A method, developed by Dr. Virginia Apgar, to evaluate a newborn's adjustment to extrauterine life. Five items - heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and color - are evaluated 60 seconds after birth and again five minutes later on a scale from 0-2, 0 being the lowest, 2 being normal. The five numbers are added for the Apgar score. A score of 0-3 represents severe distress, 4-7 indicates moderate distress, and a score of 7-10 predicts an absence of difficulty in adjusting to extrauterine life.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Respiratory failure in the newborn. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A nonreassuring fetal status (NRFS) indicating that the FETUS is compromised (American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists 1988). It can be identified by sub-optimal values in FETAL HEART RATE; oxygenation of FETAL BLOOD; and other parameters.
Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.
A variety of anesthetic methods such as EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA used to control the pain of childbirth.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.
Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Physiologic or biochemical monitoring of the fetus. It is usually done during LABOR, OBSTETRIC and may be performed in conjunction with the monitoring of uterine activity. It may also be performed prenatally as when the mother is undergoing surgery.
A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.
The repetitive uterine contraction during childbirth which is associated with the progressive dilation of the uterine cervix (CERVIX UTERI). Successful labor results in the expulsion of the FETUS and PLACENTA. Obstetric labor can be spontaneous or induced (LABOR, INDUCED).
Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.
Medical problems associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR, such as BREECH PRESENTATION; PREMATURE OBSTETRIC LABOR; HEMORRHAGE; or others. These complications can affect the well-being of the mother, the FETUS, or both.
Diseases of newborn infants present at birth (congenital) or developing within the first month of birth. It does not include hereditary diseases not manifesting at birth or within the first 30 days of life nor does it include inborn errors of metabolism. Both HEREDITARY DISEASES and METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS are available as general concepts.
The restoration to life or consciousness of one apparently dead. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The elimination of PAIN, without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS, during OBSTETRIC LABOR; OBSTETRIC DELIVERY; or the POSTPARTUM PERIOD, usually through the administration of ANALGESICS.
An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.
Surgical instrument designed to extract the newborn by the head from the maternal passages without injury to it or the mother.
Hospital units equipped for childbirth.
Artificially induced UTERINE CONTRACTION. Generally, LABOR, OBSTETRIC is induced with the intent to cause delivery of the fetus and termination of pregnancy.
Extraction of the fetus by means of obstetrical instruments.
Monitoring of FETAL HEART frequency before birth in order to assess impending prematurity in relation to the pattern or intensity of antepartum UTERINE CONTRACTION.
A condition caused by inhalation of MECONIUM into the LUNG of FETUS or NEWBORN, usually due to vigorous respiratory movements during difficult PARTURITION or respiratory system abnormalities. Meconium aspirate may block small airways leading to difficulties in PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE and ASPIRATION PNEUMONIA.
The thick green-to-black mucilaginous material found in the intestines of a full-term fetus. It consists of secretions of the INTESTINAL GLANDS; BILE PIGMENTS; FATTY ACIDS; AMNIOTIC FLUID; and intrauterine debris. It constitutes the first stools passed by a newborn.
An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1500 grams (3.3 lbs), regardless of gestational age.
Specialized arterial vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry waste and deoxygenated blood from the FETUS to the mother via the PLACENTA. In humans, there are usually two umbilical arteries but sometimes one.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Removal of the fetus from the uterus or vagina at or near the end of pregnancy with a metal traction cup that is attached to the fetus' head. Negative pressure is applied and traction is made on a chain passed through the suction tube. (From Stedman, 26th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)
Hospital units providing continuing surveillance and care to acutely ill newborn infants.
'Infant, Premature, Diseases' refers to health conditions or abnormalities that specifically affect babies born before 37 weeks of gestation, often resulting from their immature organ systems and increased vulnerability due to preterm birth.
Deficient oxygenation of FETAL BLOOD.
CHILDBIRTH at the end of a normal duration of PREGNANCY, between 37 to 40 weeks of gestation or about 280 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period.
Period from the onset of true OBSTETRIC LABOR to the complete dilatation of the CERVIX UTERI.
Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.
The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.
The period of OBSTETRIC LABOR that is from the complete dilatation of the CERVIX UTERI to the expulsion of the FETUS.
The event that a FETUS is born alive with heartbeats or RESPIRATION regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE. Such liveborn is called a newborn infant (INFANT, NEWBORN).
A term used to describe pregnancies that exceed the upper limit of a normal gestational period. In humans, a prolonged pregnancy is defined as one that extends beyond 42 weeks (294 days) after the first day of the last menstrual period (MENSTRUATION), or birth with gestational age of 41 weeks or more.
Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected into the epidural space.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.
Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).
A disorder characterized by a reduction of oxygen in the blood combined with reduced blood flow (ISCHEMIA) to the brain from a localized obstruction of a cerebral artery or from systemic hypoperfusion. Prolonged hypoxia-ischemia is associated with ISCHEMIC ATTACK, TRANSIENT; BRAIN INFARCTION; BRAIN EDEMA; COMA; and other conditions.
The position or orientation of the FETUS at near term or during OBSTETRIC LABOR, determined by its relation to the SPINE of the mother and the birth canal. The normal position is a vertical, cephalic presentation with the fetal vertex flexed on the NECK.
Deaths occurring from the 28th week of GESTATION to the 28th day after birth in a given population.
Pain associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR in CHILDBIRTH. It is caused primarily by UTERINE CONTRACTION as well as pressure on the CERVIX; BLADDER; and the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. Labor pain mostly occurs in the ABDOMEN; the GROIN; and the BACK.
Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected directly into the spinal cord.
The condition of carrying TWINS simultaneously.
The care of women and a fetus or newborn given before, during, and after delivery from the 28th week of gestation through the 7th day after delivery.
The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.
The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.
A widely used local anesthetic agent.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
A condition of the newborn marked by DYSPNEA with CYANOSIS, heralded by such prodromal signs as dilatation of the alae nasi, expiratory grunt, and retraction of the suprasternal notch or costal margins, mostly frequently occurring in premature infants, children of diabetic mothers, and infants delivered by cesarean section, and sometimes with no apparent predisposing cause.
A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)
The failure of a FETUS to attain its expected FETAL GROWTH at any GESTATIONAL AGE.
Childbirth taking place in the home.
Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.
Labor and delivery without medical intervention, usually involving RELAXATION THERAPY.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a cardiovascular disease. The disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.
An infant having a birth weight lower than expected for its gestational age.
The heart rate of the FETUS. The normal range at term is between 120 and 160 beats per minute.
Patient care procedures performed during the operation that are ancillary to the actual surgery. It includes monitoring, fluid therapy, medication, transfusion, anesthesia, radiography, and laboratory tests.
A complication of PREGNANCY, characterized by a complex of symptoms including maternal HYPERTENSION and PROTEINURIA with or without pathological EDEMA. Symptoms may range between mild and severe. Pre-eclampsia usually occurs after the 20th week of gestation, but may develop before this time in the presence of trophoblastic disease.
Special hospitals which provide care to women during pregnancy and parturition.
Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.
The relief of pain without loss of consciousness through the introduction of an analgesic agent into the epidural space of the vertebral canal. It is differentiated from ANESTHESIA, EPIDURAL which refers to the state of insensitivity to sensation.
Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.
The flexible rope-like structure that connects a developing FETUS to the PLACENTA in mammals. The cord contains blood vessels which carry oxygen and nutrients from the mother to the fetus and waste products away from the fetus.
The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
The three approximately equal periods of a normal human PREGNANCY. Each trimester is about three months or 13 to 14 weeks in duration depending on the designation of the first day of gestation.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Illinois" is a state in the United States and not a term that has a medical definition.
Various branches of surgical practice limited to specialized areas.
Severe or complete loss of motor function on one side of the body. This condition is usually caused by BRAIN DISEASES that are localized to the cerebral hemisphere opposite to the side of weakness. Less frequently, BRAIN STEM lesions; cervical SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and other conditions may manifest as hemiplegia. The term hemiparesis (see PARESIS) refers to mild to moderate weakness involving one side of the body.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Continuous care and monitoring of newborn infants with life-threatening conditions, in any setting.
Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.
Women who are engaged in gainful activities usually outside the home.
The event that a FETUS is born dead or stillborn.
A narcotic analgesic that can be used for the relief of most types of moderate to severe pain, including postoperative pain and the pain of labor. Prolonged use may lead to dependence of the morphine type; withdrawal symptoms appear more rapidly than with morphine and are of shorter duration.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)
The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.
Pregnancy in which the mother and/or FETUS are at greater than normal risk of MORBIDITY or MORTALITY. Causes include inadequate PRENATAL CARE, previous obstetrical history (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS), pre-existing maternal disease, pregnancy-induced disease (GESTATIONAL HYPERTENSION), and MULTIPLE PREGNANCY, as well as advanced maternal age above 35.
The state of PREGNANCY in women with DIABETES MELLITUS. This does not include either symptomatic diabetes or GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE induced by pregnancy (DIABETES, GESTATIONAL) which resolves at the end of pregnancy.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Severe or complete loss of motor function in all four limbs which may result from BRAIN DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; or rarely MUSCULAR DISEASES. The locked-in syndrome is characterized by quadriplegia in combination with cranial muscle paralysis. Consciousness is spared and the only retained voluntary motor activity may be limited eye movements. This condition is usually caused by a lesion in the upper BRAIN STEM which injures the descending cortico-spinal and cortico-bulbar tracts.
Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.
Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.
The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.
A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Idaho" is a U.S. state located in the Pacific Northwest and it doesn't have a medical definition. If you have any medical questions or terms you would like me to define, I'd be happy to help!

Management of breast cancer during pregnancy using a standardized protocol. (1/435)

PURPOSE: No standardized therapeutic interventions have been reported for patients diagnosed with breast cancer during pregnancy. Of the potential interventions, none have been prospectively evaluated for treatment efficacy in the mother or safety for the fetus. We present our experience with the use of combination chemotherapy for breast cancer during pregnancy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: During the past 8 years, 24 pregnant patients with primary or recurrent cancer of the breast were managed by outpatient chemotherapy, surgery, or surgery plus radiation therapy, as clinically indicated. The chemotherapy included fluorouracil (1,000 mg/m2), doxorubicin (50 mg/m2), and cyclophosphamide (500 mg/m2), administered every 3 to 4 weeks after the first trimester of pregnancy. Care was provided by medical oncologists, breast surgeons, and perinatal obstetricians. RESULTS: Modified radical mastectomy was performed in 18 of the 22 patients, and two patients were treated with segmental mastectomy with postpartum radiation therapy. This group included patients in all trimesters of pregnancy. The patients received a median of four cycles of combination chemotherapy during pregnancy. No antepartum complications temporally attributable to systemic therapy were noted. The mean gestational age at delivery was 38 weeks. Apgar scores, birthweights, and immediate postpartum health were reported to be normal for all of the children. CONCLUSION: Breast cancer can be treated with chemotherapy during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy with minimal complications of labor and delivery.  (+info)

Perinatal risk and severity of illness in newborns at 6 neonatal intensive care units. (2/435)

OBJECTIVES: This multisite study sought to identify (1) any differences in admission risk (defined by gestational age and illness severity) among neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and (2) obstetric antecedents of newborn illness severity. METHODS: Data on 1476 babies born at a gestational age of less than 32 weeks in 6 perinatal centers were abstracted prospectively. Newborn illness severity was measured with the Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology. Regression models were constructed to predict scores as a function of perinatal risk factors. RESULTS: The sites differed by several obstetric case-mix characteristics. Of these, only gestational age, small for gestational age. White race, and severe congenital anomalies were associated with higher scores. Antenatal corticosteroids, low Apgar scores, and neonatal hypothermia also affected illness severity. At 2 sites, higher mean severity could not be explained by case mix. CONCLUSIONS: Obstetric events and perinatal practices affect newborn illness severity. These risk factors differ among perinatal centers and are associated with elevated illness severity at some sites. Outcomes of NICU care may be affected by antecedent events and perinatal practices.  (+info)

Prenatal diagnosis of a lean umbilical cord: a simple marker for the fetus at risk of being small for gestational age at birth. (3/435)

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the prenatal diagnosis of a 'lean' umbilical cord in otherwise normal fetuses identifies fetuses at risk of being small for gestational age (SGA) at birth and of having distress in labor. The umbilical cord was defined as lean when its cross-sectional area on ultrasound examination was below the 10th centile for gestational age. METHOD: Pregnant women undergoing routine sonographic examination were included in the study. Inclusion criteria were gestational age greater than 20 weeks, intact membranes, and singleton gestation. The sonographic cross-sectional area of the umbilical cord was measured in a plane adjacent to the insertion into the fetal abdomen. Umbilical artery Doppler waveforms were recorded during fetal apnea and fetal anthropometric parameters were measured. RESULTS: During the study period, 860 patients met the inclusion criteria, of whom 3.6% delivered a SGA infant. The proportion of SGA infants was higher among fetuses who had a lean umbilical cord on ultrasound examination than among those with a normal umbilical cord (11.5% vs. 2.6%, p < 0.05). Fetuses with a lean cord had a risk 4.4-fold higher of being SGA at birth than those with a normal umbilical cord. After 25 weeks of gestation, this risk was 12.4 times higher when the umbilical cord was lean than when it was of normal size. The proportion of fetuses with meconium-stained amniotic fluid at delivery was higher among fetuses with a lean cord than among those with a normal umbilical cord (14.6% vs. 3.1%, p < 0.001). The proportion of infants who had a 5-min Apgar score < 7 was higher among those who had a lean cord than among those with normal umbilical cord (5.2% vs. 1.3%, p < 0.05). Considering only patients admitted in labor with intact membranes and who delivered an appropriate-for-gestational-age infant, the proportion of fetuses who had oligohydramnios at the time of delivery was higher among those who had a lean cord than among those with a normal umbilical cord (17.6% versus 1.3%, p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: We conclude that fetuses with a lean umbilical cord have an increased risk of being small for gestational age at birth and of having signs of distress at the time of delivery.  (+info)

Birth weight in relation to morbidity and mortality among newborn infants. (4/435)

BACKGROUND: At any given gestational age, infants with low birth weight have relatively high morbidity and mortality. It is not known, however, whether there is a threshold weight below which morbidity and mortality are significantly greater, or whether that threshold varies with gestational age. METHODS: We analyzed the neonatal outcomes of death, five-minute Apgar score, umbilical-artery blood pH, and morbidity due to prematurity for all singleton infants delivered at Parkland Hospital, Dallas, between January 1, 1988, and August 31, 1996. A distribution of birth weights according to week of gestation at birth was created. Infants in the 26th through 75th percentiles for weight served as the reference group. Data on preterm infants (those born at 24 to 36 weeks of gestation) were analyzed separately from data on infants delivered at term (37 or more weeks of gestation). RESULTS: A total of 122,754 women and adolescents delivered singleton live infants without malformations between 24 and 43 weeks of gestation. Among the 12,317 preterm infants who were analyzed, there was no specific birth-weight percentile at which morbidity and mortality increased. Among 82,361 infants who were born at term and whose birth weights were at or below the 75th percentile, however, the rate of neonatal death increased from 0.03 percent in the reference group (26th through 75th percentile for weight) to 0.3 percent for those with birth weights at or below the 3rd percentile (P<0.001). The incidence of five-minute Apgar scores of 3 or less and umbilical-artery blood pH values of 7.0 or less was approximately doubled for infants at or below the 3rd birth-weight percentile (P=0.003 and P<0.001, respectively). The incidence of intubation at birth, seizures during the first day of life, and sepsis was also significantly increased among term infants with birth weights at or below the 3rd percentile. These differences persisted after adjustment for the mother's race and parity and the infant's sex. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality and morbidity are increased among infants born at term whose birth weights are at or below the 3rd percentile for their gestational age.  (+info)

Influence of parity on the obstetric performance of mothers aged 40 years and above. (5/435)

We reviewed the delivery records of 205 mothers aged 40 years and above who delivered from 1st January 1994 to 31st December 1996 to examine the influence of parity on their obstetric performance. There were 51 (24.9%) primiparous mothers. The incidences of antenatal complications (antepartum haemorrhage, hypertensive disorder, glucose intolerance, prematurity), labour performance (type of labour, mode of delivery) and neonatal outcome (birth weight, Apgar scores, neonatal intensive care unit admission, perinatal mortality) were compared between the 51 (24.9%) primiparous and the 154 (75.1%) multiparous mothers. Higher incidences of antepartum haemorrhage (17.6 versus 5.8%, P = 0.0188), hypertensive disorder (17.6 versus 5.2%, P = 0.015), labour induction (33.3 versus 14.3%, P = 0.004) and Caesarean section delivery (58.8 versus 20.8%, P < 0.0001) were found among the primiparous mothers than the multiparous group. Neonatal outcome, however, was similar in both groups. We conclude that the primiparous mothers aged 40 years and above had more complicated antenatal and labour courses than multiparous mothers. On the other hand, the neonatal outcomes of two groups were comparable.  (+info)

Physiologic restriction versus genetic weight potential: study in normal fetuses and in fetuses with intrauterine growth retardation. (6/435)

