Anaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following METAPHASE, in which the CHROMATIDS separate and migrate to opposite poles of the spindle.Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome: An E3 ubiquitin ligase primarily involved in regulation of the metaphase-to-anaphase transition during MITOSIS through ubiquitination of specific CELL CYCLE PROTEINS. Enzyme activity is tightly regulated through subunits and cofactors, which modulate activation, inhibition, and substrate specificity. The anaphase-promoting complex, or APC-C, is also involved in tissue differentiation in the PLACENTA, CRYSTALLINE LENS, and SKELETAL MUSCLE, and in regulation of postmitotic NEURONAL PLASTICITY and excitability.Ubiquitin-Protein Ligase Complexes: Complexes of enzymes that catalyze the covalent attachment of UBIQUITIN to other proteins by forming a peptide bond between the C-terminal GLYCINE of UBIQUITIN and the alpha-amino groups of LYSINE residues in the protein. The complexes play an important role in mediating the selective-degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins. The complex of enzymes can be broken down into three components that involve activation of ubiquitin (UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES), conjugation of ubiquitin to the ligase complex (UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES), and ligation of ubiquitin to the substrate protein (UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES).Cdc20 Proteins: Highly conserved proteins that specifically bind to and activate the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome, promoting ubiquitination and proteolysis of cell-cycle-regulatory proteins. Cdc20 is essential for anaphase-promoting complex activity, initiation of anaphase, and cyclin proteolysis during mitosis.Cdh1 Proteins: Cdh1 is an activator of the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome, and is involved in substrate recognition. It associates with the complex in late MITOSIS from anaphase through G1 to regulate activity of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES and to prevent premature DNA replication.Mitosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division by means of which the two daughter nuclei normally receive identical complements of the number of CHROMOSOMES of the somatic cells of the species.Apc3 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome: A highly evolutionarily conserved subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC-C) containing multiple 34-amino-acid tetratricopeptide repeats. These domains, also found in Apc subunits 6, 7, and 8, have been shown to mediate protein-protein interactions, suggesting that Apc3 may assist in coordinating the juxtaposition of the catalytic and substrate recognition module subunits relative to co-activators and APC-C inhibitors.Cell Cycle Proteins: Proteins that control the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. This family of proteins includes a wide variety of classes, including CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES, mitogen-activated kinases, CYCLINS, and PHOSPHOPROTEIN PHOSPHATASES as well as their putative substrates such as chromatin-associated proteins, CYTOSKELETAL PROTEINS, and TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS.Apc1 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome: The largest subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex. It acts primarily as a scaffold for the proper organization and arrangement of subunits. The C-terminal region of Apc1 contains a series of tandem amino acid repeats that are also seen in the 26S proteasome regulatory particle, and may assist with forming and stabilizing protein-protein interactions.Spindle Apparatus: A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.Securin: Securin is involved in the control of the metaphase-anaphase transition during MITOSIS. It promotes the onset of anaphase by blocking SEPARASE function and preventing proteolysis of cohesin and separation of sister CHROMATIDS. Overexpression of securin is associated with NEOPLASTIC CELL TRANSFORMATION and tumor formation.Cyclin B: A cyclin subtype that is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE. It stimulates the G2/M phase transition by activating CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE.F-Box Proteins: A family of proteins that share the F-BOX MOTIF and are involved in protein-protein interactions. They play an important role in process of protein ubiquition by associating with a variety of substrates and then associating into SCF UBIQUITIN LIGASE complexes. They are held in the ubiquitin-ligase complex via binding to SKP DOMAIN PROTEINS.Genes, APC: Tumor suppressor genes located in the 5q21 region on the long arm of human chromosome 5. The mutation of these genes is associated with familial adenomatous polyposis (ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI) and GARDNER SYNDROME, as well as some sporadic colorectal cancers.Metaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following PROMETAPHASE, in which the CHROMOSOMES line up across the equatorial plane of the SPINDLE APPARATUS prior to separation.Ligases: A class of enzymes that catalyze the formation of a bond between two substrate molecules, coupled with the hydrolysis of a pyrophosphate bond in ATP or a similar energy donor. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 6.M Phase Cell Cycle Checkpoints: The cellular signaling system that halts the progression of cells through MITOSIS or MEIOSIS if a defect that will affect CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION is detected.Cyclin A2: A widely-expressed cyclin A subtype that functions during the G1/S and G2/M transitions of the CELL CYCLE.Apc5 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome: A subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex whose primary function is to provide structural support for the catalytic and substrate-recognition modules of the complex. Apc5, along with Apc4, tethers the tetratricopeptide-coactivator binding subcomplex to the main structural subunit, Apc1.Mad2 Proteins: Mad2 is a component of the spindle-assembly checkpoint apparatus. It binds to and inhibits the Cdc20 activator subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex, preventing the onset of anaphase until all chromosomes are properly aligned at the metaphase plate. Mad2 is required for proper microtubule capture at KINETOCHORES.Cyclin B1: A cyclin B subtype that colocalizes with MICROTUBULES during INTERPHASE and is transported into the CELL NUCLEUS at the end of the G2 PHASE.Chromosome Segregation: The orderly segregation of CHROMOSOMES during MEIOSIS or MITOSIS.Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases: A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Prometaphase: The phase of cell nucleus division following PROPHASE, when the breakdown of the NUCLEAR ENVELOPE occurs and the MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS enters the nuclear region and attaches to the KINETOCHORES.CDC2 Protein Kinase: Phosphoprotein with protein kinase activity that functions in the G2/M phase transition of the CELL CYCLE. It is the catalytic subunit of the MATURATION-PROMOTING FACTOR and complexes with both CYCLIN A and CYCLIN B in mammalian cells. The maximal activity of cyclin-dependent kinase 1 is achieved when it is fully dephosphorylated.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Ubiquitination: The act of ligating UBIQUITINS to PROTEINS to form ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes to label proteins for transport to the PROTEASOME ENDOPEPTIDASE COMPLEX where proteolysis occurs.Geminin: Geminin inhibits DNA replication by preventing the incorporation of MCM complex into pre-replication complex. It is absent during G1 phase of the CELL CYCLE and accumulates through S, G2,and M phases. It is degraded at the metaphase-anaphase transition by the ANAPHASE-PROMOTING COMPLEX-CYCLOSOME.Schizosaccharomyces pombe Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Apc2 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome: Together with the Apc11 subunit, forms the catalytic core of the E3 ubiquitin ligase anaphase-promoting complex (APC-C). Its N-terminus has cullin domains which associate with the RING FINGER DOMAINS of Apc11. Apc2 also interacts with the E2 ubiquitin ligases involved in APC-C ubiquitination reactions.Cyclin A: A cyclin subtype that has specificity for CDC2 PROTEIN KINASE and CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2. It plays a role in progression of the CELL CYCLE through G1/S and G2/M phase transitions.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Protein-Serine-Threonine Kinases: A group of enzymes that catalyzes the phosphorylation of serine or threonine residues in proteins, with ATP or other nucleotides as phosphate donors.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Schizosaccharomyces: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Schizosaccharomycetaceae, order Schizosaccharomycetales.Apc8 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome: A highly conserved subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC-C) containing multiple 34-amino-acid tetratricopeptide repeats. These domains, also found in Apc3, Apc6, and Apc7, have been shown to mediate protein-protein interactions, suggesting that Apc8 may assist in coordinating the juxtaposition of the catalytic and substrate recognition module subunits relative to coactivators and APC-C inhibitors.Separase: Separase is a caspase-like cysteine protease, which plays a central role in triggering ANAPHASE by cleaving the SCC1/RAD21 subunit of the cohesin complex. Cohesin holds the sister CHROMATIDS together during METAPHASE and its cleavage results in chromosome segregation.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Nocodazole: Nocodazole is an antineoplastic agent which exerts its effect by depolymerizing microtubules.