The phase of cell nucleus division following METAPHASE, in which the CHROMATIDS separate and migrate to opposite poles of the spindle.
An E3 ubiquitin ligase primarily involved in regulation of the metaphase-to-anaphase transition during MITOSIS through ubiquitination of specific CELL CYCLE PROTEINS. Enzyme activity is tightly regulated through subunits and cofactors, which modulate activation, inhibition, and substrate specificity. The anaphase-promoting complex, or APC-C, is also involved in tissue differentiation in the PLACENTA, CRYSTALLINE LENS, and SKELETAL MUSCLE, and in regulation of postmitotic NEURONAL PLASTICITY and excitability.
Complexes of enzymes that catalyze the covalent attachment of UBIQUITIN to other proteins by forming a peptide bond between the C-terminal GLYCINE of UBIQUITIN and the alpha-amino groups of LYSINE residues in the protein. The complexes play an important role in mediating the selective-degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins. The complex of enzymes can be broken down into three components that involve activation of ubiquitin (UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES), conjugation of ubiquitin to the ligase complex (UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES), and ligation of ubiquitin to the substrate protein (UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES).
Highly conserved proteins that specifically bind to and activate the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome, promoting ubiquitination and proteolysis of cell-cycle-regulatory proteins. Cdc20 is essential for anaphase-promoting complex activity, initiation of anaphase, and cyclin proteolysis during mitosis.
Cdh1 is an activator of the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome, and is involved in substrate recognition. It associates with the complex in late MITOSIS from anaphase through G1 to regulate activity of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and to prevent premature DNA replication.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
A highly evolutionarily conserved subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC-C) containing multiple 34-amino-acid tetratricopeptide repeats. These domains, also found in Apc subunits 6, 7, and 8, have been shown to mediate protein-protein interactions, suggesting that Apc3 may assist in coordinating the juxtaposition of the catalytic and substrate recognition module subunits relative to co-activators and APC-C inhibitors.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
The largest subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex. It acts primarily as a scaffold for the proper organization and arrangement of subunits. The C-terminal region of Apc1 contains a series of tandem amino acid repeats that are also seen in the 26S proteasome regulatory particle, and may assist with forming and stabilizing protein-protein interactions.
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
Securin is involved in the control of the metaphase-anaphase transition during MITOSIS. It promotes the onset of anaphase by blocking SEPARASE function and preventing proteolysis of cohesin and separation of sister CHROMATIDS. Overexpression of securin is associated with NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION and tumor formation.
A cyclin subtype that is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE. It stimulates the G2/M phase transition by activating CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE.
A family of proteins that share the F-BOX MOTIF and are involved in protein-protein interactions. They play an important role in process of protein ubiquition by associating with a variety of substrates and then associating into SCF UBIQUITIN LIGASE complexes. They are held in the ubiquitin-ligase complex via binding to SKP DOMAIN PROTEINS.
Tumor suppressor genes located in the 5q21 region on the long arm of human chromosome 5. The mutation of these genes is associated with familial adenomatous polyposis (ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI) and GARDNER SYNDROME, as well as some sporadic colorectal cancers.
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a bond between two substrate molecules, coupled with the hydrolysis of a pyrophosphate bond in ATP or a similar energy donor. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 6.
The cellular signaling system that halts the progression of cells through MITOSIS or MEIOSIS if a defect that will affect CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION is detected.
A widely-expressed cyclin A subtype that functions during the G1/S and G2/M transitions of the CELL CYCLE.
A subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex whose primary function is to provide structural support for the catalytic and substrate-recognition modules of the complex. Apc5, along with Apc4, tethers the tetratricopeptide-coactivator binding subcomplex to the main structural subunit, Apc1.
Mad2 is a component of the spindle-assembly checkpoint apparatus. It binds to and inhibits the Cdc20 activator subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex, preventing the onset of anaphase until all chromosomes are properly aligned at the metaphase plate. Mad2 is required for proper microtubule capture at KINETOCHORES.
A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with MICROTUBULES during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.
The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.
A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROPHASE, when the breakdown of the NUCLEAR ENVELOPE occurs and the MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS enters the nuclear region and attaches to the KINETOCHORES.
Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
The act of ligating UBIQUITINS to PROTEINS to form ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes to label proteins for transport to the PROTEASOME ENDOPEPTIDASE COMPLEX where proteolysis occurs.
Geminin inhibits DNA replication by preventing the incorporation of MCM complex into pre-replication complex. It is absent during G1 phase of the CELL CYCLE and accumulates through S, G2,and M phases. It is degraded at the metaphase-anaphase transition by the ANAPHASE-PROMOTING COMPLEX-CYCLOSOME.
Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Together with the Apc11 subunit, forms the catalytic core of the E3 ubiquitin ligase anaphase-promoting complex (APC-C). Its N-terminus has cullin domains which associate with the RING FINGER DOMAINS of Apc11. Apc2 also interacts with the E2 ubiquitin ligases involved in APC-C ubiquitination reactions.
A cyclin subtype that has specificity for CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2. It plays a role in progression of the CELL CYCLE through G1/S and G2/M phase transitions.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.
A highly conserved subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC-C) containing multiple 34-amino-acid tetratricopeptide repeats. These domains, also found in Apc3, Apc6, and Apc7, have been shown to mediate protein-protein interactions, suggesting that Apc8 may assist in coordinating the juxtaposition of the catalytic and substrate recognition module subunits relative to coactivators and APC-C inhibitors.
Separase is a caspase-like cysteine protease, which plays a central role in triggering ANAPHASE by cleaving the SCC1/RAD21 subunit of the cohesin complex. Cohesin holds the sister CHROMATIDS together during METAPHASE and its cleavage results in chromosome segregation.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The final phase of cell nucleus division following ANAPHASE, in which two daughter nuclei are formed, the CYTOPLASM completes division, and the CHROMOSOMES lose their distinctness and are transformed into CHROMATIN threads.
A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.
Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Cellular proteins encoded by the c-mos genes (GENES, MOS). They function in the cell cycle to maintain MATURATION PROMOTING FACTOR in the active state and have protein-serine/threonine kinase activity. Oncogenic transformation can take place when c-mos proteins are expressed at the wrong time.
Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.
Genes that code for proteins that regulate the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. These genes form a regulatory network that culminates in the onset of MITOSIS by activating the p34cdc2 protein (PROTEIN P34CDC2).
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
A highly conserved 76-amino acid peptide universally found in eukaryotic cells that functions as a marker for intracellular PROTEIN TRANSPORT and degradation. Ubiquitin becomes activated through a series of complicated steps and forms an isopeptide bond to lysine residues of specific proteins within the cell. These "ubiquitinated" proteins can be recognized and degraded by proteosomes or be transported to specific compartments within the cell.
A class of enzymes that form a thioester bond to UBIQUITIN with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES. They transfer ubiquitin to the LYSINE of a substrate protein with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
A highly conserved subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC-C) containing multiple 34 amino acid tetratricopeptide repeats. These domains, also found in Apc3, Apc7, and Apc8, have been shown to mediate protein-protein interactions, suggesting that Apc6 may assist in coordinating the juxtaposition of the catalytic and substrate recognition module subunits relative to coactivators and APC-C inhibitors.
A subset of ubiquitin protein ligases that are formed by the association of a SKP DOMAIN PROTEIN, a CULLIN DOMAIN PROTEIN and a F-BOX DOMAIN PROTEIN.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A family of proteins that are structurally-related to Ubiquitin. Ubiquitins and ubiquitin-like proteins participate in diverse cellular functions, such as protein degradation and HEAT-SHOCK RESPONSE, by conjugation to other proteins.
Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.
A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Phase of the CELL CYCLE following G1 and preceding G2 when the entire DNA content of the nucleus is replicated. It is achieved by bidirectional replication at multiple sites along each chromosome.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The period of the CELL CYCLE following DNA synthesis (S PHASE) and preceding M PHASE (cell division phase). The CHROMOSOMES are tetraploid in this point.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.
Together with the Apc2 subunit, forms the catalytic core of the E3 ubiquitin ligase, anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome. It has a RING H2 domain which interacts with the cullin domain of Apc2. Apc11 also interacts with the E2 ubiquitin ligases involved in APC-C ubiquitination reactions.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
A negative regulator of beta-catenin signaling which is mutant in ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI and GARDNER SYNDROME.
Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
The ability of a protein to retain its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to physical or chemical manipulations.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
A highly conserved subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC-C) containing multiple 34 amino acid tetratricopeptide repeats. These domains, also found in Apc3, Apc6, and Apc8, have been shown to mediate protein-protein interactions, suggesting that Apc7 may assist in coordinating the juxtaposition of the catalytic and substrate recognition module subunits relative to coactivators and APC-C inhibitors.
Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A microtubule-associated mechanical adenosine triphosphatase, that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move organelles along microtubules toward the plus end of the microtubule. The protein is found in squid axoplasm, optic lobes, and in bovine brain. Bovine kinesin is a heterotetramer composed of two heavy (120 kDa) and two light (62 kDa) chains. EC 3.6.1.-.
The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.
A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of mussels; clams; OYSTERS; COCKLES; and SCALLOPS. They are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical hinged shell and a muscular foot used for burrowing and anchoring.
A type of nuclear polyploidization in which multiple cycles of DNA REPLICATION occur in the absence of CELL DIVISION and result in a POLYPLOID CELL.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.
The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).
An aurora kinase that is a component of the chromosomal passenger protein complex and is involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. It mediates proper CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION and contractile ring function during CYTOKINESIS.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Apc10 is necessary for coactivator-dependent substrate recognition by the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome. It binds the Apc2 subunit, which is a part of the catalytic core, and interacts with coactivators Cdh1 or Cdc20 to recruit substrates to the complex.
The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A polyposis syndrome due to an autosomal dominant mutation of the APC genes (GENES, APC) on CHROMOSOME 5. The syndrome is characterized by the development of hundreds of ADENOMATOUS POLYPS in the COLON and RECTUM of affected individuals by early adulthood.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
An order of fungi in the phylum Ascomycota that multiply by budding. They include the telomorphic ascomycetous yeasts which are found in a very wide range of habitats.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A family of herbivorous leaping MAMMALS of Australia, New Guinea, and adjacent islands. Members include kangaroos, wallabies, quokkas, and wallaroos.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Regulatory signaling systems that control the progression through the CELL CYCLE. They ensure that the cell has completed, in the correct order and without mistakes, all the processes required to replicate the GENOME and CYTOPLASM, and divide them equally between two daughter cells. If cells sense they have not completed these processes or that the environment does not have the nutrients and growth hormones in place to proceed, then the cells are restrained (or "arrested") until the processes are completed and growth conditions are suitable.
A family of multisubunit cytoskeletal motor proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power a variety of cellular functions. Dyneins fall into two major classes based upon structural and functional criteria.
Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.
The failure of homologous CHROMOSOMES or CHROMATIDS to segregate during MITOSIS or MEIOSIS with the result that one daughter cell has both of a pair of parental chromosomes or chromatids and the other has none.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Cleavage of proteins into smaller peptides or amino acids either by PROTEASES or non-enzymatically (e.g., Hydrolysis). It does not include Protein Processing, Post-Translational.
Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.
A phosphoprotein phosphatase subtype that is comprised of a catalytic subunit and two different regulatory subunits. At least two genes encode isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit, while several isoforms of regulatory subunits exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. Protein phosphatase 2 acts on a broad variety of cellular proteins and may play a role as a regulator of intracellular signaling processes.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
CIRCULAR DNA that is interlaced together as links in a chain. It is used as an assay for the activity of DNA TOPOISOMERASES. Catenated DNA is attached loop to loop in contrast to CONCATENATED DNA which is attached end to end.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A family of rat kangaroos found in and around Australia. Genera include Potorous and Bettongia.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
An enzyme group that specifically dephosphorylates phosphotyrosyl residues in selected proteins. Together with PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE, it regulates tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in cellular signal transduction and may play a role in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.
An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.
A vitamin-K dependent zymogen present in the blood, which, upon activation by thrombin and thrombomodulin exerts anticoagulant properties by inactivating factors Va and VIIIa at the rate-limiting steps of thrombin formation.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
A genus of the family Heteromyidae which contains 22 species. Their physiology is adapted for the conservation of water, and they seldom drink water. They are found in arid or desert habitats and travel by hopping on their hind limbs.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
An exchange of segments between the sister chromatids of a chromosome, either between the sister chromatids of a meiotic tetrad or between the sister chromatids of a duplicated somatic chromosome. Its frequency is increased by ultraviolet and ionizing radiation and other mutagenic agents and is particularly high in BLOOM SYNDROME.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.
An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.
A broad category of nuclear proteins that are components of or participate in the formation of the NUCLEAR MATRIX.
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
Proton-translocating ATPases that are involved in acidification of a variety of intracellular compartments.
A family of Urodela consisting of 15 living genera and about 42 species and occurring in North America, Europe, Asia, and North Africa.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
Tumors or cancer of the INTESTINES.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.

