An E3 ubiquitin ligase primarily involved in regulation of the metaphase-to-anaphase transition during MITOSIS through ubiquitination of specific CELL CYCLE PROTEINS. Enzyme activity is tightly regulated through subunits and cofactors, which modulate activation, inhibition, and substrate specificity. The anaphase-promoting complex, or APC-C, is also involved in tissue differentiation in the PLACENTA, CRYSTALLINE LENS, and SKELETAL MUSCLE, and in regulation of postmitotic NEURONAL PLASTICITY and excitability.
The state of weariness following a period of exertion, mental or physical, characterized by a decreased capacity for work and reduced efficiency to respond to stimuli.
Complexes of enzymes that catalyze the covalent attachment of UBIQUITIN to other proteins by forming a peptide bond between the C-terminal GLYCINE of UBIQUITIN and the alpha-amino groups of LYSINE residues in the protein. The complexes play an important role in mediating the selective-degradation of short-lived and abnormal proteins. The complex of enzymes can be broken down into three components that involve activation of ubiquitin (UBIQUITIN-ACTIVATING ENZYMES), conjugation of ubiquitin to the ligase complex (UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES), and ligation of ubiquitin to the substrate protein (UBIQUITIN-PROTEIN LIGASES).
A subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex whose primary function is to provide structural support for the catalytic and substrate-recognition modules of the complex. Apc5, along with Apc4, tethers the tetratricopeptide-coactivator binding subcomplex to the main structural subunit, Apc1.
Highly conserved proteins that specifically bind to and activate the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome, promoting ubiquitination and proteolysis of cell-cycle-regulatory proteins. Cdc20 is essential for anaphase-promoting complex activity, initiation of anaphase, and cyclin proteolysis during mitosis.
A highly evolutionarily conserved subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC-C) containing multiple 34-amino-acid tetratricopeptide repeats. These domains, also found in Apc subunits 6, 7, and 8, have been shown to mediate protein-protein interactions, suggesting that Apc3 may assist in coordinating the juxtaposition of the catalytic and substrate recognition module subunits relative to co-activators and APC-C inhibitors.
The largest subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex. It acts primarily as a scaffold for the proper organization and arrangement of subunits. The C-terminal region of Apc1 contains a series of tandem amino acid repeats that are also seen in the 26S proteasome regulatory particle, and may assist with forming and stabilizing protein-protein interactions.
Together with the Apc2 subunit, forms the catalytic core of the E3 ubiquitin ligase, anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome. It has a RING H2 domain which interacts with the cullin domain of Apc2. Apc11 also interacts with the E2 ubiquitin ligases involved in APC-C ubiquitination reactions.
A highly conserved subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC-C) containing multiple 34 amino acid tetratricopeptide repeats. These domains, also found in Apc3, Apc6, and Apc8, have been shown to mediate protein-protein interactions, suggesting that Apc7 may assist in coordinating the juxtaposition of the catalytic and substrate recognition module subunits relative to coactivators and APC-C inhibitors.
A negative regulator of beta-catenin signaling which is mutant in ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI and GARDNER SYNDROME.
Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
A serum protein which is important in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. This enzyme cleaves the COMPLEMENT C3B-bound COMPLEMENT FACTOR B to form C3bBb which is ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
Tumor suppressor genes located in the 5q21 region on the long arm of human chromosome 5. The mutation of these genes is associated with familial adenomatous polyposis (ADENOMATOUS POLYPOSIS COLI) and GARDNER SYNDROME, as well as some sporadic colorectal cancers.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A collection of cloned peptides, or chemically synthesized peptides, frequently consisting of all possible combinations of amino acids making up an n-amino acid peptide.
Small cationic peptides that are an important component, in most species, of early innate and induced defenses against invading microbes. In animals they are found on mucosal surfaces, within phagocytic granules, and on the surface of the body. They are also found in insects and plants. Among others, this group includes the DEFENSINS, protegrins, tachyplesins, and thionins. They displace DIVALENT CATIONS from phosphate groups of MEMBRANE LIPIDS leading to disruption of the membrane.
Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A diverse class of enzymes that interact with UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYMES and ubiquitination-specific protein substrates. Each member of this enzyme group has its own distinct specificity for a substrate and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme. Ubiquitin-protein ligases exist as both monomeric proteins multiprotein complexes.
A highly conserved 76-amino acid peptide universally found in eukaryotic cells that functions as a marker for intracellular PROTEIN TRANSPORT and degradation. Ubiquitin becomes activated through a series of complicated steps and forms an isopeptide bond to lysine residues of specific proteins within the cell. These "ubiquitinated" proteins can be recognized and degraded by proteosomes or be transported to specific compartments within the cell.
A microtubule structure that forms during CELL DIVISION. It consists of two SPINDLE POLES, and sets of MICROTUBULES that may include the astral microtubules, the polar microtubules, and the kinetochore microtubules.
The cellular signaling system that halts the progression of cells through MITOSIS or MEIOSIS if a defect that will affect CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION is detected.
The act of ligating UBIQUITINS to PROTEINS to form ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes to label proteins for transport to the PROTEASOME ENDOPEPTIDASE COMPLEX where proteolysis occurs.
Mad2 is a component of the spindle-assembly checkpoint apparatus. It binds to and inhibits the Cdc20 activator subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex, preventing the onset of anaphase until all chromosomes are properly aligned at the metaphase plate. Mad2 is required for proper microtubule capture at KINETOCHORES.
A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic nidulin is obtained. Its teleomorph is Emericella nidulans.
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Apc10 is necessary for coactivator-dependent substrate recognition by the anaphase-promoting complex-cyclosome. It binds the Apc2 subunit, which is a part of the catalytic core, and interacts with coactivators Cdh1 or Cdc20 to recruit substrates to the complex.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of allophanic acid to two molecules of ammonia plus two molecules of "active carbon dioxide". EC 3.5.1.54.
Enzymes that catalyze the joining of two molecules by the formation of a carbon-nitrogen bond. EC 6.3.
Enzymes that catalyze DNA template-directed extension of the 3'-end of an RNA strand one nucleotide at a time. They can initiate a chain de novo. In eukaryotes, three forms of the enzyme have been distinguished on the basis of sensitivity to alpha-amanitin, and the type of RNA synthesized. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992).
A group of hydrolases which catalyze the hydrolysis of monophosphoric esters with the production of one mole of orthophosphate. EC 3.1.3.
DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A DNA-dependent DNA polymerase characterized in prokaryotes and may be present in higher organisms. It has both 3'-5' and 5'-3' exonuclease activity, but cannot use native double-stranded DNA as template-primer. It is not inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents and is active in both DNA synthesis and repair. EC 2.7.7.7.
A DNA-dependent DNA polymerase characterized in E. coli and other lower organisms. It may be present in higher organisms and has an intrinsic molecular activity only 5% of that of DNA Polymerase I. This polymerase has 3'-5' exonuclease activity, is effective only on duplex DNA with gaps or single-strand ends of less than 100 nucleotides as template, and is inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents. EC 2.7.7.7.
A DNA-dependent DNA polymerase characterized in E. coli and other lower organisms but may be present in higher organisms. Use also for a more complex form of DNA polymerase III designated as DNA polymerase III* or pol III* which is 15 times more active biologically than DNA polymerase I in the synthesis of DNA. This polymerase has both 3'-5' and 5'-3' exonuclease activities, is inhibited by sulfhydryl reagents, and has the same template-primer dependence as pol II. EC 2.7.7.7.
A DNA repair enzyme that catalyzes DNA synthesis during base excision DNA repair. EC 2.7.7.7.
The process by which a DNA molecule is duplicated.
Macromolecular molds for the synthesis of complementary macromolecules, as in DNA REPLICATION; GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of DNA to RNA, and GENETIC TRANSLATION of RNA into POLYPEPTIDES.

Identification of human APC10/Doc1 as a subunit of anaphase promoting complex. (1/17)

Anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC) is a ubiquitin ligase which specifically targets mitotic regulatory factors such as Pds1/Cut2 and cyclin B. Identification of the subunits of multiprotein complex APC in several species revealed the highly conserved composition of APC from yeast to human. It has been reported, however, that vertebrate APC is composed of at least eight subunits, APC1 to APC8, while budding yeast APC is constituted of at least 12 components, Apc1 to Apc13. It has not yet been clearly understood whether additional components found in budding yeast, Apc9 to Apc13, are actually composed of mammalian APC. Here we isolated and characterized human APC10/Doc1, and found that APC10/Doc1 binds to APC core subunits throughout the cell cycle. Further, it was found that APC10/Doc1 is localized in centrosomes and mitotic spindles throughout mitosis, while it is also localized in kinetochores from prophase to anaphase and in midbody in telophase and cytokinesis. These results strongly support the notion that human APC10/Doc1 may be one of the APC core subunits rather than the transiently associated regulatory factor.  (+info)

Control of metaphase-anaphase progression by proteolysis: cyclosome function regulated by the protein kinase A pathway, ubiquitination and localization. (2/17)

Ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis is fundamental to cell cycle progression. In the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, a mitotic cyclin (Cdc13), a key cell cycle regulator, is degraded for exiting mitosis, while Cut2 has to be destroyed for the onset of sister chromatid separation in anaphase. Ubiquitination of these proteins requires the special destruction box (DB) sequences locating in their N-termini and the large, 20S complex called the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome. Here we show that cyclosome function during metaphase-anaphase progression is regulated by the protein kinase A (PKA) inactivation pathway, ubiquitination of the cyclosome subunit, and cellular localization of the target substrates. Evidence is provided that the cyclosome plays pleiotropic roles in the cell cycle: mutations in the subunit genes show a common anaphase defect, but subunit-specific phenotypes such as in G1/S or G2/M transition, septation and cytokinesis, stress response and heavy metal sensitivity, are additionally produced, suggesting that different subunits take distinct parts of complex cyclosome functions. Inactivation of PKA is important for the activation of the cyclosome for promoting anaphase, perhaps through dephosphorylation of the subunits such as Cut9 (Apc6). Cut4 (Apc1), the largest subunit, plays an essential role in the assembly and functional regulation of the cyclosome in response to cell cycle arrest and stresses. Cut4 is highly modified, probably by ubiquitination, when it is not assembled into the 20S cyclosome. Sds23 is implicated in DB-mediated ubiquitination possibly through regulating de-ubiquitination, while Cut8 is necessary for efficient proteolysis of Cdc13 and Cut2 coupled with cytokinesis. Unexpectedly, the timing of proteolysis is dependent on cellular localization of the substrate. Cdc13 enriched along the spindle disappears first, followed by decay of the nuclear signal, whereas Cut2 in the nucleus disappears first, followed by decline in the spindle signal during metaphase-anaphase progression.  (+info)

TPR subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex mediate binding to the activator protein CDH1. (3/17)

BACKGROUND: Chromosome segregation and mitotic exit depend on activation of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) by the substrate adaptor proteins CDC20 and CDH1. The APC is a ubiquitin ligase composed of at least 11 subunits. The interaction of APC2 and APC11 with E2 enzymes is sufficient for ubiquitination reactions, but the functions of most other subunits are unknown. RESULTS: We have biochemically characterized subcomplexes of the human APC. One subcomplex, containing APC2/11, APC1, APC4, and APC5, can assemble multiubiquitin chains but is unable to bind CDH1 and to ubiquitinate substrates. The other subcomplex contains all known APC subunits except APC2/11. This subcomplex can recruit CDH1 but fails to support any ubiquitination reaction. In vitro, the C termini of CDC20 and CDH1 bind to the closely related TPR subunits APC3 and APC7. Homology modeling predicts that these proteins are similar in structure to the peroxisomal import receptor PEX5, which binds cargo proteins via their C termini. APC activation by CDH1 depends on a conserved C-terminal motif that is also found in CDC20 and APC10. CONCLUSIONS: APC1, APC4, and APC5 may connect APC2/11 with TPR subunits. TPR domains in APC3 and APC7 recruit CDH1 to the APC and may thereby bring substrates into close proximity of APC2/11 and E2 enzymes. In analogy to PEX5, the different TPR subunits of the APC might function as receptors that interact with the C termini of regulatory proteins such as CDH1, CDC20, and APC10.  (+info)

Mitotic regulation of the human anaphase-promoting complex by phosphorylation. (4/17)

The anaphase-promoting complex (APC) or cyclosome is a ubiquitin ligase that initiates anaphase and mitotic exit. APC activation is thought to depend on APC phosphorylation and Cdc20 binding. We have identified 43 phospho-sites on APC of which at least 34 are mitosis specific. Of these, 32 sites are clustered in parts of Apc1 and the tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) subunits Cdc27, Cdc16, Cdc23 and Apc7. In vitro, at least 15 of the mitotic phospho-sites can be generated by cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1), and 3 by Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1). APC phosphorylation by Cdk1, but not by Plk1, is sufficient for increased Cdc20 binding and APC activation. Immunofluorescence microscopy using phospho-antibodies indicates that APC phosphorylation is initiated in prophase during nuclear uptake of cyclin B1. In prometaphase phospho-APC accumulates on centrosomes where cyclin B ubiquitination is initiated, appears throughout the cytosol and disappears during mitotic exit. Plk1 depletion neither prevents APC phosphorylation nor cyclin A destruction in vivo. These observations imply that APC activation is initiated by Cdk1 already in the nuclei of late prophase cells.  (+info)

The viral protein Apoptin associates with the anaphase-promoting complex to induce G2/M arrest and apoptosis in the absence of p53. (5/17)

The chicken anemia virus protein Apoptin induces apoptosis in the absence of p53 by a mechanism that remains to be elucidated. Here we show that in transformed cells, Apoptin is associated with APC1, a subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C). We demonstrate that Apoptin expression, or depletion of APC1 by RNA interference, inhibits APC/C function in p53 null cells, resulting in G2/M arrest and apoptosis. Our results explain the ability of Apoptin to induce apoptosis in the absence of p53 and suggest that the APC/C is an attractive target for anticancer drug development.  (+info)

Apoptin nucleocytoplasmic shuttling is required for cell type-specific localization, apoptosis, and recruitment of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome to PML bodies. (6/17)

The chicken anemia virus protein Apoptin selectively induces apoptosis in transformed cells while leaving normal cells intact. This selectivity is thought to be largely due to cell type-specific localization: Apoptin is cytoplasmic in primary cells and nuclear in transformed cells. The basis of Apoptin cell type-specific localization and activity remains to be determined. Here we show that Apoptin is a nucleocytoplasmic shuttling protein whose localization is mediated by an N-terminal nuclear export signal (NES) and a C-terminal nuclear localization signal (NLS). Both signals are required for cell type-specific localization, since Apoptin fragments containing either the NES or the NLS fail to differentially localize in transformed and primary cells. Significantly, cell type-specific localization can be conferred in trans by coexpression of the two separate fragments, which interact through an Apoptin multimerization domain. We have previously shown that Apoptin interacts with the APC1 subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), resulting in G(2)/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in transformed cells. We found that the nucleocytoplasmic shuttling activity is critical for efficient APC1 association and induction of apoptosis in transformed cells. Interestingly, both Apoptin multimerization and APC1 interaction are mediated by domains that overlap with the NES and NLS sequences, respectively. Apoptin expression in transformed cells induces the formation of PML nuclear bodies and recruits APC/C to these subnuclear structures. Our results reveal a mechanism for the selective killing of transformed cells by Apoptin.  (+info)

Mutation of the Apc1 homologue shattered disrupts normal eye development by disrupting G1 cell cycle arrest and progression through mitosis. (7/17)

The shattered1 (shtd1) mutation disrupts Drosophila compound eye structure. In this report, we show that the shtd1 eye defects are due to a failure to establish and maintain G1 arrest in the morphogenetic furrow (MF) and a defect in progression through mitosis. The observed cell cycle defects were correlated with an accumulation of cyclin A (CycA) and String (Stg) proteins near the MF. Interestingly, the failure to maintain G1 arrest in the MF led to the specification of R8 photoreceptor cells that undergo mitosis, generating R8 doublets in shtd1 mutant eye discs. We demonstrate that shtd encodes Apc1, the largest subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C). Furthermore, we show that reducing the dosage of either CycA or stg suppressed the shtd1 phenotype. While reducing the dosage of CycA is more effective in suppressing the premature S phase entry in the MF, reducing the dosage of stg is more effective in suppressing the progression through mitosis defect. These results indicate the importance of not only G1 arrest in the MF but also appropriate progression through mitosis for normal eye development during photoreceptor differentiation.  (+info)

Accumulation of substrates of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) during human cytomegalovirus infection is associated with the phosphorylation of Cdh1 and the dissociation and relocalization of APC subunits. (8/17)

