Apgar Score: A method, developed by Dr. Virginia Apgar, to evaluate a newborn's adjustment to extrauterine life. Five items - heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and color - are evaluated 60 seconds after birth and again five minutes later on a scale from 0-2, 0 being the lowest, 2 being normal. The five numbers are added for the Apgar score. A score of 0-3 represents severe distress, 4-7 indicates moderate distress, and a score of 7-10 predicts an absence of difficulty in adjusting to extrauterine life.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Asphyxia Neonatorum: Respiratory failure in the newborn. (Dorland, 27th ed)Fetal Distress: A nonreassuring fetal status (NRFS) indicating that the FETUS is compromised (American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists 1988). It can be identified by sub-optimal values in FETAL HEART RATE; oxygenation of FETAL BLOOD; and other parameters.Cesarean Section: Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.Anesthesia, Obstetrical: A variety of anesthetic methods such as EPIDURAL ANESTHESIA used to control the pain of childbirth.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Delivery, Obstetric: Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Birth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Fetal Monitoring: Physiologic or biochemical monitoring of the fetus. It is usually done during LABOR, OBSTETRIC and may be performed in conjunction with the monitoring of uterine activity. It may also be performed prenatally as when the mother is undergoing surgery.Infant, Premature: A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.Labor, Obstetric: The repetitive uterine contraction during childbirth which is associated with the progressive dilation of the uterine cervix (CERVIX UTERI). Successful labor results in the expulsion of the FETUS and PLACENTA. Obstetric labor can be spontaneous or induced (LABOR, INDUCED).Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Obstetric Labor Complications: Medical problems associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR, such as BREECH PRESENTATION; PREMATURE OBSTETRIC LABOR; HEMORRHAGE; or others. These complications can affect the well-being of the mother, the FETUS, or both.Infant, Newborn, Diseases: Diseases of newborn infants present at birth (congenital) or developing within the first month of birth. It does not include hereditary diseases not manifesting at birth or within the first 30 days of life nor does it include inborn errors of metabolism. Both HEREDITARY DISEASES and METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS are available as general concepts.Resuscitation: The restoration to life or consciousness of one apparently dead. (Dorland, 27th ed)Analgesia, Obstetrical: The elimination of PAIN, without the loss of CONSCIOUSNESS, during OBSTETRIC LABOR; OBSTETRIC DELIVERY; or the POSTPARTUM PERIOD, usually through the administration of ANALGESICS.Infant, Low Birth Weight: An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.Obstetrical Forceps: Surgical instrument designed to extract the newborn by the head from the maternal passages without injury to it or the mother.Delivery Rooms: Hospital units equipped for childbirth.Labor, Induced: Artificially induced UTERINE CONTRACTION. Generally, LABOR, OBSTETRIC is induced with the intent to cause delivery of the fetus and termination of pregnancy.Extraction, Obstetrical: Extraction of the fetus by means of obstetrical instruments.Cardiotocography: Monitoring of FETAL HEART frequency before birth in order to assess impending prematurity in relation to the pattern or intensity of antepartum UTERINE CONTRACTION.Meconium Aspiration Syndrome: A condition caused by inhalation of MECONIUM into the LUNG of FETUS or NEWBORN, usually due to vigorous respiratory movements during difficult PARTURITION or respiratory system abnormalities. Meconium aspirate may block small airways leading to difficulties in PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE and ASPIRATION PNEUMONIA.Meconium: The thick green-to-black mucilaginous material found in the intestines of a full-term fetus. It consists of secretions of the INTESTINAL GLANDS; BILE PIGMENTS; FATTY ACIDS; AMNIOTIC FLUID; and intrauterine debris. It constitutes the first stools passed by a newborn.Infant, Very Low Birth Weight: An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1500 grams (3.3 lbs), regardless of gestational age.Umbilical Arteries: Specialized arterial vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry waste and deoxygenated blood from the FETUS to the mother via the PLACENTA. In humans, there are usually two umbilical arteries but sometimes one.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Vacuum Extraction, Obstetrical: Removal of the fetus from the uterus or vagina at or near the end of pregnancy with a metal traction cup that is attached to the fetus' head. Negative pressure is applied and traction is made on a chain passed through the suction tube. (From Stedman, 26th ed & Dorland, 28th ed)Intensive Care Units, Neonatal: Hospital units providing continuing surveillance and care to acutely ill newborn infants.Infant, Premature, DiseasesFetal Hypoxia: Deficient oxygenation of FETAL BLOOD.Term Birth: CHILDBIRTH at the end of a normal duration of PREGNANCY, between 37 to 40 weeks of gestation or about 280 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period.Labor Stage, First: Period from the onset of true OBSTETRIC LABOR to the complete dilatation of the CERVIX UTERI.Infant Mortality: Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.Maternal Age: The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.Labor Stage, Second: The period of OBSTETRIC LABOR that is from the complete dilatation of the CERVIX UTERI to the expulsion of the FETUS.Live Birth: The event that a FETUS is born alive with heartbeats or RESPIRATION regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE. Such liveborn is called a newborn infant (INFANT, NEWBORN).Pregnancy, Prolonged: A term used to describe pregnancies that exceed the upper limit of a normal gestational period. In humans, a prolonged pregnancy is defined as one that extends beyond 42 weeks (294 days) after the first day of the last menstrual period (MENSTRUATION), or birth with gestational age of 41 weeks or more.Anesthesia, Epidural: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected into the epidural space.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Brain Damage, Chronic: A condition characterized by long-standing brain dysfunction or damage, usually of three months duration or longer. Potential etiologies include BRAIN INFARCTION; certain NEURODEGENERATIVE DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; ANOXIA, BRAIN; ENCEPHALITIS; certain NEUROTOXICITY SYNDROMES; metabolic disorders (see BRAIN DISEASES, METABOLIC); and other conditions.Fetal Blood: Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Premature Birth: CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain: A disorder characterized by a reduction of oxygen in the blood combined with reduced blood flow (ISCHEMIA) to the brain from a localized obstruction of a cerebral artery or from systemic hypoperfusion. Prolonged hypoxia-ischemia is associated with ISCHEMIC ATTACK, TRANSIENT; BRAIN INFARCTION; BRAIN EDEMA; COMA; and other conditions.Labor Presentation: The position or orientation of the FETUS at near term or during OBSTETRIC LABOR, determined by its relation to the SPINE of the mother and the birth canal. The normal position is a vertical, cephalic presentation with the fetal vertex flexed on the NECK.Perinatal Mortality: Deaths occurring from the 28th week of GESTATION to the 28th day after birth in a given population.Labor Pain: Pain associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR in CHILDBIRTH. It is caused primarily by UTERINE CONTRACTION as well as pressure on the CERVIX; BLADDER; and the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. Labor pain mostly occurs in the ABDOMEN; the GROIN; and the BACK.Anesthesia, Spinal: Procedure in which an anesthetic is injected directly into the spinal cord.Pregnancy, Twin: The condition of carrying TWINS simultaneously.Perinatal Care: The care of women and a fetus or newborn given before, during, and after delivery from the 28th week of gestation through the 7th day after delivery.Pregnancy Trimester, Third: The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.Parity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.Bupivacaine: A widely used local anesthetic agent.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn: A condition of the newborn marked by DYSPNEA with CYANOSIS, heralded by such prodromal signs as dilatation of the alae nasi, expiratory grunt, and retraction of the suprasternal notch or costal margins, mostly frequently occurring in premature infants, children of diabetic mothers, and infants delivered by cesarean section, and sometimes with no apparent predisposing cause.Cerebral Palsy: A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)Fetal Growth Retardation: The failure of a FETUS to attain its expected FETAL GROWTH at any GESTATIONAL AGE.Home Childbirth: Childbirth taking place in the home.Fetal Death: Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.Natural Childbirth: Labor and delivery without medical intervention, usually involving RELAXATION THERAPY.Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a cardiovascular disease. The disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.Infant, Small for Gestational Age: An infant having a birth weight lower than expected for its gestational age.Heart Rate, Fetal: The heart rate of the FETUS. The normal range at term is between 120 and 160 beats per minute.Intraoperative Care: Patient care procedures performed during the operation that are ancillary to the actual surgery. It includes monitoring, fluid therapy, medication, transfusion, anesthesia, radiography, and laboratory tests.Pre-Eclampsia: A complication of PREGNANCY, characterized by a complex of symptoms including maternal HYPERTENSION and PROTEINURIA with or without pathological EDEMA. Symptoms may range between mild and severe. Pre-eclampsia usually occurs after the 20th week of gestation, but may develop before this time in the presence of trophoblastic disease.Hospitals, Maternity: Special hospitals which provide care to women during pregnancy and parturition.Congenital Abnormalities: Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.Analgesia, Epidural: The relief of pain without loss of consciousness through the introduction of an analgesic agent into the epidural space of the vertebral canal. It is differentiated from ANESTHESIA, EPIDURAL which refers to the state of insensitivity to sensation.Maternal-Fetal Exchange: Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.Umbilical Cord: The flexible rope-like structure that connects a developing FETUS to the PLACENTA in mammals. The cord contains blood vessels which carry oxygen and nutrients from the mother to the fetus and waste products away from the fetus.Lod Score: The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Pregnancy Trimesters: The three approximately equal periods of a normal human PREGNANCY. Each trimester is about three months or 13 to 14 weeks in duration depending on the designation of the first day of gestation.IllinoisSpecialties, Surgical: Various branches of surgical practice limited to specialized areas.Hemiplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function on one side of the body. This condition is usually caused by BRAIN DISEASES that are localized to the cerebral hemisphere opposite to the side of weakness. Less frequently, BRAIN STEM lesions; cervical SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and other conditions may manifest as hemiplegia. The term hemiparesis (see PARESIS) refers to mild to moderate weakness involving one side of the body.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Intensive Care, Neonatal: Continuous care and monitoring of newborn infants with life-threatening conditions, in any setting.Hypotension: Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.Women, Working: Women who are engaged in gainful activities usually outside the home.Stillbirth: The event that a FETUS is born dead or stillborn.Meperidine: A narcotic analgesic that can be used for the relief of most types of moderate to severe pain, including postoperative pain and the pain of labor. Prolonged use may lead to dependence of the morphine type; withdrawal symptoms appear more rapidly than with morphine and are of shorter duration.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Prenatal Care: Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Developmental Disabilities: Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)Acid-Base Equilibrium: The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.Pregnancy, High-Risk: Pregnancy in which the mother and/or FETUS are at greater than normal risk of MORBIDITY or MORTALITY. Causes include inadequate PRENATAL CARE, previous obstetrical history (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS), pre-existing maternal disease, pregnancy-induced disease (GESTATIONAL HYPERTENSION), and MULTIPLE PREGNANCY, as well as advanced maternal age above 35.Pregnancy in Diabetics: The state of PREGNANCY in women with DIABETES MELLITUS. This does not include either symptomatic diabetes or GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE induced by pregnancy (DIABETES, GESTATIONAL) which resolves at the end of pregnancy.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Quadriplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function in all four limbs which may result from BRAIN DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; or rarely MUSCULAR DISEASES. The locked-in syndrome is characterized by quadriplegia in combination with cranial muscle paralysis. Consciousness is spared and the only retained voluntary motor activity may be limited eye movements. This condition is usually caused by a lesion in the upper BRAIN STEM which injures the descending cortico-spinal and cortico-bulbar tracts.Fetal Diseases: Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.Anesthesia, General: Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.Child Development: The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.Fentanyl: A potent narcotic analgesic, abuse of which leads to habituation or addiction. It is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. Fentanyl is also used as an adjunct to general anesthetics, and as an anesthetic for induction and maintenance. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1078)Idaho