The schizosaccharomyces pombe dim1(+) gene interacts with the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C) component lid1(+) and is required for APC/C function. (1/54)

The Schizosaccharomyces pombe dim1(+) gene is required for entry into mitosis and for chromosome segregation during mitosis. To further understand dim1p function, we undertook a synthetic lethal screen with the temperature-sensitive dim1-35 mutant and isolated lid (for lethal in dim1-35) mutants. Here, we describe the temperature-sensitive lid1-6 mutant. At the restrictive temperature of 36 degrees C, lid1-6 mutant cells arrest with a "cut" phenotype similar to that of cut4 and cut9 mutants. An epitope-tagged version of lid1p is a component of a multiprotein approximately 20S complex; the presence of lid1p in this complex depends upon functional cut9(+). lid1p-myc coimmunoprecipitates with several other proteins, including cut9p and nuc2p, and the presence of cut9p in a 20S complex depends upon the activity of lid1(+). Further, lid1(+) function is required for the multiubiquitination of cut2p, an anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C) target. Thus, lid1p is a component of the S. pombe APC/C. In dim1 mutants, the abundances of lid1p and the APC/C complex decline significantly, and the ubiquitination of an APC/C target is abolished. These data suggest that at least one role of dim1p is to maintain or establish the steady-state level of the APC/C.  (+info)

Isolation and identification of the third subunit of mammalian DNA polymerase delta by PCNA-affinity chromatography of mouse FM3A cell extracts. (2/54)

Using proliferating cell nuclear antigen affinity chroma-tography and glycerol gradient centrifugation of partially purified fractions from mouse FM3A cells we have been able to isolate novel complexes of DNA polymerase delta and DNA ligase 1 containing clearly defined subunit compositions. In addition to the well known catalytic subunit of 125 kDa and accessory subunit of 48 kDa, the DNA polymerase delta complex contained three supplementary components, one of which reacted with antibodies directed against the p40 and p37 subunits of RF-C. Of the two remaining components, one termed p66 turned out to be coded by a gene whose putative C-terminal domain displayed significant homology with that of the Cdc27 subunit of Schizosaccharomyces pombe polymerase delta. On the basis of these and other observations, we propose p66 to be the missing third subunit of mammalian DNA polymerase delta. The DNA ligase 1 complex was made up of three novel components in addition to the 125 kDa catalytic subunit, two of which, p48 and p66, were common to DNA polymerase delta. We discuss the implications of our findings within the current framework of our understanding of DNA replication.  (+info)

Cloning genes encoding MHC class II-restricted antigens: mutated CDC27 as a tumor antigen. (3/54)

In an effort to identify tumor-specific antigens recognized by CD4(+) T cells, an approach was developed that allows the screening of an invariant chain-complementary DNA fusion library in a genetically engineered cell line expressing the essential components of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II processing and presentation pathway. This led to the identification of a mutated form of human CDC27, which gave rise to an HLA-DR4-restricted melanoma antigen. A mutated form of triosephosphate isomerase, isolated by a biochemical method, was also identified as an HLA-DR1-restricted antigen. Thus, this approach may be generally applicable to the identification of antigens recognized by CD4(+) T cells, which could aid the development of strategies for the treatment of patients with cancer, autoimmune diseases, or infectious diseases.  (+info)

Expression of the CDH1-associated form of the anaphase-promoting complex in postmitotic neurons. (4/54)

The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC) is a tightly cell cycle-regulated ubiquitin-protein ligase that targets cyclin B and other destruction box-containing proteins for proteolysis at the end of mitosis and in G1. Recent work has shown that activation of the APC in mitosis depends on CDC20, whereas APC is maintained active in G1 via association with the CDC20-related protein CDH1. Here we show that the mitotic activator CDC20 is the only component of the APC ubiquitination pathway whose expression is restricted to proliferating cells, whereas the APC and CDH1 are also expressed in several mammalian tissues that predominantly contain differentiated cells, such as adult brain. Immunocytochemical analyses of cultured rat hippocampal neurons and of mouse and human brain sections indicate that the APC and CDH1 are ubiquitously expressed in the nuclei of postmitotic terminally differentiated neurons. The APC purified from brain contains all core subunits known from proliferating cells and is tightly associated with CDH1. Purified brain APC(CDH1) has a high cyclin B ubiquitination activity that depends less on the destruction box than on the activity of mitotic APC(CDC20). On the basis of these results, we propose that the functions of APC(CDH1) are not restricted to controlling cell-cycle progression but may include the ubiquitination of yet unidentified substrates in differentiated cells.  (+info)

