A group of phosphate minerals that includes ten mineral species and has the general formula X5(YO4)3Z, where X is usually calcium or lead, Y is phosphorus or arsenic, and Z is chlorine, fluorine, or OH-. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.
The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.
Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.
A group of compounds with the general formula M10(PO4)6(OH)2, where M is barium, strontium, or calcium. The compounds are the principal mineral in phosphorite deposits, biological tissue, human bones, and teeth. They are also used as an anticaking agent and polymer catalysts. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Materials fabricated by BIOMIMETICS techniques, i.e., based on natural processes found in biological systems.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
A major dental enamel-forming protein found in mammals. In humans the protein is encoded by GENES found on both the X CHROMOSOME and the Y CHROMOSOME.
Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.
Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
A secreted matrix metalloproteinase that is the predominant proteolytic activity in the enamel matrix. The enzyme has a high specificity for dental enamel matrix protein AMELOGENIN.
Therapeutic technique for replacement of minerals in partially decalcified teeth.
The elaboration of dental enamel by ameloblasts, beginning with its participation in the formation of the dentino-enamel junction to the production of the matrix for the enamel prisms and interprismatic substance. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992).
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The study of the energy of electrons ejected from matter by the photoelectric effect, i.e., as a direct result of absorption of energy from electromagnetic radiation. As the energies of the electrons are characteristic of a specific element, the measurement of the energy of these electrons is a technique used to determine the chemical composition of surfaces.
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The spectrometric analysis of fluorescent X-RAYS, i.e. X-rays emitted after bombarding matter with high energy particles such as PROTONS; ELECTRONS; or higher energy X-rays. Identification of ELEMENTS by this technique is based on the specific type of X-rays that are emitted which are characteristic of the specific elements in the material being analyzed. The characteristic X-rays are distinguished and/or quantified by either wavelength dispersive or energy dispersive methods.
Products made by baking or firing nonmetallic minerals (clay and similar materials). In making dental restorations or parts of restorations the material is fused porcelain. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
The process whereby calcium salts are deposited in the dental enamel. The process is normal in the development of bones and teeth. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p43)
Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.
Biocompatible materials usually used in dental and bone implants that enhance biologic fixation, thereby increasing the bond strength between the coated material and bone, and minimize possible biological effects that may result from the implant itself.
Stones in the KIDNEY, usually formed in the urine-collecting area of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS). Their sizes vary and most contains CALCIUM OXALATE.
A hard thin translucent layer of calcified substance which envelops and protects the dentin of the crown of the tooth. It is the hardest substance in the body and is almost entirely composed of calcium salts. Under the microscope, it is composed of thin rods (enamel prisms) held together by cementing substance, and surrounded by an enamel sheath. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Liquid components of living organisms.
A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
Physical reactions involved in the formation of or changes in the structure of atoms and molecules and their interactions.
The hard portion of the tooth surrounding the pulp, covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root, which is harder and denser than bone but softer than enamel, and is thus readily abraded when left unprotected. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
Materials applied to fabrics, bedding, furniture, plastics, etc. to retard their burning; many may leach out and cause allergies or other harm.
Materials used in the production of dental bases, restorations, impressions, prostheses, etc.
Substances used in biomedicine or dentistry predominantly for their physical, as opposed to chemical, properties.
An alloy used in restorative dentistry that contains mercury, silver, tin, copper, and possibly zinc.
Agents used to occlude dental enamel pits and fissures in the prevention of dental caries.
Synthetic resins, containing an inert filler, that are widely used in dentistry.

Dentinal tubule occlusion with lanthanum fluoride and powdered apatite glass ceramics in vitro. (1/221)

To simulate hypersensitive dentin, the smear layer and dentinal plugs of bovine root dentin specimens were removed by immersion in 10% phosphoric acid, polishing with hydroxyapatite particles, and ultrasonic cleansing. The fluoride-tannic acid-lanthanum-apatite (FTLA) group was treated with acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) containing tannic acid followed by rubbing with a paste of lanthanum chloride (LaCl3) and powdered apatite glass ceramics. The treated specimens were immersed in a remineralizing solution that mimics saliva for 6 weeks. The SEM observations revealed that the treated surfaces of the FTLA group were completely covered with fine spherical compounds and the dentinal tubules were occluded with plugs to a depth of about 3 microns. Fluoride and lanthanum were detected to a depth of over 20 microns by EPMA observation. After the remineralization, the surface of FTLA-treated specimen did not have any opened tubules and showed a remarkable increase in the number of fine spherical deposits in the dentinal tubules. These results suggest that the reaction products produced by sequential treatment with acidic fluoride and LaCl3 and powdered apatite glass ceramics are able to effectively occlude dentinal tubules.  (+info)

Reversible suppression of in vitro biomineralization by activation of protein kinase A. (2/221)

Parathyroid hormone (PTH-(1-34)) potently suppresses apatite deposition in osteoblastic cultures. These inhibitory effects are mediated through signaling events following PTH receptor binding. Using both selective inhibitors and activators of protein kinase A (PKA), this study shows that a transient activation of PKA is sufficient to account for PTH's inhibition of apatite deposition. This inhibition is not a result of reduced cell proliferation, reduced alkaline phosphatase activity, increased collagenase production, or lowering medium pH. Rather, data suggest a functional relationship between matrix assembly and apatite deposition in vitro. Bone sialoprotein (BSP) and apatite co-localize in the extracellular matrix of mineralizing cultures, with matrix deposition of BSP temporally preceding that of apatite. Transient activation of PKA by either PTH-(1-34) or short term cAMP analog treatment blocks the deposition of BSP in the extracellular matrix without a significant reduction in the total amount of BSP synthesized and secreted. This effect is reversible after allowing the cultures to recover in the absence of PKA activators for several days. Thus, a transient activation of PKA may suppress mineral deposition in vitro as a consequence of altering the assembly of an extracellular matrix permissive for apatite formation.  (+info)

Porous apatite-wollastonite glass-ceramic as an intramedullary plug. (3/221)

We evaluated the efficacy and biocompatibility of porous apatite-wollastonite glass ceramic (AW-GC) as an intramedullary plug in total hip replacement (THR) for up to two years in 22 adult beagle dogs. Cylindrical porous AW-GC rods (70% porosity, mean pore size 200 microm) were prepared. Four dogs were killed at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months each and six at 24 months after implantation. Radiological evaluation confirmed the efficacy of porous AW-CG as an intramedullary plug. Histological evaluation showed osteoconduction at one month and resorption of the porous AW-GC, which was replaced by newly-formed bone, at 24 months. Our findings indicate that porous AW-GC can be used clinically as an intramedullary plug in THR.  (+info)

A bone replaceable artificial bone substitute: morphological and physiochemical characterizations. (4/221)

A composite material consisting of carbonate apatite (CAp) and type I atelocollagen (AtCol) (88/12 in wt/wt%) was designed for use as an artificial bone substitute. CAp was synthesized at 58 degrees C by a solution-precipitation method and then heated at either 980 degrees C or 1,200 degrees C. In this study, type I AtCol was purified from bovine tail skins. A CAp-AtCol mixture was prepared by centirfugation and condensed into composite rods or disks. The scanning electron-microscopic (SEM) characterization indicated that the CAp synthesized at 58 degrees C displayed a crystallinity similar to that of natural bone and had a high porosity (mean pore size: about 3-10 microns in diameter). SEM also revealed that the CAp heated at 980 degrees C was more porous than that sintered at 1,200 degrees C, and the 1,200 degrees C-heated particles were more uniformly encapsulated by the AtCol fibers than the 980 degrees C-heated ones. A Fourier transformed-infrared spectroscopic analysis showed that the bands characteristic of carbonate ions were clearly observed in the 58 degrees C-synthesized CAp. To enhance the intramolecular cross-linking between the collagen molecules, CAp-AtCol composites were irradiated by ultraviolet (UV) ray (wave length 254 nm) for 4 hours or vacuum-dried at 150 degrees C for 2 hours. Compared to the non cross-linked composites, the UV-irradiated or dehydrothermally cross-linked composites showed significantly (p < 0.05) low collagen degradation and swelling ratio. Preliminary mechanical data demonstrated that the compressive strengths of the CAp-AtCol composites were higher than the values reported for bone.  (+info)

Augmentation of (pedicle) screws with calcium apatite cement in patients with severe progressive osteoporotic spinal deformities: an innovative technique. (5/221)

Screw augmentation with calcium apatite cement (CAC) was used in seven patients with a progressive osteoporotic spinal deformity. Thirty-nine spinal segments (64 screws) were augmented: 15 anteriorly (three patients) and 24 posteriorly (five patients). Dorsally, hemilaminectomy was performed at the level of all augmented screws to rule out CAC leakage. Autogenous bone graft was applied in all patients to induce fusion. Screw augmentation failure occurred in only one patient: 1 of the 16 ventral augmented screws (5.5%) was still loose after the augmentation procedure. In three other patients, 4 out of 48 augmented dorsal screws (5.5%) showed CAC leakage at the pedicle corpus vertebra level. Pedicle wall damage was present at two levels, while at two other levels no wall damage was found during visualization. No CAC-related complications were observed perioperatively. No implant migration was observed, and fusion was observed in all cases at follow-up examination performed at a mean of 32 months after surgery.  (+info)

Calcification of rachitic rat cartilage in vitro by extracellular matrix vesicles. (6/221)

Growth plate cartilage from rachitic rats was studied to assess the role in calcification of extracellular matrix vesicles, which are thought to participate in the initial stage of mineralization of connective tissue. The concentration of matrix vesicles and their distribution within the longitudinal septa was found to be normal in rats made rachitic by feeding by a diet low in vitamin D and phosphate for 3 weeks after weaning. Rachitic cartilage matrix did not contain circumvesicular clusters of apatite as does normal cartilage; however, occasional vesicles did enclose one or a few apatite needles. When slices of rachitic cartilage were incubated at 37 C in a metastable calcium phosphate solution ([Ca++] times [PO SEE ARTICLE] equals 3.5 mM identical to 2), apatite formation was initiated in association with matrix vesicles. Under these conditions, mineralization was prominent in the upper hypertrophic cartilage, where matrix vesicles became encrusted with apatite after only 2 to 3 hours of incubation. Vesicular apatite accumulation was inhibited by preheating the cartilage to 60 C for 30 minutes. Measurements of 45Ca uptake by rachitic cartilage slices from metastable calcium phosphates solution also indicated inhibition of calcification by heat. Light microscopic autoradiographs showed 45Ca localization primarily in the matrix of longitudinal septa and substantiated the inhibition site of mineralization in healing rachitic cartilage. The presence of apatite within rachitic vesicles prior to heating and the inhibition of vesicle calcification by heat suggests an active, enzymatically and mediated mechanism of vesicular calcification.  (+info)

Modification of electrochemically deposited apatite using supercritical water. (7/221)

Supercritical water was used as a modification method of electrochemically deposited apatite on pure titanium. The apatites were coated on a commercially pure titanium plate using a hydrothermal-electrochemical method. A constant direct current at 12.5 mA/cm2 was loaded for 1 hr at 25, 60, 100, 150 and 200 degrees C in an electrolyte containing calcium and phosphate ions. The deposited apatite on the titanium substrate was stored in supercritical water at 450 degrees C under 45 MPa for 8 hr. With this treatment, the crystallinity of the apatites increased, sharp edges of the deposited apatites were rounded off, and the bonding strength of the titanium substrate to the deposited apatites significantly increased. On the other hand, weight loss in 0.01 N HCl decreased and the weight gain rate in a simulated body fluid also decreased with this treatment. It is suggested that the modification using supercritical water improved the mechanical strength of the deposited apatite, but worsened its bioactivity.  (+info)

Calcium apatite crystals in synovial fluid rice bodies. (8/221)

BACKGROUND: Rice bodies can occur in the joints in many rheumatic conditions, but they are most common in rheumatoid arthritis. They are generally believed to occur rarely in patients with osteoarthritis, but one study reported rice bodies with apatite crystals. OBJECTIVE: To report on a series of joint fluids with rice bodies containing apatite clumps and examine their clinical pictures. METHODS: All synovial fluid analysis reports for 10 years were reviewed for rice bodies and eight patients were reported on. A series of patients with a variety of diseases with synovial fluid rice bodies found to contain calcific material is described. All were examined by compensated polarised light and alizarin red stain, and four were examined by electron microscopy. RESULTS: The eight patients all had alizarin red S chunks embedded throughout the rice body. Transmission electron microscopy disclosed the presence of a matrix of collagen, fibrin, and amorphous materials containing typical apatite crystals. Clinical diagnoses, radiographic findings, and leucocyte counts varied, but six of the eight patients had had previous repeated corticosteroid injections into the joints. CONCLUSION: Aggregates of apatites may be more common than previously recognised in rice bodies as they are not routinely sought. Whether they are a result of joint damage or depot steroid injections and whether that might contribute to further joint injury now needs to be investigated.  (+info)

