Anaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following METAPHASE, in which the CHROMATIDS separate and migrate to opposite poles of the spindle.Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome: An E3 ubiquitin ligase primarily involved in regulation of the metaphase-to-anaphase transition during MITOSIS through ubiquitination of specific CELL CYCLE PROTEINS. Enzyme activity is tightly regulated through subunits and cofactors, which modulate activation, inhibition, and substrate specificity. The anaphase-promoting complex, or APC-C, is also involved in tissue differentiation in the PLACENTA, CRYSTALLINE LENS, and SKELETAL MUSCLE, and in regulation of postmitotic NEURONAL PLASTICITY and excitability.Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Complexes: Complexes of enzymes that catalyze the covalent attachment of UBIQUITIN to other proteins by forming a peptide bond between the C-terminal GLYCINE of UBIQUITIN and the alpha-amino groups of LYSINE residues in the protein. The complexes play an important role in mediating the selective-degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins. The complex of enzymes can be broken down into three components that involve activation of ubiquitin (UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES), conjugation of ubiquitin to the ligase complex (UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES), and ligation of ubiquitin to the substrate protein (UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES).Cdc20 Proteins: Highly conserved proteins that specifically bind to and activate the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome, promoting ubiquitination and proteolysis of cell-cycle-regulatory proteins. Cdc20 is essential for anaphase-promoting complex activity, initiation of anaphase, and cyclin proteolysis during mitosis.Cdh1 Proteins: Cdh1 is an activator of the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome, and is involved in substrate recognition. It associates with the complex in late MITOSIS from anaphase through G1 to regulate activity of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and to prevent premature DNA replication.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Apc3 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome: A highly evolutionarily conserved subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC-C) containing multiple 34-amino-acid tetratricopeptide repeats. These domains, also found in Apc subunits 6, 7, and 8, have been shown to mediate protein-protein interactions, suggesting that Apc3 may assist in coordinating the juxtaposition of the catalytic and substrate recognition module subunits relative to co-activators and APC-C inhibitors.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Apc1 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome: The largest subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex. It acts primarily as a scaffold for the proper organization and arrangement of subunits. The C-terminal region of Apc1 contains a series of tandem amino acid repeats that are also seen in the 26S proteasome regulatory particle, and may assist with forming and stabilizing protein-protein interactions.Spindle Apparatus: A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.Securin: Securin is involved in the control of the metaphase-anaphase transition during MITOSIS. It promotes the onset of anaphase by blocking SEPARASE function and preventing proteolysis of cohesin and separation of sister CHROMATIDS. Overexpression of securin is associated with NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION and tumor formation.Cyclin B: A cyclin subtype that is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE. It stimulates the G2/M phase transition by activating CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE.F-Box Proteins: A family of proteins that share the F-BOX MOTIF and are involved in protein-protein interactions. They play an important role in process of protein ubiquition by associating with a variety of substrates and then associating into SCF UBIQUITIN LIGASE complexes. They are held in the ubiquitin-ligase complex via binding to SKP DOMAIN PROTEINS.Genes, APC: Tumor suppressor genes located in the 5q21 region on the long arm of human chromosome 5. The mutation of these genes is associated with familial adenomatous polyposis (ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI) and GARDNER SYNDROME, as well as some sporadic colorectal cancers.Metaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.Ligases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a bond between two substrate molecules, coupled with the hydrolysis of a pyrophosphate bond in ATP or a similar energy donor. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 6.M Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints: The cellular signaling system that halts the progression of cells through MITOSIS or MEIOSIS if a defect that will affect CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION is detected.Cyclin A2: A widely-expressed cyclin A subtype that functions during the G1/S and G2/M transitions of the CELL CYCLE.Apc5 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome: A subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex whose primary function is to provide structural support for the catalytic and substrate-recognition modules of the complex. Apc5, along with Apc4, tethers the tetratricopeptide-coactivator binding subcomplex to the main structural subunit, Apc1.Mad2 Proteins: Mad2 is a component of the spindle-assembly checkpoint apparatus. It binds to and inhibits the Cdc20 activator subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex, preventing the onset of anaphase until all chromosomes are properly aligned at the metaphase plate. Mad2 is required for proper microtubule capture at KINETOCHORES.Cyclin B1: A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with MICROTUBULES during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.Chromosome Segregation: The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases: A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Prometaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following PROPHASE, when the breakdown of the NUCLEAR ENVELOPE occurs and the MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS enters the nuclear region and attaches to the KINETOCHORES.CDC2 Protein Kinase: Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Ubiquitination: The act of ligating UBIQUITINS to PROTEINS to form ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes to label proteins for transport to the PROTEASOME ENDOPEPTIDASE COMPLEX where proteolysis occurs.Geminin: Geminin inhibits DNA replication by preventing the incorporation of MCM complex into pre-replication complex. It is absent during G1 phase of the CELL CYCLE and accumulates through S, G2,and M phases. It is degraded at the metaphase-anaphase transition by the ANAPHASE-PROMOTING COMPLEX-CYCLOSOME.Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Apc2 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome: Together with the Apc11 subunit, forms the catalytic core of the E3 ubiquitin ligase anaphase-promoting complex (APC-C). Its N-terminus has cullin domains which associate with the RING FINGER DOMAINS of Apc11. Apc2 also interacts with the E2 ubiquitin ligases involved in APC-C ubiquitination reactions.Cyclin A: A cyclin subtype that has specificity for CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2. It plays a role in progression of the CELL CYCLE through G1/S and G2/M phase transitions.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Schizosaccharomyces: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.Apc8 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome: A highly conserved subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC-C) containing multiple 34-amino-acid tetratricopeptide repeats. These domains, also found in Apc3, Apc6, and Apc7, have been shown to mediate protein-protein interactions, suggesting that Apc8 may assist in coordinating the juxtaposition of the catalytic and substrate recognition module subunits relative to coactivators and APC-C inhibitors.Separase: Separase is a caspase-like cysteine protease, which plays a central role in triggering ANAPHASE by cleaving the SCC1/RAD21 subunit of the cohesin complex. Cohesin holds the sister CHROMATIDS together during METAPHASE and its cleavage results in chromosome segregation.