Physiologic weight restriction is defined as the difference between the genetic and real weight in a normal fetus. The aims of this study were (1) to obtain, in normal pregnancies, reference values of mean weight restriction between 32 and 42 weeks for both male and female fetuses, and (2) to observe how weight restriction may influence intrauterine growth retardation. In the first part of the study, 1004 ultrasonograms of 389 different women were studied and the estimated fetal weights with their regression curves were calculated and drawn for all fetuses by sex. Differences between the 50th percentile of the genetic curves in normal population and the estimated fetal weight values for each of the 1004 examinations were calculated and weight restriction 50th and 90th percentiles were described. In the second part of the study, genetic curves were constructed retrospectively for 20 fetuses with intrauterine weight restriction whose examinations were performed before week 28 and were compared with curves for the normal population. Finally, for the 20 patients with intrauterine weight restriction, differences between genetic and real weight at delivery were plotted and compared with weight restriction 50th and 90th percentiles. Also, fetuses with intrauterine weight restriction were compared according to differing degrees of restriction. Weight restriction began between 31 and 33 weeks of gestation and was earlier and marked in female fetuses. Genetic percentiles were higher in normal fetuses than in fetuses with intrauterine weight restriction. In addition, pregnancies of intrauterine growth restricted fetuses with greater degrees of weight restriction were more abnormal than those of fetuses with a lesser degree of weight restriction. Both facts imply that some of the fetuses included in the classic diagnosis of intrauterine weight restriction may be genetically small fetuses. Concepts of weight restriction and physiologic weight restriction might be applied to discriminate between normal, genetically small fetuses and fetuses affected with intrauterine growth retardation.  (+info)

Births: final data for 1997. (7/435)

OBJECTIVES: This report presents 1997 data on U.S. births according to a wide variety of characteristics. Data are presented for maternal demographic characteristics including age, live-birth order, race, Hispanic origin, marital status, and educational attainment; maternal lifestyle and health characteristics (medical risk factors, weight gain, and tobacco and alcohol use); medical care utilization by pregnant women (prenatal care, obstetric procedures, complications of labor and/or delivery, attendant at birth, and method of delivery); and infant health characteristics (period of gestation, birthweight, Apgar score, abnormal conditions, congenital anomalies, and multiple births). Also presented are birth and fertility rates by age, live-birth order, race, Hispanic origin, and marital status. Selected data by mother's State of residence are shown including teenage birth rates and total fertility rates, as well as data on month and day of birth, sex ratio, and age of father. Trends in fertility patterns and maternal and infant characteristics are described and interpreted. METHODS: Descriptive tabulations of data reported on the birth certificates of the 3.9 million births that occurred in 1997 are presented. RESULTS: Birth and fertility rates declined very slightly in 1997. Birth rates for teenagers fell 3 to 5 percent. Rates for women in their twenties changed very little, whereas rates for women in their thirties rose 2 percent. The number of births and the birth rate for unmarried women each declined slightly in 1997 while the percent of births that were to unmarried women was unchanged. Smoking by pregnant women overall dropped again in 1997, but continued to increase among teenagers. Improvements in prenatal care utilization continued. The cesarean delivery rate increased slightly after declining for 7 consecutive years. The proportion of multiple birth continued to rise; higher order multiple births (e.g., triplets, quadruplets) rose by 14 percent in 1997, following a 20 percent rise from 1995 to 1996. Key measures of birth outcome--the percents of low birthweight and preterm births--increased, with particularly large increases in the preterm rate. These changes are in large part the result of increases in multiple births.  (+info)

Glycopyrrolate reduces nausea during spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section without affecting neonatal outcome. (8/435)

We have tested the hypotheses that glycopyrrolate, administered immediately before induction of subarachnoid anaesthesia for elective Caesarean section, reduces the incidence and severity of nausea, with no adverse effects on neonatal Apgar scores, in a double-blind, randomized, controlled study. Fifty women received either glycopyrrolate 200 micrograms or saline (placebo) i.v. during fluid preload, before induction of spinal anaesthesia with 2.5 ml of 0.5% isobaric bupivacaine. Patients were questioned directly regarding nausea at 3-min intervals throughout operation and asked to report symptoms as they arose. The severity of nausea was assessed using a verbal scoring system and was treated with increments of i.v. ephedrine and fluids. Patients in the group pretreated with glycopyrrolate reported a reduction in the frequency (P = 0.02) and severity (P = 0.03) of nausea. Glycopyrrolate also reduced the severity of hypotension, as evidenced by reduced ephedrine requirements (P = 0.02). There were no differences in neonatal Apgar scores between groups.  (+info)

The Apgar score is a quick assessment of the physical condition of a newborn infant, assessed by measuring heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and skin color. It is named after Virginia Apgar, an American anesthesiologist who developed it in 1952. The score is usually given at one minute and five minutes after birth, with a possible range of 0 to 10. Scores of 7 and above are considered normal, while scores of 4-6 indicate moderate distress, and scores below 4 indicate severe distress. The Apgar score can provide important information for making decisions about the need for resuscitation or other medical interventions after birth.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

Asphyxia neonatorum is a medical condition that refers to a newborn baby's lack of oxygen or difficulty breathing, which can lead to suffocation and serious complications. It is often caused by problems during the birthing process, such as umbilical cord compression or prolapse, placental abruption, or prolonged labor.

Symptoms of asphyxia neonatorum may include bluish skin color (cyanosis), weak or absent breathing, poor muscle tone, meconium-stained amniotic fluid, and a slow heart rate. In severe cases, it can lead to organ damage, developmental delays, or even death.

Prompt medical attention is necessary to diagnose and treat asphyxia neonatorum. Treatment may include oxygen therapy, mechanical ventilation, and medications to support the baby's heart function and blood pressure. In some cases, therapeutic hypothermia (cooling the body) may be used to reduce the risk of brain damage. Preventive measures such as proper prenatal care, timely delivery, and careful monitoring during labor and delivery can also help reduce the risk of asphyxia neonatorum.

Fetal distress is a term used to describe situations where a fetus is experiencing problems during labor or delivery that are causing significant physiological changes. These changes may include an abnormal heart rate, decreased oxygen levels, or the presence of meconium (the baby's first stool) in the amniotic fluid. Fetal distress can be caused by a variety of factors, such as problems with the umbilical cord, placental abruption, maternal high blood pressure, or prolonged labor. It is important to monitor fetal well-being during labor and delivery to detect and address any signs of fetal distress promptly. Treatment may include changing the mother's position, administering oxygen, giving intravenous fluids, or performing an emergency cesarean section.

A Cesarean section, often referred to as a C-section, is a surgical procedure used to deliver a baby. It involves making an incision through the mother's abdomen and uterus to remove the baby. This procedure may be necessary when a vaginal delivery would put the mother or the baby at risk.

There are several reasons why a C-section might be recommended, including:

* The baby is in a breech position (feet first) or a transverse position (sideways) and cannot be turned to a normal head-down position.
* The baby is too large to safely pass through the mother's birth canal.
* The mother has a medical condition, such as heart disease or high blood pressure, that could make vaginal delivery risky.
* The mother has an infection, such as HIV or herpes, that could be passed to the baby during a vaginal delivery.
* The labor is not progressing and there are concerns about the health of the mother or the baby.

C-sections are generally safe for both the mother and the baby, but like any surgery, they do carry some risks. These can include infection, bleeding, blood clots, and injury to nearby organs. In addition, women who have a C-section are more likely to experience complications in future pregnancies, such as placenta previa or uterine rupture.

If you have questions about whether a C-section is necessary for your delivery, it's important to discuss your options with your healthcare provider.

Obstetrical anesthesia refers to the use of anesthetic techniques and medications during childbirth or obstetrical procedures. The goal is to provide pain relief and comfort to the birthing person while ensuring the safety of both the mother and the baby. There are different types of obstetrical anesthesia, including:

1. Local anesthesia: Injection of a local anesthetic agent to numb a specific area, such as the perineum (the area between the vagina and the anus) during childbirth.
2. Regional anesthesia: Numbing a larger region of the body using techniques like spinal or epidural anesthesia. These methods involve injecting local anesthetic agents near the spinal cord to block nerve impulses, providing pain relief in the lower half of the body.
3. General anesthesia: Using inhaled gases or intravenous medications to render the birthing person unconscious during cesarean sections (C-sections) or other surgical procedures related to childbirth.

The choice of anesthetic technique depends on various factors, including the type of delivery, the mother's medical history, and the preferences of both the mother and the healthcare team. Obstetrical anesthesia requires specialized training and expertise to ensure safe and effective pain management during labor and delivery.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

"Delivery, Obstetric" is a medical term that refers to the process of giving birth to a baby. It involves the passage of the fetus through the mother's vagina or via Caesarean section (C-section), which is a surgical procedure.

The obstetric delivery process typically includes three stages:

1. The first stage begins with the onset of labor and ends when the cervix is fully dilated.
2. The second stage starts with full dilation of the cervix and ends with the birth of the baby.
3. The third stage involves the delivery of the placenta, which is the organ that provides oxygen and nutrients to the developing fetus during pregnancy.

Obstetric delivery requires careful monitoring and management by healthcare professionals to ensure the safety and well-being of both the mother and the baby. Various interventions and techniques may be used during the delivery process to facilitate a safe and successful outcome, including the use of medications, assisted delivery with forceps or vacuum extraction, and C-section.

Pregnancy outcome refers to the final result or status of a pregnancy, including both the health of the mother and the newborn baby. It can be categorized into various types such as:

1. Live birth: The delivery of one or more babies who show signs of life after separation from their mother.
2. Stillbirth: The delivery of a baby who has died in the womb after 20 weeks of pregnancy.
3. Miscarriage: The spontaneous loss of a pregnancy before the 20th week.
4. Abortion: The intentional termination of a pregnancy before the fetus can survive outside the uterus.
5. Ectopic pregnancy: A pregnancy that develops outside the uterus, usually in the fallopian tube, which is not viable and requires medical attention.
6. Preterm birth: The delivery of a baby before 37 weeks of gestation, which can lead to various health issues for the newborn.
7. Full-term birth: The delivery of a baby between 37 and 42 weeks of gestation.
8. Post-term pregnancy: The delivery of a baby after 42 weeks of gestation, which may increase the risk of complications for both mother and baby.

The pregnancy outcome is influenced by various factors such as maternal age, health status, lifestyle habits, genetic factors, and access to quality prenatal care.

Gestational age is the length of time that has passed since the first day of the last menstrual period (LMP) in pregnant women. It is the standard unit used to estimate the age of a pregnancy and is typically expressed in weeks. This measure is used because the exact date of conception is often not known, but the start of the last menstrual period is usually easier to recall.

It's important to note that since ovulation typically occurs around two weeks after the start of the LMP, gestational age is approximately two weeks longer than fetal age, which is the actual time elapsed since conception. Medical professionals use both gestational and fetal age to track the development and growth of the fetus during pregnancy.

Birth weight refers to the first weight of a newborn infant, usually taken immediately after birth. It is a critical vital sign that indicates the baby's health status and is used as a predictor for various short-term and long-term health outcomes.

Typically, a full-term newborn's weight ranges from 5.5 to 8.8 pounds (2.5 to 4 kg), although normal birth weights can vary significantly based on factors such as gestational age, genetics, maternal health, and nutrition. Low birth weight is defined as less than 5.5 pounds (2.5 kg), while high birth weight is greater than 8.8 pounds (4 kg).

Low birth weight babies are at a higher risk for various medical complications, including respiratory distress syndrome, jaundice, infections, and developmental delays. High birth weight babies may face challenges with delivery, increased risk of obesity, and potential metabolic issues later in life. Regular prenatal care is essential to monitor fetal growth and ensure a healthy pregnancy and optimal birth weight for the baby.

Fetal monitoring is a procedure used during labor and delivery to assess the well-being of the fetus. It involves the use of electronic devices to measure and record the fetal heart rate and uterine contractions. The information obtained from fetal monitoring can help healthcare providers identify any signs of fetal distress, such as a decreased fetal heart rate, which may indicate the need for interventions or an emergency cesarean delivery.

There are two main types of fetal monitoring: external and internal. External fetal monitoring involves placing sensors on the mother's abdomen to detect the fetal heart rate and uterine contractions. Internal fetal monitoring, which is typically used during high-risk deliveries, involves inserting an electrode into the fetus' scalp to measure the fetal heart rate more accurately.

Fetal monitoring can provide valuable information about the fetus's well-being during labor and delivery, but it is important to note that it has limitations and may not always detect fetal distress in a timely manner. Therefore, healthcare providers must use their clinical judgment and other assessment tools, such as fetal movement counting and visual examination of the fetus, to ensure the safe delivery of the baby.

A premature infant is a baby born before 37 weeks of gestation. They may face various health challenges because their organs are not fully developed. The earlier a baby is born, the higher the risk of complications. Prematurity can lead to short-term and long-term health issues, such as respiratory distress syndrome, jaundice, anemia, infections, hearing problems, vision problems, developmental delays, and cerebral palsy. Intensive medical care and support are often necessary for premature infants to ensure their survival and optimal growth and development.

'Labor, Obstetric' refers to the physiological process that occurs during childbirth, leading to the expulsion of the fetus from the uterus. It is divided into three stages:

1. The first stage begins with the onset of regular contractions and cervical dilation and effacement (thinning and shortening) until full dilation is reached (approximately 10 cm). This stage can last from hours to days, particularly in nulliparous women (those who have not given birth before).
2. The second stage starts with complete cervical dilation and ends with the delivery of the baby. During this stage, the mother experiences strong contractions that help push the fetus down the birth canal. This stage typically lasts from 20 minutes to two hours but can take longer in some cases.
3. The third stage involves the delivery of the placenta (afterbirth) and membranes, which usually occurs within 15-30 minutes after the baby's birth. However, it can sometimes take up to an hour for the placenta to be expelled completely.

Obstetric labor is a complex process that requires careful monitoring and management by healthcare professionals to ensure the safety and well-being of both the mother and the baby.

Pregnancy complications refer to any health problems that arise during pregnancy which can put both the mother and the baby at risk. These complications may occur at any point during the pregnancy, from conception until childbirth. Some common pregnancy complications include:

1. Gestational diabetes: a type of diabetes that develops during pregnancy in women who did not have diabetes before becoming pregnant.
2. Preeclampsia: a pregnancy complication characterized by high blood pressure and damage to organs such as the liver or kidneys.
3. Placenta previa: a condition where the placenta covers the cervix, which can cause bleeding and may require delivery via cesarean section.
4. Preterm labor: when labor begins before 37 weeks of gestation, which can lead to premature birth and other complications.
5. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR): a condition where the fetus does not grow at a normal rate inside the womb.
6. Multiple pregnancies: carrying more than one baby, such as twins or triplets, which can increase the risk of premature labor and other complications.
7. Rh incompatibility: a condition where the mother's blood type is different from the baby's, which can cause anemia and jaundice in the newborn.
8. Pregnancy loss: including miscarriage, stillbirth, or ectopic pregnancy, which can be emotionally devastating for the parents.

It is important to monitor pregnancy closely and seek medical attention promptly if any concerning symptoms arise. With proper care and management, many pregnancy complications can be treated effectively, reducing the risk of harm to both the mother and the baby.

Obstetric labor complications refer to any physical or physiological difficulties that arise during the process of childbirth (labor) and can pose risks to the health of the mother, baby, or both. These complications may result from various factors such as pre-existing medical conditions, fetal distress, prolonged labor, abnormal positioning of the fetus, or issues related to the size or weight of the baby.

Some examples of obstetric labor complications include:

1. Fetal distress: This occurs when the fetus is not receiving adequate oxygen supply or is in danger during labor. It can be caused by various factors such as umbilical cord compression, placental abruption, or maternal anemia.
2. Prolonged labor: When labor lasts for more than 20 hours in first-time mothers or more than 14 hours in subsequent pregnancies, it is considered prolonged labor. This can lead to fatigue, infection, and other complications for both the mother and baby.
3. Abnormal positioning of the fetus: Normally, the fetus should be positioned head-down (vertex) before delivery. However, if the fetus is in a breech or transverse position, it can lead to difficult labor and increased risk of complications during delivery.
4. Shoulder dystocia: This occurs when the baby's shoulders get stuck behind the mother's pubic bone during delivery, making it challenging to deliver the baby. It can cause injuries to both the mother and the baby.
5. Placental abruption: This is a serious complication where the placenta separates from the uterus before delivery, leading to bleeding and potential oxygen deprivation for the fetus.
6. Uterine rupture: A rare but life-threatening complication where the uterus tears during labor, causing severe bleeding and potentially endangering both the mother and baby's lives.
7. Preeclampsia/eclampsia: This is a pregnancy-related hypertensive disorder that can lead to complications such as seizures, organ failure, or even maternal death if left untreated.
8. Postpartum hemorrhage: Excessive bleeding after delivery can be life-threatening and requires immediate medical attention.
9. Infections: Maternal infections during pregnancy or childbirth can lead to complications for both the mother and baby, including preterm labor, low birth weight, and even fetal death.
10. Anesthesia complications: Adverse reactions to anesthesia during delivery can cause respiratory depression, allergic reactions, or other complications that may endanger the mother's life.