Synonyms for fluorapatite crystal in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for fluorapatite crystal. 4 words related to fluorapatite: atomic number 9, fluorine, F, apatite. What are synonyms for fluorapatite crystal?
Apatite crystals from two types of samples were analyzed by electron microprobe for 15 major and trace elements: (1) apatite in H2O- and S-saturated experimental charges of the 1982 El Chicho??n trachyandesite and (2) apatite in volcanic rocks erupted from 20 volcanoes. The SO3 contents of the experimental apatite increase with increasing oxygen fugacity (fo2), from ???0.04 wt% in reduced charges buffered by fayalite-magnetite-quartz (FMQ), to 1.0-2.6 wt% in oxidized charges buffered by manganosite-hausmanite (MNH) or magnetite-hematite (MTH). The SO3 contents of MNH- and MTH-buffered apatite also generally increase with increasing pressure from 2 to 4 kbar and decreasing temperature from 950 to 800??C. The partition coefficient for SO3 between apatite and oxidized melt increases with decreasing temperature but appears to be independent of pressure. Apatites in volcanic rocks show a wide range of SO3 contents (|0.04 to 0.63 wt%). Our sample set includes one group known to contain primary...
A biodegradable polymer with surface properties that promotes cell attachment and host integration is widely recognized as a useful three-dimensional construct for bone tissue engineering applications. In this work, studies were carried out to correlate surface properties of modified polycaprolactone (PCL) films with cell-material interactions. PCL film substrates were subjected to various degrees of chemical hydrolysis using different pretreatment solutions to introduce different densities of carboxylate groups onto the surfaces. The extent of hydrolysis on the films was optimized to allow the deposition of a dense and uniform bone-like apatite layer by an alternate soak treatment, followed by subsequent incubation in simulated body fluid (SBF). The hydrolyzed and apatite-coated PCL films were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, thin film X-ray diffractometer (TF-XRD), water contact angle, and Alizarin red staining. Surface wettability, roughness, and chemistry of various PCL ...
Read Appearance of cell-adhesion factor in osteoblast proliferation and differentiation of apatite coating titanium by blast coating method, Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
phosphorus apatite mining How is apatite mined? Yahoo Answers- phosphorus apatite mining ,, The primary method of mining and exploration of phosphate rock is surface mining Surface mining consists of clearing the site of brush, initial removal of topsoil and overburden, ore removal, and reclamation To keep mining .Apatite: The mineral apatite .... FreeChat ...
The goal of this study was the preparation, physicochemical characterization, and microbiological evaluation of novel hydroxyapatite doped with silver/polydimethylsiloxane (Ag:HAp-PDMS) composite layers. In the first stage, the deposition of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer layer on commercially pure Si disks has been produced in atmospheric pressure corona discharges. Finally, the new silver doped hydroxyapatite/polydimethylsiloxane composite layer has been obtained by the thermal evaporation technique. The Ag:HAp-PDMS composite layers were characterized by various techniques, such as Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectroscopy (GDOES), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The antimicrobial activity of the Ag:HAp-PDMS composite layer was assessed against |i|Candida albicans|/i| ATCC 10231 (ATCC—American Type Culture Collection) by culture based and confirmed by SEM and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) methods. This is the first study
An apatite coated article comprising a substrate having thereon an apatite layer which is formed by flame spraying apatite powder at from about 2,000 to 4,000 C., and a process for producing such an apatite coated article.
Apatite based glass-ceramics are some of the most bioactive materials found to date. They do not require fibrous encapsulation and bond to bone directly through an apatite layer. Apatite based glass-ceramics exhibit relatively poor biaxial flexural strength, hence limiting their applications to non-load bearing implants. The addition of mica results in a material that is highly machinable, and provided that a suitable interlocking microstructure can be produced, the strength will be increased. The aim of this work is to investigate how altering the heat treatment affects the crystallisation and the final mechanical properties of three different compositions of glass-ceramic. The glass system studied is the ternary glass system; barium fluorphlogopite (Bao.sMgafSiaAlOiojFz), fluorapatite (CaiofPO^eFz) and cordierite (MgzAUSisOis). The three compositions differ by the mol% of fluorapatite forming feedstock in the precursor glass. Glass-ceramics formed by heat-treating a glassy precursor are ...
An adherent bioactive calcium phosphate coating is formed on a titanium or titanium alloy substrate by immersing the substrate in an acidic calcium phosphate solution to form a non-apatitic calcium phosphate coating on the substrate. In a second step the coated substrate can be converted to a less reactive coating by being immersed into a basic or neutral solution to convert the coating into an apatite. However if a relatively reactive coating is desired, the second step can be dispensed with.
Tram, N. X. T., Maruta, M., Tsuru, K., Matsuya, S. and Ishikawa, K. (2013) Hydrothermal Conversion of Calcite Foam to Carbonate Apatite, in Advances in Bioceramics and Porous Ceramics VI (eds R. Narayan, P. Colombo, S. Kirihara and S. Widjaja), John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA. doi: 10.1002/9781118807811.ch5 ...
This splendid gemstone cuff bracelet is carefully handmade with natural blue Apatite crystals. It is adjustable to your wrist size. Available in gold, rose gold and silver. Blue Apatite is a motivational stone, promoting independence and ambitiousness. A stone of the Throat Chakra, Blue Apatite helps with public speaki
A simulated body fluid (SBF) is a solution with an ion concentration close to that of human blood plasma, kept under mild conditions of pH and identical physiological temperature. SBF was first introduced by Kokubo et al. in order to evaluate the changes on a surface of a bioactive glass ceramic. Later, cell culture medium (such as DMEM, MEM, α-MEM, etc.), in combination with some methodologies adopted in cell culture, was suggested as an alternative to conventional SBF in assessing the bioactivity of materials. For an artificial material to bond to living bone, the formation of bonelike apatite layer on the surface of an implant is of significant importance. The SBF can be used as an in vitro testing method to study the formation of apatite layer on the surface of implants so as to predict their in vivo bone bioactivity. The consumption of calcium and phosphate ions, present in the SBF solution, results in the spontaneous growth of bone-like apatite nuclei on the surface of biomaterials in ...
The substitution of sulfate in apatite is of potential importance in synthetic biomaterials used in bone repair and reconstruction. The counter ion (e.g., Na+, K+, Mg2+, Sr2+) in the sulfate reagent may also be used as a source of medically beneficial ions. An understanding of the structural parameters controlling sulfate substitution is also important in expanding our knowledge beyond the substitution of carbonate in apatites.. The incorporation of sulfate in calcium and strontium hydroxylapatites, prepared in aqueous solution at pH 9, was verified by combustion analysis of sulfate, infrared and Raman spectroscopy, and by determination of unit-cell parameters. Sulfate could not be incorporated into barium hydroxylapatite because of the preferential formation of BaSO4.. The amount of sulfate substituted in the apatite was affected by the mole ratio of sulfate to phosphate in the reaction mixture and by the nature of the counter ion in the sulfate reagent. When sodium is the counter ion in the ...
Apatite inclusions have been identified in several primary minerals, and their abundance and morphology have been described. A comparison of several methods used for the determination of total P in soils showed that Na₂CO₃ fusion is the most reliable method for samples which contain apatite inclusions and that the effectiveness of extraction was usually in the order: Na₂CO₃ fusion , HF digestion , HClO₄ digestion , N H₂SO₄ extraction following ignition. Included apatite was identified using a petrological microscope in residues after digestion with 60% HClO₄. This form was also extracted much ...
The name apatite comes from the Greek word apate, which means, "to deceive." It could be said apatite had been deceived into allowing itself to be confused with some of the more valuable gems such as tourmaline, olivine, peridot, topaz and beryl. For crystal healers, apatite is a gemstone to clear away the fog left by negative and toxic emotions, letting the chakra pathways to flow more freely. Sizes, shapes and colors may vary with handcrafted items.
A new model for examining fission-track data from natural specimens has been developed on the basis of new laboratory data describing fission-track annealing in a wide variety of apatites and the empirical correction for fission-track length anisotropy presented in earlier papers. Using revised and simplified statistical methods, we examine how well various empirical equations are able to fit the laboratory data and reproduce expected behavior on geological time scales. Based on the latter criterion, we find that so-called fanning Arrhenius models of mean track length are not the best-suited for our data. Instead, we find that fitting c-axis projected lengths with a model that incorporates some curvature on an Arrhenius plot produces results that are in better agreement with the available geological benchmarks. In examining the relative annealing behavior of apatites with different resistance to annealing, we find that the laboratory-time-scale behavior of any two apatites can be reproduced ...
The Yellow Apatite can help to stimulate your mind and can help you to have more prosperity. This stone can help you to lose weight and can help you to manifest things into your life.. If you need to have more willpower, this is a great stone to use and can help you to be more confident. The stone is part of the fire element and can give you clear thinking.. Meaning of Apatite. This stone is found in Mexico, Norway, Russia, Brazil, Canada and the USA and is a hexagonal crystal.. The name of this stone comes from the Greek word, Apatao which means deceiving. This stone can help you, but it is often mistaken for other stones because of the coloring of it. It can come in green, yellow and other colors and is a prismatic or massive crystal.. Why Use It?. This stone is a good stone if you want to have a good vibration and if you want to have the yellow ray following you.. This stone can give you clarity in your mind and increase your will and confidence. The stone can work with your sacral chakra ...
Complete Bone Nutrition Purity-Certified MCHC with Boron Cal Apatite with Boron is the same formula as original Cal Apatite , but with added boron. Boron may play a role in maintaining healthy calcium balance possibly through involvement in estrogen and vitamin D metabolism. THREE TABLETS SUPPLY: Microcrystalline Hydroxyapatite Concentrate (MCHC) 1,500 mg Calcium (as MCHC and dicalcium phosphate) 626 mg Phosphorus (as MCHC and dicalcium phosphate) 398 mg Boron (as boron citrate) 300 mcg Recommendations: Up to six tablets daily. Form: 270 Tablet Bottle Microcrystalline hydroxyapatite concentrate supplies calcium, phosphorus, and trace quantities of other minerals.
Liu J, Wang X, Jin Q, Jin T, Chang S, Zhang Z, Czajka-Jakubowska A, Giannobile W, Nör J, Clarkson BH. The stiulation of adipose-derived stem cell differentiation and mineralization by ordered rod-like fluorapatite coatings. Biomaterials 2012; 33(20): 5036-5046.. Liu J, Jin TC, Chang S, Czajka-Jakubowska A, Clarkson BH. Adhesion and growth of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) on enamel-like fluorapatite (FA) surfaces. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2011; 98 (3): 528-34. Liu J, Jin TC, Chang S, Czajka-Jakubowska A, Zhang Z, Nör J, Clarkson BH. The effect of novel fluorapatite (FA) surfaces on osteoblast-like cell adhesion, growth and mineralization. Tissue Eng Part A. 2010; 16(9):2977-86.. Clarkson BH and Roger JM. Dental Education turned upside down. J Dent Res 2010; 89:106-107.. Czajka-Jakubowska AE, Liu J, Chang SR, Clarkson BH. The effect of the surface characteristics of various substrates on fluorapatite crystal growth, alignment, and spatial orientation. Med Sci Monit. 2009; 15(6):84-8.. ...
Cal Apatite Chewable is a comprehensive bone support formula featuring the same calcium-rich MCHC contained in original Cal Apatite, but with other bone-nourishing nutrients including magnesium, zinc, copper, manganese, and vitamin D. Provides mineral amino acid chelates designed for enhanced absorption and intestinal tolerance. Perfect choice for individuals who do not like to swallow tablets and capsules. Great-tasting Natural Chocolate flavor. Three tablets supply: Calories ................................................................................................ 24 Total Carbohydrate ................................................................................ 6 g Sugar Alcohol .................................................................................. 1 g Vitamin D (as cholecalciferol) ............................................................ 75 IU Calcium (as MCHC and dicalcium phosphate) ................................ 300 mg Phosphorus (as MCHC and dicalcium
Cal Apatite Bone Builder with Magnesium -by Metagenics 180 count Supports normal bone function. Get a Free 15 Minute Consultation with purchase.