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Nocodazole: Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Telophase: The final phase of cell nucleus division following ANAPHASE, in which two daughter nuclei are formed, the CYTOPLASM completes division, and the CHROMOSOMES lose their distinctness and are transformed into CHROMATIN threads.Aurora Kinases: A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.Chromatids: Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mos: Cellular proteins encoded by the c-mos genes (GENES, MOS). They function in the cell cycle to maintain MATURATION PROMOTING FACTOR in the active state and have protein-serine/threonine kinase activity. Oncogenic transformation can take place when c-mos proteins are expressed at the wrong time.Xenopus Proteins: Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.G1 Phase: The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.Genes, cdc: Genes that code for proteins that regulate the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. These genes form a regulatory network that culminates in the onset of MITOSIS by activating the p34cdc2 protein (PROTEIN P34CDC2).Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Protein Subunits: Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Ubiquitin: A highly conserved 76-amino acid peptide universally found in eukaryotic cells that functions as a marker for intracellular PROTEIN TRANSPORT and degradation. Ubiquitin becomes activated through a series of complicated steps and forms an isopeptide bond to lysine residues of specific proteins within the cell. These "ubiquitinated" proteins can be recognized and degraded by proteosomes or be transported to specific compartments within the cell.Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzymes: A class of enzymes that form a thioester bond to UBIQUITIN with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES. They transfer ubiquitin to the LYSINE of a substrate protein with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.Apc6 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome: A highly conserved subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC-C) containing multiple 34 amino acid tetratricopeptide repeats. These domains, also found in Apc3, Apc7, and Apc8, have been shown to mediate protein-protein interactions, suggesting that Apc6 may assist in coordinating the juxtaposition of the catalytic and substrate recognition module subunits relative to coactivators and APC-C inhibitors.SKP Cullin F-Box Protein Ligases: A subset of ubiquitin protein ligases that are formed by the association of a SKP DOMAIN PROTEIN, a CULLIN DOMAIN PROTEIN and a F-BOX DOMAIN PROTEIN.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Ubiquitins: A family of proteins that are structurally-related to Ubiquitin. Ubiquitins and ubiquitin-like proteins participate in diverse cellular functions, such as protein degradation and HEAT-SHOCK RESPONSE, by conjugation to other proteins.Kinetochores: Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex: A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.S Phase: Phase of the CELL CYCLE following G1 and preceding G2 when the entire DNA content of the nucleus is replicated. It is achieved by bidirectional replication at multiple sites along each chromosome.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Cytokinesis: The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.Calcium-Binding Proteins: Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.G2 Phase: The period of the CELL CYCLE following DNA synthesis (S PHASE) and preceding M PHASE (cell division phase). The CHROMOSOMES are tetraploid in this point.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Centromere: The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.Apc11 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome: Together with the Apc2 subunit, forms the catalytic core of the E3 ubiquitin ligase, anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome. It has a RING H2 domain which interacts with the cullin domain of Apc2. Apc11 also interacts with the E2 ubiquitin ligases involved in APC-C ubiquitination reactions.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein: A negative regulator of beta-catenin signaling which is mutant in ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI and GARDNER SYNDROME.Cadherins: Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Cyclins: A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Protein Stability: The ability of a protein to retain its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to physical or chemical manipulations.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone: Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Apc7 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome: A highly conserved subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC-C) containing multiple 34 amino acid tetratricopeptide repeats. These domains, also found in Apc3, Apc6, and Apc8, have been shown to mediate protein-protein interactions, suggesting that Apc7 may assist in coordinating the juxtaposition of the catalytic and substrate recognition module subunits relative to coactivators and APC-C inhibitors.Cyclin-Dependent Kinases: Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Kinesin: A microtubule-associated mechanical adenosine triphosphatase, that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move organelles along microtubules toward the plus end of the microtubule. The protein is found in squid axoplasm, optic lobes, and in bovine brain. Bovine kinesin is a heterotetramer composed of two heavy (120 kDa) and two light (62 kDa) chains. EC 3.6.1.-.Prophase: The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.Bivalvia: A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of mussels; clams; OYSTERS; COCKLES; and SCALLOPS. They are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical hinged shell and a muscular foot used for burrowing and anchoring.Endoreduplication: A type of nuclear polyploidization in which multiple cycles of DNA REPLICATION occur in the absence of CELL DIVISION and result in a POLYPLOID CELL.Endopeptidases: A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.Tubulin: A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.Interphase: The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).Aurora Kinase B: An aurora kinase that is a component of the chromosomal passenger protein complex and is involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. It mediates proper CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION and contractile ring function during CYTOKINESIS.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Spermatocytes: Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Apc10 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome: Apc10 is necessary for coactivator-dependent substrate recognition by the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome. It binds the Apc2 subunit, which is a part of the catalytic core, and interacts with coactivators Cdh1 or Cdc20 to recruit substrates to the complex.Centrosome: The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Adenomatous Polyposis Coli: A polyposis syndrome due to an autosomal dominant mutation of the APC genes (GENES, APC) on CHROMOSOME 5. The syndrome is characterized by the development of hundreds of ADENOMATOUS POLYPS in the COLON and RECTUM of affected individuals by early adulthood.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Saccharomycetales: An order of fungi in the phylum Ascomycota that multiply by budding. They include the telomorphic ascomycetous yeasts which are found in a very wide range of habitats.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Macropodidae: A family of herbivorous leaping MAMMALS of Australia, New Guinea, and adjacent islands. Members include kangaroos, wallabies, quokkas, and wallaroos.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Chromosomes, Fungal: Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Cell Cycle Checkpoints: Regulatory signaling systems that control the progression through the CELL CYCLE. They ensure that the cell has completed, in the correct order and without mistakes, all the processes required to replicate the GENOME and CYTOPLASM, and divide them equally between two daughter cells. If cells sense they have not completed these processes or that the environment does not have the nutrients and growth hormones in place to proceed, then the cells are restrained (or "arrested") until the processes are completed and growth conditions are suitable.Dyneins: A family of multisubunit cytoskeletal motor proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power a variety of cellular functions. Dyneins fall into two major classes based upon structural and functional criteria.Chromosomes, Human: Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.Nondisjunction, Genetic: The failure of homologous CHROMOSOMES or CHROMATIDS to segregate during MITOSIS or MEIOSIS with the result that one daughter cell has both of a pair of parental chromosomes or chromatids and the other has none.