Anaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following METAPHASE, in which the CHROMATIDS separate and migrate to opposite poles of the spindle.Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome: An E3 ubiquitin ligase primarily involved in regulation of the metaphase-to-anaphase transition during MITOSIS through ubiquitination of specific CELL CYCLE PROTEINS. Enzyme activity is tightly regulated through subunits and cofactors, which modulate activation, inhibition, and substrate specificity. The anaphase-promoting complex, or APC-C, is also involved in tissue differentiation in the PLACENTA, CRYSTALLINE LENS, and SKELETAL MUSCLE, and in regulation of postmitotic NEURONAL PLASTICITY and excitability.Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Complexes: Complexes of enzymes that catalyze the covalent attachment of UBIQUITIN to other proteins by forming a peptide bond between the C-terminal GLYCINE of UBIQUITIN and the alpha-amino groups of LYSINE residues in the protein. The complexes play an important role in mediating the selective-degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins. The complex of enzymes can be broken down into three components that involve activation of ubiquitin (UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES), conjugation of ubiquitin to the ligase complex (UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES), and ligation of ubiquitin to the substrate protein (UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES).Cdc20 Proteins: Highly conserved proteins that specifically bind to and activate the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome, promoting ubiquitination and proteolysis of cell-cycle-regulatory proteins. Cdc20 is essential for anaphase-promoting complex activity, initiation of anaphase, and cyclin proteolysis during mitosis.Cdh1 Proteins: Cdh1 is an activator of the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome, and is involved in substrate recognition. It associates with the complex in late MITOSIS from anaphase through G1 to regulate activity of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and to prevent premature DNA replication.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Apc3 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome: A highly evolutionarily conserved subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC-C) containing multiple 34-amino-acid tetratricopeptide repeats. These domains, also found in Apc subunits 6, 7, and 8, have been shown to mediate protein-protein interactions, suggesting that Apc3 may assist in coordinating the juxtaposition of the catalytic and substrate recognition module subunits relative to co-activators and APC-C inhibitors.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Apc1 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome: The largest subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex. It acts primarily as a scaffold for the proper organization and arrangement of subunits. The C-terminal region of Apc1 contains a series of tandem amino acid repeats that are also seen in the 26S proteasome regulatory particle, and may assist with forming and stabilizing protein-protein interactions.Spindle Apparatus: A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.Securin: Securin is involved in the control of the metaphase-anaphase transition during MITOSIS. It promotes the onset of anaphase by blocking SEPARASE function and preventing proteolysis of cohesin and separation of sister CHROMATIDS. Overexpression of securin is associated with NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION and tumor formation.Cyclin B: A cyclin subtype that is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE. It stimulates the G2/M phase transition by activating CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE.F-Box Proteins: A family of proteins that share the F-BOX MOTIF and are involved in protein-protein interactions. They play an important role in process of protein ubiquition by associating with a variety of substrates and then associating into SCF UBIQUITIN LIGASE complexes. They are held in the ubiquitin-ligase complex via binding to SKP DOMAIN PROTEINS.Genes, APC: Tumor suppressor genes located in the 5q21 region on the long arm of human chromosome 5. The mutation of these genes is associated with familial adenomatous polyposis (ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI) and GARDNER SYNDROME, as well as some sporadic colorectal cancers.Metaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.Ligases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a bond between two substrate molecules, coupled with the hydrolysis of a pyrophosphate bond in ATP or a similar energy donor. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 6.M Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints: The cellular signaling system that halts the progression of cells through MITOSIS or MEIOSIS if a defect that will affect CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION is detected.Cyclin A2: A widely-expressed cyclin A subtype that functions during the G1/S and G2/M transitions of the CELL CYCLE.Apc5 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome: A subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex whose primary function is to provide structural support for the catalytic and substrate-recognition modules of the complex. Apc5, along with Apc4, tethers the tetratricopeptide-coactivator binding subcomplex to the main structural subunit, Apc1.Mad2 Proteins: Mad2 is a component of the spindle-assembly checkpoint apparatus. It binds to and inhibits the Cdc20 activator subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex, preventing the onset of anaphase until all chromosomes are properly aligned at the metaphase plate. Mad2 is required for proper microtubule capture at KINETOCHORES.Cyclin B1: A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with MICROTUBULES during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.Chromosome Segregation: The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases: A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Prometaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following PROPHASE, when the breakdown of the NUCLEAR ENVELOPE occurs and the MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS enters the nuclear region and attaches to the KINETOCHORES.CDC2 Protein Kinase: Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Ubiquitination: The act of ligating UBIQUITINS to PROTEINS to form ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes to label proteins for transport to the PROTEASOME ENDOPEPTIDASE COMPLEX where proteolysis occurs.Geminin: Geminin inhibits DNA replication by preventing the incorporation of MCM complex into pre-replication complex. It is absent during G1 phase of the CELL CYCLE and accumulates through S, G2,and M phases. It is degraded at the metaphase-anaphase transition by the ANAPHASE-PROMOTING COMPLEX-CYCLOSOME.Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Apc2 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome: Together with the Apc11 subunit, forms the catalytic core of the E3 ubiquitin ligase anaphase-promoting complex (APC-C). Its N-terminus has cullin domains which associate with the RING FINGER DOMAINS of Apc11. Apc2 also interacts with the E2 ubiquitin ligases involved in APC-C ubiquitination reactions.Cyclin A: A cyclin subtype that has specificity for CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2. It plays a role in progression of the CELL CYCLE through G1/S and G2/M phase transitions.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Schizosaccharomyces: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.Apc8 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome: A highly conserved subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC-C) containing multiple 34-amino-acid tetratricopeptide repeats. These domains, also found in Apc3, Apc6, and Apc7, have been shown to mediate protein-protein interactions, suggesting that Apc8 may assist in coordinating the juxtaposition of the catalytic and substrate recognition module subunits relative to coactivators and APC-C inhibitors.Separase: Separase is a caspase-like cysteine protease, which plays a central role in triggering ANAPHASE by cleaving the SCC1/RAD21 subunit of the cohesin complex. Cohesin holds the sister CHROMATIDS together during METAPHASE and its cleavage results in chromosome segregation.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Nocodazole: Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Telophase: The final phase of cell nucleus division following ANAPHASE, in which two daughter nuclei are formed, the CYTOPLASM completes division, and the CHROMOSOMES lose their distinctness and are transformed into CHROMATIN threads.Aurora Kinases: A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.Chromatids: Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mos: Cellular proteins encoded by the c-mos genes (GENES, MOS). They function in the cell cycle to maintain MATURATION PROMOTING FACTOR in the active state and have protein-serine/threonine kinase activity. Oncogenic transformation can take place when c-mos proteins are expressed at the wrong time.Xenopus Proteins: Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.G1 Phase: The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.Genes, cdc: Genes that code for proteins that regulate the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. These genes form a regulatory network that culminates in the onset of MITOSIS by activating the p34cdc2 protein (PROTEIN P34CDC2).Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Protein Subunits: Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Ubiquitin: A highly conserved 76-amino acid peptide universally found in eukaryotic cells that functions as a marker for intracellular PROTEIN TRANSPORT and degradation. Ubiquitin becomes activated through a series of complicated steps and forms an isopeptide bond to lysine residues of specific proteins within the cell. These "ubiquitinated" proteins can be recognized and degraded by proteosomes or be transported to specific compartments within the cell.Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzymes: A class of enzymes that form a thioester bond to UBIQUITIN with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES. They transfer ubiquitin to the LYSINE of a substrate protein with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.Apc6 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome: A highly conserved subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC-C) containing multiple 34 amino acid tetratricopeptide repeats. These domains, also found in Apc3, Apc7, and Apc8, have been shown to mediate protein-protein interactions, suggesting that Apc6 may assist in coordinating the juxtaposition of the catalytic and substrate recognition module subunits relative to coactivators and APC-C inhibitors.SKP Cullin F-Box Protein Ligases: A subset of ubiquitin protein ligases that are formed by the association of a SKP DOMAIN PROTEIN, a CULLIN DOMAIN PROTEIN and a F-BOX DOMAIN PROTEIN.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Ubiquitins: A family of proteins that are structurally-related to Ubiquitin. Ubiquitins and ubiquitin-like proteins participate in diverse cellular functions, such as protein degradation and HEAT-SHOCK RESPONSE, by conjugation to other proteins.Kinetochores: Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex: A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.S Phase: Phase of the CELL CYCLE following G1 and preceding G2 when the entire DNA content of the nucleus is replicated. It is achieved by bidirectional replication at multiple sites along each chromosome.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Cytokinesis: The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.Calcium-Binding Proteins: Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.G2 Phase: The period of the CELL CYCLE following DNA synthesis (S PHASE) and preceding M PHASE (cell division phase). The CHROMOSOMES are tetraploid in this point.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Centromere: The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.Apc11 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome: Together with the Apc2 subunit, forms the catalytic core of the E3 ubiquitin ligase, anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome. It has a RING H2 domain which interacts with the cullin domain of Apc2. Apc11 also interacts with the E2 ubiquitin ligases involved in APC-C ubiquitination reactions.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein: A negative regulator of beta-catenin signaling which is mutant in ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI and GARDNER SYNDROME.Cadherins: Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Cyclins: A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Protein Stability: The ability of a protein to retain its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to physical or chemical manipulations.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone: Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Apc7 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome: A highly conserved subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC-C) containing multiple 34 amino acid tetratricopeptide repeats. These domains, also found in Apc3, Apc6, and Apc8, have been shown to mediate protein-protein interactions, suggesting that Apc7 may assist in coordinating the juxtaposition of the catalytic and substrate recognition module subunits relative to coactivators and APC-C inhibitors.Cyclin-Dependent Kinases: Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Kinesin: A microtubule-associated mechanical adenosine triphosphatase, that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move organelles along microtubules toward the plus end of the microtubule. The protein is found in squid axoplasm, optic lobes, and in bovine brain. Bovine kinesin is a heterotetramer composed of two heavy (120 kDa) and two light (62 kDa) chains. EC 3.6.1.-.Prophase: The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.Bivalvia: A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of mussels; clams; OYSTERS; COCKLES; and SCALLOPS. They are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical hinged shell and a muscular foot used for burrowing and anchoring.Endoreduplication: A type of nuclear polyploidization in which multiple cycles of DNA REPLICATION occur in the absence of CELL DIVISION and result in a POLYPLOID CELL.Endopeptidases: A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.Tubulin: A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.Interphase: The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).Aurora Kinase B: An aurora kinase that is a component of the chromosomal passenger protein complex and is involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. It mediates proper CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION and contractile ring function during CYTOKINESIS.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Spermatocytes: Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Apc10 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome: Apc10 is necessary for coactivator-dependent substrate recognition by the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome. It binds the Apc2 subunit, which is a part of the catalytic core, and interacts with coactivators Cdh1 or Cdc20 to recruit substrates to the complex.Centrosome: The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Adenomatous Polyposis Coli: A polyposis syndrome due to an autosomal dominant mutation of the APC genes (GENES, APC) on CHROMOSOME 5. The syndrome is characterized by the development of hundreds of ADENOMATOUS POLYPS in the COLON and RECTUM of affected individuals by early adulthood.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Saccharomycetales: An order of fungi in the phylum Ascomycota that multiply by budding. They include the telomorphic ascomycetous yeasts which are found in a very wide range of habitats.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Macropodidae: A family of herbivorous leaping MAMMALS of Australia, New Guinea, and adjacent islands. Members include kangaroos, wallabies, quokkas, and wallaroos.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Chromosomes, Fungal: Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Cell Cycle Checkpoints: Regulatory signaling systems that control the progression through the CELL CYCLE. They ensure that the cell has completed, in the correct order and without mistakes, all the processes required to replicate the GENOME and CYTOPLASM, and divide them equally between two daughter cells. If cells sense they have not completed these processes or that the environment does not have the nutrients and growth hormones in place to proceed, then the cells are restrained (or "arrested") until the processes are completed and growth conditions are suitable.Dyneins: A family of multisubunit cytoskeletal motor proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power a variety of cellular functions. Dyneins fall into two major classes based upon structural and functional criteria.Chromosomes, Human: Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.Nondisjunction, Genetic: The failure of homologous CHROMOSOMES or CHROMATIDS to segregate during MITOSIS or MEIOSIS with the result that one daughter cell has both of a pair of parental chromosomes or chromatids and the other has none.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Proteolysis: Cleavage of proteins into smaller peptides or amino acids either by PROTEASES or non-enzymatically (e.g., Hydrolysis). It does not include Protein Processing, Post-Translational.Multiprotein Complexes: Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Phosphoprotein Phosphatases: A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Cell Nucleolus: Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Proton-Translocating ATPases: Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.Protein Phosphatase 2: A phosphoprotein phosphatase subtype that is comprised of a catalytic subunit and two different regulatory subunits. At least two genes encode isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit, while several isoforms of regulatory subunits exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. Protein phosphatase 2 acts on a broad variety of cellular proteins and may play a role as a regulator of intracellular signaling processes.