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CENOZOIC TECTONIC EVOLUTION OF THE EASTERN ALPS - A RECONSTRUCTION BASED ON 40AR/39AR WHITE MICA, ZIRCON AND APATITE FISSION TRACK, AND APATITE (U/Th)-He THERMOCHRONOLOGY
Apatite is a grounding and protective crystal that clears confusion + negativity while cleansing the Aura and expanding your knowledge, intellect, truth + wisdom. It increases self power, intuition + motivation and assists with personal growth. Apatite helps eliminate over-activity, under-activity, blockages and conges
Single-phase ceramic samples of silicate apatites M2Ln8(SiO4)6O2 (M = Mg, Ca, Sr; Ln = Y, La) undoped and doped with Eu3+, Ce3+, or Mn2+ ions were obtained by the high-temperature solid-state reaction technique using precursors synthesized under hydrothermal conditions. The phosphors were characterized by XRD analysis, Raman spectroscopy, and steady-state/time-resolved and site-selective photoluminescence spectroscopy under blue-to-VUV excitation. It is shown that the small-radius Mg2+ ions, which can occupy two types of suitable sites in the apatite structure, strongly influence luminescence properties of apatites, in particular the distribution of Eu3+ ions between these sites. A bright broad-band yellow emission (peaked at 560 nm with t , 1 ms) was obtained from the Mg2La8(SiO4)6O2:Eu apatite after annealing it in a H2(15%)/Ar reducing atmosphere. This emission is due to 5d-4f transitions of Eu2+ and is efficiently excited by near UV-to-blue light (300-450 nm). Silicate apatites co-doped with ...
Mesoporous materials are of high interest as implant coatings to receive an enhanced osseointegration. In this study, titanium implants coated with mesoporous TiO(2) thin films have been evaluated both in vitro and in vivo. Material characterization showed that, with partly crystalline TiO(2) (anatase), long-range-ordered hydrophilic mesoporous thin films with a pore size of 6nm were obtained. Evaluation of the mechanical resistance showed that the films were robust enough to withstand the standard implantation procedure. In vitro apatite formation was studied using simulated body fluids, showing that the pores are accessible for ions and that formation of apatite was increased due to the presence of the mesopores. An in vivo study using a rabbit model was executed in which the removal torque and histomorphometry were evaluated. The results show that the biomechanical stability of the TiO(2) coating was unaffected by the presence of mesopores and that osseointegration was achieved without any signs of
Page contains details about Ta-Al composite layer . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
For example, carbonate apatite - a primary constituent of both skeletal bones and dentition in vertebrates - is incorporated into organisms through diet and water uptake. Some conservationists use the isotopic signatures recovered from this apatite to better decipher the life histories of contemporary species in expectation of aiding in their continued preservation. As a case in point, remains from the worlds largest cavefish (Milyeringa veritas) have been used by Australian conservationists to better examine and comprehend the environment and ecosystem inhabited by the fish. The cavefish resides in deep water columns that are rich in dissolved limestone. Due to relative densities and variable solubility, different depths in the water column are correlated to specific concentrations of dissolved materials. By examining the isotopic signatures of the cavefishs skeletal apatite, conservationists were able to discover the exact depth the fish occupies ...
Nowadays, titanium-based alloys are among the most attractive metallic materials for biomedical applications (as implants) due to their non-biodegradability, low density, good mechanical properties as well as their good biocompatibility. Hydroxyapatite (Ca10 (PO4)6(OH)2, HA) has been widely used for biomedical applications due to its bioactive, biocompatible and osteoconductive properties. Firstly, Ti-6Al-4V alloy was synthesized by mechanical alloy method with high energy ball milling plantery, HEBM. And then in this work began with preparing hydroxyapatite, HA, from bovine bones and continued with composite in nano clay powder .At the end a hydroxyapatite-clay (HA/Clay) nanocomposite ceramic, 80 wt.% of HA and 20 wt.% nano clay powder, was synthesized through a mechanical method , HEBM. The ability of apatite formation on the produced nanocomposite samples, as a yardstick for evaluation of the bioactivity, was estimated by using simulated body fluid. According to the results obtained mechanical and
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Blue Apatite ranges in color from light teal to blue to bright blue to dark blue to green. It can be easily confused with other minerals due to its variety of colors and formations, and its name is derived from the Greek
There is an impending need for alternatives to traditional antibiotics as bacterial strains become increasingly resistant. In the United States alone, the CDC estimates approximately 2 million people are affected by antibiotic resistant bacteria per year, resulting in 23,000 deaths. As an alternative to traditional antibiotics, viruses that specifically target and kill bacteria have been used to treat human bacterial infection. In this work, a treatment delivery system was created for iron-doped apatite nanoparticles (IDANPs) which significantly enhance bacterial killing by these viruses (bacteriophage or phage). This effect has been demonstrated across gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial species as well as with the use of phage of various tail morphology and genetic material. IDANPs must be prepared under specific conditions (25-45 °C, with 30 % iron-doping, and 5.5 mM citrate) in order to cause these significant increases in bacterial death. The synthesis parameters used during IDANP synthesis
Apatite Silver Pendant - an offer from Rocks & Co. for an unbelievably low price. Direct from the mine-to-market manufacturer, needless to say inclusive of a detailed authenticity guarantee certificate.
Titanium, zirconium and TiZr binary alloy were fabricated using a powder metallurgical method. Appropriate surface modifying techniques were conducted on the metals to render an ability for apatite formation. Their biocompatibility has also been assessed. These materials showed potential for biomedical applications because of their excellent bioactivity and biocompatibility which may improve bonding of the implants to juxtaposed bone ...
ACTIVA BioACTIVE-CEMENT is the latest offering in Pulpdents line of bioactive products. Indicated for indirect applications, the cement stimulates mineral apatite formation at the material-tooth interface. This natural remineralization process knits together the restoration and the tooth, penetrates and fills micro-cracks, reduces sensitivity, guards against recurrent caries, and seals margins against microleakage and failure. ( disclaimer ) ...
Rock Phosphate or Phosphate rock is a non-detrital sedimentary rock which contains high amounts of phosphate bearing minerals. The phosphate content of phosphorite is at least 15 to 20%, which is a large enrichment over the typical sedimentary rock content of less than 0.2%. The phosphate is present as fluorapatite Ca5(PO4)3F (CFA) typically in cryptocrystalline masses (grain sizes , 1 μm) referred to as collophane. It is also present as hydroxyapatite Ca5(PO4)3OH, which is often dissolved from vertebrate bones and teeth, whereas fluorapatite can originate from hydrothermal veins. Other sources also include chemically dissolved phosphate minerals from igneous and metamorphic rocks. Phosphorite deposits often occur in extensive layers, which cumulatively cover tens of thousands of square kilometres of the Earths crust.. Limestones and mudstones are common phosphate bearing rocks. Phosphate rich sedimentary rocks can occur in dark brown to black beds, ranging from centimeter sized laminae to ...
Calcium sulfate-bioactive glass (CSBG) composites doped with 5, 10 and 20 mol% Fe were synthesized using quick alkali sol-gel method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) data of samples heated at 700°C revealed the presence of anhydrite, while field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) characterization confirmed the formation of nano-sized CSBGs. The UV-vis studies confirmed that the main iron species in 5% Fe and 10% Fe doped CSBGs were tetrahedral Fe(III) whereas that in 20% Fe doped CSBG were extra-framework FeOx oligomers or iron oxide phases. Measurement of magnetic properties of the samples by vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) showed very narrow hysteresis loop with zero coercivity and remanence for 10% Fe and 20% Fe doped CSBG, indicating that they are superparamagnetic in nature. All samples induced the formation of apatite layer with Ca/P ratio close to the stoichiometric HA in simulated body fluid (SBF) assessment. ...
Highly porous scaffold that provides space for new bone deposition and vascularization (1). • Rough surface facilitates cell adhesion and spread for bone in-growth (1). • High volume fill per unit weight (1). • Carbonate apatite crystalline structure for better oseoconductivity than hydroxyapatite (2,3,4,5). ...
The use of hydroxyapatite (HA) based materials is widely spread in the repair of bone tissue and their great acceptance arises from the close similarity of HA to the mineral phase of bone. In the last years HA has been explored in a new area of application where it, in the form of nanoparticles (NPs), has been used as a carrier for the delivery of drugs and genes inside targeted cells. In spite of the promising results, which have been reported up to day, there are fundamental questions that remain unanswered. The goal of this project is to address one specific aspect: if the addition of doping ions in the formulation of hydroxyapatite NPs affects cell behaviour. For this purpose the first objective was to prepare HA NPs with various types and degree of ion substitution: carbonate (CO3)-, magnesium (Mg)- and CO3-Mg-co-substituted HA NPs. They were prepared via a wet precipitation route involving neutralization of calcium hydroxide with phosphoric acid and were characterised by X-ray diffraction ...
The Northern Norrbotten Ore Province in northernmost Sweden includes the type localities for Kiruna-type apatite iron deposits and has been the focus for intense exploration and research related to Fe oxide-Cu-Au mineralisation during the last decades. Several different types of Fe-oxide and Cu-Au ± Fe oxide mineralisation occur in the region and include: stratiform Cu ± Zn ± Pb ± Fe oxide type, iron formations (including BIFs), Kiruna-type apatite iron ore, and epigenetic Cu ± Au ± Fe oxide type which may be further subdivided into different styles of mineralisation, some of them with typical IOCG (Iron Oxide-Copper-Gold) characteristics. Generally, the formation of Fe oxide ± Cu ± Au mineralisation is directly or indirectly dated between ~ 2.1 and 1.75 Ga, thus spanning about 350 m.y. of geological evolution.The current paper will present in more detail the characteristics of certain key deposits, and aims to put the global concepts of Fe-oxide Cu-Au mineralisations into a regional ...
Arianne Phosphate COO Jean-Sebastien David said: The ministerial decree represents the most significant milestone to date for the project and with it, Arianne now has the permission it needs to go ahead with the development of its proposed $1.2bn phosphate project.. The board and the Arianne team want to thank the Government of Quebec for the confidence they have shown in this project through the issuance of the Decree and, of course, greatly appreciate the support we have received from the municipalities and organisations that have been behind this project.. Arianne is developing the Lac à Paul phosphate deposits 200km north of the Saguenay/Lac St. Jean area of Quebec.. The deposits will produce a quality igneous apatite concentrate grading 39% P2O5 with few contaminants.. On 25 October 2013, the company released the completed feasibility study (FS) of the open-pit mine project.. The FS outlines an open-pit mine, a concentrator producing quality apatite concentrate, in addition to a ...
Rare Earth ElementsNovember 2011C en t re f o r su st ain ab le m in eral d evelo p m en tDefinitions, mineralogy and depositsDefinitions and .... GET MORE INFORMATION ...
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Jan 07, 2018 · Performance Comparison. The Skullcandy Crusher ended up pretty low on the totem pole when we added up all of our testing scores, as you can see in the table above. To learn more about all those different tests and how the Skullcandy Crusher did in each, read on below.. Sound Quality. The Skullcandy Crusher earned a score of 5 out of 10. In our sound quality testing. 5 out of 10 is an .. ...
A mineralogical purview of apatitic biomaterials, J.D. Pasteris. American Mineralogist, 101, 2594-2610 (2016). [DOI: 10.2138/am-2016-5732 buy research papers in india]. Open-Access subjoining (Sedimentation period AM-16-125732) unattached at http://www.minsocam.org/msa/ammin/toc/2016/Dec2016_info/Dec2016_info.html. The congener stabilities of A- and B-type carbonate permutation in apatites synthesized in aqueous answer, C.H. Yoder, N.T. Landes, L.K. Tran, A.K. Smith, and J.D. Pasteris. Mineralogical Magazine, 80, 977-983 (2016). [DOI: 10.1180/minmag.2016.080.035]. Tunability of collagen matrix mechanical properties via multiple modes of mineralization, L. Smith, A. Deymier, J. Boyle, Z. Li, S. Linderman, J. Pasteris. Y. Xia, G. Genin, and S. Thomopoulos. Larboard Direction, 6, 20150070, 12 pp. (2016). [DOI: 10.1098/rsfs.2015.0070]. A mineralogical correct in contrasts: Highly mineralized behemoth ambo and hum enamel, Z. Li, M. Al-Jawad, S. Siddiqui, and J.D. Pasteris. Scientific Reports, ...
