The phase of cell nucleus division following METAPHASE, in which the CHROMATIDS separate and migrate to opposite poles of the spindle.
An E3 ubiquitin ligase primarily involved in regulation of the metaphase-to-anaphase transition during MITOSIS through ubiquitination of specific CELL CYCLE PROTEINS. Enzyme activity is tightly regulated through subunits and cofactors, which modulate activation, inhibition, and substrate specificity. The anaphase-promoting complex, or APC-C, is also involved in tissue differentiation in the PLACENTA, CRYSTALLINE LENS, and SKELETAL MUSCLE, and in regulation of postmitotic NEURONAL PLASTICITY and excitability.
Complexes of enzymes that catalyze the covalent attachment of UBIQUITIN to other proteins by forming a peptide bond between the C-terminal GLYCINE of UBIQUITIN and the alpha-amino groups of LYSINE residues in the protein. The complexes play an important role in mediating the selective-degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins. The complex of enzymes can be broken down into three components that involve activation of ubiquitin (UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES), conjugation of ubiquitin to the ligase complex (UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES), and ligation of ubiquitin to the substrate protein (UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES).
Highly conserved proteins that specifically bind to and activate the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome, promoting ubiquitination and proteolysis of cell-cycle-regulatory proteins. Cdc20 is essential for anaphase-promoting complex activity, initiation of anaphase, and cyclin proteolysis during mitosis.
Cdh1 is an activator of the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome, and is involved in substrate recognition. It associates with the complex in late MITOSIS from anaphase through G1 to regulate activity of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and to prevent premature DNA replication.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
A highly evolutionarily conserved subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC-C) containing multiple 34-amino-acid tetratricopeptide repeats. These domains, also found in Apc subunits 6, 7, and 8, have been shown to mediate protein-protein interactions, suggesting that Apc3 may assist in coordinating the juxtaposition of the catalytic and substrate recognition module subunits relative to co-activators and APC-C inhibitors.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
The largest subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex. It acts primarily as a scaffold for the proper organization and arrangement of subunits. The C-terminal region of Apc1 contains a series of tandem amino acid repeats that are also seen in the 26S proteasome regulatory particle, and may assist with forming and stabilizing protein-protein interactions.
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
Securin is involved in the control of the metaphase-anaphase transition during MITOSIS. It promotes the onset of anaphase by blocking SEPARASE function and preventing proteolysis of cohesin and separation of sister CHROMATIDS. Overexpression of securin is associated with NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION and tumor formation.
A cyclin subtype that is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE. It stimulates the G2/M phase transition by activating CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE.
A family of proteins that share the F-BOX MOTIF and are involved in protein-protein interactions. They play an important role in process of protein ubiquition by associating with a variety of substrates and then associating into SCF UBIQUITIN LIGASE complexes. They are held in the ubiquitin-ligase complex via binding to SKP DOMAIN PROTEINS.
Tumor suppressor genes located in the 5q21 region on the long arm of human chromosome 5. The mutation of these genes is associated with familial adenomatous polyposis (ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI) and GARDNER SYNDROME, as well as some sporadic colorectal cancers.
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a bond between two substrate molecules, coupled with the hydrolysis of a pyrophosphate bond in ATP or a similar energy donor. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 6.
The cellular signaling system that halts the progression of cells through MITOSIS or MEIOSIS if a defect that will affect CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION is detected.
A widely-expressed cyclin A subtype that functions during the G1/S and G2/M transitions of the CELL CYCLE.
A subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex whose primary function is to provide structural support for the catalytic and substrate-recognition modules of the complex. Apc5, along with Apc4, tethers the tetratricopeptide-coactivator binding subcomplex to the main structural subunit, Apc1.
Mad2 is a component of the spindle-assembly checkpoint apparatus. It binds to and inhibits the Cdc20 activator subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex, preventing the onset of anaphase until all chromosomes are properly aligned at the metaphase plate. Mad2 is required for proper microtubule capture at KINETOCHORES.
A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with MICROTUBULES during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.
The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.
A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROPHASE, when the breakdown of the NUCLEAR ENVELOPE occurs and the MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS enters the nuclear region and attaches to the KINETOCHORES.
Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
The act of ligating UBIQUITINS to PROTEINS to form ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes to label proteins for transport to the PROTEASOME ENDOPEPTIDASE COMPLEX where proteolysis occurs.
Geminin inhibits DNA replication by preventing the incorporation of MCM complex into pre-replication complex. It is absent during G1 phase of the CELL CYCLE and accumulates through S, G2,and M phases. It is degraded at the metaphase-anaphase transition by the ANAPHASE-PROMOTING COMPLEX-CYCLOSOME.
Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Together with the Apc11 subunit, forms the catalytic core of the E3 ubiquitin ligase anaphase-promoting complex (APC-C). Its N-terminus has cullin domains which associate with the RING FINGER DOMAINS of Apc11. Apc2 also interacts with the E2 ubiquitin ligases involved in APC-C ubiquitination reactions.
A cyclin subtype that has specificity for CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2. It plays a role in progression of the CELL CYCLE through G1/S and G2/M phase transitions.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.
A highly conserved subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC-C) containing multiple 34-amino-acid tetratricopeptide repeats. These domains, also found in Apc3, Apc6, and Apc7, have been shown to mediate protein-protein interactions, suggesting that Apc8 may assist in coordinating the juxtaposition of the catalytic and substrate recognition module subunits relative to coactivators and APC-C inhibitors.
Separase is a caspase-like cysteine protease, which plays a central role in triggering ANAPHASE by cleaving the SCC1/RAD21 subunit of the cohesin complex. Cohesin holds the sister CHROMATIDS together during METAPHASE and its cleavage results in chromosome segregation.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The final phase of cell nucleus division following ANAPHASE, in which two daughter nuclei are formed, the CYTOPLASM completes division, and the CHROMOSOMES lose their distinctness and are transformed into CHROMATIN threads.
A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.
Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Cellular proteins encoded by the c-mos genes (GENES, MOS). They function in the cell cycle to maintain MATURATION PROMOTING FACTOR in the active state and have protein-serine/threonine kinase activity. Oncogenic transformation can take place when c-mos proteins are expressed at the wrong time.
Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.
Genes that code for proteins that regulate the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. These genes form a regulatory network that culminates in the onset of MITOSIS by activating the p34cdc2 protein (PROTEIN P34CDC2).
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
A highly conserved 76-amino acid peptide universally found in eukaryotic cells that functions as a marker for intracellular PROTEIN TRANSPORT and degradation. Ubiquitin becomes activated through a series of complicated steps and forms an isopeptide bond to lysine residues of specific proteins within the cell. These "ubiquitinated" proteins can be recognized and degraded by proteosomes or be transported to specific compartments within the cell.
A class of enzymes that form a thioester bond to UBIQUITIN with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES. They transfer ubiquitin to the LYSINE of a substrate protein with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
A highly conserved subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC-C) containing multiple 34 amino acid tetratricopeptide repeats. These domains, also found in Apc3, Apc7, and Apc8, have been shown to mediate protein-protein interactions, suggesting that Apc6 may assist in coordinating the juxtaposition of the catalytic and substrate recognition module subunits relative to coactivators and APC-C inhibitors.
A subset of ubiquitin protein ligases that are formed by the association of a SKP DOMAIN PROTEIN, a CULLIN DOMAIN PROTEIN and a F-BOX DOMAIN PROTEIN.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A family of proteins that are structurally-related to Ubiquitin. Ubiquitins and ubiquitin-like proteins participate in diverse cellular functions, such as protein degradation and HEAT-SHOCK RESPONSE, by conjugation to other proteins.
Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.
A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Phase of the CELL CYCLE following G1 and preceding G2 when the entire DNA content of the nucleus is replicated. It is achieved by bidirectional replication at multiple sites along each chromosome.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The period of the CELL CYCLE following DNA synthesis (S PHASE) and preceding M PHASE (cell division phase). The CHROMOSOMES are tetraploid in this point.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.
Together with the Apc2 subunit, forms the catalytic core of the E3 ubiquitin ligase, anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome. It has a RING H2 domain which interacts with the cullin domain of Apc2. Apc11 also interacts with the E2 ubiquitin ligases involved in APC-C ubiquitination reactions.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
A negative regulator of beta-catenin signaling which is mutant in ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI and GARDNER SYNDROME.
Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
The ability of a protein to retain its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to physical or chemical manipulations.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
A highly conserved subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC-C) containing multiple 34 amino acid tetratricopeptide repeats. These domains, also found in Apc3, Apc6, and Apc8, have been shown to mediate protein-protein interactions, suggesting that Apc7 may assist in coordinating the juxtaposition of the catalytic and substrate recognition module subunits relative to coactivators and APC-C inhibitors.
Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A microtubule-associated mechanical adenosine triphosphatase, that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move organelles along microtubules toward the plus end of the microtubule. The protein is found in squid axoplasm, optic lobes, and in bovine brain. Bovine kinesin is a heterotetramer composed of two heavy (120 kDa) and two light (62 kDa) chains. EC 3.6.1.-.
The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.
A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of mussels; clams; OYSTERS; COCKLES; and SCALLOPS. They are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical hinged shell and a muscular foot used for burrowing and anchoring.
A type of nuclear polyploidization in which multiple cycles of DNA REPLICATION occur in the absence of CELL DIVISION and result in a POLYPLOID CELL.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.
The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).
An aurora kinase that is a component of the chromosomal passenger protein complex and is involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. It mediates proper CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION and contractile ring function during CYTOKINESIS.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Apc10 is necessary for coactivator-dependent substrate recognition by the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome. It binds the Apc2 subunit, which is a part of the catalytic core, and interacts with coactivators Cdh1 or Cdc20 to recruit substrates to the complex.
The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A polyposis syndrome due to an autosomal dominant mutation of the APC genes (GENES, APC) on CHROMOSOME 5. The syndrome is characterized by the development of hundreds of ADENOMATOUS POLYPS in the COLON and RECTUM of affected individuals by early adulthood.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
An order of fungi in the phylum Ascomycota that multiply by budding. They include the telomorphic ascomycetous yeasts which are found in a very wide range of habitats.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A family of herbivorous leaping MAMMALS of Australia, New Guinea, and adjacent islands. Members include kangaroos, wallabies, quokkas, and wallaroos.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Regulatory signaling systems that control the progression through the CELL CYCLE. They ensure that the cell has completed, in the correct order and without mistakes, all the processes required to replicate the GENOME and CYTOPLASM, and divide them equally between two daughter cells. If cells sense they have not completed these processes or that the environment does not have the nutrients and growth hormones in place to proceed, then the cells are restrained (or "arrested") until the processes are completed and growth conditions are suitable.
A family of multisubunit cytoskeletal motor proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power a variety of cellular functions. Dyneins fall into two major classes based upon structural and functional criteria.
Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.
The failure of homologous CHROMOSOMES or CHROMATIDS to segregate during MITOSIS or MEIOSIS with the result that one daughter cell has both of a pair of parental chromosomes or chromatids and the other has none.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Cleavage of proteins into smaller peptides or amino acids either by PROTEASES or non-enzymatically (e.g., Hydrolysis). It does not include Protein Processing, Post-Translational.
Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.
A phosphoprotein phosphatase subtype that is comprised of a catalytic subunit and two different regulatory subunits. At least two genes encode isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit, while several isoforms of regulatory subunits exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. Protein phosphatase 2 acts on a broad variety of cellular proteins and may play a role as a regulator of intracellular signaling processes.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
CIRCULAR DNA that is interlaced together as links in a chain. It is used as an assay for the activity of DNA TOPOISOMERASES. Catenated DNA is attached loop to loop in contrast to CONCATENATED DNA which is attached end to end.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A family of rat kangaroos found in and around Australia. Genera include Potorous and Bettongia.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
An enzyme group that specifically dephosphorylates phosphotyrosyl residues in selected proteins. Together with PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE, it regulates tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in cellular signal transduction and may play a role in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.
An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.
A vitamin-K dependent zymogen present in the blood, which, upon activation by thrombin and thrombomodulin exerts anticoagulant properties by inactivating factors Va and VIIIa at the rate-limiting steps of thrombin formation.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
A genus of the family Heteromyidae which contains 22 species. Their physiology is adapted for the conservation of water, and they seldom drink water. They are found in arid or desert habitats and travel by hopping on their hind limbs.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
An exchange of segments between the sister chromatids of a chromosome, either between the sister chromatids of a meiotic tetrad or between the sister chromatids of a duplicated somatic chromosome. Its frequency is increased by ultraviolet and ionizing radiation and other mutagenic agents and is particularly high in BLOOM SYNDROME.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.
An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.
A broad category of nuclear proteins that are components of or participate in the formation of the NUCLEAR MATRIX.
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
Proton-translocating ATPases that are involved in acidification of a variety of intracellular compartments.
A family of Urodela consisting of 15 living genera and about 42 species and occurring in North America, Europe, Asia, and North Africa.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
Tumors or cancer of the INTESTINES.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.