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Telophase: The final phase of cell nucleus division following ANAPHASE, in which two daughter nuclei are formed, the CYTOPLASM completes division, and the CHROMOSOMES lose their distinctness and are transformed into CHROMATIN threads.Aurora Kinases: A family of highly conserved serine-threonine kinases that are involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. They are involved in many aspects of cell division, including centrosome duplication, SPINDLE APPARATUS formation, chromosome alignment, attachment to the spindle, checkpoint activation, and CYTOKINESIS.Chromatids: Either of the two longitudinally adjacent threads formed when a eukaryotic chromosome replicates prior to mitosis. The chromatids are held together at the centromere. Sister chromatids are derived from the same chromosome. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-mos: Cellular proteins encoded by the c-mos genes (GENES, MOS). They function in the cell cycle to maintain MATURATION PROMOTING FACTOR in the active state and have protein-serine/threonine kinase activity. Oncogenic transformation can take place when c-mos proteins are expressed at the wrong time.Xenopus Proteins: Proteins obtained from various species of Xenopus. Included here are proteins from the African clawed frog (XENOPUS LAEVIS). Many of these proteins have been the subject of scientific investigations in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.G1 Phase: The period of the CELL CYCLE preceding DNA REPLICATION in S PHASE. Subphases of G1 include "competence" (to respond to growth factors), G1a (entry into G1), G1b (progression), and G1c (assembly). Progression through the G1 subphases is effected by limiting growth factors, nutrients, or inhibitors.Genes, cdc: Genes that code for proteins that regulate the CELL DIVISION CYCLE. These genes form a regulatory network that culminates in the onset of MITOSIS by activating the p34cdc2 protein (PROTEIN P34CDC2).Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Protein Subunits: Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.Microtubules: Slender, cylindrical filaments found in the cytoskeleton of plant and animal cells. They are composed of the protein TUBULIN and are influenced by TUBULIN MODULATORS.Ubiquitin: A highly conserved 76-amino acid peptide universally found in eukaryotic cells that functions as a marker for intracellular PROTEIN TRANSPORT and degradation. Ubiquitin becomes activated through a series of complicated steps and forms an isopeptide bond to lysine residues of specific proteins within the cell. These "ubiquitinated" proteins can be recognized and degraded by proteosomes or be transported to specific compartments within the cell.Ubiquitin-Conjugating Enzymes: A class of enzymes that form a thioester bond to UBIQUITIN with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES. They transfer ubiquitin to the LYSINE of a substrate protein with the assistance of UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES.Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.Apc6 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome: A highly conserved subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC-C) containing multiple 34 amino acid tetratricopeptide repeats. These domains, also found in Apc3, Apc7, and Apc8, have been shown to mediate protein-protein interactions, suggesting that Apc6 may assist in coordinating the juxtaposition of the catalytic and substrate recognition module subunits relative to coactivators and APC-C inhibitors.SKP Cullin F-Box Protein Ligases: A subset of ubiquitin protein ligases that are formed by the association of a SKP DOMAIN PROTEIN, a CULLIN DOMAIN PROTEIN and a F-BOX DOMAIN PROTEIN.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Ubiquitins: A family of proteins that are structurally-related to Ubiquitin. Ubiquitins and ubiquitin-like proteins participate in diverse cellular functions, such as protein degradation and HEAT-SHOCK RESPONSE, by conjugation to other proteins.Kinetochores: Large multiprotein complexes that bind the centromeres of the chromosomes to the microtubules of the mitotic spindle during metaphase in the cell cycle.Proteasome Endopeptidase Complex: A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.S Phase: Phase of the CELL CYCLE following G1 and preceding G2 when the entire DNA content of the nucleus is replicated. It is achieved by bidirectional replication at multiple sites along each chromosome.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Cytokinesis: The process by which the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided.Calcium-Binding Proteins: Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.G2 Phase: The period of the CELL CYCLE following DNA synthesis (S PHASE) and preceding M PHASE (cell division phase). The CHROMOSOMES are tetraploid in this point.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Centromere: The clear constricted portion of the chromosome at which the chromatids are joined and by which the chromosome is attached to the spindle during cell division.Apc11 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome: Together with the Apc2 subunit, forms the catalytic core of the E3 ubiquitin ligase, anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome. It has a RING H2 domain which interacts with the cullin domain of Apc2. Apc11 also interacts with the E2 ubiquitin ligases involved in APC-C ubiquitination reactions.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Adenomatous Polyposis Coli Protein: A negative regulator of beta-catenin signaling which is mutant in ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI and GARDNER SYNDROME.Cadherins: Calcium-dependent cell adhesion proteins. They are important in the formation of ADHERENS JUNCTIONS between cells. Cadherins are classified by their distinct immunological and tissue specificities, either by letters (E- for epithelial, N- for neural, and P- for placental cadherins) or by numbers (cadherin-12 or N-cadherin 2 for brain-cadherin). Cadherins promote cell adhesion via a homophilic mechanism as in the construction of tissues and of the whole animal body.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Cyclins: A large family of regulatory proteins that function as accessory subunits to a variety of CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASES. They generally function as ENZYME ACTIVATORS that drive the CELL CYCLE through transitions between phases. A subset of cyclins may also function as transcriptional regulators.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Protein Stability: The ability of a protein to retain its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to physical or chemical manipulations.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone: Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Apc7 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome: A highly conserved subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC-C) containing multiple 34 amino acid tetratricopeptide repeats. These domains, also found in Apc3, Apc6, and Apc8, have been shown to mediate protein-protein interactions, suggesting that Apc7 may assist in coordinating the juxtaposition of the catalytic and substrate recognition module subunits relative to coactivators and APC-C inhibitors.Cyclin-Dependent Kinases: Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Microtubule-Associated Proteins: High molecular weight proteins found in the MICROTUBULES of the cytoskeletal system. Under certain conditions they are required for TUBULIN assembly into the microtubules and stabilize the assembled microtubules.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Kinesin: A microtubule-associated mechanical adenosine triphosphatase, that uses the energy of ATP hydrolysis to move organelles along microtubules toward the plus end of the microtubule. The protein is found in squid axoplasm, optic lobes, and in bovine brain. Bovine kinesin is a heterotetramer composed of two heavy (120 kDa) and two light (62 kDa) chains. EC 3.6.1.-.Prophase: The first phase of cell nucleus division, in which the CHROMOSOMES become visible, the CELL NUCLEUS starts to lose its identity, the SPINDLE APPARATUS appears, and the CENTRIOLES migrate toward opposite poles.Bivalvia: A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of mussels; clams; OYSTERS; COCKLES; and SCALLOPS. They are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical hinged shell and a muscular foot used for burrowing and anchoring.Endoreduplication: A type of nuclear polyploidization in which multiple cycles of DNA REPLICATION occur in the absence of CELL DIVISION and result in a POLYPLOID CELL.Endopeptidases: A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.Tubulin: A microtubule subunit protein found in large quantities in mammalian brain. It has also been isolated from SPERM FLAGELLUM; CILIA; and other sources. Structurally, the protein is a dimer with a molecular weight of approximately 120,000 and a sedimentation coefficient of 5.8S. It binds to COLCHICINE; VINCRISTINE; and VINBLASTINE.Interphase: The interval between two successive CELL DIVISIONS during which the CHROMOSOMES are not individually distinguishable. It is composed of the G phases (G1 PHASE; G0 PHASE; G2 PHASE) and S PHASE (when DNA replication occurs).Aurora Kinase B: An aurora kinase that is a component of the chromosomal passenger protein complex and is involved in the regulation of MITOSIS. It mediates proper CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION and contractile ring function during CYTOKINESIS.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Spermatocytes: Male germ cells derived from SPERMATOGONIA. The euploid primary spermatocytes undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to the haploid secondary spermatocytes which in turn give rise to SPERMATIDS.