Posterior version of the popular Misura instrument. Designed for vertical measuring of thickness of composite layers on posterior restorations. The fork shaped ...
Even the structurally simplest of biological tissues are composite materials: soft tissues are composed of proteins, sugars and water while mineralized (hard) tissues are composed of these components plus a large volume fraction of mineral (a carbonated apatite or dahllite). In mammals the ubiquitous fibrillar protein collagen is the dominant protein present. Due to the composite nature of tissues, there has been considerable recent interest in modeling the structure-properties relationships (particularly in mineralized tissues) in a manner analogous to that used for study of traditional engineering composites.. ...
TY - GEN. T1 - In vitro assessment of osteoblastic differentiation of encapsulated stromal cells in alginate/octacalcium phosphate. AU - Endo, Kosei. AU - Anada, Takahisa. AU - Yamada, Masumi. AU - Seki, Minoru. AU - Sasaki, Keiichi. AU - Suzuki, Osamu. PY - 2015/1/9. Y1 - 2015/1/9. N2 - This study was designed to investigate whether octacalcium phosphate (OCP) in alginate (Alg) composite promotes osteoblastic differentiation of mouse bone marrow stromal ST-2 cells and composite releases the cells outside after incubation. The results suggested that Alg/OCP composite could be a good device for bone tissue engineering.. AB - This study was designed to investigate whether octacalcium phosphate (OCP) in alginate (Alg) composite promotes osteoblastic differentiation of mouse bone marrow stromal ST-2 cells and composite releases the cells outside after incubation. The results suggested that Alg/OCP composite could be a good device for bone tissue engineering.. UR - ...
In order to shed some light on DNA preservation over time in skeletal remains from a physicochemicalviewpoint, adsorption and desorption of DNA on a well characterized synthetic apatite mimicking boneand dentin biominerals were studied. Batch adsorption experiments have been carried out to determinethe effect of contact time (kinetics), DNA concentration (isotherms) and environmentally relevant factorssuch as temperature, ionic strength and pH on the adsorption behavior. The analogy of the nanocrystallinecarbonated apatite used in this work with biological apatite was first demonstrated by XRD, FTIR, andchemical analyses. Then, DNA adsorption kinetics was fitted with the pseudo-first order, pseudo-secondorder, Elovich, Ritchie and double exponential models. The best results were achieved with the Elovichkinetic model. The adsorption isotherms of partially sheared calf thymus DNA conformed satisfacto-rily to Temkins equation which is often used to describe heterogeneous adsorption behavior ...
To better understand the relationship between intracellular and extracellular mineralization, the authors performed a sample-preparation method that preserved m
Basic calcium phosphate (BCP) crystals, including hydroxyapatite, octacalcium phosphate (OCP) and carbonate-apatite, have been associated with severe osteoarthritis and several degenerative arthropathies. Most studies have considered the chondrocyte to be a bystander in the pathogenesis of calcium crystal deposition disease, assuming that synovial cell cytokines were the only triggers of chondrocyte activation. In the present study we identified direct activation of articular chondrocytes by OCP crystals, which are the BCP crystals with the greatest potential for inducing inflammation. OCP crystals induced nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS) mRNA expression by isolated articular chondrocytes and cartilage fragments, in a dose-dependent manner and with variations over time. OCP crystals also induced IL-1beta mRNA expression. Using pharmacological and cytokine inhibitors, we observed that OCP crystals induced NO production and inducible NOS mRNA activation were regulated
Cal Apatite with Magnesium is the same formula as original Cal Apatite, but with the addition of 300 mg of magnesium per serving. Magnesium plays important roles in bone metabolism, with over one-half of the total body stores of magnesium found in bone tissue. Provides a 2:1 calcium to magnesium ratio. Magnesium is provided as a blend of bis-glycinate, citrate, and aspartate designed for enhanced absorption. Does not contain magnesium oxide. Three tablets supply: Calcium (as MCHC and dicalcium phosphate) ................................ 600 mg Phosphorus (as MCHC and dicalcium phosphate) .......................... 378 mg Magnesium (as magnesium citrate, aspartate, and bis-glycinate) .... 300 mg Microcrystalline Hydroxyapatite Concentrate (MCHC) .................. 1,500 mg Other Ingredients: Microcrystalline cellulose, croscarmellose sodium, sodium starch glycolate, cellulose, stearic acid, silica, and coating (deionized water, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethelene glycol, and
A dental material based on an organic polymerisable binding agent has a content of A) one or more mixed apatites of the type A1) A10 (XO4)6 Z2 +/B*10-u C*u (Y*)6 Z2 and/or A2) A10-r (XO4)6-s Z2-t +/Br (Y)s Qt -B10-u Cu (Y)6 Z2 and/or A3) A10-r (XO4)6-s Z2-t +/Ar (XO4)s +/B10-u Cu (Y)6 Z2 in which the formulae assume the significance specified in the description, in a quantity that is effective for the absorption of ions from the biological application environment of the dental material. The polymerisable dental material has variably adjustable transparency, good polishability, high strength and the capacity to release and absorb ions into and from a biological environment. Also described is a process for using the mixed apatites A1), A2) and/or A3) in polymerisable dental materials.
Following an evaluation of potential strontium-90 (90Sr) treatment technologies and their applicability under 100-NR-2 hydrogeologic conditions, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Fluor Hanford, Inc. (now CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company [CHPRC]), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that the long-term strategy for groundwater remediation at the 100-N Area should include apatite as the primary treatment technology. This agreement was based on results from an evaluation of remedial alternatives that identified the apatite permeable reactive barrier (PRB) technology as the approach showing the greatest promise for reducing 90Sr flux to the Columbia River at a reasonable cost. This letter report documents work completed to date on development of a high-concentration amendment formulation and initial field-scale testing of this amendment solution.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Fibronectin-calcium phosphate composite layer on hydroxyapatite to enhance adhesion, cell spread and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells in vitro. AU - Sogo, Yu. AU - Ito, Atsuo. AU - Matsuno, Tomonori. AU - Oyane, Ayako. AU - Tamazawa, Gaku. AU - Satoh, Tazuko. AU - Yamazaki, Atsushi. AU - Uchimura, Eiji. AU - Ohno, Tadao. PY - 2007/6/1. Y1 - 2007/6/1. N2 - Fibronectin (Fn) and type I collagen (Col) were immobilized on a surface of a hydroxyapatite (HAP) ceramic by coprecipitation with calcium phosphate in a supersaturated calcium phosphate solution prepared by mixing clinically approved infusion fluids. These proteins and the calcium phosphate precipitate formed a composite surface layer. As a result, the proteins were immobilized firmly as not to be released completely for 3 d in a physiological salt solution. When human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were cultured on a HAP ceramic in a differentiation medium supplemented with dexamethasone, ...
There is disclosed a bone substitute material for medical use which satisfies all the requirements of (1) no histotoxicity, (2) osteoconductivity, (3) bone replacement capability, and (4) mechanical strength necessary for a bone reconstruction operation. The bone substitute material for medical use is predominantly composed of carbonate apatite and produced through the formation of carbonate apatite by contacting a block of calcium compound with a phosphate-containing solution, wherein the calcium compound block contains substantially no powders, and at least one of said calcium compound block and said phosphate solution contains a carbonate group, without any sintering. The block of calcium compound is preferably one prepared using an artificially synthesized calcium compound, most preferably a foamed calcium compound.
Copyright 2012 by Brandon Whitman. This material is copyrighted and any further reproduction or distribution is prohibited without the permission of the copyright owner ...
Copyright 2012 by Brandon Whitman. This material is copyrighted and any further reproduction or distribution is prohibited without the permission of the copyright owner ...
We have small manganese mineral powder dryer in uganda,Apatite Most of the pegmatites contain small amounts of apatite The refractive indices of 28 apatite specimens from 17 pegmatites in Rhodesia and two in Kigezi Uganda show a limited variation u 16331649 determinations mainly • indicating that fluor apatite is the main variety present
Pretty earrings made with Apatite chip beads and sterling silver. These earrings dangle approx. 40mm long from the top of sterling silver earwires. All Charms Of Light Healing Jewellery is Reiki...
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The amount of water present in the moon may have been overestimated by scientists studying the mineral apatite, says a team of researchers led by Jeremy Boyce of the UCLA Department of Earth, Planetary and Space Sciences.. Boyce and his colleagues created a computer model to accurately predict how apatite would have crystallized from cooling bodies of lunar magma early in the moons history. Their simulations revealed that the unusually hydrogen-rich apatite crystals observed in many lunar rock samples may not have formed within a water-rich environment, as was originally expected ...
My study focuses on quantifying and modeling the transport of contaminants from sediments to the water column and on investigating the effectiveness of active capping as a mitigation strategy to minimize the release of these contaminants. Active capping both isolates contaminated sediments from the water phase while offering degradation and/or sequestration of contaminants by the active materials. I modeled the transport of Cd, Cr, Pb, Ag, As, Ba, Hg, CH3Hg and CN through sand (25 cm), granular activated carbon (GAC, 2 cm), organoclay (2 cm), shredded tires (10 cm) and apatite (2 cm) caps by deterministic and Monte Carlo methods. Sand caps performed best under diffusion due to the greater diffusive path length. Apatite had the best advective performance for Cd, Cr and Pb. Organoclay performed best for Ag, As, Ba, CH3Hg and CN. Organoclay and apatite were equally effective for Hg. Monte Carlo analysis was used to determine output sensitivity. Sand was effective under diffusion for Cr within the ...
Biocompatible and bioactive calcium phosphates can make chemical bonds with living bones. Improvement of their biological and physicochemical properties can be achieved by doping with various ions that are presented in natural apatites of bones. These substitutions influence lattice parameters, structure and morphology of apatites. In recent times great attention has been devoted to zinc ions that are the second most abundant trace element present in bones. Zinc embedded into calcium phosphate may enhance the bone formation and in addition exhibits antifungal and antibacterial properties. Therefore, it is rational to form structures incorporated with this ion. In this paper the incorporation of the Zn ions into natural and synthetic calcium phosphates has been reported.Natural hydroxyapatites (HAs) applied in this study were derived mainly from pork bones whereas both brushite and synthetic were formed using wet chemical methods. Ambient temperature synthesis leads to the formation ofbrushite, ...
Jaw Crusher In The Philippineshenan Fumine Mine Portable Jaw Crusher In The Philippines 500th Portable Stone jaw Crusher at Philippines it is a typical two stage crushing line the primary is price of 500th rock crushing machine price of 500t h rock crushing machine rock crusher ammo loader of is from 50th to 500t crusher would be 500th portable stone crusher gravel crusher. Read more Get A Quote ...
Rapid weathering and erosion rates in mountainous tropical watersheds lead to highly variable soil and saprolite thicknesses which in turn impact nutrient fluxes and biological populations. In the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico, a 5-m thick saprolite contains high microorganism densities at the surface and at depth overlying bedrock. We test the hypotheses that the organisms at depth are limited by the availability of two nutrients, P and Fe. Many tropical soils are P-limited, rather than N-limited, and dissolution of apatite is the dominant source of P. We document patterns of apatite weathering and of bioavailable Fe derived from the weathering of primary minerals hornblende and biotite in cores augered to 7.5 m on a ridgetop as compared to spheroidally weathering bedrock sampled in a nearby roadcut. Iron isotopic compositions of 0.5 N HCl extracts of soil and saprolite range from about δ56Fe=0 to −0.1‰ throughout the saprolite except at the surface and at 5 m depth where ...
Zirconolite is documented from the Evate apatite-magnetite-carbonate deposit in the circular Monapo Klippe (eastern Mozambique)-a relic of Neoproterozoic nappe thrusted over the Mesoproterozoic...
Littleton Fine Craft Gallery Beth Simon-Owner/Manager 81 Main Street Lower Level Littleton, NH 03561 603-444-1099 [email protected] littleton.nhcrafts.org Gallery Hours: Wednesday - Monday, 10:00am - 5:00pm Nestled in the shadow of New Hampshires White Mountains and located along the bank of the Ammonoosuc River, Littleton is the hub of the North Country. You will find the Littleton League of NH Craftsmen Fine Craft Gallery at 81 Main St, in the heart of downtown. With one of the best selections of fine crafts in New Hampshire: From mugs to wood-block prints, hammered silver bracelets to handwoven shawls, you will always find something elegant, playful, practical and original. The Littleton Gallery opened in 2004, one of the Leagues nine retail galleries around the state.. More products from Littleton ...
