The phase of cell nucleus division following METAPHASE, in which the CHROMATIDS separate and migrate to opposite poles of the spindle.
An E3 ubiquitin ligase primarily involved in regulation of the metaphase-to-anaphase transition during MITOSIS through ubiquitination of specific CELL CYCLE PROTEINS. Enzyme activity is tightly regulated through subunits and cofactors, which modulate activation, inhibition, and substrate specificity. The anaphase-promoting complex, or APC-C, is also involved in tissue differentiation in the PLACENTA, CRYSTALLINE LENS, and SKELETAL MUSCLE, and in regulation of postmitotic NEURONAL PLASTICITY and excitability.
Complexes of enzymes that catalyze the covalent attachment of UBIQUITIN to other proteins by forming a peptide bond between the C-terminal GLYCINE of UBIQUITIN and the alpha-amino groups of LYSINE residues in the protein. The complexes play an important role in mediating the selective-degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins. The complex of enzymes can be broken down into three components that involve activation of ubiquitin (UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES), conjugation of ubiquitin to the ligase complex (UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES), and ligation of ubiquitin to the substrate protein (UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES).
Highly conserved proteins that specifically bind to and activate the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome, promoting ubiquitination and proteolysis of cell-cycle-regulatory proteins. Cdc20 is essential for anaphase-promoting complex activity, initiation of anaphase, and cyclin proteolysis during mitosis.
Cdh1 is an activator of the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome, and is involved in substrate recognition. It associates with the complex in late MITOSIS from anaphase through G1 to regulate activity of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and to prevent premature DNA replication.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.
A highly evolutionarily conserved subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC-C) containing multiple 34-amino-acid tetratricopeptide repeats. These domains, also found in Apc subunits 6, 7, and 8, have been shown to mediate protein-protein interactions, suggesting that Apc3 may assist in coordinating the juxtaposition of the catalytic and substrate recognition module subunits relative to co-activators and APC-C inhibitors.
Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.
The largest subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex. It acts primarily as a scaffold for the proper organization and arrangement of subunits. The C-terminal region of Apc1 contains a series of tandem amino acid repeats that are also seen in the 26S proteasome regulatory particle, and may assist with forming and stabilizing protein-protein interactions.
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
Securin is involved in the control of the metaphase-anaphase transition during MITOSIS. It promotes the onset of anaphase by blocking SEPARASE function and preventing proteolysis of cohesin and separation of sister CHROMATIDS. Overexpression of securin is associated with NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION and tumor formation.
A cyclin subtype that is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE. It stimulates the G2/M phase transition by activating CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE.
A family of proteins that share the F-BOX MOTIF and are involved in protein-protein interactions. They play an important role in process of protein ubiquition by associating with a variety of substrates and then associating into SCF UBIQUITIN LIGASE complexes. They are held in the ubiquitin-ligase complex via binding to SKP DOMAIN PROTEINS.
Tumor suppressor genes located in the 5q21 region on the long arm of human chromosome 5. The mutation of these genes is associated with familial adenomatous polyposis (ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI) and GARDNER SYNDROME, as well as some sporadic colorectal cancers.
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.
A class of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a bond between two substrate molecules, coupled with the hydrolysis of a pyrophosphate bond in ATP or a similar energy donor. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 6.
The cellular signaling system that halts the progression of cells through MITOSIS or MEIOSIS if a defect that will affect CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION is detected.
A widely-expressed cyclin A subtype that functions during the G1/S and G2/M transitions of the CELL CYCLE.
A subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex whose primary function is to provide structural support for the catalytic and substrate-recognition modules of the complex. Apc5, along with Apc4, tethers the tetratricopeptide-coactivator binding subcomplex to the main structural subunit, Apc1.
Mad2 is a component of the spindle-assembly checkpoint apparatus. It binds to and inhibits the Cdc20 activator subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex, preventing the onset of anaphase until all chromosomes are properly aligned at the metaphase plate. Mad2 is required for proper microtubule capture at KINETOCHORES.
A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with MICROTUBULES during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.
The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.
A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
The phase of cell nucleus division following PROPHASE, when the breakdown of the NUCLEAR ENVELOPE occurs and the MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS enters the nuclear region and attaches to the KINETOCHORES.
Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.
The act of ligating UBIQUITINS to PROTEINS to form ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes to label proteins for transport to the PROTEASOME ENDOPEPTIDASE COMPLEX where proteolysis occurs.
Geminin inhibits DNA replication by preventing the incorporation of MCM complex into pre-replication complex. It is absent during G1 phase of the CELL CYCLE and accumulates through S, G2,and M phases. It is degraded at the metaphase-anaphase transition by the ANAPHASE-PROMOTING COMPLEX-CYCLOSOME.
Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Together with the Apc11 subunit, forms the catalytic core of the E3 ubiquitin ligase anaphase-promoting complex (APC-C). Its N-terminus has cullin domains which associate with the RING FINGER DOMAINS of Apc11. Apc2 also interacts with the E2 ubiquitin ligases involved in APC-C ubiquitination reactions.
A cyclin subtype that has specificity for CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2. It plays a role in progression of the CELL CYCLE through G1/S and G2/M phase transitions.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.
A highly conserved subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC-C) containing multiple 34-amino-acid tetratricopeptide repeats. These domains, also found in Apc3, Apc6, and Apc7, have been shown to mediate protein-protein interactions, suggesting that Apc8 may assist in coordinating the juxtaposition of the catalytic and substrate recognition module subunits relative to coactivators and APC-C inhibitors.
Separase is a caspase-like cysteine protease, which plays a central role in triggering ANAPHASE by cleaving the SCC1/RAD21 subunit of the cohesin complex. Cohesin holds the sister CHROMATIDS together during METAPHASE and its cleavage results in chromosome segregation.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The final phase of cell nucleus division following ANAPHASE, in which two daughter nuclei are formed, the CYTOPLASM completes division, and the CHROMOSOMES lose their distinctness and are transformed into CHROMATIN threads.
A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.
Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Cellular proteins encoded by the c-mos genes (GENES, MOS). They function in the cell cycle to maintain MATURATION PROMOTING FACTOR in the active state and have protein-serine/threonine kinase activity. Oncogenic transformation can take place when c-mos proteins are expressed at the wrong time.
Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.
Genes that code for proteins that regulate the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. These genes form a regulatory network that culminates in the onset of MITOSIS by activating the p34cdc2 protein (PROTEIN P34CDC2).
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.
A highly conserved 76-amino acid peptide universally found in eukaryotic cells that functions as a marker for intracellular PROTEIN TRANSPORT and degradation. Ubiquitin becomes activated through a series of complicated steps and forms an isopeptide bond to lysine residues of specific proteins within the cell. These "ubiquitinated" proteins can be recognized and degraded by proteosomes or be transported to specific compartments within the cell.
A class of enzymes that form a thioester bond to UBIQUITIN with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES. They transfer ubiquitin to the LYSINE of a substrate protein with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
A highly conserved subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC-C) containing multiple 34 amino acid tetratricopeptide repeats. These domains, also found in Apc3, Apc7, and Apc8, have been shown to mediate protein-protein interactions, suggesting that Apc6 may assist in coordinating the juxtaposition of the catalytic and substrate recognition module subunits relative to coactivators and APC-C inhibitors.
A subset of ubiquitin protein ligases that are formed by the association of a SKP DOMAIN PROTEIN, a CULLIN DOMAIN PROTEIN and a F-BOX DOMAIN PROTEIN.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A family of proteins that are structurally-related to Ubiquitin. Ubiquitins and ubiquitin-like proteins participate in diverse cellular functions, such as protein degradation and HEAT-SHOCK RESPONSE, by conjugation to other proteins.
Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.
A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Phase of the CELL CYCLE following G1 and preceding G2 when the entire DNA content of the nucleus is replicated. It is achieved by bidirectional replication at multiple sites along each chromosome.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The period of the CELL CYCLE following DNA synthesis (S PHASE) and preceding M PHASE (cell division phase). The CHROMOSOMES are tetraploid in this point.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.
Together with the Apc2 subunit, forms the catalytic core of the E3 ubiquitin ligase, anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome. It has a RING H2 domain which interacts with the cullin domain of Apc2. Apc11 also interacts with the E2 ubiquitin ligases involved in APC-C ubiquitination reactions.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
A negative regulator of beta-catenin signaling which is mutant in ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI and GARDNER SYNDROME.
Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
The ability of a protein to retain its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to physical or chemical manipulations.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.
Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.
A highly conserved subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC-C) containing multiple 34 amino acid tetratricopeptide repeats. These domains, also found in Apc3, Apc6, and Apc8, have been shown to mediate protein-protein interactions, suggesting that Apc7 may assist in coordinating the juxtaposition of the catalytic and substrate recognition module subunits relative to coactivators and APC-C inhibitors.
Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A microtubule-associated mechanical adenosine triphosphatase, that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move organelles along microtubules toward the plus end of the microtubule. The protein is found in squid axoplasm, optic lobes, and in bovine brain. Bovine kinesin is a heterotetramer composed of two heavy (120 kDa) and two light (62 kDa) chains. EC 3.6.1.-.
The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.
A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of mussels; clams; OYSTERS; COCKLES; and SCALLOPS. They are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical hinged shell and a muscular foot used for burrowing and anchoring.
A type of nuclear polyploidization in which multiple cycles of DNA REPLICATION occur in the absence of CELL DIVISION and result in a POLYPLOID CELL.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.
The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).
An aurora kinase that is a component of the chromosomal passenger protein complex and is involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. It mediates proper CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION and contractile ring function during CYTOKINESIS.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
Apc10 is necessary for coactivator-dependent substrate recognition by the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome. It binds the Apc2 subunit, which is a part of the catalytic core, and interacts with coactivators Cdh1 or Cdc20 to recruit substrates to the complex.
The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
A polyposis syndrome due to an autosomal dominant mutation of the APC genes (GENES, APC) on CHROMOSOME 5. The syndrome is characterized by the development of hundreds of ADENOMATOUS POLYPS in the COLON and RECTUM of affected individuals by early adulthood.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
An order of fungi in the phylum Ascomycota that multiply by budding. They include the telomorphic ascomycetous yeasts which are found in a very wide range of habitats.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A family of herbivorous leaping MAMMALS of Australia, New Guinea, and adjacent islands. Members include kangaroos, wallabies, quokkas, and wallaroos.
Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.
Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Regulatory signaling systems that control the progression through the CELL CYCLE. They ensure that the cell has completed, in the correct order and without mistakes, all the processes required to replicate the GENOME and CYTOPLASM, and divide them equally between two daughter cells. If cells sense they have not completed these processes or that the environment does not have the nutrients and growth hormones in place to proceed, then the cells are restrained (or "arrested") until the processes are completed and growth conditions are suitable.
A family of multisubunit cytoskeletal motor proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power a variety of cellular functions. Dyneins fall into two major classes based upon structural and functional criteria.
Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.
The failure of homologous CHROMOSOMES or CHROMATIDS to segregate during MITOSIS or MEIOSIS with the result that one daughter cell has both of a pair of parental chromosomes or chromatids and the other has none.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Cleavage of proteins into smaller peptides or amino acids either by PROTEASES or non-enzymatically (e.g., Hydrolysis). It does not include Protein Processing, Post-Translational.
Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.
A phosphoprotein phosphatase subtype that is comprised of a catalytic subunit and two different regulatory subunits. At least two genes encode isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit, while several isoforms of regulatory subunits exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. Protein phosphatase 2 acts on a broad variety of cellular proteins and may play a role as a regulator of intracellular signaling processes.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
CIRCULAR DNA that is interlaced together as links in a chain. It is used as an assay for the activity of DNA TOPOISOMERASES. Catenated DNA is attached loop to loop in contrast to CONCATENATED DNA which is attached end to end.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A family of rat kangaroos found in and around Australia. Genera include Potorous and Bettongia.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
An enzyme group that specifically dephosphorylates phosphotyrosyl residues in selected proteins. Together with PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE, it regulates tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in cellular signal transduction and may play a role in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.
An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.
A vitamin-K dependent zymogen present in the blood, which, upon activation by thrombin and thrombomodulin exerts anticoagulant properties by inactivating factors Va and VIIIa at the rate-limiting steps of thrombin formation.
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
A genus of the family Heteromyidae which contains 22 species. Their physiology is adapted for the conservation of water, and they seldom drink water. They are found in arid or desert habitats and travel by hopping on their hind limbs.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
An exchange of segments between the sister chromatids of a chromosome, either between the sister chromatids of a meiotic tetrad or between the sister chromatids of a duplicated somatic chromosome. Its frequency is increased by ultraviolet and ionizing radiation and other mutagenic agents and is particularly high in BLOOM SYNDROME.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.
An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.
Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.
A broad category of nuclear proteins that are components of or participate in the formation of the NUCLEAR MATRIX.
A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.
Proton-translocating ATPases that are involved in acidification of a variety of intracellular compartments.
A family of Urodela consisting of 15 living genera and about 42 species and occurring in North America, Europe, Asia, and North Africa.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
Tumors or cancer of the INTESTINES.
A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.