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Proteolysis: Cleavage of proteins into smaller peptides or amino acids either by PROTEASES or non-enzymatically (e.g., Hydrolysis). It does not include Protein Processing, Post-Translational.Multiprotein Complexes: Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Phosphoprotein Phosphatases: A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Cell Nucleolus: Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Proton-Translocating ATPases: Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.Protein Phosphatase 2: A phosphoprotein phosphatase subtype that is comprised of a catalytic subunit and two different regulatory subunits. At least two genes encode isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit, while several isoforms of regulatory subunits exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. Protein phosphatase 2 acts on a broad variety of cellular proteins and may play a role as a regulator of intracellular signaling processes.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.DNA, Catenated: CIRCULAR DNA that is interlaced together as links in a chain. It is used as an assay for the activity of DNA TOPOISOMERASES. Catenated DNA is attached loop to loop in contrast to CONCATENATED DNA which is attached end to end.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Potoroidae: A family of rat kangaroos found in and around Australia. Genera include Potorous and Bettongia.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases: An enzyme group that specifically dephosphorylates phosphotyrosyl residues in selected proteins. Together with PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE, it regulates tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in cellular signal transduction and may play a role in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.Chromosomal Instability: An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.Protein C: A vitamin-K dependent zymogen present in the blood, which, upon activation by thrombin and thrombomodulin exerts anticoagulant properties by inactivating factors Va and VIIIa at the rate-limiting steps of thrombin formation.Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Dipodomys: A genus of the family Heteromyidae which contains 22 species. Their physiology is adapted for the conservation of water, and they seldom drink water. They are found in arid or desert habitats and travel by hopping on their hind limbs.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Aneuploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Sister Chromatid Exchange: An exchange of segments between the sister chromatids of a chromosome, either between the sister chromatids of a meiotic tetrad or between the sister chromatids of a duplicated somatic chromosome. Its frequency is increased by ultraviolet and ionizing radiation and other mutagenic agents and is particularly high in BLOOM SYNDROME.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Microscopy, Video: Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.Diptera: An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).PhosphoproteinsAdenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Microinjections: The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Vaccines, Subunit: Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.Nuclear Matrix-Associated Proteins: A broad category of nuclear proteins that are components of or participate in the formation of the NUCLEAR MATRIX.beta Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Vacuolar Proton-Translocating ATPases: Proton-translocating ATPases that are involved in acidification of a variety of intracellular compartments.Salamandridae: A family of Urodela consisting of 15 living genera and about 42 species and occurring in North America, Europe, Asia, and North Africa.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Intestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the INTESTINES.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Ovum: A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Phenotypic characterization of Drosophila ida mutants: defining the role of APC5 in cell cycle progression. (1/18)We have cloned and characterized the ida gene that is required for proliferation of imaginal disc cells during Drosophila development. IDA is homologous to APC5, a subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC/cyclosome). ida mRNA is detected in most cell types throughout development, but it accumulates to its highest levels during early embryogenesis. A maternal component of IDA is required for the production of eggs and viable embryos. Homozygous ida mutants display mitotic defects: they die during prepupal development, lack all mature imaginal disc structures, and have abnormally small optic lobes. Cytological observations show that ida mutant brains have a high mitotic index and many imaginal cells contain an aneuploid number of aberrant overcondensed chromosomes. However, cells are not stalled in metaphase, as mitotic stages in which chromosomes are orientated at the equatorial plate are never observed. Interestingly, some APC/C-target substrates such as cyclin B are not degraded in ida mutants, whereas others controlling sister-chromatid separation appear to be turned over. Taken together, these results suggest a model in which IDA/APC5 controls regulatory subfunctions of the anaphase-promoting complex. (+info)
The ubiquitin-dependent targeting pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae plays a critical role in multiple chromatin assembly regulatory steps. (2/18)In a screen designed to isolate Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains defective for in vitro chromatin assembly, two temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants were obtained: rmc1 and rmc3 (remodeling of chromatin). Cloning of RMC1 and RMC3 revealed a broad role for the ubiquitin-dependent targeting cascade as the ubiquitin-protein ligases (E3s), the anaphase promoting complex (APC; RMC1 encodes APC5) and Rsp5p, respectively, were identified. Genetic studies linked the rmc1/apc5 chromatin assembly defect to APC function: rmc1/apc5 genetically interacted with apc9Delta, apc10Delta, and cdc26Delta mutants. Furthermore, phenotypes associated with the rmc1/apc5 allele were consistent with defects in chromatin metabolism and in APC function: (i) UV sensitivity, (ii) plasmid loss, (iii) accumulation of G2/M cells, and (iv) suppression of the ts defect by growth on glucose-free media and by expression of ubiquitin. On the other hand, the multifunctional E3, Rsp5p, was shown to be required for both in vitro and in vivo chromatin assembly, as well as for the proper transcriptional and translational control of at least histone H3. The finding that the distinctly different E3 enzymes, APC and Rsp5p, both play roles in regulating chromatin assembly highlight the depth of the regulatory networks at play. The significance of these findings will be discussed. (+info)
Mnd2 and Swm1 are core subunits of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae anaphase-promoting complex. (3/18)The anaphase-promoting complex (APC) is a multisubunit E3 ubiquitin ligase that regulates the metaphase-anaphase transition and exit from mitosis in eukaryotic cells. Eleven subunits have been previously identified in APC from budding yeast. We have identified two additional subunits, Mnd2 and Swm1, by mass spectrometry. Both Mnd2 and Swm1 were found specifically associated with a highly purified preparation of APC from haploid yeast whole cell extract. Moreover, the APC co-purified with epitope-tagged Mnd2 and Swm1. Both proteins were present in APC preparations from haploid cells arrested in G(1), S, and M phases and from meiotic diploid cells, indicating that they are constitutive components of the complex throughout the yeast cell cycle. Mnd2 interacted strongly with Cdc23, Apc5, and Apc1 when coexpressed in an in vitro transcription/translation reaction. Swm1 also interacted with Cdc23 and Apc5 in this system. Previous studies described meiotic defects for mutations in MND2 and SWM1. Here, we show that mnd2delta and swm1delta haploid strains exhibit slow growth and accumulation of G(2)/M cells comparable with that seen in apc9delta or apc10Delta strains and consistent with an APC defect. Taken together, these results demonstrate that Swm1 and Mnd2 are functional components of the yeast APC. (+info)
