogeneous and seemed to form a monophyletic cluster, which may contain more than one genus. It was found that certain morphological features were stable and could be used to separate different phylogenetic clusters. For example, the width and the length of akinetes were useful features for classification of the Anabaena/Aphanizomenon strains in cluster 1. This morphological and phylogenetic study with fresh isolates showed that the current classification of these anabaenoid genera needs to be revised.  (+info)

Occurrence of toxin-producing cyanobacteria blooms in a Brazilian semiarid reservoir. (2/17)

We report the occurrence of cyanobacterial blooms and the presence of cyanotoxins in water samples from the Armando Ribeiro Goncalves reservoir (06 degrees 08 S and 37 degrees 07 W), located in the state of Rio Grande do Norte, in the semiarid region of northeastern Brazil. The cyanobacterial species were identified and quantified during the rainy and dry seasons in the year 2000. Cyanotoxins such as microcystins, saxitoxins and cylindrospermopsins were analyzed and quantified using HPLC and ELISA methods. The mixed toxic blooms of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, Microcystis spp (M. panniformis, M. protocystis, M. novacekii) and Aphanizomenon spp (Aphanizomenon gracile, A. cf. manguinii, A. cf. issastschenkoi) were persistent and represented 90-100% of the total phytoplankton species. Toxic cyanobacterial blooms from the Armando Ribeiro Goncalves reservoir were analyzed and found to have three phases in relation to the annual cycle. During the rainy season, an intense toxic bloom of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii was recorded along with saxitoxins (3.14 microg.L(-1)). During the transition period, between the rainy and dry seasons, different species of Microscytis occurred and microcystin as high as 8.8 microg.L(-1) was recorded. In the dry season, co-dominance of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, Microcystis spp and Aphanizomenon spp occurred and the concentrations of saxitoxin remained very low. Our results indicate the presence of microcystins (8.8 microg.L(-1)) and saxitoxins (3.14 microg.L(-1)) into the crude water, with increasing concentrations from the second fortnight of April to late May 2000. The occurrence of toxic blooms in this reservoir points to a permanent risk of cyanotoxins in supply waters, indicating the need for the implementation of bloom control measures to improve the water quality. Exposure of the local population to cyanotoxins through their potential accumulation in fish muscle must also be considered.  (+info)

A novel biosurfactant, 2-acyloxyethylphosphonate, isolated from waterblooms of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae. (3/17)

A novel biosurfactant, 2-acyloxyethylphosphonate, was isolated from waterblooms of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae. Its structure was elucidated by chemical degradation and HRFABMS, GC/EI-MS and 1D- and 2D-NMR spectral analyses. The surfactant contained one mole of 2-hydroxyethylphosphonate and one mole of fatty acid, with hexadecanoic acid accounting for 84.1% of the total fatty acid content. The structure was confirmed by synthesis of 2-oleoyloxyethylphosphonate from ethylene oxide, phosphorus acid and oleic acid chloride. Considering the isolated surfactant molecule as hexadecanoyloxyethylphosphonic acid (mw. 364), the critical micelle concentration (CMC) was about 22 mM.  (+info)

Toxicity of cylindrospermopsin, and other apparent metabolites from Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii and Aphanizomenon ovalisporum, to the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo. (4/17)

 (+info)

Characterisation of the paralytic shellfish toxin biosynthesis gene clusters in Anabaena circinalis AWQC131C and Aphanizomenon sp. NH-5. (5/17)

 (+info)

Inhibition of gap-junctional intercellular communication and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases by cyanobacterial extracts--indications of novel tumor-promoting cyanotoxins? (6/17)

 (+info)

Paralytic shellfish poisoning toxin-producing cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon gracile in northeast Germany. (7/17)

 (+info)

The cylindrospermopsin gene cluster of Aphanizomenon sp. strain 10E6: organization and recombination. (8/17)

 (+info)

Aphanizomenon is a genus of cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) that can be found in various bodies of water, including freshwater and brackish environments. The name Aphanizomenon comes from the Greek words "aphanes" meaning hidden and "zomen" meaning animal life, which refers to the fact that this organism can form dormant structures called akinetes that are difficult to see with the naked eye.

One species of Aphanizomenon, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, is known to produce a range of bioactive compounds, including proteins, polysaccharides, and pigments. This species has been studied for its potential health benefits, and some proponents claim that it can be used as a dietary supplement or nutritional supplement. However, it's important to note that the scientific evidence supporting these claims is limited, and more research is needed before any definitive conclusions can be drawn.

It's also worth noting that cyanobacteria like Aphanizomenon can produce harmful toxins known as cyanotoxins, which can pose a risk to human health if ingested or otherwise exposed to them. Therefore, it's important to exercise caution when consuming products derived from cyanobacteria and to consult with a healthcare professional before doing so.