Cdc20 protein contains a destruction-box but, unlike Clb2, its proteolysisis not acutely dependent on the activity of anaphase-promoting complex. (5/54)

Both chromosome segregation and the final exit from mitosis require a ubiquitin-protein ligase called anaphase-promoting complex (APC) or cyclosome. This multiprotein complex ubiquitinates various substrates, such as the anaphase inhibitor Pds1 and mitotic cyclins, and thus targets them for proteolysis by the 26S proteasome. The ubiquitination by APC is dependent on the presence of a destruction-box sequence in the N-terminus of target proteins. Recent reports have strongly suggested that Cdc20, a WD40 repeat-containing protein required for nuclear division in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is essential for the APC-mediated proteolysis. To understand the function of CDC20, we have studied its regulation in some detail. The expression of the CDC20 gene is cell-cycle regulated such that it is transcribed only during late S phase and mitosis. Although the protein is unstable to some extent through out the cell cycle, its degradation is particularly enhanced in G1. Cdc20 contains a destruction box sequence which, when mutated or deleted, stabilizes it considerably in G1. Surprisingly, we find that while the inactivation of APC subunits Cdc16, Cdc23 or Cdc27 results in stabilization of the mitotic cyclin Clb2 in G1, the proteolytic destruction of Cdc20 remains largely unaffected. This suggests the existence of proteolytic mechanisms in G1 that can degrade destruction-box containing proteins, such as Cdc20, in an APC-independent manner.  (+info)

Essential interaction between the fission yeast DNA polymerase delta subunit Cdc27 and Pcn1 (PCNA) mediated through a C-terminal p21(Cip1)-like PCNA binding motif. (6/54)

Direct interaction between DNA polymerase delta and its processivity factor proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) is essential for effective replication of the eukaryotic genome, yet the precise manner by which this occurs is unclear. We show that the 54 kDa subunit of DNA polymerase delta from Schizosaccharomyces pombe interacts directly with Pcn1 (PCNA) both in vivo and in vitro. Binding is effected via a short sequence at the C-terminus of Cdc27 with significant similarity to the canonical PCNA binding motif first identified in the mammalian p21(Cip1) protein. This motif is both necessary and sufficient for binding of Pcn1 by Cdc27 in vitro and is essential for Cdc27 function in vivo. We also show that the Pcn1 binding motif in Cdc27 is distinct from its binding site for Cdc1, the 55 kDa B-subunit of polymerase delta, and present evidence that Cdc27 can bind to Pcn1 and Cdc1 simultaneously. Finally, we show that Cdc27 performs at least two distinct essential functions, one of which is independent of Pcn1 binding.  (+info)

Phosphorylation by Cdc28 activates the Cdc20-dependent activity of the anaphase-promoting complex. (7/54)

Budding yeast initiates anaphase by activating the Cdc20-dependent anaphase-promoting complex (APC). The mitotic activity of Cdc28 (Cdk1) is required to activate this form of the APC, and mutants that are impaired in mitotic Cdc28 function have difficulty leaving mitosis. This defect can be explained by a defect in APC phosphorylation, which depends on mitotic Cdc28 activity in vivo and can be catalyzed by purified Cdc28 in vitro. Mutating putative Cdc28 phosphorylation sites in three components of the APC, Cdc16, Cdc23, and Cdc27, makes the APC resistant to phosphorylation both in vivo and in vitro. The nonphosphorylatable APC has normal activity in G1, but its mitotic, Cdc20-dependent activity is compromised. These results show that Cdc28 activates the APC in budding yeast to trigger anaphase. Previous reports have shown that the budding yeast Cdc5 homologue, Plk, can also phosphorylate and activate the APC in vitro. We show that, like cdc28 mutants, cdc5 mutants affect APC phosphorylation in vivo. However, although Cdc5 can phosphorylate Cdc16 and Cdc27 in vitro, this in vitro phosphorylation does not occur on in vivo sites of phosphorylation.  (+info)

The human homologue of fission Yeast cdc27, p66, is a component of active human DNA polymerase delta. (8/54)

An essential eukaryotic DNA polymerase, DNA polymerase delta (pol delta), synthesizes DNA processively in the presence of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Recently, a 66 kDa polypeptide (p66) that displays significant homology within its PCNA binding domain to that of fission yeast cdc27 was identified as a component of mouse and calf thymus pol delta. Our studies show that p66 interacts tightly with other subunits of pol delta during size fractionation of human cell extracts, and co-immunoprecipitates with these subunits along with PCNA-dependent polymerase activity. Active human pol delta could be reconstituted by co-expressing p125, p50, and p66 recombinant baculoviruses, but not by co-expressing p125 and p50 alone. Interaction studies demonstrated that p66 stabilizes the association between p125 and p50. Pull-down assays with PCNA-linked beads demonstrated that p66 increases the overall affinity of pol delta for PCNA. These results indicate that p66 is a functionally important subunit of human pol delta that stabilizes the pol delta complex and increases the affinity of pol delta for PCNA.  (+info)