Characterization of the DOC1/APC10 subunit of the yeast and the human anaphase-promoting complex. (1/7)

The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC) is a ubiquitin-protein ligase whose activity is essential for progression through mitosis. The vertebrate APC is thought to be composed of 8 subunits, whereas in budding yeast several additional APC-associated proteins have been identified, including a 33-kDa protein called Doc1 or Apc10. Here, we show that Doc1/Apc10 is a subunit of the yeast APC throughout the cell cycle. Mutation of Doc1/Apc10 inactivates the APC without destabilizing the complex. An ortholog of Doc1/Apc10, which we call APC10, is associated with the APC in different vertebrates, including humans and frogs. Biochemical fractionation experiments and mass spectrometric analysis of a component of the purified human APC show that APC10 is a genuine APC subunit whose cellular levels or association with the APC are not cell cycle-regulated. We have further identified an APC10 homology region, which we propose to call the DOC domain, in several protein sequences that also contain either cullin or HECT domains. Cullins are present in several ubiquitination complexes including the APC, whereas HECT domains represent the catalytic core of a different type of ubiquitin-protein ligase. DOC domains may therefore be important for reactions catalyzed by several types of ubiquitin-protein ligases.  (+info)

Identification of human APC10/Doc1 as a subunit of anaphase promoting complex. (2/7)

Anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC) is a ubiquitin ligase which specifically targets mitotic regulatory factors such as Pds1/Cut2 and cyclin B. Identification of the subunits of multiprotein complex APC in several species revealed the highly conserved composition of APC from yeast to human. It has been reported, however, that vertebrate APC is composed of at least eight subunits, APC1 to APC8, while budding yeast APC is constituted of at least 12 components, Apc1 to Apc13. It has not yet been clearly understood whether additional components found in budding yeast, Apc9 to Apc13, are actually composed of mammalian APC. Here we isolated and characterized human APC10/Doc1, and found that APC10/Doc1 binds to APC core subunits throughout the cell cycle. Further, it was found that APC10/Doc1 is localized in centrosomes and mitotic spindles throughout mitosis, while it is also localized in kinetochores from prophase to anaphase and in midbody in telophase and cytokinesis. These results strongly support the notion that human APC10/Doc1 may be one of the APC core subunits rather than the transiently associated regulatory factor.  (+info)

Doc1 mediates the activity of the anaphase-promoting complex by contributing to substrate recognition. (3/7)

The anaphase-promoting complex (APC) is a multisubunit E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets specific cell cycle-related proteins for degradation, regulating progression from metaphase to anaphase and exit from mitosis. The APC is regulated by binding of the coactivator proteins Cdc20p and Cdh1p, and by phosphorylation. We have developed a purification strategy that allowed us to purify the budding yeast APC to near homogeneity and identify two novel APC-associated proteins, Swm1p and Mnd2p. Using an in vitro ubiquitylation system and a native gel binding assay, we have characterized the properties of wild-type and mutant APC. We show that both the D and KEN boxes contribute to substrate recognition and that coactivator is required for substrate binding. APC lacking Apc9p or Doc1p/Apc10 have impaired E3 ligase activities. However, whereas Apc9p is required for structural stability and the incorporation of Cdc27p into the APC complex, Doc1p/Apc10 plays a specific role in substrate recognition by APC-coactivator complexes. These results imply that Doc1p/Apc10 may play a role to regulate the binding of specific substrates, similar to that of the coactivators.  (+info)

The APC subunit Doc1 promotes recognition of the substrate destruction box. (4/7)

BACKGROUND: Accurate chromosome segregation during mitosis requires the coordinated destruction of the mitotic regulators securin and cyclins. The anaphase-promoting complex (APC) is a multisubunit ubiquitin-protein ligase that catalyzes the polyubiquitination of these and other proteins and thereby promotes their destruction. How the APC recognizes its substrates is not well understood. In mitosis, the APC activator Cdc20 binds to the APC and is thought to recruit substrates by interacting with a conserved target protein motif called the destruction box. A related protein, called Cdh1, performs a similar function during G1. Recent evidence, however, suggests that the core APC subunit Doc1 also contributes to substrate recognition. RESULTS: To better understand the mechanism by which Doc1 promotes substrate binding to the APC, we generated a series of point mutations in Doc1 and analyzed their effects on the processivity of substrate ubiquitination. Mutations that reduce Doc1 function fall into two classes that define spatially and functionally distinct regions of the protein. One region, which includes the carboxy terminus, anchors Doc1 to the APC but does not influence substrate recognition. The other region, located on the opposite face of Doc1, is required for Doc1 to enhance substrate binding to the APC. Importantly, stimulation of binding by Doc1 also requires that the substrate contain an intact destruction box. Cells carrying DOC1 mutations that eliminate substrate recognition delay in mitosis with high levels of APC substrates. CONCLUSIONS: Doc1 contributes to recognition of the substrate destruction box by the APC. This function of Doc1 is necessary for efficient substrate proteolysis in vivo.  (+info)

Structures of APC/C(Cdh1) with substrates identify Cdh1 and Apc10 as the D-box co-receptor. (5/7)


Spindle assembly requires complete disassembly of spindle remnants from the previous cell cycle. (6/7)


A novel yeast screen for mitotic arrest mutants identifies DOC1, a new gene involved in cyclin proteolysis. (7/7)

B-type cyclins are rapidly degraded at the transition between metaphase and anaphase and their ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis is required for cells to exit mitosis. We used a novel enrichment to isolate new budding mutants that arrest the cell cycle in mitosis. Most of these mutants lie in the CDC16, CDC23, and CDC27 genes, which have already been shown to play a role in cyclin proteolysis and encode components of a 20S complex (called the cyclosome or anaphase promoting complex) that ubiquitinates mitotic cyclins. We show that mutations in CDC26 and a novel gene, DOC1, also prevent mitotic cyclin proteolysis. Mutants in either gene arrest as large budded cells with high levels of the major mitotic cyclin (Clb2) protein at 37 degrees C and cannot degrade Clb2 in G1-arrested cells. Cdc26 associates in vivo with Doc1, Cdc16, Cdc23, and Cdc27. In addition, the majority of Doc1 cosediments at 20S with Cdc27 in a sucrose gradient, indicating that Cdc26 and Doc1 are components of the anaphase promoting complex.  (+info)

Morgan, D.O. (2007) The Cell Cycle: Principles of Control. London: New Science Press.. Thornton, B.R., Ng, T.M., Matyskiela, M.E., Carroll, C.W., Morgan, D.O., and Toczyski, D.P. (2006) An architectural map of the anaphase-promoting complex. Genes Dev. 20, 449-460. Carroll, C.W., and Morgan, D.O. (2005) Enzymology of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex. Meth. Enzymol. 398, 219-230.. Loog, M., and Morgan, D.O. (2005) Cyclin specificity in the phosphorylation of cyclin-dependent kinase substrates. Nature 434, 104-108. (Commentary: Nature 434, 34-35; and Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 6, 280). Carroll, C.W., Enquist-Newman, M., and Morgan, D.O. (2005) The APC subunit Doc1 promotes recognition of the substrate destruction box. Curr. Biol. 15, 11-18.. Ubersax, J.A., Woodbury, E.L., Quang, P.N., Paraz, M., Blethrow, J.D., Shah, K., Shokat, K.M., and Morgan, D.O. (2003) Targets of the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdk1. Nature, 425, 859-864.. Carroll, C.W., and Morgan, D.O. (2002) The Doc1 subunit is a processivity ...
Discover Médoc wines the wine-lovers way. Explore its unique characteristics through reviews, discussions, and one of the largest inventories of wine from Médoc.
We offer expert advice and tips on how to stop smoking for good at 121doc. To find out more and for information on treatments available online visit 121doc.
Okay I went to the doc today and he said that my cervix is starting to open. That is good because last time I was there he said that nothing was happening. Does...
Doc. V. Ščemeliovas - Vilniaus universiteto Hidrologijos ir klimatologijos katedros ilgametis darbuotojas, žymus Lietuvos klimatologas ir mokslo apie orus populiarintas.. Didelį ačiū jums taria mokiniai, linki tvirtos sveikatos ir dar ne vieno atradimo tiriant tėviškės orus.. Sveikinimą galite perskaityti čia.. ...
I need some help on this one... The doc states to charge: 27350, 27340, 20680, 27310. According to NCCI, all are included in the 27350 - hemipatellect
Hello, are you looking for article :// If it is true we are very fortunate in being able to provide information :// And good article :// This could benefit/solution for you. ...
Hello, are you looking for article care plan doc http www docstoc com docs 5193412 pharmaceutical care? If it is true we are very fortunate in being able to provide information care plan doc http www docstoc com docs 5193412 pharmaceutical care And good article care plan doc http www docstoc com docs 5193412 pharmaceutical care This could benefit/solution for you. ...
Cv Examples Doc File Wiring Diagram Online,cv examples doc file wiring diagram basics, cv examples doc file wiring diagram maker, create cv examples doc file wiring diagram,
There are a handful of top rated pot docs in California. Here we review the best of the best medical marijuna doctors for the state of California.
Ok, Im bringing this up again because Im going to actually try to get to dwarfsoft a decent explanatin to put in the doc. First, the skill web changes man...