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.DNA, Catenated: CIRCULAR DNA that is interlaced together as links in a chain. It is used as an assay for the activity of DNA TOPOISOMERASES. Catenated DNA is attached loop to loop in contrast to CONCATENATED DNA which is attached end to end.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Potoroidae: A family of rat kangaroos found in and around Australia. Genera include Potorous and Bettongia.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases: An enzyme group that specifically dephosphorylates phosphotyrosyl residues in selected proteins. Together with PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE, it regulates tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in cellular signal transduction and may play a role in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.Chromosomal Instability: An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.Protein C: A vitamin-K dependent zymogen present in the blood, which, upon activation by thrombin and thrombomodulin exerts anticoagulant properties by inactivating factors Va and VIIIa at the rate-limiting steps of thrombin formation.Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Dipodomys: A genus of the family Heteromyidae which contains 22 species. Their physiology is adapted for the conservation of water, and they seldom drink water. They are found in arid or desert habitats and travel by hopping on their hind limbs.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Aneuploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Sister Chromatid Exchange: An exchange of segments between the sister chromatids of a chromosome, either between the sister chromatids of a meiotic tetrad or between the sister chromatids of a duplicated somatic chromosome. Its frequency is increased by ultraviolet and ionizing radiation and other mutagenic agents and is particularly high in BLOOM SYNDROME.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Microscopy, Video: Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.Diptera: An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).PhosphoproteinsAdenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Microinjections: The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Vaccines, Subunit: Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.Nuclear Matrix-Associated Proteins: A broad category of nuclear proteins that are components of or participate in the formation of the NUCLEAR MATRIX.beta Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Vacuolar Proton-Translocating ATPases: Proton-translocating ATPases that are involved in acidification of a variety of intracellular compartments.Salamandridae: A family of Urodela consisting of 15 living genera and about 42 species and occurring in North America, Europe, Asia, and North Africa.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Intestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the INTESTINES.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Ovum: A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
ROC1, a homolog of APC11, represents a family of cullin partners with an associated ubiquitin ligase activity. (1/10)We have identified two highly conserved RING finger proteins, ROC1 and ROC2, that are homologous to APC11, a subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex. ROC1 and ROC2 commonly interact with all cullins while APC11 specifically interacts with APC2, a cullin-related APC subunit. YeastROC1 encodes an essential gene whose reduced expression resulted in multiple, elongated buds and accumulation of Sic1p and Cln2p. ROC1 and APC11 immunocomplexes can catalyze isopeptide ligations to form polyubiquitin chains in an E1- and E2-dependent manner. ROC1 mutations completely abolished their ligase activity without noticeable changes in associated proteins. Ubiquitination of phosphorylated I kappa B alpha can be catalyzed by the ROC1 immunocomplex in vitro. Hence, combinations of ROC/APC11 and cullin proteins proteins potentially constitute a wide variety of ubiquitin ligases. (+info)
Cdc53/cullin and the essential Hrt1 RING-H2 subunit of SCF define a ubiquitin ligase module that activates the E2 enzyme Cdc34. (2/10)SCFCdc4 (Skp1, Cdc53/cullin, F-box protein) defines a family of modular ubiquitin ligases (E3s) that regulate diverse processes including cell cycle, immune response, and development. Mass spectrometric analysis of proteins copurifying with Cdc53 identified the RING-H2 finger protein Hrt1 as a subunit of SCF. Hrt1 shows striking similarity to the Apc11 subunit of anaphase-promoting complex. Conditional inactivation of hrt1(ts) results in stabilization of the SCFCdc4 substrates Sic1 and Cln2 and cell cycle arrest at G1/S. Hrt1 assembles into recombinant SCF complexes and individually binds Cdc4, Cdc53 and Cdc34, but not Skp1. Hrt1 stimulates the E3 activity of recombinant SCF potently and enables the reconstitution of Cln2 ubiquitination by recombinant SCFGrr1. Surprisingly, SCF and the Cdc53/Hrt1 subcomplex activate autoubiquitination of Cdc34 E2 enzyme by a mechanism that does not appear to require a reactive thiol. The highly conserved human HRT1 complements the lethality of hrt1Delta, and human HRT2 binds CUL-1. We conclude that Cdc53/Hrt1 comprise a highly conserved module that serves as the functional core of a broad variety of heteromeric ubiquitin ligases. (+info)
The APC11 RING-H2 finger mediates E2-dependent ubiquitination. (3/10)Polyubiquitination marks proteins for degradation by the 26S proteasome and is carried out by a cascade of enzymes that includes ubiquitin-activating enzymes (E1s), ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2s), and ubiquitin ligases (E3s). The anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C) comprises a multisubunit ubiquitin ligase that mediates mitotic progression. Here, we provide evidence that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RING-H2 finger protein Apc11 defines the minimal ubiquitin ligase activity of the APC. We found that the integrity of the Apc11p RING-H2 finger was essential for budding yeast cell viability, Using purified, recombinant proteins we showed that Apc11p interacted directly with the Ubc4 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme (E2). Furthermore, purified Apc11p was capable of mediating E1- and E2-dependent ubiquitination of protein substrates, including Clb2p, in vitro. The ability of Apc11p to act as an E3 was dependent on the integrity of the RING-H2 finger, but did not require the presence of the cullin-like APC subunit Apc2p. We suggest that Apc11p is responsible for recruiting E2s to the APC and for mediating the subsequent transfer of ubiquitin to APC substrates in vivo. (+info)
The RING-H2 finger protein APC11 and the E2 enzyme UBC4 are sufficient to ubiquitinate substrates of the anaphase-promoting complex. (4/10)The anaphase-promoting complex (APC) is a cell cycle-regulated ubiquitin-protein ligase that targets cyclin B, securin and other destruction box containing proteins for proteolysis. Nine APC subunits have been identified in vertebrates and eleven in yeast, but for none of them it is known how they contribute to the catalysis of ubiquitination reactions. Here we report the mass spectrometric identification of CDC26 and of the RING-H2 finger protein APC11 in the human APC. We have expressed these proteins and several other APC subunits in Escherichia coli and have tested their activities in vitro. We find that APC11 alone is sufficient to allow the synthesis of multiubiquitin chains in the presence of E1 and UBC4. These multiubiquitin chains are partly unanchored and partly bound to APC11 itself. APC11 and UBC4 are also able to ubiquitinate securin and cyclin B, but these reactions show a decreased dependency on the destruction box. The integrity of the putative zinc binding RING-H2 finger is required for the ability of APC11 to support ubiquitination reactions. These results suggest that APC11 and UBC4 catalyze the formation of isopeptide bonds in APC-mediated ubiquitination reactions. (+info)