Cell cycle dysregulation upon human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection of human fibroblasts is associated with the inactivation of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), a multisubunit E3 ubiquitin ligase, and accumulation of its substrates. Here, we have further elucidated the mechanism(s) by which HCMV-induced inactivation of the APC occurs. Our results show that Cdh1 accumulates in a phosphorylated form that may prevent its association with and activation of the APC. The accumulation of Cdh1, but not its phosphorylation, appears to be cyclin-dependent kinase dependent. The lack of an association of exogenously added Cdh1 with the APC from infected cells indicates that the core APC also may be impaired. This is further supported by an examination of the localization and composition of the APC. Coimmunoprecipitation studies show that both Cdh1 and the subunit APC1 become dissociated from the complex. In addition, immunofluorescence analysis demonstrates that as the infection progresses, several subunits redistribute to the cytoplasm, while APC1 remains nuclear. Dissociation of the core complex itself would account for not only the observed inactivity but also its inability to bind to Cdh1. Taken together, these results illustrate that HCMV has adopted multiple mechanisms to inactivate the APC, which underscores its importance for a productive infection.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - EGFR signaling regulates the proliferation of Drosophila adult midgut progenitors. AU - Jiang, Huaqi. AU - Edgar, Bruce A.. PY - 2009/2/1. Y1 - 2009/2/1. N2 - In holometabolous insects, the adult appendages and internal organs form anew from larval progenitor cells during metamorphosis. As described here, the adult Drosophila midgut, including intestinal stem cells (ISCs), develops from adult midgut progenitor cells (AMPs) that proliferate during larval development in two phases. Dividing AMPs first disperse, but later proliferate within distinct islands, forming large cell clusters that eventually fuse during metamorphosis to make the adult midgut epithelium. We find that signaling through the EGFR/RAS/ MAPK pathway is necessary and limiting for AMP proliferation. Midgut visceral muscle produces a weak EGFR ligand, Vein, which is required for early AMP proliferation. Two stronger EGFR ligands, Spitz and Keren, are expressed by the AMPs themselves and provide an additional, ...
A flexible and efficient method for the characterization of cell type-specific protein localization and nucleocytoplasmic shuttling is...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mitosis in Neurons. T2 - Roughex and APC/C Maintain Cell Cycle Exit to Prevent Cytokinetic and Axonal Defects in Drosophila Photoreceptor Neurons. AU - Ruggiero, Robert. AU - Kale, Abhijit. AU - Thomas, Barbara. AU - Baker, Nicholas E.. PY - 2012/11/1. Y1 - 2012/11/1. N2 - The mechanisms of cell cycle exit by neurons remain poorly understood. Through genetic and developmental analysis of Drosophila eye development, we found that the cyclin-dependent kinase-inhibitor Roughex maintains G1 cell cycle exit during differentiation of the R8 class of photoreceptor neurons. The roughex mutant neurons re-enter the mitotic cell cycle and progress without executing cytokinesis, unlike non-neuronal cells in the roughex mutant that perform complete cell divisions. After mitosis, the binucleated R8 neurons usually transport one daughter nucleus away from the cell body into the developing axon towards the brain in a kinesin-dependent manner resembling anterograde axonal trafficking. Similar ...
We reported previously that a large fraction of melanoma cell lines induced a suboptimal activation of specific CTL clones, characterized by good tumor cell lysis but no detectable IL-2 production. Using synthetic peptides, we demonstrated recently that this was due to expression of subthreshold levels of appropriate MHC-peptide complexes. We measure here by semiquan-titative reverse transcription-PCR the expression of two melanoma Ag (NA17-A and Melan-A/MART-I) mRNAs in 13 melanoma cell lines and analyze the responses to these cell lines of specific HLA-A2-restricted CTL clones. In line with the idea that the density of MHC-antigenic peptide complexes on melanoma cells is a direct function of the Ags mRNA level, we found that CTL lysis was grossly proportional to this level. We also established that a minimal level of transcription is required for melanoma cells to induce IL-2 secretion. Interestingly, all cell lines that expressed the Ag above this minimal level, either spontaneously or after gene
Study cell division with a complete set of reagents for detecting checkpoint regulators, DNA synthesis, and cell proliferation.
Study cell division with a complete set of reagents for detecting checkpoint regulators, DNA synthesis, and cell proliferation.
The studies presented are the first to describe the structure, function, and expression of human VISTA, a novel, hematopoietically expressed negative checkpoint regulator. Structurally, VISTA is a novel PD-L1-like ligand, with only one IgV domain and whose structure still is not fully resolved. Studies with a newly produced anti-human VISTA mAbs show that human VISTA is highly expressed on myeloid cells with reduced expression on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Functionally, human VISTA-Ig is profoundly suppressive on both resting and activated human CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. We propose VISTA as a promising new target for cancer immunotherapy, either as a single target or in combination with other immunotherapeutic strategies.. VISTA has an interesting expression pattern, with greatest mRNA detected in either hematopoietic tissues (i.e., spleen, lymph nodes, and peripheral blood) or those tissues with significant infiltration by leukocytes (Fig. 1). This suggests that VISTA is likely to have important ...
The structure of bacteriophage SPP1 capsid was determined at sub-nanometer resolution by cryo-electron microscopy and single-particle analysis. The icosahedral capsid is composed of the major capsid protein gp13 and the auxiliary protein gp12 that are organized in a T=7 lattice. DNA is arranged in layers with a distance of ∼24.5 Å. Gp12 forms spikes that are anchored at the centre of gp13 hexamers. In a gp12-deficient mutant the centres of hexamers are closed by loops of gp13 coming together to protect the SPP1 genome from the outside environment. The HK97-like fold was used to build a pseudo-atomic model of gp13. Its structural organization remains unchanged upon tail binding and following DNA release. Gp13 exhibits enhanced thermostability in the DNA-filled capsid. A remarkable convergence between thermostability of the capsid and of the other virion components was found, revealing that the overall architecture of the SPP1 infectious particle co-evolved towards high robustness.. ...
Kit Component:- KN301218G1, Anapc1 gRNA vector 1 in pCas-Guide vector- KN301218G2, Anapc1 gRNA vector 2 in pCas-Guide vector- KN301218D, donor vector…
Rabbit polyclonal antibody rasied against synthetic peptide of ANAPC1. A synthetic peptide corresponding to 17 amino acids near C-terminus of human ANAPC1. (PAB19231) - Products - Abnova
Mouse polyclonal antibody raised against a full-length human ANAPC4 protein. ANAPC4 (NP_037499, 1 a.a. ~ 808 a.a) full-length human protein. (H00029945-B01) - Products - Abnova
Complete information for ANAPC16 gene (Protein Coding), Anaphase Promoting Complex Subunit 16, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , ARP \ Antigens ANAPC13, 1-74aa� , Human, T7 tag, E.coli, Recombinant \ 01-P1409 for more molecular products just contact us
Its been compared to being in a foreign country and not knowing the language or spending 24 hours a day with a word on the tip of your tongue. Imagine hearing and understanding everyone around you, trying to speak, but being unable to form the words. Thats what aphasia sufferers deal with every single day.Frustrating, right? Whats also frustrating is the minimal level of awareness of the condition. Even with 2 million people affected - more people than
Figure 2 and 3 indicate the RFP output normalized with growth ratio (OD) at different levels of arabinose. Figure 1 shows that CpxR-I13507 is activated at the highest level when MalE31, the periplasmic misfolder, is expressed. This occurs around 0.2% arabinose concentration. Similar trends are observed in the case of MalE which is a periplasmic folder. MalE and MalE31 activate the system at different levels. MalE31 has similar trends to MalE but has a higher level of RFP expression. These results prove that MalE and MalE31 can both activate the CpxR system however, MalE31, which misfolds, activates it more rapidly and at a lower level of arabinose concentration compared to MalE. If the line of best fit is studied, it is seen that MalE has very minimal level of Cpx activation. Whereas, malE31 has a linear regression which flattens out as the system reaches its upper threshold of detection. Biologically, this could mean that the MalE31 is activated at levels that saturate the cellular chaperones ...
DECIPHER helps the clinical community share and compare human genome variants and phenotypes in a database of tens of thousands of patients worldwide
Summary: Interaction studies demonstrate that Mms19 forms complexes with Xpd, thereby preventing Xpd-mediated repression of the mitotic kinase activity of the CAK complex and facilitating progression through mitosis. ...
In a mature and infectious retroviral particle, the capsid protein (CA) forms a shell surrounding the genomic RNA and the replicative machinery of the virus. The irregular nature of this capsid shell precludes direct atomic resolution structural analysis. CA hexamers and pentamers are the fundamental building blocks of the capsid, however the pentameric state, in particular, remains poorly characterized. We have developed an efficient in vitro protocol for studying the assembly of Rous sarcoma virus (RSV) CA that involves mild acidification and produces structures modeling the authentic viral capsid. These structures include regular spherical particles with T = 1 icosahedral symmetry, built from CA pentamers alone. These particles were subject to cryoelectron microscopy (cryo-EM) and image processing, and a pseudo-atomic model of the icosahedron was created by docking atomic structures of the constituent CA domains into the cryo-EM-derived three-dimensional density map. The N-terminal domain ...
Abstract: Cell entry of enveloped viruses requires specialized viral proteins that mediate fusion with the host membrane by substantial structural rearrangements from a metastable pre- to a stable postfusion conformation. This metastability renders the herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) fusion glycoprotein B (gB) highly unstable such that it readily converts into the postfusion form, thereby precluding structural elucidation of the pharmacologically relevant prefusion conformation. By identification of conserved sequence signatures and molecular dynamics simulations, we devised a mutation that stabilized this form. Functionally locking gB allowed the structural determination of its membrane-embedded prefusion conformation at sub-nanometer resolution and enabled the unambiguous fit of all ectodomains. The resulting pseudo-atomic model reveals a notable conservation of conformational domain rearrangements during fusion between HSV-1 gB and the vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein G, despite their ...