ROC1, a homolog of APC11, represents a family of cullin partners with an associated ubiquitin ligase activity. (1/11)

We have identified two highly conserved RING finger proteins, ROC1 and ROC2, that are homologous to APC11, a subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex. ROC1 and ROC2 commonly interact with all cullins while APC11 specifically interacts with APC2, a cullin-related APC subunit. YeastROC1 encodes an essential gene whose reduced expression resulted in multiple, elongated buds and accumulation of Sic1p and Cln2p. ROC1 and APC11 immunocomplexes can catalyze isopeptide ligations to form polyubiquitin chains in an E1- and E2-dependent manner. ROC1 mutations completely abolished their ligase activity without noticeable changes in associated proteins. Ubiquitination of phosphorylated I kappa B alpha can be catalyzed by the ROC1 immunocomplex in vitro. Hence, combinations of ROC/APC11 and cullin proteins proteins potentially constitute a wide variety of ubiquitin ligases.  (+info)

Expression analyses and interaction with the anaphase promoting complex protein Apc2 suggest a role for inversin in primary cilia and involvement in the cell cycle. (2/11)

Homozygous inv mice lack a functional inversin protein and exhibit situs inversus plus severe cystic changes in the kidney and pancreas. Although the inversin sequence has provided few clues to its function, we and others have previously identified calmodulin as a binding partner. We now provide evidence that inversin interacts with the anaphase promoting complex protein Apc2. As expected of an Apc2 target, inversin possesses D-boxes and site-directed mutagenesis of the well-conserved D-box residues abrogates inversin-Apc2 interaction. An inversin-specific antibody reveals a dynamic expression pattern throughout the cell cycle and strong expression in the primary cilia of renal epithelium. Our data support a role for inversin in primary cilia and involvement in the cell cycle. Mutations of the proteins polaris, cystin and polycystin-2 which are expressed in renal epithelium primary cilia, lead to renal cystic changes. Aberrant cell proliferation is also involved in cyst development. The data reported here suggest that inversin may provide a link between these two mechanisms.  (+info)

Loss of the anaphase-promoting complex in quiescent cells causes unscheduled hepatocyte proliferation. (3/11)

The anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C) is an ubiquitin protein ligase that together with Cdc20 and Cdh1 targets mitotic proteins for degradation by the proteosome. APC-Cdc20 activity during mitosis triggers anaphase by destroying securin and cyclins. APC-Cdh1 promotes degradation of cyclins and other proteins during G(1). We show that loss of APC/C during embryogenesis is early lethal before embryonic day E6.5 (E6.5). To investigate the role of APC/C in quiescent cells, we conditionally inactivated the subunit Apc2 in mice. Deletion of Apc2 in quiescent hepatocytes caused re-entry into the cell cycle and arrest in metaphase, resulting in liver failure. Re-entry into the cell cycle either occurred without any proliferative stimulus or could be easily induced. We demonstrate that the APC has an additional function to prevent hepatocytes from unscheduled re-entry into the cell cycle.  (+info)

Depletion of anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C) subunit homolog APC1 or CDC27 of Trypanosoma brucei arrests the procyclic form in metaphase but the bloodstream form in anaphase. (4/11)

The anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C) is a multiprotein subunit E3 ubiquitin ligase complex that controls segregation of chromosomes and exit from mitosis in eukaryotes. It triggers elimination of key cell cycle regulators such as securin and mitotic cyclins during mitosis by polyubiquitinating them for proteasome degradation. Seven core subunit homologs of APC/C (APC1, APC2, APC11, CDC16, CDC23, CDC27, and DOC1) were identified in the Trypanosoma brucei genome data base. Expression of six of them was individually ablated by RNA interference in both the procyclic and bloodstream forms of T. brucei. Only the CDC27- and APC1-depleted cells were enriched in the G2/M phase with inhibited growth. Further studies indicated that T. brucei APC1 and CDC27 failed to complement the corresponding deletion mutants of budding yeast. However, their depletion from procyclic-form T. brucei enriched cells with two kinetoplasts and an enlarged nucleus possessing short metaphase-like mitotic spindles, suggesting that APC1 and CDC27 may play essential roles in promoting anaphase in the procyclic form. Their depletion from the bloodstream form, however, enriched cells with two kinetoplasts and two nuclei connected through a microtubule bundle, suggesting a late anaphase arrest. This is the first time functional APC/C subunit homologs were identified in T. brucei. The apparent differential activities of this putative APC/C in two distinct developmental stages suggest an unusual function. The apparent lack of functional involvement of some of the other individual structural subunit homologs of APC/C may indicate the structural uniqueness of T. brucei APC/C.  (+info)

An architectural map of the anaphase-promoting complex. (5/11)

The anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC) is an unusually complicated ubiquitin ligase, composed of 13 core subunits and either of two loosely associated regulatory subunits, Cdc20 and Cdh1. We analyzed the architecture of the APC using a recently constructed budding yeast strain that is viable in the absence of normally essential APC subunits. We found that the largest subunit, Apc1, serves as a scaffold that associates independently with two separable subcomplexes, one that contains Apc2 (Cullin), Apc11 (RING), and Doc1/Apc10, and another that contains the three TPR subunits (Cdc27, Cdc16, and Cdc23). We found that the three TPR subunits display a sequential binding dependency, with Cdc27 the most peripheral, Cdc23 the most internal, and Cdc16 between. Apc4, Apc5, Cdc23, and Apc1 associate interdependently, such that loss of any one subunit greatly reduces binding between the remaining three. Intriguingly, the cullin and TPR subunits both contribute to the binding of Cdh1 to the APC. Enzymatic assays performed with APC purified from strains lacking each of the essential subunits revealed that only cdc27Delta complexes retain detectable activity in the presence of Cdh1. This residual activity depends on the C-box domain of Cdh1, but not on the C-terminal IR domain, suggesting that the C-box mediates a productive interaction with an APC subunit other than Cdc27. We have also found that the IR domain of Cdc20 is dispensable for viability, suggesting that Cdc20 can activate the APC through another domain. We have provided an updated model for the subunit architecture of the APC.  (+info)

Regulation of APC/C activity in oocytes by a Bub1-dependent spindle assembly checkpoint. (6/11)

 (+info)

Regulation of ciliary polarity by the APC/C. (7/11)

 (+info)

Structures of APC/C(Cdh1) with substrates identify Cdh1 and Apc10 as the D-box co-receptor. (8/11)

 (+info)