APC2 Cullin protein and APC11 RING protein comprise the minimal ubiquitin ligase module of the anaphase-promoting complex. (5/10)In mitosis, the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) regulates the onset of sister-chromatid separation and exit from mitosis by mediating the ubiquitination and degradation of the securin protein and mitotic cyclins. With the use of a baculoviral expression system, we have reconstituted the ubiquitin ligase activity of human APC. In combination with Ubc4 or UbcH10, a heterodimeric complex of APC2 and APC11 is sufficient to catalyze the ubiquitination of human securin and cyclin B1. However, the minimal APC2/11 ubiquitin ligase module does not possess substrate specificity, because it also ubiquitinates the destruction box deletion mutants of securin and cyclin B1. Both APC11 and UbcH10 bind to the C-terminal cullin homology domain of APC2, whereas Ubc4 interacts with APC11 directly. Zn(2+)-binding and mutagenesis experiments indicate that APC11 binds Zn(2+) at a 1:3 M ratio. Unlike the two Zn(2+) ions of the canonical RING-finger motif, the third Zn(2+) ion of APC11 is not essential for its ligase activity. Surprisingly, with Ubc4 as the E2 enzyme, Zn(2+) ions alone are sufficient to catalyze the ubiquitination of cyclin B1. Therefore, the Zn(2+) ions of the RING finger family of ubiquitin ligases may be directly involved in catalysis. (+info)
TPR subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex mediate binding to the activator protein CDH1. (6/10)BACKGROUND: Chromosome segregation and mitotic exit depend on activation of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) by the substrate adaptor proteins CDC20 and CDH1. The APC is a ubiquitin ligase composed of at least 11 subunits. The interaction of APC2 and APC11 with E2 enzymes is sufficient for ubiquitination reactions, but the functions of most other subunits are unknown. RESULTS: We have biochemically characterized subcomplexes of the human APC. One subcomplex, containing APC2/11, APC1, APC4, and APC5, can assemble multiubiquitin chains but is unable to bind CDH1 and to ubiquitinate substrates. The other subcomplex contains all known APC subunits except APC2/11. This subcomplex can recruit CDH1 but fails to support any ubiquitination reaction. In vitro, the C termini of CDC20 and CDH1 bind to the closely related TPR subunits APC3 and APC7. Homology modeling predicts that these proteins are similar in structure to the peroxisomal import receptor PEX5, which binds cargo proteins via their C termini. APC activation by CDH1 depends on a conserved C-terminal motif that is also found in CDC20 and APC10. CONCLUSIONS: APC1, APC4, and APC5 may connect APC2/11 with TPR subunits. TPR domains in APC3 and APC7 recruit CDH1 to the APC and may thereby bring substrates into close proximity of APC2/11 and E2 enzymes. In analogy to PEX5, the different TPR subunits of the APC might function as receptors that interact with the C termini of regulatory proteins such as CDH1, CDC20, and APC10. (+info)
Localization of the coactivator Cdh1 and the cullin subunit Apc2 in a cryo-electron microscopy model of vertebrate APC/C. (7/10)The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a ubiquitin ligase with essential functions in mitosis, meiosis, and G1 phase of the cell cycle. APC/C recognizes substrates via coactivator proteins such as Cdh1, and bound substrates are ubiquitinated by E2 enzymes that interact with a hetero-dimer of the RING subunit Apc11 and the cullin Apc2. We have obtained three-dimensional (3D) models of human and Xenopus APC/C by angular reconstitution and random conical tilt (RCT) analyses of negatively stained cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) preparations, have determined the masses of these particles by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), and have mapped the locations of Cdh1 and Apc2. These proteins are located on the same side of the asymmetric APC/C, implying that this is where substrates are ubiquitinated. We have further identified a large flexible domain in APC/C that adopts a different orientation upon Cdh1 binding. Cdh1 may thus activate APC/C both by recruiting substrates and by inducing conformational changes. (+info)
Cell cycle deregulation by a poxvirus partial mimic of anaphase-promoting complex subunit 11. (8/10)(+info)
The APC/C is a large complex of 11-13 subunit proteins, including a cullin (Apc2) and RING (Apc11) subunit much like SCF. Other ... Anaphase-promoting complex (also called the cyclosome or APC/C) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that marks target cell cycle proteins ... The catalytic core of the APC/C consists of the cullin subunit Apc2 and RING H2 domain subunit Apc11. These two subunits ... anaphase-promoting complex at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) 3D electron microscopy ...
2004). "The Apc5 Subunit of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome Interacts with Poly(A) Binding Protein and Represses ... RING-H2 finger protein APC11 and the E2 enzyme UBC4 are sufficient to ubiquitinate substrates of the anaphase-promoting complex ... Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 5 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ANAPC5 gene. The anaphase-promoting complex ... "The Apc5 Subunit of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome Interacts with Poly(A) Binding Protein and Represses Internal ...
Vodermaier HC, Gieffers C, Maurer-Stroh S, Eisenhaber F, Peters JM (Sep 2003). "TPR subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex ... "Mammalian p55CDC mediates association of the spindle checkpoint protein Mad2 with the cyclosome/anaphase-promoting complex, and ... RING-H2 finger protein APC11 and the E2 enzyme UBC4 are sufficient to ubiquitinate substrates of the anaphase-promoting complex ... "TPR subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex mediate binding to the activator protein CDH1". Current Biology. 13 (17): 1459- ...
2004). "The Arabidopsis anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome: molecular and genetic characterization of the APC2 subunit". ... "APC2 Cullin protein and APC11 RING protein comprise the minimal ubiquitin ligase module of the anaphase-promoting complex". Mol ... A large protein complex, termed the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), or the cyclosome, promotes metaphase-anaphase transition ... 2004). "TPR subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex mediate binding to the activator protein CDH1". Curr. Biol. 13 (17): ...
"The Apc5 subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome interacts with poly(A) binding protein and represses internal ... RING-H2 finger protein APC11 and the E2 enzyme UBC4 are sufficient to ubiquitinate substrates of the anaphase-promoting complex ... "TPR subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex mediate binding to the activator protein CDH1". Current Biology. 13 (17): 1459- ... This protein is a component of anaphase-promoting complex (APC), which is composed of eight protein subunits and highly ...
Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 7 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ANAPC7 gene. Multiple transcript variants ... This gene encodes a tetratricopeptide repeat containing component of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), a large ... RING-H2 finger protein APC11 and the E2 enzyme UBC4 are sufficient to ubiquitinate substrates of the anaphase-promoting complex ... 2004). "TPR subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex mediate binding to the activator protein CDH1". Curr. Biol. 13 (17): ...
A large protein complex, termed the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), or the cyclosome, promotes metaphase-anaphase transition ... 2004). "TPR subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex mediate binding to the activator protein CDH1". Curr. Biol. 13 (17): ... RING-H2 finger protein APC11 and the E2 enzyme UBC4 are sufficient to ubiquitinate substrates of the anaphase-promoting complex ... Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ANAPC4 gene. ...
Complete information for ANAPC1 gene (Protein Coding), Anaphase Promoting Complex Subunit 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Complete information for ANAPC5 gene (Protein Coding), Anaphase Promoting Complex Subunit 5, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
AANS Neurosurgeon Faulty Cell Signaling Derails Cerebral Cortex Development, Could It Lead to Autism? - AANS Neurosurgeon
As the embryonic brain develops, an incredibly complex cascade of cellular events occur, starting with progenitors - the originating cells that generate neurons and spur proper cortex development. If this cascade malfunctions - if one tiny protein doesnt do its job - then the brain can develop abnormally.. UNC scientists led by Eva Anton, PhD, professor of cell biology and physiology in the UNC School of Medicine, have shown how the deletion of the protein APC in progenitor cells leads to massive disruption of brain development and the canonical Wnt protein pathway - a signaling cascade- that previously was linked to genes associated with autism.. "Although our experiments were done in mouse genetic models, human APC mutations have been associated with autism," said Anton, a member of the UNC Neuroscience Center and the new UNC Autism Research Center. "These mutations disrupt the ability of brain progenitors to respond appropriately to the environmental cues necessary for them to divide, and to ...