This dataset is the original data files (Western blot, FACS etc.) for the article Helicase subunit Cdc45 targets the checkpoint kinase Rad53 to both replication initiation and elongation complexes after fork stalling, publishing in Molecular Cell.
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Quiz or mock test on functions in C programming language. The quiz contains multiple choice and output questions for technical interview GATE preparation.
Plasmid pmKalama1-Nuc from Dr. Robert Campbells lab contains the insert pmKalama1-Nuc and is published in Biochemistry. 2007 Apr 20. ():. This plasmid is available through Addgene.
Abstract Background RNA interference coupled with videorecording of C. elegans embryos is a powerful method for identifying genes involved in cell division processes. Here we present a functional analysis of the gene B0511.9, previously identified as a candidate cell polarity gene in an RNAi videorecording screen of chromosome I embryonic lethal genes. Results Whereas weak RNAi inhibition of B0511.9 causes embryonic cell polarity defects, strong inhibition causes embryos to arrest in metaphase of meiosis I. The range of defects induced by RNAi of B0511.9 is strikingly similar to those displayed by mutants of anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) components. Although similarity searches did not reveal any obvious homologue of B0511.9 in the non-redundant protein database, we found that the N-terminus shares a conserved sequence pattern with the N-terminus of the small budding yeast APC/C subunit Cdc26 and its orthologues from a variety of other organisms. Furthermore, we show that B0511.9 ...
Component of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), a cell cycle-regulated E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complex that controls progression through mitosis and the G1 phase of the cell cycle. The APC/C is thought to confer substrate specificity and, in the presence of ubiquitin-conjugating E2 enzymes, it catalyzes the formation of protein-ubiquitin conjugates that are subsequently degraded by the 26S proteasome. In early mitosis, the APC/C is activated by CDC20 and targets securin PDS1, the B-type cyclin CLB5, and other anaphase inhibitory proteins for proteolysis, thereby triggering the separation of sister chromatids at the metaphase-to-anaphase transition. In late mitosis and in G1, degradation of CLB5 allows activation of the APC/C by CDH1, which is needed to destroy CDC20 and the B-type cyclin CLB2 to allow exit from mitosis and creating the low CDK state necessary for cytokinesis and for reforming prereplicative complexes in G1 prior to another round of replication.
Component of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), a cell cycle-regulated E3 ubiquitin ligase that controls progression through mitosis and the G1 phase of the cell cycle. The APC/C complex acts by mediating ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of target proteins: it mainly mediates the formation of Lys-11-linked polyubiquitin chains and, to a lower extent, the formation of Lys-48- and Lys-63-linked polyubiquitin chains. May recruit the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes to the complex.
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intel nuc displayport not working, Nov 24, 2015 · P2715Q, not recognized through DP (DisplayPort), entering PSM Jump to solution I bought the P2715Q five months ago and until now everything worked fine when connected via DisplayPort on 3840x2160 60Hz with my NUC5i7RYH MiniPC.
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Function Description Abs1D Finds the absolute values of the array elements. Add1D Adds two 1D arrays, element by element. Add2D Adds two 2D arrays, element by element. AllocCxIIRFilterStatePtr Allocates and initializes the filterInformation structure. AllocIIRFilterPtr Allocates and initializes the
Intel Core i7 processing and AMD Vega graphics power meet in the Intel NUC Kit NUC8i7HVK, a super-slim bare-bones desktop that packs punchy, VR-ready performance and extraordinary connectivity.
Hi Intel-Team, we have bought around 80x Intel NUC7i7BNH for our company, all with the same configuration and all with the same customized
The anaphase promoting complex (APC/C) is a multi-component ubiquitin ligase complex responsible for targeting cell cycle proteins for degradation. APC/C consists of at least 12 subunits with additional cofactors. Poxvirus anaphase-promoting complex regulator (PACR) is a RING-H2 protein expressed by orf virus (ORFV), the prototype of the Parapoxvirus genus. PACR shares homology with APC/C subunit APC11, but lacks APC11s ubiquitin ligase activity. Inclusion of PACR in APC/C, in place of APC11 has been shown to impair APC/C function causing mitotic arrest, which potentially leads to apoptosis. This investigation was the first step in attempting to make use of PACRs unique ability to promote cell cycle arrest, by cloning PACR into an inducible expression system, Tet-One. Use of an inducible system would minimise PACRs known toxicity to cells and allow PACR to be used as a potential therapeutic to cause cell death of murine melanoma, B16-F10 cells. PACR with a Flag tag was successfully cloned ...
Marian Blanca Ramírez from the CSIC in Spain has been studying the effects of LRRK2, a protein associated with Parkinsons disease, on cell motility. A Travelling Fellowship from Journal of Cell Science allowed her to spend time in Prof Maddy Parsons lab at Kings College London, learning new cell migration assays and analysing fibroblasts cultured from individuals with Parkinsons. Read more on her story here. Where could your research take you? The deadline to apply for the current round of Travelling Fellowships is 30 Nov 2017. Apply now!. ...
Well-timed protein degradation is a common event in the cell cycle, known to drive mitotic entry (G2/M) as well as the metaphase-to-anaphase transition (Teixeira and Reed, 2013; Bassermann et al., 2014). A frequent general question in these and other cell cycle processes is what defines the functional time window of an E3 ligase. In principle, either the activity of the E3 ligase may itself be regulated, or the substrate binding to the E3 ligase may depend on third-party factors such as kinases or scaffolding proteins. Mitosis provides a remarkable example of how an E3 ligase can be dynamically regulated, in this case to tightly coordinate the status of kinetochore-microtubule attachments with the onset of chromosome separation. It is long known that the metaphase-to-anaphase transition is driven by the E3 ligase anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C; see Cullin-RING and APC/C E3 ligases text box), activated by its subunit CDC20 (Teixeira and Reed, 2013; Bassermann et al., 2014). High ...
As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Like many Scheme compilers, Chicken uses standard C as an intermediate representation. A Scheme program is translated into C by the Chicken compiler, and then a C compiler translates the C program into machine code for the target computer architecture, producing an executable program. The universal availability of C makes it useful for this purpose. Chickens design was inspired by a 1994 paper[7] by Henry Baker that outlined an innovative strategy to compile Scheme into C. A Scheme program is compiled into C functions. These C functions never reach the return statement; instead, they call a new continuation when complete. These continuations are C functions and are passed on as extra arguments to other C functions. They are calculated by the compiler. So far, this is the essence of continuation-passing style. Bakers novel idea is to use the C call stack for the Scheme heap. Hence, normal C stack operations such as automatic variable creation, variable-sized array allocation, and so on can be ...
View Notes - Chapter 3 Macromolecules from LS 2 at UCLA. d. Important sugars: e. Polysaccharides: IV. NUCLEIC ACIDS a. Monomer: b. Linkage: c. Functions: store genetic information, play a role in
Intel® NUC Chassis Elements are created to allow fast time-to-market solutions where the flexibility of the Elements components is required.
Free Download animal cell diagram source codes, scripts, programming files, references. Nevron Diagram for .NET (Windows Forms and. The javascript Diagram Builder v.
BACKGROUND: The aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) are characterised by a high proliferation rate. The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) and its co-activators Cdc20 and Cdh1 represent an important checkpoint in mitosis. Here, the role of the APC/C and its co-activators is examined in DLBCL and MCL.. METHODS: The expression and prognostic value of Cdc20 and Cdh1 was investigated using GEP data and immunohistochemistry. Moreover, the therapeutic potential of APC/C targeting was evaluated using the small-molecule inhibitor proTAME and the underlying mechanisms of action were investigated by western blot.. RESULTS: We demonstrated that Cdc20 is highly expressed in DLBCL and aggressive MCL, correlating with a poor prognosis in DLBCL. ProTAME induced a prolonged metaphase, resulting in accumulation of the APC/C-Cdc20 substrate cyclin B1, inactivation/degradation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL and caspase-dependent apoptosis. In ...
The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is an ubiquitin ligase that functions during mitosis. Here we identify the transcriptional regulator, transcriptional intermediary factor 1γ, TIF1γ, as an APC/C-interacting protein that regulates APC/C function. TIF1γ is not a substrate for APC/C-dependent ubiquitylation but instead, associates specifically with the APC/C holoenzyme and Cdc20 to affect APC/C activity and progression through mitosis. RNA interference studies indicate that TIF1γ knockdown results in a specific reduction in APC/C ubiquitin ligase activity, the stabilization of APC/C substrates, and an increase in the time taken for cells to progress through mitosis from nuclear envelope breakdown to anaphase. TIF1γ knockdown cells are also characterized by the inappropriate presence of cyclin A at metaphase, and an increase in the number of cells that fail to undergo metaphase-to-anaphase transition. Expression of a small interfering RNA-resistant TIF1γ species relieves the ...
ANTIGEN PRESENTATION AND ASSEMBLY BY MOUSE I-A(K) CLASS-II MOLECULES IN HUMAN APC CONTAINING DELETED OR MUTATED HLA DM GENES Journal Articles ...
Promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) associates with cadherin 1 (CDH1), acting as a ubiquitin ligase to down-regulate GA . The APC/C DH1 complicated targets
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PROPOSTA DIDATTICA 2018 Radiochemistry and flow reactionsDr. Giancarlo Pascali (ANSTO: Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization, AUS)Nuc...
Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 7 antibody to detect human Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 7. Validated for western blotting. Try a trial size today.
