The phase of cell nucleus division following METAPHASE, in which the CHROMATIDS separate and migrate to opposite poles of the spindle.
An E3 ubiquitin ligase primarily involved in regulation of the metaphase-to-anaphase transition during MITOSIS through ubiquitination of specific CELL CYCLE PROTEINS. Enzyme activity is tightly regulated through subunits and cofactors, which modulate activation, inhibition, and substrate specificity. The anaphase-promoting complex, or APC-C, is also involved in tissue differentiation in the PLACENTA, CRYSTALLINE LENS, and SKELETAL MUSCLE, and in regulation of postmitotic NEURONAL PLASTICITY and excitability.
Complexes of enzymes that catalyze the covalent attachment of UBIQUITIN to other proteins by forming a peptide bond between the C-terminal GLYCINE of UBIQUITIN and the alpha-amino groups of LYSINE residues in the protein. The complexes play an important role in mediating the selective-degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins. The complex of enzymes can be broken down into three components that involve activation of ubiquitin (UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES), conjugation of ubiquitin to the ligase complex (UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES), and ligation of ubiquitin to the substrate protein (UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES).
Highly conserved proteins that specifically bind to and activate the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome, promoting ubiquitination and proteolysis of cell-cycle-regulatory proteins. Cdc20 is essential for anaphase-promoting complex activity, initiation of anaphase, and cyclin proteolysis during mitosis.
Cdh1 is an activator of the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome, and is involved in substrate recognition. It associates with the complex in late MITOSIS from anaphase through G1 to regulate activity of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and to prevent premature DNA replication.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
A highly evolutionarily conserved subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC-C) containing multiple 34-amino-acid tetratricopeptide repeats. These domains, also found in Apc subunits 6, 7, and 8, have been shown to mediate protein-protein interactions, suggesting that Apc3 may assist in coordinating the juxtaposition of the catalytic and substrate recognition module subunits relative to co-activators and APC-C inhibitors.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
The largest subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex. It acts primarily as a scaffold for the proper organization and arrangement of subunits. The C-terminal region of Apc1 contains a series of tandem amino acid repeats that are also seen in the 26S proteasome regulatory particle, and may assist with forming and stabilizing protein-protein interactions.
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
Securin is involved in the control of the metaphase-anaphase transition during MITOSIS. It promotes the onset of anaphase by blocking SEPARASE function and preventing proteolysis of cohesin and separation of sister CHROMATIDS. Overexpression of securin is associated with NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION and tumor formation.
A cyclin subtype that is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE. It stimulates the G2/M phase transition by activating CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE.
A family of proteins that share the F-BOX MOTIF and are involved in protein-protein interactions. They play an important role in process of protein ubiquition by associating with a variety of substrates and then associating into SCF UBIQUITIN LIGASE complexes. They are held in the ubiquitin-ligase complex via binding to SKP DOMAIN PROTEINS.
Tumor suppressor genes located in the 5q21 region on the long arm of human chromosome 5. The mutation of these genes is associated with familial adenomatous polyposis (ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI) and GARDNER SYNDROME, as well as some sporadic colorectal cancers.
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a bond between two substrate molecules, coupled with the hydrolysis of a pyrophosphate bond in ATP or a similar energy donor. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 6.
The cellular signaling system that halts the progression of cells through MITOSIS or MEIOSIS if a defect that will affect CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION is detected.
A widely-expressed cyclin A subtype that functions during the G1/S and G2/M transitions of the CELL CYCLE.
A subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex whose primary function is to provide structural support for the catalytic and substrate-recognition modules of the complex. Apc5, along with Apc4, tethers the tetratricopeptide-coactivator binding subcomplex to the main structural subunit, Apc1.
Mad2 is a component of the spindle-assembly checkpoint apparatus. It binds to and inhibits the Cdc20 activator subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex, preventing the onset of anaphase until all chromosomes are properly aligned at the metaphase plate. Mad2 is required for proper microtubule capture at KINETOCHORES.
A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with MICROTUBULES during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.
The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.
A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROPHASE, when the breakdown of the NUCLEAR ENVELOPE occurs and the MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS enters the nuclear region and attaches to the KINETOCHORES.
Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
The act of ligating UBIQUITINS to PROTEINS to form ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes to label proteins for transport to the PROTEASOME ENDOPEPTIDASE COMPLEX where proteolysis occurs.
Geminin inhibits DNA replication by preventing the incorporation of MCM complex into pre-replication complex. It is absent during G1 phase of the CELL CYCLE and accumulates through S, G2,and M phases. It is degraded at the metaphase-anaphase transition by the ANAPHASE-PROMOTING COMPLEX-CYCLOSOME.
Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Together with the Apc11 subunit, forms the catalytic core of the E3 ubiquitin ligase anaphase-promoting complex (APC-C). Its N-terminus has cullin domains which associate with the RING FINGER DOMAINS of Apc11. Apc2 also interacts with the E2 ubiquitin ligases involved in APC-C ubiquitination reactions.
A cyclin subtype that has specificity for CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2. It plays a role in progression of the CELL CYCLE through G1/S and G2/M phase transitions.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.
A highly conserved subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC-C) containing multiple 34-amino-acid tetratricopeptide repeats. These domains, also found in Apc3, Apc6, and Apc7, have been shown to mediate protein-protein interactions, suggesting that Apc8 may assist in coordinating the juxtaposition of the catalytic and substrate recognition module subunits relative to coactivators and APC-C inhibitors.
Separase is a caspase-like cysteine protease, which plays a central role in triggering ANAPHASE by cleaving the SCC1/RAD21 subunit of the cohesin complex. Cohesin holds the sister CHROMATIDS together during METAPHASE and its cleavage results in chromosome segregation.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The final phase of cell nucleus division following ANAPHASE, in which two daughter nuclei are formed, the CYTOPLASM completes division, and the CHROMOSOMES lose their distinctness and are transformed into CHROMATIN threads.
A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.
Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Cellular proteins encoded by the c-mos genes (GENES, MOS). They function in the cell cycle to maintain MATURATION PROMOTING FACTOR in the active state and have protein-serine/threonine kinase activity. Oncogenic transformation can take place when c-mos proteins are expressed at the wrong time.
Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.
Genes that code for proteins that regulate the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. These genes form a regulatory network that culminates in the onset of MITOSIS by activating the p34cdc2 protein (PROTEIN P34CDC2).
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
A highly conserved 76-amino acid peptide universally found in eukaryotic cells that functions as a marker for intracellular PROTEIN TRANSPORT and degradation. Ubiquitin becomes activated through a series of complicated steps and forms an isopeptide bond to lysine residues of specific proteins within the cell. These "ubiquitinated" proteins can be recognized and degraded by proteosomes or be transported to specific compartments within the cell.
A class of enzymes that form a thioester bond to UBIQUITIN with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES. They transfer ubiquitin to the LYSINE of a substrate protein with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
A highly conserved subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC-C) containing multiple 34 amino acid tetratricopeptide repeats. These domains, also found in Apc3, Apc7, and Apc8, have been shown to mediate protein-protein interactions, suggesting that Apc6 may assist in coordinating the juxtaposition of the catalytic and substrate recognition module subunits relative to coactivators and APC-C inhibitors.