TPR subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex mediate binding to the activator protein CDH1. (4/18)BACKGROUND: Chromosome segregation and mitotic exit depend on activation of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) by the substrate adaptor proteins CDC20 and CDH1. The APC is a ubiquitin ligase composed of at least 11 subunits. The interaction of APC2 and APC11 with E2 enzymes is sufficient for ubiquitination reactions, but the functions of most other subunits are unknown. RESULTS: We have biochemically characterized subcomplexes of the human APC. One subcomplex, containing APC2/11, APC1, APC4, and APC5, can assemble multiubiquitin chains but is unable to bind CDH1 and to ubiquitinate substrates. The other subcomplex contains all known APC subunits except APC2/11. This subcomplex can recruit CDH1 but fails to support any ubiquitination reaction. In vitro, the C termini of CDC20 and CDH1 bind to the closely related TPR subunits APC3 and APC7. Homology modeling predicts that these proteins are similar in structure to the peroxisomal import receptor PEX5, which binds cargo proteins via their C termini. APC activation by CDH1 depends on a conserved C-terminal motif that is also found in CDC20 and APC10. CONCLUSIONS: APC1, APC4, and APC5 may connect APC2/11 with TPR subunits. TPR domains in APC3 and APC7 recruit CDH1 to the APC and may thereby bring substrates into close proximity of APC2/11 and E2 enzymes. In analogy to PEX5, the different TPR subunits of the APC might function as receptors that interact with the C termini of regulatory proteins such as CDH1, CDC20, and APC10. (+info)
The Apc5 subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome interacts with poly(A) binding protein and represses internal ribosome entry site-mediated translation. (5/18)The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a multisubunit ubiquitin ligase that mediates the proteolysis of cell cycle proteins in mitosis and G(1). We used a yeast three-hybrid screen to identify proteins that interact with the internal ribosome entry site (IRES) of platelet-derived growth factor 2 mRNA. Surprisingly, this screen identified Apc5, although it does not harbor a classical RNA binding domain. We found that Apc5 binds the poly(A) binding protein (PABP), which directly binds the IRES element. PABP was found to enhance IRES-mediated translation, whereas Apc5 overexpression counteracted this effect. In addition to its association with the APC/C complex, Apc5 binds much heavier complexes and cosediments with the ribosomal fraction. In contrast to Apc3, which is associated only with the APC/C and remains intact during differentiation, Apc5 is degraded upon megakaryocytic differentiation in correlation with IRES activation. Expression of Apc5 in differentiated cells abolished IRES activation. This is the first report implying an additional role for an APC/C subunit, apart from its being part of the APC/C complex. (+info)
A functional analysis reveals dependence on the anaphase-promoting complex for prolonged life span in yeast. (6/18)Defects in anaphase-promoting complex (APC) activity, which regulates mitotic progression and chromatin assembly, results in genomic instability, a hallmark of premature aging and cancer. We investigated whether APC-dependent genomic stability affects aging and life span in yeast. Utilizing replicative and chronological aging assays, the APC was shown to promote longevity. Multicopy expression of genes encoding Snf1p (MIG1) and PKA (PDE2) aging-pathway components suppressed apc5CA phenotypes, suggesting their involvement in APC-dependent longevity. While it is known that PKA inhibits APC activity and reduces life span, a link between the Snf1p-inhibited Mig1p transcriptional modulator and the APC is novel. Our mutant analysis supports a model in which Snf1p promotes extended life span by inhibiting the negative influence of Mig1p on the APC. Consistent with this, we found that increased MIG1 expression reduced replicative life span, whereas mig1Delta mutations suppressed the apc5CA chronological aging defect. Furthermore, Mig1p and Mig2p activate APC gene transcription, particularly on glycerol, and mig2Delta, but not mig1Delta, confers a prolonged replicative life span in both APC5 and acp5CA cells. However, glucose repression of APC genes was Mig1p and Mig2p independent, indicating the presence of an uncharacterized factor. Therefore, we propose that APC-dependent genomic stability is linked to prolonged longevity by the antagonistic regulation of the PKA and Snf1p pathways. (+info)
Contribution of CAF-I to anaphase-promoting-complex-mediated mitotic chromatin assembly in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (7/18)The anaphase-promoting complex (APC) is required for mitotic progression and genomic stability. Recently, we demonstrated that the APC is also required for mitotic chromatin assembly and longevity. Here, we investigated the role the APC plays in chromatin assembly. We show that apc5(CA) mutations genetically interact with the CAF-I genes as well as ASF1, HIR1, and HIR2. When present in multiple copies, the individual CAF-I genes, CAC1, CAC2, and MSI1, suppress apc5(CA) phenotypes in a CAF-1- and Asf1p-independent manner. CAF-I and the APC functionally overlap, as cac1delta cac2delta msi1delta (caf1delta) cells expressing apc5(CA) exhibit a phenotype more severe than that of apc5(CA) or caf1delta. The Ts- phenotypes observed in apc5(CA) and apc5(CA) caf mutants may be rooted in compromised histone metabolism, as coexpression of histones H3 and H4 suppressed the Ts- defects. Synthetic genetic interactions were also observed in apc5(CA) asf1delta cells. Furthermore, increased expression of genes encoding Asf1p, Hir1p, and Hir2p suppressed the apc5(CA) Ts- defect in a CAF-I-dependent manner. Together, these results suggest the existence of a complex molecular mechanism controlling APC-dependent chromatin assembly. Our data suggest the APC functions with the individual CAF-I subunits, Asf1p, and the Hir1p and Hir2p proteins. However, Asf1p and an intact CAF-I complex are dispensable for CAF-I subunit suppression, whereas CAF-I is necessary for ASF1, HIR1, and HIR2 suppression of apc5(CA) phenotypes. We discuss the implications of our observations. (+info)
An architectural map of the anaphase-promoting complex. (8/18)The anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC) is an unusually complicated ubiquitin ligase, composed of 13 core subunits and either of two loosely associated regulatory subunits, Cdc20 and Cdh1. We analyzed the architecture of the APC using a recently constructed budding yeast strain that is viable in the absence of normally essential APC subunits. We found that the largest subunit, Apc1, serves as a scaffold that associates independently with two separable subcomplexes, one that contains Apc2 (Cullin), Apc11 (RING), and Doc1/Apc10, and another that contains the three TPR subunits (Cdc27, Cdc16, and Cdc23). We found that the three TPR subunits display a sequential binding dependency, with Cdc27 the most peripheral, Cdc23 the most internal, and Cdc16 between. Apc4, Apc5, Cdc23, and Apc1 associate interdependently, such that loss of any one subunit greatly reduces binding between the remaining three. Intriguingly, the cullin and TPR subunits both contribute to the binding of Cdh1 to the APC. Enzymatic assays performed with APC purified from strains lacking each of the essential subunits revealed that only cdc27Delta complexes retain detectable activity in the presence of Cdh1. This residual activity depends on the C-box domain of Cdh1, but not on the C-terminal IR domain, suggesting that the C-box mediates a productive interaction with an APC subunit other than Cdc27. We have also found that the IR domain of Cdc20 is dispensable for viability, suggesting that Cdc20 can activate the APC through another domain. We have provided an updated model for the subunit architecture of the APC. (+info)
"The Apc5 subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome interacts with poly(A) binding protein and represses internal ... "TPR subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex mediate binding to the activator protein CDH1". Current Biology. 13 (17): 1459- ... This protein is a component of anaphase-promoting complex (APC), which is composed of eight protein subunits and highly ... "Characterization of the DOC1/APC10 subunit of the yeast and the human anaphase-promoting complex". The Journal of Biological ...