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p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
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Morgan, D.O. (2007) The Cell Cycle: Principles of Control. London: New Science Press.. Thornton, B.R., Ng, T.M., Matyskiela, M.E., Carroll, C.W., Morgan, D.O., and Toczyski, D.P. (2006) An architectural map of the anaphase-promoting complex. Genes Dev. 20, 449-460. Carroll, C.W., and Morgan, D.O. (2005) Enzymology of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex. Meth. Enzymol. 398, 219-230.. Loog, M., and Morgan, D.O. (2005) Cyclin specificity in the phosphorylation of cyclin-dependent kinase substrates. Nature 434, 104-108. (Commentary: Nature 434, 34-35; and Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 6, 280). Carroll, C.W., Enquist-Newman, M., and Morgan, D.O. (2005) The APC subunit Doc1 promotes recognition of the substrate destruction box. Curr. Biol. 15, 11-18.. Ubersax, J.A., Woodbury, E.L., Quang, P.N., Paraz, M., Blethrow, J.D., Shah, K., Shokat, K.M., and Morgan, D.O. (2003) Targets of the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk1. Nature, 425, 859-864.. Carroll, C.W., and Morgan, D.O. (2002) The Doc1 subunit is a processivity ...
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Author: Schmidt, A. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2005-02-15; Keywords: cell cycle; anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome; Xenopus; polo-like kinase; cytostatic factor; mitotic exit; Title: Xenopus polo-like kinase Plx1 regulates XErp1, a novel inhibitor of APC/C activity
The anaphase promoting complex is a highly conserved E3 ligase complex that mediates the destruction of key regulatory proteins during both mitotic and meiotic divisions. In order to maintain ploidy, this destruction must occur after the regulatory proteins have executed their function. Thus, the regulation of APC/C activity itself is critical for maintaining ploidy during all types of cell divisions. During mitotic cell division, two conserved activator proteins called Cdc20 and Cdh1 are required for both APC/C activation and substrate selection. However, significantly less is known about how these proteins regulate APC/C activity during the specialized meiotic nuclear divisions. In addition, both budding yeast and flies utilize a third meiosis-specific activator. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, this meiosis-specific activator is called Ama1. This review summarizes our knowledge of how Cdc20 and Ama1 coordinate APC/C activity to regulate the meiotic nuclear divisions in yeast.
The anaphase promoting complex is a highly conserved E3 ligase complex that mediates the destruction of key regulatory proteins during both mitotic and meiotic divisions. In order to maintain ploidy, this destruction must occur after the regulatory proteins have executed their function. Thus, the regulation of APC/C activity itself is critical for maintaining ploidy during all types of cell divisions. During mitotic cell division, two conserved activator proteins called Cdc20 and Cdh1 are required for both APC/C activation and substrate selection. However, significantly less is known about how these proteins regulate APC/C activity during the specialized meiotic nuclear divisions. In addition, both budding yeast and flies utilize a third meiosis-specific activator. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, this meiosis-specific activator is called Ama1. This review summarizes our knowledge of how Cdc20 and Ama1 coordinate APC/C activity to regulate the meiotic nuclear divisions in yeast.
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Mracek, Philipp; Pagano, Chrstina; Fröhlich, Nadine; Idda, M. Laura; Cuesta, Ines H.; Lopez-Olmeda, Jose Fernando; Sánchez-Vázquez, F. Javier; Daniela Vallone, Daniela; Foulkes, Nicholas S ...
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At the first meiotic division, anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome associated wit … ... Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome / metabolism* * Animals * Apc2 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome / metabolism ... At the first meiotic division, anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome associated with Cdc20 (APC/CCdc20) activates separase and ... Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome * Apc2 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome * Aurkb protein, mouse ...
The Arabidopsis Anaphase-Promoting Complex or Cyclosome: molecular and genetic characterization of the APC2 subunit. The Plant ... Serralbo O, Pérez-Pérez J-M, Heidstra R, Scheres B. (2006). Non-cell-autonomous rescue of anaphase-promoting complex function ... Specialization of CDC27 function in the Arabidopsis thaliana anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C). Plant J. . ... Kornet N, Scheres B. (2009) Members of the GCN5 histone acetyltransferase complex regulate PLETHORA-mediated root stem cell ...
Anaphase Promoting Complex Subunit 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards ... Anaphase-Promoting Complex Subunit 2 3 4 * Cyclosome Subunit 2 3 4 ... APC2 Cullin protein and APC11 RING protein comprise the minimal ubiquitin ligase module of the anaphase-promoting complex. ( ... A large protein complex, termed the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), or the cyclosome, promotes metaphase-anaphase transition ...
... such as the APC2 subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome and the p53 cytoplasmic anchor PARC; both APC2 and PARC ... Humans express seven cullins (Cul1, 2, 3, 4A, 4B, 5 and 7), each forming part of a multi-subunit ubiquitin complex. Cullin-RING ... Structure of the Cand1-Cul1-Roc1 complex reveals regulatory mechanisms for the assembly of the multisubunit cullin-dependent ... Structure of the Cul1-Rbx1-Skp1-F boxSkp2 SCF ubiquitin ligase complex.. Nature 416 703-9 2002 ...
2003). The Arabidopsis anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome: Molecular and genetic characterization of the APC2 subunit. ... For instance, in mammalian cells, the RING-finger protein KPC1 (Kip1 ubiquitylation-promoting complex1) promotes the ... Finally, SCFSKP2 and SCFFBL17 promote the degradation of animal and plant CKIs, respectively (Yu et al., 1998; Carrano et al., ... 1999). p45SKP2 promotes p27Kip1 degradation and induces S phase in quiescent cells. Nat. Cell Biol. 1: 207-214. ...
The Arabidopsis anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome: Molecular and genetic characterization of the APC2 subunit. Plant Cell ... APC8/CDC23 is part of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) that is involved in targeting A- and B-type cyclins for degradation ... Ullah, H., Chen, J.-G., Temple, B., Boyes, D.C., Alonso, J.M., Davis, K.R., Ecker, J.R., and Jones, A.M. (2003). The β-subunit ... Overexpression of G1/S regulators, such as CYCD3;1 (Dewitte et al., 2003) or the transcription factor complex E2Fa/DPa (De ...
HUMAN 606946 Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 2 (APC2) (Cyclosome subunit 2) [APC2] [KIAA1406] ANGPTL2 9q34 Q9UKU9 ANGL2_ ... HUMAN 614533 Anaphase-promoting complex subunit CDC26 (Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 12) (APC12) (Cell division cycle ... PSE-binding factor subunit alpha) (PTF subunit alpha) (snRNA-activating protein complex 190 kDa subunit) (SNAPc 190 kDa subunit ... CRSP complex subunit 8) (Mediator complex subunit 27) (P37 TRAP/SMCC/PC2 subunit) (Transcriptional coactivator CRSP34) [CRSP34 ...
In early mitosis, the APC/C is activated by CDC20 and targets securin PDS1, the B-type cyclin CLB5, and other anaphase ... a cell cycle-regulated E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complex that controls progression through mitosis and the G1 phase of the ... to allow exit from mitosis and creating the low CDK state necessary for cytokinesis and for reforming prereplicative complexes ... inhibitory proteins for proteolysis, thereby triggering the separation of sister chromatids at the metaphase-to-anaphase ...
The Arabidopsis anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome: molecular and genetic characterization of the APC2 subunit. Plant Cell ... Geley S, Kramer E, Gieffers C, Gannon J, Peters JM, Hunt T (2001) Anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome-dependent proteolysis of ... Zachariae W, Nasmyth K (1999) Whose end is destruction: cell division and anaphase-promoting complex. Genes Dev 13: 2039-2058. ... Taieb FE, Gross SD, Lewellyn AL, Maller JL (2001) Activation of the anaphase-promoting complex and degradation of cyclin B is ...
... is a peri-nuclear phospho-protein that is a co-activator of the cell cycle regulatory anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC ... are a novel class of small molecule compounds that interfere with CARP-1 binding with APC/C subunit APC-2, and suppress growth ... of a variety of cancer cells in part by promoting apoptosis. Here we investigated MB growth inhibitory potential of the CFM-1, ... analysis of the CFM-4-treated Daoy MB cells indicated down-regulation of a number of key cell growth and metastasis-promoting ...
2011) Antagonists of anaphase-promoting complex (APC)-2-cell cycle and apoptosis regulatory protein (CARP)-1 interaction are ... to identify small molecule inhibitors of CARP-1 interaction with cell cycle regulatory anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome ( ... Screening of a chemical library led to discovery of multiple small molecule inhibitors of CARP-1 binding with APC/C subunit APC-2 ... CFMs promote apoptosis and inhibit growth of a number of cancer cell types including the breast cancer cells that are resistant ...