Localization of the coactivator Cdh1 and the cullin subunit Apc2 in a cryo-electron microscopy model of vertebrate APC/C - edoc
The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a ubiquitin ligase with essential functions in mitosis, meiosis, and G1 phase of the cell cycle. APC/C recognizes substrates via coactivator proteins such as Cdh1, and bound substrates are ubiquitinated by E2 enzymes that interact with a hetero-dimer of the RING subunit Apc11 and the cullin Apc2. We have obtained three-dimensional (3D) models of human and Xenopus APC/C by angular reconstitution and random conical tilt (RCT) analyses of negatively stained cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) preparations, have determined the masses of these particles by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), and have mapped the locations of Cdh1 and Apc2. These proteins are located on the same side of the asymmetric APC/C, implying that this is where substrates are ubiquitinated. We have further identified a large flexible domain in APC/C that adopts a different orientation upon Cdh1 binding. Cdh1 may thus activate APC/C both by recruiting substrates ...
Figure 5. ExoFlow-ONE dyes multiplexed with antibody-conjugated dyes are able to identify subpopulations of EVs. Murine-derived EVs were isolated and co-stained with Emerald Green ExoFlow-ONE and an APC-conjugated antibody against a cell adhesion protein (A) or Emerald Green ExoFlow-ONE and a PE-conjugated antibody against a macrophage membrane protein (B). In panel A, right, two distinct populations of EVs can be seen (Emerald Green axis), each of which expresses a range of the cell adhesion protein (APC axis). In contrast, in panel B, right, while the two distinct populations of EVs can still be seen (Emerald Green axis) the EVs do not appear to express the macrophage-specific protein. Thus, ExoFlow-ONE dyes multiplexed with antibody-conjugated dyes can be used to easily detect subpopulations of EVs. ...
D partement de Pharmacologie de Bordeaux. Recherche, expertise et formation en Pharmacologie Exp rimentale, Pharmacotoxicologie, Pharmacologie Clinique, Pharmaco- pid miologie, Pharmacod pendance, Pharmacovigilance et Pharmaco- conomie.
Recombinant Human ANAPC11 293 Cell Lysate ANAPC11-8869HCL - Creative BioMart
... anaphase-promoting complex subunit 11; APC11; Apc11p; HSPC214; MGC882; cyclosome subunit 11; APC11 anaphase promoting complex ... ANAPC11; anaphase promoting complex subunit 11; anaphase promoting complex subunit 11 (yeast APC11 homolog); ... Antigen standard for anaphase promoting complex subunit 11 (ANAPC11), transcript variant 1 is a lysate prepared from HEK293T ... APC/C complex, organism-specific biosystem; APC/C complex, conserved biosystem; APC/C-mediated degradation of cell cycle ...https://www.creativebiomart.net/description_410515_318.htm
Anaphase-promoting complex - Wikipedia
The APC/C is a large complex of 11-13 subunit proteins, including a cullin (Apc2) and RING (Apc11) subunit much like SCF. Other ... Anaphase-promoting complex (also called the cyclosome or APC/C) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that marks target cell cycle proteins ... The catalytic core of the APC/C consists of the cullin subunit Apc2 and RING H2 domain subunit Apc11. These two subunits ... anaphase-promoting complex at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) 3D electron microscopy ...https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anaphase-promoting_complex
Cells | Free Full-Text | Mcl-1 Ubiquitination: Unique Regulation of an Essential Survival Protein | HTML
... anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome). In the SCF complex, an interchangeable F-box protein confers substrate specificity, ... The APC/C consists of at least thirteen different subunits, including the E2-binding RING finger protein APC11 and one of the ... RING finger E3 ubiquitin-ligases can function as monomers, dimers or multi-subunit complexes. Multi-subunit RING E3s are ... Formation of the Noxa/Mcl-1 complex might promote the binding of Mule through a distinct mechanism than docking of the Mule BH3 ...http://www.mdpi.com/2073-4409/3/2/418/htm
Domain assignment for YDL008W from Saccharomyces cerevisiae SGD
APC11 SGDID:S000002166, Chr IV from 433495-433992, Verified ORF, "Catalytic core subunit of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex/ ... Cyclosome (APC/C), which is a ubiquitin-protein ligase required for degradation of anaphase inhibitors, including mitotic ... cyclins, during the metaphase/anaphase transition". Sequence. MKVKINEVHSVFAWSWHIPSTSDEDAANNDPIGNDEDEDVCGICRASYNGTCPSCKFPGD ...http://supfam.org/SUPERFAMILY/cgi-bin/gene.cgi?genome=sc&seqid=YDL008W
Interactive Fly, Drosophila
The anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC) is an unusually complicated ubiquitin ligase, composed of 13 core subunits ... The cullin subunit APC2 and its binding partner, the RING finger protein APC11, are found in a subcomplex with APC1, APC4, and ... Microinjection of antibodies against subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome or against human Cdc20 (fizzy) ... one of the substrate-targeting subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC). However, Cdh1, another targeting subunit used ...http://www.sdbonline.org/sites/fly/newgene/fizyrel2.htm
Anaphase-promoting complex, subunit CDC26 (IPR018860) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI
The anaphase-promoting complex (APC) or cyclosome is a multi-subunit E3 protein ubiquitin ligase that regulates important ... RING-H2 finger protein APC11 and the E2 enzyme UBC4 are sufficient to ubiquitinate substrates of the anaphase-promoting complex ... GO:0031145 anaphase-promoting complex-dependent catabolic process GO:0030071 regulation of mitotic metaphase/anaphase ... This entry represents subunit CDC26, whose exact function is not known [PMID: 10922056]. ...http://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/entry/IPR018860
CBFβ (D4N2N) Rabbit mAb, UniProt ID Q13951 #62184 to MSH6 (3E1) Mouse mAb, UniProt ID P52701 #12988 from Cell Signaling...
... activity of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), whose main function is to trigger the transition of the cell ... via the RING-finger domain-containing subunit, APC11 (3-5). APC/C activity is also strictly dependent upon its association with ... to the Sec23/24 complex to form a prebudding complex, which directly binds target molecules (2-4). The prebudding complex ... hMutS-α is part of the BRCA1-associated surveillance complex (BASC), a complex that also contains BRCA1, MLH1, ATM, BLM, PMS2 ...https://www.cellsignal.com/1/1/index124.html
lemmingA encodes the Apc11 subunit of the APC/C in Drosophila melanogaster that forms a ternary complex with the E2-C type...
The anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) plays a pivotal role in these transitions by recognizing and marking ... lemmingA encodes the Apc11 subunit of the APC/C in Drosophila melanogaster that forms a ternary complex with the E2-C type ... The lmgA ORF codes for a putative protein with more than 80% sequence homology to the APC11 subunit of the human APC/C. The 85 ... Based on the presented data, we suggest that the Lmg/Apc11 subunit recruits the E2-C type ubiquitin conjugating enzyme, Vihar, ...http://www.research.lancs.ac.uk/portal/en/publications/lemminga-encodes-the-apc11-subunit-of-the-apcc-in-drosophila-melanogaster-that-forms-a-ternary-complex-with-the-e2c-type-ubiquitin-conjugating-enzyme-vihar-and-morulaapc2
SMART: Secondary literature for UBCc domain
The anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C) comprises a multisubunit ubiquitin ligase that mediates mitotic progression ... The RUNX genes encode the alpha subunit of the transcription factor PEBP2/CBF. The beta subunit consists of the non-RUNX ... Here, we provide evidence that the Saccharomyces cerevisiae RING-H2 finger protein Apc11 defines the minimal ubiquitin ligase ... The active site, consisting of FAD, Cys44, and Cys49 from one subunit and His457 from the other subunit, is highly conserved. ...http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de/smart/show_secondary.cgi?domain=UBCc
ANAPC5 - Wikipedia
2004). "The Apc5 Subunit of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome Interacts with Poly(A) Binding Protein and Represses ... RING-H2 finger protein APC11 and the E2 enzyme UBC4 are sufficient to ubiquitinate substrates of the anaphase-promoting complex ... Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 5 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ANAPC5 gene. The anaphase-promoting complex ... "The Apc5 Subunit of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome Interacts with Poly(A) Binding Protein and Represses Internal ...https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ANAPC5
Localization of the coactivator Cdh1 and the cullin subunit Apc2 in a cryo-electron microscopy model of vertebrate APC/C - edoc
The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a ubiquitin ligase with essential functions in mitosis, meiosis, and G1 ... and bound substrates are ubiquitinated by E2 enzymes that interact with a hetero-dimer of the RING subunit Apc11 and the cullin ... Localization of the coactivator Cdh1 and the cullin subunit Apc2 in a cryo-electron microscopy model of vertebrate APC/C ... Localization of the coactivator Cdh1 and the cullin subunit Apc2 in a cryo-electron microscopy model of vertebrate APC/C. ...http://edoc.unibas.ch/3791/
Cell Cycle Regulation by Poxviruses
APC11) of the Anaphase Promoting Complex or Cyclosome (APC/C). APC/C is a ubiquitin ligase and through this activity it ... The parapoxvirus, orf virus (OV) encodes a RING-H2 protein that is a homologue of subunit 11 ( ... The OV homologue of APC11, referred to as PACR (Poxvirus APC/C Regulator), shares with APC11 the ability to bind APC2 and ... Structural modelling of PACR and M026L shows substitution of amino acids in loop 2 and the α2-helix region, which in APC11 form ...https://ourarchive.otago.ac.nz/handle/10523/5089
Research | Max Planck Institute of Biochemistry
Cryo electron microscopy reconstructions of Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome, highlighting how the APC2-APC11 cullin-RING ... Crystal structure of a complex between the tumor suppressor E3 ligase subunit SPOP and a ubiquitylation substrate. The ... Cryo electron microscopy reconstructions of Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome, highlighting how the APC2-APC11 cullin-RING ... Cryo electron microscopy reconstructions of Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome, highlighting how the APC2-APC11 cullin-RING ...http://www.biochem.mpg.de/5557873/research
The RIO protein kinase-encoding gene Sj-riok-2 is involved in key reproductive processes in Schistosoma japonicum | Parasites &...
In the cell cycle, the activation of anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC/C), a conserved multi-subunit E3 ubiquitin ( ... as important substrate-and activator-binding subunits, respectively [79, 80], assembled with catalytic core member Apc 11 and ... Crystal structure of the APC10/DOC1 subunit of the human anaphase-promoting complex. Nat Struct Biol. 2001;8:784-8.View Article ... Identification of a cullin homology region in a subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex. Science. 1998;279:1219-22.View ...https://parasitesandvectors.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13071-017-2524-7
Gentaur Molecular :US Biomax \ Hepatocellular carcinoma tissue array, 63 cases 63 cores, replaced by LV809 \ BS03014
ANAPC11 HSPC214] Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 11 (APC11) (Cyclosome subunit 11) (Hepatocellular carcinoma-associated RING ... VPS37A HCRP1] Vacuolar protein sorting-associated protein 37A (hVps37A) (ESCRT-I complex subunit VPS37A) (Hepatocellular ...http://www.antibody-antibodies.com/product_det.php?id=1004951&supplier=search&name=Hepatocellular%20carcinoma%20tissue%20array,%2063%20cases_63%20cores,%20replaced%20by%20LV809
Identification of a physiological E2 module for the human anaphase-promoting complex | PNAS
UbcH10 binds the RING subunit Apc11 and the cullin subunit Apc2 (25, 34). Consistent with a different mode of APC/C interaction ... 2006) The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome: A machine designed to destroy. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 7:644-656. ... 2001) Anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome-dependent proteolysis of human cyclin A starts at the beginning of mitosis and is ... 2007) The END network couples spindle pole assembly to inhibition of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome in early mitosis ...https://www.pnas.org/content/106/43/18213?ijkey=6803e6fc346ade32dd2daf90d473ddccb641d948&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha
Mechanisms controlling the temporal degradation of Nek2A and Kif18A by the APC/C-Cdc20 complex. - PubMed - NCBI
Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Complexes/physiology*. Substances. *Apc8 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome ... APC11 levels were used to determine that the APC2 depletion had worked. (B) Bar graph indicating the amount of MCC or Nek2A ... The Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) in complex with its co-activator Cdc20 is responsible for targeting proteins ... Nek2A and the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC) have an overlap in APC/C subunit requirements for binding and we propose that ...https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23288039
anaphase-promoting complex (APC): the sum of its parts? | Biochemical Society Transactions | Portland Press
The APC (anaphase-promoting complex) or cyclosome is a large multisubunit protein complex. It has 13 core components (with ... Indeed, in vitro experiments suggested that Apc11 alone or an Apc2-Apc11 complex can assemble polyubiquitin chains [18-20]. ... Subunits with unknown functions. Functions for the remaining APC subunits are less clear. At least one other APC subunit, Apc5 ... The anaphase-promoting complex (APC): the sum of its parts? L.A. Passmore L.A. Passmore ...https://portlandpress.com/biochemsoctrans/article/32/5/724/64206/The-anaphase-promoting-complex-APC-the-sum-of-its
ANAPC2 Gene - GeneCards | ANC2 Protein | ANC2 Antibody
Anaphase Promoting Complex Subunit 2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards ... Anaphase-Promoting Complex Subunit 2 3 4 * Cyclosome Subunit 2 3 4 ... APC2 Cullin protein and APC11 RING protein comprise the minimal ubiquitin ligase module of the anaphase-promoting complex. ( ... A large protein complex, termed the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), or the cyclosome, promotes metaphase-anaphase transition ...https://www.genecards.org/cgi-bin/carddisp.pl?gene=ANAPC2
APC2 - Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 2 - Saccharomyces cerevisiae (strain ATCC 204508 / S288c) (Baker's yeast) - APC2 gene...