"The Apc5 subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome interacts with poly(A) binding protein and represses internal ... The poly(A)-binding protein (PAB or PABP), which is found complexed to the 3' poly(A) tail of eukaryotic mRNA, is required for ... tail and a c-fos RNA coding determinant via a protein complex". Cell. 103 (1): 29-40. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)00102-1. PMID ...
2004). "The Apc5 Subunit of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome Interacts with Poly(A) Binding Protein and Represses ... Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 5 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ANAPC5 gene. The anaphase-promoting complex ... "The Apc5 Subunit of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome Interacts with Poly(A) Binding Protein and Represses Internal ... 2004). "TPR subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex mediate binding to the activator protein CDH1". Curr. Biol. 13 (17): ...
These TPR subunits, Cdc16, Cdc27, Cdc23, and Apc5, mainly provide scaffolding and support to mediate other protein-protein ... Anaphase-promoting complex (also called the cyclosome or APC/C) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that marks target cell cycle proteins ... anaphase-promoting complex at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) 3D electron microscopy ... Review) Harper JW, Burton JL, Solomon MJ (September 2002). "The anaphase-promoting complex: it's not just for mitosis any more ...
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Expression of ANAPC4 (APC4) in soft tissue 1 tissue. Antibody staining with HPA038395, HPA038396 and CAB032519 in immunohistochemistry.
Expression of ANAPC4 (APC4) in lymph node tissue. Antibody staining with HPA038395, HPA038396 and CAB032519 in immunohistochemistry.
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1GQP: Implications for the Ubiquitination Reaction of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex from the Crystal Structure of the Doc1/Apc10 Subunit.
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Entry into anaphase and proteolysis of B-type cyclins depend on a complex containing the tetratricopeptide repeat proteins Cdc16p, Cdc23p, and Cdc27p. This particle, called the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) or cyclosome, functions as a cell cycle-regulated ubiquitin-protein ligase. Two additional subunits of the budding yeast APC were identified: The largest subunit, encoded by the APC1 gene, is conserved between fungi and vertebrates and shows similarity to BIMEp from Aspergillus nidulans. A small heat-inducible subunit is encoded by the CDC26 gene. The yeast APC is a 36S particle that contains at least seven different proteins. ...
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This is a freshwater species.. Created: 12 January 2018 by Salvador Valenzuela Miranda. Verified by: 12 January 2018 by Salvador Valenzuela Miranda. Accesses: This record has been accessed by users 31 times since it was created.. Verification of data ...
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ANAPC5 Gene - GeneCards | APC5 Protein | APC5 Antibody
Anaphase Promoting Complex Subunit 5, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards ... Cyclosome subunit 5 (APC5_HUMAN). *cDNA FLJ55537, highly similar to Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 5 (APC5)(Cyclosome ... cDNA FLJ30217 fis, clone BRACE2001709, highly similar to Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 5 (APC5)(Cyclosome subunit 5) ( ... Q9UJX4-APC5_HUMAN. Recommended name:. Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 5. Protein Accession:. Q9UJX4. Secondary Accessions: * ...https://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=ANAPC5&keywords=GH12J121313&prefilter=genomic_location
Gene Report for G00001760 - Genes2Cognition Neuroscience Research Programme
The Apc5 subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome interacts with poly(A) binding protein and represses internal ... The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a multisubunit ubiquitin ligase that mediates the proteolysis of cell cycle ... In addition to its association with the APC/C complex, Apc5 binds much heavier complexes and cosediments with the ribosomal ... of the mRNA by the cap-binding complex eIF4F. eIF4F is itself a three-subunit complex comprising the cap-binding protein eIF4E ...http://www.genes2cognition.org/db/Gene/G00001760
CDC27 - Wikipedia
"The Apc5 subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome interacts with poly(A) binding protein and represses internal ... "TPR subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex mediate binding to the activator protein CDH1". Current Biology. 13 (17): 1459- ... This protein is a component of anaphase-promoting complex (APC), which is composed of eight protein subunits and highly ... "Characterization of the DOC1/APC10 subunit of the yeast and the human anaphase-promoting complex". The Journal of Biological ...https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CDC27
PABPC1 - Wikipedia
"The Apc5 subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome interacts with poly(A) binding protein and represses internal ... The poly(A)-binding protein (PAB or PABP), which is found complexed to the 3 poly(A) tail of eukaryotic mRNA, is required for ... tail and a c-fos RNA coding determinant via a protein complex". Cell. 103 (1): 29-40. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(00)00102-1. PMID ...https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/PABPC1
ANAPC5 - Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 5 - Gallus gallus (Chicken) - ANAPC5 gene & protein
The APC/C complex acts by mediating ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of target proteins: it mainly mediates the ... Component of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), a cell cycle-regulated E3 ubiquitin ligase that controls ... Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 5. Short name: APC5. Alternative name(s):. Cyclosome subunit 5 ... sp,Q5ZKK3,APC5_CHICK Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 5 OS=Gallus gallus OX=9031 GN=ANAPC5 PE=2 SV=1 ...http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q5ZKK3
Effects of DHA- Rich n-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation on Gene Expression in Blood Mononuclear Leukocytes: The OmegAD Study
The anaphase promoting complex subunit-5 protein (ANAPC5 also known as APC5) gene encodes for the anaphase promoting complex/ ... cyclosome (APC/C), a large E3 ubiquitin ligase that controls cell cycle progression by targeting a number of cell cycle ... protein likely plays a role in signal transduction and may function as a subunit associated with receptor complexes. ... Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 activity promotes NF-kappaB-driven transcription and microglial activation: implication for ...http://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC3335851/?lang=en-ca
anti-ANAPC5 antibody | Rabbit anti-Human ANAPC5 Polyclonal Antibody-NP 001131031.1
Anaphase promoting complex subunit 5; Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 5; Apc 5; APC5; APC5_HUMAN; Cyclosome subunit 5; PDL ... Component of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), a cell cycle-regulated E3 ubiquitin ligase that controls ... Function: Component of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), a cell cycle-regulated E3 ubiquitin ligase that ... This gene encodes a tetratricopeptide repeat-containing component of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), a large ...https://www.mybiosource.com/polyclonal-human-antibody/anapc5/9606185
RNA/DNA Purification Micro Kit (Cat. 50300) | Norgen Biotek Corp.