A subset of ubiquitin protein ligases that are formed by the association of a SKP DOMAIN PROTEIN, a CULLIN DOMAIN PROTEIN and a F-BOX DOMAIN PROTEIN.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A family of proteins that are structurally-related to Ubiquitin. Ubiquitins and ubiquitin-like proteins participate in diverse cellular functions, such as protein degradation and HEAT-SHOCK RESPONSE, by conjugation to other proteins.
Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.
A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Phase of the CELL CYCLE following G1 and preceding G2 when the entire DNA content of the nucleus is replicated. It is achieved by bidirectional replication at multiple sites along each chromosome.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The period of the CELL CYCLE following DNA synthesis (S PHASE) and preceding M PHASE (cell division phase). The CHROMOSOMES are tetraploid in this point.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.
Together with the Apc2 subunit, forms the catalytic core of the E3 ubiquitin ligase, anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome. It has a RING H2 domain which interacts with the cullin domain of Apc2. Apc11 also interacts with the E2 ubiquitin ligases involved in APC-C ubiquitination reactions.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
A negative regulator of beta-catenin signaling which is mutant in ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI and GARDNER SYNDROME.
Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
The ability of a protein to retain its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to physical or chemical manipulations.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
A highly conserved subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC-C) containing multiple 34 amino acid tetratricopeptide repeats. These domains, also found in Apc3, Apc6, and Apc8, have been shown to mediate protein-protein interactions, suggesting that Apc7 may assist in coordinating the juxtaposition of the catalytic and substrate recognition module subunits relative to coactivators and APC-C inhibitors.
Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A microtubule-associated mechanical adenosine triphosphatase, that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move organelles along microtubules toward the plus end of the microtubule. The protein is found in squid axoplasm, optic lobes, and in bovine brain. Bovine kinesin is a heterotetramer composed of two heavy (120 kDa) and two light (62 kDa) chains. EC 3.6.1.-.
The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.
A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of mussels; clams; OYSTERS; COCKLES; and SCALLOPS. They are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical hinged shell and a muscular foot used for burrowing and anchoring.
A type of nuclear polyploidization in which multiple cycles of DNA REPLICATION occur in the absence of CELL DIVISION and result in a POLYPLOID CELL.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.
The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).
An aurora kinase that is a component of the chromosomal passenger protein complex and is involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. It mediates proper CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION and contractile ring function during CYTOKINESIS.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Apc10 is necessary for coactivator-dependent substrate recognition by the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome. It binds the Apc2 subunit, which is a part of the catalytic core, and interacts with coactivators Cdh1 or Cdc20 to recruit substrates to the complex.
The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A polyposis syndrome due to an autosomal dominant mutation of the APC genes (GENES, APC) on CHROMOSOME 5. The syndrome is characterized by the development of hundreds of ADENOMATOUS POLYPS in the COLON and RECTUM of affected individuals by early adulthood.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
An order of fungi in the phylum Ascomycota that multiply by budding. They include the telomorphic ascomycetous yeasts which are found in a very wide range of habitats.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A family of herbivorous leaping MAMMALS of Australia, New Guinea, and adjacent islands. Members include kangaroos, wallabies, quokkas, and wallaroos.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Regulatory signaling systems that control the progression through the CELL CYCLE. They ensure that the cell has completed, in the correct order and without mistakes, all the processes required to replicate the GENOME and CYTOPLASM, and divide them equally between two daughter cells. If cells sense they have not completed these processes or that the environment does not have the nutrients and growth hormones in place to proceed, then the cells are restrained (or "arrested") until the processes are completed and growth conditions are suitable.
A family of multisubunit cytoskeletal motor proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power a variety of cellular functions. Dyneins fall into two major classes based upon structural and functional criteria.
Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.
The failure of homologous CHROMOSOMES or CHROMATIDS to segregate during MITOSIS or MEIOSIS with the result that one daughter cell has both of a pair of parental chromosomes or chromatids and the other has none.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Cleavage of proteins into smaller peptides or amino acids either by PROTEASES or non-enzymatically (e.g., Hydrolysis). It does not include Protein Processing, Post-Translational.
Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.
A phosphoprotein phosphatase subtype that is comprised of a catalytic subunit and two different regulatory subunits. At least two genes encode isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit, while several isoforms of regulatory subunits exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. Protein phosphatase 2 acts on a broad variety of cellular proteins and may play a role as a regulator of intracellular signaling processes.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
CIRCULAR DNA that is interlaced together as links in a chain. It is used as an assay for the activity of DNA TOPOISOMERASES. Catenated DNA is attached loop to loop in contrast to CONCATENATED DNA which is attached end to end.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A family of rat kangaroos found in and around Australia. Genera include Potorous and Bettongia.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
An enzyme group that specifically dephosphorylates phosphotyrosyl residues in selected proteins. Together with PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE, it regulates tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in cellular signal transduction and may play a role in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.
An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.
A vitamin-K dependent zymogen present in the blood, which, upon activation by thrombin and thrombomodulin exerts anticoagulant properties by inactivating factors Va and VIIIa at the rate-limiting steps of thrombin formation.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
A genus of the family Heteromyidae which contains 22 species. Their physiology is adapted for the conservation of water, and they seldom drink water. They are found in arid or desert habitats and travel by hopping on their hind limbs.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
An exchange of segments between the sister chromatids of a chromosome, either between the sister chromatids of a meiotic tetrad or between the sister chromatids of a duplicated somatic chromosome. Its frequency is increased by ultraviolet and ionizing radiation and other mutagenic agents and is particularly high in BLOOM SYNDROME.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.
An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.
A broad category of nuclear proteins that are components of or participate in the formation of the NUCLEAR MATRIX.
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
Proton-translocating ATPases that are involved in acidification of a variety of intracellular compartments.
A family of Urodela consisting of 15 living genera and about 42 species and occurring in North America, Europe, Asia, and North Africa.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
Tumors or cancer of the INTESTINES.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.