1GQP: Implications for the Ubiquitination Reaction of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex from the Crystal Structure of the Doc1/Apc10 Subunit.
The storage score (primary result) shows that there is not much to gain by going from the SM951 in the NUC6i5SYK to the 950 PRO in the NUC6i7KYK. It shows that workloads are more user-input and CPU-bound, rather than storage-bound. On the other hand, the storage bandwidth number (secondary result) shows a significant jump. Readers can refer to our explanation of how these numbers are calculated by PCMark 8. The secondary result is the total amount of data transferred (both reads and writes) divided by the storage I/O busy time (i.e, time duration during which the number of pending I/O operations was at least 1). The secondary result is a very important metric when idle time compression is involved, but it doesnt matter as much as the primary result when it comes to application responsiveness (as the workload might be CPU-bound, rather than storage-bound). In any case, the above result shows that a powerful CPU can drive up the secondary result very high.. On the networking side, we restricted ...
Entry into anaphase and proteolysis of B-type cyclins depend on a complex containing the tetratricopeptide repeat proteins Cdc16p, Cdc23p, and Cdc27p. This particle, called the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) or cyclosome, functions as a cell cycle-regulated ubiquitin-protein ligase. Two additional subunits of the budding yeast APC were identified: The largest subunit, encoded by the APC1 gene, is conserved between fungi and vertebrates and shows similarity to BIMEp from Aspergillus nidulans. A small heat-inducible subunit is encoded by the CDC26 gene. The yeast APC is a 36S particle that contains at least seven different proteins. ...
April 2015). "Structure of an APC3-APC16 complex: insights into assembly of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome". Journal ... a Drosophila gene encoding the Cdc27 subunit of the anaphase promoting complex, enhance centrosomal defects in polo and are ... Evidence shows that APC3 and APC7 serve to recruit Cdh1 to the anaphase promoting complex. This further supports that Cdh1 is ... Anaphase-promoting complex (also called the cyclosome or APC/C) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that marks target cell cycle proteins ...
The anaphase-promoting complex (APC) consists of at least 8 protein subunits, including APC5, CDC27 (APC3; MIM 116946), CDC16 ( ... 2004). "The Apc5 Subunit of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome Interacts with Poly(A) Binding Protein and Represses ... "The Apc5 Subunit of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome Interacts with Poly(A) Binding Protein and Represses Internal ... 2004). "TPR subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex mediate binding to the activator protein CDH1". Curr. Biol. 13 (17): ...
"The Apc5 subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome interacts with poly(A) binding protein and represses internal ... "The dephosphorylated form of the anaphase-promoting complex protein Cdc27/Apc3 concentrates on kinetochores and chromosome arms ... "TPR subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex mediate binding to the activator protein CDH1". Current Biology. 13 (17): 1459- ... This protein is a component of anaphase-promoting complex (APC), which is composed of eight protein subunits and highly ...
The ubiquitin E3 ligase anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) drives degradation of cell cycle regulators in cycling ... Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome * Antigens, CD * Apc3 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome ... Anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome Participates in the Acute Response to Protein-Damaging Stress Mol Cell Biol. 2010 Dec;30( ... The ubiquitin E3 ligase anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) drives degradation of cell cycle regulators in cycling ...
The anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a highly conserved multi-subunit E3 ubiquitin ligase that controls mitotic ... Here, using reverse genetics we examined the localisation and function of APC3 in Plasmodium berghei. APC3 was observed as a ... APC3 is a key component that contributes to APC/C function. Plasmodium, the causative agent of malaria, undergoes atypical ... Plasmodium APC3 mediates chromosome condensation and cytokinesis during atypical mitosis in male gametogenesis ...
Apc3 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome. *Blotting, Western. *Brain/metabolism/pathology. *Cell Cycle Proteins/ ... a component of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), leads to enhanced neurite outgrowth.Our finding describes the novel MANI- ... a component of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), leads to enhanced neurite outgrowth.Our finding describes the novel MANI- ... Apc3 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome. *Blotting, Western. *Brain/metabolism/pathology. *Cell Cycle Proteins/ ...
Apc3 Subunit, Anaphase Promoting Complex Apc3 Subunit, Anaphase Promoting Complex Cyclosome Apc3 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting ... Apc3 Subunit, Anaphase Promoting Complex. Apc3 Subunit, Anaphase Promoting Complex Cyclosome. Apc3 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting ... Apc3 Subunit, Anaphase Promoting Complex Cyclosome [D08.811.464.938.750.092.875] Apc3 Subunit, Anaphase Promoting Complex ... Apc1 Subunit, Anaphase Promoting Complex Cyclosome [D08.811.464.938.750.092.500] Apc1 Subunit, Anaphase Promoting Complex ...
In the cell cycle, the activation of anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C), a conserved multi-subunit E3 ubiquitin ( ... RIOK-2 was identified to interact with APC complex subunits, Apc10 and Apc3 [42], and Apc10 interacting with Apc3 [78]. In ... Crystal structure of the APC10/DOC1 subunit of the human anaphase-promoting complex. Nat Struct Biol. 2001;8:784-8.View Article ... Identification of a cullin homology region in a subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex. Science. 1998;279:1219-22.View ...
Composed of more than ten subunits, the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) acts in a cell-cycle dependent manner to promote the ... APC10 binds to core APC subunits throughout the cell cycle. Specifically, APC10 binds to the C-terminus of CDC27/APC3. During ... APC, or cyclosome, accomplishes this progression through the ubiquitination of mitotic cyclins and other regulatory proteins ... 를 위한 Anaphase Promoting Complex항체 * ChemCruz™ Anaphase Promoting Complex세포반응기능별분석을 위한 화학품 Anaphase Promoting Complex Inhibitors ...
... is a highly conserved multi-subunit E3 ubiquitin ligase that controls mitotic division in eukaryotic cells by tagging cell ... Here, using reverse genetics we examined the localisation and function of APC3 in Plasmodium berghei. APC3 was observed as a ... APC3 is a key component that contributes to APC/C function. Plasmodium, the causative agent of malaria, undergoes atypical ... Functional studies using gene disruption and conditional knockdown revealed essential roles of APC3 during these mitotic stages ...
The anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a highly conserved multi-subunit E3 ubiquitin ligase that controls mitotic ... Here, using reverse genetics we examined the localisation and function of APC3 in Plasmodium berghei. APC3 was observed as a ... Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome/chemistry , Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome/genetics , Chromosomes/chemistry , ... Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome/metabolism , Chromosomes/metabolism , Cytokinesis , Mitosis , Plasmodium berghei/ ...
April 2015). "Structure of an APC3-APC16 complex: insights into assembly of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome". Journal ... a Drosophila gene encoding the Cdc27 subunit of the anaphase promoting complex, enhance centrosomal defects in polo and are ... Evidence shows that APC3 and APC7 serve to recruit Cdh1 to the anaphase promoting complex. This further supports that Cdh1 is ... Anaphase-promoting complex (also called the cyclosome or APC/C) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that marks target cell cycle proteins ...
... "anaphase-promoting complex subunit 7 isoform b" /note="cyclosome subunit 7" /calculated_mol_wt=59872 Region 135..168 /region_ ... anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C) structure, proximal to Apc3/Cdc27 of the (tetratricopeptide repeat) lobe, is assigned to the ... the contribution of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome subunits APC7 and APC16 to APC/C composition and function in human ... TITLE Characterization of the DOC1/APC10 subunit of the yeast and the human anaphase-promoting complex JOURNAL J. Biol. Chem. ...
The Apc5 subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome interacts with poly(A) binding protein and represses internal ... Apc5 binds much heavier complexes and cosediments with the ribosomal fraction. In contrast to Apc3, which is associated only ... The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a multisubunit ubiquitin ligase that mediates the proteolysis of cell cycle ... of the mRNA by the cap-binding complex eIF4F. eIF4F is itself a three-subunit complex comprising the cap-binding protein eIF4E ...
The anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC) is an unusually complicated ubiquitin ligase, composed of 13 core subunits ... which interact via their C termini with the TPR subunits APC3 and APC7. APCs TPR subunits are predicted to form structures ... Microinjection of antibodies against subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome or against human Cdc20 (fizzy) ... one of the substrate-targeting subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC). However, Cdh1, another targeting subunit used ...
Apc3 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome/genetics. *Asian Continental Ancestry Group/genetics* ...
... anaphase-promoting complex, protein 3, anaphase promoting complex subunit 3, Anapl_11763, Apc3, AS27_06546, AS28_04754, CDC27Dm ... Component of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), a cell cycle-regulated E3 ubiquitin ligase that controls ... The APC/C complex acts by mediating ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of target proteins: it mainly mediates the ... Metaphase/Anaphase Transition Of Mitotic Cell Cycle. *Negative Regulation Of Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Activity Involved In ...
Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 3 antibody. *APC 3 antibody. *APC3 antibody. *Cdc 27 antibody ... Component of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), a cell cycle-regulated E3 ubiquitin ligase that controls ... Anaphase Promoting Complex 3 antibody. *Anaphase promoting complex protein 3 antibody. *Anaphase Promoting Complex Subunit 3 ... The APC/C complex acts by mediating ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of target proteins: it mainly mediates the ...
The anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a large multi-subunit E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets specific cell cycle ... sub-complex composed of the TPR subunits Cdc16, Cdc23 and Cdc27 (Apc3). Here, we describe the crystal structure of the N- ... a catalytic sub-complex including the cullin domain and RING finger subunits Apc2 and Apc11, respectively, and a ... and genetic studies are consistent with the notion that subunits of APC/C are organised into two distinct sub-complexes; ...
These include the multisubunit anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C)* that acts as an ubiquitin ligase and the Cdc20/ ... Sister-chromatid separation at anaphase onset is promoted by cleavage of the cohesin subunit Scc1. Nature. 400:37-42. ... APC/C was immunoprecipitated from Xenopus egg interphase extracts using anti-APC3/CDC27 antibody beads. To obtain mitotic APC/C ... Abbreviations used in this paper: APC/C, anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome; CDK, cyclin-dependent kinase; CFP, cyan ...
The anaphase-promoting complex (APC) consists of at least 8 protein subunits, including APC5, CDC27 (APC3; MIM 116946), CDC16 ( ... 2004). "The Apc5 Subunit of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome Interacts with Poly(A) Binding Protein and Represses ... "The Apc5 Subunit of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome Interacts with Poly(A) Binding Protein and Represses Internal ... 2004). "TPR subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex mediate binding to the activator protein CDH1". Curr. Biol. 13 (17): ...
The APC (anaphase-promoting complex) or cyclosome is a large multisubunit protein complex. It has 13 core components (with ... Subunits with unknown functions. Functions for the remaining APC subunits are less clear. At least one other APC subunit, Apc5 ... Cdc27/Apc3 Yes 85 TPR motifs Apc4 Yes 73 Apc5 Yes 77 HEAT repeats ... The anaphase-promoting complex (APC): the sum of its parts? L.A. Passmore L.A. Passmore ...
The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) can be an E3 ubiquitin ligase that March 28, 2019. Published by: antibody ... The subunit composition of human PCAF complex leads to the prediction that TAFII60-2 and Can and Y37E11AL.c are components of ... To execute this, we immunoprecipitated APC3 in neuronal components and APC3 immunoprecipitates had been immunoblotted against ... The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) can be an E3 ubiquitin ligase that regulates cell cycle progression in ...
In early mitosis, the APC/C is activated by CDC20 and targets securin PDS1, the B-type cyclin CLB5, and other anaphase ... a cell cycle-regulated E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complex that controls progression through mitosis and the G1 phase of the ... to allow exit from mitosis and creating the low CDK state necessary for cytokinesis and for reforming prereplicative complexes ... inhibitory proteins for proteolysis, thereby triggering the separation of sister chromatids at the metaphase-to-anaphase ...
The Anaphase promoting complex/ cyclosome (APC/C) is a 1.2 MDa multi-subunit E3 ubiquitin ligase that encodes broad substrate- ... which disrupts the C-terminal IR tail of Cdc20 binding to APC3, and Apcin, which disrupts substrate D-box degron binding to ...
Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Complexes/physiology*. Substances. *Apc8 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome ... B) Bar graph indicating the amount of MCC or Nek2A binding to anti-APC3 immunoprecipitates after treatment with the indicated ... The Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) in complex with its co-activator Cdc20 is responsible for targeting proteins ... Nek2A and the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC) have an overlap in APC/C subunit requirements for binding and we propose that ...
Apc7 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome - chemistry , Apc3 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome - ... Apc3 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome - chemistry , Apc7 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome - ... Apc3 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome - chemistry , Ubiquitination , Apc8 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex- ... Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome - chemistry , Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome - metabolism , Apc11 Subunit, Anaphase- ...
We identified Cdc27/APC3, a component of the APC/C, as a novel molecular target of curcumin and showed that curcumin binds to ... One of the key regulators of the SAC is the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) which ubiquitinates cyclin B and ... Because APC/C not only ensures cell cycle arrest upon spindle disruption but also promotes cell death in response to prolonged ... is the major cell cycle control mechanism to delay the onset of anaphase during mitosis. ...
nuc2 apc3 SPAC17C9.01c SPAC1851.01] Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 3 (20S cyclosome/APC complex protein apc3) (Nuclear ... Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 2 (Cyclosome subunit 2). [cut4 apc1 SPBC106.09] Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 1 (20S ... Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 7 (APC7) (Cyclosome subunit 7). [APC8 CDC23 At3g48150 T24C20.30] Anaphase-promoting complex ... ANAPC12,Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 12,Anaphase-promoting complex subunit CDC26,APC12,C9orf17,CDC26,Cell division cycle ...
APC is a polymeric protein complex composed of at least 11 subunits and contains tetratricopeptide repeat proteins (APC3, 5, 6 ... Anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome; Adenocarcinoma; Colorectal neoplasms; Cell cycle INTRODUCTION. The anaphase-promoting ... TPR subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex mediate binding to the activator protein CDH1. Curr Biol 2003;13:1459-1468. ... Polyubiquitin chains are added to securin by an E3 ubiquitin ligase known as anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome. If ...
Anaphase Promoting Complex Subunit 4, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards ... Anaphase-Promoting Complex Subunit 4 3 4 * Cyclosome Subunit 4 3 4 ... The mammalian APC/C is composed at least of 14 distinct subunits ANAPC1, ANAPC2, CDC27/APC3, ANAPC4, ANAPC5, CDC16/APC6, ANAPC7 ... A large protein complex, termed the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), or the cyclosome, promotes metaphase-anaphase transition ...
Anaphase Promoting Complex Subunit 5, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards ... Cyclosome subunit 5 (APC5_HUMAN). *cDNA FLJ55537, highly similar to Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 5 (APC5)(Cyclosome ... The mammalian APC/C is composed at least of 14 distinct subunits ANAPC1, ANAPC2, CDC27/APC3, ANAPC4, ANAPC5, CDC16/APC6, ANAPC7 ... cDNA FLJ30217 fis, clone BRACE2001709, highly similar to Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 5 (APC5)(Cyclosome subunit 5) ( ...
We exemplified this trend on the anaphase promoting complex (APC) where a core is highly conserved throughout all metazoans, ... They do not act alone but are organised in complexes. Throughout the life of a cell, complexes are dynamic in their composition ... Focussing on human protein complexes, we based our analysis on a manually curated dataset from HPRD. In total, 1,060 complexes ... of all complexes affected). Still, loss of whole complexes happened rarely. This biological signal deviated significantly from ...
  • The interaction between HSF2 and the APC/C subunit Cdc27 and coactivator Cdc20 is enhanced by moderate heat stress, and the degradation of HSF2 is induced during the acute phase of the heat shock response, leading to clearance of HSF2 from the Hsp70 promoter. (nih.gov)
  • J. 449 (2), 365-371 (2013) PUBMED 23078409 REMARK GeneRIF: Data indicate that additional density present in the anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C) structure, proximal to Apc3/Cdc27 of the (tetratricopeptide repeat) lobe, is assigned to the TPR subunit Apc7, a subunit specific to vertebrate APC/C. REFERENCE 6 (residues 1 to 537) AUTHORS Sudakin V, Chan GK and Yen TJ. (genome.jp)
  • a catalytic sub-complex including the cullin domain and RING finger subunits Apc2 and Apc11, respectively, and a tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) sub-complex composed of the TPR subunits Cdc16, Cdc23 and Cdc27 (Apc3). (sussex.ac.uk)
  • Belongs to the APC3/CDC27 family. (abcam.com)
  • We identified Cdc27/APC3, a component of the APC/C, as a novel molecular target of curcumin and showed that curcumin binds to and crosslinks Cdc27 to affect APC/C function. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The serine/threonine phosphatase PP5 interacts with CDC16 and CDC27, two tetratricopeptide repeat-containing subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Cdc27 is a component of the anaphase promoting complex (APC) which is responsible for destroying proteins, including cyclins, which are involved in mitosis. (ximbio.com)
  • Composed of more than ten subunits, the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) acts in a cell-cycle dependent manner to promote the separation of sister chromatids during the transition between metaphase and anaphase in mitosis. (scbt.com)
  • The APC/C also targets the mitotic cyclins for degradation, resulting in the inactivation of M-CDK (mitotic cyclin-dependent kinase) complexes, promoting exit from mitosis and cytokinesis Unlike the SCF, activator subunits control the APC/C. Cdc20 and Cdh1 are the two activators of particular importance to the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The subunit, CDC20 allows APC to degrade substrates such as anaphase inhibitors (Pdsp1) at the beginning of anaphase, on the other hand when CDC20 is substituted for specificity factor Hct1, APC degrades a different set of substrates, particularly mitosis cyclins in late anaphase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis due to the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome is essential for separation of sister chromatids, requiring degradation of the anaphase inhibitor Pds1, and for exit from mitosis, requiring inactivation of cyclin B Cdk1 kinases. (sdbonline.org)
  • Progression through mitosis is controlled by protein degradation that is mediated by the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome and its associated specificity factors. (sdbonline.org)