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Apc10 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome: Apc10 is necessary for coactivator-dependent substrate recognition by the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome. It binds the Apc2 subunit, which is a part of the catalytic core, and interacts with coactivators Cdh1 or Cdc20 to recruit substrates to the complex.Centrosome: The cell center, consisting of a pair of CENTRIOLES surrounded by a cloud of amorphous material called the pericentriolar region. During interphase, the centrosome nucleates microtubule outgrowth. The centrosome duplicates and, during mitosis, separates to form the two poles of the mitotic spindle (MITOTIC SPINDLE APPARATUS).Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.Adenomatous Polyposis Coli: A polyposis syndrome due to an autosomal dominant mutation of the APC genes (GENES, APC) on CHROMOSOME 5. The syndrome is characterized by the development of hundreds of ADENOMATOUS POLYPS in the COLON and RECTUM of affected individuals by early adulthood.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Saccharomycetales: An order of fungi in the phylum Ascomycota that multiply by budding. They include the telomorphic ascomycetous yeasts which are found in a very wide range of habitats.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Macropodidae: A family of herbivorous leaping MAMMALS of Australia, New Guinea, and adjacent islands. Members include kangaroos, wallabies, quokkas, and wallaroos.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Chromosomes, Fungal: Structures within the nucleus of fungal cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Cell Cycle Checkpoints: Regulatory signaling systems that control the progression through the CELL CYCLE. They ensure that the cell has completed, in the correct order and without mistakes, all the processes required to replicate the GENOME and CYTOPLASM, and divide them equally between two daughter cells. If cells sense they have not completed these processes or that the environment does not have the nutrients and growth hormones in place to proceed, then the cells are restrained (or "arrested") until the processes are completed and growth conditions are suitable.Dyneins: A family of multisubunit cytoskeletal motor proteins that use the energy of ATP hydrolysis to power a variety of cellular functions. Dyneins fall into two major classes based upon structural and functional criteria.Chromosomes, Human: Very long DNA molecules and associated proteins, HISTONES, and non-histone chromosomal proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE). Normally 46 chromosomes, including two sex chromosomes are found in the nucleus of human cells. They carry the hereditary information of the individual.Nondisjunction, Genetic: The failure of homologous CHROMOSOMES or CHROMATIDS to segregate during MITOSIS or MEIOSIS with the result that one daughter cell has both of a pair of parental chromosomes or chromatids and the other has none.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Proteolysis: Cleavage of proteins into smaller peptides or amino acids either by PROTEASES or non-enzymatically (e.g., Hydrolysis). It does not include Protein Processing, Post-Translational.Multiprotein Complexes: Macromolecular complexes formed from the association of defined protein subunits.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Gene Expression Regulation, Fungal: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Phosphoprotein Phosphatases: A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Cell Nucleolus: Within most types of eukaryotic CELL NUCLEUS, a distinct region, not delimited by a membrane, in which some species of rRNA (RNA, RIBOSOMAL) are synthesized and assembled into ribonucleoprotein subunits of ribosomes. In the nucleolus rRNA is transcribed from a nucleolar organizer, i.e., a group of tandemly repeated chromosomal genes which encode rRNA and which are transcribed by RNA polymerase I. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology & Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Proton-Translocating ATPases: Multisubunit enzymes that reversibly synthesize ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATE. They are coupled to the transport of protons across a membrane.Protein Phosphatase 2: A phosphoprotein phosphatase subtype that is comprised of a catalytic subunit and two different regulatory subunits. At least two genes encode isoforms of the protein phosphatase catalytic subunit, while several isoforms of regulatory subunits exist due to the presence of multiple genes and the alternative splicing of their mRNAs. Protein phosphatase 2 acts on a broad variety of cellular proteins and may play a role as a regulator of intracellular signaling processes.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.DNA, Catenated: CIRCULAR DNA that is interlaced together as links in a chain. It is used as an assay for the activity of DNA TOPOISOMERASES. Catenated DNA is attached loop to loop in contrast to CONCATENATED DNA which is attached end to end.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Potoroidae: A family of rat kangaroos found in and around Australia. Genera include Potorous and Bettongia.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Protein Tyrosine Phosphatases: An enzyme group that specifically dephosphorylates phosphotyrosyl residues in selected proteins. Together with PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASE, it regulates tyrosine phosphorylation and dephosphorylation in cellular signal transduction and may play a role in cell growth control and carcinogenesis.Chromosomal Instability: An increased tendency to acquire CHROMOSOME ABERRATIONS when various processes involved in chromosome replication, repair, or segregation are dysfunctional.Protein C: A vitamin-K dependent zymogen present in the blood, which, upon activation by thrombin and thrombomodulin exerts anticoagulant properties by inactivating factors Va and VIIIa at the rate-limiting steps of thrombin formation.Cytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Dipodomys: A genus of the family Heteromyidae which contains 22 species. Their physiology is adapted for the conservation of water, and they seldom drink water. They are found in arid or desert habitats and travel by hopping on their hind limbs.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Aneuploidy: The chromosomal constitution of cells which deviate from the normal by the addition or subtraction of CHROMOSOMES, chromosome pairs, or chromosome fragments. In a normally diploid cell (DIPLOIDY) the loss of a chromosome pair is termed nullisomy (symbol: 2N-2), the loss of a single chromosome is MONOSOMY (symbol: 2N-1), the addition of a chromosome pair is tetrasomy (symbol: 2N+2), the addition of a single chromosome is TRISOMY (symbol: 2N+1).Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Sister Chromatid Exchange: An exchange of segments between the sister chromatids of a chromosome, either between the sister chromatids of a meiotic tetrad or between the sister chromatids of a duplicated somatic chromosome. Its frequency is increased by ultraviolet and ionizing radiation and other mutagenic agents and is particularly high in BLOOM SYNDROME.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Microscopy, Video: Microscopy in which television cameras are used to brighten magnified images that are otherwise too dark to be seen with the naked eye. It is used frequently in TELEPATHOLOGY.Diptera: An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).PhosphoproteinsAdenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Luminescent Proteins: Proteins which are involved in the phenomenon of light emission in living systems. Included are the "enzymatic" and "non-enzymatic" types of system with or without the presence of oxygen or co-factors.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Microinjections: The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Proto-Oncogene Proteins: Products of proto-oncogenes. Normally they do not have oncogenic or transforming properties, but are involved in the regulation or differentiation of cell growth. They often have protein kinase activity.Vaccines, Subunit: Vaccines consisting of one or more antigens that stimulate a strong immune response. They are purified from microorganisms or produced by recombinant DNA techniques, or they can be chemically synthesized peptides.Nuclear Matrix-Associated Proteins: A broad category of nuclear proteins that are components of or participate in the formation of the NUCLEAR MATRIX.beta Catenin: A multi-functional catenin that participates in CELL ADHESION and nuclear signaling. Beta catenin binds CADHERINS and helps link their cytoplasmic tails to the ACTIN in the CYTOSKELETON via ALPHA CATENIN. It also serves as a transcriptional co-activator and downstream component of WNT PROTEIN-mediated SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Chromatin: The material of CHROMOSOMES. It is a complex of DNA; HISTONES; and nonhistone proteins (CHROMOSOMAL PROTEINS, NON-HISTONE) found within the nucleus of a cell.Vacuolar Proton-Translocating ATPases: Proton-translocating ATPases that are involved in acidification of a variety of intracellular compartments.Salamandridae: A family of Urodela consisting of 15 living genera and about 42 species and occurring in North America, Europe, Asia, and North Africa.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Intestinal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the INTESTINES.Antigen-Presenting Cells: A heterogeneous group of immunocompetent cells that mediate the cellular immune response by processing and presenting antigens to the T-cells. Traditional antigen-presenting cells include MACROPHAGES; DENDRITIC CELLS; LANGERHANS CELLS; and B-LYMPHOCYTES. FOLLICULAR DENDRITIC CELLS are not traditional antigen-presenting cells, but because they hold antigen on their cell surface in the form of IMMUNE COMPLEXES for B-cell recognition they are considered so by some authors.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Ovum: A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.