Management of breast cancer during pregnancy using a standardized protocol. (1/435)

PURPOSE: No standardized therapeutic interventions have been reported for patients diagnosed with breast cancer during pregnancy. Of the potential interventions, none have been prospectively evaluated for treatment efficacy in the mother or safety for the fetus. We present our experience with the use of combination chemotherapy for breast cancer during pregnancy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: During the past 8 years, 24 pregnant patients with primary or recurrent cancer of the breast were managed by outpatient chemotherapy, surgery, or surgery plus radiation therapy, as clinically indicated. The chemotherapy included fluorouracil (1,000 mg/m2), doxorubicin (50 mg/m2), and cyclophosphamide (500 mg/m2), administered every 3 to 4 weeks after the first trimester of pregnancy. Care was provided by medical oncologists, breast surgeons, and perinatal obstetricians. RESULTS: Modified radical mastectomy was performed in 18 of the 22 patients, and two patients were treated with segmental mastectomy with postpartum radiation therapy. This group included patients in all trimesters of pregnancy. The patients received a median of four cycles of combination chemotherapy during pregnancy. No antepartum complications temporally attributable to systemic therapy were noted. The mean gestational age at delivery was 38 weeks. Apgar scores, birthweights, and immediate postpartum health were reported to be normal for all of the children. CONCLUSION: Breast cancer can be treated with chemotherapy during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy with minimal complications of labor and delivery.  (+info)

Perinatal risk and severity of illness in newborns at 6 neonatal intensive care units. (2/435)

OBJECTIVES: This multisite study sought to identify (1) any differences in admission risk (defined by gestational age and illness severity) among neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) and (2) obstetric antecedents of newborn illness severity. METHODS: Data on 1476 babies born at a gestational age of less than 32 weeks in 6 perinatal centers were abstracted prospectively. Newborn illness severity was measured with the Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology. Regression models were constructed to predict scores as a function of perinatal risk factors. RESULTS: The sites differed by several obstetric case-mix characteristics. Of these, only gestational age, small for gestational age. White race, and severe congenital anomalies were associated with higher scores. Antenatal corticosteroids, low Apgar scores, and neonatal hypothermia also affected illness severity. At 2 sites, higher mean severity could not be explained by case mix. CONCLUSIONS: Obstetric events and perinatal practices affect newborn illness severity. These risk factors differ among perinatal centers and are associated with elevated illness severity at some sites. Outcomes of NICU care may be affected by antecedent events and perinatal practices.  (+info)

Prenatal diagnosis of a lean umbilical cord: a simple marker for the fetus at risk of being small for gestational age at birth. (3/435)

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the prenatal diagnosis of a 'lean' umbilical cord in otherwise normal fetuses identifies fetuses at risk of being small for gestational age (SGA) at birth and of having distress in labor. The umbilical cord was defined as lean when its cross-sectional area on ultrasound examination was below the 10th centile for gestational age. METHOD: Pregnant women undergoing routine sonographic examination were included in the study. Inclusion criteria were gestational age greater than 20 weeks, intact membranes, and singleton gestation. The sonographic cross-sectional area of the umbilical cord was measured in a plane adjacent to the insertion into the fetal abdomen. Umbilical artery Doppler waveforms were recorded during fetal apnea and fetal anthropometric parameters were measured. RESULTS: During the study period, 860 patients met the inclusion criteria, of whom 3.6% delivered a SGA infant. The proportion of SGA infants was higher among fetuses who had a lean umbilical cord on ultrasound examination than among those with a normal umbilical cord (11.5% vs. 2.6%, p < 0.05). Fetuses with a lean cord had a risk 4.4-fold higher of being SGA at birth than those with a normal umbilical cord. After 25 weeks of gestation, this risk was 12.4 times higher when the umbilical cord was lean than when it was of normal size. The proportion of fetuses with meconium-stained amniotic fluid at delivery was higher among fetuses with a lean cord than among those with a normal umbilical cord (14.6% vs. 3.1%, p < 0.001). The proportion of infants who had a 5-min Apgar score < 7 was higher among those who had a lean cord than among those with normal umbilical cord (5.2% vs. 1.3%, p < 0.05). Considering only patients admitted in labor with intact membranes and who delivered an appropriate-for-gestational-age infant, the proportion of fetuses who had oligohydramnios at the time of delivery was higher among those who had a lean cord than among those with a normal umbilical cord (17.6% versus 1.3%, p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: We conclude that fetuses with a lean umbilical cord have an increased risk of being small for gestational age at birth and of having signs of distress at the time of delivery.  (+info)

Birth weight in relation to morbidity and mortality among newborn infants. (4/435)

BACKGROUND: At any given gestational age, infants with low birth weight have relatively high morbidity and mortality. It is not known, however, whether there is a threshold weight below which morbidity and mortality are significantly greater, or whether that threshold varies with gestational age. METHODS: We analyzed the neonatal outcomes of death, five-minute Apgar score, umbilical-artery blood pH, and morbidity due to prematurity for all singleton infants delivered at Parkland Hospital, Dallas, between January 1, 1988, and August 31, 1996. A distribution of birth weights according to week of gestation at birth was created. Infants in the 26th through 75th percentiles for weight served as the reference group. Data on preterm infants (those born at 24 to 36 weeks of gestation) were analyzed separately from data on infants delivered at term (37 or more weeks of gestation). RESULTS: A total of 122,754 women and adolescents delivered singleton live infants without malformations between 24 and 43 weeks of gestation. Among the 12,317 preterm infants who were analyzed, there was no specific birth-weight percentile at which morbidity and mortality increased. Among 82,361 infants who were born at term and whose birth weights were at or below the 75th percentile, however, the rate of neonatal death increased from 0.03 percent in the reference group (26th through 75th percentile for weight) to 0.3 percent for those with birth weights at or below the 3rd percentile (P<0.001). The incidence of five-minute Apgar scores of 3 or less and umbilical-artery blood pH values of 7.0 or less was approximately doubled for infants at or below the 3rd birth-weight percentile (P=0.003 and P<0.001, respectively). The incidence of intubation at birth, seizures during the first day of life, and sepsis was also significantly increased among term infants with birth weights at or below the 3rd percentile. These differences persisted after adjustment for the mother's race and parity and the infant's sex. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality and morbidity are increased among infants born at term whose birth weights are at or below the 3rd percentile for their gestational age.  (+info)

Influence of parity on the obstetric performance of mothers aged 40 years and above. (5/435)

We reviewed the delivery records of 205 mothers aged 40 years and above who delivered from 1st January 1994 to 31st December 1996 to examine the influence of parity on their obstetric performance. There were 51 (24.9%) primiparous mothers. The incidences of antenatal complications (antepartum haemorrhage, hypertensive disorder, glucose intolerance, prematurity), labour performance (type of labour, mode of delivery) and neonatal outcome (birth weight, Apgar scores, neonatal intensive care unit admission, perinatal mortality) were compared between the 51 (24.9%) primiparous and the 154 (75.1%) multiparous mothers. Higher incidences of antepartum haemorrhage (17.6 versus 5.8%, P = 0.0188), hypertensive disorder (17.6 versus 5.2%, P = 0.015), labour induction (33.3 versus 14.3%, P = 0.004) and Caesarean section delivery (58.8 versus 20.8%, P < 0.0001) were found among the primiparous mothers than the multiparous group. Neonatal outcome, however, was similar in both groups. We conclude that the primiparous mothers aged 40 years and above had more complicated antenatal and labour courses than multiparous mothers. On the other hand, the neonatal outcomes of two groups were comparable.  (+info)

Physiologic restriction versus genetic weight potential: study in normal fetuses and in fetuses with intrauterine growth retardation. (6/435)

Physiologic weight restriction is defined as the difference between the genetic and real weight in a normal fetus. The aims of this study were (1) to obtain, in normal pregnancies, reference values of mean weight restriction between 32 and 42 weeks for both male and female fetuses, and (2) to observe how weight restriction may influence intrauterine growth retardation. In the first part of the study, 1004 ultrasonograms of 389 different women were studied and the estimated fetal weights with their regression curves were calculated and drawn for all fetuses by sex. Differences between the 50th percentile of the genetic curves in normal population and the estimated fetal weight values for each of the 1004 examinations were calculated and weight restriction 50th and 90th percentiles were described. In the second part of the study, genetic curves were constructed retrospectively for 20 fetuses with intrauterine weight restriction whose examinations were performed before week 28 and were compared with curves for the normal population. Finally, for the 20 patients with intrauterine weight restriction, differences between genetic and real weight at delivery were plotted and compared with weight restriction 50th and 90th percentiles. Also, fetuses with intrauterine weight restriction were compared according to differing degrees of restriction. Weight restriction began between 31 and 33 weeks of gestation and was earlier and marked in female fetuses. Genetic percentiles were higher in normal fetuses than in fetuses with intrauterine weight restriction. In addition, pregnancies of intrauterine growth restricted fetuses with greater degrees of weight restriction were more abnormal than those of fetuses with a lesser degree of weight restriction. Both facts imply that some of the fetuses included in the classic diagnosis of intrauterine weight restriction may be genetically small fetuses. Concepts of weight restriction and physiologic weight restriction might be applied to discriminate between normal, genetically small fetuses and fetuses affected with intrauterine growth retardation.  (+info)