  • In budding yeast, APC/C(Cdc20) promotes the degradation of the Pds1p anaphase inhibitor at the metaphase-to-anaphase transition, whereas APC/C(Cdh1) promotes the degradation of the mitotic cyclins at the exit from mitosis. (sdbonline.org)
  • It is proposed that the dual role of Pds1p as an inhibitor of anaphase and of cyclin degradation allows the cell to couple the exit from mitosis to the prior completion of anaphase. (sdbonline.org)
  • The anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a large multi-subunit E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets specific cell cycle regulatory proteins for ubiquitin-dependent degradation, thereby controlling cell cycle events such as the metaphase to anaphase transition and the exit from mitosis. (sussex.ac.uk)
  • Component of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), a cell cycle-regulated E3 ubiquitin ligase that controls progression through mitosis and the G1 phase of the cell cycle. (selfdecode.com)
  • Progress through mitosis is controlled by the sequential destruction of key regulators including the mitotic cyclins and securin, an inhibitor of anaphase whose destruction is required for sister chromatid separation. (rupress.org)
  • A mutant form of securin that lacks its destruction box (D-box) is still degraded in mitosis, but now this is in anaphase. (rupress.org)
  • The proteolytic events triggered by the APC are required to release sister chromatid cohesion during anaphase, to control the exit from mitosis and to prevent premature entry into S-phase. (portlandpress.com)
  • In early mitosis, the APC/C is activated by CDC20 and targets securin PDS1, the B-type cyclin CLB5, and other anaphase inhibitory proteins for proteolysis, thereby triggering the separation of sister chromatids at the metaphase-to-anaphase transition. (uniprot.org)
  • In late mitosis and in G1, degradation of CLB5 allows activation of the APC/C by CDH1, which is needed to destroy CDC20 and the B-type cyclin CLB2 to allow exit from mitosis and creating the low CDK state necessary for cytokinesis and for reforming prereplicative complexes in G1 prior to another round of replication. (uniprot.org)
  • Cdc16p, Cdc23p and Cdc27p form a complex essential for mitosis. (uniprot.org)
  • The Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) in complex with its co-activator Cdc20 is responsible for targeting proteins for ubiquitin-mediated degradation during mitosis. (nih.gov)
  • The mitotic checkpoint, or spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), is the major cell cycle control mechanism to delay the onset of anaphase during mitosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The observed delay may be dependent upon the activity of the mitosis-promoting NIMA kinase. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Recently, it has been shown that cyclin A destruction early in mitosis is necessary for progressive stabilization of the mitotic spindle, promoting proper attachments to kinetochores and formation of the metaphase plate ( Kabeche and Compton, 2013 ). (biologists.org)
  • TITLE Characterization of the DOC1/APC10 subunit of the yeast and the human anaphase-promoting complex JOURNAL J. Biol. (genome.jp)
  • Mechanism of ubiquitin-chain formation by the human anaphase-promoting complex. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • APC, or cyclosome, accomplishes this progression through the ubiquitination of mitotic cyclins and other regulatory proteins that are targeted for destruction during cell division. (scbt.com)
  • Anaphase-promoting complex (also called the cyclosome or APC/C) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that marks target cell cycle proteins for degradation by the 26S proteasome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The APC/C is a large complex of 11-13 subunit proteins, including a cullin (Apc2) and RING (Apc11) subunit much like SCF. (wikipedia.org)
  • The APC/C's main function is to trigger the transition from metaphase to anaphase by tagging specific proteins for degradation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The APC/C complex acts by mediating ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of target proteins: it mainly mediates the formation of 'Lys-11'-linked polyubiquitin chains and, to a lower extent, the formation of 'Lys-48'- and 'Lys-63'-linked polyubiquitin chains. (selfdecode.com)
  • The APC (anaphase-promoting complex) is a multisubunit E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets cell-cycle-related proteins for degradation by the 26 S proteasome. (portlandpress.com)
  • The APC contains at least 13 subunits and is regulated by the binding of co-activator proteins and by phosphorylation. (portlandpress.com)
  • Most cellular proteins form a complex network of interactions with other proteins and many are components of large multiprotein complexes [ 1 - 3 ]. (portlandpress.com)
  • Open in another window Open in another window Figure 1 RNA pol GTF-encoding and II subunit genes from are grouped by proteins organic. (antibodyassay.com)
  • APC is a polymeric protein complex composed of at least 11 subunits and contains tetratricopeptide repeat proteins (APC3, 5, 6, 7, and 8), a cullin homolog (APC2), and a ring-H2 finger domain (APC11). (coloproctol.org)
  • Here, the complexes are connected by shared components, e.g. proteins present in more than one complex. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Some of these attachments, which can consist of multiple proteins itself, can be connected to different core complexes. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The ubiquitin E3 ligase anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) drives degradation of cell cycle regulators in cycling cells by associating with the coactivators Cdc20 and Cdh1. (nih.gov)
  • Remarkably, Cdc20 and the proteasome 20S core α2 subunit are recruited to the Hsp70 promoter in a heat shock-inducible manner. (nih.gov)
  • TITLE Checkpoint inhibition of the APC/C in HeLa cells is mediated by a complex of BUBR1, BUB3, CDC20, and MAD2 JOURNAL J. Cell Biol. (genome.jp)
  • Activators CDC20 and Cdh1 are of particular significance and are the most widely studied and familiar of the APC/C subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activation of the APC requires its association with substoichiometric activating subunits termed Cdc20 and Hct1 (also known as Cdh1). (sdbonline.org)
  • The Anaphase promoting complex/ cyclosome (APC/C) is a 1.2 MDa multi-subunit E3 ubiquitin ligase that encodes broad substrate-specificity via its two co-activators Cdc20 and Cdh1 and three principal degrons: the D-box, KEN box and ABBA motif. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Only two APC/C specific compounds have been discovered: TAME/pro-TAME, which disrupts the C-terminal IR tail of Cdc20 binding to APC3, and Apcin, which disrupts substrate D-box degron binding to Cdc20. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Mechanisms controlling the temporal degradation of Nek2A and Kif18A by the APC/C-Cdc20 complex. (nih.gov)
  • We find that dimerization via the leucine zipper, in combination with the MR motif, is required for stable Nek2A binding to and ubiquitination by the APC/C. Nek2A and the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC) have an overlap in APC/C subunit requirements for binding and we propose that Nek2A binds with high affinity to apo-APC/C and is degraded by the pool of Cdc20 that avoids inhibition by the SAC. (nih.gov)
  • Kif18A is ubiquitinated by the APC/C-Cdc20 complex. (nih.gov)
  • APC requires two WD40 repeat-containing coactivators, Cdc20 and Cdh1, to recruit and select various substrates at different stages of the cell cycle, and APC3 and APC7 were recently suggested to interact with these APC activators [ 3 ]. (coloproctol.org)
  • Nek2 isoform A (Nek2A) is a presumed substrate of the anaphase‐promoting complex/cyclosome containing Cdc20 (APC/C Cdc20 ). (biologists.org)
  • The anaphase‐promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that, together with either one of its regulatory co‐activators, Cdc20 or Cdh1, targets multiple mitotic regulators for proteasomal degradation. (biologists.org)
  • At the point in the cell cycle when APC/C Cdc20 complexes are formed, however, the spindle checkpoint also becomes active and blocks Cdc20. (biologists.org)
  • Active checkpoint signaling ultimately enhances the assembly of the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC) consisting of BubR1-Bub3, Mad2, and Cdc20, which inhibits the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome bound to Cdc20 (APC/C Cdc20 ) to delay anaphase onset. (elifesciences.org)
  • Inhibition of APC/C Cdc20 delays anaphase onset until all kinetochores in a mitotic cell achieve proper kinetochore-microtubule attachment. (elifesciences.org)
  • During metaphase, sister chromatids are linked by intact cohesin complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • CDC27Hs colocalizes with CDC16Hs to the centrosome and mitotic spindle and is essential for the metaphase to anaphase transition. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • A large protein complex, termed the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), or the cyclosome, promotes metaphase-anaphase transition by ubiquitinating its specific substrates such as mitotic cyclins and anaphase inhibitor, which are subsequently degraded by the 26S proteasome. (genecards.org)
  • The anaphase-promoting complex (APC), a multisubunit E3 ubiquitin ligase, is an essential regulator of the cell cycle from metaphase until S phase in yeast and metazoans. (elsevier.com)
  • The anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a highly conserved multi-subunit E3 ubiquitin ligase that controls mitotic division in eukaryotic cells by tagging cell cycle regulators for proteolysis. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Proteolysis of mitotic cyclins depends on a multisubunit ubiquitin-protein ligase, the anaphase promoting complex (APC). (sdbonline.org)
  • Proteolysis commences during anaphase, persisting throughout G1 until it is terminated by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) as cells enter S phase. (sdbonline.org)
  • A key mechanism of CDK inactivation is ubiquitin-mediated cyclin proteolysis, which is triggered by the late mitotic activation of a ubiquitin ligase known as the anaphase-promoting complex (APC). (sdbonline.org)
  • One of the key regulators of the SAC is the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) which ubiquitinates cyclin B and securin and targets them for proteolysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The role of the destruction box and its neighbouring lysine residues in cyclin B for anaphase ubiquitin-dependent proteolysis in fission yeast: defining the D-box receptor. (ximbio.com)
