An E3 ubiquitin ligase primarily involved in regulation of the metaphase-to-anaphase transition during MITOSIS through ubiquitination of specific CELL CYCLE PROTEINS. Enzyme activity is tightly regulated through subunits and cofactors, which modulate activation, inhibition, and substrate specificity. The anaphase-promoting complex, or APC-C, is also involved in tissue differentiation in the PLACENTA, CRYSTALLINE LENS, and SKELETAL MUSCLE, and in regulation of postmitotic NEURONAL PLASTICITY and excitability.
Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Complexes
Complexes of enzymes that catalyze the covalent attachment of UBIQUITIN to other proteins by forming a peptide bond between the C-terminal GLYCINE of UBIQUITIN and the alpha-amino groups of LYSINE residues in the protein. The complexes play an important role in mediating the selective-degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins. The complex of enzymes can be broken down into three components that involve activation of ubiquitin (UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES), conjugation of ubiquitin to the ligase complex (UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES), and ligation of ubiquitin to the substrate protein (UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES).
Highly conserved proteins that specifically bind to and activate the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome, promoting ubiquitination and proteolysis of cell-cycle-regulatory proteins. Cdc20 is essential for anaphase-promoting complex activity, initiation of anaphase, and cyclin proteolysis during mitosis.
Apc3 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome
A highly evolutionarily conserved subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC-C) containing multiple 34-amino-acid tetratricopeptide repeats. These domains, also found in Apc subunits 6, 7, and 8, have been shown to mediate protein-protein interactions, suggesting that Apc3 may assist in coordinating the juxtaposition of the catalytic and substrate recognition module subunits relative to co-activators and APC-C inhibitors.
Cell Cycle Proteins
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
Apc1 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome
The largest subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex. It acts primarily as a scaffold for the proper organization and arrangement of subunits. The C-terminal region of Apc1 contains a series of tandem amino acid repeats that are also seen in the 26S proteasome regulatory particle, and may assist with forming and stabilizing protein-protein interactions.
Securin is involved in the control of the metaphase-anaphase transition during MITOSIS. It promotes the onset of anaphase by blocking SEPARASE function and preventing proteolysis of cohesin and separation of sister CHROMATIDS. Overexpression of securin is associated with NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION and tumor formation.
A family of proteins that share the F-BOX MOTIF and are involved in protein-protein interactions. They play an important role in process of protein ubiquition by associating with a variety of substrates and then associating into SCF UBIQUITIN LIGASE complexes. They are held in the ubiquitin-ligase complex via binding to SKP DOMAIN PROTEINS.
M Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints
Apc5 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome
Mad2 is a component of the spindle-assembly checkpoint apparatus. It binds to and inhibits the Cdc20 activator subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex, preventing the onset of anaphase until all chromosomes are properly aligned at the metaphase plate. Mad2 is required for proper microtubule capture at KINETOCHORES.
A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
CDC2 Protein Kinase
Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.
Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins
Apc2 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome
Together with the Apc11 subunit, forms the catalytic core of the E3 ubiquitin ligase anaphase-promoting complex (APC-C). Its N-terminus has cullin domains which associate with the RING FINGER DOMAINS of Apc11. Apc2 also interacts with the E2 ubiquitin ligases involved in APC-C ubiquitination reactions.
Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins
Molecular Sequence Data
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Apc8 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome
A highly conserved subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC-C) containing multiple 34-amino-acid tetratricopeptide repeats. These domains, also found in Apc3, Apc6, and Apc7, have been shown to mediate protein-protein interactions, suggesting that Apc8 may assist in coordinating the juxtaposition of the catalytic and substrate recognition module subunits relative to coactivators and APC-C inhibitors.
Amino Acid Sequence
A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.
Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mos
A highly conserved 76-amino acid peptide universally found in eukaryotic cells that functions as a marker for intracellular PROTEIN TRANSPORT and degradation. Ubiquitin becomes activated through a series of complicated steps and forms an isopeptide bond to lysine residues of specific proteins within the cell. These "ubiquitinated" proteins can be recognized and degraded by proteosomes or be transported to specific compartments within the cell.
Apc6 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome
A highly conserved subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC-C) containing multiple 34 amino acid tetratricopeptide repeats. These domains, also found in Apc3, Apc7, and Apc8, have been shown to mediate protein-protein interactions, suggesting that Apc6 may assist in coordinating the juxtaposition of the catalytic and substrate recognition module subunits relative to coactivators and APC-C inhibitors.