EMB-30: an APC4 homologue required for metaphase-to-anaphase transitions during meiosis and mitosis in Caenorhabditis elegans. (1/7)

Here we show that emb-30 is required for metaphase-to-anaphase transitions during meiosis and mitosis in Caenorhabditis elegans. Germline-specific emb-30 mutant alleles block the meiotic divisions. Mutant oocytes, fertilized by wild-type sperm, set up a meiotic spindle but do not progress to anaphase I. As a result, polar bodies are not produced, pronuclei fail to form, and cytokinesis does not occur. Severe-reduction-of-function emb-30 alleles (class I alleles) result in zygotic sterility and lead to germline and somatic defects that are consistent with an essential role in promoting the metaphase-to-anaphase transition during mitosis. Analysis of the vulval cell lineages in these emb-30(class I) mutant animals suggests that mitosis is lengthened and eventually arrested when maternally contributed emb-30 becomes limiting. By further reducing maternal emb-30 function contributed to class I mutant animals, we show that emb-30 is required for the metaphase-to-anaphase transition in many, if not all, cells. Metaphase arrest in emb-30 mutants is not due to activation of the spindle assembly checkpoint but rather reflects an essential emb-30 requirement for M-phase progression. A reduction in emb-30 activity can suppress the lethality and sterility caused by a null mutation in mdf-1, a component of the spindle assembly checkpoint machinery. This result suggests that delaying anaphase onset can bypass the spindle checkpoint requirement for normal development. Positional cloning established that emb-30 encodes the likely C. elegans orthologue of APC4/Lid1, a component of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome, required for the metaphase-to-anaphase transition. Thus, the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome is likely to be required for all metaphase-to-anaphase transitions in a multicellular organism.  (+info)

TPR subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex mediate binding to the activator protein CDH1. (2/7)

BACKGROUND: Chromosome segregation and mitotic exit depend on activation of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) by the substrate adaptor proteins CDC20 and CDH1. The APC is a ubiquitin ligase composed of at least 11 subunits. The interaction of APC2 and APC11 with E2 enzymes is sufficient for ubiquitination reactions, but the functions of most other subunits are unknown. RESULTS: We have biochemically characterized subcomplexes of the human APC. One subcomplex, containing APC2/11, APC1, APC4, and APC5, can assemble multiubiquitin chains but is unable to bind CDH1 and to ubiquitinate substrates. The other subcomplex contains all known APC subunits except APC2/11. This subcomplex can recruit CDH1 but fails to support any ubiquitination reaction. In vitro, the C termini of CDC20 and CDH1 bind to the closely related TPR subunits APC3 and APC7. Homology modeling predicts that these proteins are similar in structure to the peroxisomal import receptor PEX5, which binds cargo proteins via their C termini. APC activation by CDH1 depends on a conserved C-terminal motif that is also found in CDC20 and APC10. CONCLUSIONS: APC1, APC4, and APC5 may connect APC2/11 with TPR subunits. TPR domains in APC3 and APC7 recruit CDH1 to the APC and may thereby bring substrates into close proximity of APC2/11 and E2 enzymes. In analogy to PEX5, the different TPR subunits of the APC might function as receptors that interact with the C termini of regulatory proteins such as CDH1, CDC20, and APC10.  (+info)

Dim1p is required for efficient splicing and export of mRNA encoding lid1p, a component of the fission yeast anaphase-promoting complex. (3/7)

Schizosaccharomyces pombe Dim1p is required for maintaining the steady-state level of the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C) component Lid1p and thus for maintaining the steady-state level and activity of the APC/C. To gain further insight into Dim1p function, we have investigated the mechanism whereby Dim1p influences Lid1p levels. We show that S. pombe cells lacking Dim1p or Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells lacking its ortholog, Dib1p, are defective in generalized pre-mRNA splicing in vivo, a result consistent with the identification of Dim1p as a component of the purified yeast U4/U6.U5 tri-snRNP complex. Moreover, we find that Dim1p is part of a complex with the splicing factor Prp1p. However, although Dim1p is required for efficient splicing of lid1(+) pre-mRNA, circumventing the necessity for this particular function of Dim1p is insufficient for restoring normal Lid1p levels. Finally, we provide evidence that Dim1p also participates in the nuclear export of lid1(+) mRNA and that it is likely the combined loss of both of these two Dim1p functions which compromises Lid1p levels in the absence of proper Dim1p function. These data indicate that a mechanism acting at the level of mRNA impacts the functioning of the APC/C, a critical complex in controlling mitotic progression.  (+info)

Progression from a stem cell-like state to early differentiation in the C. elegans germ line. (4/7)

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Inactivation and disassembly of the anaphase-promoting complex during human cytomegalovirus infection is associated with degradation of the APC5 and APC4 subunits and does not require UL97-mediated phosphorylation of Cdh1. (5/7)

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Proteasome-dependent disruption of the E3 ubiquitin ligase anaphase-promoting complex by HCMV protein pUL21a. (6/7)

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Identification of a cullin homology region in a subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex. (7/7)

The anaphase-promoting complex is composed of eight protein subunits, including BimE (APC1), CDC27 (APC3), CDC16 (APC6), and CDC23 (APC8). The remaining four human APC subunits, APC2, APC4, APC5, and APC7, as well as human CDC23, were cloned. APC7 contains multiple copies of the tetratrico peptide repeat, similar to CDC16, CDC23, and CDC27. Whereas APC4 and APC5 share no similarity to proteins of known function, APC2 contains a region that is similar to a sequence in cullins, a family of proteins implicated in the ubiquitination of G1 phase cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors. The APC2 gene is essential in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and apc2 mutants arrest at metaphase and are defective in the degradation of Pds1p. APC2 and cullins may be distantly related members of a ubiquitin ligase family that targets cell cycle regulators for degradation.  (+info)

Finally after having to go out of town all summer for the work week I am home to tend my fish. Before I left I did manage to separate 1 pair out of the 6...
Objective: pUL23 and pUL49 of human cytomegalovirus (human cytomegalo virus HCMV) UL23, UL49 gene encoding the protein. UL23 is a viral growth of non-essential gene, its expression product pUL23 vir
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They do work. Remedies Folk Acidophilus Take four acidophilus capsules three or four times a day with milk. The milk is an activating culture medium for the bacilli. This will soothe the sore and speed up healing. If you do this when you feel a burning or itching at the onset of the cold
Human brain metastases (BMs) develop by generally unknown systems and trigger main morbidity and mortality in sufferers with great tumors. principal breast cancer tumor specimens. All 12 matched colon cancer examples had been positive for HCMV protein. Proteins staining was confined to neoplastic cells. Western blot evaluation discovered an HCMV-IE reactive proteins in 53% of breasts cancer tumor specimens, and PCR discovered the current presence of HCMV DNA and transcripts in 92% and 80% of examples, respectively. Sufferers with high-level appearance of HCMV-IE protein GSK690693 within their tumors acquired a shorter time for you to tumor development and shorter general success. The prevalence of HCMV proteins and nucleic acids is quite high in principal and metastatic tumors and could drive the introduction of metastatic human brain tumors; therefore, this virus might represent a potential therapeutic target in metastatic cancer. Introduction Human brain metastases (BMs) will be the most ...
Instantly Ageless Sugar Lip Scrub This delicious minty lickable scrub sloughs dry dead skin from the lips, helps remove dead skin from around the lip-line (creating a smoother appearance to the fine lines around the lips), and leaves a wonderful layer of emollient protection that softens and soothes the lips. Directions: Using a fingertip, take a small amount of Instantly Ageless Sugar Lip Scrub and scrb on and around the lips for one minute. Gently wipe or lick the sugar off taking care to leave some of the balm on the lips. Its edible!! Ingredients: Hydrogenated Polyisobutene, Ethylene/Propylene/Styrene Copolymer, Butylene/Ethylene/Styrene Copolymer, Saccharum Officinarum (Sugar Cane) Extract, Petrolatum, Ricinus Communi (Castor) Seed Oil, Glycerin, Microcrystalline Wax, Bis-Diglyceryl Polyacyladipate-2, Hydrogenated Castor Oil, Ozokerite, Beeswax, Copernicia Cerifera (Carnuba) Wax, Mentha Piperita (Peppermint) Oil, Polysorbate 20, Menthol, Mentha Viridis (Spearmint) Leaf Oil, Flavor (Aroma),
Dividing stem cells can give rise to two types of daughter cells; self-renewing cells that have virtually the same properties as the parent cell, and differentiating cells that will eventually form part of a tissue. The Caenorhabditis elegans germ line serves as a model to study how the balance betw …
Diethylstilbestrol can alter sex-specific genetic pathways governing early differentiation and cell proliferation of both male and female gonads.