Okay, I finally have my doc appt tomorrow, however, its just my primary. Im hoping to get a referral to a neuro. My question: Should I ask to be sent for...
usr/share/doc/db-torque-gen /usr/share/doc/db-torque-gen-3.1 /usr/share/doc/db-torque-gen-3.1/LICENSE.txt /usr/share/doc/db-torque-gen-3.1/changelog-report.html /usr/share/doc/db-torque-gen-3.1/checkstyle-report.html /usr/share/doc/db-torque-gen-3.1/cvs-usage.html /usr/share/doc/db-torque-gen-3.1/database.dtd.txt /usr/share/doc/db-torque-gen-3.1/dependencies.html /usr/share/doc/db-torque-gen-3.1/developer-activity-report.html /usr/share/doc/db-torque-gen-3.1/file-activity-report.html /usr/share/doc/db-torque-gen-3.1/images /usr/share/doc/db-torque-gen-3.1/images/add.gif /usr/share/doc/db-torque-gen-3.1/images/blue-logo.gif /usr/share/doc/db-torque-gen-3.1/images/collapsed.png /usr/share/doc/db-torque-gen-3.1/images/db-logo-blue.png /usr/share/doc/db-torque-gen-3.1/images/expanded.png /usr/share/doc/db-torque-gen-3.1/images/file.gif /usr/share/doc/db-torque-gen-3.1/images/fix.gif /usr/share/doc/db-torque-gen-3.1/images/folder-closed.gif /usr/share/doc/db-torque-gen-3.1/images/folder-open.gif ...
Component docs - polished Project: Commit: Tree: Diff: Branch: refs/heads/master Commit: 71d4ae2a73b97de638948aa73c8f13d190423e02 Parents: 6cc7224 Author: Claus Ibsen ,[email protected], Authored: Mon Mar 6 18:35:09 2017 +0100 Committer: Claus Ibsen ,[email protected], Committed: Mon Mar 6 18:35:09 2017 +0100 ---------------------------------------------------------------------- camel-core/src/main/docs/bean-component.adoc , 8 +++++--- camel-core/src/main/docs/binding-component.adoc , 8 +++++--- camel-core/src/main/docs/browse-component.adoc , 8 +++++--- camel-core/src/main/docs/class-component.adoc , 8 +++++--- camel-core/src/main/docs/controlbus-component.adoc , 8 +++++--- camel-core/src/main/docs/dataformat-component.adoc , 8 +++++--- ...
Author: matju Date: Fri Oct 8 11:52:50 2010 New Revision: 6404 Log: split numops in two kinds again, and add the new ones Added: trunk/doc/numop1.pd Modified: trunk/doc/numop2.pd Modified: trunk/doc/numop2.pd ============================================================================== --- trunk/doc/numop2.pd (original) +++ trunk/doc/numop2.pd Fri Oct 8 11:52:50 2010 @@ -1,353 +1,385 @@ -#N canvas 0 0 916 640 10; +#N canvas 0 0 916 522 10; #X obj 0 0 doc_demo; -#X obj 0 30 cnv 15 906 22 empty empty empty 20 12 0 14 20 -66577 0; +#X obj 0 30 cnv 15 906 22 empty empty empty 20 12 0 14 -195568 -66577 +0; #X text 10 30 op name; #X text 96 30 description; #X text 446 30 effect on pixels; #X text 676 30 effect on coords; -#X obj 0 70 cnv 15 906 17 empty empty empty 20 12 0 14 -249792 -66577 0; +#X obj 0 70 cnv 15 906 17 empty empty empty 20 12 0 14 -249792 -66577 +0; #X msg 10 70 op ignore; -#X text 96 70 A ; +#X text 96 70 A; #X text 446 70 no effect; #X text 676 70 no effect; -#X obj 0 89 cnv 15 ...
As part of a production and distribution structure, including a digital printing unit, is able to offer reasonably-priced solutions for distributing scientific works, including low volume and slow turnover works. These documents, often overlooked by the traditional distribution channels, may reach their target readers through learn more. ...
As part of a production and distribution structure, including a digital printing unit, is able to offer reasonably-priced solutions for distributing scientific works, including low volume and slow turnover works. These documents, often overlooked by the traditional distribution channels, may reach their target readers through learn more. ...
All Res Post Doc Fellow jobs in United States. Juju searches jobs from 1,000s of sites to make your Res Post Doc Fellow job search faster and more comprehensive.
OG doc. AMA on COVID-19 - Trying to be useful in this time of crisis and uncertainty.MD here working in both the US and Canada. Have seen and treated a few
OG doc. AMA on COVID-19 - Trying to be useful in this time of crisis and uncertainty.MD here working in both the US and Canada. Have seen and treated a few
Department of Conservation (DOC) rangers are planning a strong presence around Rotorua lakes to address compliance issues as part
Buy 08051A1R0CAT2A. - AVX - SMD Multilayer Ceramic Capacitor, 0805 [2012 Metric], 1 pF, 100 V, ± 0.25pF, C0G / NP0 at Farnell element14. order 08051A1R0CAT2A. now! great prices with fast delivery on AVX products.
DOC MCSTUFFINS - A Bad Case of the Pricklethorns - When blow-up toy Boppy springs a leak, Doc and her pals bandage him up and show him how to avoid it happening again. This episode of Disney Juniors Doc McStuffins airs FRIDAY, MARCH 23 (10:30-11:00 a.m., ET/PT) on Disney Channel. (DISNEY JUNIOR ...
Rentetan kisah dari Braxton Hicks ari tu...19/3 ari tu checkup dgn dr azmi..mcm biase check bp,berat,air kencing...then mase dgn doc cerita ...
Drew Adams ,[email protected], writes: , This function is the default value of several important variables, all , of which are documented in (elisp) Other Font Lock Variables. All this , doc does, in essence, is say see `font-lock-default-fontify-buffer. , , But of course there is *NO* doc for `font-lock-default-fontify-buffer, , not even a doc string. Please fix this. Likewise , `font-lock-default-unfontify-buffer. It should be a no-brainer that , pretty much any function that has default as part of its name needs a , doc string. Sure; fixed ...
The reference docs for M5Stack products. Quick start, get the detailed information or instructions such as IDE,UIFLOW,Arduino. The tutorials for M5Burner, Firmware, Burning, programming. ESP32,M5StickC,StickV, StickT,M5ATOM.
The reference docs for M5Stack products. Quick start, get the detailed information or instructions such as IDE,UIFLOW,Arduino. The tutorials for M5Burner, Firmware, Burning, programming. ESP32,M5StickC,StickV, StickT,M5ATOM.
Fizika doc. dr. Vytautas Stankus Fizikos katedra Fundamentaliųjų mokslų fakultetas Kauno Technologijos Universitetas Studentų 50 - 120 kab. Darbo tel.: 300325 Vytautas.Stankus Bendrosios fizikos kursas - 2 dalys - 8 kreditai. Slideshow 283072 by ion
Lab: B2. FEEDBACK ANALYSIS FORM Teachers Name: Kayla Lynch Date: 10/18 Class: 255 Grade: Topic of lesson: Ultimate Frisbee ...
Hello, Ok this may be a silly question but my doc presribed doryx, which I have had before and comes in blue and yellow pills. The pharm gave me doxycyline mono which looks different (I think the brand is monodox). I researched a little online and it seems the same thing to me. So, are doryx and doxycyline the same thing. And, are doxycyline and doxycycline? I can check with my doc but wanted to know if you could tell the difference. ...
Profiler: The profiler is a powerful development tool that gives detailed information about the execution of any request. Never enable the profiler in production environments as it will lead to major ...