Identification of human APC10/Doc1 as a subunit of anaphase promoting complex. (1/17)

Anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC) is a ubiquitin ligase which specifically targets mitotic regulatory factors such as Pds1/Cut2 and cyclin B. Identification of the subunits of multiprotein complex APC in several species revealed the highly conserved composition of APC from yeast to human. It has been reported, however, that vertebrate APC is composed of at least eight subunits, APC1 to APC8, while budding yeast APC is constituted of at least 12 components, Apc1 to Apc13. It has not yet been clearly understood whether additional components found in budding yeast, Apc9 to Apc13, are actually composed of mammalian APC. Here we isolated and characterized human APC10/Doc1, and found that APC10/Doc1 binds to APC core subunits throughout the cell cycle. Further, it was found that APC10/Doc1 is localized in centrosomes and mitotic spindles throughout mitosis, while it is also localized in kinetochores from prophase to anaphase and in midbody in telophase and cytokinesis. These results strongly support the notion that human APC10/Doc1 may be one of the APC core subunits rather than the transiently associated regulatory factor.  (+info)

Control of metaphase-anaphase progression by proteolysis: cyclosome function regulated by the protein kinase A pathway, ubiquitination and localization. (2/17)

Ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis is fundamental to cell cycle progression. In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, a mitotic cyclin (Cdc13), a key cell cycle regulator, is degraded for exiting mitosis, while Cut2 has to be destroyed for the onset of sister chromatid separation in anaphase. Ubiquitination of these proteins requires the special destruction box (DB) sequences locating in their N-termini and the large, 20S complex called the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome. Here we show that cyclosome function during metaphase-anaphase progression is regulated by the protein kinase A (PKA) inactivation pathway, ubiquitination of the cyclosome subunit, and cellular localization of the target substrates. Evidence is provided that the cyclosome plays pleiotropic roles in the cell cycle: mutations in the subunit genes show a common anaphase defect, but subunit-specific phenotypes such as in G1/S or G2/M transition, septation and cytokinesis, stress response and heavy metal sensitivity, are additionally produced, suggesting that different subunits take distinct parts of complex cyclosome functions. Inactivation of PKA is important for the activation of the cyclosome for promoting anaphase, perhaps through dephosphorylation of the subunits such as Cut9 (Apc6). Cut4 (Apc1), the largest subunit, plays an essential role in the assembly and functional regulation of the cyclosome in response to cell cycle arrest and stresses. Cut4 is highly modified, probably by ubiquitination, when it is not assembled into the 20S cyclosome. Sds23 is implicated in DB-mediated ubiquitination possibly through regulating de-ubiquitination, while Cut8 is necessary for efficient proteolysis of Cdc13 and Cut2 coupled with cytokinesis. Unexpectedly, the timing of proteolysis is dependent on cellular localization of the substrate. Cdc13 enriched along the spindle disappears first, followed by decay of the nuclear signal, whereas Cut2 in the nucleus disappears first, followed by decline in the spindle signal during metaphase-anaphase progression.  (+info)

TPR subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex mediate binding to the activator protein CDH1. (3/17)

BACKGROUND: Chromosome segregation and mitotic exit depend on activation of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) by the substrate adaptor proteins CDC20 and CDH1. The APC is a ubiquitin ligase composed of at least 11 subunits. The interaction of APC2 and APC11 with E2 enzymes is sufficient for ubiquitination reactions, but the functions of most other subunits are unknown. RESULTS: We have biochemically characterized subcomplexes of the human APC. One subcomplex, containing APC2/11, APC1, APC4, and APC5, can assemble multiubiquitin chains but is unable to bind CDH1 and to ubiquitinate substrates. The other subcomplex contains all known APC subunits except APC2/11. This subcomplex can recruit CDH1 but fails to support any ubiquitination reaction. In vitro, the C termini of CDC20 and CDH1 bind to the closely related TPR subunits APC3 and APC7. Homology modeling predicts that these proteins are similar in structure to the peroxisomal import receptor PEX5, which binds cargo proteins via their C termini. APC activation by CDH1 depends on a conserved C-terminal motif that is also found in CDC20 and APC10. CONCLUSIONS: APC1, APC4, and APC5 may connect APC2/11 with TPR subunits. TPR domains in APC3 and APC7 recruit CDH1 to the APC and may thereby bring substrates into close proximity of APC2/11 and E2 enzymes. In analogy to PEX5, the different TPR subunits of the APC might function as receptors that interact with the C termini of regulatory proteins such as CDH1, CDC20, and APC10.  (+info)

Mitotic regulation of the human anaphase-promoting complex by phosphorylation. (4/17)

The anaphase-promoting complex (APC) or cyclosome is a ubiquitin ligase that initiates anaphase and mitotic exit. APC activation is thought to depend on APC phosphorylation and Cdc20 binding. We have identified 43 phospho-sites on APC of which at least 34 are mitosis specific. Of these, 32 sites are clustered in parts of Apc1 and the tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) subunits Cdc27, Cdc16, Cdc23 and Apc7. In vitro, at least 15 of the mitotic phospho-sites can be generated by cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1), and 3 by Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1). APC phosphorylation by Cdk1, but not by Plk1, is sufficient for increased Cdc20 binding and APC activation. Immunofluorescence microscopy using phospho-antibodies indicates that APC phosphorylation is initiated in prophase during nuclear uptake of cyclin B1. In prometaphase phospho-APC accumulates on centrosomes where cyclin B ubiquitination is initiated, appears throughout the cytosol and disappears during mitotic exit. Plk1 depletion neither prevents APC phosphorylation nor cyclin A destruction in vivo. These observations imply that APC activation is initiated by Cdk1 already in the nuclei of late prophase cells.  (+info)

The viral protein Apoptin associates with the anaphase-promoting complex to induce G2/M arrest and apoptosis in the absence of p53. (5/17)

The chicken anemia virus protein Apoptin induces apoptosis in the absence of p53 by a mechanism that remains to be elucidated. Here we show that in transformed cells, Apoptin is associated with APC1, a subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C). We demonstrate that Apoptin expression, or depletion of APC1 by RNA interference, inhibits APC/C function in p53 null cells, resulting in G2/M arrest and apoptosis. Our results explain the ability of Apoptin to induce apoptosis in the absence of p53 and suggest that the APC/C is an attractive target for anticancer drug development.  (+info)

Apoptin nucleocytoplasmic shuttling is required for cell type-specific localization, apoptosis, and recruitment of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome to PML bodies. (6/17)

The chicken anemia virus protein Apoptin selectively induces apoptosis in transformed cells while leaving normal cells intact. This selectivity is thought to be largely due to cell type-specific localization: Apoptin is cytoplasmic in primary cells and nuclear in transformed cells. The basis of Apoptin cell type-specific localization and activity remains to be determined. Here we show that Apoptin is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein whose localization is mediated by an N-terminal nuclear export signal (NES) and a C-terminal nuclear localization signal (NLS). Both signals are required for cell type-specific localization, since Apoptin fragments containing either the NES or the NLS fail to differentially localize in transformed and primary cells. Significantly, cell type-specific localization can be conferred in trans by coexpression of the two separate fragments, which interact through an Apoptin multimerization domain. We have previously shown that Apoptin interacts with the APC1 subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), resulting in G(2)/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in transformed cells. We found that the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling activity is critical for efficient APC1 association and induction of apoptosis in transformed cells. Interestingly, both Apoptin multimerization and APC1 interaction are mediated by domains that overlap with the NES and NLS sequences, respectively. Apoptin expression in transformed cells induces the formation of PML nuclear bodies and recruits APC/C to these subnuclear structures. Our results reveal a mechanism for the selective killing of transformed cells by Apoptin.  (+info)