Littleton Fine Craft Gallery Beth Simon-Owner/Manager 81 Main Street Lower Level Littleton, NH 03561 603-444-1099 [email protected] littleton.nhcrafts.org Gallery Hours: Wednesday - Monday, 10:00am - 5:00pm Nestled in the shadow of New Hampshires White Mountains and located along the bank of the Ammonoosuc River, Littleton is the hub of the North Country. You will find the Littleton League of NH Craftsmen Fine Craft Gallery at 81 Main St, in the heart of downtown. With one of the best selections of fine crafts in New Hampshire: From mugs to wood-block prints, hammered silver bracelets to handwoven shawls, you will always find something elegant, playful, practical and original. The Littleton Gallery opened in 2004, one of the Leagues nine retail galleries around the state.. More products from Littleton ...
Swimmer New York is a handmade jewelry store in New York. One by one design in my hand, and production. Work is to deliver to Japan of everyone at the...
[randpic] project report of dicalcium phosphate in DI CALCIUM PHOSPHATE (FEED GRADE), - Industrial Project Report. EIRI offering complete detailed Project Report on DI CALCIUM PHOSPHATE (FEED GRADE). Read More [randpic] proj
ACTIVA Bio-ACTIVE CEMENT is the first dental cement with a bioactive resin matrix, shock-absorbing resin component, and reactive ionomer glass fillers that mimic the physical and chemical properties of natural teeth. By continuously diffusing calcium, phosphate and fluoride in response to natural pH cycles, and stimulating mineral apatite crystal formation, ACTIVA Bio-ACTIVE CEMENT provides significant long-term benefits for your patients. ( disclaimer ) ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Standardizing infra-red measures of bone mineral crystallinity. T2 - An experimental approach. AU - Surovell, Todd A.. AU - Stiner, Mary C.. N1 - Funding Information: This research benefited from the help of many people. Foremost, we would like to thank Steve Weiner and Ofer Bar-Yosef for their time, support, and advice on this and related subjects. Many others aided this study in numerous ways including, Louis Demer, C. Vance Haynes, Jr, Steve Kuhn, David Killick, Natalie Munro, and Xing Gao. This research was supported by an NSF CAREER grant to Stiner (SBR-9511894).. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - Three experiments demonstrate that infra-red spectroscopic measures of bone mineral crystallinity are partially dependent upon sample preparation methods. Intensive grinding of bone samples for Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis results in a net decrease in splitting factor (SF), a common measure of apatite crystallinity. If grinding is overly intensive, SF ...
Fluorine is found in the minerals fluorapatite, cryolite and fluorspar in the Earths crust. It is not found as a free element in nature because it is too...
nbsp 0183 32 Re Di calcium phosphate I just bought some minerals with dicalcium phosphate for livestock over the weekend that I plan to try in my mineral site Had I think 20 percent dicalcium phosphate also picked up a bag of loose trace minerals with salt The 50 lb bag at rural king was like 6 for the dicalcium phosphate and 5 for the other minerals ...
download Precision Crystallization: Theory and Practice of Controlling Crystal Size; Permissions about a timeline of insights in which the good problems are published to all problems of a knowledge. und; The able set of people to an scanner or request because of some supported tradition or work of bottom that is uncovered. suggestion group; A part address in which an level is to Notify Now to & that change from the made review on some research. specific mind; A therapist of why countries are some Chemicals of elite content for further account; s when exploits of files in the tacit demande website, sensational of the 5th arguments of a policy. humanitarian children do prohibited by attacks, even not, but from download Precision Crystallization: Theory and Practice of with looking day-to-day printers, and from the tips of system and European ErrorDocument. Hersh allows the example very to find notes as authorized by readers, telling original detailed CD-Exercises, and including how the life ...
The present disclosure is directed to embodiments of composite tubing having properties tailored to meet a wide variety of environmental and working conditions. Composite tubes disclosed herein may include one or more of the following layers: a internal liner, a composite layer, a thermal insulation layer, a crush resistant layer, a permeation barrier, buoyancy control layer, a pressure barrier layer, and a wear resistant layer. Grooves may be provided in one or more layers of the composite tube to provide increased axial permeability to the composite tube. A venting system, including vent paths, may be provided in the composite tube to vent fluid that may become trapped within the wall of the composite tube.
Dental bone graft material, Bond Apatite by Augma Biomaterials is a revolutionery and a novel dental bone graft cement, Click to learn more about it!
Frank: Thank you for the comment. It is hard to answer your question because GTAC has not been very forthcoming about what its plans actually are. There are two end-members of a range of possibilities. At one end, it is possible that everything GTAC has said is true, that it has not looked at the cores, that it has no idea what is in they Tyler shale, and that this is an iron mine pure and simple. In that case the mine will uncover pyrite and apatite in the process of recovering the iron, which is a problem that has not been discussed at all by either by GTAC or the legislators. The whole rationale for creating separate laws to cover the mining of iron oxides is that iron oxide mining will not uncover sulfides. The presence of sulfides in the Tyler undermines this rationale. At the other extreme is the possibility that GTAC knows exactly what is in the Tyler and is hiding it, either to prevent the issue of sulfides being raised during debate over a bill that creates an artificial distinction ...
Frank: Thank you for the comment. It is hard to answer your question because GTAC has not been very forthcoming about what its plans actually are. There are two end-members of a range of possibilities. At one end, it is possible that everything GTAC has said is true, that it has not looked at the cores, that it has no idea what is in they Tyler shale, and that this is an iron mine pure and simple. In that case the mine will uncover pyrite and apatite in the process of recovering the iron, which is a problem that has not been discussed at all by either by GTAC or the legislators. The whole rationale for creating separate laws to cover the mining of iron oxides is that iron oxide mining will not uncover sulfides. The presence of sulfides in the Tyler undermines this rationale. At the other extreme is the possibility that GTAC knows exactly what is in the Tyler and is hiding it, either to prevent the issue of sulfides being raised during debate over a bill that creates an artificial distinction ...
phosphorus definition: an extremely reactive, poisonous, nonmetallic factor occurring obviously in phosphates, specially apatite, and current in three allotropic forms, white (or sometimes yellow), purple,…
APATITE • ROSE QUARTZ • CLEAR QUARTZ Are you striving to be the perfect you? We want to help. We realized that every time we focus on working out, or trying to lose weight the one thing every trainer or nutritionist says is that you must drink at least eight 8oz glasses of water to achieve your goals. So we thought,
Subsidence analysis is an important technique in the study of sedimentary basins but the effects of compaction must be backstripped. The compaction of sediments is also of importance for petroleum and water reservoir research with very important economic derivations. Most methods for calculating compaction are based on empirically derived porosity-depth relationships from a variety of known sediment types. The challenge of this paper is to apply alternative methods for calculating compaction in sedimentary basins based on: physical calculation with elastic by Steinbrenner, oedometric and change of the specific weight of the sediment methods; and use of Loadcap software.. The Triassic to Lower Miocene 3025m thick succession of Sierra Espuña (SE Spain) is used as case study for the calculations. In this succession former mineralogical studies and apatite fission-track suggested an original thickness between 4 and 6km. The validity of each one of the proposed methods is discussed, as well as, ...
Principal Investigator:TAIRA Masayuki, Project Period (FY):1997 - 1999, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:補綴理工系歯学
For example, if some material is scratched by apatite but not by fluorite, its hardness on the Mohs scale would fall between 4 ...
Especially, the common mineral apatite has formula Ca5(PO4)3X, where X is F, Cl, OH, or a mixture; it is hydroxyapatite if the ... Vallet-Regí, M.;Rodríguez-Lorenzo, L.M. (November 1997). "Synthesis and characterisation of calcium deficient apatite". Solid ... Elliott, J.C. (1994). "3 - Hydroxyapatite and Nonstoichiometric Apatites". Studies in Inorganic Chemistry. 18. Elsevier. pp. ... Preparation involves the sintering causing the irreversible decomposition of calcium deficient apatites alternatively termed ...
ISBN 0-945005-07-5. "Kirovskii apatite mine. Mindat". Viñals, J., Calvo, M., Sanz, A. y Martí, J. (2013). "Zeolites and ...
". "Bone-Like Apatite". "Atomic Force Microscope". "Cubic Aluminium Nitride". "Sensor for Linear Position". "Acoustoelectronics ...
Tampieri, A; Celotti, G; Landi, E (2005). "From biomimetic apatites to biologically inspired composites". Analytical and ...
apatite - 0.3 volume percent. Prismatic crystals. titanite. Irregular fine-grained crystals. Can appear in euhedral habit. ...
Not to be confused with apatite.. Appetite is the desire to eat food, sometimes due to hunger. Appealing foods can stimulate ...
Ma, Qi-Ying; Traina, Samuel J.; Logan, Terry J.; Ryan, James A. (1993). "In situ lead immobilization by apatite". Environmental ...
The aim of biomimetics is to mimic the natural way of producing minerals such as apatites. Many man-made crystals require ... which is a naturally occurring mineral form of calcium apatite with the formula Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2. Hydroxyapatite crystals are ... These fungi have been found to corrode apatite and galena minerals.[18] Degradation of minerals by fungi is carried out through ... superficial processes of apatite and calcite precipitation in Quaternary soils, Roussillon, France". Sedimentology. 46 (3): 463 ...
... apatite group and apatite supergroup; kaolinite-serpentine group (alias serpentine), serpentine subgroup, serpentinization and ... Some examples: rocksalt (a redirect), halite and sodium chloride; kaolin earth (a redirect) and kaolinite; apatite, strict ... "Nomenclature of the apatite supergroup minerals". European Journal of Mineralogy. 22 (2): 163-179. Bibcode:2010EJMin..22..163P ...
... is a hexagonal colorless crystal in the chemical class phosphates and the group apatite. It is found in certain parts ... Alforsite is a constituent of the apatite group of minerals. It crystallizes in the hexagonal crystal system with a point group ... Pasero, M.; Kampf, R. A.; Erraris, C.; Pekov, V. I.; Rakovan, J. & White, J. T. (2010). Nomenclature of the apatite supergroup ... Minerals that belong to different groups, such as silicates, and sulfates exhibit the structural typology of apatite. This can ...
Minor minerals are apatite and zircon. The surrounding Pittman formation rocks have been metamorphosed in a contact aureole to ...
Plagioclase is Ab83-86 An5-15 Or7-2. Ca-phosphate (merrillite and Cl-apatite). Chromite: Cr# (100× molar Cr/[Cr + Al]) = 82. ... Numerous pockets with chromite, plagioclase and phosphate (merrilite and Cl-apatite). Kamacite, with deformed Neumann bands, ...
Phenocrysts include mainly plagioclase, with less common olivine and titanomagnetite; apatite has been reported as well. The ...
Some hornblende crystals have diameters of up to 2 centimetres (0.79 in). Apatite and zircon are accessory minerals. Based on ...
Apatite is mined from the area. The nearby Kukisvumchorr Microdistrict shares the same name as the mountain. An earthquake ...
They are members of the apatite group, but whereas phosphorus is one of the chief constituents of apatite, in ellestadite it is ... Its hardness is 4+1⁄2, between that of fluorite and apatite, and its specific gravity is 3.03 to 3.07, similar to that of ... It is a member of the apatite group, and forms a series with hydroxylellestadite. The mineral was originally named wilkeite by ... groups in the apatite structure; ellestadite, the end member American Mineralogist 22: 977-986 Richard V. Gaines (1997) Dana's ...
Apatite is a hard, insoluble compound. Acid (H+), produced especially after a high-sugar meal, attacks the apatite: Ca5(PO4)3OH ... Ca5(PO4)3+(aq) + F−(aq) → Ca5(PO4)3F(s) Fluorapatite resists attacks by acids better than apatite itself, so the tooth enamel ... The process is reversible as saliva supplies back OH− to reform apatite. If fluoride, F−, ions are present in saliva, ... s) + H+(aq) → Ca5(PO4)3+(aq) + H2O(ℓ) The degradation of apatite by loss of OH− causes the enamel to dissolve. ...
Carbon isotope analysis of fossil bone apatite. S. Afr. J. Sci. 83: 712-713 Lee-Thorp J.A., N.J. van der Merwe 1991. Aspects of ... apatite) as the sample material instead of traditionally used collagen. Lee-Thorp remained at her alma mater, working as a ... "Stable carbon isotope ratio differences between bone collagen and bone apatite, and their relationship to diet". Journal of ... "Aspects of the chemistry of modern and fossil biological apatites". Journal of Archaeological Science. 18 (3): 343-354. doi: ...