Births: final data for 1997. (7/435)

OBJECTIVES: This report presents 1997 data on U.S. births according to a wide variety of characteristics. Data are presented for maternal demographic characteristics including age, live-birth order, race, Hispanic origin, marital status, and educational attainment; maternal lifestyle and health characteristics (medical risk factors, weight gain, and tobacco and alcohol use); medical care utilization by pregnant women (prenatal care, obstetric procedures, complications of labor and/or delivery, attendant at birth, and method of delivery); and infant health characteristics (period of gestation, birthweight, Apgar score, abnormal conditions, congenital anomalies, and multiple births). Also presented are birth and fertility rates by age, live-birth order, race, Hispanic origin, and marital status. Selected data by mother's State of residence are shown including teenage birth rates and total fertility rates, as well as data on month and day of birth, sex ratio, and age of father. Trends in fertility patterns and maternal and infant characteristics are described and interpreted. METHODS: Descriptive tabulations of data reported on the birth certificates of the 3.9 million births that occurred in 1997 are presented. RESULTS: Birth and fertility rates declined very slightly in 1997. Birth rates for teenagers fell 3 to 5 percent. Rates for women in their twenties changed very little, whereas rates for women in their thirties rose 2 percent. The number of births and the birth rate for unmarried women each declined slightly in 1997 while the percent of births that were to unmarried women was unchanged. Smoking by pregnant women overall dropped again in 1997, but continued to increase among teenagers. Improvements in prenatal care utilization continued. The cesarean delivery rate increased slightly after declining for 7 consecutive years. The proportion of multiple birth continued to rise; higher order multiple births (e.g., triplets, quadruplets) rose by 14 percent in 1997, following a 20 percent rise from 1995 to 1996. Key measures of birth outcome--the percents of low birthweight and preterm births--increased, with particularly large increases in the preterm rate. These changes are in large part the result of increases in multiple births.  (+info)

Glycopyrrolate reduces nausea during spinal anaesthesia for caesarean section without affecting neonatal outcome. (8/435)

We have tested the hypotheses that glycopyrrolate, administered immediately before induction of subarachnoid anaesthesia for elective Caesarean section, reduces the incidence and severity of nausea, with no adverse effects on neonatal Apgar scores, in a double-blind, randomized, controlled study. Fifty women received either glycopyrrolate 200 micrograms or saline (placebo) i.v. during fluid preload, before induction of spinal anaesthesia with 2.5 ml of 0.5% isobaric bupivacaine. Patients were questioned directly regarding nausea at 3-min intervals throughout operation and asked to report symptoms as they arose. The severity of nausea was assessed using a verbal scoring system and was treated with increments of i.v. ephedrine and fluids. Patients in the group pretreated with glycopyrrolate reported a reduction in the frequency (P = 0.02) and severity (P = 0.03) of nausea. Glycopyrrolate also reduced the severity of hypotension, as evidenced by reduced ephedrine requirements (P = 0.02). There were no differences in neonatal Apgar scores between groups.  (+info)