... of Human Cytomegalovirus UL21a and UL97 to Viral Growth and Inactivation of the Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) E3 ... Ubiquitin Ligase Reveal a Unique Cellular Mechanism for Down-modulation of the APC/C Subunits APC1, APC4, and APC5.. ... Nicotine promotes apoptosis resistance of breast cancer cells and enrichment of side population cells with cancer stem cell- ...https://norgenbiotek.com/product/rnadna-purification-micro-kit
Welcome to LibAge, the ageing reference resource
Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome *Apc5 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome *Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases ... 2004) "A functional analysis reveals dependence on the anaphase-promoting complex for prolonged life span in yeast." Genetics ... forkhead transcription factors fkh1 and fkh2 regulate lifespan and stress response together with the anaphase-promoting complex ... Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome *Apc5 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome *Cell Cycle ...http://libage.ageing-map.org/entries/tags/5805/
Welcome to LibAge, the ageing reference resource
Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome *Apc5 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome *Cell Cycle ... forkhead transcription factors fkh1 and fkh2 regulate lifespan and stress response together with the anaphase-promoting complex ... 2000) "BASC, a super complex of BRCA1-associated proteins involved in the recognition and repair of aberrant DNA structures." ...http://la.ageing-map.org/entries/tags/388/
Welcome to LibAge, the ageing reference resource
Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome *Apc5 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome *Cell Cycle ... forkhead transcription factors fkh1 and fkh2 regulate lifespan and stress response together with the anaphase-promoting complex ... 2007) "Mpt5p, a stress tolerance- and lifespan-promoting PUF protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, acts upstream of the cell ... 2005) "Activated IGF-1R inhibits hyperglycemia-induced DNA damage and promotes DNA repair by homologous recombination." Am. J. ...http://libage.ageing-map.org/entries/tags/309/
Welcome to LibAge, the ageing reference resource
Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome *Apc5 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome *Cell Cycle ... forkhead transcription factors fkh1 and fkh2 regulate lifespan and stress response together with the anaphase-promoting complex ... 2007) "Mpt5p, a stress tolerance- and lifespan-promoting PUF protein in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, acts upstream of the cell ...http://la.ageing-map.org/entries/tags/4935/
Interactive Fly, Drosophila
The anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC) is an unusually complicated ubiquitin ligase, composed of 13 core subunits ... Apc4, Apc5, Cdc23, and Apc1 associate interdependently, such that loss of any one subunit greatly reduces binding between the ... Microinjection of antibodies against subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome or against human Cdc20 (fizzy) ... one of the substrate-targeting subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC). However, Cdh1, another targeting subunit used ...http://www.sdbonline.org/sites/fly/newgene/fizyrel2.htm
Institute of Cancer Research Repository - WD40 domain of Apc1 is critical for the coactivator-induced allosteric transition...
The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a large multimeric cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase that orchestrates cell- ... The platform comprises APC/C subunits Apc1, Apc4, Apc5, and Apc15. Although the role of Apc1 as an APC/C scaffolding subunit ... APC/C ubiquitination cell cycle UbcH10 Ube2S ANAPHASE-PROMOTING COMPLEX EM STRUCTURE DETERMINATION UBIQUITIN-CHAIN FORMATION ... A cryo-EM structure of an APC/C-Cdh1 complex with Apc1(WD40) deleted showed that the mutant APC/C is locked into an inactive ...http://publications.icr.ac.uk/15401/
Anti-APC5 [APC5#4] | Monoclonal Antibodies - Ximbio
APC5 is a component of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC) that regulates cell cycle progression through mitosis and ... APC5 is a component of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC) that regulates cell cycle progression through mitosis and ... Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 5 (APC5) Synonyms Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 5; RMC1; YOR249C ... APC5 is located in the nucleus during interphase and at the centrosome during metaphase/anaphase. The APC is inactivated by ...https://ximbio.com/reagent/151567/anti-apc5-apc54
Anaphase Promoting Complex Subunit 1 (ANAPC1) Antikörper
... anaphase-promoting complex 1 (meiotic checkpoint regulator) , anaphase-promoting complex subunit 1 , cyclosome subunit 1 , ... and APC5 (zeige ANAPC5 Antikörper). ... Top anti-Anaphase Promoting Complex Subunit 1 Antikörper auf ... Weitere Produktkategorien zu Anaphase Promoting Complex Subunit 1 Antikörper * 131 anti-Anaphase Promoting Complex Subunit 1 ... anti-Anaphase Promoting Complex Subunit 1 (ANAPC1) Antikörper. ANAPC1 encodes a subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex. ...https://www.antikoerper-online.de/abstract/Anaphase+Promoting+Complex+Subunit+1+
ANAPC5 Full-Length MS Protein Standard - Creative Proteomics
This gene encodes a tetratricopeptide repeat-containing component of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), a large ... anaphase promoting complex subunit 5. Symbol. ANAPC5. Synonyms. APC5. Accession. NM_016237. ... This gene encodes a tetratricopeptide repeat-containing component of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), a large ...https://www.creative-proteomics.com/product/detail-cpfl303030_1483.htm
anaphase-promoting complex (APC): the sum of its parts? | Biochemical Society Transactions | Portland Press
Subunits with unknown functions. Functions for the remaining APC subunits are less clear. At least one other APC subunit, Apc5 ... The APC (anaphase-promoting complex) or cyclosome is a large multisubunit protein complex. It has 13 core components (with ... The anaphase-promoting complex (APC): the sum of its parts? L.A. Passmore L.A. Passmore ... The APC (anaphase-promoting complex) is a multisubunit E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets cell-cycle-related proteins for ...https://portlandpress.com/biochemsoctrans/article/32/5/724/64206/The-anaphase-promoting-complex-APC-the-sum-of-its
Evolutionary flexibility of protein complexes | BMC Evolutionary Biology | Full Text
We exemplified this trend on the anaphase promoting complex (APC) where a core is highly conserved throughout all metazoans, ... They do not act alone but are organised in complexes. Throughout the life of a cell, complexes are dynamic in their composition ... Focussing on human protein complexes, we based our analysis on a manually curated dataset from HPRD. In total, 1,060 complexes ... of all complexes affected). Still, loss of whole complexes happened rarely. This biological signal deviated significantly from ...https://0-bmcevolbiol-biomedcentral-com.brum.beds.ac.uk/articles/10.1186/1471-2148-9-155
CDC23 - Anaphase-promoting complex subunit CDC23 - Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain ATCC 204508 / S288c) (Baker's yeast) -...