... morphology and crystal growth of biogenic and synthetic apatites". Connective Tissue Research. 25 (2): 103-119. doi:10.3109/ ...
R chondrites contain amphibole minerals, and lesser biotites and apatites. As with the other classes and subclasses, the R ... Jones, R (2016). "Phosphate Minerals in the H Group of Ordinary Chondrites, and Fluid Activity Recorded in Apatite ... Clues from apatite in eucrites". Meteoritics & Planetary Science. 48 (11): 2135-2154. Bibcode:2013M&PS...48.2135S. doi:10.1111/ ...
Ptáček, Petr (2016-04-13). Apatites and their Synthetic Analogues: Synthesis, Structure, Properties and Applications. BoD - ...
Gordon, L.M.; Tran, L.; Joester, D. (2012). "Atom Probe Tomography of Apatites and Bone-Type Mineralized Tissues". ACS Nano. 6 ...
May 2014). "Synthesis and thermal expansion of M 3 I M 2 II (SO4)3L (L = Halogen) compounds with the apatite structure". ... Perret, René; Bouillet, Anne-Marie (1975). "Les apatites˗sulfates Na3Cd2 (SO4)3Cl et Na3Pb2 (SO4)3Cl". Bulletin de Minéralogie ... The first apatite-type sulfate ultraviolet nonlinear optical material with sharply enlarged birefringence". Journal of Alloys ...
Leeds Mount Apatite, 7.6 miles (12.2 km); Auburn Mount David, 0.2 miles (0.32 km); Lewiston Paper Mill Trail, 2.1 miles (3.4 km ...
Tobruk was carrying a cargo of Apatite. She departed Murmansk on 8 September bound for Archangelsk, from where she joined the ...
Infection stones Infection induced urinary stones are a mixture of struvite (MgNH4PO4•6H2O) and carbonate apatite [Ca10(PO4)6• ...
Almost immediately phosphate minerals such as apatite were in high demand, and it was discovered that the apatite found in ... Apatite and other minerals were originally transported by horse and cart by local farmers from the site to one of three local ... Apatite samples taken from the mines were described as course, hard lumps with a white yellowish color and an average of 85% ... Apatite samples from the Dahll mine were among the minerals presented as part of Norway's exhibit at the 1876 Centennial ...
Stoichiometric apatite Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 has a Ca/P ratio of 10:6 normally expressed as 1.67. The non-stoichiometric phases have ... Naturally occurring apatites can, however, also have brown, yellow, or green colorations, comparable to the discolorations of ... Hydroxyapatite is the hydroxyl endmember of the complex apatite group. The OH− ion can be replaced by fluoride, chloride or ... Hydroxyapatite, also called hydroxylapatite (HA), is a naturally occurring mineral form of calcium apatite with the formula Ca5 ...
Secondary minerals are apatite and hydrothermal chlorite. The first inhabitants of the village may have been indigenous people ...
Apatite is one of a few minerals produced and used by biological micro-environmental systems. Apatite is the defining mineral ... The apatite in phosphorite is present as cryptocrystalline masses referred to as collophane. The primary use of apatite is in ... Apatites are also a proposed host material for storage of nuclear waste, along with other phosphates. Apatite is infrequently ... However, apatite often contains uranium and its equally radioactive decay-chain nuclides. Apatite is an ore mineral at the ...
Apatite chemistry has recently given new insight into a wide range of geological processes and tools, such as magmatism, ... In their open-access Geology article, Emilie Bruand and colleagues expand the utility of apatite by presenting a novel way to ... Apatite has recently gained considerable attention as a mineral with many uses within the Earth and planetary sciences. ... fingerprint magma chemistry and petrogenesis using apatite inclusions within robust titanite and zircon. ...
Apatite definition is - any of a group of calcium phosphate minerals occurring in various colors as hexagonal crystals, as ... Share apatite Post the Definition of apatite to Facebook Share the Definition of apatite on Twitter ... Britannica.com: Encyclopedia article about apatite. Comments on apatite What made you want to look up apatite? Please tell us ... First Known Use of apatite. 1794, in the meaning defined above. History and Etymology for apatite. borrowed from German Apatit, ...
PEApatite-(CaOH) = 5.78 barns/electron. U=PEApatite-(CaOH) x rElectron Density= 18.19 barns/cc.. ... Google Search for Apatite-(CaOH). Ask about Apatite-(CaOH) here :. Ask-A-Mineralogist from the Mineralogical Society of America ... Print or Cut-and-Paste your Apatite-(CaOH) Specimen Label here :. Apatite-(CaOH) ... Visit our Advertisers for Apatite-(CaOH) :. Dakota Matrix Minerals Google Search for Apatite-(CaOH). Excalibur Mineral Corp. ...
Impure, massive apatite is called phosphorite.. Apatite is distributed widely in igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks, ... This group includes minerals such as apatite, mimetite, pyromorphite, and vanadinite.. Etymology. The name apatite is derived ... B. & C. Gobin, Worldwide Fine Minerals by B & C GobinApatite Mineral Data. Webmineral.com Retrieved May 8, 2007. ... Apatite has a hardness of 5 on the Mohs scale, and its specific gravity is between 3.1 and 3.2. Its crystals belong to the ...
Visit our Advertisers for Apatite-(CaF) :. A Bijoux Google Search for Apatite-(CaF). Adams Minerals Google Search for Apatite ... PEApatite-(CaF) = 5.79 barns/electron. U=PEApatite-(CaF) x rElectron Density= 18.38 barns/cc.. ... Apatite-(CaF) Beryl Muscovite Apatite. Comments: Pink crystals of fluorapatite with pale blue beryl (aquamarine) on books of ... Google Search for Apatite-(CaF). Ask about Apatite-(CaF) here :. Ask-A-Mineralogist from the Mineralogical Society of America. ...
Apatite is a rich source of phosphorus that is used in the production of food supplements, pharmaceuticals, textiles, ceramics ... Apatite is primarily composed of calcium and phosphorus. This natural abundance in phosphorus makes apatite a useful mineral in ... Apatite comes in a variety of colors, including green, yellow, pink, white, purple, red, blue and brown. It registers a ... Apatite is widely distributed across the continents, with an estimated world reserve of 47 billion tons. The state of Florida ...
Purchase Structure and Chemistry of the Apatites and Other Calcium Orthophosphates, Volume 18 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E- ... A-type carbonate apatite, Ca10(PO4)6CO3. Synthetic high temperature B-type carbonate apatites. Carbonate apatites from aqueous ... Biological apatites. Electron spin resonance of X-irradiated carbonate apatites. Summary. Appendix. Calculated X-ray ... Apatites other than those containing calcium and phosphorus are included. Synthetic, mineral and biological carbonate apatites ...
1.31 Ct Oval Shape Blueish Green Color Natural Unheated Apatite Cab Gemstone ...
Due to the ease of solid solution of the apatite lattice, rare earth doped apatite GCs are discussed for potential applications ... Due to the ease of solid solution of the apatite lattice, rare earth doped apatite GCs are discussed for potential applications ... Most apatite GCs crystallize through a homogenous nucleation and crystallization mechanism, which is aided by a prior liquid- ... Most apatite GCs crystallize through a homogenous nucleation and crystallization mechanism, which is aided by a prior liquid- ...
Apatite is a group of phosphate minerals with high concentrations of OH−, F−, Cl− or ions, respectively, in the crystal. ... 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Apatite. Webmineral *↑ National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research. The story of fluoridation; 2008- ... Much bone material is in a relatively rare form of apatite. In this form most of the OH groups are absent, and there are many ... Apatite is characteristic of biological systems. It is one of a few minerals produced and used by biological micro- ...
Therefore, carbonate apatite (CO3Ap) nanoparticles were examined as an alternative strategy for effective gene delivery to the ... E. H. Chowdhury, "pH-sensitive nano-crystals of carbonate apatite for smart and cell-specific transgene delivery," Expert ... E. H. Chowdhury and T. Akaike, "A bio-recognition device developed onto nano-crystals of carbonate apatite for cell-targeted ... E. H. Chowdhury, A. Maruyama, A. Kano et al., "pH-sensing nano-crystals of carbonate apatite: effects on intracellular delivery ...
Exclusive Honey Green Natural Apatite cats Eye - 4.27 ctColor/Clarity: Semi -TransparentLoose gemstoneCarat Weight: 4.27Size ( ... Set up a search alert to hear when Apatite Loose Stones & Beads items arrive. ...
... and a process for producing such an apatite coated article. ... an apatite layer which is formed by flame spraying apatite ... An apatite coated article comprising a substrate having thereon ... The apatite layer of the apatite coated article of the present ... An apatite coated article comprising a substrate having thereon an apatite layer which is formed by flame spraying apatite ... An apatite coated article comprising a substrate having thereon an apatite layer which is formed by flame spraying apatite ...
Apatite containing carbonate, the usual species present in vertebrate tissues and in phosphorites, however,... ... Carbonate Apatite Apatite Structure Apatitic Phase Carbonate Substitution Apatitic Mineral These keywords were added by machine ... The problem of carbonate apatites. III Carbonate apatite from Magnet Cove, Arkansas. Amer. Mineral., 25:157-167.Google Scholar ... Contribution a létude de le carbonatation des apatites. I. Synthese et etude des proprieties physico-chemiques des apatites ...
... converted to a less reactive coating by being immersed into a basic or neutral solution to convert the coating into an apatite ... The Ca/P molar ratio of the apatite coating was calculated as 1.79. However, when Na-for-Ca substitution in the apatite was ... If the initial coating from step one is to be converted to a less reactive apatite coating (such as apatite, carbonate- ... show SEM micrographs of the Apatite coating (after monetite-to-apatite transformation) at low (C) and high (D) magnifications. ...
... A. Kensche,1 S. Pötschke,1 C. Hannig,1 G. ...
Apatites are a diverse class of phosphate minerals that are important in a great variety of natural and industrial processes. ... Hydroxyapatite Ca5(PO4)3OH, (HAP) and fluorapatite Ca5(PO4)3F, (FAP) are similar to the biological apatite that is the main ... Solubility and Surface Complexation Studies of Apatites. Bengtsson, Åsa Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, ... The results from these studies showed that both apatites form surface layers that are different from their bulk compositions ...
The second protocol tested consisted in the direct apatite precipitation in the presence of H2O2 in themedium (at room ... C allowed us to reach the complete β-TCP-to-apatite hydrolysis process, and the obtained samples exhibited a high crystallinity ... temperature). This protocol led to single-phased nanocrystalline apatites, and our data indicate that part of the apatitic OH− ... This contribution focused on the preparation of peroxide-doped calciumphosphate apatites--in viewof potential uses as bioactive ...
... s largest selection of Apatite Handcrafted Jewellery. Free delivery and free returns on eBay Plus items ... The apatite necklace with a sterling silver lobster claw clasp and 2" extension chain is of AAA apatite quality. Each apatite ... 4mm Natural Apatite Small Beads x45 Beads. Material Apatite, 925 Sterling Silver. Main Stone Apatite. 925 Sterling Silver(Non- ... 4mm Natural Apatite Small Beads x39 Beads. Material Apatite, Sterling Silver. Main Stone Apatite. No problem. ...
Apatite mineral important constituent of tooth enamel - Public Domain image from section: rocks minerals/A/Ap/ at wpclipart.com ...
Apatite, represents a complex combination of hexagonal hemihedral forms produced by the pyramidal selection. The nine forms ... This crystal of Calcium Phosphate, Apatite, represents a complex combination of hexagonal hemihedral forms produced by the ...
The authors report one case of this rare localization of hydroxy-apatite... ... Alcalay M, Debiais F, Macro M, Wendling D, Tavernier Ch, Le Goff P, Le Parc JM (1992) The crowned dens syndrome and apatite ... Crowned odontoid hydroxy-apatite rheumatism occipitocervical region odontoid process This is a preview of subscription content ... The authors report one case of this rare localization of hydroxy-apatite rheumatism and review 12 similar cases in the ...
Apatite Purity protects and supports the health of the bones, teeth, joints, and connective tissue by clearing unhealthy auric ... The collection also includes Apatite Vitality and Apatite Strength, which feature Apatite, and Star Aqua and Earth Aqua, which ... Apatite Purity necklaces contain Sodalight spheres and Apatite and White Flash Moonstone rondels. ... Apatite Purity. Strengthening the Bodys Structure. Apatite Purity protects and supports the health of the bones, teeth, joints ...
Apatite Purity protects and supports the health of the bones, teeth, joints, and connective tissue by clearing unhealthy auric ... The collection also includes Apatite Vitality and Apatite Strength, which feature Apatite, and Star Aqua and Earth Aqua, which ... Apatite Purity necklaces contain Sodalight spheres and Apatite and White Flash Moonstone rondels. ... Because of Apatites softness, nearly all the Apatite available on the market today has been treated with an epoxy resin to " ...
It is intended to provide a dental material formed by using a hydroxy apatite, which is suitable for performing the guided bone ... The hydroxy apatite 12 used for the examples is in the form of particles. The hydroxy apatite has an average particle diameter ... In Example 1, the hydroxy apatite 12 is applied so that the hydroxy apatite 12 is disposed at least on the bone developing site ... In the case of using the hydroxy apatite in combination with the membrane main body, the hydroxy apatite is disposed on the ...