Mutation of the Apc1 homologue shattered disrupts normal eye development by disrupting G1 cell cycle arrest and progression through mitosis. (7/17)

The shattered1 (shtd1) mutation disrupts Drosophila compound eye structure. In this report, we show that the shtd1 eye defects are due to a failure to establish and maintain G1 arrest in the morphogenetic furrow (MF) and a defect in progression through mitosis. The observed cell cycle defects were correlated with an accumulation of cyclin A (CycA) and String (Stg) proteins near the MF. Interestingly, the failure to maintain G1 arrest in the MF led to the specification of R8 photoreceptor cells that undergo mitosis, generating R8 doublets in shtd1 mutant eye discs. We demonstrate that shtd encodes Apc1, the largest subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C). Furthermore, we show that reducing the dosage of either CycA or stg suppressed the shtd1 phenotype. While reducing the dosage of CycA is more effective in suppressing the premature S phase entry in the MF, reducing the dosage of stg is more effective in suppressing the progression through mitosis defect. These results indicate the importance of not only G1 arrest in the MF but also appropriate progression through mitosis for normal eye development during photoreceptor differentiation.  (+info)

Accumulation of substrates of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) during human cytomegalovirus infection is associated with the phosphorylation of Cdh1 and the dissociation and relocalization of APC subunits. (8/17)

Cell cycle dysregulation upon human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection of human fibroblasts is associated with the inactivation of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), a multisubunit E3 ubiquitin ligase, and accumulation of its substrates. Here, we have further elucidated the mechanism(s) by which HCMV-induced inactivation of the APC occurs. Our results show that Cdh1 accumulates in a phosphorylated form that may prevent its association with and activation of the APC. The accumulation of Cdh1, but not its phosphorylation, appears to be cyclin-dependent kinase dependent. The lack of an association of exogenously added Cdh1 with the APC from infected cells indicates that the core APC also may be impaired. This is further supported by an examination of the localization and composition of the APC. Coimmunoprecipitation studies show that both Cdh1 and the subunit APC1 become dissociated from the complex. In addition, immunofluorescence analysis demonstrates that as the infection progresses, several subunits redistribute to the cytoplasm, while APC1 remains nuclear. Dissociation of the core complex itself would account for not only the observed inactivity but also its inability to bind to Cdh1. Taken together, these results illustrate that HCMV has adopted multiple mechanisms to inactivate the APC, which underscores its importance for a productive infection.  (+info)