In early mitosis, the APC/C is activated by CDC20 and targets securin PDS1, the B-type cyclin CLB5, and other anaphase ... a cell cycle-regulated E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complex that controls progression through mitosis and the G1 phase of the ... to allow exit from mitosis and creating the low CDK state necessary for cytokinesis and for reforming prereplicative complexes ... inhibitory proteins for proteolysis, thereby triggering the separation of sister chromatids at the metaphase-to-anaphase ...http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P16522
Mitotic regulation of the human anaphase‐promoting complex by phosphorylation | The EMBO Journal
Distinct subunit functions and cell cycle regulated phosphorylation of 20S APC/cyclosome required for anaphase in fission yeast ... Apc5, Cdc16, Apc7 and Cdc23). No peptides from the small subunits Apc10, Apc11 and Cdc26 were recovered. Cdc20 peptides were ... The anaphase‐promoting complex (APC) or cyclosome is a ubiquitin ligase that initiates anaphase and mitotic exit. APC ... Geley S, Kramer E, Gieffers C, Gannon J, Peters JM and Hunt T (2001) Anaphase‐promoting complex/cyclosome‐dependent proteolysis ...http://emboj.embopress.org/content/22/24/6598?ijkey=6f92f8b3d104fb5bd1a0d1db1e2e1462b33e9063&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
Novel Response to Microtubule Perturbation in Meiosis | Molecular and Cellular Biology
The spindle checkpoint component Mad2 binds to and inhibits the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C), a crucial ... 6C and D), and components of the APC/C (APC4, APC5, APC11, CDC20, CDC23, and CDC26). ... 2). Furthermore, Cdc28, the catalytic subunit of CDKs, was phosphorylated on tyrosine 19, which reflects a cell cycle arrest ... For example, the monopolin complex, a kinetochore-bound protein complex that promotes the attachment of sister chromatids to ...https://mcb.asm.org/content/25/11/4767
Interactive Fly, Drosophila
2002). The anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome is required during development for modified cell cycles. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci ... 2010). Subunit composition and substrate specificity of a MOF-containing histone acetyltransferase distinct from the male- ... 2002). Phenotypic characterization of Drosophila ida mutants: defining the role of APC5 in cell cycle progression. J. Cell Sci ... 2007). The END network couples spindle pole assembly to inhibition of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome in early mitosis ...http://www.sdbonline.org/sites/fly/newgene/cyclinb6.htm
Cell Cycle Regulation During Viral Infection | SpringerLink
... anaphase-promoting complex during human cytomegalovirus infection is associated with degradation of the APC5 and APC4 subunits ... Peters JM (2006) The anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome: a machine designed to destroy. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 7(9):644-656 ... Page AM, Hieter P (1999) The anaphase-promoting complex: new subunits and regulators. Annu Rev Biochem 68:583-609PubMedGoogle ... Acquaviva C, Herzog F, Kraft C, Pines J (2004) The anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome is recruited to centromeres by the ...https://link.springer.com/protocol/10.1007%2F978-1-4939-0888-2_10
Human ANAPC5 ELISA Kit | biobool.com
Human APC5 ELISA Kit;Human cyclosome subunit 5 ELISA Kit;Human anaphase promoting complex subunit 5 ELISA Kit;Human anaphase- ... Human Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 5 Protein information * Uniprot ID APC5_HUMAN ... Human Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 5 Protein SEQUENCE * SEQUENCE 755 AA; 85077 MW; 174F68EAB44760EB CRC64; ...https://www.biobool.com/elisa_kit/1957.html
- This gene encodes a tetratricopeptide repeat-containing component of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), a large E3 ubiquitin ligase that controls cell cycle progression by targeting a number of cell cycle regulators such as B-type cyclins for 26S proteasome-mediated degradation through ubiquitination. (genecards.org)
- Component of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), a cell cycle-regulated E3 ubiquitin ligase that controls progression through mitosis and the G1 phase of the cell cycle. (genecards.org)
- Studies on the Contribution of Human Cytomegalovirus UL21a and UL97 to Viral Growth and Inactivation of the Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Reveal a Unique Cellular Mechanism for Down-modulation of the APC/C Subunits APC1, APC4, and APC5. (norgenbiotek.com)
- A key mechanism of CDK inactivation is ubiquitin-mediated cyclin proteolysis, which is triggered by the late mitotic activation of a ubiquitin ligase known as the anaphase-promoting complex (APC). (sdbonline.org)
- The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a large multimeric cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase that orchestrates cell-cycle progression by targeting cell-cycle regulatory proteins for destruction via the ubiquitin proteasome system. (icr.ac.uk)
- The APC (anaphase-promoting complex) is a multisubunit E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets cell-cycle-related proteins for degradation by the 26 S proteasome. (portlandpress.com)
- The anaphase‐promoting complex (APC) or cyclosome is a ubiquitin ligase that initiates anaphase and mitotic exit. (embopress.org)
- 1995). Reversible phosphorylation controls the activity of cyclosome-associated cyclin-ubiquitin ligase. (sdbonline.org)
- Ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis due to the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome is essential for separation of sister chromatids, requiring degradation of the anaphase inhibitor Pds1, and for exit from mitosis, requiring inactivation of cyclin B Cdk1 kinases. (sdbonline.org)