Cylindrospermopsis is a genus of cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) that can produce toxins harmful to humans and animals. The most well-known species in this genus is Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, which can produce the potent hepatotoxin cylindrospermopsin. This toxin can cause liver damage and other health effects in both humans and animals that consume contaminated water or food.

Cylindrospermopsis species are commonly found in freshwater environments, such as lakes, rivers, and reservoirs. They can form blooms under certain conditions, such as high nutrient levels, warm temperatures, and still or slow-moving waters. These blooms can create a variety of health and environmental hazards, including the production of toxins that can harm wildlife, livestock, and people.

If you suspect that a body of water may be contaminated with Cylindrospermopsis or other harmful algal blooms (HABs), it is important to avoid contact with the water and to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms of exposure, such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, or skin irritation. It is also important to report any suspected HABs to your local health department or environmental agency for further investigation and monitoring.

Anabaena is a genus of cyanobacteria, also known as blue-green algae. These bacteria are capable of photosynthesis and can form colonies that resemble fine filaments or hair-like structures. Some species of Anabaena are able to fix nitrogen from the atmosphere, making them important contributors to the nitrogen cycle in aquatic ecosystems. In some cases, certain species of Anabaena can produce toxins that can be harmful to other organisms, including humans and animals.

It's worth noting that while Anabaena is a widely used and well-established genus name, recent research has suggested that the traditional classification system for cyanobacteria may not accurately reflect their evolutionary relationships. As a result, some scientists have proposed alternative classification schemes that may lead to changes in the way these organisms are named and classified in the future.

Shellfish poisoning refers to illnesses caused by the consumption of shellfish contaminated with harmful toxins produced by certain types of microscopic algae. These toxins can accumulate in various species of shellfish, including mussels, clams, oysters, and scallops, and can cause a range of symptoms depending on the specific type of toxin involved.

There are several types of shellfish poisoning, each caused by different groups of algal toxins:

1. Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP): Caused by saxitoxins produced by dinoflagellates such as Alexandrium spp., Gymnodinium catenatum, and Pyrodinium bahamense. Symptoms include tingling or numbness of the lips, tongue, and fingers, followed by weakness, difficulty swallowing, and potentially paralysis and respiratory failure in severe cases.
2. Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP): Caused by domoic acid produced by diatoms such as Pseudo-nitzschia spp. Symptoms include gastrointestinal distress, memory loss, disorientation, seizures, and in severe cases, coma or death.
3. Diarrheal Shellfish Poisoning (DSP): Caused by okadaic acid and its derivatives produced by dinoflagellates such as Dinophysis spp. and Prorocentrum spp. Symptoms include diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, abdominal cramps, and occasionally chills and fever.
4. Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning (NSP): Caused by brevetoxins produced by dinoflagellates such as Karenia brevis. Symptoms include reversible neurological symptoms like tingling or numbness of the lips, tongue, and fingers, as well as respiratory irritation, coughing, and chest tightness in severe cases.
5. Azaspiracid Shellfish Poisoning (AZP): Caused by azaspiracids produced by dinoflagellates such as Azadinium spp. Symptoms include gastrointestinal distress, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain.

It is essential to note that shellfish contaminated with these toxins may not show visible signs of spoilage or illness-causing bacteria; therefore, it is crucial to avoid consuming them during harmful algal blooms (HABs) or red tide events. Public health authorities often issue warnings and close shellfish beds when HABs are detected in the water. Always check local advisories before consuming shellfish, especially if you have harvested them yourself. Cooking does not destroy these toxins, so they remain harmful even after cooking.

Cyanobacteria, also known as blue-green algae, are a type of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, similar to plants. They can produce oxygen and contain chlorophyll a, which gives them a greenish color. Some species of cyanobacteria can produce toxins that can be harmful to humans and animals if ingested or inhaled. They are found in various aquatic environments such as freshwater lakes, ponds, and oceans, as well as in damp soil and on rocks. Cyanobacteria are important contributors to the Earth's oxygen-rich atmosphere and play a significant role in the global carbon cycle.

Tropane alkaloids are a class of naturally occurring compounds that contain a tropane ring in their chemical structure. This ring is composed of a seven-membered ring with two nitrogen atoms, one of which is part of a piperidine ring. Tropane alkaloids are found in various plants, particularly those in the Solanaceae family, which includes nightshade, belladonna, and datura. Some well-known tropane alkaloids include atropine, scopolamine, and cocaine. These compounds have diverse pharmacological activities, such as anticholinergic, local anesthetic, and central nervous system stimulant effects.

Phytoplankton are microscopic photosynthetic organisms that live in watery environments such as oceans, seas, lakes, and rivers. They are a diverse group of organisms, including bacteria, algae, and protozoa. Phytoplankton are a critical component of the marine food chain, serving as primary producers that convert sunlight, carbon dioxide, and nutrients into organic matter through photosynthesis. This organic matter forms the base of the food chain and supports the growth and survival of many larger organisms, including zooplankton, fish, and other marine animals. Phytoplankton also play an important role in global carbon cycling and help to regulate Earth's climate by absorbing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and releasing oxygen.