ANTIGEN PRESENTATION AND ASSEMBLY BY MOUSE I-A(K) CLASS-II MOLECULES IN HUMAN APC CONTAINING DELETED OR MUTATED HLA DM GENES Journal Articles ...
New research in Nature concludes the eye - which depends on light to see - also needs light to develop normally during pregnancy.
Complete information for ANAPC1 gene (Protein Coding), Anaphase Promoting Complex Subunit 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Reaktivität: Human, Maus, Ratte. 21 verschiedene ANAPC13 Antikörper vergleichen. Alle direkt auf antikörper-online bestellbar!
Expression of ANAPC4 (APC4) in soft tissue 1 tissue. Antibody staining with HPA038395, HPA038396 and CAB032519 in immunohistochemistry.
Pooch plunge is the one weekend each year that our Gorman Outdoor Pool is available for a dog swim during Newbarket before the pool closes down for the winter. It is a shallow wading entry pool with a small deep end for those dogs that like to jump in. The pool enclosure is an off-leash area and is fully fenced in. The chlorine levels are kept at the minimal level required for public health. There will be a hose available on the pool deck to rinse your dog BEFORE and AFTER going in the water ...
Granted, if you are simply looking for a better job, during your job search, while still being gainfully employed the level of stress may not be as significant because the job search is voluntary. But if youre looking for that dream job and your job search has come to a pleasant result and you are scheduled for an interview you will still be experiencing some stress and perhaps more stress than usual under the circumstances because it is after all your dream job which was the result of your job search. So what can you do to better manage the stress about the potential of being unemployed or looking for a new job with the forced job search? Be prepared for what the new potential job interviewer may ask wont generate much stress because this can be done through surfing on the net and should be part of your job search. Also, doing research about the management style or culture for the job in mind can also result in minimal levels of stress during the job search. Then we finalize the resume, make ...
We identified axonal defects in mouse models of Alzheimers disease that preceded known disease-related pathology by more than a year; we observed similar axonal defects in the early stages of Alzheimers disease in humans. Axonal defects consisted of swellings that accumulated abnormal amounts of microtubule-associated and molecular motor proteins, organelles, and vesicles. Impairing axonal transport by reducing the dosage of a kinesin molecular motor protein enhanced the frequency of axonal defects and increased amyloid-β peptide levels and amyloid deposition. Reductions in microtubule-dependent transport may stimulate proteolytic processing of β-amyloid precursor protein, resulting in the development of senile plaques and Alzheimers disease. ...
Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 7 antibody to detect human Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 7. Validated for western blotting. Try a trial size today.
Expression of ANAPC4 (APC4) in lymph node tissue. Antibody staining with HPA038395, HPA038396 and CAB032519 in immunohistochemistry.
Perform reliable qPCR with Bio-Rads pre-validated ANAPC13 primer pair, for the Human genome. Designed for SYBR Green-based detection.
A catalyst is disclosed which comprises a ruthenium-copper-containing complex of the formula M.sub.a A.sub.b RuCu.sub.c N.sub.z O.sub.x wherein M is selected from the group consisting of Ce, Cr, Fe, Mn, and mixtures thereof, A is an alkali metal, alkaline earth metal or mixture thereof, a is from 0 to about 1, b is from about 0.002 to about 10, c is from about 0.2 to about 20, z is from 0 to about 1% by weight, x is the number of oxygens needed to fulfill the valence requirements of the other elements, said complex being supported by an activated carbon support having a surface area of at least about 300 square meters per gram. A process for converting mixtures of hydrogen and carbon monoxide, particularly synthesis gas, to alcohol with minimal levels of hydrocarbon by-products being formed is also disclosed.
The blood donated locally with LifeShare will be available to help replenish the blood supply in Boston after our local needs are met. Being a community blood center, we must continue to be prepared for the blood requirements for medical needs in our community. This month, the local blood supply has been at a minimal level. In order to support the needs around the Boston area, we need additional blood donors and donations to ensure the local supply doesnt fall to a critical level, says Tina Hooper, spokesperson for LifeShare Blood Centers ...
Prostate cancers develop immunosuppressive microenvironment resisting current treatments and the emerging immunotherapies. Hossain and colleagues identified a population of Lin−CD15HICD33LO granulocytic MDSCs (G-MDSCs) accumulating in patients during prostate cancer progression. The G-MDSCs secreted large amounts of Arginase 1, thereby suppressing T cells proliferation and activity. The MDSC functions were under control of the STAT3 transcription factor and a central immune checkpoint regulator. To functionally eliminate prostate cancer-associated G-MDSC, the authors successfully employed an siRNA-based approach to silence STAT3 specifically in TLR9-expressing G-MDSCs. These findings underscore the potential of oligonucleotide-based therapeutics to alleviate immunosuppressive signaling in advanced prostate cancers. ...
Downloadable! This note reports information on the income inequality in Peru calculated from Income Household surveys from 2003-2008. Using surveys from the ENAHO published by the National Institute of Statistics, we used as index the household income annualized, it was divided by the total members of each household to compute the inequality indicators. We computed the density of income distribution using nonparametric methods (Kernel) then we used bootstrapping techniques to check the statistic significance of the inequality indexes variation using the K-S and the MWM to test the null hypothesis of no changes in income inequality between the periods. We conclude that the changes in the inequality indexes indeed have been reducing but in very minimal level even though the economic activity (real GDP) grew at sustained rates, 7.3% in average.
The preceding paragraph was intended to point out specific examples where the intervention wasnt matched to the demand. In many cases, such as postoperative quad weakness, strength does play a significant role. In these situations, its important that the dosage is appropriate in order to elicit the adaptations needed while avoiding negative responses. This minimum effective dose was defined by Siff in Supertraining as the condition which optimally promotes hypertrophy and strength increase [via] the production of some minimal level of force for some minimal amount of time.10 Unless intensity (defined as a percentage of rep max) is considered, even the overly popular 3 sets of 10 is a meaningless prescription. Delorme used progressive loading in his protocol reaching a true 10 repetition maximum on the third set.11 It appears that taking at least one set to failure is very important for eliciting adaptations, and this appears to hold true even with significant deviation from the commonly ...
Autophagy is the major intracellular system which is critical for the removal of harmful protein aggregates and malfunctioning organelles. Dysfunctional autophagy is associated with a multitude of human diseases, such as protein aggregation in Alzheimers disease and non-successful aging. Major interest exists in the dietary manipulation of the autophagy pathway activity, so as to tune the cells protein degradation capabilities and to prevent cell death onset. It has recently become clear that the machinery required to degrade protein cargo has a distinct activity level which can be altered through specific dietary modulation. Moreover, this activity may differ from that of the proteinaceous cargo. Overall, brain health and successful aging are characterized by limited protein aggregation, with a distinct molecular signature of maintained autophagy function. However, it is largely unclear how to control autophagy through dietary interventions with a precision that would allow to maintain minimal levels
An important person in the defensin family, in rat lungs. mold. It really is mainly expressed in a number of mucosa epithelial cells of your skin, bronchus 681806-46-2 manufacture and urogenital system [1]. Its exclusive sterilizing mechanism would be to damage undamaged bacterial lipid membranes, in order to modification the permeability of mobile membranes. Therefore, it isnt an easy task to induce level of resistance in bacteria and may be used like a potential fresh antibiotic, rendering it a popular subject in anti-infection research [2]. Under regular circumstances, is indicated hardly ever or at a minimal level, and it is up-regulated to operate in cells of varied mucosa tissues subjected to stimuli, including proinflammatory cytokines and microorganisms. Different microorganism parts can induce manifestation of different defensins [3,4]. Furthermore, like a signaling molecule, may also induce and recruit inflammatory and immune system cells, and impact mobile proliferation and ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
As a member of the wwPDB, the RCSB PDB curates and annotates PDB data according to agreed upon standards. The RCSB PDB also provides a variety of tools and resources. Users can perform simple and advanced searches based on annotations relating to sequence, structure and function. These molecules are visualized, downloaded, and analyzed by users who range from students to specialized scientists.
Final thought: Do we need omega 3 PUFA at anything above the most minimal levels if we are in saturated fat based ketosis? Of course I dont know. But the signal to cope with starvation is palmitic acid (physiological insulin resistance), not DHA. I live in starvation mode, not on a mixed diet with only intermittent access to healthy ruminant fat. I have long wanted to look at the selective release of FFAs from adipocytes in extended starvation. My suspicion is that in the early days after glycogen depletion palmitic acid is preferentially released over other lipids, PUFA are not needed/wanted. By a few weeks all the palmitate is gone and whatever is left then gets released. People like David Blaine suddenly start to feel weak, wobbly and are probably hypoglycaemic once they run out of palmitate and have to release less saturated fats. Two to four weeks if you carry some spare weight. Sauers rats had only ever been fed a low fat omega 6 based diet and had no serious palmitate reserves, PUFA ...