We reported previously that a large fraction of melanoma cell lines induced a suboptimal activation of specific CTL clones, characterized by good tumor cell lysis but no detectable IL-2 production. Using synthetic peptides, we demonstrated recently that this was due to expression of subthreshold levels of appropriate MHC-peptide complexes. We measure here by semiquan-titative reverse transcription-PCR the expression of two melanoma Ag (NA17-A and Melan-A/MART-I) mRNAs in 13 melanoma cell lines and analyze the responses to these cell lines of specific HLA-A2-restricted CTL clones. In line with the idea that the density of MHC-antigenic peptide complexes on melanoma cells is a direct function of the Ags mRNA level, we found that CTL lysis was grossly proportional to this level. We also established that a minimal level of transcription is required for melanoma cells to induce IL-2 secretion. Interestingly, all cell lines that expressed the Ag above this minimal level, either spontaneously or after gene
Study cell division with a complete set of reagents for detecting checkpoint regulators, DNA synthesis, and cell proliferation.
The studies presented are the first to describe the structure, function, and expression of human VISTA, a novel, hematopoietically expressed negative checkpoint regulator. Structurally, VISTA is a novel PD-L1-like ligand, with only one IgV domain and whose structure still is not fully resolved. Studies with a newly produced anti-human VISTA mAbs show that human VISTA is highly expressed on myeloid cells with reduced expression on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Functionally, human VISTA-Ig is profoundly suppressive on both resting and activated human CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. We propose VISTA as a promising new target for cancer immunotherapy, either as a single target or in combination with other immunotherapeutic strategies.. VISTA has an interesting expression pattern, with greatest mRNA detected in either hematopoietic tissues (i.e., spleen, lymph nodes, and peripheral blood) or those tissues with significant infiltration by leukocytes (Fig. 1). This suggests that VISTA is likely to have important ...
Kit Component:- KN301218G1, Anapc1 gRNA vector 1 in pCas-Guide vector- KN301218G2, Anapc1 gRNA vector 2 in pCas-Guide vector- KN301218D, donor vector…
Rabbit polyclonal antibody rasied against synthetic peptide of ANAPC1. A synthetic peptide corresponding to 17 amino acids near C-terminus of human ANAPC1. (PAB19231) - Products - Abnova
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Complete information for ANAPC16 gene (Protein Coding), Anaphase Promoting Complex Subunit 16, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
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Its been compared to being in a foreign country and not knowing the language or spending 24 hours a day with a word on the tip of your tongue. Imagine hearing and understanding everyone around you, trying to speak, but being unable to form the words. Thats what aphasia sufferers deal with every single day.Frustrating, right? Whats also frustrating is the minimal level of awareness of the condition. Even with 2 million people affected - more people than
Figure 2 and 3 indicate the RFP output normalized with growth ratio (OD) at different levels of arabinose. Figure 1 shows that CpxR-I13507 is activated at the highest level when MalE31, the periplasmic misfolder, is expressed. This occurs around 0.2% arabinose concentration. Similar trends are observed in the case of MalE which is a periplasmic folder. MalE and MalE31 activate the system at different levels. MalE31 has similar trends to MalE but has a higher level of RFP expression. These results prove that MalE and MalE31 can both activate the CpxR system however, MalE31, which misfolds, activates it more rapidly and at a lower level of arabinose concentration compared to MalE. If the line of best fit is studied, it is seen that MalE has very minimal level of Cpx activation. Whereas, malE31 has a linear regression which flattens out as the system reaches its upper threshold of detection. Biologically, this could mean that the MalE31 is activated at levels that saturate the cellular chaperones ...
ANTIGEN PRESENTATION AND ASSEMBLY BY MOUSE I-A(K) CLASS-II MOLECULES IN HUMAN APC CONTAINING DELETED OR MUTATED HLA DM GENES Journal Articles ...
New research in Nature concludes the eye - which depends on light to see - also needs light to develop normally during pregnancy.
Complete information for ANAPC1 gene (Protein Coding), Anaphase Promoting Complex Subunit 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
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Expression of ANAPC4 (APC4) in soft tissue 1 tissue. Antibody staining with HPA038395, HPA038396 and CAB032519 in immunohistochemistry.
Granted, if you are simply looking for a better job, during your job search, while still being gainfully employed the level of stress may not be as significant because the job search is voluntary. But if youre looking for that dream job and your job search has come to a pleasant result and you are scheduled for an interview you will still be experiencing some stress and perhaps more stress than usual under the circumstances because it is after all your dream job which was the result of your job search. So what can you do to better manage the stress about the potential of being unemployed or looking for a new job with the forced job search? Be prepared for what the new potential job interviewer may ask wont generate much stress because this can be done through surfing on the net and should be part of your job search. Also, doing research about the management style or culture for the job in mind can also result in minimal levels of stress during the job search. Then we finalize the resume, make ...
We identified axonal defects in mouse models of Alzheimers disease that preceded known disease-related pathology by more than a year; we observed similar axonal defects in the early stages of Alzheimers disease in humans. Axonal defects consisted of swellings that accumulated abnormal amounts of microtubule-associated and molecular motor proteins, organelles, and vesicles. Impairing axonal transport by reducing the dosage of a kinesin molecular motor protein enhanced the frequency of axonal defects and increased amyloid-β peptide levels and amyloid deposition. Reductions in microtubule-dependent transport may stimulate proteolytic processing of β-amyloid precursor protein, resulting in the development of senile plaques and Alzheimers disease. ...
Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 7 antibody to detect human Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 7. Validated for western blotting. Try a trial size today.
Expression of ANAPC4 (APC4) in lymph node tissue. Antibody staining with HPA038395, HPA038396 and CAB032519 in immunohistochemistry.
Perform reliable qPCR with Bio-Rads pre-validated ANAPC13 primer pair, for the Human genome. Designed for SYBR Green-based detection.
A catalyst is disclosed which comprises a ruthenium-copper-containing complex of the formula M.sub.a A.sub.b RuCu.sub.c N.sub.z O.sub.x wherein M is selected from the group consisting of Ce, Cr, Fe, Mn, and mixtures thereof, A is an alkali metal, alkaline earth metal or mixture thereof, a is from 0 to about 1, b is from about 0.002 to about 10, c is from about 0.2 to about 20, z is from 0 to about 1% by weight, x is the number of oxygens needed to fulfill the valence requirements of the other elements, said complex being supported by an activated carbon support having a surface area of at least about 300 square meters per gram. A process for converting mixtures of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, particularly synthesis gas, to alcohol with minimal levels of hydrocarbon by-products being formed is also disclosed.
The blood donated locally with LifeShare will be available to help replenish the blood supply in Boston after our local needs are met. Being a community blood center, we must continue to be prepared for the blood requirements for medical needs in our community. This month, the local blood supply has been at a minimal level. In order to support the needs around the Boston area, we need additional blood donors and donations to ensure the local supply doesnt fall to a critical level," says Tina Hooper, spokesperson for LifeShare Blood Centers ...
Prostate cancers develop immunosuppressive microenvironment resisting current treatments and the emerging immunotherapies. Hossain and colleagues identified a population of Lin−CD15HICD33LO granulocytic MDSCs (G-MDSCs) accumulating in patients during prostate cancer progression. The G-MDSCs secreted large amounts of Arginase 1, thereby suppressing T cells proliferation and activity. The MDSC functions were under control of the STAT3 transcription factor and a central immune checkpoint regulator. To functionally eliminate prostate cancer-associated G-MDSC, the authors successfully employed an siRNA-based approach to silence STAT3 specifically in TLR9-expressing G-MDSCs. These findings underscore the potential of oligonucleotide-based therapeutics to alleviate immunosuppressive signaling in advanced prostate cancers. ...
Downloadable! This note reports information on the income inequality in Peru calculated from Income Household surveys from 2003-2008. Using surveys from the ENAHO published by the National Institute of Statistics, we used as index the household income annualized, it was divided by the total members of each household to compute the inequality indicators. We computed the density of income distribution using nonparametric methods (Kernel) then we used bootstrapping techniques to check the statistic significance of the inequality indexes variation using the K-S and the MWM to test the null hypothesis of no changes in income inequality between the periods. We conclude that the changes in the inequality indexes indeed have been reducing but in very minimal level even though the economic activity (real GDP) grew at sustained rates, 7.3% in average.
The preceding paragraph was intended to point out specific examples where the intervention wasnt matched to the demand. In many cases, such as postoperative quad weakness, strength does play a significant role. In these situations, its important that the dosage is appropriate in order to elicit the adaptations needed while avoiding negative responses. This minimum effective dose was defined by Siff in Supertraining as "the condition which optimally promotes hypertrophy and strength increase [via] the production of some minimal level of force for some minimal amount of time."10 Unless intensity (defined as a percentage of rep max) is considered, even the overly popular 3 sets of 10 is a meaningless prescription. Delorme used progressive loading in his protocol reaching a true 10 repetition maximum on the third set.11 It appears that taking at least one set to failure is very important for eliciting adaptations, and this appears to hold true even with significant deviation from the commonly ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