Eutrophication is the process of excessive nutrient enrichment in bodies of water, which can lead to a rapid growth of aquatic plants and algae. This overgrowth can result in decreased levels of oxygen in the water, harming or even killing fish and other aquatic life. The primary cause of eutrophication is the addition of nutrients, particularly nitrogen and phosphorus, from human activities such as agricultural runoff, sewage and wastewater discharge, and air pollution.

In advanced stages, eutrophication can lead to a shift in the dominant species in the aquatic ecosystem, favoring those that are better adapted to the high-nutrient conditions. This can result in a loss of biodiversity and changes in water quality, making it difficult for many organisms to survive.

Eutrophication is a significant global environmental problem, affecting both freshwater and marine ecosystems. It can lead to harmful algal blooms (HABs), which can produce toxins that are dangerous to humans and animals. In addition, eutrophication can impact water use for drinking, irrigation, recreation, and industry, making it a critical issue for public health and economic development.

Marine toxins are toxic compounds that are produced by certain marine organisms, including algae, bacteria, and various marine animals such as shellfish, jellyfish, and snails. These toxins can cause a range of illnesses and symptoms in humans who consume contaminated seafood or come into direct contact with the toxin-producing organisms. Some of the most well-known marine toxins include:

1. Saxitoxin: Produced by certain types of algae, saxitoxin can cause paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) in humans who consume contaminated shellfish. Symptoms of PSP include tingling and numbness of the lips, tongue, and fingers, followed by muscle weakness, paralysis, and in severe cases, respiratory failure.
2. Domoic acid: Produced by certain types of algae, domoic acid can cause amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) in humans who consume contaminated shellfish. Symptoms of ASP include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, headache, and memory loss.
3. Okadaic acid: Produced by certain types of algae, okadaic acid can cause diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) in humans who consume contaminated shellfish. Symptoms of DSP include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever.
4. Ciguatoxin: Produced by certain types of dinoflagellates, ciguatoxin can cause ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) in humans who consume contaminated fish. Symptoms of CFP include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and neurological symptoms such as tingling and numbness of the lips, tongue, and fingers, as well as reversal of hot and cold sensations.
5. Tetrodotoxin: Found in certain types of pufferfish, tetrodotoxin can cause a severe form of food poisoning known as pufferfish poisoning or fugu poisoning. Symptoms of tetrodotoxin poisoning include numbness of the lips and tongue, difficulty speaking, muscle weakness, paralysis, and respiratory failure.

Prevention measures for these types of seafood poisoning include avoiding consumption of fish and shellfish that are known to be associated with these toxins, as well as cooking and preparing seafood properly before eating it. Additionally, monitoring programs have been established in many countries to monitor the levels of these toxins in seafood and issue warnings when necessary.

Nostoc is not a medical term, but a genus of cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) that can form colonies in various aquatic and terrestrial environments. Some species of nostoc are capable of forming gelatinous masses or "mats" that can be found in freshwater bodies, soils, and even on the surface of rocks and stones.

While nostoc itself is not a medical term, it has been studied in the context of medicine due to its potential health benefits. Some research suggests that nostoc may have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial properties, among others. However, more studies are needed to fully understand the potential therapeutic uses of nostoc and its safety for human consumption or use in medical treatments.

Saxitoxin (STX) is a potent neurotoxin that inhibits the sodium channels in nerve cells, leading to paralysis and potentially death. It is produced by certain species of marine dinoflagellates and cyanobacteria, and can accumulate in shellfish that feed on these organisms. Saxitoxin poisoning, also known as paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), is a serious medical condition that can cause symptoms such as numbness, tingling, and paralysis of the mouth and extremities, as well as respiratory failure and death in severe cases. It is important to note that saxitoxin is not used as a therapeutic agent in medicine and is considered a harmful substance.

Microcystins are a type of toxin produced by certain species of blue-green algae (cyanobacteria) that can contaminate freshwater bodies. They are cyclic peptides consisting of seven amino acids, and their structure varies among different microcystin variants. These toxins can have negative effects on the liver and other organs in humans and animals upon exposure through ingestion, inhalation, or skin contact with contaminated water. They are a concern for both public health and environmental safety, particularly in relation to drinking water supplies, recreational water use, and aquatic ecosystems.

Uracil is not a medical term, but it is a biological molecule. Medically or biologically, uracil can be defined as one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of RNA (ribonucleic acid) that is linked to a ribose sugar by an N-glycosidic bond. It forms base pairs with adenine in double-stranded RNA and DNA. Uracil is a pyrimidine derivative, similar to thymine found in DNA, but it lacks the methyl group (-CH3) that thymine has at the 5 position of its ring.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Fresh Water" is not a medical term. It is a term used to describe water that contains low concentrations of dissolved salts and other dissolved minerals. It is distinguished from saline water, which includes saltwater found in the ocean and brackish water found in estuaries. Fresh water is essential for many biological processes and is the primary source of water for human consumption, agriculture, and industrial use.