ADHD is known to be highly genetic. Approximately 77% of the time someone diagnosed with ADHD has the condition because of the genes they carry. However, genes are not the only factor. Researchers are finding other issues can "correlate" with ADHD. In this recent study published in Januarys Journal of Pediatrics researchers show that neonatal health is an important risk factor for ADHD.. An astounding 980,902 children born in Denmark between 1988-2001 were monitored. The babys health immediately after birth was measured by commonly used Apgar scores. Then all children were followed from age 3 until a diagnosis of hyperkinetic disorder, a first medication for ADHD, migration, death, or the end of 2006, whichever came first.. The results - The lower the Apgar score the greater the risk for the child developing ADHD. Compared with children with Apgar scores of 9 or 10 at 5 minutes, the risk for ADHD was 75% higher in children than with Apgar scores of 1 to 4 and 63% higher for those with Apgar ...
Introduction: We studied the effects of the national Perinatal Patient Safety Program in Sweden, addressing local improvement measures, changes in the proportion of low Apgar score and the number of settled injury claims due to asphyxia.. Material and methods: Final reports on achieved improvements from all Swedish obstetric units were analyzed and categories of the improvement measures taken in perinatal risk areas were established. Data on all term newborns during 2006-12 were obtained from the Medical Birth Registry. Incidence of 5-min Apgar score ,7 was analyzed before, during and after the intervention. The odds ratio for low Apgar score in period ÍII vs. period I was calculated. Patient injury claims from The Swedish National Patient Insurance Company (LÖF) were analyzed.. Results: Numerous local improvement initiatives were reported. The incidence of 5-min Apgar score ,7 on a national level remained unchanged during the study periods. The units with the highest rate of Apgar score ,7 ...
Apgar score is a method to quickly summarize the health of newborn children. Dr. Virginia Apgar, an anesthesiologist at NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital, developed the score in 1952 in order to quantify the effects of obstetric anesthesia on babies. The Apgar scale is determined by evaluating the newborn baby on five simple criteria on a scale from zero to two, then summing up the five values thus obtained. The resulting Apgar score ranges from zero to 10. The five criteria are summarized using words chosen to form a backronym (Appearance, Pulse, Grimace, Activity, Respiration). The five criteria of the Apgar score: The test is generally done at one and five minutes after birth, and may be repeated later if the score is and remains low. Scores 7 and above are generally normal, 4 to 6 fairly low, and 3 and below are generally regarded as critically low. A low score on the one-minute test may show that the neonate requires medical attention but does not necessarily indicate a long-term problem, ...
Dr. Joel Ray The health of a baby and its mother are inextricably linked throughout pregnancy and delivery, yet none of the current tools used to assess the risk of "severe acute maternal morbidity" - a critically ill woman in need of transfer to an intensive care unit - have taken into account her babys health.. Dr. Joel Ray, a physician and researcher at St. Michaels Hospital and an adjunct scientist at the Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, examined health records held by ICES of more than 600,000 live births in Ontario between 2006 and 2012. He found a "very strong relation" between a babys Apgar score and whether its mother was admitted to ICU after delivery.. In a research letter published today in the journal JAMA Pediatrics, Dr. Ray wrote that among mothers whose baby had a normal Apgar score five minutes after birth, 1.7 per 1,000 of the women were admitted to an ICU.. When the Apgar score fell into the intermediate range, 12.3 of every 1,000 mothers were admitted to an ICU. ...
The test is generally done at one and five minutes after birth. The tests may be repeated later if the score is and remains low. Scores 3 and below are generally regarded as critically low, scores of 4 to 6 fairly low, and 7 to 10 generally normal. The lower the score, the higher the chance that the child will require additional medical intervention, and probably, some level of early intervention. Low Apgar scores are frequently recorded in children who are born pre-term and with low birth weight, or who are small for gestational age. These are children who are more likely to show other medical complications, including respiratory infections , jaundice, and haemorrhages or (brain bleeds).. ...
,This score is an assessment of a newborns physical well-being based on the 5 parameters of heart rate, breathing, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and color, each of which is rated 0, 1, or 2; the 5 ratings are then summed. The Apgar score is often reported as 2 numbers, from 0 to 10, separated by a virgule or forward slash, reflecting assessment at 1 minute and 5 minutes after birth. In general medical journals, however, it is best to specify the time intervals, especially as the Apgar score may be assessed at other intervals, eg, 10, 15, or 20 minutes.
,This score is an assessment of a newborns physical well-being based on the 5 parameters of heart rate, breathing, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and color, each of which is rated 0, 1, or 2; the 5 ratings are then summed. The Apgar score is often reported as 2 numbers, from 0 to 10, separated by a virgule or forward slash, reflecting assessment at 1 minute and 5 minutes after birth. In general medical journals, however, it is best to specify the time intervals, especially as the Apgar score may be assessed at other intervals, eg, 10, 15, or 20 minutes.
The Apgar score is determined by evaluating the newborn baby on five simple criteria on a scale from zero to two and summing up the five values thus obtained. The resulting Apgar score ranges from zero to 10. The five criteria were used as a mnemonic learning aid." ...
Statistics for MedicineNet Apgar Score Specialty, MedicineNet Apgar Score Specialty, By: Feedage Forager, ID: 331040, Grade: 88, Type: RSS20
New parents can expect to hear Apgar score after their baby is born. Learn what an Apgar score is and how to pronounce Apgar.
When we are born, we are assessed and given an Apgar score. Mine was a 9.5. Thats a lie. I dont have any idea what my Apgar score was. I didnt think they even had them when I was born in 1961, so I looked it up and saw that Dr. Virginia Apgar developed the number in 1952. Sadly, I dont even know what Sweet Girls Apgar score was. It was bad enough that she happened to be born without the services of a doctor, who was apparently hanging out in the doctors lounge and hoping my labor went on for a while. Not only did I not have an epidural, I didnt even have an episiotomy. Nuff said. Apgar score was not high on my list of things to care about at the time of her birth. She was kept in an incubator away from the other babies because she had a "contaminated" birth. If it hadnt been for my baby daddy, she would have a contaminated birth on the floor, but he caught her ...
OBJECTIVE--To compare neonatal mortality and morbidity in term infants presenting by the breech and delivered vaginally or by caesarean section. DESIGN--Population based comparison of outcomes. Data derived from the St Marys maternity information system. SETTING--North West Thames Regional Health Authority, 1988-90. SUBJECTS--3447 singleton fetuses presenting by the breech at term. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Intrapartum and neonatal mortality, low Apgar scores, intubation at birth, and admission to special care baby units. RESULTS--After the exclusion of babies with congenital anomalies the incidence of intrapartum and neonatal death associated with vaginal birth was 8/961 (0.83%) compared with 1/2486 (0.03%) in babies born by caesarean section (relative risk 20, 95% confidence interval 2.5 to 163). The numbers of low Apgar scores and neonatal intubation were doubled in babies born vaginally or by emergency caesarean section compared with those delivered by elective operation. CONCLUSIONS--The good ...
Five-Minute Activities for Business English by Paul Emmerson, 9780521547413, available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide.
Health, ...A five-minute screening test could cut the risk of developing bowel ca...About one in 20 people in the UK will develop bowel cancer during thei...The new 16-year study funded by the Medical Research Council the Nat...Over the course of the study bowel cancer mortality was reduced by 43...,Quick,new,screening,exam,could,save,thousands,of,people,from,bowel,cancer,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
The GenElute Five-Minute Plasmid Miniprep kit features an ultra streamlined protocol yielding high-quality plasmid DNA in about five minutes.
Cesarean delivery of small for gestational age (SGA) preterm babies may not necessarily be more protective than vaginal delivery, according to the results of a study presented at the 2012 annual meeting of the Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine, The Pregnancy Meeting, in Dallas, Texas (Abstract 13; presented February 9, 2012).. In fact, the authors of the study found that those babies delivered by cesarean were about 30% more likely to develop respiratory distress syndrome (odds ratio [OR], 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.7) even after controlling for maternal age, ethnicity, education, primary payor, prepregnancy weight, gestational age at delivery, diabetes, and hypertension. In addition, the babies delivered surgically were 40% more likely to have a 5-minute Apgar score of 7 than those delivered vaginally (OR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1-1.9), but this difference dissipated after adjusting for confounding factors. Those neonates delivered vaginally were not at significantly higher risk for neonatal complications, ...
Around the world, virtually every child born in a hospital had an Apgar score recorded at one minute after birth and at five minutes after birth. It quickly became clear that a baby with a terrible Apgar score at one minute could often be resuscitated-with measures like oxygen and warming-to an excellent score at five minutes. Spinal and then epidural anesthesia were found to produce babies with better scores than general anesthesia. Neonatal intensive-care units sprang into existence. Prenatal ultrasound came into use to detect problems for deliveries in advance. Fetal heart monitors became standard. Over the years, hundreds of adjustments in care were made, resulting in whats sometimes called "the obstetrics package." And that package has produced dramatic results. In the United States today, a full-term baby dies in just one out of five hundred childbirths, and a mother dies in one in ten thousand. If the statistics of 1940 had persisted, fifteen thousand mothers would have died last year ...
Around the world, virtually every child born in a hospital had an Apgar score recorded at one minute after birth and at five minutes after birth. It quickly became clear that a baby with a terrible Apgar score at one minute could often be resuscitated-with measures like oxygen and warming-to an excellent score at five minutes. Spinal and then epidural anesthesia were found to produce babies with better scores than general anesthesia. Neonatal intensive-care units sprang into existence. Prenatal ultrasound came into use to detect problems for deliveries in advance. Fetal heart monitors became standard. Over the years, hundreds of adjustments in care were made, resulting in whats sometimes called "the obstetrics package." And that package has produced dramatic results. In the United States today, a full-term baby dies in just one out of five hundred childbirths, and a mother dies in one in ten thousand. If the statistics of 1940 had persisted, fifteen thousand mothers would have died last year ...
Six-foot-8 senior Stephen Lumpkins (No. 32) takes on the biggest offensive load for American. He puts up a team-high 25.4 percent of AUs shots, and though hes just under 50 percent from two-point range (59 of 119, 49.6 percent), his best skill is getting to the free throw line. Lumpkins draws 6.3 fouls per 40 minutes and has the nations 50th-best free throw rate, getting to the line 85 times while shooting just 120 field goal attempts. He make the shots when he gets to the line, too, posting a 73-percent free throw percentage this season. Lumpkins also is AUs best rebounder, grabbing 10.6 percent of his teams offensive boards (308th nationally) and 20.2 percent of his teams defensive caroms (206th nationally) when hes in.. • Six-foot-5 sophomore guard John Schoof (No. 22) has one of the most fascinating statistical lines Ive seen from any player this season. Schoof has made 50 percent of his threes (24 of 48), 20 percent of his twos (four of 20) and, get this, 100 percent of his free ...
Kaitlyn Lutz, VMD, DABVP (Food Animal), was previously a Lecturer in the Food Animal Field Service at the University of Pennsylvania and is currently exploring private dairy practice in Ashburton, New Zealand ...
This fiver was originally published on June 22, 2005. DISCLAIMER: A lot of stuff in here is copyrighted by Paramount Pictures. My intent isnt to infringe on that; I and those like me are just having a little fun in the universe Gene Roddenberry created. I dont think hed mind. All material © 2005, Mark Wilson ...