- In early mitosis, the APC/C is activated by CDC20 and targets securin PDS1, the B-type cyclin CLB5, and other anaphase inhibitory proteins for proteolysis, thereby triggering the separation of sister chromatids at the metaphase-to-anaphase transition. (uniprot.org)
- Although the role of Apc1 as an APC/C scaffolding subunit has been characterized, its specific functions in contributing toward APC/C catalytic activity are not fully understood. (icr.ac.uk)
- A cryo-EM structure of an APC/C-Cdh1 complex with Apc1(WD40) deleted showed that the mutant APC/C is locked into an inactive conformation in which the UbcH10-binding site of the catalytic module is inaccessible. (icr.ac.uk)
- Our data show that Apc1(WD40) is required to mediate the coactivator-induced conformational change of the APC/C that is responsible for stimulating APC/C catalytic activity by promoting UbcH10 binding. (icr.ac.uk)
- Of these, 32 sites are clustered in parts of Apc1 and the tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) subunits Cdc27, Cdc16, Cdc23 and Apc7. (embopress.org)
- Mutations at the complex interface impair mRNA deadenylation in mammalian cell extracts, suggesting that the GW182-PABC interaction contributes to microRNA-mediated gene silencing. (genes2cognition.org)
- The large complexes involved in transcription (polymerases and transcription factors) and translation (ribosomes) must be tightly regulated to allow the control of gene expression. (portlandpress.com)
- Proteolysis of mitotic cyclins depends on a multisubunit ubiquitin-protein ligase, the anaphase promoting complex (APC). (sdbonline.org)
- The mutual inhibition between APC and CDKs explains how cells suppress mitotic CDK activity during G1 and then establish a period with elevated kinase activity from S phase until anaphase (Zachariae, 1998). (sdbonline.org)
- This protein is a component of anaphase-promoting complex (APC), which is composed of eight protein subunits and highly conserved in eucaryotic cells. (wikipedia.org)
- We exemplified this trend on the anaphase promoting complex (APC) where a core is highly conserved throughout all metazoans, but flexibility in certain components is observable. (beds.ac.uk)
- Both processes require the Cdc14 phosphatase, whose release from the nucleolus during anaphase causes dephosphorylation and thereby activation of Cdh1 and accumulation of another protein, Sic1. (sdbonline.org)
- Activation of the APC requires its association with substoichiometric activating subunits termed Cdc20 and Hct1 (also known as Cdh1). (sdbonline.org)
- In late mitosis and in G1, degradation of CLB5 allows activation of the APC/C by CDH1, which is needed to destroy CDC20 and the B-type cyclin CLB2 to allow exit from mitosis and creating the low CDK state necessary for cytokinesis and for reforming prereplicative complexes in G1 prior to another round of replication. (uniprot.org)
- Proteolysis commences during anaphase, persisting throughout G1 until it is terminated by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) as cells enter S phase. (sdbonline.org)
- Purified Hct1 is phosphorylated in vitro at these sites by purified Cdc28-cyclin complexes, and phosphorylation abolishes the ability of Hct1 to activate the APC in vitro. (sdbonline.org)
- Following anaphase, dephosphorylation of Hct1 by Cdc14 may help initiate cyclin destruction (Jaspersen, 1999). (sdbonline.org)
- It is proposed that the dual role of Pds1p as an inhibitor of anaphase and of cyclin degradation allows the cell to couple the exit from mitosis to the prior completion of anaphase. (sdbonline.org)
- 1997). Introduction of cyclin B induces activation of the maturation-promoting factor and breakdown of germinal vesicle in growing zebrafish oocytes unresponsive to the maturation-inducing hormone. (sdbonline.org)
- Over the analysed species, the composition of most complexes was highly flexible and only 25% of all genes were never lost. (beds.ac.uk)
- These evolutionary events affecting genes coding for units in human protein complexes showed a significantly different phylogenetic pattern compared to randomly selected genes. (beds.ac.uk)
- Thus, protein complexes contain not only structural and functional, but also evolutionary cores. (beds.ac.uk)
- This complexity, comprising both the functional and structural entities of protein complexes, raises the question how the interplay of core complexes with variable attachments evolved. (beds.ac.uk)
- Here we show that a conserved motif in the human GW182 paralog TNRC6C interacts with the C-terminal domain of polyadenylate binding protein 1 (PABC) and present the crystal structure of the complex. (genes2cognition.org)
- Focussing on human protein complexes, we based our analysis on a manually curated dataset from HPRD. (beds.ac.uk)
- Subunit Structure: The mammalian APC/C is composed of 14 distinct subunits that assemble into a complex of at least 19 chains with a combined molecular mass of around 1.2 MDa. (mybiosource.com)
- Here, we analysed in a large scale approach whether this flexibility in evolution is only limited to a distinct number of complexes or represents a more general trend. (beds.ac.uk)
- Consecutive additions and losses of distinct units is a fundamental process in the evolution of protein complexes. (beds.ac.uk)
- In this review, I discuss the composition of the APC and the functions of its subunits with the goal of gaining insight into the mechanism of the APC as a whole. (portlandpress.com)
- Throughout the life of a cell, complexes are dynamic in their composition due to attachments and shared components. (beds.ac.uk)
- We computed interologs in 25 different species and predicted the composition of complexes. (beds.ac.uk)
- The complex transcriptional program that underlies gametogenesis appears to be one key level of control that couples the meiotic cell cycle to gamete development. (asm.org)
- Cell cycle arrest may inhibit early cell death of infected cells, allow the cells to evade immune defenses, or help promote virus assembly. (springer.com)