A "newborn infant" refers to a baby in the first 28 days of life outside of the womb. This period is crucial for growth and development, but also poses unique challenges as the infant's immune system is not fully developed, making them more susceptible to various diseases.

"Newborn diseases" are health conditions that specifically affect newborn infants. These can be categorized into three main types:

1. Congenital disorders: These are conditions that are present at birth and may be inherited or caused by factors such as infection, exposure to harmful substances during pregnancy, or chromosomal abnormalities. Examples include Down syndrome, congenital heart defects, and spina bifida.

2. Infectious diseases: Newborn infants are particularly vulnerable to infections due to their immature immune systems. Common infectious diseases in newborns include sepsis (bloodstream infection), pneumonia, and meningitis. These can be acquired from the mother during pregnancy or childbirth, or from the environment after birth.

3. Developmental disorders: These are conditions that affect the normal growth and development of the newborn infant. Examples include cerebral palsy, intellectual disabilities, and vision or hearing impairments.

It is important to note that many newborn diseases can be prevented or treated with appropriate medical care, including prenatal care, proper hygiene practices, and timely vaccinations. Regular check-ups and monitoring of the newborn's health by a healthcare provider are essential for early detection and management of any potential health issues.

Resuscitation is a medical term that refers to the process of reversing cardiopulmonary arrest or preventing further deterioration of someone in cardiac or respiratory arrest. It involves a series of interventions aimed at restoring spontaneous blood circulation and breathing, thereby preventing or minimizing tissue damage due to lack of oxygen.

The most common form of resuscitation is cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), which combines chest compressions to manually pump blood through the body with rescue breaths to provide oxygen to the lungs. In a hospital setting, more advanced techniques such as defibrillation, medication administration, and intubation may also be used as part of the resuscitation process.

The goal of resuscitation is to stabilize the patient's condition and prevent further harm while treating the underlying cause of the arrest. Successful resuscitation can lead to a full recovery or, in some cases, result in varying degrees of neurological impairment depending on the severity and duration of the cardiac or respiratory arrest.

Obstetrical analgesia refers to the use of medications or techniques to relieve pain during childbirth. The goal of obstetrical analgesia is to provide comfort and relaxation for the mother during labor and delivery while minimizing risks to both the mother and the baby. There are several methods of obstetrical analgesia, including:

1. Systemic opioids: These medications, such as morphine or fentanyl, can be given intravenously to help reduce the pain of contractions. However, they can cause side effects such as drowsiness, nausea, and respiratory depression in the mother and may also affect the baby's breathing and alertness at birth.
2. Regional anesthesia: This involves numbing a specific area of the body using local anesthetics. The two most common types of regional anesthesia used during childbirth are epidural and spinal anesthesia.

a. Epidural anesthesia: A catheter is inserted into the lower back, near the spinal cord, to deliver a continuous infusion of local anesthetic and sometimes opioids. This numbs the lower half of the body, reducing the pain of contractions and allowing for a more comfortable delivery. Epidural anesthesia can also be used for cesarean sections.

b. Spinal anesthesia: A single injection of local anesthetic is given into the spinal fluid, numbing the lower half of the body. This type of anesthesia is often used for cesarean sections and can also be used for vaginal deliveries in some cases.

3. Nitrous oxide: Also known as laughing gas, this colorless, odorless gas can be inhaled through a mask to help reduce anxiety and provide some pain relief during labor. It is not commonly used in the United States but is more popular in other countries.

When choosing an obstetrical analgesia method, it's essential to consider the potential benefits and risks for both the mother and the baby. Factors such as the mother's health, the progression of labor, and personal preferences should all be taken into account when making this decision. It is crucial to discuss these options with a healthcare provider to determine the most appropriate choice for each individual situation.

Low birth weight is a term used to describe babies who are born weighing less than 5 pounds, 8 ounces (2,500 grams). It's often defined as a birth weight of 2,499 grams or less. This can be further categorized into very low birth weight (less than 1,500 grams) and extremely low birth weight (less than 1,000 grams). Low birth weight is most commonly caused by premature birth, but it can also be caused by growth restriction in the womb. These babies are at risk for numerous health complications, both in the short and long term.

Obstetrical forceps are a surgical instrument used in childbirth to help deliver a baby when there are difficulties in the normal birthing process. They are a pair of curved metal instruments that resemble tongs, with each part designed to grip onto specific areas of the baby's head. The forceps are carefully applied to the baby's head during a contraction, and then used to gently guide the baby out of the mother's birth canal. This procedure is called an assisted vaginal delivery or operative vaginal delivery.

Obstetrical forceps require precise knowledge and skill to use safely and effectively, as their misuse can lead to complications such as facial injuries, skull fractures, or nerve damage in the baby. Therefore, they are typically used by experienced obstetricians in specific clinical situations, such as when the labor is prolonged, when the baby shows signs of distress, or when there is a need for a quick delivery due to maternal health concerns.

A delivery room is a specialized unit in a hospital where childbirth takes place. It is staffed with healthcare professionals, such as obstetricians, nurses, and midwives, who are trained to assist women during labor, delivery, and the immediate postpartum period. Delivery rooms are equipped with medical equipment and supplies to monitor the mother's and baby's vital signs, administer medications, and perform emergency procedures if necessary.

Delivery rooms may also be referred to as labor and delivery units or wards. In some hospitals, there may be different types of delivery rooms, such as birthing suites that provide a more home-like atmosphere for women who prefer a natural childbirth experience. Overall, the goal of a delivery room is to ensure a safe and healthy outcome for both the mother and the baby during childbirth.

Induced labor refers to the initiation of labor before it begins spontaneously, which is usually achieved through medical intervention. This process is initiated when there is a medically indicated reason to deliver the baby, such as maternal or fetal compromise, prolonged pregnancy, or reduced fetal movement. The most common methods used to induce labor include membrane stripping, prostaglandin administration, and oxytocin infusion. It's important to note that induced labor carries certain risks, including a higher chance of uterine hyperstimulation, infection, and the need for assisted vaginal delivery or cesarean section. Therefore, it should only be performed under the close supervision of a healthcare provider in a clinical setting.

Obstetrical extraction refers to a medical procedure in obstetrics, where a fetus or a dead fetus is removed from the uterus through surgical means. This is typically performed when a vaginal delivery is not possible or safe due to various reasons such as obstructed labor, maternal or fetal distress, or prolonged pregnancy. The procedure may involve dilation and evacuation (D&E) or instrumental delivery using forceps or vacuum extractor. It is usually done under anesthesia in a hospital setting.

Cardiotocography (CTG) is a technical means of monitoring the fetal heart rate and uterine contractions during pregnancy, particularly during labor. It provides visual information about the fetal heart rate pattern and the frequency and intensity of uterine contractions. This helps healthcare providers assess the well-being of the fetus and the progression of labor.

The cardiotocograph records two main traces:

1. Fetal heart rate (FHR): It is recorded using an ultrasound transducer placed on the mother's abdomen. The normal fetal heart rate ranges from 120 to 160 beats per minute. Changes in the FHR pattern may indicate fetal distress, hypoxia, or other complications.

2. Uterine contractions: They are recorded using a pressure sensor (toco) placed on the mother's abdomen. The intensity and frequency of uterine contractions can be assessed to evaluate the progression of labor and the effect of contractions on fetal oxygenation.

Cardiotocography is widely used in obstetrics as a non-invasive method for monitoring fetal well-being during pregnancy and labor. However, it should always be interpreted cautiously by healthcare professionals, considering other factors like maternal and fetal conditions, medical history, and clinical presentation. Overinterpretation or misinterpretation of CTG traces can lead to unnecessary interventions or delays in recognizing actual fetal distress.

Meconium Aspiration Syndrome (MAS) is a medical condition that occurs in newborns when meconium, which is the first stool of an infant, is present in the amniotic fluid and is breathed into the lungs around the time of delivery. This can cause respiratory distress, pneumonia, and in severe cases, persistent pulmonary hypertension and death.

The meconium can be inhaled into the lungs before, during, or after birth, and it can block the airways, causing a lack of oxygen to the lungs and other organs. This can lead to several complications such as infection, inflammation, and damage to the lung tissue.

MAS is more likely to occur in babies who are born past their due date or those who experience fetal distress during labor and delivery. Treatment for MAS may include oxygen therapy, suctioning of the airways, antibiotics, and in severe cases, mechanical ventilation.

Meconium is the first stool passed by a newborn infant, typically within the first 48 hours of life. It is composed of materials ingested during fetal development, including intestinal epithelial cells, lanugo (fine hair), amniotic fluid, mucus, bile, and water. The color of meconium is usually greenish-black, and its consistency can range from a thick paste to a liquid. Meconium staining of the amniotic fluid can occur when the fetus has passed meconium while still in the uterus, which may indicate fetal distress and requires careful medical attention during delivery.

A very low birth weight (VLBW) infant is a baby born weighing less than 1500 grams (3 pounds, 5 ounces). This category includes babies who are extremely preterm (born at or before 28 weeks of gestation) and/or have intrauterine growth restriction. VLBW infants often face significant health challenges, including respiratory distress syndrome, brain bleeds, infections, and feeding difficulties. They may require extended hospital stays in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and have a higher risk of long-term neurodevelopmental impairments compared to infants with normal birth weights.

The umbilical arteries are a pair of vessels that develop within the umbilical cord during fetal development. They carry oxygenated and nutrient-rich blood from the mother to the developing fetus through the placenta. These arteries arise from the internal iliac arteries in the fetus and pass through the umbilical cord to connect with the two umbilical veins within the placenta. After birth, the umbilical arteries become ligaments (the medial umbilical ligaments) that run along the inner abdominal wall.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Vacuum extraction, obstetrical is a medical procedure used during childbirth to help deliver the baby when there are signs of fetal distress or if the mother is experiencing exhaustion during labor. This assisted delivery technique involves the application of suction through a vacuum device that attaches to the baby's head, allowing the healthcare provider to gently pull the baby out as the mother pushes.

The vacuum extractor consists of a soft or rigid cup connected to a pump, which creates negative pressure inside the cup. The cup is placed on the fetal scalp and engaged during a contraction when the cervix is fully dilated and the baby's head has descended into the pelvis. The healthcare provider then uses controlled traction to help deliver the baby while monitoring both the mother and the infant for any signs of distress or complications.

Vacuum extraction should only be performed by experienced healthcare providers, as it carries risks such as scalp trauma, cephalohematoma (a collection of blood under the skin on the baby's head), subgaleal hematoma (a more serious type of bleeding beneath the scalp), and intracranial hemorrhage (bleeding inside the skull). Proper evaluation, technique, and monitoring are crucial to minimize these risks and ensure a safe delivery for both mother and baby.

A Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) is a specialized hospital unit that provides advanced, intensive care for newborn babies who are born prematurely, critically ill, or have complex medical conditions. The NICU staff includes neonatologists, neonatal nurses, respiratory therapists, and other healthcare professionals trained to provide specialized care for these vulnerable infants.

The NICU is equipped with advanced technology and monitoring systems to support the babies' breathing, heart function, temperature regulation, and nutrition. The unit may include incubators or radiant warmers to maintain the baby's body temperature, ventilators to assist with breathing, and intravenous lines to provide fluids and medications.

NICUs are typically classified into levels based on the complexity of care provided, ranging from Level I (basic care for healthy newborns) to Level IV (the highest level of care for critically ill newborns). The specific services and level of care provided in a NICU may vary depending on the hospital and geographic location.

A "premature infant" is a newborn delivered before 37 weeks of gestation. They are at greater risk for various health complications and medical conditions compared to full-term infants, due to their immature organ systems and lower birth weight. Some common diseases and health issues that premature infants may face include:

1. Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS): A lung disorder caused by the lack of surfactant, a substance that helps keep the lungs inflated. Premature infants, especially those born before 34 weeks, are at higher risk for RDS.
2. Intraventricular Hemorrhage (IVH): Bleeding in the brain's ventricles, which can lead to developmental delays or neurological issues. The risk of IVH is inversely proportional to gestational age, meaning that the earlier the infant is born, the higher the risk.
3. Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC): A gastrointestinal disease where the intestinal tissue becomes inflamed and can die. Premature infants are at greater risk for NEC due to their immature digestive systems.
4. Jaundice: A yellowing of the skin and eyes caused by an accumulation of bilirubin, a waste product from broken-down red blood cells. Premature infants may have higher rates of jaundice due to their liver's immaturity.
5. Infections: Premature infants are more susceptible to infections because of their underdeveloped immune systems. Common sources of infection include the mother's genital tract, bloodstream, or hospital environment.
6. Anemia: A condition characterized by a low red blood cell count or insufficient hemoglobin. Premature infants may develop anemia due to frequent blood sampling, rapid growth, or inadequate erythropoietin production.
7. Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP): An eye disorder affecting premature infants, where abnormal blood vessel growth occurs in the retina. Severe ROP can lead to vision loss or blindness if not treated promptly.
8. Developmental Delays: Premature infants are at risk for developmental delays due to their immature nervous systems and environmental factors such as sensory deprivation or separation from parents.
9. Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA): A congenital heart defect where the ductus arteriosus, a blood vessel that connects two major arteries in the fetal heart, fails to close after birth. Premature infants are at higher risk for PDA due to their immature cardiovascular systems.
10. Hypothermia: Premature infants have difficulty maintaining body temperature and are at risk for hypothermia, which can lead to increased metabolic demands, poor feeding, and infection.

Fetal hypoxia is a medical condition that refers to a reduced level of oxygen supply to the fetus. This can occur due to various reasons, such as maternal health problems, complications during pregnancy or delivery, or issues with the placenta. Prolonged fetal hypoxia can lead to serious complications, including brain damage and even fetal death. It is important for healthcare providers to closely monitor fetal oxygen levels during pregnancy and delivery to ensure the well-being of the fetus.

A "term birth" is a medical term that refers to a delivery or pregnancy that has reached 37 weeks or more. It is the normal length of a full-term pregnancy and is considered a healthy and low-risk period for childbirth. Babies born at term have the best chance of being healthy and not experiencing any significant medical issues, compared to those born preterm (before 37 weeks) or postterm (after 42 weeks). The different types of term births are:

* Early Term: Between 37 weeks and 38 weeks, 6 days.
* Full Term: Between 39 weeks and 40 weeks, 6 days.
* Late Term: Between 41 weeks and 41 weeks, 6 days.
* Postterm: 42 weeks or later.

It is important to note that while a term birth is generally considered low-risk, there can still be variations in the health of babies born at different points within this range. For example, research has shown that babies born at 39 weeks have better outcomes than those born at 37 or 38 weeks. Therefore, it is always best to consult with a healthcare provider for individualized guidance and recommendations regarding pregnancy and childbirth.

The first stage of labor is the period of time when the cervix dilates (opens) and effaces (thins out). This stage is further divided into two phases: the latent phase and the active phase. During the latent phase, the cervix begins to dilate and may progress slowly or stop and start. Contractions are often mild and irregular during this time. The active phase is characterized by more intense and regular contractions that cause the cervix to dilate more rapidly, typically at a rate of 1 cm per hour in first-time mothers.

The first stage of labor ends when the cervix is fully dilated (10 cm) and effaced, which signals the transition to the second stage of labor. During this stage, the mother begins pushing efforts to deliver the baby. It's important to note that the duration of each phase and the overall length of the first stage of labor can vary widely among individuals.

Infant Mortality is the death of a baby before their first birthday. The infant mortality rate is typically expressed as the number of deaths per 1,000 live births. This is a key indicator of the overall health of a population and is often used to measure the well-being of children in a society.

Infant mortality can be further categorized into neonatal mortality (death within the first 28 days of life) and postneonatal mortality (death after 28 days of life but before one year). The main causes of infant mortality vary by country and region, but generally include premature birth, low birth weight, congenital anomalies, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), and infectious diseases.

Reducing infant mortality is a major public health goal for many countries, and efforts to improve maternal and child health, access to quality healthcare, and socioeconomic conditions are crucial in achieving this goal.

Maternal age is a term used to describe the age of a woman at the time she becomes pregnant or gives birth. It is often used in medical and epidemiological contexts to discuss the potential risks, complications, and outcomes associated with pregnancy and childbirth at different stages of a woman's reproductive years.

Advanced maternal age typically refers to women who become pregnant or give birth at 35 years of age or older. This group faces an increased risk for certain chromosomal abnormalities, such as Down syndrome, and other pregnancy-related complications, including gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, and cesarean delivery.

On the other end of the spectrum, adolescent pregnancies (those that occur in women under 20 years old) also come with their own set of potential risks and complications, such as preterm birth, low birth weight, and anemia.

It's important to note that while maternal age can influence pregnancy outcomes, many other factors – including genetics, lifestyle choices, and access to quality healthcare – can also play a significant role in determining the health of both mother and baby during pregnancy and childbirth.