Increasing evidence implicates human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in the etiology of glioblastoma (GBM): HCMV proteins have been implicated as tumor promoters in glio...
In one case on two, the chuteur has already fallen in the past. A fall, and the downward spiral takes place. By fear of falling again, one in five seniors has decided to limit its travel. But this loss of mobility has paradoxical effects, recalls an article published in the Bulletin Epidemiological Weekly (BEH), published by public Health, France.. In a thematic issue, the agencys health leans on the health of our seniors. It points in particular to the lack of interest in their falls. If these are common, the statistics on this subject are largely in deficit, as are prevention strategies.. Of surf knowledge. In France alone, the falls are the origin of 9 300 deaths in 2013 alone. The mortality rate increases with age. But behind this number is spectacular hide the countless loss of balance that occur each year, with consequences that are less dramatic.. The problem is that the number of falls is under-estimated in the country, deplore the experts. Out of the 76 000 hospitalizations for ...
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Precise regulation of cell cycle events by the Cdk-control network is essential for cell proliferation and the perpetuation of life. The unidirectionality of cell cycle progression is governed by several critical irreversible transitions: the G1-to-S transition, the G2-to-M transition, and the M-to-G1 transition. Recent experimental and theoretical evidence has pulled into question the consensus view that irreversible protein degradation causes the irreversibility of those transitions. A new view has started to emerge, which explains the irreversibility of cell cycle transitions as a consequence of systems-level feedback rather than of proteolysis. This thesis applies mathematical modelling approaches to test this proposal for the Mto- G1 transition, which consists of two consecutive irreversible substeps: the metaphase-to-anaphase transition, and mitotic exit. The main objectives of the present work were: (i) to develop deterministic models to identify the essential molecular feedback loops and ...
Well-timed protein degradation is a common event in the cell cycle, known to drive mitotic entry (G2/M) as well as the metaphase-to-anaphase transition (Teixeira and Reed, 2013; Bassermann et al., 2014). A frequent general question in these and other cell cycle processes is what defines the functional time window of an E3 ligase. In principle, either the activity of the E3 ligase may itself be regulated, or the substrate binding to the E3 ligase may depend on third-party factors such as kinases or scaffolding proteins. Mitosis provides a remarkable example of how an E3 ligase can be dynamically regulated, in this case to tightly coordinate the status of kinetochore-microtubule attachments with the onset of chromosome separation. It is long known that the metaphase-to-anaphase transition is driven by the E3 ligase anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C; see Cullin-RING and APC/C E3 ligases text box), activated by its subunit CDC20 (Teixeira and Reed, 2013; Bassermann et al., 2014). High ...
The APC/C complex acts by mediating ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of target proteins: it mainly mediates the ... Component of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), a cell cycle-regulated E3 ubiquitin ligase that controls ... Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 4. Short name: APC4. Alternative name(s):. Cyclosome subunit 4 ... sp,Q91W96,APC4_MOUSE Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 4 OS=Mus musculus OX=10090 GN=Anapc4 PE=1 SV=1 ...
The APC/C complex acts by mediating ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of target proteins: it mainly mediates the ... Component of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), a cell cycle-regulated E3 ubiquitin ligase that controls ... Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 4. Short name: APC4. Alternative name(s):. Cyclosome subunit 4 ... sp,Q9UJX5,APC4_HUMAN Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 4 OS=Homo sapiens OX=9606 GN=ANAPC4 PE=1 SV=2 ...
Anaphase Promoting Complex Subunit 4, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards ... A large protein complex, termed the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), or the cyclosome, promotes metaphase-anaphase transition ... A large protein complex, termed the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), or the cyclosome, promotes metaphase-anaphase transition ... Q9UJX5-APC4_HUMAN. Recommended name:. Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 4. Protein Accession:. Q9UJX5. Secondary Accessions: * ...
APC4. Summary. A large protein complex, termed the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), or the cyclosome, promotes metaphase- ... ANAPC4; Anaphase-promoting complex, cyclosome, subunit 4. * NM_013367.3 → NP_037499.2 anaphase-promoting complex subunit 4 ... ANAPC4; Anaphase-promoting complex, cyclosome, subunit 4. * XM_017008138.2 → XP_016863627.1 anaphase-promoting complex subunit ... ANAPC4; Anaphase-promoting complex, cyclosome, subunit 4. * XM_011513838.1 → XP_011512140.1 anaphase-promoting complex subunit ...
... of Human Cytomegalovirus UL21a and UL97 to Viral Growth and Inactivation of the Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) E3 ... Ubiquitin Ligase Reveal a Unique Cellular Mechanism for Down-modulation of the APC/C Subunits APC1, APC4, and APC5.. ... Nicotine promotes apoptosis resistance of breast cancer cells and enrichment of side population cells with cancer stem cell- ...
Apc4 Subunit, Anaphase Promoting Complex Apc4 Subunit, Anaphase Promoting Complex Cyclosome Apc4 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting ... Apc4 Subunit, Anaphase Promoting Complex. Apc4 Subunit, Anaphase Promoting Complex Cyclosome. Apc4 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting ... Apc4 Subunit, Anaphase Promoting Complex Cyclosome [D08.811.464.938.750.092.937] Apc4 Subunit, Anaphase Promoting Complex ... Apc4 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome - Preferred Concept UI. M0580178. Scope note. A subunit of the anaphase- ...
APC4. Subunit of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C); APC/C is a ubiquitin-protein ligase required for degradation ... Subunit of the RNA polymerase II mediator complex; associates with core polymerase subunits to form the RNA polymerase II ... ATPase and nucleosome spacing factor, subunit of complex containing actin and actin-related proteins that has chromatin ... No protein complexes are significantly enriched (FDR < 0.1).. Coinhibitory screens Download Coinhibition data (tab-delimited ...
For example, APC4 is a subunit of the Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) that is SUMO-modified robustly during the ... Lee, C. C., Li, B., Yu, H. and Matunis, M. J. (2018). Sumoylation promotes optimal APC/C activation and timely anaphase. Elife ... Lee, C. C., Li, B., Yu, H. and Matunis, M. J. (2018). Sumoylation promotes optimal APC/C activation and timely anaphase. Elife ... Lee, C. C., Li, B., Yu, H. and Matunis, M. J. (2018). Sumoylation promotes optimal APC/C activation and timely anaphase. Elife ...
The anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC) is an unusually complicated ubiquitin ligase, composed of 13 core subunits ... The cullin subunit APC2 and its binding partner, the RING finger protein APC11, are found in a subcomplex with APC1, APC4, and ... Microinjection of antibodies against subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome or against human Cdc20 (fizzy) ... one of the substrate-targeting subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC). However, Cdh1, another targeting subunit used ...
The Arabidopsis APC4 subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is critical for both female gametogenesis and ... complex (3) complexity (1) Compositae (4) composite (1) composition (4) compounds (1) compression (1) concentración (1) ... Casein kinase II ? subunits affect multiple developmental and stress-responsive pathways in Arabidopsis (pages 343-354). ... A tomato LysM receptor-like kinase promotes immunity and its kinase activity is inhibited by AvrPtoB (pages 92-103). Lirong ...
Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 4. I. 818. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: ANAPC4, APC4. ... Anaphase-promoting complex subunit CDC26. G, W. 85. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: CDC26, ANAPC12, C9orf17. ... Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 16. E. 110. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: ANAPC16, C10orf104, CENP-27. ... Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 15. D. 121. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: ANAPC15, C11orf51, HSPC020. ...
A large protein complex, termed the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), or the cyclosome, promotes metaphase-anaphase transition ... APC4. *Gene Description:. *anaphase promoting complex subunit 4. *Omim ID:. *606947. *Gene Ontology: ... Biochemical studies have shown that the vertebrate APC contains eight subunits. The composition of the APC is highly conserved ... by ubiquitinating its specific substrates such as mitotic cyclins and anaphase inhibitor, which are subsequently degraded by ...
The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a large multimeric cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase that orchestrates cell- ... The platform comprises APC/C subunits Apc1, Apc4, Apc5, and Apc15. Although the role of Apc1 as an APC/C scaffolding subunit ... APC/C ubiquitination cell cycle UbcH10 Ube2S ANAPHASE-PROMOTING COMPLEX EM STRUCTURE DETERMINATION UBIQUITIN-CHAIN FORMATION ... A cryo-EM structure of an APC/C-Cdh1 complex with Apc1(WD40) deleted showed that the mutant APC/C is locked into an inactive ...
anaphase promoting complex subunit 4. Aliases:. APC4. RefSeq:. NC_000004.11 NT_006316.16. ... A large protein complex termed the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) or the cyclosome promotes metaphase-anaphase transition by ... Biochemical studies have shown that the vertebrate APC contains eight subunits. The composition of the APC is highly conserved ... ubiquitinating its specific substrates such as mitotic cyclins and anaphase inhibitor which are subsequently degraded by the ...
1999) Fission yeast APC/cyclosome subunits, Cut20/Apc4 and Cut23/Apc8, in regulating metaphase-anaphase progression and ... 1999) The Schizosaccharomyces pombe dim1(+) gene interacts with the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C) component ... 1997) Distinct subunit functions and cell cycle regulated phosphorylation of 20S APC/cyclosome required for anaphase in fission ... 1999) Whose end is destruction: cell division and the anaphase-promoting complex. Genes Dev. 13:2039-2058. ...
... anaphase-promoting complex 1 (meiotic checkpoint regulator) , anaphase-promoting complex subunit 1 , cyclosome subunit 1 , ... in addition to the previously reported APC4 (zeige ANAPC4 Antikörper) and APC5 (zeige ANAPC5 Antikörper). ... Weitere Produktkategorien zu Anaphase Promoting Complex Subunit 1 Antikörper * 131 anti-Anaphase Promoting Complex Subunit 1 ... anti-Anaphase Promoting Complex Subunit 1 (ANAPC1) Antikörper. ANAPC1 encodes a subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex. ...
... all map near genes that encode subunits of the anaphase promoting complex or cyclosome, and, here, we show that one of the ... 2000) EMB-30an APC4 homologue required for metaphase-to-anaphase transitions during meiosis and mitosis in Caenorhabditis ... Driving the process forward is a multiprotein E3-ubiquitin ligase complex known as the anaphase promoting complex or cyclosome ... 1999) Subunits and substrates of the anaphase-promoting complex. Exp. Cell Res 248:339-349, pmid:10222126.. ...
Apc4 Subunit, Anaphase Promoting Complex Cyclosome [D08.811.464.938.750.092.937] Apc4 Subunit, Anaphase Promoting Complex ... Apc5 Subunit, Anaphase Promoting Complex Apc5 Subunit, Anaphase Promoting Complex Cyclosome Apc5 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting ... Apc5 Subunit, Anaphase Promoting Complex. Apc5 Subunit, Anaphase Promoting Complex Cyclosome. Apc5 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting ... Apc1 Subunit, Anaphase Promoting Complex Cyclosome [D08.811.464.938.750.092.500] Apc1 Subunit, Anaphase Promoting Complex ...
Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Complexes/physiology*. Substances. *Apc8 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome ... A) The APC/C complex was affinity purified using an APC4 antibody from nocodazole-arrested cells or cells released from ... The Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) in complex with its co-activator Cdc20 is responsible for targeting proteins ... APC/C complexes were immunoprecipitated using an anti-APC4 antibody and MCC or Nek2A binding was quantified using Licor. (E) ...
The APC (anaphase-promoting complex) or cyclosome is a large multisubunit protein complex. It has 13 core components (with ... Subunits with unknown functions. Functions for the remaining APC subunits are less clear. At least one other APC subunit, Apc5 ... Apc4, Apc9, Cdc26, Swm1 and Mnd2 do not share any significant homology with proteins of known function and they are not highly ... The anaphase-promoting complex (APC): the sum of its parts? L.A. Passmore L.A. Passmore ...
The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) ubiquitin ligase promotes cyclin B degradation during mitosis in yeast and ... Multiple subunits of the Caenorhabditis elegans anaphase-promoting complex are required for chromosome segregation during ... an APC4 homologue required for metaphase-to-anaphase transitions during meiosis and mitosis in Caenorhabditis elegans. Mol. ... Ama1p is a meiosis-specific regulator of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome in yeast. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 97,14548 ...
The levels of Cut9, an anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) subunit, however, were not significantly affected in the ... Fission yeast APC/cyclosome subunits, Cut20/Apc4 and Cut23/Apc8, in regulating metaphase-anaphase progression and cellular ... phenotypes of the mutants of the ubiquitin ligase complex anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), which display metaphase ... Doc1 mediates the activity of the anaphase-promoting complex by contributing to substrate recognition. EMBO J. 22, 786-796. ...
cut20 apc4 lid1 SPAC19G12.01c SPAPJ698.04c] Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 4 (20S cyclosome/APC complex protein apc4) (Cell ... Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (EC 1.9.3.1) (Fragment). [] Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (EC 1.9.3.1) (Fragment). [MYC BHLHE39 ... jmj3 ecm5 SPBC83.07] Lid2 complex component jmj3 (Lid2C component jmj3). [snt2 SPAC3H1.12c] Lid2 complex component snt2 (Lid2C ... PSMD14 POH1] 26S proteasome non-ATPase regulatory subunit 14 (EC 3.4.19.-) (26S proteasome regulatory subunit RPN11) (26S ...