Plankton is not a medical term, but it is a term used in the field of marine biology. Plankton are tiny organisms that live in water and are unable to move independently against the current or tide. They include both plants (phytoplankton) and animals (zooplankton). Phytoplankton are photosynthetic and serve as the base of the ocean food chain, while zooplankton consume phytoplankton and in turn serve as a food source for larger animals. Plankton are important for understanding the health and productivity of aquatic ecosystems.

The ribosomal spacer in DNA refers to the non-coding sequences of DNA that are located between the genes for ribosomal RNA (rRNA). These spacer regions are present in the DNA of organisms that have a nuclear genome, including humans and other animals, plants, and fungi.

In prokaryotic cells, such as bacteria, there are two ribosomal RNA genes, 16S and 23S, separated by a spacer region known as the intergenic spacer (IGS). In eukaryotic cells, there are multiple copies of ribosomal RNA genes arranged in clusters called nucleolar organizer regions (NORs), which are located on the short arms of several acrocentric chromosomes. Each cluster contains hundreds to thousands of copies of the 18S, 5.8S, and 28S rRNA genes, separated by non-transcribed spacer regions known as internal transcribed spacers (ITS) and external transcribed spacers (ETS).

The ribosomal spacer regions in DNA are often used as molecular markers for studying evolutionary relationships among organisms because they evolve more rapidly than the rRNA genes themselves. The sequences of these spacer regions can be compared among different species to infer their phylogenetic relationships and to estimate the time since they diverged from a common ancestor. Additionally, the length and composition of ribosomal spacers can vary between individuals within a species, making them useful for studying genetic diversity and population structure.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

Bacterial DNA refers to the genetic material found in bacteria. It is composed of a double-stranded helix containing four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), thymine (T), guanine (G), and cytosine (C) - that are linked together by phosphodiester bonds. The sequence of these bases in the DNA molecule carries the genetic information necessary for the growth, development, and reproduction of bacteria.

Bacterial DNA is circular in most bacterial species, although some have linear chromosomes. In addition to the main chromosome, many bacteria also contain small circular pieces of DNA called plasmids that can carry additional genes and provide resistance to antibiotics or other environmental stressors.

Unlike eukaryotic cells, which have their DNA enclosed within a nucleus, bacterial DNA is present in the cytoplasm of the cell, where it is in direct contact with the cell's metabolic machinery. This allows for rapid gene expression and regulation in response to changing environmental conditions.