The second stage of labor is the active phase of childbirth, during which the uterus continues to contract and the cervix fully dilates. This stage begins when the cervix is completely open (10 cm) and ends with the birth of the baby. During this stage, the mother typically experiences strong, regular contractions that help to push the baby down the birth canal.

The second stage of labor can be further divided into two phases: the latent phase and the pushing phase. The latent phase is the period between full dilation of the cervix and the beginning of active pushing. This phase can last anywhere from a few minutes to several hours, depending on various factors such as the position of the baby, the mother's exhaustion, and whether it is the mother's first baby or not.

The pushing phase is the period during which the mother actively pushes the baby out of the birth canal. This phase typically lasts between 20 minutes to an hour, although it can be longer in some cases. The healthcare provider will guide the mother through this process, instructing her when and how to push. Once the baby's head emerges, the healthcare provider will continue to support the delivery of the baby's shoulders and body.

It is important for the mother to receive appropriate support and guidance during the second stage of labor to ensure a safe and successful delivery.

A live birth is the complete expulsion or extraction from its mother of a product of human conception, irrespective of the duration of the pregnancy, that, after such separation, breathes or shows any other evidence of life - such as beating of the heart, pulsation of the umbilical cord, or definite movement of voluntary muscles - whether or not the umbilical cord has been cut or the placenta is attached.

This definition is used by the World Health Organization (WHO) and most national statistical agencies to distinguish live births from stillbirths. It's important to note that in some medical contexts, a different definition of live birth may be used.

Prolonged pregnancy, also known as post-term pregnancy, is a medical condition defined as a pregnancy that continues beyond 42 weeks (294 days) of gestation from the first day of the last menstrual period. It is important to note that this definition is based on the estimated date of delivery and not the actual conception date. Prolonged pregnancies are associated with increased risks for both the mother and the fetus, including stillbirth, meconium aspiration, fetal distress, and difficulty during labor and delivery. Therefore, healthcare providers closely monitor pregnant women who reach 41 weeks of gestation to ensure timely delivery if necessary.

Epidural anesthesia is a type of regional anesthesia that involves the injection of local anesthetic medication into the epidural space in the spine, which is the space surrounding the dura mater, a membrane that covers the spinal cord. The injection is typically administered through a catheter placed in the lower back using a needle.

The local anesthetic drug blocks nerve impulses from the affected area, numbing it and relieving pain. Epidural anesthesia can be used for various surgical procedures, such as cesarean sections, knee or hip replacements, and hernia repairs. It is also commonly used during childbirth to provide pain relief during labor and delivery.

The effects of epidural anesthesia can vary depending on the dose and type of medication used, as well as the individual's response to the drug. The anesthetic may take several minutes to start working, and its duration of action can range from a few hours to a day or more. Epidural anesthesia is generally considered safe when administered by trained medical professionals, but like any medical procedure, it carries some risks, including infection, bleeding, nerve damage, and respiratory depression.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Chronic brain damage is a condition characterized by long-term, persistent injury to the brain that results in cognitive, physical, and behavioral impairments. It can be caused by various factors such as trauma, hypoxia (lack of oxygen), infection, toxic exposure, or degenerative diseases. The effects of chronic brain damage may not be immediately apparent and can worsen over time, leading to significant disability and reduced quality of life.

The symptoms of chronic brain damage can vary widely depending on the severity and location of the injury. They may include:

* Cognitive impairments such as memory loss, difficulty concentrating, trouble with problem-solving and decision-making, and decreased learning ability
* Motor impairments such as weakness, tremors, poor coordination, and balance problems
* Sensory impairments such as hearing or vision loss, numbness, tingling, or altered sense of touch
* Speech and language difficulties such as aphasia (problems with understanding or producing speech) or dysarthria (slurred or slow speech)
* Behavioral changes such as irritability, mood swings, depression, anxiety, and personality changes

Chronic brain damage can be diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, neurological evaluation, and imaging studies such as MRI or CT scans. Treatment typically focuses on managing symptoms and maximizing function through rehabilitation therapies such as occupational therapy, speech therapy, and physical therapy. In some cases, medication or surgery may be necessary to address specific symptoms or underlying causes of the brain damage.

Fetal blood refers to the blood circulating in a fetus during pregnancy. It is essential for the growth and development of the fetus, as it carries oxygen and nutrients from the placenta to the developing tissues and organs. Fetal blood also removes waste products, such as carbon dioxide, from the fetal tissues and transports them to the placenta for elimination.

Fetal blood has several unique characteristics that distinguish it from adult blood. For example, fetal hemoglobin (HbF) is the primary type of hemoglobin found in fetal blood, whereas adults primarily have adult hemoglobin (HbA). Fetal hemoglobin has a higher affinity for oxygen than adult hemoglobin, which allows it to more efficiently extract oxygen from the maternal blood in the placenta.

Additionally, fetal blood contains a higher proportion of reticulocytes (immature red blood cells) and nucleated red blood cells compared to adult blood. These differences reflect the high turnover rate of red blood cells in the developing fetus and the need for rapid growth and development.

Examination of fetal blood can provide important information about the health and well-being of the fetus during pregnancy. For example, fetal blood sampling (also known as cordocentesis or percutaneous umbilical blood sampling) can be used to diagnose genetic disorders, infections, and other conditions that may affect fetal development. However, this procedure carries risks, including preterm labor, infection, and fetal loss, and is typically only performed when there is a significant risk of fetal compromise or when other diagnostic tests have been inconclusive.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

A premature birth is defined as the delivery of a baby before 37 weeks of gestation. This can occur spontaneously or as a result of medical intervention due to maternal or fetal complications. Premature babies, also known as preemies, may face various health challenges depending on how early they are born and their weight at birth. These challenges can include respiratory distress syndrome, jaundice, anemia, issues with feeding and digestion, developmental delays, and vision problems. With advancements in medical care and neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), many premature babies survive and go on to lead healthy lives.

Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain refers to a condition characterized by a reduced supply of oxygen (hypoxia) and blood flow (ischemia) to the brain. This can lead to serious damage or death of brain cells, depending on the severity and duration of the hypoxic-ischemic event.

Hypoxia occurs when there is insufficient oxygen available to meet the metabolic needs of the brain tissue. Ischemia results from a decrease in blood flow, which can be caused by various factors such as cardiac arrest, stroke, or severe respiratory distress. When both hypoxia and ischemia occur together, they can have a synergistic effect, leading to more severe brain damage.

Brain Hypoxia-Ischemia can result in neurological deficits, cognitive impairment, and physical disabilities, depending on the area of the brain affected. Treatment typically focuses on addressing the underlying cause of the hypoxia-ischemia and providing supportive care to minimize secondary damage. In some cases, therapeutic hypothermia may be used to reduce metabolic demands and protect vulnerable brain tissue.

'Labor presentation' is a term used in obstetrics to describe the part of the fetus that enters the mother's pelvis first during labor. This positioning determines the route the baby will take through the birth canal. The most common and uncomplicated presentation is vertex or cephalic presentation, where the baby's head is the presenting part. Other possible presentations include breech (buttocks or feet first), face, brow, and shoulder presentations, which can potentially lead to complications during delivery if not managed appropriately.

Perinatal mortality is the death of a baby around the time of birth. It specifically refers to stillbirths (fetal deaths at 28 weeks of gestation or more) and deaths in the first week of life (early neonatal deaths). The perinatal period is defined as beginning at 22 weeks (154 days) of gestation and ending 7 completed days after birth. Perinatal mortality rate is the number of perinatal deaths during this period, expressed per 1000 total births (live births + stillbirths). High perinatal mortality rates can indicate poor quality of care during pregnancy and childbirth.

Labor pain is the physiological discomfort and pain experienced by women during childbirth, typically beginning in the lower back and radiating to the abdomen as contractions become more intense and frequent. It's primarily caused by the contraction of uterine muscles, pressure on the cervix, and stretching of the vaginal tissues during labor and delivery.

The pain can vary greatly among individuals, ranging from mild to severe, and it may be influenced by factors such as fear, anxiety, cultural expectations, and previous childbirth experiences. Various methods, including pharmacological interventions (such as epidural anesthesia), non-pharmacological techniques (such as breathing exercises, relaxation techniques, and water immersion), and alternative therapies (such as acupuncture and massage) can be used to manage labor pain.

Spinal anesthesia is a type of regional anesthesia that involves injecting local anesthetic medication into the cerebrospinal fluid in the subarachnoid space, which is the space surrounding the spinal cord. This procedure is typically performed by introducing a needle into the lower back, between the vertebrae, to reach the subarachnoid space.

Once the local anesthetic is introduced into this space, it spreads to block nerve impulses from the corresponding levels of the spine, resulting in numbness and loss of sensation in specific areas of the body below the injection site. The extent and level of anesthesia depend on the amount and type of medication used, as well as the patient's individual response.

Spinal anesthesia is often used for surgeries involving the lower abdomen, pelvis, or lower extremities, such as cesarean sections, hernia repairs, hip replacements, and knee arthroscopies. It can also be utilized for procedures like epidural steroid injections to manage chronic pain conditions affecting the spine and lower limbs.

While spinal anesthesia provides effective pain relief during and after surgery, it may cause side effects such as low blood pressure, headache, or difficulty urinating. These potential complications should be discussed with the healthcare provider before deciding on this type of anesthesia.

Twin pregnancy refers to a type of multiple pregnancy where a woman is carrying two fetuses simultaneously. There are two types of twin pregnancies: monozygotic (identical) and dizygotic (fraternal). Monoygotic twins occur when a single fertilized egg (zygote) splits and develops into two separate embryos, resulting in identical twins who share the same genetic material. Dizygotic twins, on the other hand, result from the fertilization of two separate eggs by two different sperm cells, leading to non-identical twins who have their own unique genetic material.

Twin pregnancies are associated with higher risks of complications compared to singleton pregnancies, including preterm labor, low birth weight, gestational diabetes, and preeclampsia. Close monitoring by healthcare providers is essential to ensure the best possible outcomes for both the mother and the twins.

Perinatal care refers to the health care provided to pregnant individuals, fetuses, and newborn infants during the time immediately before and after birth. This period is defined as beginning at approximately 20 weeks of gestation and ending 4 weeks after birth. Perinatal care includes preventative measures, medical and supportive services, and treatment for complications during pregnancy, childbirth, and in the newborn period. It encompasses a wide range of services including prenatal care, labor and delivery management, postpartum care, and neonatal care. The goal of perinatal care is to ensure the best possible outcomes for both the mother and the baby by preventing, diagnosing, and treating any potential health issues that may arise during this critical period.

The third trimester of pregnancy is the final stage of pregnancy that lasts from week 29 until birth, which typically occurs around the 40th week. During this period, the fetus continues to grow and mature, gaining weight rapidly. The mother's body also prepares for childbirth by dilating the cervix and producing milk in preparation for breastfeeding. Regular prenatal care is crucial during this time to monitor the health of both the mother and the developing fetus, as well as to prepare for delivery.

In medical terms, parity refers to the number of times a woman has given birth to a viable fetus, usually defined as a pregnancy that reaches at least 20 weeks' gestation. It is often used in obstetrics and gynecology to describe a woman's childbearing history and to assess potential risks associated with childbirth.

Parity is typically categorized as follows:

* Nulliparous: A woman who has never given birth to a viable fetus.
* Primiparous: A woman who has given birth to one viable fetus.
* Multiparous: A woman who has given birth to more than one viable fetus.

In some cases, parity may also consider the number of pregnancies that resulted in stillbirths or miscarriages, although this is not always the case. It's important to note that parity does not necessarily reflect the total number of pregnancies a woman has had, only those that resulted in viable births.

Bupivacaine is a long-acting local anesthetic drug, which is used to cause numbness or loss of feeling in a specific area of the body during certain medical procedures such as surgery, dental work, or childbirth. It works by blocking the nerves that transmit pain signals to the brain.

Bupivacaine is available as a solution for injection and is usually administered directly into the tissue surrounding the nerve to be blocked (nerve block) or into the spinal fluid (epidural). The onset of action of bupivacaine is relatively slow, but its duration of action is long, making it suitable for procedures that require prolonged pain relief.

Like all local anesthetics, bupivacaine carries a risk of side effects such as allergic reactions, nerve damage, and systemic toxicity if accidentally injected into a blood vessel or given in excessive doses. It should be used with caution in patients with certain medical conditions, including heart disease, liver disease, and neurological disorders.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

A Severity of Illness Index is a measurement tool used in healthcare to assess the severity of a patient's condition and the risk of mortality or other adverse outcomes. These indices typically take into account various physiological and clinical variables, such as vital signs, laboratory values, and co-morbidities, to generate a score that reflects the patient's overall illness severity.

Examples of Severity of Illness Indices include the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) system, the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS), and the Mortality Probability Model (MPM). These indices are often used in critical care settings to guide clinical decision-making, inform prognosis, and compare outcomes across different patient populations.

It is important to note that while these indices can provide valuable information about a patient's condition, they should not be used as the sole basis for clinical decision-making. Rather, they should be considered in conjunction with other factors, such as the patient's overall clinical presentation, treatment preferences, and goals of care.

Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS), Newborn is a common lung disorder in premature infants. It occurs when the lungs lack a substance called surfactant, which helps keep the tiny air sacs in the lungs open. This results in difficulty breathing and oxygenation, causing symptoms such as rapid, shallow breathing, grunting noises, flaring of the nostrils, and retractions (the skin between the ribs pulls in with each breath). RDS is more common in infants born before 34 weeks of gestation and is treated with surfactant replacement therapy, oxygen support, and mechanical ventilation if necessary. In severe cases, it can lead to complications such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia or even death.

Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of disorders that affect a person's ability to move and maintain balance and posture. According to the Mayo Clinic, CP is caused by abnormal brain development or damage to the developing brain that affects a child's ability to control movement.

The symptoms of cerebral palsy can vary in severity and may include:

* Spasticity (stiff or tight muscles)
* Rigidity (resistance to passive movement)
* Poor coordination and balance
* Weakness or paralysis
* Tremors or involuntary movements
* Abnormal gait or difficulty walking
* Difficulty with fine motor skills, such as writing or using utensils
* Speech and language difficulties
* Vision, hearing, or swallowing problems

It's important to note that cerebral palsy is not a progressive condition, meaning that it does not worsen over time. However, the symptoms may change over time, and some individuals with CP may experience additional medical conditions as they age.

Cerebral palsy is usually caused by brain damage that occurs before or during birth, but it can also be caused by brain injuries that occur in the first few years of life. Some possible causes of cerebral palsy include:

* Infections during pregnancy
* Lack of oxygen to the brain during delivery
* Traumatic head injury during birth
* Brain bleeding or stroke in the newborn period
* Genetic disorders
* Maternal illness or infection during pregnancy

There is no cure for cerebral palsy, but early intervention and treatment can help improve outcomes and quality of life. Treatment may include physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, medications to manage symptoms, surgery, and assistive devices such as braces or wheelchairs.

Fetal growth retardation, also known as intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), is a condition in which a fetus fails to grow at the expected rate during pregnancy. This can be caused by various factors such as maternal health problems, placental insufficiency, chromosomal abnormalities, and genetic disorders. The fetus may be smaller than expected for its gestational age, have reduced movement, and may be at risk for complications during labor and delivery. It is important to monitor fetal growth and development closely throughout pregnancy to detect any potential issues early on and provide appropriate medical interventions.

Home childbirth, also known as home birth, refers to the process of giving birth in a private residence, such as one's own home, rather than in a healthcare facility like a hospital or birth center. Home childbirth is typically attended by a midwife, who provides prenatal care, attends the birth, and offers postpartum care. In some cases, a doctor may also be present at a home birth. It's important to note that home birth is not legal in all countries or regions, and even where it is legal, it may not be covered by insurance. Home childbirth carries inherent risks and should only be considered after careful consultation with healthcare providers.

Fetal death, also known as stillbirth or intrauterine fetal demise, is defined as the death of a fetus at 20 weeks of gestation or later. The criteria for defining fetal death may vary slightly by country and jurisdiction, but in general, it refers to the loss of a pregnancy after the point at which the fetus is considered viable outside the womb.

Fetal death can occur for a variety of reasons, including chromosomal abnormalities, placental problems, maternal health conditions, infections, and umbilical cord accidents. In some cases, the cause of fetal death may remain unknown.

The diagnosis of fetal death is typically made through ultrasound or other imaging tests, which can confirm the absence of a heartbeat or movement in the fetus. Once fetal death has been diagnosed, medical professionals will work with the parents to determine the best course of action for managing the pregnancy and delivering the fetus. This may involve waiting for labor to begin naturally, inducing labor, or performing a cesarean delivery.

Experiencing a fetal death can be a very difficult and emotional experience for parents, and it is important for them to receive supportive care from their healthcare providers, family members, and friends. Grief counseling and support groups may also be helpful in coping with the loss.

"Natural childbirth" is not a medically defined term, but it generally refers to the process of giving birth without the use of medical interventions such as epidurals for pain relief or assisted delivery methods like forceps or vacuum extraction. The concept typically emphasizes the use of breathing and relaxation techniques, movement and assuming different positions during labor and delivery, and sometimes relying on the support of a doula or other labor coach. However, it's important to note that even in "natural childbirth," medical intervention may become necessary if there are concerns for the health and safety of the mother or baby.