Final thought: Do we need omega 3 PUFA at anything above the most minimal levels if we are in saturated fat based ketosis? Of course I dont know. But the signal to cope with starvation is palmitic acid (physiological insulin resistance), not DHA. I live in starvation mode, not on a mixed diet with only intermittent access to healthy ruminant fat. I have long wanted to look at the selective release of FFAs from adipocytes in extended starvation. My suspicion is that in the early days after glycogen depletion palmitic acid is preferentially released over other lipids, PUFA are not needed/wanted. By a few weeks all the palmitate is gone and whatever is left then gets released. People like David Blaine suddenly start to feel weak, wobbly and are probably hypoglycaemic once they run out of palmitate and have to release less saturated fats. Two to four weeks if you carry some spare weight. Sauers rats had only ever been fed a low fat omega 6 based diet and had no serious palmitate reserves, PUFA ...
Axons require the axonal NAD-synthesizing enzyme NMNAT2 to survive. Injury or genetically-induced depletion of NMNAT2 triggers axonal degeneration or defective axon growth. We have previously proposed that axonal NMNAT2 primarily promotes axon survival by maintaining low levels of its substrate NMN, rather than generating NAD; however, this is still debated. NMN deamidase, a bacterial enzyme, shares NMN-consuming activity with NMNAT2, but not NAD-synthesizing activity, and delays axon degeneration in primary neuronal cultures. Here, we show that NMN deamidase can also delay axon degeneration in zebrafish larvae and in transgenic mice. Like overexpressed NMNATs, NMN deamidase reduces NMN accumulation in injured mouse sciatic nerves and preserves some axons for up to 3 weeks, even when expressed at a low level. Remarkably, NMN deamidase also rescues axonal outgrowth and perinatal lethality in mice lacking NMNAT2 in a dose-dependent manner. These data further support a pro-degenerative effect of ...
|p|Human APC labeled PBMCs are either selected or depleted in a two-step separation process. The cells are first incubated with a BioLegend anti-human APC-conjugated antibody, followed by incubating with directly conjugated anti-APC Nanobeads. The APC|sup|+|/sup|, magnetically labeled fraction is re
Cocaine is a powerfully addictive stimulant that directly affects the brain.. Pure cocaine was first extracted from the leaf of the Erythroxylon coca bush in the mid-19th century. In the early 1900s it became the main stimulant drug used in most of the tonics and elixirs that were developed to treat a wide variety of illnesses. It quickly became popular as an ingredient in patented medicines (throat lozenges and tonics) and other products (such as Coca Cola, from which it was later removed).. Concern soon mounted due to instances of addiction, psychotic behavior, convulsion, and death. A series of steps, including passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906, were taken to combat health and behavioral problems associated with the use of cocaine. Finally, the Harrison Act of 1914 outlawed the use of cocaine in over-the-counter products and made it available only by prescription. Cocaine use soon dropped dramatically and remained at minimal levels for nearly half a century.. In the 1960s, illicit ...
Following its intake, heroin is rapidly hydrolyzed into 6-monoacetylmorphine, and at some point right into morphine. Glucuronides are after that conjugated into the 3- as well as 6- positions of morphine to create the metabolites: morphine-3-glucuronide as well as morphine-6-glucuronide. Upon formation of these glucuronides, they are excreted largely by means of the pee- and also to a minimal level via bile.. Assuming an individual injected heroin intravenously, virtually 70% of the medications metabolites would show up in urine, mostly through conjugated morphine (over 50%). Various various other metabolites that show up in pee post-heroin consumption consist of: normorphine, codeine, morphine-3-6-diglucuronide, and morphine-3-ethersulphate. The majority of morphine undertakes glucuronidation in the liver, yet various other organs such as the kidney, intestines, and also mind have a bit part in the process.. Generally, the fifty percent life of heroin ranges in between 1.3 minutes and also 7.8 ...
1GQP: Implications for the Ubiquitination Reaction of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex from the Crystal Structure of the Doc1/Apc10 Subunit.
Vodermaier HC, Gieffers C, Maurer-Stroh S, Eisenhaber F, Peters JM (Sep 2003). "TPR subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex ... "Mammalian p55CDC mediates association of the spindle checkpoint protein Mad2 with the cyclosome/anaphase-promoting complex, and ... Jörgensen PM, Gräslund S, Betz R, Ståhl S, Larsson C, Höög C (Jan 2001). "Characterisation of the human APC1, the largest ... "TPR subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex mediate binding to the activator protein CDH1". Current Biology. 13 (17): 1459- ...
These include Apc1, the largest subunit which contains 11 tandem repeats of 35-40 amino acid sequences, and Apc2, which ... Anaphase-promoting complex (also called the cyclosome or APC/C) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that marks target cell cycle proteins ... anaphase-promoting complex at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) 3D electron microscopy ... Review) Harper JW, Burton JL, Solomon MJ (September 2002). "The anaphase-promoting complex: it's not just for mitosis any more ...
Apc1 is the largest of the subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome. The anaphase-promoting complex is a ... Characterisation of the human APC1, the largest subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex.. Gene 262 51-9 2001 ... The anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome: a machine designed to destroy.. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 7 644-56 2006 ... Accumulation of substrates of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) during human cytomegalovirus infection is associated with ...
Anaphase Promoting Complex Subunit 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards ... Component of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), a cell cycle-regulated E3 ubiquitin ligase that controls ... Q9H1A4-APC1_HUMAN. Recommended name:. Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 1 Protein Accession:. Q9H1A4. Secondary Accessions: * ... Characterisation of the human APC1, the largest subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex. (PMID: 11179667) Jörgensen PM … Höög ...
Buy our Recombinant Human Apc1 protein. Ab163855 is a protein fragment produced in Wheat germ and has been validated in WB, ... Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 1. *Apc 1. *APC1. *APC1_HUMAN. *Cyclosome subunit 1 ... Component of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), a cell cycle-regulated E3 ubiquitin ligase that controls ... Anaphase promoting complex subunit 1. *anaphase-promoting complex 1 (meiotic checkpoint regulator) ...
... also called the cyclosome or anaphase promoting complex (APC) (15-17). APC catalyzes the transfer of ubiquitin from ubiquitin- ... Four of the subunits have also been identified in S. cerevisiae: CDC16, CDC23, CDC27, and APC1 (19). Fission yeast cut9, nuc2, ... One possible target of the spindle checkpoint is anaphase promoting complex (APC), which controls all postmetaphase events that ... pombe spindle checkpoint protein mad2p blocks anaphase and genetically interacts with the anaphase-promoting complex. Xiangwei ...
Alternative names for APC1 / ANAPC1 antibody. Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 1, TSG24, MCPR, Cyclosome subunit 1, Testis- ... Western blot analysis of APC1 in SK-N-SH cell lysate with APC1 antibody at (A) 1 and (B) 2 ug/mL.. *TA306967 ... WB using Anti-APC1 pS377 antibody shows detection of a band ~215 kDa corresponding to phosphorylated human APC1 (arrowhead). ... WB using Anti-APC1 pS355 antibody shows detection of a band ~215 kDa corresponding to phosphorylated human APC1 (arrowhead). ...
Browse our Apc1 Peptides and Proteins all backed by our Guarantee+. ... Apc1 Peptides and Proteins available through Novus Biologicals. ... anaphase promoting complex subunit 1 protein, anaphase- ... anaphase-promoting complex subunit 1 protein, APC1Testis-specific gene 24 protein protein, Cyclosome subunit 1 protein, Mitotic ... Our Apc1 Peptides and Apc1 Proteins can be used in a variety of model species: Human. Use the list below to choose the Apc1 ...
... of Human Cytomegalovirus UL21a and UL97 to Viral Growth and Inactivation of the Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) E3 ... Ubiquitin Ligase Reveal a Unique Cellular Mechanism for Down-modulation of the APC/C Subunits APC1, APC4, and APC5.. ... Nicotine promotes apoptosis resistance of breast cancer cells and enrichment of side population cells with cancer stem cell- ...
ANAPC1; anaphase promoting complex subunit 1; anaphase-promoting complex subunit 1; APC1; MCPR; TSG24; cyclosome subunit 1; ... ANAPC1 is 1 of at least 10 subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), which functions at the metaphase-to-anaphase ... mitotic checkpoint regulator; testis-specific gene 24 protein; anaphase-promoting complex 1 (meiotic checkpoint regulator) ...
The anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC) is an unusually complicated ubiquitin ligase, composed of 13 core subunits ... The cullin subunit APC2 and its binding partner, the RING finger protein APC11, are found in a subcomplex with APC1, APC4, and ... Microinjection of antibodies against subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome or against human Cdc20 (fizzy) ... one of the substrate-targeting subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC). However, Cdh1, another targeting subunit used ...
... and APC-1, a subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome, which is involved in the assembly and regulation of the ... The viral protein Apoptin associates with the anaphase-promoting complex to induce G2/M arrest and apoptosis in the absence of ... APC-1:. Subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome. CAV:. Chicken anemia virus ... cyclosome complex [23]. VP3 has also been reported to interact with the cytoplasmic protein HIPPI, a protein that interacts ...