Though not all Aphanizomenon produce cyanotoxins, many do. CYNs are a toxin that is especially toxic for the liver and kidney, ... Aphanizomenon bacteria also play a big role in the Nitrogen cycle since they can perform nitrogen fixation. Studies on the ... Since Aphanizomenon are one of the few species of bacteria that can perform nitrogen fixation, other bacterial species that use ... Aphanizomenon may become dominant in a water body partially due to their ability to induce phosphate-limitation in other ...
... is a filamentous gram negative bacterium of the genus Aphanizomenon. The bacterial filaments are ... The genome of Aphanizomenon ovalisporum is approximately 7.47 Mbp in size, with a GC content of 50.39%. There are 2851 coding ... Aphanizomenon ovalisporum uses oxygenic photosynthesis, like other cyanobacteria. The heterocyst cells of this species can fix ... Aphanizomenon ovalisporum is a filamentous cyanobacteria present in many algal blooms. ...
... is a brackish and freshwater species of cyanobacteria found around the world, including the Baltic Sea ... Aphanizomenon flos-aquae has both toxic and nontoxic forms. Most sources worldwide are toxic, containing both hepatic and ... Aphanizomenon flos-aquae is known to produce endotoxins, the toxic chemicals released when cells die. Once released (lysed), ... Aphanizomenon flos-aquae can form dense surface aggregations in freshwater (known as "cyanobacterial blooms"). These blooms ...
Saxitoxin is produced by the cyanobacteria Anabaena spp., some Aphanizomenon spp., Cylindrospermopsis sp., Lyngbya sp. and ... "First Report of the Cyanotoxin Anatoxin-A from Aphanizomenon issatschenkoi (cyanobacteria)". Journal of Phycology. 43 (2): 356- ...
... some Aphanizomenon spp., Cylindrospermopsis sp., Lyngbya sp., Planktothrix sp.) Saxitoxin accumulates in "planktivorous ...
Aphanizomenon ovalisporum, Umezakia natans, Raphidiopsis curvata. and Aphanizomenon issatschenkoi. In Australia, three main ... was also identified as a minor metabolite from Aphanizomenon ovalisporum. This occurred whilst isolating CYN from cyanobacteria ... a toxic minor metabolite of the cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon ovalisporum from lake Kinneret, Israel". Journal of Natural ... a toxic metabolite of the freshwater cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon ovalisporum, and assignment of its absolute configuration". J ...
"Aphanizomenon Flos-Aquae Blue Green Algae". Energy For Life Wellness Center. Archived from the original on 2006-04-26. ...
Aphanizomenon flos-aquae "Blue-green algae". MedlinePlus, National Library of Medicine, US National Institutes of Health. 3 ...
"Aphanizomenon Flos-Aquae Blue Green Algae". Energy For Life Wellness Center. Archived from the original on 2006-04-26. ... Aphanizomenon flos-aquae is a cyanobacteria similar to spirulina, which is used as a nutritional supplement. Extracts and oils ...
In Florida, these include Aphanizomenon, Anabaena and Microcystis. Some notable fish kills in Louisiana in the 1950s were due ...
Anabaena flos-aquae and Aphanizomenon gracile. The fauna in the lake consists of eight types of benthos and ten types of fish ...
Regulation of heterocyst frequency in Baltic Sea Aphanizomenon sp.. Journal of Plankton Research, Volume 36, Issue 5, 1 ...
Aphanizomenon, Scytonema, Rivularia) Order Stigonematales (e.g., Stigonema) Class Prochlorophyceae (e.g., Prochloron, ...
"Phylogenetic comparison of the cyanobacterial genera Anabaena and Aphanizomenon". International Journal of Systematic and ...
Species of nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria in fresh waters include: Aphanizomenon and Dolichospermum (previously Anabaena). Such ... "Nitrogen fixation and abundance of the diazotrophic cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon sp. in the Baltic Proper". Marine Ecology ...
Short and medium chain (up to 11 carbon atoms) dioic acids have been discovered in Cyanobacteria of the genus Aphanizomenon. ... "Dicarboxylic and Fatty Acid Compositions of Cyanobacteria of the Genus Aphanizomenon". Biochemistry (Moscow). 66 (1): 72-76. ...
Wood SA, Rasmussen JP, Holland PT, Campbell R, Crowe AL (2007). "First Report of the Cyanotoxin Anatoxin-A from Aphanizomenon ... Anabaena (Dolichospermum) Aphanizomenon Cylindrospermopsis Cylindrospermum Lyngbya Microcystis Nostoc Oscillatoria Microcoleus ...
"First Report of the Cyanotoxin Anatoxin-A from Aphanizomenon issatschenkoi (cyanobacteria)". Journal of Phycology. 43 (2): 356- ...
Some filamentous organisms in the Baltic Sea include Nodularia spumigena and Aphanizomenon flosaquae. An important ... produced by Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and Spirulina, is for example used in the food and beverage industry as the natural ...
The lake has annual cyanobacteria blooms dominated by dolichospermum (anabaena), aphanizomenon and microcystis. It is a major ...
"High cell-specific rates of nitrogen and carbon fixation by the cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon sp. at low temperatures in the ...
The blue-green algae species Anabaena, Anacystis, and Aphanizomenon are crucial to the area. Last Mountain Lake National ...
These are Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and Dolichospermum flosaquae species, both of which produce cyanotoxins. If levels are high ...
... of Aphanizomenon ovalisporum (Cyanobacteria)". The ISME Journal. 6 (3): 670-679. doi:10.1038/ismej.2011.128. PMC 3280138. PMID ... in the cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon ovalisporum". Front. Microbiol. 6. doi:10.3389/fmicb.2015.01067. PMID 26483781. Myers, ...
Some cyanobacteria are sold as food, notably Arthrospira platensis (Spirulina) and others (Aphanizomenon flos-aquae). Some ...