The Arabidopsis anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome: molecular and genetic characterization of the APC2 subunit. ... The Arabidopsis anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome subunit 1 is critical for both female gametogenesis and embryogenesis(F). ... The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome in control of plant development. Oct 5, 2012·Molecular Plant·Jefri Heyman, Lieven De ... APC2 Cullin protein and APC11 RING protein comprise the minimal ubiquitin ligase module of the anaphase-promoting complex. ...
We show mr encodes the APC2 subunit of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome. We confirmed that the variations of ICG ... Paracrine from ADSC after being stimulated by insulin can promote proliferation and migration of HUVEC, and suppress its ... Chemical speciation of metal complexes from chemical shift calculations: the interaction of 2-amino-N-hydroxypropanamide with V ...
The anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC) is an unusually complicated ubiquitin ligase, composed of 13 core subunits ... The cullin subunit APC2 and its binding partner, the RING finger protein APC11, are found in a subcomplex with APC1, APC4, and ... Microinjection of antibodies against subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome or against human Cdc20 (fizzy) ... one of the substrate-targeting subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC). However, Cdh1, another targeting subunit used ...
Structure of an APC2-UBCH10 complex reveals distinctive cullin-RING ligase mechanism for Anaphase-promoting complex/Cyclosome ... Structure of an APC2-UBCH10 complex reveals distinctive cullin-RING ligase mechanism for Anaphase-promoting complex/Cyclosome. ... Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 2: B. SMTL:PDB. SMTL Chain Id:. PDB Chain Id:. A. U ... Brown, N.G. et al., Crystal Structure of E2 Complex. Proc.Natl.Acad.Sci.USA (2015) Release Date. 2015-04-08. Peptides. ...
The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a ubiquitin ligase with essential functions in mitosis, meiosis, and G1 ... Localization of the coactivator Cdh1 and the cullin subunit Apc2 in a cryo-electron microscopy model of vertebrate APC/C ... Localization of the coactivator Cdh1 and the cullin subunit Apc2 in a cryo-electron microscopy model of vertebrate APC/C. ... substrates are ubiquitinated by E2 enzymes that interact with a hetero-dimer of the RING subunit Apc11 and the cullin Apc2. We ...
APC2. Subunit of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C), which is a ubiquitin-protein ligase required for degradation ... Subunit of U3-containing Small Subunit (SSU) processome complex involved in production of 18S rRNA and assembly of small ... Essential subunit of the Dam1 complex (aka DASH complex), couples kinetochores to the force produced by MT depolymerization ... Subunit of the exocyst complex; the exocyst mediates polarized targeting and tethering of post-Golgi secretory vesicles to ...
Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 2. N. 822. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: ANAPC2, APC2, KIAA1406. ... Anaphase-promoting complex subunit CDC26. G, W. 85. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: CDC26, ANAPC12, C9orf17. ... Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 16. E. 110. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: ANAPC16, C10orf104, CENP-27. ... Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 15. D. 121. Homo sapiens. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: ANAPC15, C11orf51, HSPC020. ...
Cryo electron microscopy reconstructions of Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome, highlighting how the APC2-APC11 cullin-RING ... Crystal structure of a complex between the tumor suppressor E3 ligase subunit SPOP and a ubiquitylation substrate. The ... Cryo electron microscopy reconstructions of Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome, highlighting how the APC2-APC11 cullin-RING ... Cryo electron microscopy reconstructions of Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome, highlighting how the APC2-APC11 cullin-RING ...
Structure of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome interacting with a mitotic checkpoint complex. Science 323, 1477-1481 ( ... Localization of the coactivator Cdh1 and the cullin subunit Apc2 in a cryo-electron microscopy model of vertebrate APC/C. Mol. ... The anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome: A machine designed to destroy. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 7, 644-656 (2006).. ... Identification of cell cycle-dependent phosphorylation sites on the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome by mass spectrometry. ...
... of the Anaphase Promoting Complex or Cyclosome (APC/C). APC/C is a ubiquitin ligase and through this activity it functions as a ... The OV homologue of APC11, referred to as PACR (Poxvirus APC/C Regulator), shares with APC11 the ability to bind APC2 and ... The parapoxvirus, orf virus (OV) encodes a RING-H2 protein that is a homologue of subunit 11 (APC11) ... Surprisingly on top of this, there are also indications of OV having a cell cycle promoting affect similar to mitogenic ...
... "anaphase-promoting complex subunit 7 isoform b" /note="cyclosome subunit 7" /calculated_mol_wt=59872 Region 135..168 /region_ ... The results showed that APC2 and APC7 subunits were both over expressed in cancer cell lines REFERENCE 5 (residues 1 to 537) ... the contribution of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome subunits APC7 and APC16 to APC/C composition and function in human ... TITLE Characterization of the DOC1/APC10 subunit of the yeast and the human anaphase-promoting complex JOURNAL J. Biol. Chem. ...
The anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) plays a pivotal role in these transitions by recognizing and marking ... to the APC/C together with Mr/Apc2 by forming a ternary complex. ... lemmingA encodes the Apc11 subunit of the APC/C in Drosophila ... The APC/C is, however, a multisubunit assembly with at least 13 subunits and their function and interaction within the complex ... lemmingA encodes the Apc11 subunit of the APC/C in Drosophila melanogaster that forms a ternary complex with the E2-C type ...
Apc2 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome. Subunidade Apc2 do Ciclossomo-Complexo Promotor de Anáfase. Subunidad Apc2 ... Apc2 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome. Subunidade Apc2 do Ciclossomo-Complexo Promotor de Anáfase. Subunidad Apc2 ... Apc1 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome. Subunidade Apc1 do Ciclossomo-Complexo Promotor de Anáfase. Subunidad Apc1 ... Apc3 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome. Subunidade Apc3 do Ciclossomo-Complexo Promotor de Anáfase. Subunidad Apc3 ...
The anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a large multi-subunit E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets specific cell cycle ... a catalytic sub-complex including the cullin domain and RING finger subunits Apc2 and Apc11, respectively, and a ... sub-complex composed of the TPR subunits Cdc16, Cdc23 and Cdc27 (Apc3). Here, we describe the crystal structure of the N- ... and genetic studies are consistent with the notion that subunits of APC/C are organised into two distinct sub-complexes; ...
... activity of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), whose main function is to trigger the transition of the cell ... Background: Core-binding factor subunit β (CBFβ) is a non-DNA binding transcription factor subunit that associates with and ... Polyclonal Antibody - APC2 Antibody - Immunoprecipitation, Western Blotting, UniProt ID Q9UJX6, Entrez ID 29882 #12301 ... to the Sec23/24 complex to form a prebudding complex, which directly binds target molecules (2-4). The prebudding complex ...
Therefore Apc2 may not contain the helical scaffold found in the N-terminal domain of Cul1. Instead, other subunits could be ... The APC (anaphase-promoting complex) or cyclosome is a large multisubunit protein complex. It has 13 core components (with ... The anaphase-promoting complex (APC): the sum of its parts? L.A. Passmore L.A. Passmore ... The APC (anaphase-promoting complex) is a multisubunit E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets cell-cycle-related proteins for ...
The anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) plays a pivotal role in these transitions by recognizing and marking ... to the APC/C together with Mr/Apc2 by forming a ternary complex. ... lemmingA encodes the Apc11 subunit of the APC/C in Drosophila ... The APC/C is, however, a multisubunit assembly with at least 13 subunits and their function and interaction within the complex ... The lmgA ORF codes for a putative protein with more than 80% sequence homology to the APC11 subunit of the human APC/C. The 85 ...
One of the key regulators of the SAC is the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) which ubiquitinates cyclin B and ... Because APC/C not only ensures cell cycle arrest upon spindle disruption but also promotes cell death in response to prolonged ... is the major cell cycle control mechanism to delay the onset of anaphase during mitosis. ... At the same time, association of Cdc27 with other subunits of the APC/C such as APC2 and APC8 did not change (Figure 5C). Thus ...