In early mitosis, the APC/C is activated by CDC20 and targets securin PDS1, the B-type cyclin CLB5, and other anaphase ... a cell cycle-regulated E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase complex that controls progression through mitosis and the G1 phase of the ... to allow exit from mitosis and creating the low CDK state necessary for cytokinesis and for reforming prereplicative complexes ... inhibitory proteins for proteolysis, thereby triggering the separation of sister chromatids at the metaphase-to-anaphase ...http://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q12440
Functional analysis of poxvirus anaphase-promoting complex regulator (PACR), an orf virus cell cycle regulator.
... of APC11 subunit 11 (APC11). Western blot analysis confirmed effective knock down of APC11. APC11 KD cells were infected 72 ... One important regulator of the cell cycle is the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC), a ubiquitin ligase. It is ... Orf virus expresses a protein called the poxvirus anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome regulator (PACR), which interacts with, ... Functional analysis of poxvirus anaphase-promoting complex regulator (PACR), an orf virus cell cycle regulator.. Orsbourn, ...https://ourarchive.otago.ac.nz/handle/10523/8286
Search Articles | University of Toronto Libraries
Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome - chemistry , Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome - metabolism , Apc11 Subunit, Anaphase- ... Apc1 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome - chemistry , Apc8 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome - chemistry ... Apc1 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome - ultrastructure , Apc8 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome - ... Apc7 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome - chemistry , Apc3 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome - ...https://query.library.utoronto.ca/index.php/search/q?kw=SubjectTerms:Anaphase-promoting%20complex
Evolutionary flexibility of protein complexes | BMC Evolutionary Biology | Full Text
We exemplified this trend on the anaphase promoting complex (APC) where a core is highly conserved throughout all metazoans, ... They do not act alone but are organised in complexes. Throughout the life of a cell, complexes are dynamic in their composition ... Focussing on human protein complexes, we based our analysis on a manually curated dataset from HPRD. In total, 1,060 complexes ... of all complexes affected). Still, loss of whole complexes happened rarely. This biological signal deviated significantly from ...https://0-bmcevolbiol-biomedcentral-com.brum.beds.ac.uk/articles/10.1186/1471-2148-9-155
IJMS | Free Full-Text | The Role of F-Box Proteins during Viral Infection | HTML
The F-box protein is one of the four components of the SCF (SKp1, Cullin, F-box protein) complex, which mediates ubiquitination ... anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome) and the SCF complexes . APC/C is the major regulator, inducing proteolysis of ... poxvirus APC/cyclosome regulator (PACR). Interacts with APC/C proteins replacing the RING-H2 subunit APC11. PACR has no ligase ... Mo, M.; Fleming, S.B.; Mercer, A.A. Cell cycle deregulation by a poxvirus partial mimic of anaphase-promoting complex subunit ...http://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/14/2/4030/htm
Anaphase-Promoting Complex 7 is a Prognostic Factor in Human Colorectal Cancer
Anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome; Adenocarcinoma; Colorectal neoplasms; Cell cycle INTRODUCTION. The anaphase-promoting ... TPR subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex mediate binding to the activator protein CDH1. Curr Biol 2003;13:1459-1468. ... APC11), have been identified in yeast. Ubiquitin ligase (E3) is bound to the cdc20 and the cdh1 that regulate the cell cycle, ... Polyubiquitin chains are added to securin by an E3 ubiquitin ligase known as anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome. If ...https://coloproctol.org/journal/view.php?number=1324&viewtype=pubreader
Apc2DegradationTransitionSister chromatidsPhosphorylationPhase until anaphaseLeast 13 subunitsRING H2PoxvirusRegulatorInhibitorPACRProteolysisSaccharomycesInactivationEnzymeMotifSequenceCyclinMultisubunitMultiprotein complexPMIDRegulatesStructuralVertebrateCohesionUbiquitin ligase complexCompositionTransientGenesCoreProgressionCellRepresentsFunctionCellularInteractionAssemblyDistinct
- The APC/C is a large complex of 11-13 subunit proteins, including a cullin (Apc2) and RING (Apc11) subunit much like SCF. (wikipedia.org)
- The catalytic core of the APC/C consists of the cullin subunit Apc2 and RING H2 domain subunit Apc11. (wikipedia.org)
- These two subunits catalyze ubiquitination of substrates when the C-terminal domain of Apc2 forms a tight complex with Apc11. (wikipedia.org)
- These include Apc1, the largest subunit which contains 11 tandem repeats of 35-40 amino acid sequences, and Apc2, which contains three cullin repeats of approximately 130 amino acids total. (wikipedia.org)
- Based on the presented data, we suggest that the Lmg/Apc11 subunit recruits the E2-C type ubiquitin conjugating enzyme, Vihar, to the APC/C together with Mr/Apc2 by forming a ternary complex. (lancs.ac.uk)
- Localization of the coactivator Cdh1 and the cullin subunit Apc2 in a cryo-electron microscopy model of vertebrate APC/C. Molecular cell, Vol. 20, H. 6. (unibas.ch)
- APC/C recognizes substrates via coactivator proteins such as Cdh1, and bound substrates are ubiquitinated by E2 enzymes that interact with a hetero-dimer of the RING subunit Apc11 and the cullin Apc2. (unibas.ch)
- The OV homologue of APC11, referred to as PACR (Poxvirus APC/C Regulator), shares with APC11 the ability to bind APC2 and competes with APC11 for incorporation into APC/C. However, unlike its cellular counterpart, PACR does not support ubiquitination. (otago.ac.nz)
- APC is a polymeric protein complex composed of at least 11 subunits and contains tetratricopeptide repeat proteins (APC3, 5, 6, 7, and 8), a cullin homolog (APC2), and a ring-H2 finger domain (APC11). (coloproctol.org)
- Anaphase-promoting complex (also called the cyclosome or APC/C) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that marks target cell cycle proteins for degradation by the 26S proteasome. (wikipedia.org)
- The APC/C's main function is to trigger the transition from metaphase to anaphase by tagging specific proteins for degradation. (wikipedia.org)
- CBFβ interacts with the viral protein VIF and triggers assembly of a ubiquitin ligase complex that targets the retroviral inhibitor APOBEC3G for degradation (9,10). (cellsignal.com)
- Background: Ubiquitin-dependent protein degradation is a critical step in key cell cycle events, such as metaphase-anaphase transition and mitotic exit. (lancs.ac.uk)
- The anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) plays a pivotal role in these transitions by recognizing and marking regulatory proteins for proteasomal degradation. (lancs.ac.uk)
- The human APC/C promotes the degradation of mitotic regulators by assembling K11-linked ubiquitin chains, the formation of which is initiated by its E2 UbcH10. (pnas.org)
- Ube2S and UbcH10 are tightly co-regulated during the cell cycle, and APC/C itself promotes their ubiquitination and degradation. (pnas.org)
- The product of this gene is a component of the complex and shares sequence similarity with a recently identified family of proteins called cullins, which may also be involved in ubiquitin-mediated degradation. (genecards.org)