"Characterisation of the paralytic shellfish toxin biosynthesis gene clusters in Anabaena circinalis AWQC131C and Aphanizomenon ...
The N-terminal domain of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae protein gvpA/J is also related to GVPa. GvpA of Halobacterium salinarum is a ...
and various species of Anabaena, of whom only Aphanizomenon is potentially poisonous and Anabaena frequently causes algal bloom ... During summers phytoplankton are dominated by cyanobacteria and occasionally diatoms, most commonly Aphanizomenon cf gracile ...
... especially the cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon flos-aquae. These blooms have led to sucker die-offs because the blooms deplete the ...
... and Aphanizomenon are used as food and feed due to their easy digestibility and nutrient content. Species of Dunaliella provide ...
Though not all Aphanizomenon produce cyanotoxins, many do. CYNs are a toxin that is especially toxic for the liver and kidney, ... Aphanizomenon bacteria also play a big role in the Nitrogen cycle since they can perform nitrogen fixation. Studies on the ... Since Aphanizomenon are one of the few species of bacteria that can perform nitrogen fixation, other bacterial species that use ... Aphanizomenon may become dominant in a water body partially due to their ability to induce phosphate-limitation in other ...
We take a look at StemEnhance from StemTech International, and show you why it is a scam. My First Direct Experience With The StemEnhance Scam People seem to love sending me all sorts of hoaxes ... ...
Acid, Adenosine diphosphate, Adenosine triphosphate, Air pollution, Alanine, Alpine climate, Amino acid, Aphanizomenon flos- ... aquae, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (dietary supplement), Ashok Kumar (Indian politician), Bodybuilding supplement, Carbohydrate, ...
Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (Linné) Ralfs ex Bornet et Flahault 1888. Single filament of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae ... Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (Linné) Ralfs ex Bornet et Flahault 1888. Photographer/artist. Irina Olenina. Institute. Department of ... Single filament of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae Sampling date. 09-09-2009. Location. Southeastern Baltic, Lithuanian coastal waters ... 2012-09-14 10:53:19 Ann-Turi Skjevik - Updated media metadata for Aphanizomenon flos-aquae_5.jpg ...
Aphanizomenon flos aqua. Aphanizomenon flos aqua (AFA) -modrozelené riasy sú konkrétnym druhom divých modrozelených rias, ktoré ...
Find data about harmful algal blooms and associated human and animal illnesses in CDCs summary of 2020 data reported to the One Health Harmful Algal Bloom System (OHHABS).
Terrabacteria; Cyanobacteria/Melainabacteria group; Aphanizomenon; Aphanizomenon flos-aquae; Aphanizomenonaceae; Nostocales; ... Portrait of the cyanophyte, Aphanizomenon flosaquae. Collected from freshwater pond near Boise, Idaho. Brightfield optics. ...
Its called a Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, and many, many health-conscious consumers have been eating this for many, many years. ... there are species of Aphanizomenon that are toxin-producing. But, again, not all of them are. And the conditions that create ...
Hodges [79] investigated the phycocyanin fluorescence of Aphanizomenon sp. under natural light and dark treatments, and the ... Spatiotemporal molecular analysis of cyanobacteria blooms reveals Microcystis-Aphanizomenon interactions. PLoS ONE 2013, 8, ...
Aphanizomenon gracile increases in width in the presence of Daphnia. A defence mechanism against grazing? ... Thicker filaments of Aphanizomenon gracile are more harmful to Daphnia than thinner Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii ... Differences in cell wall of thin and thick filaments of cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon gracile SAG 31.79 and their implications ... Effects of Daphnia exudates and sodium octyl sulphates on filament morphology and cell wall thickness of Aphanizomenon gracile ...
Consumption of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae has rapid effects on the circulation and function of immune cells in humans. A novel ... The effect of blue-green algae Aphanizomenon flos-Aquae on nutrient assimilation in rats. JANA 2001;3:35-39. ... AFA, Algae, Algas Verdiazul, Algues Bleu-Vert, Algues Bleu-Vert du Lac Klamath, Anabaena, Aphanizomenon flos-aquae, Arthrospira ... Favorable effects of blue-green algae Aphanizomenon flos-aquae on rat plasma lipids. JANA 2000;2:59-65. ...
Other common bloom-forming pelagic genera include Aphanizomenon, Anabaena, Rhodomonas and Planktothrix. However, since toxicity ...
... of Aphanizomenon ovalisporum (Cyanobacteria)." ISME J, 6(3), 670-679. doi:10.1038/ismej.2011.12. ...
It has been observed that Aphanizomenon blooms precede Microcystis blooms. Emma developed a method so that Aphanizomenon can be ... Aphanizomenon excretes saxitoxin which causes neurologic shellfish poisoning and Microcystis produces the toxin microcystin, ... developed a novel spectral algorithm to differentiate between the toxic cyanobacterial genera Aphanizomenon and Microcystis in ...
E3 AFA is 100% pure Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA), one of natures most perfect foods. ... INGREDIENTS: Aphanizomenon-flos aquae (AFA). SUPPLEMENT FACTS: Serving Size 2 Capsules, Servings per container 30, Amounts per ... E3 AFA is 100% pure Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA), one of natures most perfect foods. This unique blue-green algae grows wild ... E3 AFA is 100% pure Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA), one of natures most perfect... ...
I am working on a strain of Aphanizomenon flos aquae (AFA) from Klamath Lake, Oregon. My project is to isolate it, determine ...