Cardiovascular complications in pregnancy refer to conditions that affect the heart and blood vessels, which can arise during pregnancy, childbirth, or after delivery. These complications can be pre-existing or new-onset and can range from mild to severe, potentially threatening the life of both the mother and the fetus. Some examples of cardiovascular complications in pregnancy include:

1. Hypertension disorders: This includes chronic hypertension (high blood pressure before pregnancy), gestational hypertension (high blood pressure that develops after 20 weeks of pregnancy), and preeclampsia/eclampsia (a pregnancy-specific disorder characterized by high blood pressure, proteinuria, and potential organ damage).

2. Cardiomyopathy: A condition in which the heart muscle becomes weakened, leading to an enlarged heart and reduced pumping efficiency. Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a specific type that occurs during pregnancy or in the months following delivery.

3. Arrhythmias: Irregularities in the heart's rhythm, such as tachycardia (rapid heartbeat) or bradycardia (slow heartbeat), can occur during pregnancy and may require medical intervention.

4. Valvular heart disease: Pre-existing valve disorders, like mitral stenosis or aortic insufficiency, can worsen during pregnancy due to increased blood volume and cardiac output. Additionally, new valve issues might develop during pregnancy.

5. Venous thromboembolism (VTE): Pregnancy increases the risk of developing blood clots in the veins, particularly deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE).

6. Ischemic heart disease: Although rare, coronary artery disease and acute coronary syndrome can occur during pregnancy, especially in women with risk factors such as obesity, diabetes, or smoking history.

7. Heart failure: Severe cardiac dysfunction leading to fluid accumulation, shortness of breath, and reduced exercise tolerance may develop due to any of the above conditions or other underlying heart diseases.

Early recognition, monitoring, and appropriate management of these cardiovascular complications in pregnancy are crucial for maternal and fetal well-being.

Small for Gestational Age (SGA) is a term used in pediatrics to describe newborn infants who are smaller in size than expected for the number of weeks they have been in the womb. It is typically defined as a baby whose weight is below the 10th percentile for its gestational age. SGA can be further classified into two categories: constitutionally small (also known as physiologically small) and pathologically small. Constitutionally small infants are those who are genetically predisposed to being smaller, while pathologically small infants have a growth restriction due to factors such as placental insufficiency, maternal hypertension, or chromosomal abnormalities.

It is important to note that SGA is not the same as premature birth. Premature babies are those born before 37 weeks of gestation, regardless of their size. However, a baby can be both premature and SGA.

Fetal heart rate (FHR) is the number of times a fetus's heart beats in one minute. It is measured through the use of a fetoscope, Doppler ultrasound device, or cardiotocograph (CTG). A normal FHR ranges from 120 to 160 beats per minute (bpm), although it can vary throughout pregnancy and is usually faster than an adult's heart rate. Changes in the FHR pattern may indicate fetal distress, hypoxia, or other conditions that require medical attention. Regular monitoring of FHR during pregnancy, labor, and delivery helps healthcare providers assess fetal well-being and ensure a safe outcome for both the mother and the baby.

Intraoperative care refers to the medical care and interventions provided to a patient during a surgical procedure. This care is typically administered by a team of healthcare professionals, including anesthesiologists, surgeons, nurses, and other specialists as needed. The goal of intraoperative care is to maintain the patient's physiological stability throughout the surgery, minimize complications, and ensure the best possible outcome.

Intraoperative care may include:

1. Anesthesia management: Administering and monitoring anesthetic drugs to keep the patient unconscious and free from pain during the surgery.
2. Monitoring vital signs: Continuously tracking the patient's heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, body temperature, and other key physiological parameters to ensure they remain within normal ranges.
3. Fluid and blood product administration: Maintaining adequate intravascular volume and oxygen-carrying capacity through the infusion of fluids and blood products as needed.
4. Intraoperative imaging: Utilizing real-time imaging techniques, such as X-ray, ultrasound, or CT scans, to guide the surgical procedure and ensure accurate placement of implants or other devices.
5. Neuromonitoring: Using electrophysiological methods to monitor the functional integrity of nerves and neural structures during surgery, particularly in procedures involving the brain, spine, or peripheral nerves.
6. Intraoperative medication management: Administering various medications as needed for pain control, infection prophylaxis, or the treatment of medical conditions that may arise during the surgery.
7. Temperature management: Regulating the patient's body temperature to prevent hypothermia or hyperthermia, which can have adverse effects on surgical outcomes and overall patient health.
8. Communication and coordination: Ensuring effective communication among the members of the surgical team to optimize patient care and safety.

Pre-eclampsia is a pregnancy-related disorder, typically characterized by the onset of high blood pressure (hypertension) and damage to organs, such as the kidneys, after the 20th week of pregnancy. It is often accompanied by proteinuria, which is the presence of excess protein in the urine. Pre-eclampsia can lead to serious complications for both the mother and the baby if left untreated or unmanaged.

The exact causes of pre-eclampsia are not fully understood, but it is believed that placental issues, genetic factors, and immune system problems may contribute to its development. Risk factors include first-time pregnancies, history of pre-eclampsia in previous pregnancies, chronic hypertension, obesity, older age (35 or older), and assisted reproductive technology (ART) pregnancies.

Pre-eclampsia can progress to a more severe form called eclampsia, which is characterized by the onset of seizures. HELLP syndrome, another severe complication, involves hemolysis (breaking down of red blood cells), elevated liver enzymes, and low platelet count.

Early detection and management of pre-eclampsia are crucial to prevent severe complications. Regular prenatal care, including frequent blood pressure checks and urine tests, can help identify early signs of the condition. Treatment typically involves close monitoring, medication to lower blood pressure, corticosteroids to promote fetal lung maturity, and, in some cases, delivery of the baby if the mother's or baby's health is at risk.

A maternity hospital, also known as a birthing center or maternity ward in a general hospital, is a healthcare institution specifically designed to provide care and services for women during pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period. These facilities have specialized medical staff, equipment, and resources to manage both normal and high-risk pregnancies, deliveries, and newborn care.

Maternity hospitals offer various services, including:

1. Antenatal care: Regular check-ups during pregnancy to monitor the health of the mother and fetus, provide necessary vaccinations, screen for potential complications, and offer education on pregnancy, childbirth, and newborn care.
2. Intrapartum care: Monitoring and support during labor and delivery, including pain management options, epidural anesthesia, and assisted vaginal deliveries using forceps or vacuum extraction, if necessary.
3. Obstetric surgery: Access to cesarean sections (C-sections) and other surgical interventions in case of complications or emergencies during childbirth.
4. Neonatal care: Immediate care for newborns, including resuscitation, monitoring, and treatment for any medical conditions or abnormalities. Some maternity hospitals have specialized neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) to provide advanced care for premature or critically ill newborns.
5. Postpartum care: Support and guidance for mothers during the recovery period after childbirth, including breastfeeding assistance, emotional support, and family planning counseling.
6. Education and counseling: Providing expectant parents with information on pregnancy, childbirth, parenting skills, and family planning. This may include prenatal classes, lactation consultations, and support groups.

Maternity hospitals prioritize the safety and well-being of both mother and baby, ensuring that they receive high-quality medical care and support throughout the childbearing process.

Congenital abnormalities, also known as birth defects, are structural or functional anomalies that are present at birth. These abnormalities can develop at any point during fetal development, and they can affect any part of the body. They can be caused by genetic factors, environmental influences, or a combination of both.

Congenital abnormalities can range from mild to severe and may include structural defects such as heart defects, neural tube defects, and cleft lip and palate, as well as functional defects such as intellectual disabilities and sensory impairments. Some congenital abnormalities may be visible at birth, while others may not become apparent until later in life.

In some cases, congenital abnormalities may be detected through prenatal testing, such as ultrasound or amniocentesis. In other cases, they may not be diagnosed until after the baby is born. Treatment for congenital abnormalities varies depending on the type and severity of the defect, and may include surgery, therapy, medication, or a combination of these approaches.

Epidural analgesia is a type of regional anesthesia used to manage pain, most commonly during childbirth and after surgery. The term "epidural" refers to the location of the injection, which is in the epidural space of the spinal column.

In this procedure, a small amount of local anesthetic or narcotic medication is injected into the epidural space using a thin catheter. This medication blocks nerve impulses from the lower body, reducing or eliminating pain sensations without causing complete loss of feeling or muscle movement.

Epidural analgesia can be used for both short-term and long-term pain management. It is often preferred in situations where patients require prolonged pain relief, such as during labor and delivery or after major surgery. The medication can be administered continuously or intermittently, depending on the patient's needs and the type of procedure being performed.

While epidural analgesia is generally safe and effective, it can have side effects, including low blood pressure, headache, and difficulty urinating. In rare cases, it may also cause nerve damage or infection. Patients should discuss the risks and benefits of this procedure with their healthcare provider before deciding whether to undergo epidural analgesia.

Maternal-fetal exchange, also known as maternal-fetal transport or placental transfer, refers to the physiological process by which various substances are exchanged between the mother and fetus through the placenta. This exchange includes the transfer of oxygen and nutrients from the mother's bloodstream to the fetal bloodstream, as well as the removal of waste products and carbon dioxide from the fetal bloodstream to the mother's bloodstream.

The process occurs via passive diffusion, facilitated diffusion, and active transport mechanisms across the placental barrier, which is composed of fetal capillary endothelial cells, the extracellular matrix, and the syncytiotrophoblast layer of the placenta. The maternal-fetal exchange is crucial for the growth, development, and survival of the fetus throughout pregnancy.

The umbilical cord is a flexible, tube-like structure that connects the developing fetus to the placenta in the uterus during pregnancy. It arises from the abdomen of the fetus and transports essential nutrients, oxygen, and blood from the mother's circulation to the growing baby. Additionally, it carries waste products, such as carbon dioxide, from the fetus back to the placenta for elimination. The umbilical cord is primarily composed of two arteries (the umbilical arteries) and one vein (the umbilical vein), surrounded by a protective gelatinous substance called Wharton's jelly, and enclosed within a fibrous outer covering known as the umbilical cord coating. Following birth, the umbilical cord is clamped and cut, leaving behind the stump that eventually dries up and falls off, resulting in the baby's belly button.

A LOD (Logarithm of Odds) score is not a medical term per se, but rather a statistical concept that is used in genetic research and linkage analysis to determine the likelihood of a gene or genetic marker being linked to a particular disease or trait. The LOD score compares the odds of observing the pattern of inheritance of a genetic marker in a family if the marker is linked to the disease, versus the odds if the marker is not linked. A LOD score of 3 or higher is generally considered evidence for linkage, while a score of -2 or lower is considered evidence against linkage.

The Predictive Value of Tests, specifically the Positive Predictive Value (PPV) and Negative Predictive Value (NPV), are measures used in diagnostic tests to determine the probability that a positive or negative test result is correct.

Positive Predictive Value (PPV) is the proportion of patients with a positive test result who actually have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true positives divided by the total number of positive results (true positives + false positives). A higher PPV indicates that a positive test result is more likely to be a true positive, and therefore the disease is more likely to be present.

Negative Predictive Value (NPV) is the proportion of patients with a negative test result who do not have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true negatives divided by the total number of negative results (true negatives + false negatives). A higher NPV indicates that a negative test result is more likely to be a true negative, and therefore the disease is less likely to be present.

The predictive value of tests depends on the prevalence of the disease in the population being tested, as well as the sensitivity and specificity of the test. A test with high sensitivity and specificity will generally have higher predictive values than a test with low sensitivity and specificity. However, even a highly sensitive and specific test can have low predictive values if the prevalence of the disease is low in the population being tested.

Pregnancy trimesters are a way to divide the duration of pregnancy into three 3-month (or approximately 13-week) segments. This division can help healthcare providers monitor and discuss specific developmental stages, symptoms, and care needs during each phase of the pregnancy. Here's a brief overview of what typically occurs in each trimester:

1. First Trimester (Week 1 - Week 12): During this period, major organs and structures begin to form in the developing fetus. Common symptoms experienced by the pregnant individual may include morning sickness, fatigue, breast tenderness, and frequent urination. Regular prenatal care should start during these early weeks to monitor both the mother's and baby's health.

2. Second Trimester (Week 13 - Week 26): This phase is often considered more comfortable for many pregnant individuals as some symptoms from the first trimester improve. The fetus continues to grow, and movement can be felt. Organs and systems continue to develop, and the fetus becomes more active. Common symptoms during this time include back pain, stretch marks, and swelling of the ankles and feet.

3. Third Trimester (Week 27 - Birth): The final trimester is marked by significant growth and weight gain for both the mother and baby. The fetus will turn into a head-down position in preparation for birth. Common symptoms during this time include shortness of breath, heartburn, difficulty sleeping, and contractions (which can indicate early labor). Regular prenatal care remains crucial to monitor the health of both the mother and baby as delivery approaches.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Illinois" is not a medical term or condition. It is the name of a state located in the Midwestern region of the United States. If you have any questions about medical conditions or terms, I would be happy to help clarify those for you.

Surgical specialties are branches of medical practice in which surgeons perform surgical procedures to treat various diseases, injuries, or deformities. These specialties require advanced training, knowledge, and skills beyond general surgery. Here are some examples of surgical specialties:

1. Cardiothoracic Surgery: This specialty focuses on the surgical treatment of conditions related to the heart, lungs, and other structures in the chest.
2. Neurosurgery: Neurosurgeons specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the nervous system, including the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves.
3. Orthopedic Surgery: Orthopedic surgeons treat conditions related to the musculoskeletal system, including bones, joints, ligaments, tendons, and muscles.
4. Ophthalmology: Ophthalmologists specialize in medical and surgical treatment of eye disorders and diseases.
5. Otolaryngology (ENT): Otolaryngologists treat conditions related to the ear, nose, throat, head, and neck.
6. Plastic Surgery: Plastic surgeons perform cosmetic and reconstructive procedures to improve the appearance or function of various parts of the body.
7. Urology: Urologists specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of conditions related to the urinary system and male reproductive organs.
8. Vascular Surgery: Vascular surgeons treat disorders of the circulatory system, including arteries and veins.
9. Pediatric Surgery: Pediatric surgeons specialize in the surgical care of children, from infants to adolescents.
10. Surgical Oncology: Surgical oncologists focus on the surgical removal of tumors and other cancerous growths.

Surgical specialists must complete a residency program in their chosen specialty after completing medical school. Some may also pursue fellowship training to gain further expertise in a subspecialty area.

Hemiplegia is a medical term that refers to paralysis affecting one side of the body. It is typically caused by damage to the motor center of the brain, such as from a stroke, head injury, or brain tumor. The symptoms can vary in severity but often include muscle weakness, stiffness, and difficulty with coordination and balance on the affected side. In severe cases, the individual may be unable to move or feel anything on that side of the body. Hemiplegia can also affect speech, vision, and other functions controlled by the damaged area of the brain. Rehabilitation therapy is often recommended to help individuals with hemiplegia regain as much function as possible.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

Neonatal Intensive Care (NIC) is a specialized medical care for newborn babies who are born prematurely, have low birth weight, or have medical conditions that require advanced medical intervention. This can include monitoring and support for breathing, heart function, temperature regulation, and nutrition. NICUs are staffed with healthcare professionals trained in neonatology, nursing, respiratory therapy, and other specialized areas to provide the highest level of care for these vulnerable infants.

The goal of NICU is to stabilize the newborn's condition, treat medical problems, promote growth and development, and support the family throughout the hospitalization and transition to home. The level of care provided in a NICU can vary depending on the severity of the infant's condition, ranging from basic monitoring and support to complex treatments such as mechanical ventilation, surgery, and medication therapy.

In general, NICUs are classified into different levels based on the complexity of care they can provide. Level I NICUs provide basic care for infants born at or near term who require minimal medical intervention. Level II NICUs provide more advanced care for premature or sick newborns who require specialized monitoring and treatment but do not need surgery or complex therapies. Level III NICUs provide the highest level of care, including advanced respiratory support, surgical services, and critical care for critically ill infants with complex medical conditions.

Hypotension is a medical term that refers to abnormally low blood pressure, usually defined as a systolic blood pressure less than 90 millimeters of mercury (mm Hg) or a diastolic blood pressure less than 60 mm Hg. Blood pressure is the force exerted by the blood against the walls of the blood vessels as the heart pumps blood.

Hypotension can cause symptoms such as dizziness, lightheadedness, weakness, and fainting, especially when standing up suddenly. In severe cases, hypotension can lead to shock, which is a life-threatening condition characterized by multiple organ failure due to inadequate blood flow.

Hypotension can be caused by various factors, including certain medications, medical conditions such as heart disease, endocrine disorders, and dehydration. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience symptoms of hypotension, as it can indicate an underlying health issue that requires treatment.

I'm not sure what you mean by "Women, Working" as it is not a medical term. However, I can provide some information about the relationship between women's health and work.