This fiver was originally published on September 5, 2001. DISCLAIMER: A lot of stuff in here is copyrighted by Paramount Pictures. My intent isnt to infringe on that; I and those like me are just having a little fun in the universe Gene Roddenberry created. I dont think hed mind. All material © 2001, Justin ONeill ...
Sara Wickham explains the Apgar score, details its history and asks whether it remains as relevant today as it was when it was first developed.
Less than a minute after birth, your child is already undergoing his or her first health check. This is repeated again five and ten minutes later....
Daniel Read blogs on the topic: "Does software need an Apgar score?". He mentions the fact that a simple metric (the Apgar score for newborns) revolutionized the childbirth process, "through standardization of techniques, training, and regulation of who exactly was allowed to perform certain procedures (based on whether they had the training and experience)". He then talks about how a similar simple score might help the quality of software development, by assessing its "health". Hmmm... all this sounds strangely familiar to me -- Cheesecake anybody? Of course, Daniel accepts that this idea is highly controversial and maybe a bit simplistic. However, I for one am convinced that it would help with improving, if not the quality, then at least the kwalitee of the software packages we see in the wild today ...
At one minute and again at five minutes after birth, the medical staff will evaluate your babys activity and muscle tone, pulse, grimace re
The Apgar score is determined by evaluating the newborn baby on five simple criteria on a scale from zero to two and summing up the five values thus obtained. The resulting Apgar score ranges from zero to 10. The five criteria were used as a mnemonic learning aid." ...
According to AmericanPregnancy.org, risks to baby include:. -premature birth if the gestational age wasnt calculated correctly. -breathing problems. -low APGAR scores. Many people believe that babies born via C-Section also have lowered immunity because of not being exposed to bacteria in the groin area of the mother during delivery.. Again, not judging, but women planning on having elective C-Sections really should be properly educated about their risks, NOT told theyre fine and that you "just lie there.". Rosie also said in this episode regarding pain or anxiety about birth "as soon as you get your epidural this disappears.". You know what else disappears with an epidural? OXYTOCIN. This "love hormone" actually helps the uterus contract, so when thats gone you crank up the artificial version called Pitocin. Although still effective in causing contractions, this often makes the contractions more painful, so more meds are needed. This can all mess things up quite a bit, and then a cesarean ...
All Topics Created by Apgar10 - Welcome to my allnursesPage! You can learn all about me here. Together, we can learn, share, and network with nurses and nursing students from all around the world.
The Apgar score was introduced by Virginia Apgar in 1952 to quantitatively evaluate the newborns condition after birth. Scores between 0 and 2 in each of 5 different categories are assigned at 1 and 5 minutes of life. ...
The final, and perhaps most important, point for me is this: quality of life. If I have a scribe shift, its a good shift. I save so much mental energy not having to chart. When I have a five-minute conversation with a patient, ordinarily, I am carefully committing about 30 key points to my short-term memory. I then have to dash out of the room, while its still fresh in my mind, and enter that into the computer. I never realized how much that was wearing me down till I didnt have to do that any more. My "external memory" is passively (from my point of view) capturing all these data points and I can focus on my clinical impression from the get-go. I can forget the details and focus on the big picture. The saved "brain strain" takes a busy shift and makes it seem nearly effortless. When I have five free minutes, which is rare enough, I can check twitter or my email or text my wife rather than frantically trying to catch up on my charting. And when my shift is over, I am generally done with my ...
How much information can we extract from a five-minute recording of someone talking? Enough to tell whether that individual may be genetically predisposed to some health complications, according to researchers at the University of Wisconsin-Madisons Waisman Center and Wisconsin Institute for Discovery... Continue reading.
There are a number of computing services that students will use while at NJIT. The short, five-minute video below is a fun, but informative overview of the online services available to you. After watching the video, you can find a summary of the computing services here.. ...
Information on the following variables was collected: BW, GA, sex, mode of delivery, Apgar score (at 1 and 5 minutes), age at the moment of transport (days of life) and the presence of an antenatal diagnosis (defined as the presence of a malformation or congenital disease during pregnancy). For every referral, the following data were also recorded: transport distance in kilometers according to three ordinal categories (,60 km, 60-300 km, ,300 km), place of referral, type of disease (according to the main organ or system involved), severity of the infant´s condition according to the SNAP II risk score, use of respiratory assistance and/or administration of inotropic drugs during transport, professionals in charge of the transport. Selection of these variables was related to the assumption that more immature or severely compromised children, and/or longer distance (with longer duration of transport) could be predisposing factors for deterioration. Additional data recorded were: the use of an ...
Information on the following variables was collected: BW, GA, sex, mode of delivery, Apgar score (at 1 and 5 minutes), age at the moment of transport (days of life) and the presence of an antenatal diagnosis (defined as the presence of a malformation or congenital disease during pregnancy). For every referral, the following data were also recorded: transport distance in kilometers according to three ordinal categories (,60 km, 60-300 km, ,300 km), place of referral, type of disease (according to the main organ or system involved), severity of the infant´s condition according to the SNAP II risk score, use of respiratory assistance and/or administration of inotropic drugs during transport, professionals in charge of the transport. Selection of these variables was related to the assumption that more immature or severely compromised children, and/or longer distance (with longer duration of transport) could be predisposing factors for deterioration. Additional data recorded were: the use of an ...
Today (actually, 3 hours ago) my wife gave birth to our long awaited boy, Mihnea Stefan Mezei.. A very healthy boy, 2,8 KG in weight, with an APGAR score of 10 :). Im the happiest man alive. I cant even express in words how I feel (its our first child).. PS: Although most people say babies are not so good looking right after birth, mine is more like Brad Pitt.. ...
At 11, it was finally OUR TURN and we had a very enjoyable C-Section. Ive never aspired to a long and painful labor, so it is fortuitous that I have the Twin Trump Card and got to choose the planned-C. After a very effective numbing agent for me, the drs worked quickly and delivered Casey first who wailed immediately, but was whisked away to the Flux-Capacitor-Warmer-Thingie in the other room to be harassed until the nurses found him to be cranky enough to declare healthy. Little Blake followed quickly and cried too although he was not deemed "cranky enough" at first and required extra pokes and prods to get him a passing grade. They finally found success by cramming noisy suction tubes into his nose & mouth which got him angry enough to get his own good Apgar score. Nurses 2, Boys-0 ...
my hubby used to talk to my tummy while i was pregnant all the time. when our daughter was born the nurse laid her on a table to assess her for the apgar score and when my husband spoke she turned over towards his voice. the nurse said she had never seen a brand new baby do that before. and my niece would always go to sleep right away if my sister played the music she used to listen to in the evenings when she was pregnant. there is something to the idea ...
Apgar scoring. The Apgar score is one of the first checks of your new babys health. The Apgar score is assigned in the first few minutes after birth to help identify babies that have difficulty breathing or have a problem that needs further care. The baby is checked at one minute and five minutes after birth for heart and respiratory rates, muscle tone, reflexes, and color. Each area can have a score of zero, one, or two, with ten points as the maximum. A total score of ten means a baby is in the best possible condition. Nearly all babies score between eight and ten, with one or two points taken off for blue hands and feet because of immature circulation. If a baby has a difficult time during delivery, this can lower the oxygen levels in the blood, which can lower the Apgar score. Apgar scores of three or less often mean a baby needs immediate attention and care. However, only 1.4 percent of babies have Apgar scores less than seven at five minutes after birth.. ...
Looking for online definition of Apgar Testing in the Medical Dictionary? Apgar Testing explanation free. What is Apgar Testing? Meaning of Apgar Testing medical term. What does Apgar Testing mean?
View all bookstore prices for ISBN:9780813815961/0813815967, Blackwells Five-Minute Veterinary Consult Clinical Companion: Small Animal Dermatology, 2011, by 2nd edition
Eight randomised controlled trials met the inclusion criteria and only included term infants (n = 4011). Five studies included infants with no fetal distress and clear amniotic fluid, one large study included vigorous infants with clear or meconium-stained amniotic fluid, and two large studies included infants with thin or thick meconium-stained amniotic fluid. Overall, there was no statistical difference between oro/nasopharyngeal suction and no oro/nasopharyngeal suction for all reported outcomes: mortality (typical RR 2.29, 95% CI 0.94 to 5.53; typical RD 0.01, 95% CI -0.00 to 0.01; I2 = 0%, studies = 2, participants = 3023), need for resuscitation (typical RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.69 to 1.06; typical RD -0.01, 95% CI -0.03 to 0.00; I2 = 0%, studies = 5, participants = 3791), admission to NICU (typical RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.62 to 1.08; typical RD -0.03, 95% CI -0.08 to 0.01; I2 = 27%, studies = 2, participants = 997) and Apgar scores at five minutes (MD -0.03, 95% CI -0.08 to 0.02; I2 not estimated, ...
Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate neurodevelopmental outcome in extremely-low-birth-weight (ELBW) infants, all of whom had 3 characteristics: gestational age (GA) less than or equal to24 weeks, birth weight less than or equal to750 g, and 1-minute Apgar score less than or equal to3. Study design: Surviving infants were evaluated at 18 to 22 months corrected age with a neurologic examination and the Bayley II Mental and Psychomotor Developmental Index (MDI and PDI).
Positive stress and non-stress tests of 243 infants were examined for accelerations and the duration of poor long-term variability during fetal heart rate monitoring. Accelerations were present in 47% when the variability was good. No accelerations were seen when poor variability lasted for more than 75% of the monitoring time; this was also associated with lower birth-weights, shorter gestational duration and lower 5-minute Apgar scores. These measurements improved as the period of poor variability decreased. Intra-uterine death occurred in 1,9% of infants when the variability was good, in 3,6% when the variability lasted for less than 75% of the recording time and in 19,6% when the poor variability lasted longer than 75% of the recording time. Neonatal deaths occurred in 7,5% and 21,7% of these three groups, respectively. Poor long-term variability was also associated with growth-retardation.. ...
Sitting heart rate of less than 60 beats per minute and a sitting systolic blood pressure less than 110 or greater than 140 or a sitting diastolic blood pressure less than or greater than 90 after a five-minute resting period at Screening and a sitting heart rate of less than 60 beats per minute and a sitting systolic blood pressure less than 100 or greater than 140 or a sitting diastolic blood pressure less than 60 or greater than 90 after a five-minute resting period just prior to dosing ...
Baby Boomers at Greatest Risk for Silent Killer Hepatitis C Nashville, TN - Do you have hepatitis C, a potentially deadly viral disease? Do you know if you
A quick injection that blocks the stellate ganglion relieves symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, including distress, anxiety, and depression, and may represent a new treatment option.
The Iran Journal of Nursing (IJN) is a national, peer-reviewed, scientific journal, published bimonthly by Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The IJN contributes to the progression in nursing and midwifery by publishing high quality papers of current relevance and with potential to progress education, practice, and research. All manuscripts submitted to the IJN must have a sound scientific, evidential, theoretical or philosophical base