We exemplified this trend on the anaphase promoting complex (APC) where a core is highly conserved throughout all metazoans, ... They do not act alone but are organised in complexes. Throughout the life of a cell, complexes are dynamic in their composition ... Focussing on human protein complexes, we based our analysis on a manually curated dataset from HPRD. In total, 1,060 complexes ... of all complexes affected). Still, loss of whole complexes happened rarely. This biological signal deviated significantly from ...
Anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a protein complex with fifteen subunits. Additionally, APC/C is an E3 ubiquitin ... This allowed the authors to know that the APC4 subunit of APC/C was the subunit necessary for SUMOylation. ... "The Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome: A Machine Designed to Destroy." Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology 7 (9): 644-56. ... the authors knocked down the APC4 subunit and saw an increased time to go from metaphase to anaphase suggesting that ...
anaphase promoting complex subunit 4. Synonyms. 2610306D21Rik, D5Ertd249e, APC4. Accession Numbers. Is this an essential gene? ... termed the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), or the cyclosome, promotes metaphase-anaphase transition by ubiquitinating its ... Biochemical studies have shown that the vertebrate APC contains eight subunits. The composition of the APC is highly conserved ... This summary is for the human ortholog.] A large protein complex, ...
2006) Polo-like kinase 1: Target and regulator of anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome-dependent proteolysis. Cancer Res 66: ... 1996) Identification of BIME as a subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex. Science 274:1199-1201. ... The phosphorylation state for CDC27, APC4, and CDC16 were more similar between treatments. It is interesting to note that the ... 2005) Uncoupling anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome activity from spindle assembly checkpoint control by deregulating polo- ...
Anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a multifunctional ubiquitin-protein ligase that targets different substrates ... b A schematic illustration of the structure organization of APC/C complex. APC/C complex contains three sub-complexes: the ... Structure and genetics characteristics of APC/C. a Graphic representation of human (Homo sapiens) APC/C subunits. All domains ... The scaffolding platform consists of APC1, APC4 and APC5. The catalytic core consists of APC2 (Cullin family related protein), ...
2009) Structure of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome interacting with a mitotic checkpoint complex. Science 323:1477- ... 2003) TPR subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex mediate binding to the activator protein CDH1. Curr. Biol. 13:1459-1468. ... APC4 antibodies were used to immunoprecipitate the APC/C. Ctrl, control cells; Beads+IGG, IgG only control. (D) Cells were ... 2006) The anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome: a machine designed to destroy. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 7:644-656, doi:10.1038 ...
Composed of more than ten subunits, the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) acts in a cell-cycle dependent manner to promote the ... APC10, APC4, APC5, APC7 와 APC8를 위한 Anaphase Promoting Complex항체 ... APC, or cyclosome, accomplishes this progression through the ubiquitination of mitotic cyclins and other regulatory proteins ... APC10 binds to core APC subunits throughout the cell cycle. Specifically, APC10 binds to the C-terminus of CDC27/APC3. During ...
  • ANAPC4 (Anaphase Promoting Complex Subunit 4) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Inactivation and disassembly of the anaphase-promoting complex during human cytomegalovirus infection is associated with degradation of the APC5 and APC4 subunits and does not require UL97-mediated phosphorylation of Cdh1. (nih.gov)
  • Studies on the Contribution of Human Cytomegalovirus UL21a and UL97 to Viral Growth and Inactivation of the Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Reveal a Unique Cellular Mechanism for Down-modulation of the APC/C Subunits APC1, APC4, and APC5. (norgenbiotek.com)
  • Apc4, along with Apc5, tethers the tetratricopeptide-coactivator binding subcomplex to the main structural subunit, Apc1. (bvsalud.org)
  • The scaffolding platform consists of APC1, APC4 and APC5. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A large protein complex, termed the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), or the cyclosome, promotes metaphase-anaphase transition by ubiquitinating its specific substrates such as mitotic cyclins and anaphase inhibitor, which are subsequently degraded by the 26S proteasome. (genecards.org)
  • The APC/C complex acts by mediating ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of target proteins: it mainly mediates the formation of 'Lys-11'-linked polyubiquitin chains and, to a lower extent, the formation of 'Lys-48'- and 'Lys-63'-linked polyubiquitin chains (By similarity). (uniprot.org)
  • 2018). Although SUMO modification by a single protein subunit can be detected as a ~12 kDa shift in molecular weight (Figure 1), this shift cannot be distinguished from modification by other ubiquitin-like proteins without further validation. (bio-protocol.org)
  • The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a large multimeric cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase that orchestrates cell-cycle progression by targeting cell-cycle regulatory proteins for destruction via the ubiquitin proteasome system. (icr.ac.uk)
  • The Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) in complex with its co-activator Cdc20 is responsible for targeting proteins for ubiquitin-mediated degradation during mitosis. (nih.gov)
  • The APC (anaphase-promoting complex) is a multisubunit E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets cell-cycle-related proteins for degradation by the 26 S proteasome. (portlandpress.com)
  • The APC contains at least 13 subunits and is regulated by the binding of co-activator proteins and by phosphorylation. (portlandpress.com)
  • Most cellular proteins form a complex network of interactions with other proteins and many are components of large multiprotein complexes [ 1 - 3 ]. (portlandpress.com)
  • Here, the complexes are connected by shared components, e.g. proteins present in more than one complex. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Some of these attachments, which can consist of multiple proteins itself, can be connected to different core complexes. (beds.ac.uk)
  • These three proteins are vital for a mistake-free anaphase necessary to prevent aneuploidy and cancer (Wang et al. (bergbuilds.domains)
  • The anaphase promoting complex (APC) controls the degradation of proteins during exit from mitosis and entry into S-phase. (pnas.org)
  • APC, or cyclosome, accomplishes this progression through the ubiquitination of mitotic cyclins and other regulatory proteins that are targeted for destruction during cell division. (scbt.com)
  • Although the role of Apc1 as an APC/C scaffolding subunit has been characterized, its specific functions in contributing toward APC/C catalytic activity are not fully understood. (icr.ac.uk)
  • A cryo-EM structure of an APC/C-Cdh1 complex with Apc1(WD40) deleted showed that the mutant APC/C is locked into an inactive conformation in which the UbcH10-binding site of the catalytic module is inaccessible. (icr.ac.uk)
  • Our data show that Apc1(WD40) is required to mediate the coactivator-induced conformational change of the APC/C that is responsible for stimulating APC/C catalytic activity by promoting UbcH10 binding. (icr.ac.uk)
  • Of these, 32 sites are clustered in parts of Apc1 and the tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) subunits Cdc27, Cdc16, Cdc23 and Apc7. (embopress.org)
  • Purified Hct1 is phosphorylated in vitro at these sites by purified Cdc28-cyclin complexes, and phosphorylation abolishes the ability of Hct1 to activate the APC in vitro. (sdbonline.org)