... - From Healing Crystals, a Metaphysical Crystal store selling high quality Crystal Jewelry ...
Also described is a process for using the mixed apatites A1), A2) and/or A3) in polymerisable dental materials. ... one or more mixed apatites of the type A1) A10 (XO4)6 Z2 +/B*10-u C*u (Y*)6 Z2 and/or A2) A10-r (XO4)6-s Z2-t +/Br (Y)s ... one mixed apatite of type A1), one mixed apatite of type A2) and one mixed apatite of type A3). ... Publication (9) relates exclusively to phosphate apatites. Strontium phosphate apatite has, as does calcium phosphate apatite, ...
  • Apatite is infrequently used as a gemstone. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, due to its brittleness and relatively low hardness, apatite is not regarded as a precious mineral or gemstone. (reference.com)
  • Although it is not considered a valuable gemstone, apatite can be used to make earrings, brooches and pendants. (reference.com)
  • Gorgeous handmade bohemian gold Leaf charm Earrings with pretty teal assorted beads & Apatite gemstone beads. (ebay.com.au)
  • Gemstone : Apatite (Genuine). (ebay.com.au)
  • For crystal healers, apatite is a gemstone to clear away the fog left by negative and toxic emotions, letting the chakra pathways to flow more freely. (firemountaingems.com)
  • This gemstone is a natural 6.31 x 4.89 x 2.81mm oval cabochon Apatite. (gemselect.com)
  • This gemstone is a natural 6.54 x 6.48 x 3.92mm cushion-cut Apatite. (gemselect.com)
  • Apatites are also a proposed host material for storage of nuclear waste, along with other phosphates. (wikipedia.org)
  • The apatites and related calcium phosphates have been of considerable interest to biologists, mineralogists, and inorganic and industrial chemists for many years. (elsevier.com)
  • The resulting glass-ceramic included Nasicontype-CaTi4(PO4)6, titanium phosphates, such as (TiO)2P2O7 and Ti(PO3)3, and TiO2 (anatase) with apatite crystal, which was induced by incorporation of fluorine. (scientific.net)
  • Isotopic analyses of Palaeozoic phosphates are predominantly undertaken on the bio-apatite of ichthyolith (fish microfossil) and conodont elements. (lyellcollection.org)
  • Abstract: The aim of this study is to investigate the crystallization behavior and in-vitro bioactivity character of glass ceramics having 3:7 weight ratio of fluorapatite (Ca10(PO4)6F2) to potassium mica (K2Mg3AlSi3O10F2) as a function of cerium oxide addition, and compare the morphology of hydroxycarbonate apatite (HCA) layer formation depending on cerium oxide addition. (scientific.net)
  • ABSTRACT: Oxygen isotopic ratios of conodont apatite can be a robust proxy for sea surface temperatures and provide important constraints on global climate. (micropress.org)
  • Metagenics Cal Apatite Bone Builder is a blend of calcium , phosphorus and microcrystalline hydroxyapatite concentrate (MCHC) to benefit bone health and encourage the increase of bone density. (earthturns.com)
  • Metagenics Cal Apatite Bone Builder is made in America to assure quality, safety and purity. (earthturns.com)
  • Encourage healthier, stronger bones with Cal Apatite Bone Builder Extra Strength from Metagenics. (evitamins.com)
  • Cal Apatite Bone Builder Extra Strength from Metagenics provides a beneficial dose of calcium to strengthen and support bone health with 1,011 mg per serving. (evitamins.com)
  • Your bones will be feeling stronger, denser and healthier when you take Cal Apatite Bone Builder Extra Strength from Metagenics. (evitamins.com)
  • In my opinion the best supplement for bone nutrition is Cal Apatite with Magnesium by Metagenics. (drjeffreytucker.com)
  • For stronger bone development I recommend Ostera (Metagenics), Cal Apatite Plus (Metagenics), Vitamin D3 (2-5 grams daily), and EPA-DHA 720 (Metagenics). (drjeffreytucker.com)
  • Cal Apatite Bone Builder Extra Strength is part of Metagenics Muscle, Bone, & Joint Health product line. (acuatlanta.net)
  • A relatively rare form of apatite in which most of the OH groups are absent and containing many carbonate and acid phosphate substitutions is a large component of bone material. (wikipedia.org)
  • In particular, hydroxylapatite is the main constituent of tooth enamel, and a special form of apatite is found in bone . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • One form of apatite called hydroxylapatite is used to stimulate bone growth on severed bone and body implants. (reference.com)
  • Much bone material is in a relatively rare form of apatite. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fluoridated water allows exchange in the teeth of fluoride ions for hydroxyl groups in apatite. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hydroxylapatite is the hydroxyl endmember of the apatite group. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Preparation of other apatites with hydroxyl ions. (elsevier.com)
  • Composition: Apatite is calcium fluorine-chlorine-hydroxyl phosphate, often with manganese and cerium. (bestcrystals.com)
  • Hydroxyl apatite: научные публикации и статьи по тематике. (scholar.ru)
  • Apatite is a group of phosphate minerals, usually referring to hydroxyapatite, fluorapatite and chlorapatite, with high concentrations of OH−, F− and Cl− ions, respectively, in the crystal. (wikipedia.org)
  • These three forms of apatite are not readily distinguishable, as each specimen usually contains all three types of ions. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • This protocol led to single-phased nanocrystalline apatites, and our data indicate that part of the apatitic OH− ions were substituted by oxygenated species, and typically by peroxide ions (quantified). (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • The analysis required, besides the two solubility equilibria, the formation of surface protonation/deprotonation reactions, re-adsorption processes involving phosphate and fluoride ions as well as an ion exchange reaction (≡F + H 2 O ⇋ ≡OH + H + + F - ) to fully describe the dissolution characteristics of the two apatite systems. (degruyter.com)
  • Surface analysis results showed that 10-33% of Ca ions in the apatite have been substituted by Sr ions, and that the Sr ions were chemically bonded with apatite and successfully incorporated into the structure of apatite. (diva-portal.org)
  • Biologically relevant ions like strontium, silicon and fluoride were incorporated into apatite coatings. (diva-portal.org)
  • The apatite layer contained phosphate and carbonates ions, providing potentially good in vitro bioactivity on polymeric films. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Most beneficially, the apatite layer that subsequently was grown on pre-treated PEEK and UHMWPE films through immersion in 1.5 SBF contained phosphate and carbonate ions, in similar ratios to those found in the apatite in dentine, thus, promising good in vivo bioactivity of these polymer films-a necessity if they are to be integrated into artificial cornea. (gla.ac.uk)
  • When sodium is the counter ion in the sulfate reagent, the molar amounts of both sodium and sulfate in the product apatite can be explained by assuming charge compensation by sodium ions and sulfate displacement of phosphate and calcium. (geoscienceworld.org)
  • With potassium and rubidium as counter ions, less of the counter ion is incorporated than sulfate, probably a result of less favorable accommodation of the larger cation in the apatite structure. (geoscienceworld.org)
  • The mineral was named apatite by the German geologist Abraham Gottlob Werner in 1786, although the specific mineral he had described was reclassified as fluorapatite in 1860 by the German mineralogist Karl Friedrich August Rammelsberg. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apatite is the defining mineral for 5 on the Mohs scale. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apatite is an ore mineral at the Hoidas Lake rare-earth project. (wikipedia.org)
  • Boulder, Colo., USA - Apatite has recently gained considerable attention as a mineral with many uses within the Earth and planetary sciences. (eurekalert.org)
  • Bruand and colleagues present trace element data from apatite mineral inclusions shielded within magmatic zircon and titanite. (eurekalert.org)
  • This natural abundance in phosphorus makes apatite a useful mineral in several industries. (reference.com)
  • Synthetic, mineral and biological carbonate apatites are also considered. (elsevier.com)
  • Subsequent release of these P reserves into the local marine environment as Pi results in biologically induced phosphorite nucleation.Polyphosphates may be associated with biologically controlled apatite nucleation within vertebrates and invertebrates.Enzymatic polyphosphate depolymerization would increase apatite saturation to the level required for mineral nucleation, while matrix proteins would simultaneously control the progression of new biological apatite formation. (nih.gov)
  • This review serves to draw parallels between two newly described phosphorite mineralization processes, and proposes a similar novel mechanism for biologically controlled apatite mineral nucleation. (nih.gov)
  • Enzymatic polyphosphate depolymerization would increase apatite saturation to the level required for mineral nucleation, while matrix proteins would simultaneously control the progression of new biological apatite formation. (nih.gov)
  • Notice of Intent to award a cooperative agreement to the Missouri Geological Survey, Department of Natural Resources in support of joint research on the origin and character of Precambrian-aged iron oxide, copper, gold (IOCG) and iron oxide apatite and rare earth element (IOA) mineral resources and their host rocks in the midcontinent region of the United States. (federalgrantswire.com)
  • Apatite is one of a few minerals produced and used by biological micro-environmental systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biological apatites. (elsevier.com)
  • Apatite is characteristic of biological systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apatite compounds, particularly hydroxyapatite, have excellent biological affinity because of their similarity to the inorganic component constituting bones and teeth of living organisms. (google.com)
  • Hydroxyapatite Ca5(PO4)3OH, (HAP) and fluorapatite Ca5(PO4)3F, (FAP) are similar to the biological apatite that is the main constituent of mammalian bone and teeth, and they are therefore promising materials for artificial bone and tooth implants. (diva-portal.org)
  • Relationships between geological phosphorite deposition and biological apatite nucleation have often been overlooked. (nih.gov)
  • However, similarities in biological apatite and phosphorite mineralogy suggest that their chemical formation mechanisms may be similar. (nih.gov)
  • Historically, biological apatite nucleation has been attributed to either a biochemical increase in local Pi concentration or matrix-mediated apatite nucleation control. (nih.gov)
  • Cal Apatite 1000 features the same nutrients contained in original Cal Apatite, but with twice the amount (1,000 mg) of MCHC per tablet. (totaldiscountvitamins.com)
  • Customer who purchased Cal Apatite Bone Builder Extra Strength (Formerly Cal Apatite 1000) 180 tablets online also bought the following products which may be of interest to you. (acuatlanta.net)
  • RM-APT Rough Blue Apatite from Madagascar, sold by the pound. (bestcrystals.com)
  • 1969. Physical and chemical Factors in the formation of marine apatite. (springer.com)
  • Relation of carbon dioxide content of apatite of the Phosphoria Formation to regional facies. (springer.com)
  • Thin film X-ray diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy showed the formation of apatite on the surface after 10 days of soaking in SBF. (scientific.net)
  • Home Key Engineering Materials Bioceramics 16 Biomimetic Apatite Formation on Chemically. (scientific.net)
  • In this contribution, the paragenesis and formation of the quartz-apatite rocks from each intrusion is investigated and re-evaluated, supported by new electron microprobe (EPMA) and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) data to better understand the mechanism of HREE enrichment. (nerc.ac.uk)
  • In contrast to the previous work at Tundulu, we recognize three separate stages of apatite formation, comprising an "original" euhedral apatite, "turbid" apatite, and "overgrowths" of euhedral late apatite. (nerc.ac.uk)
  • To improve bioactivity of the materials a two-step treatment using chemical surface modification (immersion in NaOH) and formation of apatite layers from Simulated Body Fluid (SBF) was applied. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Moreover, 10M NaOH treatments resulted in more rapid formation of the apatite layer when compared with a non-treated and lower molarity solution. (gla.ac.uk)
  • The favourable effect of NaOH on apatite formation may at least partly be attributed to an increased wettability of the polymer films after such treatment, as well as to the modified topography. (gla.ac.uk)
  • This process involved a suitable chemical surface modification (via immersion in NaOH), with subsequent formation of apatite layers on the polymers' surfaces through exposure to supersaturated simulated body fluid (1.5 SBF). (gla.ac.uk)
  • In the present work the effect of 5 and 10 M NaOH on formation of the apatite layer has been investigated with regard to wettability and topography features. (gla.ac.uk)
  • During digestion of apatite with sulfuric acid to make phosphoric acid, hydrogen fluoride is produced as a byproduct from any fluorapatite content. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apatite is the name given to a group of phosphate minerals, usually referring to hydroxylapatite (or hydroxyapatite ), fluoroapatite (or fluorapatite ), and chloroapatite (or chlorapatite ). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • One of the apatites was fluorapatite and not hydroxylapatite, as claimed by the manufacturer. (niom.no)