SKP Cullin F-Box Protein Ligases
Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex
A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Recombinant Fusion Proteins
Amino Acid Motifs
Apc11 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome
Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein
Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.
Protein Processing, Post-Translational
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
RNA, Small Interfering
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone
Apc7 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome
A highly conserved subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC-C) containing multiple 34 amino acid tetratricopeptide repeats. These domains, also found in Apc3, Apc6, and Apc8, have been shown to mediate protein-protein interactions, suggesting that Apc7 may assist in coordinating the juxtaposition of the catalytic and substrate recognition module subunits relative to coactivators and APC-C inhibitors.
Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
A microtubule-associated mechanical adenosine triphosphatase, that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move organelles along microtubules toward the plus end of the microtubule. The protein is found in squid axoplasm, optic lobes, and in bovine brain. Bovine kinesin is a heterotetramer composed of two heavy (120 kDa) and two light (62 kDa) chains. EC 3.6.1.-.
A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.
Aurora Kinase B
Protein Structure, Tertiary
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Apc10 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome
The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Adenomatous Polyposis Coli
Two-Hybrid System Techniques
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Cell Cycle Checkpoints
Regulatory signaling systems that control the progression through the CELL CYCLE. They ensure that the cell has completed, in the correct order and without mistakes, all the processes required to replicate the GENOME and CYTOPLASM, and divide them equally between two daughter cells. If cells sense they have not completed these processes or that the environment does not have the nutrients and growth hormones in place to proceed, then the cells are restrained (or "arrested") until the processes are completed and growth conditions are suitable.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal
Fluorescent Antibody Technique
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
Green Fluorescent Proteins
Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel
Protein Phosphatase 2
A phosphoprotein phosphatase subtype that is comprised of a catalytic subunit and two different regulatory subunits. At least two genes encode isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit, while several isoforms of regulatory subunits exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. Protein phosphatase 2 acts on a broad variety of cellular proteins and may play a role as a regulator of intracellular signaling processes.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases
The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
Sister Chromatid Exchange
An exchange of segments between the sister chromatids of a chromosome, either between the sister chromatids of a meiotic tetrad or between the sister chromatids of a duplicated somatic chromosome. Its frequency is increased by ultraviolet and ionizing radiation and other mutagenic agents and is particularly high in BLOOM SYNDROME.
An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Nuclear Matrix-Associated Proteins
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
Vacuolar Proton-Translocating ATPases
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
The schizosaccharomyces pombe dim1(+) gene interacts with the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C) component lid1(+) and is required for APC/C function. (1/25)The Schizosaccharomyces pombe dim1(+) gene is required for entry into mitosis and for chromosome segregation during mitosis. To further understand dim1p function, we undertook a synthetic lethal screen with the temperature-sensitive dim1-35 mutant and isolated lid (for lethal in dim1-35) mutants. Here, we describe the temperature-sensitive lid1-6 mutant. At the restrictive temperature of 36 degrees C, lid1-6 mutant cells arrest with a "cut" phenotype similar to that of cut4 and cut9 mutants. An epitope-tagged version of lid1p is a component of a multiprotein approximately 20S complex; the presence of lid1p in this complex depends upon functional cut9(+). lid1p-myc coimmunoprecipitates with several other proteins, including cut9p and nuc2p, and the presence of cut9p in a 20S complex depends upon the activity of lid1(+). Further, lid1(+) function is required for the multiubiquitination of cut2p, an anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C) target. Thus, lid1p is a component of the S. pombe APC/C. In dim1 mutants, the abundances of lid1p and the APC/C complex decline significantly, and the ubiquitination of an APC/C target is abolished. These data suggest that at least one role of dim1p is to maintain or establish the steady-state level of the APC/C. (+info)