Women's occupational health is an important area of study that focuses on the physical, mental, and social well-being of women in the workplace. Women face unique health challenges in the workplace, including exposure to hazardous substances, musculoskeletal disorders, sexual harassment, and job stress.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines occupational health as "the promotion and maintenance of the highest degree of physical, mental and social well-being of workers in all occupations." This definition applies to women as much as it does to men. However, due to various factors such as gender roles, societal expectations, and discrimination, women may face additional barriers to achieving optimal health in the workplace.

Therefore, "Women, Working" can be defined in a broader context as the study of the physical, mental, and social well-being of women in relation to their work and employment. This definition encompasses various aspects of women's occupational health, including but not limited to exposure to hazards, job stress, work-life balance, and gender discrimination.

A stillbirth is defined as the delivery of a baby who has died in the womb after 20 weeks of pregnancy. The baby may die at any time during the pregnancy, but death must occur after 20 weeks to be classified as a stillbirth. Stillbirths can have many different causes, including problems with the placenta or umbilical cord, chromosomal abnormalities, infections, and birth defects. In some cases, the cause of a stillbirth may not be able to be determined.

Stillbirth is a tragic event that can have significant emotional and psychological impacts on the parents and other family members. It is important for healthcare providers to offer support and resources to help families cope with their loss. This may include counseling, support groups, and information about memorializing their baby.

Meperidine is a synthetic opioid analgesic (pain reliever) that works by binding to opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord, blocking the transmission of pain signals. It is also known by its brand name Demerol and is used to treat moderate to severe pain. Meperidine has a rapid onset of action and its effects typically last for 2-4 hours.

Meperidine can cause various side effects such as dizziness, sedation, nausea, vomiting, sweating, and respiratory depression (slowed breathing). It also has a risk of abuse and physical dependence, so it is classified as a Schedule II controlled substance in the United States.

Meperidine should be used with caution and under the supervision of a healthcare provider due to its potential for serious side effects and addiction. It may not be suitable for people with certain medical conditions or those who are taking other medications that can interact with meperidine.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Prenatal care is a type of preventive healthcare that focuses on providing regular check-ups and medical care to pregnant women, with the aim of ensuring the best possible health outcomes for both the mother and the developing fetus. It involves routine prenatal screenings and tests, such as blood pressure monitoring, urine analysis, weight checks, and ultrasounds, to assess the progress of the pregnancy and identify any potential health issues or complications early on.

Prenatal care also includes education and counseling on topics such as nutrition, exercise, and lifestyle choices that can affect pregnancy outcomes. It may involve referrals to specialists, such as obstetricians, perinatologists, or maternal-fetal medicine specialists, for high-risk pregnancies.

Overall, prenatal care is an essential component of ensuring a healthy pregnancy and reducing the risk of complications during childbirth and beyond.

Logistic models, specifically logistic regression models, are a type of statistical analysis used in medical and epidemiological research to identify the relationship between the risk of a certain health outcome or disease (dependent variable) and one or more independent variables, such as demographic factors, exposure variables, or other clinical measurements.

In contrast to linear regression models, logistic regression models are used when the dependent variable is binary or dichotomous in nature, meaning it can only take on two values, such as "disease present" or "disease absent." The model uses a logistic function to estimate the probability of the outcome based on the independent variables.

Logistic regression models are useful for identifying risk factors and estimating the strength of associations between exposures and health outcomes, adjusting for potential confounders, and predicting the probability of an outcome given certain values of the independent variables. They can also be used to develop clinical prediction rules or scores that can aid in decision-making and patient care.

Developmental disabilities are a group of conditions that arise in childhood and are characterized by significant impairments in cognitive functioning, physical development, or both. These disabilities can affect various areas of an individual's life, including their ability to learn, communicate, socialize, and take care of themselves.

Examples of developmental disabilities include intellectual disabilities, cerebral palsy, autism spectrum disorder, Down syndrome, and fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. These conditions are typically diagnosed in childhood and can persist throughout an individual's life.

The causes of developmental disabilities are varied and can include genetic factors, environmental influences, and complications during pregnancy or childbirth. In some cases, the exact cause may be unknown.

It is important to note that individuals with developmental disabilities have unique strengths and abilities, as well as challenges. With appropriate support and services, they can lead fulfilling lives and participate actively in their communities.

Acid-base equilibrium refers to the balance between the concentration of acids and bases in a solution, which determines its pH level. In a healthy human body, maintaining acid-base equilibrium is crucial for proper cellular function and homeostasis.

The balance is maintained by several buffering systems in the body, including the bicarbonate buffer system, which helps to regulate the pH of blood. This system involves the reaction between carbonic acid (a weak acid) and bicarbonate ions (a base) to form water and carbon dioxide.

The balance between acids and bases is carefully regulated by the body's respiratory and renal systems. The lungs control the elimination of carbon dioxide, a weak acid, through exhalation, while the kidneys regulate the excretion of hydrogen ions and the reabsorption of bicarbonate ions.

When the balance between acids and bases is disrupted, it can lead to acid-base disorders such as acidosis (excessive acidity) or alkalosis (excessive basicity). These conditions can have serious consequences on various organ systems if left untreated.

High-risk pregnancy is a term used to describe a situation where the mother or the fetus has an increased risk of developing complications during pregnancy, labor, delivery, or in the postpartum period. These risks may be due to pre-existing medical conditions in the mother, such as diabetes, hypertension, heart disease, kidney disease, autoimmune disorders, or infectious diseases like HIV/AIDS. Other factors that can contribute to a high-risk pregnancy include advanced maternal age (35 years and older), obesity, multiple gestations (twins, triplets, etc.), fetal growth restriction, placental issues, and a history of previous pregnancy complications or preterm labor.

High-risk pregnancies require specialized care and monitoring by healthcare professionals, often involving maternal-fetal medicine specialists, obstetricians, perinatologists, and neonatologists. Regular prenatal care, frequent checkups, ultrasound monitoring, and sometimes additional testing and interventions may be necessary to ensure the best possible outcomes for both the mother and the baby.

'Pregnancy in Diabetics' refers to the condition where an individual with pre-existing diabetes mellitus becomes pregnant. This can be further categorized into two types:

1. Pre-gestational diabetes: This is when a woman is diagnosed with diabetes before she becomes pregnant. It includes both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. Proper control of blood sugar levels prior to conception and during pregnancy is crucial to reduce the risk of complications for both the mother and the baby.

2. Gestational diabetes: This is when a woman develops high blood sugar levels during pregnancy, typically in the second or third trimester. While it usually resolves after delivery, women with gestational diabetes have a higher risk of developing Type 2 diabetes later in life. Proper management of gestational diabetes is essential to ensure a healthy pregnancy and reduce the risk of complications for both the mother and the baby.

Risk assessment in the medical context refers to the process of identifying, evaluating, and prioritizing risks to patients, healthcare workers, or the community related to healthcare delivery. It involves determining the likelihood and potential impact of adverse events or hazards, such as infectious diseases, medication errors, or medical devices failures, and implementing measures to mitigate or manage those risks. The goal of risk assessment is to promote safe and high-quality care by identifying areas for improvement and taking action to minimize harm.

Quadriplegia, also known as tetraplegia, is a medical condition characterized by paralysis affecting all four limbs and the trunk of the body. It results from damage to the cervical spinal cord, typically at levels C1-C8, which controls signals to the muscles in the arms, hands, trunk, legs, and pelvic organs. The extent of quadriplegia can vary widely, ranging from weakness to complete loss of movement and sensation below the level of injury. Other symptoms may include difficulty breathing, bowel and bladder dysfunction, and sexual dysfunction. The severity and prognosis depend on the location and extent of the spinal cord injury.

Fetal diseases are medical conditions or abnormalities that affect a fetus during pregnancy. These diseases can be caused by genetic factors, environmental influences, or a combination of both. They can range from mild to severe and may impact various organ systems in the developing fetus. Examples of fetal diseases include congenital heart defects, neural tube defects, chromosomal abnormalities such as Down syndrome, and infectious diseases such as toxoplasmosis or rubella. Fetal diseases can be diagnosed through prenatal testing, including ultrasound, amniocentesis, and chorionic villus sampling. Treatment options may include medication, surgery, or delivery of the fetus, depending on the nature and severity of the disease.

General anesthesia is a state of controlled unconsciousness, induced by administering various medications, that eliminates awareness, movement, and pain sensation during medical procedures. It involves the use of a combination of intravenous and inhaled drugs to produce a reversible loss of consciousness, allowing patients to undergo surgical or diagnostic interventions safely and comfortably. The depth and duration of anesthesia are carefully monitored and adjusted throughout the procedure by an anesthesiologist or certified registered nurse anesthetist (CRNA) to ensure patient safety and optimize recovery. General anesthesia is typically used for more extensive surgical procedures, such as open-heart surgery, major orthopedic surgeries, and neurosurgery.

Child development is a multidisciplinary field that examines the biological, psychological, emotional, and social growth and changes that occur in human beings between birth and the onset of adulthood. It involves a complex interaction of genetics, environment, culture, and experiences that shape a child's growth and development over time.

Child development is typically divided into several domains, including:

1. Physical Development: This refers to the growth and changes in a child's body, including their motor skills, sensory abilities, and overall health.
2. Cognitive Development: This involves the development of a child's thinking, learning, problem-solving, memory, language, and other mental processes.
3. Emotional Development: This refers to the development of a child's emotional awareness, expression, understanding, and regulation.
4. Social Development: This involves the development of a child's ability to interact with others, form relationships, communicate effectively, and understand social norms and expectations.

Child development is an ongoing process that occurs at different rates and in different ways for each child. Understanding typical patterns of child development can help parents, educators, and healthcare providers support children's growth and identify any potential delays or concerns.

Fentanyl is a potent synthetic opioid analgesic, which is similar to morphine but is 50 to 100 times more potent. It is a schedule II prescription drug, typically used to treat patients with severe pain or to manage pain after surgery. It works by binding to the body's opioid receptors, which are found in the brain, spinal cord, and other areas of the body.

Fentanyl can be administered in several forms, including transdermal patches, lozenges, injectable solutions, and tablets that dissolve in the mouth. Illegally manufactured and distributed fentanyl has also become a major public health concern, as it is often mixed with other drugs such as heroin, cocaine, and counterfeit pills, leading to an increase in overdose deaths.

Like all opioids, fentanyl carries a risk of dependence, addiction, and overdose, especially when used outside of medical supervision or in combination with other central nervous system depressants such as alcohol or benzodiazepines. It is important to use fentanyl only as directed by a healthcare provider and to be aware of the potential risks associated with its use.

I am not aware of any medical definition for the term "Idaho." It is primarily used as the name of a state in the United States. If you have any specific medical context or terminology that you would like me to help define, please let me know and I will be happy to assist you.