Entry into anaphase and proteolysis of B-type cyclins depend on a complex containing the tetratricopeptide repeat proteins Cdc16p, Cdc23p, and Cdc27p. This particle, called the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) or cyclosome, functions as a cell cycle-regulated ubiquitin-protein ligase. Two additional subunits of the budding yeast APC were identified: The largest subunit, encoded by the APC1 gene, is conserved between fungi and vertebrates and shows similarity to BIMEp from Aspergillus nidulans. A small heat-inducible subunit is encoded by the CDC26 gene. The yeast APC is a 36S particle that contains at least seven different proteins. ...
I tried to lay down, and phone rings of course. It is a computer messaging service telling me I have an appointment on Thurs. at 9 am. I have no clue of this doc. or what this is for and cant reach my doc till the am. I have no idea which one of my docs even referred me. It is not a time or day I could go if I wanted to. Come to find out it is an internal medicine guy . Again scratching my head here. Some bozo I am being referred to because my ruem. doc did not want to say it is fibro even after putting me on lyrica. So she is handing me over to someone else, I am sure. I am so sick of this. I really thought once it was said to be fibro I would be done being a Guinea pig. Guess not. I am just mad this doc appointment is being thrown on me when I have no clue who it is or what it is for. it may even be she is reschedulling my appointment with her tomorrow. I have no clue and can not find out till 9 am tomorrow ...
India embraces Ray doc Apart from one-off screenings at retrospectives in 2002 and 2006, Satyajit Rays doc Sikkim has hardly been seen anywhere. is currently unavailable for necessary maintenance in advance of its retirement on December 15, 2017, when all content will be deleted. Please download or migrate your data to OneDrive before that date. If you have questions, concerns, Learn more or email [email protected] ...
See ratings and reviews, wine tasting notes, food pairings, and find where to buy Vintage 2007 Vietti Nebbiolo Langhe DOC PerbaccoSee community ratings and tasting notes, discover food pairings, and find where to buy this Italy Nebbiolo by Vietti - Vintage 2007 Vietti Nebbiolo Langhe DOC Perbacco
Buy the Tunze DOC Protein Skimmer Extension Set 9005.400 for your aquarium and read product reviews, watch videos and see detailed specs at
First time my doc prescribed Subutex (not Suboxone) a few months ago, he told me Id have to wait till I was in withdrawal before starting. Then it
Dropbox is a free service that lets you bring your photos, docs, and videos anywhere and share them easily. Never email yourself a file again!
The OptionsResolver Component: The OptionsResolver component is array_replace on steroids. It allows you to create an options system with required options, defaults, validation (type, value), normali...
Changed paths: M po/ M po/fr.po Log Message: ----------- Translated using Weblate (French) Currently translated at 99.6% (2283 of 2291 strings) [CI skip ...
Just curious, Ive already seen two different offices....they have their pros/cons, but long term I think I might need someone who is a little more
aggs_articles_subjects:{doc_count_error_upper_bound:0,sum_other_doc_count:0,buckets:[{key:Agricultural Science,doc_count:8},{key:Mycology,doc_count:8},{key:Microbiology,doc_count:4},{key:Ecology,doc_count:3},{key:Plant Science,doc_count:2},{key:Biochemistry,doc_count:1},{key:Biodiversity,doc_count:1},{key:Bioinformatics,doc_count:1},{key:Environmental ...
aggs_articles_subjects:{doc_count_error_upper_bound:0,sum_other_doc_count:0,buckets:[{key:Anatomy and Physiology,doc_count:1},{key:Biochemistry,doc_count:1},{key:Biophysics,doc_count:1},{key:Computational ...
Extraordinary food. Exceptional value. Outstanding experience. Our stores have been family-owned for three generations, and we believe in giving our customers the same personal attention and exceptional value we would expect for our own family.
docs_mget(x, index = plos, id = 1:2) #, $docs #, $docs[[1]] #, $docs[[1]]$`_index` #, [1] plos #, #, $docs[[1]]$`_type` #, [1] _doc #, #, $docs[[1]]$`_id` #, [1] 1 #, #, $docs[[1]]$`_version` #, [1] 1 #, #, $docs[[1]]$`_seq_no` #, [1] 1 #, #, $docs[[1]]$`_primary_term` #, [1] 1 #, #, $docs[[1]]$found #, [1] TRUE #, #, $docs[[1]]$`_source` #, $docs[[1]]$`_source`$id #, [1] 10.1371/journal.pone.0098602 #, #, $docs[[1]]$`_source`$title #, [1] Population Genetic Structure of a Sandstone Specialist and a Generalist Heath Species at Two Levels of Sandstone Patchiness across the Strait of Gibraltar #, #, #, #, $docs[[2]] #, $docs[[2]]$`_index` #, [1] plos #, #, $docs[[2]]$`_type` #, [1] _doc #, #, $docs[[2]]$`_id` #, [1] 2 #, #, $docs[[2]]$`_version` #, [1] 1 #, #, $docs[[2]]$`_seq_no` #, [1] 2 #, #, $docs[[2]]$`_primary_term` #, [1] 1 #, #, $docs[[2]]$found #, [1] TRUE #, #, $docs[[2]]$`_source` #, $docs[[2]]$`_source`$id #, [1] 10.1371/journal.pone.0107757 #, #, ...
Donating to Docs 4 Patient Care Foundation ensures that we can continue to share best practices in healthcare reform that benefit doctors as well as patients ...
Jurnal Dvd Doc - is the right place for every Ebook Files. We have millions index of Ebook Files urls from around the world
Hi, I would like to paste a entire Word doc (not the text) into an Excel cell. Can someone tell me how to do this? Cut/Paste doesnt work. Thanks ...
You may need to adjust what python is used on the target machines you talk to from your Fedora control host. You can do this by following the instructions in Ansible docs.. ...
Rotwein aus Italien ➔ Epicuro Copertino Rosso DOC ✔ Sofort Wein bestellen ★ online unter ➔
Doc Next Network to europejski ruch kuratorów, badaczy, producentów i edukatorów współpracujących z młodzieżą w Wielkiej Brytanii, Hiszpanii, Holandii, Polsce i Turcji, skupiony wokół niezależnych organizacji...
Title: A Most Ingenious Pair of Docs Rating: NC17 and then some Media: Doctor Who (Post Doomsday) Characters: Nine/Rose/Ten Summary: It takes more than one Time Lord to pierce the void. Lucky for Rose, there are two who are willing to take the risk. Spoilers: Doctor Who, New Seasons 1 & 2 Disclaimer: I dont…
Content published by Biologo Rafael Martinez Ortiz about [Dr_Ian_Kay]_Introduction_to_Animal_Physiology( 92 Views, 0 Likes on
Oct 22, 2020 - Doc: Abnormal Molar Masses Notes | EduRev is made by best teachers of Class 12. This document is highly rated by Class 12 students and has been viewed 265 times.
Page 7 - So... how bad was it? And while you are at it, ever BEEN a patient? How bad were you? :chuckle Comon... be honest!
Adding human expertise to the quantitative analysis of fingerprints Busey and Chen PROGRAM NARRATIVE …
Page 5 - So... how bad was it? And while you are at it, ever BEEN a patient? How bad were you? :chuckle Comon... be honest!
Hey forum, friends and visitors, I continue this story from age nineteen, but it was much more complex, much earlier, as alluded to in the first entry. I will eventually get back to those times...
cryogenic grinding,Ask Latest information,Abstract,Report,Presentation (pdf,doc,ppt),cryogenic grinding technology discussion,cryogenic grinding paper presentation details
"Characterization of the DOC1/APC10 subunit of the yeast and the human anaphase-promoting complex". The Journal of Biological ... "Mammalian p55CDC mediates association of the spindle checkpoint protein Mad2 with the cyclosome/anaphase-promoting complex, and ... Vodermaier HC, Gieffers C, Maurer-Stroh S, Eisenhaber F, Peters JM (Sep 2003). "TPR subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex ... "TPR subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex mediate binding to the activator protein CDH1". Current Biology. 13 (17): 1459- ...