BACKGROUND: The aggressive B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) are characterised by a high proliferation rate. The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) and its co-activators Cdc20 and Cdh1 represent an important checkpoint in mitosis. Here, the role of the APC/C and its co-activators is examined in DLBCL and MCL.. METHODS: The expression and prognostic value of Cdc20 and Cdh1 was investigated using GEP data and immunohistochemistry. Moreover, the therapeutic potential of APC/C targeting was evaluated using the small-molecule inhibitor proTAME and the underlying mechanisms of action were investigated by western blot.. RESULTS: We demonstrated that Cdc20 is highly expressed in DLBCL and aggressive MCL, correlating with a poor prognosis in DLBCL. ProTAME induced a prolonged metaphase, resulting in accumulation of the APC/C-Cdc20 substrate cyclin B1, inactivation/degradation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL and caspase-dependent apoptosis. In ...
Axons require the axonal NAD-synthesizing enzyme NMNAT2 to survive. Injury or genetically-induced depletion of NMNAT2 triggers axonal degeneration or defective axon growth. We have previously proposed that axonal NMNAT2 primarily promotes axon survival by maintaining low levels of its substrate NMN, rather than generating NAD; however, this is still debated. NMN deamidase, a bacterial enzyme, shares NMN-consuming activity with NMNAT2, but not NAD-synthesizing activity, and delays axon degeneration in primary neuronal cultures. Here, we show that NMN deamidase can also delay axon degeneration in zebrafish larvae and in transgenic mice. Like overexpressed NMNATs, NMN deamidase reduces NMN accumulation in injured mouse sciatic nerves and preserves some axons for up to 3 weeks, even when expressed at a low level. Remarkably, NMN deamidase also rescues axonal outgrowth and perinatal lethality in mice lacking NMNAT2 in a dose-dependent manner. These data further support a pro-degenerative effect of ...
COPENHAGEN — Nanosecond laser may represent an affordable, safe and effective way of doing laser cataract surgery, according to one speaker.“A minimal level of energy is applied to the eye. There is no thermal alteration in the anterior chamber, no mechanical or thermal side effects,” Jérôme C. Vryghem, MD, said at the European Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgeons
Be careful when assigning HCPCS skin substitute codes; the number of units should be equal to the number of square centimeters to which the substitute applied. Also check the skin substitute application CPT code descriptions. The number of units is not the same for all skin substitute application codes, said Kathleen D. Schaum, MS, president of Kathleen D. Schaum & Associates, Inc., in Lake Worth, FL. Be sure the physicians document these procedures completely, including his or her choice of fixation. Your Medicare contractor might specify a minimal level of fixation.
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
|p|Human APC labeled PBMCs are either selected or depleted in a two-step separation process. The cells are first incubated with a BioLegend anti-human APC-conjugated antibody, followed by incubating with directly conjugated anti-APC Nanobeads. The APC|sup|+|/sup|, magnetically labeled fraction is re
施耐德電機旗下APC提供對常見問題解答(FAQ)、軟體和硬體及其他資源的廣泛訪問,此外還有與産品支持團隊的直接聯繫方式。
Cocaine is a powerfully addictive stimulant that directly affects the brain.. Pure cocaine was first extracted from the leaf of the Erythroxylon coca bush in the mid-19th century. In the early 1900s it became the main stimulant drug used in most of the tonics and elixirs that were developed to treat a wide variety of illnesses. It quickly became popular as an ingredient in patented medicines (throat lozenges and tonics) and other products (such as Coca Cola, from which it was later removed).. Concern soon mounted due to instances of addiction, psychotic behavior, convulsion, and death. A series of steps, including passage of the Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906, were taken to combat health and behavioral problems associated with the use of cocaine. Finally, the Harrison Act of 1914 outlawed the use of cocaine in over-the-counter products and made it available only by prescription. Cocaine use soon dropped dramatically and remained at minimal levels for nearly half a century.. In the 1960s, illicit ...
Following its intake, heroin is rapidly hydrolyzed into 6-monoacetylmorphine, and at some point right into morphine. Glucuronides are after that conjugated into the 3- as well as 6- positions of morphine to create the metabolites: morphine-3-glucuronide as well as morphine-6-glucuronide. Upon formation of these glucuronides, they are excreted largely by means of the pee- and also to a minimal level via bile.. Assuming an individual injected heroin intravenously, virtually 70% of the medications metabolites would show up in urine, mostly through conjugated morphine (over 50%). Various various other metabolites that show up in pee post-heroin consumption consist of: normorphine, codeine, morphine-3-6-diglucuronide, and morphine-3-ethersulphate. The majority of morphine undertakes glucuronidation in the liver, yet various other organs such as the kidney, intestines, and also mind have a bit part in the process.. Generally, the fifty percent life of heroin ranges in between 1.3 minutes and also 7.8 ...
1GQP: Implications for the Ubiquitination Reaction of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex from the Crystal Structure of the Doc1/Apc10 Subunit.
APC by Schneider Electric - Certainty in a Connected World. UPS, 서버룸, 배터리 백업솔루션 분야의 글로벌 리더. APC 리셀러를 통해 구매하십시오.
Vodermaier HC, Gieffers C, Maurer-Stroh S, Eisenhaber F, Peters JM (Sep 2003). "TPR subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex ... "Mammalian p55CDC mediates association of the spindle checkpoint protein Mad2 with the cyclosome/anaphase-promoting complex, and ... Jörgensen PM, Gräslund S, Betz R, Ståhl S, Larsson C, Höög C (Jan 2001). "Characterisation of the human APC1, the largest ... "TPR subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex mediate binding to the activator protein CDH1". Current Biology. 13 (17): 1459- ...
These include Apc1, the largest subunit which contains 11 tandem repeats of 35-40 amino acid sequences, and Apc2, which ... April 2015). "Structure of an APC3-APC16 complex: insights into assembly of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome". Journal ... Anaphase-promoting complex (also called the cyclosome or APC/C) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that marks target cell cycle proteins ... a Drosophila gene encoding the Cdc27 subunit of the anaphase promoting complex, enhance centrosomal defects in polo and are ...
Apc1 is the largest of the subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome. The anaphase-promoting complex is a ... Characterisation of the human APC1, the largest subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex.. Gene 262 51-9 2001 ... The anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome: a machine designed to destroy.. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 7 644-56 2006 ... Accumulation of substrates of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) during human cytomegalovirus infection is associated with ...
Anaphase Promoting Complex Subunit 1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards ... Component of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), a cell cycle-regulated E3 ubiquitin ligase that controls ... Q9H1A4-APC1_HUMAN. Recommended name:. Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 1 Protein Accession:. Q9H1A4. Secondary Accessions: * ... Characterisation of the human APC1, the largest subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex. (PMID: 11179667) Jörgensen PM … Höög ...
Buy our Recombinant Human Apc1 protein. Ab163855 is a protein fragment produced in Wheat germ and has been validated in WB, ... Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 1. *Apc 1. *APC1. *APC1_HUMAN. *Cyclosome subunit 1 ... Component of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), a cell cycle-regulated E3 ubiquitin ligase that controls ... Anaphase promoting complex subunit 1. *anaphase-promoting complex 1 (meiotic checkpoint regulator) ...
... also called the cyclosome or anaphase promoting complex (APC) (15-17). APC catalyzes the transfer of ubiquitin from ubiquitin- ... Four of the subunits have also been identified in S. cerevisiae: CDC16, CDC23, CDC27, and APC1 (19). Fission yeast cut9, nuc2, ... One possible target of the spindle checkpoint is anaphase promoting complex (APC), which controls all postmetaphase events that ... pombe spindle checkpoint protein mad2p blocks anaphase and genetically interacts with the anaphase-promoting complex. Xiangwei ...
Alternative names for APC1 / ANAPC1 antibody. Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 1, TSG24, MCPR, Cyclosome subunit 1, Testis- ... Western blot analysis of APC1 in SK-N-SH cell lysate with APC1 antibody at (A) 1 and (B) 2 ug/mL.. *TA306967 ... WB using Anti-APC1 pS377 antibody shows detection of a band ~215 kDa corresponding to phosphorylated human APC1 (arrowhead). ... WB using Anti-APC1 pS355 antibody shows detection of a band ~215 kDa corresponding to phosphorylated human APC1 (arrowhead). ...
Browse our Apc1 Peptides and Proteins all backed by our Guarantee+. ... Apc1 Peptides and Proteins available through Novus Biologicals. ... anaphase promoting complex subunit 1 protein, anaphase- ... anaphase-promoting complex subunit 1 protein, APC1Testis-specific gene 24 protein protein, Cyclosome subunit 1 protein, Mitotic ... Our Apc1 Peptides and Apc1 Proteins can be used in a variety of model species: Human. Use the list below to choose the Apc1 ...
... of Human Cytomegalovirus UL21a and UL97 to Viral Growth and Inactivation of the Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) E3 ... Ubiquitin Ligase Reveal a Unique Cellular Mechanism for Down-modulation of the APC/C Subunits APC1, APC4, and APC5.. ... Nicotine promotes apoptosis resistance of breast cancer cells and enrichment of side population cells with cancer stem cell- ...
ANAPC1; anaphase promoting complex subunit 1; anaphase-promoting complex subunit 1; APC1; MCPR; TSG24; cyclosome subunit 1; ... ANAPC1 is 1 of at least 10 subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), which functions at the metaphase-to-anaphase ... mitotic checkpoint regulator; testis-specific gene 24 protein; anaphase-promoting complex 1 (meiotic checkpoint regulator) ...
Apc1 Subunit, Anaphase Promoting Complex Apc1 Subunit, Anaphase Promoting Complex Cyclosome Apc1 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting ... Apc1 Subunit, Anaphase Promoting Complex. Apc1 Subunit, Anaphase Promoting Complex Cyclosome. Apc1 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting ... Apc1 Subunit, Anaphase Promoting Complex Cyclosome [D08.811.464.938.750.092.500] Apc1 Subunit, Anaphase Promoting Complex ... Apc10 Subunit, Anaphase Promoting Complex Cyclosome [D08.811.464.938.750.092.625] Apc10 Subunit, Anaphase Promoting Complex ...