The cord should separate by about day 8 but delayed separation has been linked with an increased incidence of omphalitis as well as a number of immune disorders such as leucocyte adhesion deficiency.. Immediate versus delayed cord clamping. When the baby is delivered about a third of the fetal-placental blood remains in the placenta (around 30 mls/kg) so with delayed cord clamping the infant gains around 25-30mls/kg of blood via a placental transfusion. The majority of this transfusion occurs within a minute if the neonate is held at the level of the uterus and is almost complete by three minutes.. A recent Cochrane review suggested that delayed cord clamping (by 1 to 3 minutes) is "likely to be beneficial as long as access to treatment for jaundice requiring phototherapy is available". This review suggested no difference in adverse events such as severe maternal post-partum haemorrhage, low Apgar scores or worsening neonatal mortality figures when compared to immediate clamping. There did ...
Each issue contains new articles and insights on leadership training, updates on whats been added to BuildingChurchLeaders.com, and other practical help to build faithful and effective leaders in your church. ...
In 1952 Virginia Apgar, a physician at the Sloane Womens Hospital in New York City, New York, created the Apgar score as a method of evaluating newborn infants health to determine if they required medical intervention. The score included five separate categories, including heart rate, breathing rate, reaction to stimuli, muscle activity, and color. An infant received a score from zero to two in each category, and those scores added up to the infants total score out of ten. An infant with a score of ten was healthy, and those with low scores required medical attention at birth.. Format: Articles Subject: Technologies, Processes ...
In 1952 Virginia Apgar, a physician at the Sloane Womens Hospital in New York City, New York, created the Apgar score as a method of evaluating newborn infants health to determine if they required medical intervention. The score included five separate categories, including heart rate, breathing rate, reaction to stimuli, muscle activity, and color. An infant received a score from zero to two in each category, and those scores added up to the infants total score out of ten. An infant with a score of ten was healthy, and those with low scores required medical attention at birth.. Format: Articles Subject: Technologies, Processes ...
Charlotte came out first at 2:44am. She was 6lbs 3oz. I heard her cry and it was the sweetest sound I had ever heard. The nurse took her to the station they had set up and scored her on the APGAR test to see how she was doing. She scored a 7 after 1 minute and a 9 after 5 minutes. Evelyn was born just after Charlotte at 2:46am. Evelyn weighed 7lbs 0oz. I remember it taking her longer to cry than I had expected. It felt like I waited and waited and waited to hear her cry. Her APGAR scores were 9 after 1 minute and 9 after 5 minutes. I was so full of emotion that I almost didnt know what to feel. The medicine made me feel very strange and the whole experience was pretty surreal. I was able to see Charlotte right away but didnt see Evelyn for about 10 minutes after she was born. They told me that they held her up but I didnt see her I guess. After Brian cut the cords they let us hold the babies for a few minutes before taking them. We each got an arm band for each of the babies before they left ...
CHICAGO (Reuters) - A five-minute screening test could help detect autism in babies at 12 months of age, giving parents and doctors far more time to intervene,...
Tulisa Contostavlos posted a confession explaining exactly how, who, when and why the sex tape was made with former boyfriend, Justin Edwards, and how it got leaked online. In the personal admission to her fans, the X Factor UK judge and former N-Dubz singer confirmed that it was indeed her seen performing a sex act on a man in the video. The 23 year-old star addressed the public without the support of handlers or her manager in a five-minute long monologue during which she blasted ex-lover Justin Edwards, who she blamed for the release of the video. She says she is heartbroken by intimate video leaked online. The almost 7 minute long blowjob sex tape is freely available for download below ...
At the end of the summer, I was running out of options to help dd8 get over her mental block regarding addition facts. Finally, I wrote a book about her and her stuffed pet tiger going on adventures around the world wherein I covered all the addition facts she needed to memorize. I titled it Adding Adventure to Life. She read it over and over, and at last she knows her math facts with confidence. Were now getting her speed up using "five-minute frenzy worksheets (free at http://www.math-drills.com/addition.shtml). A week ago she took over 20 minutes to fill out one of them (its 100 problems), and today she did it with perfect accuracy in just seven minutes ...
Somatics by Thomas Hanna shows you how to reawaken your minds control of movement, flexibility, and health. The author demonstrates that so many problems that we have accepted as inevitable over time like chronic stiffness, bad back, chronic pain, fatigue, and high blood pressure do not necessarily ever have to occur if we learn how to consciously control our nerves and muscles. Hanna calls this a state of sensory-motor awareness. By following this gentle program, you can maintain the pleasures of a healthy body indefinitely with only a five-minute routine once a day.. Cycling Past 50 by Joe Friel shows you how to become an ageless athlete. Conventional wisdom says that middle-aged cyclists should slow down and expect to not be able to achieve as much as they grow older, but this book shows that cyclists with the proper training and attitude adjustment can achieve more than ever after age 50. This book is written for all types of riders including mountain bikers and track races and provides a ...
Joey, honey, your twenty minutes is up," I announce apologetically, the last of a string of transitioning prompts to get him off his Mario games and onto... anything else. He was doing OK with it, but when he got the five-minute warning, he switched to the level that usually sets him screaming; I think it might be level 8-4. I flinched, knowing how this has been ending lately. My shoulder throbbed at the very thought ...
The South Coast Air Quality Management Agency in 2017 directed $2.77 million to enhance the monitoring and alert systems at the Torrance Refinery. But there is still a lot the public is not aware of.. At the SCAQMDs board meeting on Feb. 1, it was revealed for the first time publicly that 10 leaks of modified hydrogen fluoride or hydrofluoric acid (MHF) occurred since 2017 from the Torrance and Wilmington refineries. Those releases were detected using sensors on refinery property.. Four of the incidents involved the release of MHF at quantities greater than 10 parts per million (PPM). The lowest lethal dose for inhalation is estimated between 50 and 250 PPM for a five-minute exposure.. The 10 leaks in the past two years was news to Steve Goldsmith, co-founder of Torrance Refinery Action Alliance, who follows the issue closely. About three or four of the 10 disclosed by SCAQMD last week were reported in the media, he said.. "Increased monitoring and increased information about the monitoring is ...
In article ,zjons-180894211142 at 130.60.120.10,, zjons at vetbio.unizh.ch (Zophonias O. Jonsson) writes: ,, Dear Xtallographers ,, ,, I am a layman who just loves to see those beautiful structures they show ,, in full color in Nature and Science. Last year I was fortunate enough to ,, get to attend some lectures of men with names in the protein structure ,, community. If I remember correctly one of them (Alwin Jones I think) said ,, that the lagrest structure determined to a reasonable (,3a) resolution was ,, somewhre close to 60 KDa. Now I have three questions for you: ,, ,, 1) Does my memory serve me right? (Given the fact that those guys would ,, not have said anything that wasnt true) im sure it does ,, 2) What is the current record (the largest single peptide that has had its ,, diffraction pattern traced)? the largest i could find in a five-minute quick-n-dirty search is 842 amino acids, of which 833 could be traced (~6800 non-H atoms; assuming 14 grams/mole of atoms (to account for ...
The plays plot, or major elements from it, have frequently been used by film makers.. The first film of King Lear was a five-minute German version made around 1905, which has not survived.[94] The oldest extant version is a ten-minute studio-based version from 1909 by Vitagraph, which made (in Luke McKernans words) the "ill-advised" decision to attempt to cram in as much of the plot as possible.[95] Two silent versions, both titled Re Lear, were made in Italy in 1910. Of these, the version by director Gerolamo Lo Savio was filmed on location, and it dropped the Edgar sub-plot and used frequent intertitling to make the plot easier to follow than its Vitagraph predecessor.[96] A contemporary setting was used for Louis Feuillades 1911 French adaptation Le Roi Lear Au Village, and in 1914 in America, Ernest Warde expanded the story to an hour, including spectacles such as a final battle scene.[97]. Joseph Mankiewicz 1949 House of Strangers is often considered a Lear adaptation, but the parallels ...
Hotel address:126 Huangpu Avenue West (Huangpu Dadao Xi)(126),Guangzhou. The Vanburgh Hotel (Yunlaisibao Jiudian) is a five-star hotel located in the busting Zhujiang New Town central business district. About a five-minute drive takes guests to the Pazhou Complex.Decorated in a continental style.
Hotel address:8 East Avenue (Dong Dajie)(),Changzhi. The Weierxin Business Hotel (Changzhi Weierxin Shangwu Jiudian) is conveniently located in the center of Changzhi. Fazhu Temple is just a five-minute walk away.After a day of business or travel around Changzhi, guests can relax in the sauna.
What do I think about it? Its a five-minute major," said Cameron. "Its right to the head. Do I think (it should be reviewed)? For sure, isnt that what the league is about today, with no headshots? Id be shocked if thats not reviewable and suspended ...
A freak five-minute tropical storm tore through your back yard in Hialeah, knocking over your wood fence like Matt Mitrione pummeling Kimbo Slice. You h...
A Paper A Day is a new podcast project. Each week, a different researcher gives five five-minute summaries on a paper that bring them joy.. ...
Hi-Rez has revealed its latest SMITE deity in a new five-minute video focusing on Bastet, the Goddess of Cats. The clip delves into Bastets Egyptian lore, her...
... : Factors Associated with APGAR SCORE 5 among neonates delivered under general and Spinal anesthesia in GUH, January 1 to April 30, 2012 ...
... : Lineer regression analysis with birth weight, 1st min. and 5th min. The p and r values for LA diameter that is the only independent risk factor for Apgar scores ...
I have a feeling theyre going to pressure me to induce early and Im not sure how I feel about that. With my first pregnancy I would have absolutely said "no way!!!" But I learned some hard lessons during Christians birth. It was my midwife who recommended that I have a c-section with Christian and she even brought in the doctor to do it and I was having no parts of it. As a result I almost lost my precious first born. As long as I live I will never forget the silence in the room when I asked what Christians apgar score was. No one answered because it was actually a (1) and they were busy resuscitating him. So these days I am most definitely going to weigh all my options. Im going to pray about it and er on the side of caution. The goal is to have a healthy baby, not to be a hero! I know this is totally controversial and people have very strong opinions about childbirth. But I dont (anymore). So Im not sure what to do. I guess well just cross that bridge when we come to it!!! Its kind-of ...
On the flip side, I had a pretty energetic day considering the small amount of sleep that I got. Yey!!! I received a packet, or should I say catalog, of paperwork from the state as the second phase of the medical assistance application. Worked on it for 2 hours last night, and a few hours today. Not fun. Having to dig through records and find her Apgar scores for goodness sakes. I dont remember. And lots of other info that is really unnecessary, in my opinion. Well, I am off to bed at a much earlier time than I am accustomed to, but the energy is gone ...
Hi Ladies, I should have sent this email earlier but Greg and I have been exhausted. Our son, Nathan, was born on his due date, Friday, July 9th. He weighed 6 lb 10 oz and was 20 in length. He had perfect apgar score and was 100% healthy. We couldnt be any prouder with our…
Better Health is a network of healthcare professional blogs, offering commentary on news, research, health policy, healthcare reform, true stories, disease management and expert interviews.
No motor response Any combined score of less than eight represents a significant risk of mortality. Apgar score TRAUMA.ORG ... The Pediatric Glasgow Coma Scale (BrE) (also known as Pediatric Glasgow Coma Score (AmE) or simply PGCS) is the equivalent of ...
Apgar score Invented in 1952 by Virginia Apgar. Disposable diapers Cloth diapers in the United States were first mass-produced ...