  • Once it was determined that these residues were responsible for SUMOylation, the authors took it a step further and to determine if the SUMOylationg and phosphorylation events of APC4 were connected. (bergbuilds.domains)
  • There were 71 phosphorylation sites on nine of the APC subunits. (pnas.org)
  • Ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis due to the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome is essential for separation of sister chromatids, requiring degradation of the anaphase inhibitor Pds1, and for exit from mitosis, requiring inactivation of cyclin B Cdk1 kinases. (sdbonline.org)
  • Progression through mitosis is controlled by protein degradation that is mediated by the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome and its associated specificity factors. (sdbonline.org)
  • In budding yeast, APC/C(Cdc20) promotes the degradation of the Pds1p anaphase inhibitor at the metaphase-to-anaphase transition, whereas APC/C(Cdh1) promotes the degradation of the mitotic cyclins at the exit from mitosis. (sdbonline.org)
  • It is proposed that the dual role of Pds1p as an inhibitor of anaphase and of cyclin degradation allows the cell to couple the exit from mitosis to the prior completion of anaphase. (sdbonline.org)
  • Mechanisms controlling the temporal degradation of Nek2A and Kif18A by the APC/C-Cdc20 complex. (nih.gov)
  • However in contrast to Nek2A, Kif18A is not degraded until anaphase showing that additional mechanisms contribute to Nek2A degradation. (nih.gov)
  • First, enhancing mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC) formation by nocodazole treatment inhibited the degradation of geminin and cyclin A, whereas Nek2A disappeared at a normal rate. (biologists.org)
  • The anaphase‐promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that, together with either one of its regulatory co‐activators, Cdc20 or Cdh1, targets multiple mitotic regulators for proteasomal degradation. (biologists.org)
  • The metaphase to anaphase transition is a critical stage of the eukaryotic cell cycle, and, thus, it is highly regulated. (rupress.org)
  • We have named this class of mutants " mat " for metaphase to anaphase transition defective. (rupress.org)
  • Accurate chromosome segregation during the metaphase to anaphase transition is essential for proper cell function, since errors in chromosome segregation can lead to cell death, sterility, birth defects, or malignant cancers. (rupress.org)
  • Not surprisingly, genetic studies of yeast mitosis suggest that the transition out of metaphase and through anaphase is highly regulated both in terms of the sequence of events and the existence of checkpoint regulators. (rupress.org)
  • Composed of more than ten subunits, the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) acts in a cell-cycle dependent manner to promote the separation of sister chromatids during the transition between metaphase and anaphase in mitosis. (scbt.com)
  • CDC27Hs colocalizes with CDC16Hs to the centrosome and mitotic spindle and is essential for the metaphase to anaphase transition. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • The proteolytic events triggered by the APC are required to release sister chromatid cohesion during anaphase, to control the exit from mitosis and to prevent premature entry into S-phase. (portlandpress.com)
  • The mutual inhibition between APC and CDKs explains how cells suppress mitotic CDK activity during G1 and then establish a period with elevated kinase activity from S phase until anaphase (Zachariae, 1998). (sdbonline.org)
  • Structure and genetics characteristics of APC/C. a Graphic representation of human ( Homo sapiens ) APC/C subunits. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This activity of Pds1p is independent of its activity as an anaphase inhibitor. (sdbonline.org)
  • Improper microtubule attachment or chromosome misalignment on the spindle activates the formation of an inhibitory "supercomplex," consisting of the APC and a second complex, the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC), which consists of a kinase BubR1, an inhibitor MAD2, and the APC activator CDC20 ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • We find that dimerization via the leucine zipper, in combination with the MR motif, is required for stable Nek2A binding to and ubiquitination by the APC/C. Nek2A and the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC) have an overlap in APC/C subunit requirements for binding and we propose that Nek2A binds with high affinity to apo-APC/C and is degraded by the pool of Cdc20 that avoids inhibition by the SAC. (nih.gov)
  • The image above depicts the SUMOylation and ubiquitination of ACP/C through its APC4 domain to add ubiquitins to KIF18B to ensure an error-free mitotic progression through anaphase. (bergbuilds.domains)
  • A key mechanism of CDK inactivation is ubiquitin-mediated cyclin proteolysis, which is triggered by the late mitotic activation of a ubiquitin ligase known as the anaphase-promoting complex (APC). (sdbonline.org)
  • Cytokinesis in eukaryotic cells requires the inactivation of mitotic cyclin-dependent kinase complexes. (asm.org)
  • We show that inactivation of CUL-2, a member of the cullin family of ubiquitin ligases, delays or abolishes meiotic anaphase II with no effect on anaphase I, indicating differential regulation during the two meiotic stages. (biologists.org)
  • Component of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), a cell cycle-regulated E3 ubiquitin ligase that controls progression through mitosis and the G1 phase of the cell cycle. (uniprot.org)
  • Recently, it has been shown that cyclin A destruction early in mitosis is necessary for progressive stabilization of the mitotic spindle, promoting proper attachments to kinetochores and formation of the metaphase plate ( Kabeche and Compton, 2013 ). (biologists.org)
  • It is not known why the APC contains 13 subunits when many other ubiquitin ligases are small single-subunit enzymes. (portlandpress.com)
  • A ) The APC/C complex was affinity purified using an APC4 antibody from nocodazole-arrested cells or cells released from nocodazole into MG132 for 2 h. (nih.gov)
  • C ) Stable HeLa cell lines expressing FLAG-tagged Kif18A or Kif18AΔLR were arrested with nocodazole and the APC/C complex purified using an APC4 antibody. (nih.gov)
  • The APC is the target of the spindle checkpoint ( 6 ), a complex process that senses the fidelity of microtubule attachment to chromosomes before allowing chromatid separation and cell division to proceed. (pnas.org)
  • At the point in the cell cycle when APC/C Cdc20 complexes are formed, however, the spindle checkpoint also becomes active and blocks Cdc20. (biologists.org)
  • The Mitotic Checkpoint Complex Requires an Evolutionary Conserved Cassette to Bind and Inhibit Active APC/C. Di Fiore B, et al . (nih.gov)
  • The mitotic checkpoint complex binds a second CDC20 to inhibit active APC/C. Izawa D, et al . (nih.gov)
  • A subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex whose primary function is to provide structural support for the catalytic and substrate-recognition modules of the complex. (bvsalud.org)
  • This suppression coincided with facilitated complex formation of APC/C. Moreover, our mass spectrometry analysis showed that an APC/C subunit, Cut23/APC8, is acetylated. (biologists.org)
  • The serine/threonine phosphatase PP5 interacts with CDC16 and CDC27, two tetratricopeptide repeat-containing subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • By contrast, HDAC inhibitors and clr6 HDAC mutations rescued temperature sensitive (ts) phenotypes of the mutants of the ubiquitin ligase complex anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), which display metaphase arrest. (biologists.org)
  • In these mutant embryos, the oocyte chromosomes arrest in metaphase of meiosis I without transitioning to anaphase or producing polar bodies. (rupress.org)
  • Cells must avoid premature activation of APC/C and precocious exit from metaphase, because once chromosomes separate during anaphase, defects stemming from misaligned or stray chromosomes can no longer be corrected. (rupress.org)
  • In cul-2 mutants, the cohesin REC-8 is removed from chromosomes normally during meiosis II and sister chromatids separate, suggesting that the failure to complete anaphase results from a defect in chromosome movement rather than from a failure to sever chromosome attachments. (biologists.org)