  • APC/C recognizes substrates via coactivator proteins such as Cdh1, and bound substrates are ubiquitinated by E2 enzymes that interact with a hetero-dimer of the RING subunit Apc11 and the cullin Apc2. (unibas.ch)
  • The parapoxvirus, orf virus (OV) encodes a RING-H2 protein that is a homologue of subunit 11 (APC11) of the Anaphase Promoting Complex or Cyclosome (APC/C). APC/C is a ubiquitin ligase and through this activity it functions as a master regulator of the cell cycle responsible for controlling mitotic exit and G1 phase progression. (otago.ac.nz)
  • The OV homologue of APC11, referred to as PACR (Poxvirus APC/C Regulator), shares with APC11 the ability to bind APC2 and competes with APC11 for incorporation into APC/C. However, unlike its cellular counterpart, PACR does not support ubiquitination. (otago.ac.nz)
  • Here, lemming (lmg) mutants were used to study the APC/C subunit, Apc11, and its interaction partners in Drosophila melanogaster. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • The lmgA ORF codes for a putative protein with more than 80% sequence homology to the APC11 subunit of the human APC/C. The 85 amino acid protein also contains a RING-finger motif characteristic of known APC11 subunits. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Based on the presented data, we suggest that the Lmg/Apc11 subunit recruits the E2-C type ubiquitin conjugating enzyme, Vihar, to the APC/C together with Mr/Apc2 by forming a ternary complex. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • a catalytic sub-complex including the cullin domain and RING finger subunits Apc2 and Apc11, respectively, and a tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) sub-complex composed of the TPR subunits Cdc16, Cdc23 and Cdc27 (Apc3). (sussex.ac.uk)
  • lemmingA encodes the Apc11 subunit of the APC/C. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • APC is a polymeric protein complex composed of at least 11 subunits and contains tetratricopeptide repeat proteins (APC3, 5, 6, 7, and 8), a cullin homolog (APC2), and a ring-H2 finger domain (APC11). (coloproctol.org)
  • The catalytic core consists of APC2 (Cullin family related protein), APC10, APC11 (RING finger protein), Cdc20 or Cdh1 (catalytic coactivators) and substrate. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A large protein complex, termed the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), or the cyclosome, promotes metaphase-anaphase transition by ubiquitinating its specific substrates such as mitotic cyclins and anaphase inhibitor, which are subsequently degraded by the 26S proteasome. (genecards.org)
  • In early mitosis, the APC/C is activated by CDC20 and targets securin PDS1, the B-type cyclin CLB5, and other anaphase inhibitory proteins for proteolysis, thereby triggering the separation of sister chromatids at the metaphase-to-anaphase transition. (uniprot.org)
  • In budding yeast, APC/C(Cdc20) promotes the degradation of the Pds1p anaphase inhibitor at the metaphase-to-anaphase transition, whereas APC/C(Cdh1) promotes the degradation of the mitotic cyclins at the exit from mitosis. (sdbonline.org)
  • Background: Ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation is a critical step in key cell cycle events, such as metaphase-anaphase transition and mitotic exit. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • The anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a large multi-subunit E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets specific cell cycle regulatory proteins for ubiquitin-dependent degradation, thereby controlling cell cycle events such as the metaphase to anaphase transition and the exit from mitosis. (sussex.ac.uk)
  • CDC27Hs colocalizes with CDC16Hs to the centrosome and mitotic spindle and is essential for the metaphase to anaphase transition. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Recently, it has been shown that cyclin A destruction early in mitosis is necessary for progressive stabilization of the mitotic spindle, promoting proper attachments to kinetochores and formation of the metaphase plate ( Kabeche and Compton, 2013 ). (biologists.org)
  • 9. Funabiki H, Kumada K, Yanagida M (1996) Fission yeast Cut1 and Cut2 are essential for sister chromatid separation, concentrate along the metaphase spindle and form large complexes. (aimspress.com)
  • By contrast, HDAC inhibitors and clr6 HDAC mutations rescued temperature sensitive (ts) phenotypes of the mutants of the ubiquitin ligase complex anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), which display metaphase arrest. (biologists.org)
  • J. 449 (2), 365-371 (2013) PUBMED 23078409 REMARK GeneRIF: Data indicate that additional density present in the anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C) structure, proximal to Apc3/Cdc27 of the (tetratricopeptide repeat) lobe, is assigned to the TPR subunit Apc7, a subunit specific to vertebrate APC/C. REFERENCE 6 (residues 1 to 537) AUTHORS Sudakin V, Chan GK and Yen TJ. (genome.jp)
  • The serine/threonine phosphatase PP5 interacts with CDC16 and CDC27, two tetratricopeptide repeat-containing subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • 1995) A 20S complex containing CDC27 and CDC16 catalyzes the mitosis-specific conjugation of ubiquitin to cyclin B. Cell 81: 279-288. (aimspress.com)
  • Of these, 32 sites are clustered in parts of Apc1 and the tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) subunits Cdc27, Cdc16, Cdc23 and Apc7. (embopress.org)
  • This activity of Pds1p is independent of its activity as an anaphase inhibitor. (sdbonline.org)
  • It is proposed that the dual role of Pds1p as an inhibitor of anaphase and of cyclin degradation allows the cell to couple the exit from mitosis to the prior completion of anaphase. (sdbonline.org)
  • CBFβ interacts with the viral protein VIF and triggers assembly of a ubiquitin ligase complex that targets the retroviral inhibitor APOBEC3G for degradation (9,10). (cellsignal.com)
  • Improper microtubule attachment or chromosome misalignment on the spindle activates the formation of an inhibitory "supercomplex," consisting of the APC and a second complex, the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC), which consists of a kinase BubR1, an inhibitor MAD2, and the APC activator CDC20 ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • TAME is a small molecule anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC) inhibitor. (csnpharm.cn)
  • TAME hydrochloride is an inhibitor of anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C or APC), which binds to APC/C and prevents its activation by Cdc20 and Cdh1, produces mitotic arrest[1]. (csnpharm.cn)
  • The signaling of the checkpoint originates from defective kinetochore-microtubule interactions and leads to formation of the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC), a highly potent inhibitor of the Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C)-the E3 ubiquitin ligase essential for anaphase onset. (aimspress.com)
  • FUNCTION: This gene encodes a component of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), a cell cycle-regulated ubiquitin ligase that controls progression through mitosis and the G1 phase of the cell cycle by ubiquitinating its specific substrates, such as mitotic cyclins and anaphase inhibitor, for subsequent degradation by the proteasome. (utsouthwestern.edu)
  • At the first meiotic division, anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome associated with Cdc20 (APC/C Cdc20 ) activates separase and thereby destroys cohesion along chromosome arms. (nih.gov)
  • The CDC20-APC/C complex positively regulates the formation of synaptic vesicle clustering at active zone to the presynaptic membrane in postmitotic neurons. (genecards.org)
  • In late mitosis and in G1, degradation of CLB5 allows activation of the APC/C by CDH1, which is needed to destroy CDC20 and the B-type cyclin CLB2 to allow exit from mitosis and creating the low CDK state necessary for cytokinesis and for reforming prereplicative complexes in G1 prior to another round of replication. (uniprot.org)
  • Activation of the APC requires its association with substoichiometric activating subunits termed Cdc20 and Hct1 (also known as Cdh1). (sdbonline.org)
  • TITLE Checkpoint inhibition of the APC/C in HeLa cells is mediated by a complex of BUBR1, BUB3, CDC20, and MAD2 JOURNAL J. Cell Biol. (genome.jp)
  • When cells enter mitosis, the APC/C is partially activated through phosphorylation of core subunits and binding of the WD40-repeat protein Cdc20 ( 9 , 13 , 14 ). (pnas.org)
  • Soon after anaphase onset, Cdc20 is degraded and replaced by Cdh1, which maintains APC/C activity during late mitosis and early G1 ( 15 , 16 ). (pnas.org)
  • Mechanisms controlling the temporal degradation of Nek2A and Kif18A by the APC/C-Cdc20 complex. (nih.gov)
  • The Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) in complex with its co-activator Cdc20 is responsible for targeting proteins for ubiquitin-mediated degradation during mitosis. (nih.gov)
  • We find that dimerization via the leucine zipper, in combination with the MR motif, is required for stable Nek2A binding to and ubiquitination by the APC/C. Nek2A and the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC) have an overlap in APC/C subunit requirements for binding and we propose that Nek2A binds with high affinity to apo-APC/C and is degraded by the pool of Cdc20 that avoids inhibition by the SAC. (nih.gov)
  • Kif18A is ubiquitinated by the APC/C-Cdc20 complex. (nih.gov)
  • The mitotic checkpoint complex binds a second CDC20 to inhibit active APC/C. Izawa D, et al . (nih.gov)