Virginia Apgar and the Apgar Score: How the Apgar Score Came to Be". Anesthesia & Analgesia. 120 (5): 1060-1064. doi:10.1213/ ... Inappropriately using the Apgar score has led to errors in diagnosing asphyxia. Various studies have shown that the Apgar score ... A constellation of factors may contribute to a low Apgar score value. An Apgar score that remains below three at five minutes ... the Apgar score is not used as a decisive factor: "Our data indicate that an Apgar score of 0 at 10 minutes did not influence ...
... and the Apgar Score: How the Apgar Score Came to Be". Anesthesia & Analgesia. 120 (5): 1060-4. doi:10.1213/ANE. ... Appelgren, L (April 1991). "The woman behind the Apgar score. Virginia Apgar. The woman behind the scoring system for quality ... "Apgar score". Each newborn is given a score of 0, 1 or 2 (a score of 2 meaning the newborn is in optimal condition, 0 being in ... As gestational age is directly related to an infant's Apgar score, Apgar was one of the first at the March of Dimes to bring ...
In 1997, he patented a corporate real estate evaluation system known as the Apgar Real Estate Score. In 1998, President Bill ... Apgar is a Counselor of Real Estate, a Member of the Business Executives for National Security Advisory Board, a Fellow of the ... Apgar began his real estate career with the developer James W. Rouse, and assisted in opening the new city of Columbia, ... Mahlon "Sandy" Apgar IV (born 14 January 1941) is a housing, infrastructure, and real estate consultant to global corporations ...
An Apgar score is given at the time of birth to report the status of the newborn infant and the response to resuscitation if ... "The Apgar Score". www.acog.org. Retrieved 2022-06-25. Yang, Dunsong; Brown, Samuel E.; Nguyen, Kevin; Reddy, Vijay; Brubaker, ...
At birth, the baby receives an Apgar score at, at the least, one minute and five minutes of age. This is a score out of 10 that ... "The Apgar Score". www.acog.org. Retrieved 2022-10-05. Simon, Leslie V.; Hashmi, Muhammad F.; Bragg, Bradley N. (2022), "APGAR ... Score", StatPearls, Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing, PMID 29262097, retrieved 2022-10-05 "Midwifery in Chile - A ...
The infant's condition is evaluated using the Apgar scale. The Apgar score is determined by evaluating the newborn baby on five ... "The Apgar Score". www.acog.org. Archived from the original on 2021-01-25. Retrieved 2021-03-04. Phillips R. "Uninterrupted Skin ...
Beyond assessing the five components that make up the APGAR score, it's essential to understand its meaning. The APGAR score ... see Understanding the APGAR scoring system). The nurse is often directly responsible for assigning the APGAR scores at 1 and 5 ... Scores of 7 or above are considered normal for full-term newborns. If the total score is below 7, or any area is scored 0 at 5 ... "The Apgar Score - ACOG". www.acog.org. Retrieved 2020-03-13. Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses ( ...
Apgar score Invented in 1952 by Virginia Apgar. Disposable diapers The first disposable diaper was invented in 1946 by Marion ...
... created an easy scoring method for predicting infant health, now known as the "Apgar score." The Apgar score measures five body ... Finster, Mieczyslaw; Wood, Margaret (2005-04-01). "The Apgar Score Has Survived the Test of Time". Anesthesiology: The Journal ... and the creation of the Apgar score. NewYork-Presbyterian Morgan Stanley Children's Hospital is a member of the Food Allergy ... Apgar, Virginia (August 1975). "A Proposal for a New Method of Evaluation of the Newborn Infant". Survey of Anesthesiology. 19 ...
Virginia Apgar devises the Apgar score as a simple replicable method of quickly and summarily assessing the health of babies ... Finster, M.; Wood, M. (May 2005). "The Apgar score has survived the test of time". Anesthesiology. 102 (4): 855-857. doi: ... Apgar, Virginia (1953). "A proposal for a new method of evaluation of the newborn infant". Current Researches in Anesthesia & ...
Signs and symptoms of HIE may include: Low Apgar scores, ...
Apgar score Ballard JL, Novak KK, Driver M (November 1979). "A simplified score for assessment of fetal maturation of newly ... The New Ballard Score allows scores of -1 for the criteria, hence making negative scores possible. The possible scores then ... A simple formula to come directly to the age from the Ballard Score is Age=((2*score)+120)) / 5 Maturity Rating: Score/weeks ... This scoring allows for the estimation of age in the range of 26 weeks-44 weeks. The New Ballard Score is an extension of the ...
... as measured by the Apgar score of the newborns) continue to be found in the grandchildren of those who consumed tainted farm ... "Maternal exposure to brominated flame retardants and infant Apgar scores". Chemosphere. 118: 178-186. Bibcode:2015Chmsp.118.. ...
Apgar scoring is performed one minute and five minutes after birth. Scoring ranges from 0 to 10, with 0 indicating severe ... The apgar scale is an assessment performed immediately following birth. It consists of the assessment of heart rate, ...
... such as low Apgar score, need for resuscitation at birth, and perinatal distress, were previously reported". An apgar score ...
... developer of the Apgar score William C. Apgar, American economist Apgar (disambiguation) This page lists people with the ... Apgar (1862-1940), American politician Jean Apgar (born 1936), American biochemist Kristina Apgar (born 1985), American ... Apgar is a surname. Notable people with the surname include: Charles E. Apgar (1865-1950), American amateur radio operator ... television actress Mahlon Apgar IV (born 1941), American expert on housing, infrastructure, and real estate Virginia Apgar ( ...
... may refer to: Apgar (surname), a surname Apgar score, method to quickly and summarily assess the health of newborn ... children immediately after childbirth Virginia Apgar, obstetrician, deviser of the Apgar score Apgar Village, a small village ... in Glacier National Park near West Glacier, Montana This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Apgar. If ...
Virginia Apgar (1909-1974) known for the Apgar score and improving infant mortality. The discovery of penicillin in the 20th ...
Virginia Apgar and the Apgar Score: How the Apgar Score Came to Be". Anesthesia & Analgesia. 120 (5): 1060-1064. doi:10.1213/ ... Virginia Apgar developed the Apgar score, used for standardized assessment of infants immediately upon delivery, to guide ...
... with each component scored from 0 to 2. A healthy baby at birth usually has an Apgar score of 8 or 9. This means they look pink ... babies with good Apgar scores are dried and rubbed, any obstruction of breathing is cleared, and they are warmed either with ... The newborn is evaluated at 1 and 5 minutes after birth using the Apgar score, which assigns points based on appearance (color ... Scores below 7 generally require further care (see resuscitation below). After initial evaluation, ...
Examples are the Avogadro constant, the Diesel engine, meitnerium, Alzheimer's disease, and the Apgar score. For a different ...
Virginia Apgar (1909-1974), physician who created the Apgar score for assessing the health of newborns. Richard Bagger (born ... The Virginia Apgar Papers: Biographical Information, accessed December 31, 2006. Staff. "The Westfield Five: A course of ... "Westfield 3, Chatham 2 (High school Boys Tennis scores and results)", NJ Advance Media for NJ.com, June 3, 2010, updated August ... "Schoolboy Halfback Breaks New Jersey Scoring Record", The New York Times, December 5, 1976. Accessed December 26, 2020. " ...
It is important to understand that an Apgar score is not a diagnosis, it is merely a clinical finding. If a newborns score is 0 ... A score of 7-10 at 5 minutes is normal, a score of 4 to 6 at 5 minutes is intermediate, and a score of 0-3 is considered low. ... Initial evaluation of a newborn is done by obtaining an Apgar score, which gives the clinician an approximation of the infant's ... This statistic is based on a mean Apgar score of 5.9, which is considered intermediate. More data is needed to understand ...
"Risk factors of incomplete Apgar score and umbilical cord blood gas analysis: a retrospective observational study" (PDF). The ...
There is also no change in the Apgar score of the newborn between early and late epidural administration. Epidurals other than ...
Several randomized controlled trials have reported no association between Doppler exposure and birth weight, Apgar scores, and ...
Babies who are born premature with low birthweight, or who have low Apgar scores, are also at increased risk; in premature ...
Babies who are born premature with low birthweight, or who have low Apgar scores, are also at increased risk; in premature ...
An example of a backronym as a mnemonic is the Apgar score, used to assess the health of newborn babies. The rating system was ... "The Virginia Apgar Papers - Obstetric Anesthesia and a Scorecard for Newborns, 1949-1958". U.S. National Library of Medicine, ... Ten years after the initial publication, the backronym APGAR was coined in the US as a mnemonic learning aid: Appearance, Pulse ... devised by and named after Virginia Apgar. ...
The newborn, with normal APGAR scores and umbilical cord arterial pH levels, was admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. ...
Virginia Apgar and the Apgar Score: How the Apgar Score Came to Be". Anesthesia & Analgesia. 120 (5): 1060-1064. doi:10.1213/ ... Inappropriately using the Apgar score has led to errors in diagnosing asphyxia. Various studies have shown that the Apgar score ... A constellation of factors may contribute to a low Apgar score value. An Apgar score that remains below three at five minutes ... the Apgar score is not used as a decisive factor: "Our data indicate that an Apgar score of 0 at 10 minutes did not influence ...
The 1-minute score determines how well the baby tolerated the birthing process. The 5-minute score tells the health care ... Apgar is a quick test performed on a baby at 1 and 5 minutes after birth. ... The Apgar score is based on a total score of 1 to 10. The higher the score, the better the baby is doing after birth. ... A lower Apgar score does not mean a child will have serious or long-term health problems. The Apgar score is not designed to ...
Can anyone tell me where you can find what the Apgar score is in the CPT book? Thanks ... Doctors, midwives, or nurses add these five factors together to calculate the Apgar score. Scores obtainable are between 10 and ... I was doing a practice test from aapcs website and it asked an apgar score is given to what type of pt to denote what kind of ... Can anyone tell me where you can find what the Apgar score is in the CPT book?. Thanks ...
Apgar test, and anthropometry. No hypoacusia cases attributable to ARFE were observed. The Apgar test at five minutes scored ... Apgar test, and anthropometry. No hypoacusia cases attributable to ARFE were observed. The Apgar test at five minutes scored ... The average of Apgar test score at 1-min was normal and it improved at 5-min, observing normal values in all the newborns (,7 ... A Preliminary Study on the Safety of Elastography during Pregnancy: Hypoacusia, Anthropometry, and Apgar Score in Newborns by ...
Jering, Monika (2016): Utilization of the surgical apgar score as a continuous measure of intra-operative risk. Dissertation, ... Utilization of the surgical apgar score as a continuous measure of intra-operative risk ... Utilization of the surgical apgar score as a continuous measure of intra-operative risk ...
The Surgical APGAR was published in 2007 as a simple method for predicting postoperative morbidity and mortality for patients ... The Surgical APGAR scores were calculated using the proposed algorithm. Major morbidities were classified using Clavien scores ... Surgical APGAR score does not predict morbidity and mortality for patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic ... The Surgical APGAR consists of three objective measures of an individual?s intra-operative course: the lowest heart rate, the ...
Has been superseded by Apgar score at 1 minute. Health, Superseded 03/12/2020 ... Has been superseded by Apgar score at 5 minutes. Health, Superseded 03/12/2020 ... The score used to evaluate the fitness of a newborn infant, based on heart rate, respiration, muscle tone, cough reflex, and ...
01010, vilket uppfattas som Apgar 1 = 1 och Apgar 5 = 1 samt Apgar 10 = 0. I stickprovet finns 518 fall med någon Apgar-score ... vi pratar i alla fall om APGAR-score för nyfödda, alkoholabstinensens effekt vid The Apgar score is based on a total score of 1 ... 2021-04-02 · Apgar score. Apgar is a quick test performed on a baby at 1 and 5 minutes after birth. The 1-minute score ... Score Dr. Virginia Apgar devised the Apgar score in 1952 as a simple and replicable method to quickly and summarily assess the ...
PathshalaNepal.com is a Registered Company of E. Pathshala Pvt Ltd Nepal. Registration number : 289280. © 2020. All right Reversed.E. Pathshala Pvt Ltd. ...
The first baby test was developed by Virginia Apgar, an anesthesiologist in 1950 and […] ... Apgar score is the name given to the test given to the newborn baby very shortly after childbirth. The test is done either in ... Apgar Score. By surekha. Apgar score is the name given to the test given to the newborn baby very shortly after childbirth. The ... Getting low score in Apgar test does not mean that the child is not having good health. Many babies will not show a perfect ...
1960s: named after Virginia Apgar (1909-74), the American anesthesiologist who devised this method of assessment in 1953.. ... a score of ten represents the best possible condition.. ... 1. Apgar score between 8-10 indicates no depression.. 2. Apgar ...
Among the Apgar scores recorded in 2021, 96 percent of babies received a score of 7 or higher on their 5-minute Apgar test. ... Apgar scores. An Apgar test shows how well your baby is doing just after birth, at one and five minutes. It assesses Activity ( ... Eighty-two percent received a score of 9. Only 2 percent received a score of 10, and just 0.59 percent scored 0 through 3. ...
Apgar scores for babies born both in and out of hospital were also studied but, because of inconsistent reporting, were given ... Excellent (9-10) Apgar scores were more common among babies born out of hospital than among those born in hospital (63 percent ... Declercq, E R "Out-of-hospital births, U.S., 1978: birth weight and Apgar scores as measures of outcome." 99, no. 1 (1984). ... Adolescent Adult Apgar Score Birth Weight Black Or African American Delivery, Obstetric Educational Status Epidemiologic ...
... you probably didnt know that doctors do an APGAR test shortly after your baby is born. The test is conducted 60 seconds after ... APGAR at 5-minutes. Score 7-10: This is considered normal.. If the score was low at the 1-minute test and hasnt improved, your ... APGAR is a scoring system and each indicator is given a score between 0-2, two being the highest. All factors are added up to a ... Download our APGAR score sheet for quick reference.. Please bear in mind that this score doesnt predict a babys long-term ...
Virginia Apgar. APGAR, Virginia, American physician, 1909-1974. An anaesthesiologist, with a particular interest in the newborn ... The scoring system was based on assigning a value of 0, 1, or 2, for each of five signs. Colour, heart rate, muscle tone, ... The maximum score was 10, in a healthy newborn baby, measurement being taken one minute after birth. From 1938-49, Virginia had ... In 1952 Virginia published the Apgar Scale, which enables health assessment of a baby at the moment of birth. It was a risk- ...
... of the babies with a severe acidosis had an Apgar score ≥7 at 1 min, and 86% had an Apgar score ≥7 at 5 min. Because the Apgar ... Only 21% ofthe babies with a 1 min Apgar score ,7 and 19% of the babies with a 5 min Apgar score ,7 had a severe acidosis ( ... score does not usually reflect the degree of acidosis at delivery, its value as an index for asphyxial assessment must be ... In a prospective study of 1210 consecutive deliveries the relation between the Apgar scores and the acid-base status of the ...
... or nurse does is a quick examination to determine his or her Apgar score. ... Apgar was the last name of an amazing woman.. The Apgar test and score was created by Virginia Apgar, MD, an anesthesiologist, ... or nurse does is a quick examination to determine his or her Apgar score. An Apgar score is a rapid way to evaluate your babys ... The Apgar Score (Or, Yes, Virginia, There Was a Dr. Apgar). Valerie DeBenedette 8 years ago No Comments ...
5-minute Apgar score ,7; pre-eclampsia; and patient admission to the intensive care unit (ICU). Individual APHOs composite ... Apgar ,7. 0.22 (0.34). 0.34 (0.82). −1.00 (1.41). 1.13 (0.91). −0.22 (1.44). −0.34 (1.61). ... Apgar ,7. 1.19 (0.28). 0.38 (0.39). 0.78 (0.94). 0.18 (0.42). −0.41 (0.97). 0.41 (1.07). ... Apgar ,7. −1.21 (1.05). 1.11 (0.71). 2.25 (0.86). 2.32 (1.29). 3.47 (1.37). 1.15 (1.08). ...
... the pioneering anaesthesiologist who developed the life-saving Apgar score, is being celebrated in todays Google Doodle. Dr ... Virginia Apgar: Who was she? On what would have been her 109th birthday, and almost 44 ... What is the Apgar score?. The original Apgar score, which is both named after Dr Virginia Apgar as well as being an acronym for ... How Dr Virginia Apgar saved the lives of thousands of babies with the Apgar score. Victoria Woollaston Victoria has been ...
"Little Bears Apgar Score" by Caroline Bock The baby is beautiful, but then isnt every baby? ...
... see table Apgar Score Apgar Score ). Apgar scores between 7 and 10 indicate that the neonate is making a smooth transition to ... In addition to Apgar scoring, neonates should be evaluated for gross deformities (eg, clubfoot Talipes Equinovarus (Clubfoot) ... 1. Simon LV, Hashmi MF, Bragg BN: APGAR Score. In: StatPearls. Treasure Island (FL): StatPearls Publishing; May 22, 2023. ... all are key components of the Apgar score assigned at 1 minute and at 5 minutes after birth ( ...
Apgar scoring. The Apgar score helps find breathing problems and other health issues. It is part of the special attention given ... this will be shown in a lower Apgar score. Apgar scores of 6 or less usually mean a baby needed immediate attention and care. ... A score is given to each area looked at. Typically, the more mature the baby is, the higher the score. These are the areas ... In this case, the actual Apgar score is given after the immediate issues have been taken care of. ...
Low Apgar scores. * Meconium staining. * Cyanosis; poor cardiac function and perfusion. * Systemic hypotension ...
Apgar scores were reported for 94.5% of babies; 1.3% had Apgar scores below 7 at five minutes. Immediate neonatal complications ... Term pregnancy, Apgar scores 9/10. Suddenly stopped breathing at 15 hours of age. Died at five days in hospital, sudden infant ... Apgar scores 6/2. Transported immediately, died at hours of age in hospital. Autopsy said "mild medial hypertrophy of the ... Term pregnancy, Apgar scores 9/10. Baby died at 26 hours. Sudden infant death syndrome ...
She was born after normal full-term pregnancy without delivery complications (birthweight 2,820 g; Apgar score 10). She had ... Pregnancy was uneventful, and delivery was normal at 36 weeks gestation (birthweight 2,800 g; Apgar score 10). Left eye ... What is the Altmetric Attention Score?. The Altmetric Attention Score for a research output provides an indicator of the amount ... Apgar score 10). Pregnancy was unremarkable, without maternal seroconversion for toxoplasmosis, rubella, herpes simplex viruses ...
Low Apgar score (, 6 at 1 or 5 minutes). * Poor prenatal care ...
The initial APGAR score should be completed at.... seconds after birth. *. A. ...
Surgical Apgar score predicts perioperative morbidity in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy at a high-volume center.. ... The aim of this study was to determine whether the surgical Apgar score (SAS) predicts perioperative morbidity and mortality. ... This score should be used to identify patients at higher risk in order to prioritize use of postoperative critical care beds ... The Cochran-Armitage test for trend was used to determine the association between grouped SAS scores (0-2, 3-4, 5-6, 7-8, and 9 ...
Apgar Score * Autistic Disorder / epidemiology * Case-Control Studies * Cerebral Palsy / epidemiology * Child ...
NTOMAPSR and NTFMAPSR: One minute and Five minute Apgar score recodes One- and 5-minute Apgar scores were added to the U.S. ... the sum of these 5 values is the Apgar score, which ranges from 0 to 10. A score of 10 is optimal, and a low score raises some ... One minute Apgar score (by state) ........... NTFL1APS 1135 Five minute Apgar score (by state) .......... NTFL5APS 1136 ... One minute Apgar score recode ............... NTOMAPSR 1055-1056 Five minute Apgar score recode .............. NTFMAPSR 1057- ...
  • The surgical Apgar score is easy to calculate and could be equally useful for patients undergoing surgery. (medscape.com)
  • The Surgical Apgar Score - Medscape - May 11, 2009. (medscape.com)
  • The Surgical Apgar Score was developed to allow healthcare providers to assess a patient's condition and risk of major complications or death based on an assessment at the end of any general or vascular surgical procedure. (medscape.com)
  • The Surgical Apgar Score calculator is created by QxMD. (medscape.com)
  • The intraoperative Surgical Apgar Score predicts postdischarge complications after colon and rectal resection. (atulgawande.com)
  • Surgical Apgar score predicts perioperative morbidity in patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy at a high-volume center. (bvsalud.org)
  • The aim of this study was to determine whether the surgical Apgar score (SAS) predicts perioperative morbidity and mortality . (bvsalud.org)