  • An apparent exception to this relationship is found in Schizosaccharomyces pombe mutants with mutations of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC). (asm.org)
  • Indeed, overproduction of nondestructible Cdc13p prevents septation in APC cut mutants and the normal reorganization of septation initiation network components during anaphase. (asm.org)
  • These mutants, representing six different complementation groups, all map near genes that encode subunits of the anaphase promoting complex or cyclosome, and, here, we show that one of the genes, emb-27 , encodes the C. elegans CDC16 ortholog. (rupress.org)
  • Mad2 with the cyclosome/anaphase-promoting complex, and is involved in regulating anaphase onset and late mitotic events. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • We have also identified a functionally important SUMO interacting motif in the cullin-homology domain of APC2 located near the APC4 sumoylation sites and APC/C catalytic core. (nih.gov)
  • Title: Sumoylation promotes optimal APC/C Activation and Timely Anaphase. (nih.gov)
  • After knocking out the two enzymes responsible for SUMOylation of APC/C, SUMO-activating enzyme 1 and SUMO-activating enzyme 2, separately, the authors saw an increase in the time it took the cells to go from metaphase to anaphase in both knockouts with a more prominent time increase in the SUMO-activating enzyme 2 knockout. (bergbuilds.domains)
  • It is important to know which of these subunits is responsible for the SUMOylation. (bergbuilds.domains)
  • This allowed the authors to know that the APC4 subunit of APC/C was the subunit necessary for SUMOylation. (bergbuilds.domains)
  • Once it was known that APC4 was needed for SUMOylation, the authors investigated where the SUMOylation occurred on the subunit. (bergbuilds.domains)
  • To determine the role SUMOylation has on mitotic progression, the authors knocked down the APC4 subunit and saw an increased time to go from metaphase to anaphase suggesting that SUMOylation has a significant role in regulating the master regulator. (bergbuilds.domains)
  • p>Covers physical interactions between the gene product of interest and another molecule (or ion, or complex). (uniprot.org)
  • The large complexes involved in transcription (polymerases and transcription factors) and translation (ribosomes) must be tightly regulated to allow the control of gene expression. (portlandpress.com)
  • The anaphase‐promoting complex (APC) or cyclosome is a ubiquitin ligase that initiates anaphase and mitotic exit. (embopress.org)
  • Both processes require the Cdc14 phosphatase, whose release from the nucleolus during anaphase causes dephosphorylation and thereby activation of Cdh1 and accumulation of another protein, Sic1. (sdbonline.org)
  • Activation of the APC requires its association with substoichiometric activating subunits termed Cdc20 and Hct1 (also known as Cdh1). (sdbonline.org)
  • Proteolysis of mitotic cyclins depends on a multisubunit ubiquitin-protein ligase, the anaphase promoting complex (APC). (sdbonline.org)
  • Proteolysis commences during anaphase, persisting throughout G1 until it is terminated by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) as cells enter S phase. (sdbonline.org)
  • Thus, protein complexes contain not only structural and functional, but also evolutionary cores. (beds.ac.uk)
  • This complexity, comprising both the functional and structural entities of protein complexes, raises the question how the interplay of core complexes with variable attachments evolved. (beds.ac.uk)
  • APC/C complex contains three sub-complexes: the scaffolding platform, the TPR lobe and the catalytic core. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Currently, little is known about the molecular mechanisms regulating the initiation and completion of meiotic anaphase. (biologists.org)
  • In contrast to the detailed information about chromosome cohesion and its dissolution, little is known about the mechanisms that regulate chromosome movement during meiotic anaphase. (biologists.org)
  • The complex transcriptional program that underlies gametogenesis appears to be one key level of control that couples the meiotic cell cycle to gamete development. (asm.org)
  • Stage-specific expression of crucial meiotic regulators controls most meiotic processes, including meiotic recombination, formation of the synaptonemal complex (SC), meiosis I chromosome segregation, and spore wall formation. (asm.org)
  • Kif18A is ubiquitinated by the APC/C-Cdc20 complex. (nih.gov)
  • Nek2 isoform A (Nek2A) is a presumed substrate of the anaphase‐promoting complex/cyclosome containing Cdc20 (APC/C Cdc20 ). (biologists.org)
  • The APC (anaphase-promoting complex) or cyclosome is a large multisubunit protein complex. (portlandpress.com)
  • Anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a protein complex with fifteen subunits. (bergbuilds.domains)
  • Once it was determined that the dysregulation of APC/C can cause chromatin bridges, the authors needed to determine where on the protein complex was it regulated. (bergbuilds.domains)
  • Over the analysed species, the composition of most complexes was highly flexible and only 25% of all genes were never lost. (beds.ac.uk)
  • These evolutionary events affecting genes coding for units in human protein complexes showed a significantly different phylogenetic pattern compared to randomly selected genes. (beds.ac.uk)
  • This study explores the molecular function and regulation of the APC regulatory subunit Hct1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae . (sdbonline.org)
  • The anaphase-promoting complex (APC) is an essential ubiquitin ligase that coordinates events in the mitotic and G 1 phases of the cell cycle ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Here, cryo-EM and biochemistry show that the human E3 anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) and its two partner E2s, UBE2C (aka UBCH10) and UBE2S, adopt specialized catalytic architectures for these two distinct forms of polyubiquitination. (rcsb.org)
  • Focussing on human protein complexes, we based our analysis on a manually curated dataset from HPRD. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Mechanism of ubiquitin-chain formation by the human anaphase-promoting complex. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • During metaphase, it becomes activated at both SPBs (GTP-bound form), but during anaphase B, it becomes inactivated at only one pole, giving rise to a poorly understood asymmetric state ( 33 ). (asm.org)
  • The GTP-bound form of Spg1p recruits the Cdc7p protein kinase, resulting in Cdc7p localization to both SPBs during metaphase and just one SPB during anaphase B ( 33 ). (asm.org)
  • Since this did not lead to finding the right subunit, the group forced the HeLa cells to express His-tagged SUMO2 which bound to the APC4 subunit of APC/C. This allowed the authors to pull the SUMOlated APC4 subunit off a nickel column through column chromatography. (bergbuilds.domains)
  • Driving the process forward is a multiprotein E3-ubiquitin ligase complex known as the anaphase promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C) that functions to sequentially target key cellular components for proteolytic destruction ( Zachariae and Nasmyth 1999 ). (rupress.org)
  • Why do large stable multiprotein complexes exist? (portlandpress.com)
  • Cell cycle arrest may inhibit early cell death of infected cells, allow the cells to evade immune defenses, or help promote virus assembly. (springer.com)
  • In this review, I discuss the composition of the APC and the functions of its subunits with the goal of gaining insight into the mechanism of the APC as a whole. (portlandpress.com)
  • Throughout the life of a cell, complexes are dynamic in their composition due to attachments and shared components. (beds.ac.uk)
  • We computed interologs in 25 different species and predicted the composition of complexes. (beds.ac.uk)
  • In the nematode C. elegans , AP polarity is initiated in the zygote immediately after meiosis by the sperm pronucleus/centrosome complex (SPCC) ( Goldstein and Hird, 1996 ). (biologists.org)