1999). "Characterization of the DOC1/APC10 subunit of the yeast and the human anaphase-promoting complex". J. Biol. Chem. 274 ( ... This gene encodes a tetratricopeptide repeat containing component of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), a large ... Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 7 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ANAPC7 gene. Multiple transcript variants ... 2004). "TPR subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex mediate binding to the activator protein CDH1". Curr. Biol. 13 (17): ...
2004). "The Apc5 Subunit of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome Interacts with Poly(A) Binding Protein and Represses ... 1999). "Characterization of the DOC1/APC10 subunit of the yeast and the human anaphase-promoting complex". J. Biol. Chem. 274 ( ... Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 5 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ANAPC5 gene. The anaphase-promoting complex ... "The Apc5 Subunit of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome Interacts with Poly(A) Binding Protein and Represses Internal ...
2004). "The Arabidopsis anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome: molecular and genetic characterization of the APC2 subunit". ... 1999). "Characterization of the DOC1/APC10 subunit of the yeast and the human anaphase-promoting complex". J. Biol. Chem. 274 ( ... A large protein complex, termed the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), or the cyclosome, promotes metaphase-anaphase transition ... 2004). "TPR subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex mediate binding to the activator protein CDH1". Curr. Biol. 13 (17): ...
... like Apc10, contribute towards substrate association as well. In APC/C constructs lacking the Apc10/Doc1 subunit, substrates ... April 2015). "Structure of an APC3-APC16 complex: insights into assembly of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome". Journal ... Anaphase-promoting complex (also called the cyclosome or APC/C) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that marks target cell cycle proteins ... a Drosophila gene encoding the Cdc27 subunit of the anaphase promoting complex, enhance centrosomal defects in polo and are ...
1999). "Characterization of the DOC1/APC10 subunit of the yeast and the human anaphase-promoting complex". J. Biol. Chem. 274 ( ... A large protein complex, termed the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), or the cyclosome, promotes metaphase-anaphase transition ... 2004). "TPR subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex mediate binding to the activator protein CDH1". Curr. Biol. 13 (17): ... Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 4 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the ANAPC4 gene. ...
The anaphase-promoting complex (APC) or cyclosome is a multi-subunit E3 protein ubiquitin ligase that regulates important ... and Doc1/Apc10, and another thatcontains the three TPR subunits (Cdc27, Cdc16, and Cdc23). We found thatthe three TPR subunits ... The anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC) is an unusuallycomplicated ubiquitin ligase, composed of 13 core subunits and ... The anaphase promoting complex or cyclosome (APC2) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase which is part of the SCF family of ubiquitin ...
  • TITLE Checkpoint inhibition of the APC/C in HeLa cells is mediated by a complex of BUBR1, BUB3, CDC20, and MAD2 JOURNAL J. Cell Biol. (
  • It binds the Apc2 subunit, which is a part of the catalytic core, and interacts with coactivators Cdh1 or Cdc20 to recruit substrates to the complex. (
  • Here, using the crystal structure of Schizosaccharomyces pombe MCC (a complex of mitotic spindle assembly checkpoint proteins Mad2, Mad3 and APC/C co-activator protein Cdc20), we reveal the molecular basis of MCC-mediated APC/C inhibition and the regulation of MCC assembly. (
  • The MCC inhibits the APC/C by obstructing degron recognition sites on Cdc20 (the substrate recruitment subunit of the APC/C) and displacing Cdc20 to disrupt formation of a bipartite D-box receptor with the APC/C subunit Apc10. (
  • Mad2, in the closed conformation (C-Mad2), stabilizes the complex by optimally positioning the Mad3 KEN-box degron to bind Cdc20. (
  • Activation of the APC requires its association with substoichiometric activating subunits termed Cdc20 and Hct1 (also known as Cdh1). (
  • In budding yeast, APC/C(Cdc20) promotes the degradation of the Pds1p anaphase inhibitor at the metaphase-to-anaphase transition, whereas APC/C(Cdh1) promotes the degradation of the mitotic cyclins at the exit from mitosis. (
  • At the metaphase-anaphase transition, APC/C in complex with its mitotic activator Cdc20 (APC/C Cdc20 ) ubiquitinates securin and cyclin B1, triggering their destruction to allow separase activation and cohesin cleavage. (
  • In anaphase, APC/C bound to the Cdc20 homolog Cdh1 (APC/C Cdh1 ) further mediate the ubiquitination of cyclin B1 and other mitotic regulators, resulting in their degradation and mitotic exit. (
  • consisting of BubR1/Mad3, Bub3, Mad2, and Cdc20) anchors Cdc20 at a site on APC/C that is different from the site bound by free Cdc20, presumably blocking the productive engagement of the D box with Cdc20 and Apc10 ( 16 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 21 ). (
  • Background: The CDC20 and Cdh1/CCS52 proteins are substrate determinants and activators of the Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) E3 ubiquitin ligase and as such they control the mitotic cell cycle by targeting the degradation of various cell cycle regulators. (
  • Methodology/Principal Findings: Studying the gene structure and phylogeny of plant CDC20s, the expression of the five AtCDC20 gene copies and their interactions with the APC/C subunit APC10, the CCS52 proteins, components of the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC) and mitotic cyclin substrates, conserved CDC20 functions could be assigned for AtCDC20.1 and AtCDC20.2. (
  • Nek2 isoform A (Nek2A) is a presumed substrate of the anaphase‐promoting complex/cyclosome containing Cdc20 (APC/C Cdc20 ). (
  • The anaphase‐promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that, together with either one of its regulatory co‐activators, Cdc20 or Cdh1, targets multiple mitotic regulators for proteasomal degradation. (
  • At the point in the cell cycle when APC/C Cdc20 complexes are formed, however, the spindle checkpoint also becomes active and blocks Cdc20. (
  • Mechanisms controlling the temporal degradation of Nek2A and Kif18A by the APC/C-Cdc20 complex. (
  • The Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) in complex with its co-activator Cdc20 is responsible for targeting proteins for ubiquitin-mediated degradation during mitosis. (
  • We find that dimerization via the leucine zipper, in combination with the MR motif, is required for stable Nek2A binding to and ubiquitination by the APC/C. Nek2A and the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC) have an overlap in APC/C subunit requirements for binding and we propose that Nek2A binds with high affinity to apo-APC/C and is degraded by the pool of Cdc20 that avoids inhibition by the SAC. (
  • Kif18A is ubiquitinated by the APC/C-Cdc20 complex. (
  • 13. Fang G, Yu H, Kirschner MW (1998) The checkpoint protein MAD2 and the mitotic regulator CDC20 form a ternary complex with the anaphase-promoting complex to control anaphase initiation. (
  • 14. Sudakin V, Chan GK, Yen TJ (2001) Checkpoint inhibition of the APC/C in HeLa cells is mediated by a complex of BUBR1, BUB3, CDC20, and MAD2. (
  • The catalytic core consists of APC2 (Cullin family related protein), APC10, APC11 (RING finger protein), Cdc20 or Cdh1 (catalytic coactivators) and substrate. (
  • This gene encodes a component protein of the APC complex, which is composed of eight proteins and functions as a protein ubiquitin ligase. (
  • This protein and two other APC complex proteins, CDC23 and CDC27, contain a tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR), a protein domain that may be involved in protein-protein interaction. (