Cell cycle control of Cdc7p kinase activity through regulation of Dbf4p stability. (2/25)In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the heteromeric kinase complex Cdc7p-Dbf4p plays a pivotal role at replication origins in triggering the initiation of DNA replication during the S phase. We have assayed the kinase activity of endogenous levels of Cdc7p kinase by using a likely physiological target, Mcm2p, as a substrate. Using this assay, we have confirmed that Cdc7p kinase activity fluctuates during the cell cycle; it is low in the G1 phase, rises as cells enter the S phase, and remains high until cells complete mitosis. These changes in kinase activity cannot be accounted for by changes in the levels of the catalytic subunit Cdc7p, as these levels are constant during the cell cycle. However, the fluctuations in kinase activity do correlate with levels of the regulatory subunit Dbf4p. The regulation of Dbf4p levels can be attributed in part to increased degradation of the protein in G1 cells. This G1-phase instability is cdc16 dependent, suggesting a role of the anaphase-promoting complex in the turnover of Dbf4p. Overexpression of Dbf4p in the G1 phase can partially overcome this elevated turnover and lead to an increase in Cdc7p kinase activity. Thus, the regulation of Dbf4p levels through the control of Dbf4p degradation has an important role in the regulation of Cdc7p kinase activity during the cell cycle. (+info)
Cdc20 protein contains a destruction-box but, unlike Clb2, its proteolysisis not acutely dependent on the activity of anaphase-promoting complex. (3/25)Both chromosome segregation and the final exit from mitosis require a ubiquitin-protein ligase called anaphase-promoting complex (APC) or cyclosome. This multiprotein complex ubiquitinates various substrates, such as the anaphase inhibitor Pds1 and mitotic cyclins, and thus targets them for proteolysis by the 26S proteasome. The ubiquitination by APC is dependent on the presence of a destruction-box sequence in the N-terminus of target proteins. Recent reports have strongly suggested that Cdc20, a WD40 repeat-containing protein required for nuclear division in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is essential for the APC-mediated proteolysis. To understand the function of CDC20, we have studied its regulation in some detail. The expression of the CDC20 gene is cell-cycle regulated such that it is transcribed only during late S phase and mitosis. Although the protein is unstable to some extent through out the cell cycle, its degradation is particularly enhanced in G1. Cdc20 contains a destruction box sequence which, when mutated or deleted, stabilizes it considerably in G1. Surprisingly, we find that while the inactivation of APC subunits Cdc16, Cdc23 or Cdc27 results in stabilization of the mitotic cyclin Clb2 in G1, the proteolytic destruction of Cdc20 remains largely unaffected. This suggests the existence of proteolytic mechanisms in G1 that can degrade destruction-box containing proteins, such as Cdc20, in an APC-independent manner. (+info)
Phosphorylation by Cdc28 activates the Cdc20-dependent activity of the anaphase-promoting complex. (4/25)Budding yeast initiates anaphase by activating the Cdc20-dependent anaphase-promoting complex (APC). The mitotic activity of Cdc28 (Cdk1) is required to activate this form of the APC, and mutants that are impaired in mitotic Cdc28 function have difficulty leaving mitosis. This defect can be explained by a defect in APC phosphorylation, which depends on mitotic Cdc28 activity in vivo and can be catalyzed by purified Cdc28 in vitro. Mutating putative Cdc28 phosphorylation sites in three components of the APC, Cdc16, Cdc23, and Cdc27, makes the APC resistant to phosphorylation both in vivo and in vitro. The nonphosphorylatable APC has normal activity in G1, but its mitotic, Cdc20-dependent activity is compromised. These results show that Cdc28 activates the APC in budding yeast to trigger anaphase. Previous reports have shown that the budding yeast Cdc5 homologue, Plk, can also phosphorylate and activate the APC in vitro. We show that, like cdc28 mutants, cdc5 mutants affect APC phosphorylation in vivo. However, although Cdc5 can phosphorylate Cdc16 and Cdc27 in vitro, this in vitro phosphorylation does not occur on in vivo sites of phosphorylation. (+info)