The relative abundance of Aphanizomenon declined from 50% to 6% of the phytoplankton biovolume; Cryptomonas remained common, ... Prior to 2005, phytoplankton biovolume was largely composed of Cryptomonas and cyanobacteria (mostly Aphanizomenon); these taxa ...
First TaqMan Assay to Identify and Quantify the Cylindrospermopsin-Producing Cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon ovalisporum in Water ...
Kim J, Condie D, Vasquez R. Pemphigus foliaceus following use of herbal supplement containing Aphanizomenon flos-aquae. Int J ...
Use of different phosphorus sources by the bloom-forming cyanobacteria aphanizomenon flos-aquae and nodularia spumigena. ...
Aphanizomenon Flos-Aquae Powder (Blue Green Algae). Blue Green Algae. Aqua. Water ...
Spatiotemporal Molecular Analysis of Cyanobacteria Blooms Reveals Microcystis-Aphanizomenon Interactions. PLoS One. 8(9)*Google ...
Aphanizomenon Flos-Aquae Powder (Blue Green Algae). Blue Green Algae. Aqua. Water ...
Blue-green Algae ( Aphanizomenon Flos-aquae ) , Vitamin A ( As Beta-carotene ) . Other Ingredients : Colloidal Silicon Dioxide ...
Captured in 2019, by the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality, this image shows an Aphanizomenon bloom in a popular ... Aphanizomenon is a common cyanobacteria detected in harmful cyanobacterial blooms in Wyoming.. ...
Natural food supplements such as chlorella (A), spirulina (B) and aphanizomenon flow aquae (C), or a mixture of the three (ABC ...
Anabaena and Aphanizomenon) while those algae containing phycoerythrin pigments (e.g. Oscillatoria) produce brown or pinkish ...
AFA (Aphanizomenon flos-aquae). 300mg. Fucoidan (Laminaria japonica). 98.09mg. Elagic acid (Punica granatum). 159.6mg. ...
  • There are thousands of different algae species, our E3 products are from one single particular species of edible nutritional blue-green algae (Cyanophyta) called Aphanizomenon flos-aquae . (e3live.com)
  • BrainON is a concentrated organic E3AFA (Aphanizomenon flos-aquae) extract of Phycocyanin and Phenylethylamine (PEA). (unlimitedhealth.nl)
  • BrainON is certified organic, fresh-frozen AFA (Aphanizomenon flos-aquae) with a concentrated, aqueous, organic extract of Phenylethylamine and Phycocyanin. (livingmaxwell.com)
  • StemEnhance by StemTech uses an extract from Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (fresh water botanical) to support the natural release of stem cells from our bone-marrow thus increasing the number of stem cells circulating in our bodies. (agelessway.org)
  • National Library of Medicine s PubMed database: Mobilization of human CD34+ CD133+ and CD34+ CD133(-) stem cells in vivo by consumption of an extract from Aphanizomenon flos-aquae--related to modulation of CXCR4 expression by an L-selectin ligand? (agelessway.org)
  • Aphanizomenon is a genus of cyanobacteria that inhabits freshwater lakes and can cause dense blooms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyanobacteria such as Aphanizomenon are known for using photosynthesis to create energy and therefore use sunlight as their energy source. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyanobacteria species such as Aphanizomenon also use Oxygen as their final electron acceptor in the Electron Transport Chain, which is also different from other photosynthetic bacteria, which perform a type of photosynthesis called anoxygenic photosynthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aphanizomenon are a special type of cyanobacteria called heterocysts, which are capable of producing biologically useful nitrogen (ammonium) by the process of nitrogen fixation from atmospheric nitrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2013. Spatiotemporal Molecular Analysis of Cyanobacteria Blooms Reveals Microcystis-Aphanizomenon Interactions . (gleon.org)
  • Aphanizomenon is a common cyanobacteria detected in harmful cyanobacterial blooms in Wyoming. (cdc.gov)
  • Health experts said the bloom of cyanobacteria in the lake contains toxin-producing species of algae, including Dolichospermum (formerly Anabaena) and Aphanizomenon. (ptleader.com)
  • Aphanizomenon flos aqua (AFA) -modrozelené riasy sú konkrétnym druhom divých modrozelených rias, ktoré obývajú ich prirodzené pôvodné miesto výskytu - obrovskú plytkú vodnú plochu známu ako jazero Klamath v štáte Oregon. (pharmaterial.eu)
  • Studies on the species Aphanizomenon flos-aquae have shown that it can regulate buoyancy through light-induced changes in turgor pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • E3 AFA is 100% pure Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA), one of nature's most perfect. (naturalzing.com)
  • Specifically, I am working on a strain of Aphanizomenon flos aquae (AFA) from Klamath Lake, Oregon. (ucl.ac.uk)
  • We safety test each and every batch of AFA (Aphanizomenon flos-aquae) before it is bottled and packaged for delivery to your door. (e3live.com)
  • The benefits of Aphanizomenon flos-aquae are directly related to the care and attention given to sourcing and harvesting the product. (e3live.com)
  • Study summary: A novel cyanobacterial ligand for human L-selectin extracted from Aphanizomenon flos aquae potential role for stem cell biology in vitro and in vivo? (agelessway.org)
  • Aphanizomenon bacteria also play a big role in the Nitrogen cycle since they can perform nitrogen fixation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since Aphanizomenon are one of the few species of bacteria that can perform nitrogen fixation, other bacterial species that use nitrogen ions as a reactant will start to rely on the species as a source of usable nitrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Portrait of the cyanophyte, Aphanizomenon flosaquae. (eol.org)