  • APC, or cyclosome, accomplishes this progression through the ubiquitination of mitotic cyclins and other regulatory proteins that are targeted for destruction during cell division. (
  • The APC/C complex acts by mediating ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of target proteins: it mainly mediates the formation of 'Lys-11'-linked polyubiquitin chains and, to a lower extent, the formation of 'Lys-48'- and 'Lys-63'-linked polyubiquitin chains. (
  • The APC (anaphase-promoting complex) is a multisubunit E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets cell-cycle-related proteins for degradation by the 26 S proteasome. (
  • The APC contains at least 13 subunits and is regulated by the binding of co-activator proteins and by phosphorylation. (
  • Most cellular proteins form a complex network of interactions with other proteins and many are components of large multiprotein complexes [ 1 - 3 ]. (
  • Here, the complexes are connected by shared components, e.g. proteins present in more than one complex. (
  • Some of these attachments, which can consist of multiple proteins itself, can be connected to different core complexes. (
  • The anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is activated during mitosis and G1 where it is responsible for eliminating proteins that impede mitotic progression and that would have deleterious consequences if allowed to accumulate during G1. (
  • An E3 ubiquitin ligase primarily involved in regulation of the metaphase-to-anaphase transition during MITOSIS through ubiquitination of specific CELL CYCLE PROTEINS. (
  • These co‐evolutionary patterns improve our understanding of kinetochore function and evolution, which we illustrated with the RZZ complex, TRIP 13, the MCC , and some nuclear pore proteins. (
  • TITLE Characterization of the DOC1/APC10 subunit of the yeast and the human anaphase-promoting complex JOURNAL J. Biol. (
  • 3. Passmore LA et al: Doc1 mediates the activity of the anaphase-promoting complex by contributing to substrate recognition. (
  • The APC complex is a cyclin degradation system that governs exit from mitosis. (
  • Composed of more than ten subunits, the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) acts in a cell-cycle dependent manner to promote the separation of sister chromatids during the transition between metaphase and anaphase in mitosis. (
  • Ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis due to the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome is essential for separation of sister chromatids, requiring degradation of the anaphase inhibitor Pds1, and for exit from mitosis, requiring inactivation of cyclin B Cdk1 kinases. (
  • Progression through mitosis is controlled by protein degradation that is mediated by the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome and its associated specificity factors. (
  • It is proposed that the dual role of Pds1p as an inhibitor of anaphase and of cyclin degradation allows the cell to couple the exit from mitosis to the prior completion of anaphase. (
  • Progression through mitosis depends on a large number of protein complexes that regulate the major structural and physiological changes necessary for faithful chromosome segregation. (
  • The proteolytic events triggered by the APC are required to release sister chromatid cohesion during anaphase, to control the exit from mitosis and to prevent premature entry into S-phase. (
  • Recently, it has been shown that cyclin A destruction early in mitosis is necessary for progressive stabilization of the mitotic spindle, promoting proper attachments to kinetochores and formation of the metaphase plate ( Kabeche and Compton, 2013 ). (
  • 1995) The cyclosome, a large complex containing cyclin-selective ubiquitin ligase activity, targets cyclins for destruction at the end of mitosis. (
  • 1995) A 20S complex containing CDC27 and CDC16 catalyzes the mitosis-specific conjugation of ubiquitin to cyclin B. Cell 81: 279-288. (
  • Alexandru G, Uhlmann F, Mechtler K, Poupart MA, Nasmyth K (2001) Phosphorylation of the cohesin subunit Scc1 by Polo/Cdc5 kinase regulates sister chromatid separation in yeast. (
  • 9. Funabiki H, Kumada K, Yanagida M (1996) Fission yeast Cut1 and Cut2 are essential for sister chromatid separation, concentrate along the metaphase spindle and form large complexes. (
  • 16. Millband DN, Hardwick KG (2002) Fission yeast Mad3p is required for Mad2p to inhibit the anaphase-promoting complex and localizes to kinetochores in a Bub1p-, Bub3p-, and Mph1p-dependent manner. (
  • 1997) MAD2 associates with the cyclosome/anaphase-promoting complex and inhibits its activity. (
  • J. 449 (2), 365-371 (2013) PUBMED 23078409 REMARK GeneRIF: Data indicate that additional density present in the anaphase-promoting complex (APC/C) structure, proximal to Apc3/Cdc27 of the (tetratricopeptide repeat) lobe, is assigned to the TPR subunit Apc7, a subunit specific to vertebrate APC/C. REFERENCE 6 (residues 1 to 537) AUTHORS Sudakin V, Chan GK and Yen TJ. (
  • Summary: This gene encodes a tetratricopeptide repeat containing component of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), a large E3 ubiquitin ligase that controls cell cycle progression by targeting a number of cell cycle regulators such as B-type cyclins for 26S proteasome-mediated degradation through ubiquitination. (
  • This protein and 3 other members of the APC complex contain the TPR (tetratricopeptide repeat), a protein domain important for protein-protein interaction. (
  • Of these, 32 sites are clustered in parts of Apc1 and the tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) subunits Cdc27, Cdc16, Cdc23 and Apc7. (
  • 1. Peters JM: The anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome: a machine designed to destroy. (
  • TITLE Expression of the CDH1-associated form of the anaphase-promoting complex in postmitotic neurons JOURNAL Proc. (
  • Both processes require the Cdc14 phosphatase, whose release from the nucleolus during anaphase causes dephosphorylation and thereby activation of Cdh1 and accumulation of another protein, Sic1. (
  • Biochemical and biophysical studies have established that Cdh1 and the APC/C subunit Apc10 serve as coreceptors for the D box, with the D box bridging an interaction between the two ( 7 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 11 ). (
  • IP를 위해 agarose ;WB, IHC(P) and ELISA를 위해 HRP ;또는 IF, IHC(P) and FCM를 위해 phycoerythrin or FITC 에 결합된 Anti-APC10 항체 (B-1)를 제공한다. (
  • APC10 Antibody (B-1) is available as both the non-conjugated anti-APC10 antibody form, as well as multiple conjugated forms of anti-APC10 antibody, including agarose, HRP, PE, FITC and multiple Alexa Fluor ® conjugates. (
  • Purified Hct1 is phosphorylated in vitro at these sites by purified Cdc28-cyclin complexes, and phosphorylation abolishes the ability of Hct1 to activate the APC in vitro. (
  • TITLE Human BUBR1 is a mitotic checkpoint kinase that monitors CENP-E functions at kinetochores and binds the cyclosome/APC JOURNAL J. Cell Biol. (
  • The SAC is imposed by the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC), whose assembly is catalysed by unattached chromosomes and which binds and inhibits the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), the E3 ubiquitin ligase that initiates chromosome segregation. (
  • First, enhancing mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC) formation by nocodazole treatment inhibited the degradation of geminin and cyclin A, whereas Nek2A disappeared at a normal rate. (
  • However in contrast to Nek2A, Kif18A is not degraded until anaphase showing that additional mechanisms contribute to Nek2A degradation. (
  • 1996) Anaphase initiation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is controlled by the APC-dependent degradation of the anaphase inhibitor Pds1p. (
  • This protein is a component of anaphase-promoting complex (APC), which is composed of eight protein subunits and highly conserved in eucaryotic cells. (
  • Each component protein of the APC complex is highly conserved among eukaryotic organisms. (
  • We exemplified this trend on the anaphase promoting complex (APC) where a core is highly conserved throughout all metazoans, but flexibility in certain components is observable. (