Their babies were less likely to have low five-minute Apgar scores." For monitoring of the fetus during childbirth, a simple ... These factors form the Bishop score. The Bishop score can also be used as a means to predict the success of an induction of ... obtaining an APGAR score, keeping the newborn warm, and monitoring of vital signs such as respiratory rate and effort, pulse, ... and result in an improved Apgar score for the infant. The injection of small amounts of sterile water into or just below the ...
Examples are Avogadro's number, the Diesel engine, meitnerium, Alzheimer's disease, and the Apgar score. For a different view ...
Virginia Apgar (Apgar score) Oswald Avery (pioneer in immunochemistry) T. Romeyn Beck (pioneer in medical jurisprudence; ... The median undergraduate GPA and average MCAT score for successful applicants in 2014 were 3.82 and 36, respectively. Columbia ... P&S is one of the most selective medical schools in the United States based on average MCAT score, GPA, and acceptance rate. In ...
Beyond assessing the five components that make up the APGAR score, it's essential to understand its meaning. The APGAR score ... see Understanding the APGAR scoring system). The nurse is often directly responsible for assigning the APGAR scores at 1 and 5 ... Scores of 7 or above are considered normal for full-term newborns. If the total score is below 7, or any area is scored 0 at 5 ... All subsequent APGAR scores reflect the newborn's response to interventions during the transition from intrauterine to ...
Prenatal onset may present with non-specific signs such as low Apgar scores and small for gestational age. Metabolic ...
Several randomized controlled trials have reported no association between Doppler exposure and birth weight, Apgar scores, and ...
The Apgar score is a measure of a newborn's transition from the uterus during the first minutes after birth. In developed ...
Virginia Apgar described the Apgar score scoring system as a means of evaluating a newborn's condition. It was not until 1965 ...
"Apgar score of 0 at 5 minutes and neonatal seizures or serious neurologic dysfunction in relation to birth setting" (PDF). ... The study indicated that babies born at home are roughly 10 times as likely to have an Apgar score of 0 after 5 minutes and ... The study findings showed that the risk of Apgar scores of 0 is even greater in first-born babies-14 times the risk of hospital ... Ethics review additionally found that several studies concluded that home births had a higher risk of failing Apgar scores in ...
... the Analgizer allows labor to progress normally and with no apparent adverse effect on Apgar scores. All vital signs remain ...
... the Analgizer allows labor to progress normally and with no apparent adverse effect on Apgar scores. All vital signs remain ...
Specifically, the rates of caesarean section, instrumental birth, and duration of labor are equal, as are baby Apgar scores and ...
... and he saw in Apgar the 'energy and ability' to make a significant contribution. Apgar later devised the Apgar Score also at ... He supervised the surgical residency of Virginia Apgar, later advising her to pursue her medical career in the field of ...
After birth, rapid or labored breathing, cyanosis, slow heartbeat, a barrel-shaped chest or low Apgar score are all signs of ...
She was born with the umbilical cord wrapped around her neck and was given an Apgar score of 2, but made a full recovery. Her ...
Birth asphyxia with Apgar scores less than or equal to 5 at 1 minute or less than or equal to 6 at 5 minutes. In order to ...
Intrauterine Growth Restriction Apgar score is a test given after birth to test the baby's physical condition and evaluate if ... low Apgar scores (a test given after birth to test the baby's physical condition and evaluate if special medical care is needed ...
Apgar scores, and prematurity disappear. Addiction to any substance, including crack, may be a risk factor for child abuse or ... In IQ studies, cocaine-exposed children do not appear to score lower than others. Although PCE is correlated with low IQ scores ... or development as measured by test scores. PCE also appears to have little effect on infant growth. However, PCE is associated ...
Virginia Apgar, M.D., the creator of the Apgar Score, joined the March of Dimes in 1959 and eventually served as vice president ... This gives the March of Dimes a merged score of 71.76, leading to their two star status. Another criticism has been that ... "The Virginia Apgar Papers". National Library of Medicine Profiles in Science website. Retrieved October 11, 2010. "And Down ... On behalf of the March of Dimes, Virginia Apgar testified to the United States Senate in 1969 about the importance of federal ...
... low Apgar score. On the other hand, delayed clamping resulted in an increased birth weight of on average about 100 g, and an ...
... as reflected in a low 5 minute Apgar score. Extreme degrees of asphyxia can cause cardiac arrest and death. If resuscitation is ...
Virginia Apgar devizes the Apgar score as a simple replicable method of quickly and summarily assessing the health of babies ... Finster, M.; Wood, M. (May 2005). "The Apgar score has survived the test of time". Anesthesiology. 102 (4): 855-857. doi: ... Apgar, Virginia (1953). "A proposal for a new method of evaluation of the newborn infant". Current Research in Anesthesia and ...
A recent study distinguishes between mild and severe polyhydramnios and showed that Apgar score of less than 7, perinatal death ...
... post-delivery from the simulator's arterial and venous blood gas values that give one-minute and five-minute APGAR scores based ... A thorough amount of studies have shown that students engaged in medical simulation training have overall higher scores and ... In addition to overall better scores for medical students, several other distinct advantages exist not specifically related to ... and providing immediate feedback to users who score a hit. While the MILES training system is not necessarily a medically based ...
low APGAR scores. *neonatal jaundice. *neonatal retinal hemorrhage. *permanent central nervous system or brain damage ...
The 1-minute score determines how well the baby tolerated the birthing process. The 5-minute score tells the health care ... Apgar is a quick test performed on a baby at 1 and 5 minutes after birth. ... The Apgar score is based on a total score of 1 to 10. The higher the score, the better the baby is doing after birth. ... A lower Apgar score does not mean a child will have serious or long-term health problems. The Apgar score is not designed to ...
Apgar score is a method to quickly summarize the health of newborn children. Dr. Virginia Apgar, an anesthesiologist at NewYork ... Apgar, Virginia (1966). "The Newborn (Apgar) Scoring System: Reflections and Advice" (PDF). Pediatric clinics of North America ... particularly if the score improves at the five-minute test. An Apgar score that remains below 3 at later times-such as 10, 15, ... "What Are APGAR Scores, And Why Are They Important?". www.holtonlaw.com. Casey, B. M.; McIntire, D. D.; Leveno, K. J. (February ...
... Learners consider the Apgar scores for several fictitious newborns. They are then given an Apgar score ... You just viewed Apgar Scoring Challenge . Please take a moment to rate this material. ... Key Words: Apgar, newborn, pediatrics, health assessment.. Disciplines:. * Science and Technology / Health Sciences / ...
What Is Your Church Apgar Score? A new way to measure spiritual vitality.. Kevin A. Miller ...
Apgar score. Apgar score (AP-gar skor) noun A method of assessing a newborns health. [After anesthesiologist Virginia Apgar ( ... The Apgar score is typically calculated at one minute and five minutes after birth. Ten years after the debut of the Apgar ... Apgar score) to death (how many people came to the funeral). In 1953, Dr. Virginia Apgar devised a quick way to measure the ... See more usage examples of apgar score in Vocabulary.coms dictionary. This is a judging world and we get evaluated right from ...
Apgar Score System synonyms, Apgar Score System pronunciation, Apgar Score System translation, English dictionary definition of ... Apgar Score System. n. A system of assessing the general physical condition of a newborn infant based on a rating of 0, 1, or 2 ... Related to Apgar Score System: Apgar score, Apgar scale. Ap·gar score. (ăp′gär). n.. A system of assessing the general physical ... Apgar Score System - definition of Apgar Score System by The Free Dictionary https://www.thefreedictionary.com/Apgar+Score+ ...
... Baby gets an Apgar score at birth. What does the score mean? ... which would happen if there is a low Apgar score. If not, then there would have been a higher, normal range, Apgar score. ... with 2 being the best score) and then add those numbers together. The point of the Apgar score is to check whether baby needs ... From a parents perspective, the Apgar score number is irrelevant, says Cohen. Of course, a parent should and would know if ...
The Apgar score is often reported as 2 numbers, from 0 to 10, separated by a virgule or forward slash, reflecting assessment at ... In general medical journals, however, it is best to specify the time intervals, especially as the Apgar score may be assessed ... This score is an assessment of a newborns physical well-being based on the 5 parameters of heart rate, breathing, muscle tone ... The Apgar score is often reported as 2 numbers, from 0 to 10, separated by a virgule or forward slash, reflecting assessment at ...
News & Features » August 2014 » "Little Bears Apgar Score" by Caroline Bock "Little Bears Apgar Score" by Caroline Bock Are ... She had received a ten on the Apgar, a perfect score. Her eyes open and glare at Jane, as if indignant at the prodding and ... Little Bears Apgar Score, Newborn, short fiction, Terrible Twosdays ... "Theyre doing the Apgar test.". Her first test. She had to pass it-even though Jane had promised herself that she wasnt going ...
MedicineNet Apgar Score Specialty, By: Feedage Forager, ID: 331040, Grade: 88, Type: RSS20 ...
The more premature the infant, the more likely the Apgar score was low in the presence of a pH greater than ... and five-minute Apgar scores and umbilical cord arterial pH values were compared in preterm newborn infants of various ... Apgar Score*. Fetal Blood / analysis*. Gestational Age. Humans. Hydrogen-Ion Concentration. Infant, Newborn. Infant, Premature* ... The more premature the infant, the more likely the Apgar score was low in the presence of a pH greater than or equal to 7.25. ...
... objective and economical 10-point post-operative prognostic scoring system based on three readily recorded intraoperative ... Mean surgical Apgar score in group A patients was 4.92 (SD 1.38) and the mean surgical Apgar score in group B was 7.88 (SD 0.88 ... Surgical Apgar score is a useful parameter to determine the outcome of the patient undergoing laparotomy. The lower the score, ... Surgical Apgar score is a simple, objective and economical 10-point post-operative prognostic scoring system based on three ...
She is best known as the inventor of the Apgar score, a method to summarise the birth of newborns. ... Todays google doodle celebrated Dr Virginia Apgar, an American obstetrical anesthetist on her 109th birth anniversary. ... Google Celebrates Dr Virginia Apgar, Inventor Of Apgar Score Birthday With A Doodle. Dr Virginia Apgars interest in ... Apgar score, a method to summarise the birth of newborns. Dr Apgar developed the score in 1952 to quantify the effect of ...
Of these infants, 62% had Apgar scores at 5 minutes of ≥6; only 1 infant had an Apgar score of ,3 (Apgar score of 1), and may ... were missing the Apgar score at 10 minutes, 1 of whom was missing all Apgar scores. Apgar scores at 20 minutes were assigned to ... and 5-minute Apgar score in addition to the 10-minute Apgar score; when all 3 Apgar scores were included, only the 10-minute ... recommends assignment of Apgar scores beyond 5 minutes of age when the Apgar score is ,7 (the extended Apgar score) to indicate ...
The Apgar score is a scoring system used to assess the physical health of newborns one minute and five minutes after theyre ... Our research aimed to specifically study the effect of pre-delivery maternal blood pressure on Apgar scores.". High blood ... "Overall, our research found higher pre-delivery blood pressure is associated with lower Apgar scores," said Amir Jafari, D.O., ... High pre-delivery maternal blood pressure associated with low Apgar scores. Research suggests high blood pressure in mother may ...
... an Apgar score at 5 min of less than 5 is a good predictor of neonatal mortality. The score is not useful in predicting the ... Apgar Score*. Cohort Studies. Female. Humans. Infant. Infant Mortality*. Infant Welfare. Infant, Newborn. Infant, Very Low ... The Apgar score at 1 and 5 min and neonatal mortality were retrospectively analyzed to obtain the predictive values of the ... A score of less than 5 at 5 min appears to be a good predictor of neonatal mortality in infants with a birth weight between ...
This is what I found about the reason for the APGAR : If the Apgar score remains below 3 at later times such as 10, 15, or 30 ... Apgar scores for a preemie. Are you part of the NICU club? Do you have a child who is still struggling with the effects of ... Based on how well shes doing - I wouldnt read too much into the apgar scores :o) I send my best - Jenn ... Apgar scores are determined by evaluating the newborn baby on five simple criteria Appearance, Pulse, Grimace, Activity, ...