  • It was originally developed in 1952 by an anesthesiologist at Columbia University, Virginia Apgar, to address the need for a standardized way to evaluate infants shortly after birth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Today, the categories developed by Apgar used to assess the health of a newborn remain largely the same as in 1952, though the way they are implemented and used has evolved over the years. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1952, after some refinement of her initial system, Apgar presented the Apgar score at a joint meeting between the International Anesthesia Research Society (IARS) and the International College of Anesthetist, and it was then published in Anesthesia and Analgesia in 1953. (wikipedia.org)
  • Virginia Apgar, MD (1909-1974) introduced the Apgar score in 1952. (nih.gov)
  • In 1952, Dr. Virginia Apgar devised a scoring system that was a rapid method of assessing the clinical status of the newborn infant at 1 minute of age and the need for prompt intervention to establish breathing 1 . (acog.org)
  • Virginia Apgar, an obstetrical anesthesiologist and professor at Columbia University, created the Apgar score in 1952. (allaboutwomenmd.com)
  • The Apgar score-developed in 1952 by Dr. Virginia Apgar -is a number, given to newborn babies by medical professionals, at one and five minutes of life. (cpfamilynetwork.org)
  • The Apgar Score was devised in 1952 by Dr. Virginia Apgar to evaluate the health of newborns immediately after birth, based on the A ppearance, P ulse, G rimace, A ctivity and R espiration criteria. (neatorama.com)
  • A lower Apgar score does not mean a child will have serious or long-term health problems. (nih.gov)
  • Children who had a lower Apgar score at the first and the fifth minute after birth also had a higher risk as compared to those who had an Apgar score of 9-10. (nih.gov)
  • The Apgar score is a quick way for health professionals to evaluate the health of all newborns at 1 and 5 minutes after birth and in response to resuscitation. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, today the Apgar score is not utilized as a way to determine the need for newborn resuscitation because supportive measures must be implemented prior to 1 minute after birth. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cases where a newborn needs resuscitation, it should be initiated before the Apgar score is assigned at the one-minute mark. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, the Apgar score is not used to determine if initial resuscitation is needed, rather it is used to determine if resuscitation efforts should be continued. (wikipedia.org)
  • Variation between the one-minute and five-minute Apgar scores can be used to assess an infant's response to resuscitation. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the score is below seven at the five-minute mark, the Neonatal Resuscitation Program guidelines specify that the infant's Apgar score should be reassessed at five-minute intervals for up to 20 minutes. (wikipedia.org)
  • During neonatal resuscitation, Apgar scores may not accurately represent the condition of the neonate as resuscitation measures (i.e. positive pressure ventilation and chest compressions) may artificially elevate scores. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Apgar score provides an accepted and convenient method for reporting the status of the newborn infant immediately after birth and the response to resuscitation if needed. (acog.org)
  • An Apgar score assigned during a resuscitation is not equivalent to a score assigned to a spontaneously breathing infant. (acog.org)
  • However, resuscitation must be initiated before the 1-minute score is assigned. (acog.org)
  • Therefore, the Apgar score is not used to determine the need for initial resuscitation, what resuscitation steps are necessary, or when to use them 3 . (acog.org)
  • This scoring system (named after its creator, Virginia Apgar) helps the physician estimate your baby's general condition at birth. (healthychildren.org)
  • If your baby's Apgar scores are between 5 and 7 at one minute, she may have experienced some problems during birth that lowered the oxygen in her blood. (healthychildren.org)
  • If your baby's Apgar scores are very low, a mask may be placed over her face to pump oxygen directly into her lungs. (healthychildren.org)
  • When a baby is born, medical professionals will take the baby's Apgar scores to assess her clinical status. (gilmanbedigian.com)
  • If your baby scored low and the doctor didn't treat your baby's issues properly, then they could potentially be held responsible. (gilmanbedigian.com)
  • The Apgar score is simply a measure of a baby's condition after birth. (imumz.com)
  • If your baby's score was low in the first Apgar test and hasn't improved in the second test at 5 minutes, or there are other concerns, the doctors and nurses will closely monitor your baby and continue any necessary medical care. (imumz.com)
  • If the baby's skin is blue or pale all over, the baby scores a 0. (allaboutwomenmd.com)
  • If the baby's feet are blue, but the rest of the body is pink, he or she scores a 1. (allaboutwomenmd.com)
  • If the baby's skin is pink all over, including the feet, the baby scores a 2. (allaboutwomenmd.com)
  • For scoring activity, doctors look at a baby's muscle tone. (allaboutwomenmd.com)
  • This score reflects the baby's well-being immediately after birth and while transitioning to life outside of mom. (cpfamilynetwork.org)
  • Usually, healthcare professionals can take action and improve a baby's health for a better score at the five-minute mark. (cpfamilynetwork.org)
  • The aim of the present study was to analyse the effects of inter-twin delivery time on umbilical artery pH and Apgar scores with a view to establish a time at which there is an increased risk of fetal acidosis. (bmj.com)
  • Neonatal morbidity included Apgar scores, cord arterial pH, and evidence of scalp or fetal lacerations and cephalhematoma. (hindawi.com)
  • For each criterion, newborns can receive a score from 0 to 2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apgar originally thought up the criteria as way to address the lack of a standardized way to assess the need for assistive breathing procedures for newborns. (wikipedia.org)
  • As previously mentioned, in its infancy the Apgar score was developed to be used on newborns at 1 minute after birth. (wikipedia.org)
  • A score of 10 is very unusual, since almost all newborns lose 1 point for blue hands and feet, which is normal for after birth. (nih.gov)
  • A small percentage of newborns have Apgar scores of less than 5. (healthychildren.org)
  • Alongside Duncan Holaday and Stanley James, Apgar published a research paper using the scores of 15,348 infants to establish the association between a low Apgar score (0-2) and laboratory findings characteristics of asphyxia. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Apgar score alone cannot be considered to be evidence of or a consequence of asphyxia, does not predict individual neonatal mortality or neurologic outcome, and should not be used for that purpose. (acog.org)
  • Further, although the score is used widely in outcome studies, its inappropriate use has led to an erroneous definition of asphyxia. (acog.org)
  • Do Apgar scores indicate asphyxia? (ox.ac.uk)
  • The score is determined through the evaluation of the newborn in five criteria: activity (tone), pulse, grimace, appearance, and respiration. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Apgar score comprises five components: 1) color, 2) heart rate, 3) reflexes, 4) muscle tone, and 5) respiration, each of which is given a score of 0, 1, or 2. (acog.org)
  • At one minute and five minutes after a mother gives birth, medical professionals score five different features: Appearance, Pulse, Grimace, Activity, and Respiration (Apgar). (gilmanbedigian.com)
  • Although the score was named after its creator, APGAR is also an acronym for the different areas evaluated that make up the score: Appearance, Pulse, Grimace, Activity and Respiration. (allaboutwomenmd.com)
  • The respiration score is determined by breathing effort. (allaboutwomenmd.com)
  • Usually, healthcare professionals can improve a newborn's Apgar score by administering oxygen and drying them thoroughly with a towel. (cpfamilynetwork.org)
  • However, in a recent retrospective study including 17 infants with an Apgar score of 0 at 10 minutes who received therapeutic hypothermia, 4 of the 8 surviving babies had no neurological abnormalities and only 1 infant had severe abnormalities, as assessed through brain MRI. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the infant is not breathing, the respiratory score is 0. (nih.gov)
  • If the respirations are slow or irregular, the infant scores 1 for respiratory effort. (nih.gov)
  • If the infant cries well, the respiratory score is 2. (nih.gov)
  • If there is no heartbeat, the infant scores 0 for heart rate. (nih.gov)
  • If heart rate is less than 100 beats per minute, the infant scores 1 for heart rate. (nih.gov)
  • If muscles are loose and floppy, the infant scores 0 for muscle tone. (nih.gov)
  • If there is some muscle tone, the infant scores 1. (nih.gov)
  • If there is active motion, the infant scores 2 for muscle tone. (nih.gov)
  • If there is no reaction, the infant scores 0 for reflex irritability. (nih.gov)
  • If there is grimacing and a cough, sneeze, or vigorous cry, the infant scores 2 for reflex irritability. (nih.gov)
  • If the skin color is pale blue, the infant scores 0 for color. (nih.gov)
  • If the body is pink and the extremities are blue, the infant scores 1 for color. (nih.gov)
  • If the entire body is pink, the infant scores 2 for color. (nih.gov)
  • Apgar scores should be assigned every 5 minutes until the infant is stabilized. (medscape.com)
  • APGAR V. A proposal for a new method of evaluation of the newborn infant. (medscape.com)
  • Neonatal Encephalopathy and Neurologic Outcome , Second Edition, published in 2014 by the College in collaboration with the AAP, defines a 5-minute Apgar score of 7-10 as reassuring, a score of 4-6 as moderately abnormal, and a score of 0-3 as low in the term infant and late-preterm infant 6 . (acog.org)
  • If the infant scores well on both of these, the other scores will probably be suitable too. (gilmanbedigian.com)
  • Use this Apgar Score Chart template to assess a newborn infant. (carepatron.com)
  • Their name - Apgar - simultaneously serves as a mnemonic to help practitioners remember what to check in a newborn infant. (carepatron.com)
  • An infant can get a score of 0 to 2, with 0 being the lowest and 2 being the highest. (carepatron.com)
  • Exceedingly few infants who have an Apgar score of 0 at 10 minutes of age survive with intact neurological function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Predicting mortality in extremely low birth weight infants: Comparison between gestational age, birth weight, Apgar score, CRIB II score, initial and lowest serum albumin levels. (medscape.com)
  • This scoring system provided a standardized assessment for infants after delivery. (acog.org)
  • The score is reported at 1 minute and 5 minutes after birth for all infants, and at 5-minute intervals thereafter until 20 minutes for infants with a score less than 7 3 . (acog.org)
  • Most newborn infants have Apgar scores greater than 7. (healthychildren.org)
  • For example, babies born prematurely or delivered by emergency C-section are more likely to have low scores than infants with normal births. (healthychildren.org)
  • The 10-point Apgar score has been used to assess the condition and prognosis of newborn infants throughout the world for almost 50 years. (nih.gov)
  • Paired Apgar scores and umbilical-artery blood pH values were determined for 145,627 infants to assess which test best predicted neonatal death during the first 28 days after birth. (nih.gov)
  • For 13,399 infants born before term (at 26 to 36 weeks of gestation), the neonatal mortality rate was 315 per 1000 for infants with five-minute Apgar scores of 0 to 3, as compared with 5 per 1000 for infants with five-minute Apgar scores of 7 to 10. (nih.gov)
  • The Apgar score is an assessment done on newborn infants. (carepatron.com)
  • One can use these Apgar Score Chart templates when handling newborn infants. (carepatron.com)
  • Of patients with high scores of 9 to 10, which indicated minimal operative blood loss and absence of hypotension or tachycardia, major complications developed in only 5%, and only 2 patients died. (medscape.com)
  • In patients with a score ≤ 4, major complications or death occurred in 59% within 30 days. (medscape.com)
  • Among patients with scores of 9 or 10, only 3.6% experienced major complications or died. (medscape.com)
  • The National Institute for Neurological Disorders and Stroke states low Apgar scores 10 to 20 minutes after birth may trigger a range of health complications, including cerebral palsy. (cpfamilynetwork.org)
  • The newborn Apgar score is widely used to give an overall assessment of newborn status. (medscape.com)
  • If you have any questions regarding the Apgar newborn screening or other pregnancy concerns, browse our knowledge center or make an appointment to talk with an experienced Gainesville area OB/GYN at All About Women today. (allaboutwomenmd.com)
  • demographic and pregnancy information questionnaire, Perscent Behavioral Intensity (PBI) Scale and Apgar score was used to measure pain. (ac.ir)
  • The anxiety during pregnancy can make important outcome such as decrease Apgar score and low birth weight (LBW). (ac.ir)
  • Apgar scores measure the physiological well-being of newborn babies, and are recorded for virtually all births in hospital. (umanitoba.ca)
  • Sometimes babies are born with low Apgar scores and it isn't anybody's fault. (gilmanbedigian.com)
  • Healthcare professionals evaluate newborn babies, grading them with Apgar scores, an assessment that analyzes their appearance, responsiveness and general condition shortly after birth. (cpfamilynetwork.org)
  • Healthcare professionals give babies an Apgar score one minute after birth. (cpfamilynetwork.org)
  • The American Academy of Pediatricians notes that most newborn babies have an initial Apgar score greater than 7. (cpfamilynetwork.org)
  • Consistent low Apgar scores show babies need more intensive medical intervention to thrive. (cpfamilynetwork.org)
  • In his article, "Apgar Scores and Cerebral Palsy," Athol Kent , of the Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, University of Cape Town, states that babies with low Apgar scores at the five-minute assessment had a greater risk of disabilities, such as cerebral palsy, than babies with higher scores. (cpfamilynetwork.org)
  • He cited a large-scale Norwegian study that found low Apgar scores and cerebral palsy are closely linked in babies of normal birth weight. (cpfamilynetwork.org)
  • 0.1% of full-term babies with an Apgar score of 10 were diagnosed with cerebral palsy. (cpfamilynetwork.org)
  • The study also linked low Apgar scores and cerebral palsy in babies with low birth weights. (cpfamilynetwork.org)
  • 4% of babies with high Apgar scores and low birth weights were diagnosed with cerebral palsy. (cpfamilynetwork.org)
  • For years, most research about the link between Apgar scores and cerebral palsy focused on babies with very low scores. (cpfamilynetwork.org)
  • The Swedish researchers assessed the five-minute Apgar scores of more than 1.2 million full-term babies born between 1999 and 2012. (cpfamilynetwork.org)
  • Babies with an Apgar score of 9 were twice as likely to receive a cerebral palsy diagnosis as babies with an Apgar score of 10. (cpfamilynetwork.org)
  • After each test, if you need a copy to add to the infant's medical records, you can write down the scores on our editable chart. (carepatron.com)
  • The authors developed a scoring system obtained by combining only 3 intraoperative parameters: estimated blood loss, lowest mean arterial pressure, and lowest heart rate. (medscape.com)
  • Upon delivery, Gracie Evelyn Marie Bulger was noted to have abnormal APGAR scores and was suffering from seizures. (law.com)
  • The test is generally done at one and five minutes after birth and may be repeated later if the score is and remains low. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apgar is a quick test performed on a baby at 1 and 5 minutes after birth. (nih.gov)
  • The higher the score, the better the baby is doing after birth. (nih.gov)
  • A score of 0, 1, or 2 is assigned to each of the 5 physical signs at 1 and 5 minutes after birth. (medscape.com)
  • Excludes data for California and Texas which did not report 5-minute Apgar score on birth certificate. (cdc.gov)
  • A score of zero, one, or two is given for each of five vital signs that are assessed at one and five minutes after birth. (umanitoba.ca)
  • Gestational age, birth weight, 1 and 5 min Apgar scores and umbilical artery pH were identified. (bmj.com)
  • Your baby is assigned scores on birth. (imumz.com)
  • The score is assigned to a newborn baby born at 1 minute and 5 minutes after their birth. (imumz.com)
  • If a newborn has difficulty or needs help transitioning, Apgar scores may continue in five minute increments up to 20 minutes after birth. (cpfamilynetwork.org)
  • This initial score indicates how well they handled their birth. (cpfamilynetwork.org)
  • They give a further Apgar rating five minutes after birth. (cpfamilynetwork.org)
  • Health workers may give a third Apgar score 10 minutes after birth, especially if previous scores are low. (cpfamilynetwork.org)
  • The American Academy of Pediatricians notes that initial Apgar scores lower than 7 may indicate problems during birth that lowered oxygen levels in the blood. (cpfamilynetwork.org)
  • The mean of state and trait anxiety scores respectively in women were 42.26 ± 13.33 and 38.70± 10.75.results of this study showed significant relationship between low birth weigh and woman's trait anxiety (r= - 0/41, p= (ac.ir)
  • A 'failed instrumental delivery score' (FIDS) may aid practitioners in predicting an increased likelihood of a failed operative vaginal birth and therefore to consider a trial of operative vaginal delivery in the theatre. (hindawi.com)
  • If the Apgar score is below 7 at the five-minute mark, some providers will check it a few minutes later to assess the effect of any action taken to correct any respiratory or cardiac concerns. (nih.gov)
  • Because their hands and feet remain blue until they are quite warm, few score a perfect 10. (healthychildren.org)
  • This should start her breathing deeply and improve her oxygen supply so that her five-minute Apgar scores total between 8 and 10. (healthychildren.org)
  • SR40: Apgar scores (on 1st, 5th and 10th minute) of live births by gestational age and woman's age group. (tai.ee)
  • The Cochran-Armitage test for trend was used to determine the association between grouped SAS scores (0-2, 3-4, 5-6, 7-8, and 9-10) and each of the outcomes. (bvsalud.org)
  • An Apgar score that remains below three at five minutes and later times, such as 10, 15, or 30 minutes, does not provide supporting evidence for a specific illness but can sometimes be among the first indicators of neonatal encephalopathy. (wikipedia.org)
  • That document considers an Apgar score of 0-3 at 5 minutes or more as a nonspecific sign of illness, which "may be one of the first indications of encephalopathy" 6 . (acog.org)
  • Low Apgar scores at both one and five minutes are associated with long-term neurological morbidity. (medscape.com)
  • Various members of the healthcare team, including midwives, nurses, or physicians, may be involved in the Apgar scoring of a neonate. (wikipedia.org)
  • A low score on the one-minute mark may show that the neonate requires medical attention, but does not necessarily indicate a long-term problem, particularly if the score improves at the five-minute mark. (wikipedia.org)
  • What Does the Apgar Test Measure? (healthychildren.org)
  • Modified Zung depression scale and Work Apgar scores were used to measure depression and social support. (cdc.gov)
  • Thus, the Apgar score quantitates clinical signs of neonatal depression such as cyanosis or pallor, bradycardia, depressed reflex response to stimulation, hypotonia, and apnea or gasping respirations. (acog.org)
  • If the baby does not respond to stimulation, he or she scores a 0. (allaboutwomenmd.com)
  • First and fifth minute Apgar score in the experimental and control groups were p = 0.413 and p = 0.556 respectively. (ac.ir)
  • If her Apgar scores are still low after these treatments, she will be taken to the special-care nursery for more intensive medical attention. (healthychildren.org)
  • If there is no pulse, a baby will score a 0, and if the heart rate is normal, a baby will score a 2. (gilmanbedigian.com)
  • If a baby is breathing well, she will let out a loud cry and score high, but if she is not well, she may let out a weak cry or have irregular breathing and score low. (gilmanbedigian.com)
  • The 5-minute score tells the health care provider how well the baby is doing outside the mother's womb. (nih.gov)
  • The lower the score, the more help the baby needs to adjust outside the mother's womb. (nih.gov)
  • This second score shows how well the baby is responding to life outside the womb. (cpfamilynetwork.org)
  • In 1955, efforts to establish a scientific basis to the score increased. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inter-twin delivery time correlated negatively with umbilical artery pH (r=−0.204, p=0.023) and with the 5 min Apgar score of twin two (r=−0.125, p=0.034). (bmj.com)
  • There are things that could happen during delivery that could cause your baby to get a low Apgar score and become injured or die. (gilmanbedigian.com)
  • The Apgar test is done by a doctor, midwife, or nurse. (nih.gov)
  • How is the Apgar Test Scored? (healthychildren.org)
  • Medical malpractice could have occurred during labor or the Apgar test. (gilmanbedigian.com)
  • However, a score below 7 in the second test at 5 minutes is considered low. (imumz.com)
  • Just after a baby is born, a doctor, midwife or nurse performs a quick test on the newborn and gives he or she an Apgar score. (allaboutwomenmd.com)