Identification of EPI64, a TBC/rabGAP domain-containing microvillar protein that binds to the first PDZ domain of EBP50 and E3KARP. (5/25)The cortical scaffolding proteins EBP50 (ERM-binding phosphoprotein-50) and E3KARP (NHE3 kinase A regulatory protein) contain two PDZ (PSD-95/DlgA/ZO-1-like) domains followed by a COOH-terminal sequence that binds to active ERM family members. Using affinity chromatography, we identified polypeptides from placental microvilli that bind the PDZ domains of EBP50. Among these are 64- and/or 65-kD differentially phosphorylated polypeptides that bind preferentially to the first PDZ domain of EBP50, as well as to E3KARP, and that we call EPI64 (EBP50-PDZ interactor of 64 kD). The gene for human EPI64 lies on chromosome 22 where nine exons specify a protein of 508 residues that contains a Tre/Bub2/Cdc16 (TBC)/rab GTPase-activating protein (GAP) domain. EPI64 terminates in DTYL, which is necessary for binding to the PDZ domains of EBP50, as a mutant ending in DTYLA no longer interacts. EPI64 colocalizes with EBP50 and ezrin in syncytiotrophoblast and cultured cell microvilli, and this localization in cultured cells is abolished by introduction of the DTYLA mutation. In addition to EPI64, immobilized EBP50 PDZ domains retain several polypeptides from placental microvilli, including an isoform of nadrin, a rhoGAP domain-containing protein implicated in regulating vesicular transport. Nadrin binds EBP50 directly, probably through its COOH-terminal STAL sequence. Thus, EBP50 appears to bind membrane proteins as well as factors potentially involved in regulating membrane traffic. (+info)
A screen for Schizosaccharomyces pombe mutants defective in rereplication identifies new alleles of rad4+, cut9+ and psf2+. (6/25)Fission yeast mutants defective in DNA replication have widely varying morphological phenotypes. We designed a screen for temperature-sensitive mutants defective in the process of replication regardless of morphology by isolating strains unable to rereplicate their DNA in the absence of cyclin B (Cdc13). Of the 42 rereplication-defective mutants analyzed, we were able to clone complementing plasmids for 10. This screen identified new alleles of the APC subunit cut9(+), the initiation/checkpoint factor rad4(+)/cut5(+), and the first mutant allele of psf2(+), a subunit of the novel GINS replication complex. Other genes identified are likely to play general roles in gene expression and protein localization. (+info)
Interaction of APC/C-E3 ligase with Swi6/HP1 and Clr4/Suv39 in heterochromatin assembly in fission yeast. (7/25)(+info)
Insights into anaphase promoting complex TPR subdomain assembly from a CDC26-APC6 structure. (8/25)(+info)
MIKE BUSCH ON AIRPLANE OWNERSHIP - VOLUME 2 | Aircraft Spruce
MIKE BUSCH ON AIRPLANE OWNERSHIP - VOLUME 2 Mike Busch on Airplane Ownership is the much-awaited sequel to his previous books Manifesto and Engines
사다 ModuCare (EPI) ModuChol 60 캡 한국
한국 최고의 가격 ModuCare (EPI) ModuChol 60 캡 부터 eVitamins.com. 알다 ModuChol 리뷰, 부작용, 쿠폰 및 eVitamins에서 더. 한국에 빠르고 신뢰할 수있는 운송. ModuChol 다른 제품으로 ModuCare (EPI) 당신의 건강 요구에.
Ear Wax Removal Treatment Norwalk CT - Ear wax removal treatment, Norwalk CT earwax removal supplies, Norwalk CT ear candling...
Local resource for ear wax removal treatment in Norwalk, CT. Includes detailed information on local businesses that provide access to ear wax removal treatment, earwax removal supplies, ear candling, ear drops, and ear cleaners, as well as advice and content on ear wax build-up, ear infections, and hearing loss.
TMTC2 (transmembrane and tetratricopeptide repeat containing 2)
TMTC2 (transmembrane and tetratricopeptide repeat containing 2), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
Intel nuc displayport not working
intel nuc displayport not working, Nov 24, 2015 · P2715Q, not recognized through DP (DisplayPort), entering PSM Jump to solution I bought the P2715Q five months ago and until now everything worked fine when connected via DisplayPort on 3840x2160 60Hz with my NUC5i7RYH MiniPC.
Insights into APC/C: from cellular function to diseases and therapeutics | Cell Division | Full Text
Anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a multifunctional ubiquitin-protein ligase that targets different substrates ... b A schematic illustration of the structure organization of APC/C complex. APC/C complex contains three sub-complexes: the ... Structure and genetics characteristics of APC/C. a Graphic representation of human (Homo sapiens) APC/C subunits. All domains ... The TPR lobe consists of APC3, APC6, APC8, APC7, APC13, APC16, and Cdc26. The scaffolding platform connects the TPR lobe to the ...
CDC26 Gene - GeneCards | CDC26 Protein | CDC26 Antibody
Insights into anaphase promoting complex TPR subdomain assembly from a CDC26-APC6 structure. (PMID: 19668213) Wang J … Schulman ... Component of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), a cell cycle-regulated E3 ubiquitin ligase that controls ... Anaphase-Promoting Complex Subunit 12 3 4 * Anaphase Promoting Complex Subunit 12 2 ... Component of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), a cell cycle-regulated E3 ubiquitin ligase that controls ...
- The protein encoded by this gene is highly similar to Saccharomyces cerevisiae Cdc26, a component of cell cycle anaphase-promoting complex (APC). (genecards.org)
- Structure and genetics characteristics of APC/C. a Graphic representation of human ( Homo sapiens ) APC/C subunits. (biomedcentral.com)