The risk of neonatal/infant death is greatest at a low 5-minute Apgar score of 0-3, and moderate at an intermediate score of 4- ... Apgar score for newborns may be tool for predicting whether mother will become critically ill ICES in the News. Newborn, moms ... Association of newborn Apgar score with maternal admission to the intensive care unit. Ray JG, Medcalf KE, Park AL. JAMA ... Results - Compared to mothers whose newborn had a normal 5-minute Apgar score (1.7 per 1000), the rate of maternal ICU was 13.0 ...
Apgar score is used for rapid assessment of newborns. Low five-minute Apgar score has been associated with increased risk of ... Association of Apgar score at five minutes with long-term neurologic disability and cognitive function in a prevalence study of ... Association of Apgar score at five minutes with long-term neurologic disability and cognitive function in a prevalence study of ... A five-minute Apgar score ,7 has a consistent association with prevalence of neurologic disability and with low cognitive ...
... infants with a five minutes Apgar score of 9 and a 10 minute Apgar score of 10 compared with infants who had an Apgar score of ... A reduced Apgar score at 10 minutes confers higher risks of cerebral palsy and epilepsy than does a reduced Apgar score at five ... We analysed Apgar scores in several ways: revised categories (Apgar values of 0-2, 3-4, 5-6, 7-8, and 9-10) and each score ... Importantly, even a slight decrease in Apgar scores at five or 10 minutes (scores of 8 or 9 for cerebral palsy and scores of 7 ...
... compared with an Apgar score of 10 at 5 and 10 minutes, an Apgar score of 9 at 5 minutes and an Apgar score of 9 at 10 minutes ... for an Apgar score of 9 at 10 minutes, and 41.9% (37.7% to 46.4%) for an Apgar score of 7 at 10 minutes. A reduction in Apgar ... The optimal Apgar score is 10 at each time point, and all newborns should be assigned an Apgar score at 10 minutes, regardless ... Compared with Apgar scores of 10 at both time points, infants whose Apgar scores increased from 9 at 5 minutes to 10 at 10 ...
... for an Apgar score of 9 to 277.7 (154.4 to 499.5) for an Apgar score of 0. Similar and even stronger associations were obtained ... but increased hazard ratios were noted in infants with a five minute Apgar score of 7 or less and a 10 minute Apgar score of 8 ... Objective To investigate associations between Apgar score at five and 10 minutes across the entire range of score values (from ... of cerebral palsy and epilepsy were higher among infants with a five minute Apgar score of 7-8 and a 10 minute Apgar score of 9 ...
  • Similar to the Apgar score used in obstetrics, the Surgical Apgar Score is a point scoring system, and lower scores are associated with worse outcomes. (sages.org)
  • Research published in the academic journal Obstetrics & Gynecology showed a possible causal link between an APGAR score lower than a seven and lower cognitive abilities later in life. (cune.edu)
  • An Apgar score that remains below 3 at later times-such as 10, 15, or 30 minutes-may indicate longer-term neurological damage, including a small but significant increase in the risk of cerebral palsy. (wikipedia.org)
  • 7 The relationship between the extended Apgar score and outcome at 7 years of age (mortality and cerebral palsy [CP]) has been analyzed from ∼49000 singleton live births during 1959-1966 as part of the National Collaborative Perinatal Project. (aappublications.org)
  • Compared with children with an Apgar score of 10 at five minutes, the adjusted hazard ratio for cerebral palsy increased steadily with decreasing Apgar score: from 1.9 (95% confidence interval 1.6 to 2.2) for an Apgar score of 9 to 277.7 (154.4 to 499.5) for an Apgar score of 0. (bmj.com)
  • Similar and even stronger associations were obtained between Apgar scores at 10 minutes and cerebral palsy. (bmj.com)
  • Conclusion Risks of cerebral palsy and epilepsy are inversely associated with five minute and 10 minute Apgar scores across the entire range of Apgar scores. (bmj.com)
  • Population based studies have shown that risks of cerebral palsy and epilepsy are increased in children with low Apgar scores, and a low Apgar score at five minutes confers a higher risk than a correspondingly low Apgar score at one minute. (bmj.com)
  • This study showed that the risk of developing cerebral palsy was significantly higher in children with a 10 minute Apgar score between 0 and 3 compared with children who had a similar score at five minutes. (bmj.com)
  • They argue studies that found that an infant with an Apgar score of 0-3 at 5 minutes, whose 10 minute Apgar score improves to 4 or higher, has a 99% chance of not having cerebral palsy at seven years of age. (millerandzois.com)
  • But my commonly you see the defense lawyers claiming that a good minute Apgar score means that baby's diagnosis of hypoxia or cerebral palsy could not be caused by a brain injury during childbirth. (millerandzois.com)
  • Low Apgar is not currently considered to be a good predictor of long-term ill health (8) despite recent suggestions that it may be related to risk of death and cerebral palsy, (9) minor disabilities at school age, (10) as well as neurological disability and cognitive function deficit in adults. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Of course, a parent should and would know if their baby needed resuscitation in the delivery room, which would happen if there is a low Apgar score. (thebump.com)
  • A low total score of zero to three, which will occur if the baby does not breathe or if the heart rate is too slow, means the child needs urgent resuscitation. (millerandzois.com)
  • Modern midwives would assess the need for resuscitation with or without an Apgar, so perhaps we actually use this less than we think. (sarawickham.com)
  • Contrary to popular opinion the APGAR score is no longer used to decide if a neonate requires resuscitation. (wikidoc.org)
  • Secondary outcome measures were Apgar score at 5 minutes, heart rate at 90 seconds, time to first breath, time to first cry, duration of resuscitation, arterial blood gases and acid base status at 10 and 30 minutes of age, and abnormal neurologic examination at 4 weeks. (aappublications.org)
  • If your baby is born with an Apgar score of 0-3, active resuscitation begins immediately. (kidspot.co.nz)
  • If she has required resuscitation and the five-minue score is less than seven, the score is repeated at five-minute intervals until 20 minutes. (kidspot.co.nz)
  • A score of 0-3 requires immediate resuscitation. (kidspot.co.nz)
  • OBJECTIVE: The aim of this dissertation is to assess the relationship between the Apgar score and the pH of umbilical artery results regarding the seriousness of the cardiotocography records during the second stage of labour and the need for neonatal resuscitation in the three hospitals selected for the study. (ucm.es)
  • Surgical Apgar score is a simple, objective and economical 10-point post-operative prognostic scoring system based on three readily recorded intraoperative variables. (springer.com)
  • To assess and compare the major complication rate or mortality in high and low surgical Apgar score in abdominal surgery cases. (springer.com)
  • 7) and high SAS (SAS ≥ 7) and formulating the utility of the surgical Apgar score in predicting post-operative outcome. (springer.com)
  • Mean surgical Apgar score in group A patients was 4.92 (SD 1.38) and the mean surgical Apgar score in group B was 7.88 (SD 0.88). (springer.com)
  • Out of 25 patients of group A, 88% had major complication or mortality within 30 days as compared to only 12% in group B. By applying Chi-square test, we found that the difference between the two groups was statistically significant thus highlighting the importance of surgical Apgar score. (springer.com)
  • Surgical Apgar score is a useful parameter to determine the outcome of the patient undergoing laparotomy. (springer.com)
  • Introduction: The Surgical Apgar Score was developed and validated across a wide breadth of surgical subspecialties. (sages.org)
  • To date, there has been no study that has examined the utility of the Surgical Apgar score in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. (sages.org)
  • We hypothesize that lower Surgical Apgar Scores are associated with higher rates of post-operative complications in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. (sages.org)
  • Using intraoperative measurements available on the anesthesia database, Surgical Apgar Scores were calculated for each patient. (sages.org)
  • Surgical Apgar scores were then compared between cohorts. (sages.org)
  • Surgical Apgar Scores were similar between the two group (7.06 in patients with complications versus 7.27 in those without, p=0.12). (sages.org)
  • Conclusion: Surgical Apgar Scores are not lower in patients with complications after bariatric surgery. (sages.org)
  • The goal of this study was to determine whether the preoperative Risk Quantification Index (RQI) and Present-On-Admission Risk (POARisk) models would be improved by including the intraoperative Surgical Apgar Score (SAS). (asahq.org)
  • Adding the Surgical Apgar Score did not substantively improve predictions. (asahq.org)
  • In 1949, Virginia Apgar became the first the professor of anesthesiology at the College of Physicians and Surgeons. (ndtv.com)
  • In 1949, Dr. Apgar became a professor of anesthesiology at the Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, making her the first woman to hold a full professorship at the university. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In 1949, Apgar became the first woman to become a full professor at P&S, where she remained until 1959. (wikipedia.org)
  • Posthumous honors for Apgar include a commemorative postage stamp issued in 1994 and induction into the National Women's Hall of Fame in 1995. (fivecolleges.edu)
  • The Apgar test is done by a doctor, midwife, or nurse. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A low score on the one-minute test may show that the neonate requires medical attention but does not necessarily indicate a long-term problem, particularly if the score improves at the five-minute test. (wikipedia.org)
  • Your doctor will give your baby zero, one, or two points for each test, so a baby with a score of 10 couldn't be any healthier. (babymed.com)
  • Some midwives who attend waterbirths say that they "use their common sense" with Apgar scoring, which might solve the problem of parents thinking their baby has a less than optimal score on their first test, but otherwise only further highlights the subjective nature of this tool and also raises some difficult questions when we consider that Apgars are often used as key outcome measures in research studies. (sarawickham.com)
  • The test, however, is named for Dr. Apgar, making Apgar an eponymous backronym . (wikidoc.org)
  • A low score on the one-minute test may show that the neonate requires medical attention but is not necessarily an indication that there will be long-term problems, particularly if there is an improvement by the stage of the five-minute test. (wikidoc.org)
  • Based on those scores, they might test a third time at 10 minutes. (familydoctor.org)
  • The Apgar test is usually carried out without you noticing it as a newly delivered mother. (pregnology.com)
  • Your baby is actually tested twice, using the Apgar test. (families.com)
  • Relación entre los registros cardiotocográficos, el Test de Apgar y el pH de arteria umbilical. (ucm.es)
  • El presente estudio tiene como finalidad aportar datos actuales sobre la relación que existe entre el RCTG, el test de Apgar y el pH de arteria umbilical. (ucm.es)
  • Por lo que se pretende demostrar que todos ellos tienen la misma validez, e incluso el test de Apgar refleja mejor el estado del recién nacido en el momento del nacimiento que el resultado del pH umbilical. (ucm.es)
  • OBJETIVO: Evaluar la relación del test de Apgar y los resultados del pH de arteria umbilical con respecto a la gravedad de los registros cardiotocográficos en el periodo expulsivo y la necesidad de reanimación neonatal en los tres hospitales seleccionados para el estudio. (ucm.es)
  • Studies focusing on children of six years and younger have not shown any direct, long-term effects of PCE on language, growth, or development as measured by test scores. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2014 another study was carried out by a team of researchers at Edinburgh University, Scotland, motivated by the understanding that both height and intelligence test scores are predictors of better health outcomes and mortality. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overall, our research found higher pre-delivery blood pressure is associated with lower Apgar scores," said Amir Jafari, D.O., anesthesiology resident at the University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston. (asahq.org)
  • After two years of work Apgar became convinced that a woman could not support herself as a surgeon and decided to enter the newly-emerging field of anesthesiology. (fivecolleges.edu)
  • Dr Virginia Apgar received a degree in public health from John Hopkins University in 1959. (ndtv.com)
  • In 1959, Apgar left Columbia and earned a Master of Public Health degree from the Johns Hopkins School of Hygiene and Public Health. (wikipedia.org)
  • extremities well-flexed Cry Pink Source: Apgar, V., et al : Evaluation of the Newborn Infant-Second Report, Journal of American Medical Association, 168 (15): 1985-1988, December 1958. (ncdcr.gov)
  • Researchers analyzed all recorded blood pressure measurements from admission to the hospital up to the cesarean delivery of the baby to determine if there was an association between average blood pressure and Apgar scores. (asahq.org)