  • Nek2 isoform A (Nek2A) is a presumed substrate of the anaphase‐promoting complex/cyclosome containing Cdc20 (APC/C Cdc20 ). (biologists.org)
  • The anaphase‐promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that, together with either one of its regulatory co‐activators, Cdc20 or Cdh1, targets multiple mitotic regulators for proteasomal degradation. (biologists.org)
  • At the point in the cell cycle when APC/C Cdc20 complexes are formed, however, the spindle checkpoint also becomes active and blocks Cdc20. (biologists.org)
  • 13. Fang G, Yu H, Kirschner MW (1998) The checkpoint protein MAD2 and the mitotic regulator CDC20 form a ternary complex with the anaphase-promoting complex to control anaphase initiation. (aimspress.com)
  • 14. Sudakin V, Chan GK, Yen TJ (2001) Checkpoint inhibition of the APC/C in HeLa cells is mediated by a complex of BUBR1, BUB3, CDC20, and MAD2. (aimspress.com)
  • The product of this gene is a component of the complex and shares sequence similarity with a recently identified family of proteins called cullins, which may also be involved in ubiquitin-mediated degradation. (genecards.org)
  • The APC/C complex acts by mediating ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of target proteins: it mainly mediates the formation of 'Lys-11'-linked polyubiquitin chains and, to a lower extent, the formation of 'Lys-48'- and 'Lys-63'-linked polyubiquitin chains. (genecards.org)
  • The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a multisubunit ubiquitin ligase that regulates progression through the cell cycle by marking key cell division proteins for destruction. (meta.org)
  • The anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) plays a pivotal role in these transitions by recognizing and marking regulatory proteins for proteasomal degradation. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • VCP homo-hexamers associate with a variety of protein cofactors to form many distinct protein complexes, which act as chaperones to unfold proteins and transport them to specific cellular compartments or to the proteosome (4). (cellsignal.com)
  • The APC (anaphase-promoting complex) is a multisubunit E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets cell-cycle-related proteins for degradation by the 26 S proteasome. (portlandpress.com)
  • The APC contains at least 13 subunits and is regulated by the binding of co-activator proteins and by phosphorylation. (portlandpress.com)
  • Most cellular proteins form a complex network of interactions with other proteins and many are components of large multiprotein complexes [ 1 - 3 ]. (portlandpress.com)
  • Here, the complexes are connected by shared components, e.g. proteins present in more than one complex. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Some of these attachments, which can consist of multiple proteins itself, can be connected to different core complexes. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The anaphase promoting complex (APC) controls the degradation of proteins during exit from mitosis and entry into S-phase. (pnas.org)
  • B) Ubiquitylation produces a signal that is often dependent on effector proteins or complexes (ubiquitin readers). (cloudfront.net)
  • These include the proteasome, which is a proteolytic machine, or the segregase VCP/p97 (Cdc48 in yeast), which extracts proteins from chromatin, cellular compartments, or protein complexes for recycling or degradation. (cloudfront.net)
  • TITLE Characterization of the DOC1/APC10 subunit of the yeast and the human anaphase-promoting complex JOURNAL J. Biol. (genome.jp)
  • 16. Millband DN, Hardwick KG (2002) Fission yeast Mad3p is required for Mad2p to inhibit the anaphase-promoting complex and localizes to kinetochores in a Bub1p-, Bub3p-, and Mph1p-dependent manner. (aimspress.com)
  • Summary: This gene encodes a tetratricopeptide repeat containing component of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), a large E3 ubiquitin ligase that controls cell cycle progression by targeting a number of cell cycle regulators such as B-type cyclins for 26S proteasome-mediated degradation through ubiquitination. (genome.jp)
  • Purified Hct1 is phosphorylated in vitro at these sites by purified Cdc28-cyclin complexes, and phosphorylation abolishes the ability of Hct1 to activate the APC in vitro. (sdbonline.org)
  • There were 71 phosphorylation sites on nine of the APC subunits. (pnas.org)
  • Mitotic regulation of the human anaphase-promoting complex by phosphorylation. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • Inactivation and disassembly of the anaphase-promoting complex during human cytomegalovirus infection is associated with degradation of the APC5 and APC4 subunits and does not require UL97-mediated phosphorylation of Cdh1. (nih.gov)
  • We have also identified a functionally important SUMO interacting motif in the cullin-homology domain of APC2 located near the APC4 sumoylation sites and APC/C catalytic core. (nih.gov)
  • Together with the RING-H2 protein ANAPC11, constitutes the catalytic component of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), a cell cycle-regulated E3 ubiquitin ligase that controls progression through mitosis and the G1 phase of the cell cycle. (genecards.org)
  • Progression through mitosis is controlled by protein degradation that is mediated by the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome and its associated specificity factors. (sdbonline.org)
  • The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a ubiquitin ligase with essential functions in mitosis, meiosis, and G1 phase of the cell cycle. (unibas.ch)
  • Progression through mitosis depends on a large number of protein complexes that regulate the major structural and physiological changes necessary for faithful chromosome segregation. (sciencemag.org)
  • These protein complexes participate in many cellular functions, including vesicle transport and fusion, fragmentation and reassembly of the golgi stacks during mitosis, nuclear envelope formation and spindle disassembly following mitosis, cell cycle regulation, DNA damage repair, apoptosis, B- and T-cell activation, NF-κB-mediated transcriptional regulation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation and protein degradation (4). (cellsignal.com)
  • The proteolytic events triggered by the APC are required to release sister chromatid cohesion during anaphase, to control the exit from mitosis and to prevent premature entry into S-phase. (portlandpress.com)
  • The mitotic checkpoint, or spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC), is the major cell cycle control mechanism to delay the onset of anaphase during mitosis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 1995) The cyclosome, a large complex containing cyclin-selective ubiquitin ligase activity, targets cyclins for destruction at the end of mitosis. (aimspress.com)
  • We show here that, by promoting proteolysis of cyclins and Cdc25B at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage, APC/C associated with the Cdh1 protein (APC/C Cdh1 ) delays the increase in Cdk1 activity, leading to germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD). (nih.gov)
  • Both processes require the Cdc14 phosphatase, whose release from the nucleolus during anaphase causes dephosphorylation and thereby activation of Cdh1 and accumulation of another protein, Sic1. (sdbonline.org)
  • Localization of the coactivator Cdh1 and the cullin subunit Apc2 in a cryo-electron microscopy model of vertebrate APC/C. Molecular cell, Vol. 20, H. 6. (unibas.ch)
  • We have obtained three-dimensional (3D) models of human and Xenopus APC/C by angular reconstitution and random conical tilt (RCT) analyses of negatively stained cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) preparations, have determined the masses of these particles by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), and have mapped the locations of Cdh1 and Apc2. (unibas.ch)
  • TITLE Expression of the CDH1-associated form of the anaphase-promoting complex in postmitotic neurons JOURNAL Proc. (genome.jp)
  • These progenitors are unique to the second tracheal metamere as homologous cells from other segments, express fizzy-related (fzr) , the Drosophila homolog of CDH1 protein of the APC complex , and enter endocycle and do not contribute to adult trachea. (sdbonline.org)
  • To ensure correct cell cycle progression, accurate timing of APC/C activity is important, which is obtained through its association with both activating and inhibitory subunits. (meta.org)
  • LOCUS NP_001131136 537 aa linear PRI 20-JUN-2020 DEFINITION anaphase-promoting complex subunit 7 isoform b [Homo sapiens]. (genome.jp)
  • Structure and genetics characteristics of APC/C. a Graphic representation of human ( Homo sapiens ) APC/C subunits. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The APC/C is, however, a multisubunit assembly with at least 13 subunits and their function and interaction within the complex is still relatively uncharacterized, particularly in metazoan systems. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • APC/C complex contains three sub-complexes: the scaffolding platform, the TPR lobe and the catalytic core. (biomedcentral.com)
  • TITLE Human BUBR1 is a mitotic checkpoint kinase that monitors CENP-E functions at kinetochores and binds the cyclosome/APC JOURNAL J. Cell Biol. (genome.jp)