This particle, called the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) or cyclosome, functions as a cell cycle-regulated ubiquitin-protein ... Two additional subunits of the budding yeast APC were identified: The largest subunit, encoded by the APC1 gene, is conserved ... Identification of Subunits of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. By Wolfgang Zachariae, Tae Ho Shin, ... Identification of Subunits of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. By Wolfgang Zachariae, Tae Ho Shin, ...
In Xenopus extracts, Cdk1 complexes containing the subunit p9/Cks are required for cyclin B degradation and for Apc1 and Cdc27 ... The anaphasepromoting complex (APC) or cyclosome is a ubiquitin ligase that initiates anaphase and mitotic exit. APC ... Geley S, Kramer E, Gieffers C, Gannon J, Peters JM and Hunt T (2001) Anaphasepromoting complex/cyclosome‐dependent proteolysis ... Vodermaier HC, Gieffers C, Maurer‐Stroh S, Eisenhaber F and Peters JM (2003) TPR subunits of the anaphasepromoting complex ...
2. Jorgensen PM et al: Characterisation of the human APC1, the largest subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex. Gene2001; 262 ... 1. Peters JM: The anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome: a machine designed to destroy. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol.2006; 7:644-56 ... 3. Passmore LA et al: Doc1 mediates the activity of the anaphase-promoting complex by contributing to substrate recognition. ...
... we clustered the proteins with abundance profiles most similar to known Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) substrates ... Apc1 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome. *Cell (microprocessor). *Motif. *KIF18A gene. Citations. Publications ... we clustered the proteins with abundance profiles most similar to known Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) substrates ... SUMO targets the APC/C to regulate transition from metaphase to anaphase. *Karolin Eifler, Sabine A. G. Cuijpers, +5 authors ...
Vodermaier HC, Gieffers C, Maurer-Stroh S, Eisenhaber F, Peters JM (Sep 2003). "TPR subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex ... "Mammalian p55CDC mediates association of the spindle checkpoint protein Mad2 with the cyclosome/anaphase-promoting complex, and ... Jörgensen PM, Gräslund S, Betz R, Ståhl S, Larsson C, Höög C (Jan 2001). "Characterisation of the human APC1, the largest ... "TPR subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex mediate binding to the activator protein CDH1". Current Biology. 13 (17): 1459- ...
Our APC1 Polyclonal Antibody price is reasonable. Check more details about APC1 Polyclonal Antibody now. ... anaphase-promoting complex 1 (meiotic checkpoint regulator),Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 1,Apc 1,APC1,APC1,Cyclosome ... anaphase-promoting complex 1 (meiotic checkpoint regulator),Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 1,Apc 1,APC1,APC1,Cyclosome ... This gene encodes a subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex. This complex is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that regulates ...
The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a large multimeric cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase that orchestrates cell- ... The platform comprises APC/C subunits Apc1, Apc4, Apc5, and Apc15. Although the role of Apc1 as an APC/C scaffolding subunit ... APC/C ubiquitination cell cycle UbcH10 Ube2S ANAPHASE-PROMOTING COMPLEX EM STRUCTURE DETERMINATION UBIQUITIN-CHAIN FORMATION ... Apc1(WD40)). To understand how Apc1(WD40) contributes to APC/C activity, a mutant form of the APC/C with Apc1(WD40) deleted was ...
... anaphase-promoting complex 1 (meiotic checkpoint regulator) , anaphase-promoting complex subunit 1 , cyclosome subunit 1 , ... cryo-EM structure of an APC (zeige APC Antikörper)/C-Cdh1 (zeige CDH1 Antikörper) complex with Apc1 (zeige SLC25A24 Antikörper ... Weitere Produktkategorien zu Anaphase Promoting Complex Subunit 1 Antikörper * 131 anti-Anaphase Promoting Complex Subunit 1 ... anti-Anaphase Promoting Complex Subunit 1 (ANAPC1) Antikörper. ANAPC1 encodes a subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex. ...
prt okam11e05d AJ229521 229 okam11e05r AJ229522 149 9.0 E-08 YNL172w APC1 subunit of anaphase-promoting complex (cyclosome) ... to human PL6 prt am2e05d AJ229445 151 am2e07d AJ229446 119 6.7 E-07 YLR292c SEC72 ER prt-translocation complex subunit am2e10d ... III, 160 KD subunit okam5g05r AJ229937 405 1.1 E-96 YOR117w RPT5 26S proteasome subunit okam5g06d AJ229938 193 repeats or mito ... subunit of the RSC complex am2d07d AJ229438 191 am2d08d AJ229439 125 am2d09d AJ229440 358 2.9 E-08 YPR049c simil. to Uso1p ...
APC1. CDH1. YNL172W. YGL003C. Largest subunit of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C), which is a ubiquitin-protein ... APC1. CLB1. YNL172W. YGR108W. Largest subunit of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C), which is a ubiquitin-protein ... APC1. CLB2. YNL172W. YPR119W. Largest subunit of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C), which is a ubiquitin-protein ... APC1. CLB3. YNL172W. YDL155W. Largest subunit of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C), which is a ubiquitin-protein ...
Apc1 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome. Subunidade Apc1 do Ciclossomo-Complexo Promotor de Anáfase. Subunidad Apc1 ... Apc1 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome. Subunidade Apc1 do Ciclossomo-Complexo Promotor de Anáfase. Subunidad Apc1 ... Apc2 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome. Subunidade Apc2 do Ciclossomo-Complexo Promotor de Anáfase. Subunidad Apc2 ... Apc3 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome. Subunidade Apc3 do Ciclossomo-Complexo Promotor de Anáfase. Subunidad Apc3 ...
Apc1 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome/genetics*. *Apc1 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome/metabolism ...
Apc1. With 1748 amino acids, Apc1 is the largest subunit of the APC and, intriguingly, it has no known function. It contains ... The APC (anaphase-promoting complex) or cyclosome is a large multisubunit protein complex. It has 13 core components (with ... The anaphase-promoting complex (APC): the sum of its parts? L.A. Passmore L.A. Passmore ... The APC (anaphase-promoting complex) is a multisubunit E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets cell-cycle-related proteins for ...
ANAPC1, anaphase promoting complex subunit 1. Orthology source: HomoloGene, HGNC * Synonyms APC1, MCPR, TSG24 ... IPR024990 Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 1. IPR002015 Proteasome/cyclosome repeat. Molecular. Reagents ...
ANAPC1 TSG24] Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 1 (APC1) (Cyclosome subunit 1) (Mitotic checkpoint regulator) (Testis-specific ... ESCRT-I complex subunit TSG101). [Tsg101] Tumor susceptibility gene 101 protein (ESCRT-I complex subunit TSG101). [PTX3 TNFAIP5 ... tsg101 DDB_G0286797] ESCRT-I complex subunit tsg101. [CEP55 C10orf3 URCC6] Centrosomal protein of 55 kDa (Cep55) (Up-regulated ... TSG101 EGK_06430] ESCRT-I complex subunit TSG101 (Tumor susceptibility 101). [TSG101 burs Dmel\CG9712 DmTSG101 dTSg101 dTsg101 ...
  • Most notably, 4 subunits of yeast APC/C consist almost entirely of multiple repeats of the 34 amino acid tetratricopeptide residue (TPR) motif. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mammalian APC/C is composed of 14 distinct subunits that assemble into a complex of at least 19 chains with a combined molecular mass of around 1.2 MDa. (genecards.org)
  • The mutual inhibition between APC and CDKs explains how cells suppress mitotic CDK activity during G1 and then establish a period with elevated kinase activity from S phase until anaphase (Zachariae, 1998). (sdbonline.org)
  • Although the role of Apc1 as an APC/C scaffolding subunit has been characterized, its specific functions in contributing toward APC/C catalytic activity are not fully understood. (icr.ac.uk)
  • Our data show that Apc1(WD40) is required to mediate the coactivator-induced conformational change of the APC/C that is responsible for stimulating APC/C catalytic activity by promoting UbcH10 binding. (icr.ac.uk)
  • The catalytic core of the APC/C consists of the cullin subunit Apc2 and RING H2 domain subunit Apc11. (wikipedia.org)
  • AP07834PU-N APC1 antibody staining of Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Human Pancreatic Carcinoma at 10 µg/ml followed by biotinylated Goat anti-Rabbit IgG secondary antibody, alkaline phosphatase-streptavidin and chromogen. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Western blot using Affinity Purified anti-APC1 pS355 antibody shows detection of a band ~215 kDa corresponding to phosphorylated human APC1 (arrowhead). (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Affinity purified anti-APC1 pS377 antibody was used at 5.0 µg/ml to detect signal in a variety of tissues including multi-human, multi-brain and multicancer slides. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry Analysis: AP20205PU-N APC1 antibody staining of Paraffin-Embedded Human breast carcinoma tissue. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry analysis of paraffin-embedded human breast carcinoma, using APC1 (Phospho-Ser688) Antibody. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Western Blot analysis of SK-N-SH cells with APC1 Polyclonal Antibody. (elabscience.com)
  • Indeed, overproduction of nondestructible Cdc13p prevents septation in APC cut mutants and the normal reorganization of septation initiation network components during anaphase. (asm.org)
  • Even if one component was lost at a particular point in time, the fraction of observed second, independent losses of additional components was high (75% of all complexes affected). (beds.ac.uk)
  • Here, we analysed in a large scale approach whether this flexibility in evolution is only limited to a distinct number of complexes or represents a more general trend. (beds.ac.uk)
  • We exemplified this trend on the anaphase promoting complex (APC) where a core is highly conserved throughout all metazoans, but flexibility in certain components is observable. (beds.ac.uk)
  • We propose that the PP2A complex plays a novel role in differentiating tissues to promote developmentally controlled quiescence through the regulation of Cyclin E/Cdk2 activity. (biologists.org)