- The APC/C complex acts by mediating ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of target proteins: it mainly mediates the formation of 'Lys-11'-linked polyubiquitin chains and, to a lower extent, the formation of 'Lys-48'- and 'Lys-63'-linked polyubiquitin chains. (genecards.org)
- Mechanisms controlling the temporal degradation of Nek2A and Kif18A by the APC/C-Cdc20 complex. (nih.gov)
- However in contrast to Nek2A, Kif18A is not degraded until anaphase showing that additional mechanisms contribute to Nek2A degradation. (nih.gov)
- The APC (anaphase-promoting complex) is a multisubunit E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets cell-cycle-related proteins for degradation by the 26 S proteasome. (portlandpress.com)
- The F-box protein is one of the four components of the SCF (SKp1, Cullin, F-box protein) complex, which mediates ubiquitination of proteins targeted for degradation by the proteasome, playing an essential role in many cellular processes. (mdpi.com)
- The SCF E3 ubiquitin-ligase complex participates in the recognition and recruitment of target proteins for ubiquitination and degradation by the ubiquitin 26S proteasome system (UPS). (mdpi.com)
- The separase triggers the cleavage of cohesin, the protein complex that binds sister chromatids together. (wikipedia.org)
- During metaphase, sister chromatids are linked by intact cohesin complexes. (wikipedia.org)
- When securin undergoes ubiquitination by the APC/C and releases separase, which degrades cohesin, sister chromatids become free to move to opposite poles for anaphase. (wikipedia.org)
- The subunit Apc15 plays an important role in APC/CCdc20 activation following the bi-orientation of sister chromatids across the metaphase plate. (wikipedia.org)
- In cul-2 mutants, the cohesin REC-8 is removed from chromosomes normally during meiosis II and sister chromatids separate, suggesting that the failure to complete anaphase results from a defect in chromosome movement rather than from a failure to sever chromosome attachments. (biologists.org)
- Purified Hct1 is phosphorylated in vitro at these sites by purified Cdc28-cyclin complexes, and phosphorylation abolishes the ability of Hct1 to activate the APC in vitro. (sdbonline.org)
- Strikingly, nuclear staining revealed a close association of BRAF35/BRCA2 complex with condensed chromatin coincident with histone H3 phosphorylation. (embl-heidelberg.de)
- The APC contains at least 13 subunits and is regulated by the binding of co-activator proteins and by phosphorylation. (portlandpress.com)
- The parapoxvirus, orf virus (OV) encodes a RING-H2 protein that is a homologue of subunit 11 (APC11) of the Anaphase Promoting Complex or Cyclosome (APC/C). APC/C is a ubiquitin ligase and through this activity it functions as a master regulator of the cell cycle responsible for controlling mitotic exit and G1 phase progression. (otago.ac.nz)
- Functional analysis of poxvirus anaphase-promoting complex regulator (PACR), an orf virus cell cycle regulator. (otago.ac.nz)
- Orf virus expresses a protein called the poxvirus anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome regulator (PACR), which interacts with, and influences the action of the APC. (otago.ac.nz)
- Structural modelling of PACR and M026L shows substitution of amino acids in loop 2 and the α2-helix region, which in APC11 form a hydrophobic cleft needed for the recruitment of E2. (otago.ac.nz)
- APC11 KD cells were infected 72 hours after transfection with WT, OV PACR KO and OV PACR Restore virus and viral yields compared to those obtained in normal HDF cells. (otago.ac.nz)
- When the growth curves were compared we saw that the WT and Restore viruses had similar growth characteristics in both sets of cells and growth of the OV PACR KO virus was not enhanced in the APC11 KD HDF cells. (otago.ac.nz)
- Proteolysis of mitotic cyclins depends on a multisubunit ubiquitin-protein ligase, the anaphase promoting complex (APC). (sdbonline.org)
- Proteolysis commences during anaphase, persisting throughout G1 until it is terminated by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) as cells enter S phase. (sdbonline.org)
- A key mechanism of CDK inactivation is ubiquitin-mediated cyclin proteolysis, which is triggered by the late mitotic activation of a ubiquitin ligase known as the anaphase-promoting complex (APC). (sdbonline.org)
- HDF cells were therefore selected to examine the effect of the inactivation of APC following siRNA knockdown (KD) of APC11 subunit 11 (APC11). (otago.ac.nz)
- We show that inactivation of CUL-2, a member of the cullin family of ubiquitin ligases, delays or abolishes meiotic anaphase II with no effect on anaphase I, indicating differential regulation during the two meiotic stages. (biologists.org)
- Background: Core-binding factor subunit β (CBFβ) is a non-DNA binding transcription factor subunit that associates with and regulates the DNA binding activity of RUNX1, RUNX2, and RUNX3 (1). (cellsignal.com)
- The CDC20-APC/C complex positively regulates the formation of synaptic vesicle clustering at active zone to the presynaptic membrane in postmitotic neurons. (genecards.org)
- A human BRCA2 complex containing a structural DNA binding component influences cell cycle progression. (embl-heidelberg.de)
- We have isolated a 2 MDa BRCA2-containing complex and identified a structural DNA binding component, designated as BRCA2-Associated Factor 35 (BRAF35). (embl-heidelberg.de)
- Thus, protein complexes contain not only structural and functional, but also evolutionary cores. (beds.ac.uk)
- This complexity, comprising both the functional and structural entities of protein complexes, raises the question how the interplay of core complexes with variable attachments evolved. (beds.ac.uk)
- In this review, I discuss the composition of the APC and the functions of its subunits with the goal of gaining insight into the mechanism of the APC as a whole. (portlandpress.com)
- Throughout the life of a cell, complexes are dynamic in their composition due to attachments and shared components. (beds.ac.uk)
- We computed interologs in 25 different species and predicted the composition of complexes. (beds.ac.uk)
- Over the analysed species, the composition of most complexes was highly flexible and only 25% of all genes were never lost. (beds.ac.uk)
- Experimental and computational evidence indicate that consecutive addition and secondary losses of components played a major role in the evolution of some complexes, mostly without affecting the core function. (beds.ac.uk)
- We exemplified this trend on the anaphase promoting complex (APC) where a core is highly conserved throughout all metazoans, but flexibility in certain components is observable. (beds.ac.uk)
- Complementary to this network view, protein complexes can be partitioned in a core which is modulated by different attachments. (beds.ac.uk)
- Presence of this receptor complex is essential for B-cell development and function (3). (cellsignal.com)
- Surprisingly on top of this, there are also indications of OV having a cell cycle promoting affect similar to mitogenic stimulation. (otago.ac.nz)
- C ) Stable HeLa cell lines expressing FLAG-tagged Kif18A or Kif18AΔLR were arrested with nocodazole and the APC/C complex purified using an APC4 antibody. (nih.gov)
- Viruses, after long periods of time infecting and co-evolving with their hosts have developed complex and ingenious ways of manipulating host cell environments to better suit their needs. (otago.ac.nz)
- FACS analysis of propidium iodide stained APC11 KD showed no obvious disruption of the cell cycle, including no accumulation of cells in G2/M phase as would be expected upon the knock down of APC11. (otago.ac.nz)