  • LOCUS NP_001131136 537 aa linear PRI 20-JUN-2020 DEFINITION anaphase-promoting complex subunit 7 isoform b [Homo sapiens]. (
  • 537 /product="anaphase-promoting complex subunit 7 isoform b" /note="cyclosome subunit 7" /calculated_mol_wt=59872 Region 135. (
  • This activity of Pds1p is independent of its activity as an anaphase inhibitor. (
  • The signaling of the checkpoint originates from defective kinetochore-microtubule interactions and leads to formation of the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC), a highly potent inhibitor of the Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C)-the E3 ubiquitin ligase essential for anaphase onset. (
  • Proteolysis of mitotic cyclins depends on a multisubunit ubiquitin-protein ligase, the anaphase promoting complex (APC). (
  • Proteolysis commences during anaphase, persisting throughout G1 until it is terminated by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) as cells enter S phase. (
  • A key mechanism of CDK inactivation is ubiquitin-mediated cyclin proteolysis, which is triggered by the late mitotic activation of a ubiquitin ligase known as the anaphase-promoting complex (APC). (
  • Focussing on human protein complexes, we based our analysis on a manually curated dataset from HPRD. (
  • Consecutive additions and losses of distinct units is a fundamental process in the evolution of protein complexes. (
  • These evolutionary events affecting genes coding for units in human protein complexes showed a significantly different phylogenetic pattern compared to randomly selected genes. (
  • Thus, protein complexes contain not only structural and functional, but also evolutionary cores. (
  • Complementary to this network view, protein complexes can be partitioned in a core which is modulated by different attachments. (
  • This complexity, comprising both the functional and structural entities of protein complexes, raises the question how the interplay of core complexes with variable attachments evolved. (
  • Apc10 is necessary for coactivator-dependent substrate recognition by the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome. (
  • The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) promotes anaphase onset and mitotic exit through ubiquitinating securin and cyclin B1. (
  • Structure and genetics characteristics of APC/C. a Graphic representation of human ( Homo sapiens ) APC/C subunits. (
  • m-IgG Fc BP-HRP , 1 BP-HRP">m-IgG 1 BP-HRP and m-IgGκ BP-HRP are the preferred secondary detection reagents for APC10 Antibody (B-1) for WB applications. (
  • These reagents are now offered in bundles with APC10 Antibody (B-1) ( see ordering information below ). (
  • APC10 Antibody (B-1) is a high quality monoclonal APC10 antibody (also designated APC10 antibody) suitable for the detection of the APC10 protein of mouse, rat and human origin. (
  • Western blot analysis of APC10 in mouse heart tissue lysate with APC10 antibody at (A) 1 and (B) 2 ug/mL. (
  • Immunohistochemistry of APC10 in mouse heart tissue with APC10 antibody at 5 ug/mL. (
  • A ) The APC/C complex was affinity purified using an APC4 antibody from nocodazole-arrested cells or cells released from nocodazole into MG132 for 2 h. (
  • C ) Stable HeLa cell lines expressing FLAG-tagged Kif18A or Kif18AΔLR were arrested with nocodazole and the APC/C complex purified using an APC4 antibody. (
  • This suppression coincided with facilitated complex formation of APC/C. Moreover, our mass spectrometry analysis showed that an APC/C subunit, Cut23/APC8, is acetylated. (
  • The mutual inhibition between APC and CDKs explains how cells suppress mitotic CDK activity during G1 and then establish a period with elevated kinase activity from S phase until anaphase (Zachariae, 1998). (
  • Cytokinesis in eukaryotic cells requires the inactivation of mitotic cyclin-dependent kinase complexes. (
  • The GTP-bound form of Spg1p recruits the Cdc7p protein kinase, resulting in Cdc7p localization to both SPBs during metaphase and just one SPB during anaphase B ( 33 ). (
  • The Sid1p protein kinase, in a complex with Cdc14p, is then recruited to the SPB that contains Cdc7p and activated Spg1p at this time ( 16 ). (
  • The resulting ortholog sets imply that the last eukaryotic common ancestor ( LECA ) possessed a complex kinetochore and highlight that current‐day kinetochores differ substantially. (
  • 11. He X, Patterson TE, Sazer S (1997) The Schizosaccharomyces pombe spindle checkpoint protein mad2p blocks anaphase and genetically interacts with the anaphase-promoting complex. (
  • ANAPC10 is a core subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), or cyclosome, a ubiquitin protein ligase that is;essential for progression through the cell cycle. (
  • The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a multisubunit ubiquitin ligase that mediates the ubiquitination of a multitude of substrates to drive cell cycle progression ( 1 ⇓ - 3 ). (
  • APC10 항체 (B-1) WB, IP, IF와 ELISA으로 mouse, rat와 human origin의 APC10을 검출할것을 권장합니다. (
  • human origin의 APC10의 1-185 아미노산을 항원으로 사용하였습니다. (
  • 안티-APC10 항체 (B-1)는 WB, IP, IF and ELISA으로 mouse, rat and human유래의 APC10 를 감지하는 데에 추천한다. (
  • 2. Jorgensen PM et al: Characterisation of the human APC1, the largest subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex. (
  • Here, cryo-EM and biochemistry show that the human E3 anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) and its two partner E2s, UBE2C (aka UBCH10) and UBE2S, adopt specialized catalytic architectures for these two distinct forms of polyubiquitination. (
  • These efforts have culminated in recently reported structure models for human MCC:APC/C supra-complexes at near-atomic resolution that shed light on multiple aspects of the mitotic checkpoint mechanisms. (
  • Mechanism of ubiquitin-chain formation by the human anaphase-promoting complex. (
  • TITLE Identification of a cullin homology region in a subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex JOURNAL Science 279 (5354), 1219-1222 (1998) PUBMED 9469815 COMMENT REVIEWED REFSEQ: This record has been curated by NCBI staff. (
  • This study explores the molecular function and regulation of the APC regulatory subunit Hct1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae . (
  • The APC (anaphase-promoting complex) or cyclosome is a large multisubunit protein complex. (
  • The large complexes involved in transcription (polymerases and transcription factors) and translation (ribosomes) must be tightly regulated to allow the control of gene expression. (
  • By contrast, HDAC inhibitors and clr6 HDAC mutations rescued temperature sensitive (ts) phenotypes of the mutants of the ubiquitin ligase complex anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), which display metaphase arrest. (
  • An apparent exception to this relationship is found in Schizosaccharomyces pombe mutants with mutations of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC). (
  • The anaphase‐promoting complex (APC) or cyclosome is a ubiquitin ligase that initiates anaphase and mitotic exit. (
  • Although the activity and specificity of E3s such as the APC are crucial, most E3s exist as much smaller, often single-subunit, enzymes. (
  • Enzyme activity is tightly regulated through subunits and cofactors, which modulate activation, inhibition, and substrate specificity. (
  • We computed interologs in 25 different species and predicted the composition of complexes. (
  • Over the analysed species, the composition of most complexes was highly flexible and only 25% of all genes were never lost. (
  • Indeed, overproduction of nondestructible Cdc13p prevents septation in APC cut mutants and the normal reorganization of septation initiation network components during anaphase. (
  • APC/C complex contains three sub-complexes: the scaffolding platform, the TPR lobe and the catalytic core. (
  • During metaphase, it becomes activated at both SPBs (GTP-bound form), but during anaphase B, it becomes inactivated at only one pole, giving rise to a poorly understood asymmetric state ( 33 ). (

No images available that match "apc10 subunit anaphase promoting complex cyclosome"