... and APC-1, a subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome, which is involved in the assembly and regulation of the ... The viral protein Apoptin associates with the anaphase-promoting complex to induce G2/M arrest and apoptosis in the absence of ... APC-1:. Subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome. CAV:. Chicken anemia virus ... cyclosome complex [23]. VP3 has also been reported to interact with the cytoplasmic protein HIPPI, a protein that interacts ...
The anaphase-promoting complex or cyclosome (APC) is an unusually complicated ubiquitin ligase, composed of 13 core subunits ... The cullin subunit APC2 and its binding partner, the RING finger protein APC11, are found in a subcomplex with APC1, APC4, and ... Microinjection of antibodies against subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome or against human Cdc20 (fizzy) ... one of the substrate-targeting subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC). However, Cdh1, another targeting subunit used ...
This particle, called the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) or cyclosome, functions as a cell cycle-regulated ubiquitin-protein ... Two additional subunits of the budding yeast APC were identified: The largest subunit, encoded by the APC1 gene, is conserved ... Identification of Subunits of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. By Wolfgang Zachariae, Tae Ho Shin, ... Identification of Subunits of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. By Wolfgang Zachariae, Tae Ho Shin, ...
In Xenopus extracts, Cdk1 complexes containing the subunit p9/Cks are required for cyclin B degradation and for Apc1 and Cdc27 ... The anaphasepromoting complex (APC) or cyclosome is a ubiquitin ligase that initiates anaphase and mitotic exit. APC ... Geley S, Kramer E, Gieffers C, Gannon J, Peters JM and Hunt T (2001) Anaphasepromoting complex/cyclosome‐dependent proteolysis ... Vodermaier HC, Gieffers C, Maurer‐Stroh S, Eisenhaber F and Peters JM (2003) TPR subunits of the anaphasepromoting complex ...
... we clustered the proteins with abundance profiles most similar to known Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) substrates ... Apc1 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome. *Cell (microprocessor). *Motif. *KIF18A gene. Citations. Publications ... we clustered the proteins with abundance profiles most similar to known Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) substrates ... SUMO targets the APC/C to regulate transition from metaphase to anaphase. *Karolin Eifler, Sabine A. G. Cuijpers, +5 authors ...
2. Jorgensen PM et al: Characterisation of the human APC1, the largest subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex. Gene2001; 262 ... 1. Peters JM: The anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome: a machine designed to destroy. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol.2006; 7:644-56 ... 3. Passmore LA et al: Doc1 mediates the activity of the anaphase-promoting complex by contributing to substrate recognition. ...
Vodermaier HC, Gieffers C, Maurer-Stroh S, Eisenhaber F, Peters JM (Sep 2003). "TPR subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex ... "Mammalian p55CDC mediates association of the spindle checkpoint protein Mad2 with the cyclosome/anaphase-promoting complex, and ... Jörgensen PM, Gräslund S, Betz R, Ståhl S, Larsson C, Höög C (Jan 2001). "Characterisation of the human APC1, the largest ... "TPR subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex mediate binding to the activator protein CDH1". Current Biology. 13 (17): 1459- ...
Our APC1 Polyclonal Antibody price is reasonable. Check more details about APC1 Polyclonal Antibody now. ... anaphase-promoting complex 1 (meiotic checkpoint regulator),Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 1,Apc 1,APC1,APC1,Cyclosome ... anaphase-promoting complex 1 (meiotic checkpoint regulator),Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 1,Apc 1,APC1,APC1,Cyclosome ... This gene encodes a subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex. This complex is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that regulates ...
The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a large multimeric cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase that orchestrates cell- ... The platform comprises APC/C subunits Apc1, Apc4, Apc5, and Apc15. Although the role of Apc1 as an APC/C scaffolding subunit ... APC/C ubiquitination cell cycle UbcH10 Ube2S ANAPHASE-PROMOTING COMPLEX EM STRUCTURE DETERMINATION UBIQUITIN-CHAIN FORMATION ... Apc1(WD40)). To understand how Apc1(WD40) contributes to APC/C activity, a mutant form of the APC/C with Apc1(WD40) deleted was ...
... anaphase-promoting complex 1 (meiotic checkpoint regulator) , anaphase-promoting complex subunit 1 , cyclosome subunit 1 , ... cryo-EM structure of an APC (zeige APC Antikörper)/C-Cdh1 (zeige CDH1 Antikörper) complex with Apc1 (zeige SLC25A24 Antikörper ... Weitere Produktkategorien zu Anaphase Promoting Complex Subunit 1 Antikörper * 131 anti-Anaphase Promoting Complex Subunit 1 ... anti-Anaphase Promoting Complex Subunit 1 (ANAPC1) Antikörper. ANAPC1 encodes a subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex. ...
prt okam11e05d AJ229521 229 okam11e05r AJ229522 149 9.0 E-08 YNL172w APC1 subunit of anaphase-promoting complex (cyclosome) ... to human PL6 prt am2e05d AJ229445 151 am2e07d AJ229446 119 6.7 E-07 YLR292c SEC72 ER prt-translocation complex subunit am2e10d ... III, 160 KD subunit okam5g05r AJ229937 405 1.1 E-96 YOR117w RPT5 26S proteasome subunit okam5g06d AJ229938 193 repeats or mito ... subunit of the RSC complex am2d07d AJ229438 191 am2d08d AJ229439 125 am2d09d AJ229440 358 2.9 E-08 YPR049c simil. to Uso1p ...
APC1. CDH1. YNL172W. YGL003C. Largest subunit of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C), which is a ubiquitin-protein ... APC1. CLB1. YNL172W. YGR108W. Largest subunit of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C), which is a ubiquitin-protein ... APC1. CLB2. YNL172W. YPR119W. Largest subunit of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C), which is a ubiquitin-protein ... APC1. CLB3. YNL172W. YDL155W. Largest subunit of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C), which is a ubiquitin-protein ...
Apc1 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome. Subunidade Apc1 do Ciclossomo-Complexo Promotor de Anáfase. Subunidad Apc1 ... Apc1 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome. Subunidade Apc1 do Ciclossomo-Complexo Promotor de Anáfase. Subunidad Apc1 ... Apc2 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome. Subunidade Apc2 do Ciclossomo-Complexo Promotor de Anáfase. Subunidad Apc2 ... Apc3 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome. Subunidade Apc3 do Ciclossomo-Complexo Promotor de Anáfase. Subunidad Apc3 ...
Apc1 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome/genetics*. *Apc1 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome/metabolism ...
Apc1. With 1748 amino acids, Apc1 is the largest subunit of the APC and, intriguingly, it has no known function. It contains ... The APC (anaphase-promoting complex) or cyclosome is a large multisubunit protein complex. It has 13 core components (with ... The anaphase-promoting complex (APC): the sum of its parts? L.A. Passmore L.A. Passmore ... The APC (anaphase-promoting complex) is a multisubunit E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets cell-cycle-related proteins for ...
ANAPC1, anaphase promoting complex subunit 1. Orthology source: HomoloGene, HGNC * Synonyms APC1, MCPR, TSG24 ... IPR024990 Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 1. IPR002015 Proteasome/cyclosome repeat. Molecular. Reagents ...
ANAPC1 TSG24] Anaphase-promoting complex subunit 1 (APC1) (Cyclosome subunit 1) (Mitotic checkpoint regulator) (Testis-specific ... ESCRT-I complex subunit TSG101). [Tsg101] Tumor susceptibility gene 101 protein (ESCRT-I complex subunit TSG101). [PTX3 TNFAIP5 ... tsg101 DDB_G0286797] ESCRT-I complex subunit tsg101. [CEP55 C10orf3 URCC6] Centrosomal protein of 55 kDa (Cep55) (Up-regulated ... TSG101 EGK_06430] ESCRT-I complex subunit TSG101 (Tumor susceptibility 101). [TSG101 burs Dmel\CG9712 DmTSG101 dTSg101 dTsg101 ...
Apc1 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome - chemistry , Apc8 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome - chemistry ... Apc11 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome - metabolism , Apc1 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome - ... Apc7 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome - chemistry , Apc3 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome - ... Apc3 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome - chemistry , Apc7 Subunit, Anaphase-Promoting Complex-Cyclosome - ...
These include Apc1, the largest subunit which contains 11 tandem repeats of 35-40 amino acid sequences, and Apc2, which ... April 2015). "Structure of an APC3-APC16 complex: insights into assembly of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome". Journal ... Anaphase-promoting complex (also called the cyclosome or APC/C) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that marks target cell cycle proteins ... a Drosophila gene encoding the Cdc27 subunit of the anaphase promoting complex, enhance centrosomal defects in polo and are ...
Cyclosome subunit 10; DKFZP564L0562; Human ANAPC10; anaphase-promoting complex subunit 10 isoform 1; anaphase promoting complex ... Anti-ANAPC1 / APC1 Antibody (C-Terminus) IHC-plus; Cyclosome subunit 1; Mitotic checkpoint regulator; Human ANAPC1; anaphase- ... Anaphase promoting complex subunit 11 (yeast APC11 homolog); Anaphase promoting complex subunit 11; Anaphase promoting complex ... Cyclosome subunit 10; DKFZP564L0562; Human ANAPC10; anaphase-promoting complex subunit 10 isoform 1; anaphase promoting complex ...
We exemplified this trend on the anaphase promoting complex (APC) where a core is highly conserved throughout all metazoans, ... They do not act alone but are organised in complexes. Throughout the life of a cell, complexes are dynamic in their composition ... Focussing on human protein complexes, we based our analysis on a manually curated dataset from HPRD. In total, 1,060 complexes ... of all complexes affected). Still, loss of whole complexes happened rarely. This biological signal deviated significantly from ...
  • This complex is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that regulates progression through the metaphase to anaphase portion of the cell cycle by ubiquitinating proteins which targets them for degradation. (genecards.org)
  • The APC/C complex acts by mediating ubiquitination and subsequent degradation of target proteins: it mainly mediates the formation of Lys-11-linked polyubiquitin chains and, to a lower extent, the formation of Lys-48- and Lys-63-linked polyubiquitin chains. (genecards.org)