  • Functional studies using gene disruption and conditional knockdown revealed essential roles of APC3 during these mitotic stages with loss resulting in a lack of chromosome condensation, abnormal cytokinesis and absence of microgamete formation. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • MiDAC is one of seven distinct, large multi-protein complexes that recruit class I histone deacetylases to the genome to regulate gene expression. (bvsalud.org)
  • Summary: This gene encodes a tetratricopeptide repeat containing component of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), a large E3 ubiquitin ligase that controls cell cycle progression by targeting a number of cell cycle regulators such as B-type cyclins for 26S proteasome-mediated degradation through ubiquitination. (genome.jp)
  • Mutations at the complex interface impair mRNA deadenylation in mammalian cell extracts, suggesting that the GW182-PABC interaction contributes to microRNA-mediated gene silencing. (genes2cognition.org)
  • The large complexes involved in transcription (polymerases and transcription factors) and translation (ribosomes) must be tightly regulated to allow the control of gene expression. (portlandpress.com)
  • Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 5 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ANAPC5 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • ANAPC4 (Anaphase Promoting Complex Subunit 4) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • Specificity of APC ligases are proposed to be controlled by incorporation of specificity factors into the ligase complex, instead of substrate phosphorylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Purified Hct1 is phosphorylated in vitro at these sites by purified Cdc28-cyclin complexes, and phosphorylation abolishes the ability of Hct1 to activate the APC in vitro. (sdbonline.org)
  • These domains, also found in Apc subunits 6, 7, and 8, have been shown to mediate protein-protein interactions, suggesting that Apc3 may assist in coordinating the juxtaposition of the catalytic and substrate recognition module subunits relative to co-activators and APC-C inhibitors. (bvsalud.org)
  • In this paper, we show that MOAP-1 is a novel substrate of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C Cdh1 ) ubiquitin ligase. (rupress.org)
  • Activator subunits bind to APC at varying stages of the cell-cycle to control its ubiquitination activity, often by directing APC to target substrates destined for ubiquitination. (wikipedia.org)
  • These two subunits catalyze ubiquitination of substrates when the C-terminal domain of Apc2 forms a tight complex with Apc11. (wikipedia.org)
  • APC16 is a bona fide subunit of human APC/C: it is present in APC/C complexes throughout the cell cycle, the phenotype of APC16-depleted cells copies depletion of other APC/C subunits, and APC16 is important for APC/C activity towards mitotic substrates. (biologists.org)
  • TITLE Expression of the CDH1-associated form of the anaphase-promoting complex in postmitotic neurons JOURNAL Proc. (genome.jp)
  • Both processes require the Cdc14 phosphatase, whose release from the nucleolus during anaphase causes dephosphorylation and thereby activation of Cdh1 and accumulation of another protein, Sic1. (sdbonline.org)
  • However in contrast to Nek2A, Kif18A is not degraded until anaphase showing that additional mechanisms contribute to Nek2A degradation. (nih.gov)
  • First, enhancing mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC) formation by nocodazole treatment inhibited the degradation of geminin and cyclin A, whereas Nek2A disappeared at a normal rate. (biologists.org)
  • We now report the identification and characterization of APC16, a conserved subunit of the APC/C. APC16 was found in association with tandem-affinity-purified mitotic checkpoint complex protein complexes. (biologists.org)
  • Studies of APC subunits are mainly conducted in yeast, and studies show that the majority of yeast APC subunits are also present in vertebrates, this suggests conservation across eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eleven core APC subunits have been found in vertebrates versus thirteen in yeast. (wikipedia.org)
  • The catalytic core of the APC/C consists of the cullin subunit Apc2 and RING H2 domain subunit Apc11. (wikipedia.org)
  • CRLs function sequentially with distinct E2s to modify distinct targets: first the RING domain binds a NEDD8 E2, and the cullin subunit is activated by self-modification with NEDD8. (grantome.com)
  • This study explores the molecular function and regulation of the APC regulatory subunit Hct1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae . (sdbonline.org)
  • Loss of growth polarity and mislocalization of septa in a Neurospora mutant altered in the regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • This activity of Pds1p is independent of its activity as an anaphase inhibitor. (sdbonline.org)
  • A ) The APC/C complex was affinity purified using an APC4 antibody from nocodazole-arrested cells or cells released from nocodazole into MG132 for 2 h. (nih.gov)
  • C ) Stable HeLa cell lines expressing FLAG-tagged Kif18A or Kif18AΔLR were arrested with nocodazole and the APC/C complex purified using an APC4 antibody. (nih.gov)
  • We exemplified this trend on the anaphase promoting complex (APC) where a core is highly conserved throughout all metazoans, but flexibility in certain components is observable. (beds.ac.uk)
  • TITLE Human BUBR1 is a mitotic checkpoint kinase that monitors CENP-E functions at kinetochores and binds the cyclosome/APC JOURNAL J. Cell Biol. (genome.jp)
  • The anaphase-promoting complex (APC) is a multiprotein complex with E3 ubiquitin ligase activity and is required for ubiquitination of securin and cyclin-B. Several APC-targeting molecules are reported to be oncogenes. (coloproctol.org)
  • The anaphase-promoting complex (APC) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that controls mitotic progression [ 1 2 ]. (coloproctol.org)
  • Error-free chromosome segregation depends on timely activation of the multi-subunit E3 ubiquitin ligase APC/C. Activation of the APC/C initiates chromosome segregation and mitotic exit by targeting critical cell-cycle regulators for destruction. (biologists.org)
  • One of the machineries that promotes protein destruction is the E3 ubiquitin ligase anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome or APC/C ( Peters, 2006 ). (biologists.org)
  • Over the analysed species, the composition of most complexes was highly flexible and only 25% of all genes were never lost. (beds.ac.uk)
  • These evolutionary events affecting genes coding for units in human protein complexes showed a significantly different phylogenetic pattern compared to randomly selected genes. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Alterations of anaphase-promoting complex genes in human colon cancer cells. (uniprot.org)
  • When securin undergoes ubiquitination by the APC/C and releases separase, which degrades cohesin, sister chromatids become free to move to opposite poles for anaphase. (wikipedia.org)
  • These include Apc1, the largest subunit which contains 11 tandem repeats of 35-40 amino acid sequences, and Apc2, which contains three cullin repeats of approximately 130 amino acids total. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mutual inhibition between APC and CDKs explains how cells suppress mitotic CDK activity during G1 and then establish a period with elevated kinase activity from S phase until anaphase (Zachariae, 1998). (sdbonline.org)
  • The master spindle checkpoint kinase Mps1 senses kinetochore-microtubule attachment and promotes checkpoint signaling to ensure accurate chromosome segregation. (elifesciences.org)
  • Mad2 with the cyclosome/anaphase-promoting complex, and is involved in regulating anaphase onset and late mitotic events. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Artificial tethering of Mad1-Mad2 to attached kinetochores causes prolonged activation of the spindle checkpoint and delays anaphase onset in the absence of spindle poisons ( Maldonado and Kapoor, 2011 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • Our results demonstrate that mutations in bimA APC3 lead to errors in DNA metabolism that indirectly block septation. (genetics.org)
  • A highly evolutionarily conserved subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC-C) containing multiple 34-amino-acid tetratricopeptide repeats. (bvsalud.org)
  • The major motifs in APC subunits include tetratricopeptide (TPR) motifs and WD40 repeats 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • WDB002, in complex with the FK506-binding protein (FKBP12), potently and selectively binds the human centrosomal protein 250 (CEP250), resulting in disruption of CEP250 function in cells. (bvsalud.org)
  • The separase triggers the cleavage of cohesin, the protein complex that binds sister chromatids together. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the intrinsic apoptotic pathway, cell death stimuli promote release of mitochondrial cytochrome c to the cytoplasm, where it binds Apaf-1 to promote activation of the cell death protease caspase 9 (which in turn activates caspase 3). (rupress.org)
  • First, the HECT domain binds a thioester-linked E2~Ub complex, and Ub is transferred from the E2 Cys to the HECT domain catalytic Cys. (grantome.com)
  • Because APC/C not only ensures cell cycle arrest upon spindle disruption but also promotes cell death in response to prolonged mitotic arrest, it has become an attractive drug target in cancer therapy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • LOCUS NP_001131136 537 aa linear PRI 20-JUN-2020 DEFINITION anaphase-promoting complex subunit 7 isoform b [Homo sapiens]. (genome.jp)
  • 537 /product="anaphase-promoting complex subunit 7 isoform b" /note="cyclosome subunit 7" /calculated_mol_wt=59872 Region 135. (genome.jp)
  • APC/C complex contains three sub-complexes: the scaffolding platform, the TPR lobe and the catalytic core. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Biochemical studies have shown that the vertebrate APC contains eight subunits. (genecards.org)
  • We found that the aseptate phenotype of bimA9 and bimA10 strains was substantially relieved by mutations in uvsB MEC1/rad3 or uvsD + , suggesting that the presence of a functional DNA damage checkpoint inhibits septation in these bimA APC3 strains. (genetics.org)
  • The kinetochore scaffold Knl1, when phosphorylated by Mps1, recruits checkpoint complexes Bub1-Bub3 and BubR1-Bub3 to unattached kinetochores. (elifesciences.org)
  • TITLE Identification of a cullin homology region in a subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex JOURNAL Science 279 (5354), 1219-1222 (1998) PUBMED 9469815 COMMENT REVIEWED REFSEQ: This record has been curated by NCBI staff. (genome.jp)
  • Using in vitro reconstitution, we show that Mps1 promotes APC/C inhibition by MCC components through phosphorylating Bub1 and Mad1. (elifesciences.org)