  • Gene-array-based analysis of the CFM-4-treated Daoy MB cells indicated down-regulation of a number of key cell growth and metastasis-promoting genes including cell motility regulating small GTP binding protein p21Rac1, and extracellular matrix metallopeptidase (MMP)-10. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We structurally visualize transient ubiquitylation complexes trapped as if in action, biochemically reconstitute novel signaling pathways, develop and use innovative chemical tools to probe ubiquitin signaling, and employ cell biology along with gene targeting to investigate how these pathways are activated precisely when needed. (mpg.de)
  • The large complexes involved in transcription (polymerases and transcription factors) and translation (ribosomes) must be tightly regulated to allow the control of gene expression. (portlandpress.com)
  • both APC2 and PARC have ubiquitin ligase activity. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Structure of the Cul1-Rbx1-Skp1-F boxSkp2 SCF ubiquitin ligase complex. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • CARP-1/CCAR1 is a peri-nuclear phospho-protein that is a co-activator of the cell cycle regulatory anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) E3 ligase. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Proteolysis of mitotic cyclins depends on a multisubunit ubiquitin-protein ligase, the anaphase promoting complex (APC). (sdbonline.org)
  • A key mechanism of CDK inactivation is ubiquitin-mediated cyclin proteolysis, which is triggered by the late mitotic activation of a ubiquitin ligase known as the anaphase-promoting complex (APC). (sdbonline.org)
  • Crystal structure of a complex between the tumor suppressor E3 ligase subunit SPOP and a ubiquitylation substrate. (mpg.de)
  • The anaphase-promoting complex (APC) is a multiprotein complex with E3 ubiquitin ligase activity and is required for ubiquitination of securin and cyclin-B. Several APC-targeting molecules are reported to be oncogenes. (coloproctol.org)
  • The anaphase-promoting complex (APC) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that controls mitotic progression [ 1 2 ]. (coloproctol.org)
  • The anaphase-promoting complex (APC) is an essential ubiquitin ligase that coordinates events in the mitotic and G 1 phases of the cell cycle ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Intriguingly, the E3 ligase activity of TRAF6 was dispensable for stabilizing STAT6, despite TRAF6 promoted its K63 ubiquitination. (bvsalud.org)
  • The anaphase‐promoting complex (APC) or cyclosome is a ubiquitin ligase that initiates anaphase and mitotic exit. (embopress.org)
  • Recently, we have identified ULTRAVIOLET-B-INSENSITIVE4 (UVI4) as a plant-specific component of the APC/C. Here, we demonstrate that UVI4 uses conserved APC/C interaction motifs to counteract the activity of the CELL CYCLE SWITCH52 A1 (CCS52A1) activator subunit, inhibiting the turnover of the A-type cyclin CYCA2;3. (meta.org)
  • Proteolysis commences during anaphase, persisting throughout G1 until it is terminated by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) as cells enter S phase. (sdbonline.org)
  • Following anaphase, dephosphorylation of Hct1 by Cdc14 may help initiate cyclin destruction (Jaspersen, 1999). (sdbonline.org)
  • One of the key regulators of the SAC is the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) which ubiquitinates cyclin B and securin and targets them for proteolysis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • First, enhancing mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC) formation by nocodazole treatment inhibited the degradation of geminin and cyclin A, whereas Nek2A disappeared at a normal rate. (biologists.org)
  • Over the analysed species, the composition of most complexes was highly flexible and only 25% of all genes were never lost. (beds.ac.uk)
  • These evolutionary events affecting genes coding for units in human protein complexes showed a significantly different phylogenetic pattern compared to randomly selected genes. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Alterations of anaphase-promoting complex genes in human colon cancer cells. (uniprot.org)
  • Structure of the Cand1-Cul1-Roc1 complex reveals regulatory mechanisms for the assembly of the multisubunit cullin-dependent ubiquitin ligases. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • It is not known why the APC contains 13 subunits when many other ubiquitin ligases are small single-subunit enzymes. (portlandpress.com)
  • Because APC/C not only ensures cell cycle arrest upon spindle disruption but also promotes cell death in response to prolonged mitotic arrest, it has become an attractive drug target in cancer therapy. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The APC is the target of the spindle checkpoint ( 6 ), a complex process that senses the fidelity of microtubule attachment to chromosomes before allowing chromatid separation and cell division to proceed. (pnas.org)
  • 11. He X, Patterson TE, Sazer S (1997) The Schizosaccharomyces pombe spindle checkpoint protein mad2p blocks anaphase and genetically interacts with the anaphase-promoting complex. (aimspress.com)
  • Biochemical studies have shown that the vertebrate APC contains eight subunits. (genecards.org)
  • The LmgA protein interacts with Mr/Apc2, and they together form a binding site for Vihar, the E2-C type ubiquitin conjugating enzyme. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • This suppression coincided with facilitated complex formation of APC/C. Moreover, our mass spectrometry analysis showed that an APC/C subunit, Cut23/APC8, is acetylated. (biologists.org)
  • A ) The APC/C complex was affinity purified using an APC4 antibody from nocodazole-arrested cells or cells released from nocodazole into MG132 for 2 h. (nih.gov)
  • C ) Stable HeLa cell lines expressing FLAG-tagged Kif18A or Kif18AΔLR were arrested with nocodazole and the APC/C complex purified using an APC4 antibody. (nih.gov)
  • The essential RING-E3 anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C) is a key regulator of cell division in eukaryotes ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • The APC (anaphase-promoting complex) or cyclosome is a large multisubunit protein complex. (portlandpress.com)
  • 537 /product="anaphase-promoting complex subunit 7 isoform b" /note="cyclosome subunit 7" /calculated_mol_wt=59872 Region 135. (genome.jp)
  • Ubiquitination by the anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C) is essential for proliferation in all eukaryotes. (pnas.org)
  • Ube2S and UbcH10 are tightly co-regulated during the cell cycle, and APC/C itself promotes their ubiquitination and degradation. (pnas.org)
  • Here, cryo-EM and biochemistry show that the human E3 anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) and its two partner E2s, UBE2C (aka UBCH10) and UBE2S, adopt specialized catalytic architectures for these two distinct forms of polyubiquitination. (rcsb.org)
  • The human APC/C promotes the degradation of mitotic regulators by assembling K11-linked ubiquitin chains, the formation of which is initiated by its E2 UbcH10. (pnas.org)
  • Focussing on human protein complexes, we based our analysis on a manually curated dataset from HPRD. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Mechanism of ubiquitin-chain formation by the human anaphase-promoting complex. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • These efforts have culminated in recently reported structure models for human MCC:APC/C supra-complexes at near-atomic resolution that shed light on multiple aspects of the mitotic checkpoint mechanisms. (aimspress.com)
  • The mutual inhibition between APC and CDKs explains how cells suppress mitotic CDK activity during G1 and then establish a period with elevated kinase activity from S phase until anaphase (Zachariae, 1998). (sdbonline.org)
  • TITLE Identification of a cullin homology region in a subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex JOURNAL Science 279 (5354), 1219-1222 (1998) PUBMED 9469815 COMMENT REVIEWED REFSEQ: This record has been curated by NCBI staff. (genome.jp)
  • Presence of this receptor complex is essential for B-cell development and function (3). (cellsignal.com)
  • Surprisingly on top of this, there are also indications of OV having a cell cycle promoting affect similar to mitogenic stimulation. (otago.ac.nz)
  • Throughout the life of a cell, complexes are dynamic in their composition due to attachments and shared components. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The combination of core functional units with variably attached modules increases the number of different complexes and thereby the complexity of the cell. (beds.ac.uk)
  • In this review, I discuss the composition of the APC and the functions of its subunits with the goal of gaining insight into the mechanism of the APC as a whole. (portlandpress.com)
  • We computed interologs in 25 different species and predicted the composition of complexes. (beds.ac.uk)
  • We exemplified this trend on the anaphase promoting complex (APC) where a core is highly conserved throughout all metazoans, but flexibility in certain components is observable. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Thus, protein complexes contain not only structural and functional, but also evolutionary cores. (beds.ac.uk)
  • This complexity, comprising both the functional and structural entities of protein complexes, raises the question how the interplay of core complexes with variable attachments evolved. (beds.ac.uk)
  • SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein binds angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and in concert with host proteases, principally transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2), promotes cellular entry. (bvsalud.org)