  • We offer Apc1 Peptides and Apc1 Proteins for use in common research applications: Blocking/Neutralizing, ELISA, Protein Array, Western Blot. (novusbio.com)
  • Our Apc1 Peptides and Apc1 Proteins can be used in a variety of model species: Human. (novusbio.com)
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  • Considerable evidence suggests that the onset of anaphase (sister chromatid separation) and other postmetaphase events (spindle elongation and exit from mitosis) are controlled by proteolysis of specific proteins by the ubiquitination pathway ( 6 - 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • ANAPC1 is 1 of at least 10 subunits of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC), which functions at the metaphase-to-anaphase transition of the cell cycle and is regulated by spindle checkpoint proteins. (creative-biogene.com)
  • Entry into anaphase and proteolysis of B-type cyclins depend on a complex containing the tetratricopeptide repeat proteins Cdc16p, Cdc23p, and Cdc27p. (sciencemag.org)
  • This gene encodes a component protein of the APC complex, which is composed of eight proteins and functions as a protein ubiquitin ligase. (wikipedia.org)
  • This protein and two other APC complex proteins, CDC23 and CDC27, contain a tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR), a protein domain that may be involved in protein-protein interaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hypothesizing that proteins with similar abundance profiles are co-regulated, we clustered the proteins with abundance profiles most similar to known Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) substrates to identify additional putative APC/C substrates. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C) is a large multimeric cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase that orchestrates cell-cycle progression by targeting cell-cycle regulatory proteins for destruction via the ubiquitin proteasome system. (icr.ac.uk)
  • The APC (anaphase-promoting complex) is a multisubunit E3 ubiquitin ligase that targets cell-cycle-related proteins for degradation by the 26 S proteasome. (portlandpress.com)
  • The APC contains at least 13 subunits and is regulated by the binding of co-activator proteins and by phosphorylation. (portlandpress.com)
  • Most cellular proteins form a complex network of interactions with other proteins and many are components of large multiprotein complexes [ 1 - 3 ]. (portlandpress.com)
  • Anaphase-promoting complex (also called the cyclosome or APC/C) is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that marks target cell cycle proteins for degradation by the 26S proteasome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The APC/C is a large complex of 11-13 subunit proteins, including a cullin (Apc2) and RING (Apc11) subunit much like SCF. (wikipedia.org)
  • The APC/C's main function is to trigger the transition from metaphase to anaphase by tagging specific proteins for degradation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, the complexes are connected by shared components, e.g. proteins present in more than one complex. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Some of these attachments, which can consist of multiple proteins itself, can be connected to different core complexes. (beds.ac.uk)
  • In early mitosis, the APC/C is activated by CDC20 and targets securin PDS1, the B-type cyclin CLB5, and other anaphase inhibitory proteins for proteolysis, thereby triggering the separation of sister chromatids at the metaphase-to-anaphase transition. (uniprot.org)
  • The Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) in complex with its co-activator Cdc20 is responsible for targeting proteins for ubiquitin-mediated degradation during mitosis. (nih.gov)
  • The anaphase promoting complex (APC) controls the degradation of proteins during exit from mitosis and entry into S-phase. (pnas.org)
  • ANAPC1 (Anaphase Promoting Complex Subunit 1) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • We have isolated mad2 , a spindle checkpoint component in fission yeast, and shown that mad2 overexpression activates the checkpoint and causes a cell cycle arrest at the metaphase-to-anaphase transition. (pnas.org)
  • In budding yeast, APC/C(Cdc20) promotes the degradation of the Pds1p anaphase inhibitor at the metaphase-to-anaphase transition, whereas APC/C(Cdh1) promotes the degradation of the mitotic cyclins at the exit from mitosis. (sdbonline.org)
  • During metaphase, sister chromatids are linked by intact cohesin complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • By contrast, HDAC inhibitors and clr6 HDAC mutations rescued temperature sensitive (ts) phenotypes of the mutants of the ubiquitin ligase complex anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), which display metaphase arrest. (biologists.org)
  • During metaphase, it becomes activated at both SPBs (GTP-bound form), but during anaphase B, it becomes inactivated at only one pole, giving rise to a poorly understood asymmetric state ( 33 ). (asm.org)
  • The GTP-bound form of Spg1p recruits the Cdc7p protein kinase, resulting in Cdc7p localization to both SPBs during metaphase and just one SPB during anaphase B ( 33 ). (asm.org)
  • This checkpoint guarantees that anaphase onset is initiated only when all chromosomes are properly attached to microtubules and aligned at the metaphase plate. (biologists.org)
  • Previous studies in budding yeast show that the activated spindle checkpoint inhibits the onset of anaphase by an unknown mechanism. (pnas.org)
  • Activation of the spindle checkpoint in budding yeast blocks cells with condensed chromosomes prior to the onset of anaphase ( 7 , 9 , 10 ). (pnas.org)
  • However, because cell cycle stages between S phase and anaphase are not morphologically distinct in budding yeast ( 11 ), the precise point at which the spindle checkpoint arrests cell cycle progression is not well defined cytologically. (pnas.org)
  • Fission yeast cut9 , nuc2 , and cut4 ( 20 ) encode homologues of budding yeast Cdc16p, Cdc27p, and Apc1p, respectively, and are also required for anaphase initiation ( 19 ). (pnas.org)
  • Two additional subunits of the budding yeast APC were identified: The largest subunit, encoded by the APC1 gene, is conserved between fungi and vertebrates and shows similarity to BIMEp from Aspergillus nidulans . (sciencemag.org)
  • Characterisation of the human APC1, the largest subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • These include Apc1, the largest subunit which contains 11 tandem repeats of 35-40 amino acid sequences, and Apc2, which contains three cullin repeats of approximately 130 amino acids total. (wikipedia.org)
  • The C-terminal region of Apc1 contains a series of tandem amino acid repeats that are also seen in the 26S proteasome regulatory particle, and may assist with forming and stabilizing protein-protein interactions. (bvsalud.org)
  • Studies on the Contribution of Human Cytomegalovirus UL21a and UL97 to Viral Growth and Inactivation of the Anaphase Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C) E3 Ubiquitin Ligase Reveal a Unique Cellular Mechanism for Down-modulation of the APC/C Subunits APC1, APC4, and APC5. (norgenbiotek.com)
  • A ) The APC/C complex was affinity purified using an APC4 antibody from nocodazole-arrested cells or cells released from nocodazole into MG132 for 2 h. (nih.gov)
  • C ) Stable HeLa cell lines expressing FLAG-tagged Kif18A or Kif18AΔLR were arrested with nocodazole and the APC/C complex purified using an APC4 antibody. (nih.gov)
  • The scaffolding platform consists of APC1, APC4 and APC5. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The anaphase-promoting complex is a multiprotein subunit E3 ubiquitin ligase complex that controls segregation of chromosomes and exit from mitosis in eukaryotes [ PMID: 11179667 , PMID: 16896351 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Component of the anaphase promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), a cell cycle-regulated E3 ubiquitin ligase that controls progression through mitosis and the G1 phase of the cell cycle. (genecards.org)
  • While some phosphorylated APC1 is present in untreated cell, the amount of phosphorylated protein is increased in cell preparations arrested in mitosis. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • In addition to the observation that mad2 -induced arrest can be partially relieved by mitosis-promoting factor inactivation, we present genetic evidence consistent with the hypothesis that the spindle checkpoint imposes a cell cycle arrest by inhibiting APC-dependent proteolysis. (pnas.org)
  • Ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis due to the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome is essential for separation of sister chromatids, requiring degradation of the anaphase inhibitor Pds1, and for exit from mitosis, requiring inactivation of cyclin B Cdk1 kinases. (sdbonline.org)
  • Progression through mitosis is controlled by protein degradation that is mediated by the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome and its associated specificity factors. (sdbonline.org)
  • It is proposed that the dual role of Pds1p as an inhibitor of anaphase and of cyclin degradation allows the cell to couple the exit from mitosis to the prior completion of anaphase. (sdbonline.org)
  • The APC complex is a cyclin degradation system that governs exit from mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The proteolytic events triggered by the APC are required to release sister chromatid cohesion during anaphase, to control the exit from mitosis and to prevent premature entry into S-phase. (portlandpress.com)
  • The APC/C also targets the mitotic cyclins for degradation, resulting in the inactivation of M-CDK (mitotic cyclin-dependent kinase) complexes, promoting exit from mitosis and cytokinesis Unlike the SCF, activator subunits control the APC/C. Cdc20 and Cdh1 are the two activators of particular importance to the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The subunit, CDC20 allows APC to degrade substrates such as anaphase inhibitors (Pdsp1) at the beginning of anaphase, on the other hand when CDC20 is substituted for specificity factor Hct1, APC degrades a different set of substrates, particularly mitosis cyclins in late anaphase. (wikipedia.org)
  • In late mitosis and in G1, degradation of CLB5 allows activation of the APC/C by CDH1, which is needed to destroy CDC20 and the B-type cyclin CLB2 to allow exit from mitosis and creating the low CDK state necessary for cytokinesis and for reforming prereplicative complexes in G1 prior to another round of replication. (uniprot.org)
  • Cdc16p, Cdc23p and Cdc27p form a complex essential for mitosis. (uniprot.org)
  • The only element in this ubiquitination pathway whose activity is cell-cycle regulated is the ubiquitin ligase (E3), also called the cyclosome or anaphase promoting complex (APC) ( 15 - 17 ). (pnas.org)
  • We found that the deletion of Apc1(WD40) abolished the UbcH10-dependent ubiquitination of APC/C substrates without impairing the Ube2S-dependent ubiquitin chain elongation activity. (icr.ac.uk)