  • Aphanizomenon can produce algal blooms from producing usable nitrogen causing other bacterial species to form colonies around the Aphanizomenon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Algal Blooms formed from Aphanizomenon species tend to be very toxic and create a variety of toxins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aphanizomenon species may produce cyanotoxins including cylindrospermospin (CYN), lipopolysaccharides (LPS), anatoxin-a, saxitoxin and BMAA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Last, saxitoxins is yet another type of neurotoxin known to be released by a species of Aphanizomenon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aphanizomenon may form large colonies as a defense against herbivore grazing, especially Daphnia in freshwater. (wikipedia.org)
  • Captured in 2019, by the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality, this image shows an Aphanizomenon bloom in a popular Wyoming reservoir. (cdc.gov)
  • This study identified blue-green algae tablets and capsules prepared from Aphanizomenon algae as a potential candidate for nomination. (nih.gov)
  • Blue-green algae supplements containing Aphanizomenon algae are believed to be taken by over a million consumers. (nih.gov)
  • Both Spirulina and non-Spirulina species are classified as blue-green algae and include: Aphanizomenon spp. (nutraceuticalsworld.com)
  • Species of blue-green algae known to be toxigenic include Anabena , Aphanizomenon , Lyngbya , Microcystis , Oscillatoria , and Planktothrix . (veterinarypracticenews.com)
  • Sea Fresh® Toothpaste features Blue Green Algae (Aphanizomenon Flos-Aquae), rich in Calcium, proteins and antioxidants, to strengthen your. (noahsnaturalfoods.ca)
  • Jason Sea Fresh® All Natural Toothpaste features Blue Green Algae (Aphanizomenon Flos-Aquae), rich in Calcium, proteins and antioxidants, to naturally strengthen your teeth and gums and potent Spearmint and Parsley Extracts to keep your breath fresh and clean. (hqhair.com)
  • Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA) is a fresh water unicellular blue-green algae that is rich in phycocyanin, which has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. (biotropiclabs.com)
  • Out of 97 taxa, a single Microcystis, and two different Aphanizomenon taxa were the dominant cyanobacteria detected during bloom events. (gleon.org)
  • In mid-summer, PAB presented a mix-bloom dominated by Snowella, Aphanizomenon, and Microcystis, which were succeeded by toxigenic Microcystis in post-summer. (bvsalud.org)
  • In this study, we used metagenomic and metatranscriptomic data from the 2014 western Lake Erie cyanoHAB to explore the genetic diversity and biosynthetic potential of cyanobacteria belonging to the Anabaena, Dolichospermum, Aphanizomenon (ADA) clade. (bvsalud.org)
  • Captured in 2019, by the Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality, this image shows an Aphanizomenon bloom in a popular Wyoming reservoir. (cdc.gov)
  • An ongoing bloom preliminary of Aphanizomenon "baltica" and Nodularia spumigena was seen at stations in the Gotland Basins. (smhi.se)
  • Aphanizomenon may become dominant in a water body partially due to their ability to induce phosphate-limitation in other phytoplankton while also increasing phosphate availability to itself through release of cylindrospermopsin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cylindrospermopsin causes other phytoplankton to increase their alkaline phosphatase activity, increasing inorganic phosphate availability in the water to Aphanizomenon during times when phosphate becomes limiting. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aphanizomenon is a common cyanobacteria detected in harmful cyanobacterial blooms in Wyoming. (cdc.gov)
  • Aphanizomenon bacteria also play a big role in the Nitrogen cycle since they can perform nitrogen fixation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyanobacteria species such as Aphanizomenon also use Oxygen as their final electron acceptor in the Electron Transport Chain, which is also different from other photosynthetic bacteria, which perform a type of photosynthesis called anoxygenic photosynthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since Aphanizomenon are one of the few species of bacteria that can perform nitrogen fixation, other bacterial species that use nitrogen ions as a reactant will start to rely on the species as a source of usable nitrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Of all environmental variables measured, nutrients, especially nitrate were significantly greater during periods of Aphanizomenon dominance while the nitrate+nitrite:SRP ratio was lower. (gleon.org)
  • Aphanizomenon is a genus of cyanobacteria that inhabits freshwater lakes and can cause dense blooms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aphanizomenon may form large colonies as a defense against herbivore grazing, especially Daphnia in freshwater. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aphanizomenon Aquaflo functions to smoothen the skin surface for a younger appearance by facilitating the skin's natural moisturizing factors. (niod.com)
  • Prominent in Proline and Lysine, Aphanizomenon Aquaflo improves skin elasticity and reduces the appearance of wrinkles. (niod.com)
  • Aphanizomenon are a special type of cyanobacteria called heterocysts, which are capable of producing biologically useful nitrogen (ammonium) by the process of nitrogen fixation from atmospheric nitrogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyanobacteria such as Aphanizomenon are known for using photosynthesis to create energy and therefore use sunlight as their energy source. (wikipedia.org)