  • When securin undergoes ubiquitination by the APC/C and releases separase, which degrades cohesin, sister chromatids become free to move to opposite poles for anaphase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activator subunits bind to APC at varying stages of the cell-cycle to control its ubiquitination activity, often by directing APC to target substrates destined for ubiquitination. (wikipedia.org)
  • These two subunits catalyze ubiquitination of substrates when the C-terminal domain of Apc2 forms a tight complex with Apc11. (wikipedia.org)
  • We find that dimerization via the leucine zipper, in combination with the MR motif, is required for stable Nek2A binding to and ubiquitination by the APC/C. Nek2A and the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC) have an overlap in APC/C subunit requirements for binding and we propose that Nek2A binds with high affinity to apo-APC/C and is degraded by the pool of Cdc20 that avoids inhibition by the SAC. (nih.gov)
  • Accumulation of substrates of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) during human cytomegalovirus infection is associated with the phosphorylation of Cdh1 and the dissociation and relocalization of APC subunits. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Both processes require the Cdc14 phosphatase, whose release from the nucleolus during anaphase causes dephosphorylation and thereby activation of Cdh1 and accumulation of another protein, Sic1. (sdbonline.org)
  • Activation of the APC requires its association with substoichiometric activating subunits termed Cdc20 and Hct1 (also known as Cdh1). (sdbonline.org)
  • A cryo-EM structure of an APC/C-Cdh1 complex with Apc1(WD40) deleted showed that the mutant APC/C is locked into an inactive conformation in which the UbcH10-binding site of the catalytic module is inaccessible. (icr.ac.uk)
  • Activators CDC20 and Cdh1 are of particular significance and are the most widely studied and familiar of the APC/C subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • Purified Hct1 is phosphorylated in vitro at these sites by purified Cdc28-cyclin complexes, and phosphorylation abolishes the ability of Hct1 to activate the APC in vitro. (sdbonline.org)
  • Specificity of APC ligases are proposed to be controlled by incorporation of specificity factors into the ligase complex, instead of substrate phosphorylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • There were 71 phosphorylation sites on nine of the APC subunits. (pnas.org)
  • Proteolysis of mitotic cyclins depends on a multisubunit ubiquitin-protein ligase, the anaphase promoting complex (APC). (sdbonline.org)
  • Proteolysis commences during anaphase, persisting throughout G1 until it is terminated by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) as cells enter S phase. (sdbonline.org)
  • A key mechanism of CDK inactivation is ubiquitin-mediated cyclin proteolysis, which is triggered by the late mitotic activation of a ubiquitin ligase known as the anaphase-promoting complex (APC). (sdbonline.org)
  • Of these, 32 sites are clustered in parts of Apc1 and the tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) subunits Cdc27, Cdc16, Cdc23 and Apc7. (embopress.org)
  • Mechanisms controlling the temporal degradation of Nek2A and Kif18A by the APC/C-Cdc20 complex. (semanticscholar.org)
  • However in contrast to Nek2A, Kif18A is not degraded until anaphase showing that additional mechanisms contribute to Nek2A degradation. (nih.gov)
  • This study explores the molecular function and regulation of the APC regulatory subunit Hct1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae . (sdbonline.org)
  • The major motifs in APC subunits include tetratricopeptide (TPR) motifs and WD40 repeats 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • One possible target of the spindle checkpoint is anaphase promoting complex (APC), which controls all postmetaphase events that are blocked by spindle checkpoint activation. (pnas.org)
  • The APC is the target of the spindle checkpoint ( 6 ), a complex process that senses the fidelity of microtubule attachment to chromosomes before allowing chromatid separation and cell division to proceed. (pnas.org)
  • Improper microtubule attachment or chromosome misalignment on the spindle activates the formation of an inhibitory "supercomplex," consisting of the APC and a second complex, the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC), which consists of a kinase BubR1, an inhibitor MAD2, and the APC activator CDC20 ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Infection of human fibroblasts with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) leads to cell cycle dysregulation, which is associated with the inactivation of the anaphase-promoting complex [ PMID: 17942546 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Cytokinesis in eukaryotic cells requires the inactivation of mitotic cyclin-dependent kinase complexes. (asm.org)
  • The mammalian APC/C is composed of 14 distinct subunits that assemble into a complex of at least 19 chains with a combined molecular mass of around 1.2 MDa. (genecards.org)
  • Studies of APC subunits are mainly conducted in yeast, and studies show that the majority of yeast APC subunits are also present in vertebrates, this suggests conservation across eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eleven core APC subunits have been found in vertebrates versus thirteen in yeast. (wikipedia.org)
  • The spindle-assembly checkpoint ensures accurate nuclear division by monitoring the integrity of the mitotic spindle and the proper attachment of chromosomes to the spindle, and then preventing the onset of anaphase in the presence of a defective mitotic spindle or unattached kinetochores ( 3 - 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • The mutual inhibition between APC and CDKs explains how cells suppress mitotic CDK activity during G1 and then establish a period with elevated kinase activity from S phase until anaphase (Zachariae, 1998). (sdbonline.org)
  • The Sid1p protein kinase, in a complex with Cdc14p, is then recruited to the SPB that contains Cdc7p and activated Spg1p at this time ( 16 ). (asm.org)
  • This gene encodes a subunit of the anaphase-promoting complex. (genecards.org)
  • AP07834PU-N APC1 antibody staining of Formalin-Fixed Paraffin-Embedded Human Pancreatic Carcinoma at 10 µg/ml followed by biotinylated Goat anti-Rabbit IgG secondary antibody, alkaline phosphatase-streptavidin and chromogen. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Western blot using Affinity Purified anti-APC1 pS355 antibody shows detection of a band ~215 kDa corresponding to phosphorylated human APC1 (arrowhead). (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Affinity purified anti-APC1 pS377 antibody was used at 5.0 µg/ml to detect signal in a variety of tissues including multi-human, multi-brain and multicancer slides. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry Analysis: AP20205PU-N APC1 antibody staining of Paraffin-Embedded Human breast carcinoma tissue. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Immunohistochemistry analysis of paraffin-embedded human breast carcinoma, using APC1 (Phospho-Ser688) Antibody. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • Western Blot analysis of SK-N-SH cells with APC1 Polyclonal Antibody. (elabscience.com)
  • During checkpoint activity, MAD2 is relayed from the MAD1-MAD2 complex to the mitotic checkpoint complex (MCC). (string-db.org)
  • The catalytic core of the APC/C consists of the cullin subunit Apc2 and RING H2 domain subunit Apc11. (wikipedia.org)
  • APC/C complex contains three sub-complexes: the scaffolding platform, the TPR lobe and the catalytic core. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Kif18A is ubiquitinated by the APC/C-Cdc20 complex. (nih.gov)
  • Indeed, overproduction of nondestructible Cdc13p prevents septation in APC cut mutants and the normal reorganization of septation initiation network components during anaphase. (asm.org)
  • Focussing on human protein complexes, we based our analysis on a manually curated dataset from HPRD. (beds.ac.uk)
  • These evolutionary events affecting genes coding for units in human protein complexes showed a significantly different phylogenetic pattern compared to randomly selected genes. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Structure and genetics characteristics of APC/C. a Graphic representation of human ( Homo sapiens ) APC/C subunits. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mechanism of ubiquitin-chain formation by the human anaphase-promoting complex. (antibody-antibodies.com)
  • An apparent exception to this relationship is found in Schizosaccharomyces pombe mutants with mutations of the anaphase-promoting complex (APC). (asm.org)
  • By systematically testing the regulatory subunits of Drosophila PP2A, we find that the B56 family member widerborst ( wdb ) is required for the role of PP2A in promoting the transition to quiescence. (biologists.org)
  • Our data show that Apc1(WD40) is required to mediate the coactivator-induced conformational change of the APC/C that is responsible for stimulating APC/C catalytic activity by promoting UbcH10 binding. (icr.ac.uk)
  • Each component protein of the APC complex is highly conserved among eukaryotic organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even if one component was lost at a particular point in time, the fraction of observed second, independent losses of additional components was high (75% of all complexes affected). (beds.ac.uk)
  • To understand how Apc1(WD40) contributes to APC/C activity, a mutant form of the APC/C with Apc1(WD40) deleted was generated and evaluated biochemically and structurally. (icr.ac.uk)
  • The separase triggers the cleavage of cohesin, the protein complex that binds sister chromatids together. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each Apc1 Peptide and Apc1 Protein is fully covered by our Guarantee+, to give you complete peace of mind and the support when you need it. (novusbio.com)
  • 3. Passmore LA et al: Doc1 mediates the activity of the anaphase-promoting complex by contributing to substrate recognition. (signalchem.com)
  • Phosphorylated APC1 is mostly present only in cell preparations arrested at cell division. (acris-antibodies.com)
  • This particle, called the anaphase-promoting complex (APC) or cyclosome, functions as a cell cycle-regulated ubiquitin-protein ligase. (sciencemag.org)
  • Throughout the life of a cell, complexes are dynamic in their composition due to attachments and shared components. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The combination of core functional units with variably attached modules increases the number of different complexes and thereby the complexity of the cell. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The anaphase-promoting complex (APC) is an essential ubiquitin ligase that coordinates events in the mitotic and G 1 phases of the cell cycle ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Although some of the key cell cycle regulators promoting quiescence in these contexts overlap [e.g. (biologists.org)