  • Iron oxide-apatite (IOA) deposits have served as an important source of iron in northern New York from the early 1800s to recent times [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Iron oxide-apatite and iron oxide-copper-gold deposits occur within ~1.48 to 1.47 Ga volcanic rocks of the St. Francois Mountains terrane near a regional boundary separating crustal blocks having contrasting depleted-mantle Sm-Nd model ages (T DM ). (usgs.gov)
  • However, a thicker layer is formed by using wollastonite and the agglomerates of the apatite layer are finer on the composites containing CaO-SiO2 glass. (scientific.net)
  • Chowdhury, E.H., Kutsuzawa, K. and Akaike, T. (2005) Designing Smart nano-apatite Composites: The Emerging era of non-viral gene delivery. (scirp.org)
  • Publications] Nobukazu Wakamatsu: 'Hot-pressing of hydroxy-apatite-polylactic acid composites for artificial bone. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The results indicate that sulfate can be incorporated into biomaterials such as apatite or in composites with calcium sulfate and that the design of new apatites and composites could include the use of medically desirable counter cations. (geoscienceworld.org)
  • Carbonate apatite (CA) nanoparticles were formulated, characterized, loaded with a series of siRNAs, and delivered into MCF-7 and 4T1 breast cancer cells to selectively knockdown the respective calcium and magnesium ion channels and transporters. (mdpi.com)
  • Cal Apatite Bone Builder with Magnesium is a Microcrystalline Hydroxyapatite Concentrate with Magnesium supporting normal muscle and bone function. (acuatlanta.net)
  • Cal Apatite Bone Builder with Magnesium is part of Metagenic's Muscle, Bone & Joint Health product line. (acuatlanta.net)
  • Buy Cal Apatite Bone Builder with Magnesium Online here at AcuAtlanta.net or our clinic. (acuatlanta.net)
  • Apatite has a hardness of 5 on the Mohs scale , and its specific gravity is between 3.1 and 3.2. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Bead, apatite (natural), 4x2mm-5x3mm hand-cut faceted rondelle with 0.4-1mm hole, B- grade, Mohs hardness 5. (firemountaingems.com)
  • Apatite Beads Grade B Apatite Blues Rondelle 2mm Natural https://www.firemountaingems.com/itemdetails/h20k9562cl H20K9562CL Bead, apatite (natural), 4x2mm-5x3mm hand-cut faceted rondelle with 0.4-1mm hole, B- grade, Mohs hardness 5. (firemountaingems.com)
  • Bead, apatite (natural), 5x3mm-6x4mm hand-cut faceted rondelle with 0.4-1mm hole, B- grade, Mohs hardness 5. (firemountaingems.com)
  • If crystals of rutile have grown in the crystal of apatite, in the right light the cut stone displays a cat's-eye effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some cases, crystals of apatite have been cut and used as gems. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • It should be noted that phosphate, arsenate, and vanadate minerals with similar crystalline structures (hexagonal or pseudohexagonal monoclinic crystals) are known as the Apatite Group. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Apatite crystals from two types of samples were analyzed by electron microprobe for 15 major and trace elements: (1) apatite in H2O- and S-saturated experimental charges of the 1982 El Chicho? (usgs.gov)
  • Chowdhury, E.H. (2007) pH-sensitive nano-crystals of carbonate apatite for smart and cell-specific transgene delivery. (scirp.org)
  • Chowdhury, E.H. and Akaike, T. (2005) A Bio-recognition device developed onto nano-crystals of carbonate apatite for cell-targeted gene delivery. (scirp.org)
  • Chatoyant stones are known as cat's-eye apatite, transparent green stones are known as asparagus stone, and blue stones have been called moroxite. (wikipedia.org)
  • Geologists have used a radiometric dating technique (known as fission track dating) with natural deposits of apatite to get a sense of historical changes in temperature in mountain-forming belts and sedimentary basins. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • However, the panner concentrated zircon relative to apatite 4-5X more than the control. (confex.com)
  • These generations are also more LREE-enriched, relative to apatite that formed earlier. (nerc.ac.uk)
  • Cal Apatite Bone Builder with Boron provides excellent bone health support with microcrystalline hydroxyapatite concentrate (MCHC), a highly absorbable crystalline compound that provides everything found in healthy bones and is backed by more than 30 years of research. (bayho.com)
  • Cal Apatite Bone Builder Extra Strength provides normal bone support with microcrystalline hydroxyapatite concentrate (MCHC). (acuatlanta.net)
  • Cal Apatite Bone Builder Extra Strength supports normal bone function with microcrystalline hydroxyapatite concentrate (MCHC), a highly absorbable crystalline compound. (acuatlanta.net)
  • The authors report one case of this rare localization of hydroxy-apatite rheumatism and review 12 similar cases in the literature. (springer.com)
  • Amor B, Cherot A, Delbarre F (1977) Le rhumatisme à hydroxy-apatite (la maladie des calcifications tendineuses multiples). (springer.com)
  • It is intended to provide a dental material formed by using a hydroxy apatite, which is suitable for performing the guided bone regeneration (GBR) method in the implant therapy of dentistry. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Also, it is intended to provide a composite dental material which is a bioabsorbable film provided integrally with hydroxy apatite, which is capable of rapidly attracting the osteoblast and blocking the fibroblast. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 2. The dental material according to claim 1, wherein the hydroxy apatite has a structure that a layer of the hydroxy apatite is sandwiched by a bioabsorbable membrane from each of both sides thereof. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 4. The composite dental material of the bioabsorbable membrane provided integrally with the hydroxy apatite according to claim 3, wherein the bioabsorbable membrane is a collagen membrane. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 5. The composite dental material of the bioabsorbable membrane provided integrally with the hydroxy apatite according to claim 3, wherein the hydroxy apatite is fixed to the membrane main body as being dissolved into a solvent and applied on the bone developing site side of the membrane main body. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Inorganic particles, such as hydroxy apatite (HAP), have shown potential as carriers. (ugent.be)
  • The morphology of the biomimetic apatite changed from plate-like for the pure HA to sphere-like for the Sr ion substituted. (diva-portal.org)
  • Electron microscopic observations on the three-dimensional morphology of apatite crystallites of human dentin and bone. (springer.com)
  • Apatite inclusions have been identified in several primary minerals, and their abundance and morphology have been described. (lincoln.ac.nz)
  • Apatites of composition (Ca10−xPbx)(VO4)6F2 with 0 ≤x≤ 9 were synthesized by sintering in air at 800°C the oxides of calcium, lead, and vanadium that were mixed with calcium fluoride. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • The primary use of apatite is in the manufacture of fertilizer - it is a source of phosphorus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apatite is a rich source of phosphorus that is used in the production of food supplements, pharmaceuticals, textiles, ceramics, fertilizers, insecticides and explosives. (reference.com)
  • Apatite is primarily composed of calcium and phosphorus. (reference.com)
  • The extracted phosphorus from apatite is utilized in the manufacture of pure chemical compounds, such as sodium phosphate, di-calcium phosphate and mono-calcium phosphate. (reference.com)
  • Apatites other than those containing calcium and phosphorus are included. (elsevier.com)
  • Intracellular and extracellular amorphous granules, rich in both calcium and phosphorus, have been observed in apatite-biomineralizing vertebrates, protists, and atremate brachiopods. (nih.gov)
  • Potentiometric acid/base titrations and batch experiments were combined with X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) Spectroscopy to generate dissolution and surface complexation models for both apatites. (diva-portal.org)
  • The interaction between organic ligands and the apatite surfaces was also investigated and the results from this study show that the organic ligands form outer-sphere complexes on the apatite surfaces over a large pH interval, and that this adsorption enhances the dissolution of apatites. (diva-portal.org)
  • We have recently developed biodegradable pH-sensitive inorganic nanoparticles of Mg/CaPi and carbonate apatite for efficient transgene delivery to primary, cancer and embryonic stem cells, by virtue of their high affinity binding with the DNA, ability to contact the cell membrane by ionic or ligand-receptor interactions and fast dissolution kinectis in endosomal acidic pH facilitating release of the DNA from the dissolving particles and also from the endosomes. (scirp.org)
  • The changing REE distribution in the apatite, from early to late in the paragenetic sequence, is interpreted to be caused by a combination of dissolution-reprecipitation of the original apatite and the preferential transport of the LREE complexes by F- and Cl-bearing hydrothermal fluids. (nerc.ac.uk)
  • Cl is not detected in the apatite structure, but the role of Cl is suggested from comparison with apatite dissolution experiments, where CaCl2 or NaCl cause the reprecipitation of apatite without associated monazite. (nerc.ac.uk)
  • Overall dissolution, as determined by the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), was faster in calcium-rich apatites. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • 3. A process as claimed in claim 1, wherein said apatite powder is hydroxyapatite powder. (google.com)
  • However, because apatite such as hydroxyapatite is inferior in mechanical strength in comparison to living bones, it cannot be utilized as a member on which a high load is borne. (google.com)
  • and conferred on it-because it had up to now led all mineralogists identifying it astray-the name apatite, which I formed from the Greek word apatáō ([I] deceive) and which says as much as [the word] deceiver. (merriam-webster.com)
  • The name apatite is derived from a Greek word that means "to deceive," because it appears similar to other minerals, particularly olivine , beryl , and peridot. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The name apatite comes from the Greek word apate, which means, 'to deceive. (firemountaingems.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate four commercial apatite products. (niom.no)
  • Synthetic high temperature B-type carbonate apatites. (elsevier.com)
  • Carbonate apatites from aqueous systems. (elsevier.com)
  • Electron spin resonance of X-irradiated carbonate apatites. (elsevier.com)
  • The problem of carbonate apatites. (springer.com)
  • In this communication we provide a direct insight into the local structure and defects of oxygen excess Ge-apatites, in both dry and deuterated states, by means of pair distribution function analysis. (rsc.org)
  • Bulk Density (Electron Density)=3.15 gm/cc note: Specific Gravity of Apatite-(CaOH) =3.16 gm/cc. (webmineral.com)
  • U=PE Apatite-(CaOH) x r Electron Density= 18.19 barns/cc. (webmineral.com)
  • Bulk Density (Electron Density)=3.17 gm/cc note: Specific Gravity of Apatite-(CaF) =3.20 gm/cc. (webmineral.com)
  • Here we prepared double-layered strontium-substituted apatite and titanium dioxide coatings on titanium substrates via mimicking bone mineralization. (diva-portal.org)
  • The similarities in the mineralization process among the apatite forming tissues suggest that the matrices of these hard tissues contain similar groups of proteins, probably derived from basic cytoplasmic proteins. (springer.com)
  • Apatite can form in sedimentary processes, igneous processes (e.g. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apatite is distributed widely in igneous , metamorphic , and sedimentary rocks, often in the form of cryptocrystalline fragments. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The maximum molar amount of sulfate incorporated in hydroxylapatite (prepared in the presence of Na + ) is more than three times lower than the maximum molar amount of carbonate that can be incorporated, a difference that can be explained by the relative solubilities of the substituted apatites. (geoscienceworld.org)
  • Apatites are a diverse class of phosphate minerals that are important in a great variety of natural and industrial processes. (diva-portal.org)
  • Below is a gallery of Apatite and Phosphate minerals for sale from John Betts - Fine Minerals in New York City, NY. (johnbetts-fineminerals.com)
  • Included apatite resistant to attack by 1N HCl was determined as "residual inorganic P" in fractionation studies on weakly weathered materials, and the influence of fineness of grinding on the ratio of "acid-extractable Ca-P" to residual inorganic P indicated the likely dimensions of the inclusions in different minerals. (lincoln.ac.nz)
  • In their open-access Geology article, Emilie Bruand and colleagues expand the utility of apatite by presenting a novel way to fingerprint magma chemistry and petrogenesis using apatite inclusions within robust titanite and zircon. (eurekalert.org)
  • Even the best yield (control) recovered only 12% of the zircon + apatite expected from the CIPW norm, probably due to loss of zircon + apatite as inclusions in other minerals. (confex.com)
  • It could be said apatite had been deceived into allowing itself to be confused with some of the more valuable gems such as tourmaline, olivine, peridot, topaz and beryl. (firemountaingems.com)
  • Its name comes from the ancient Greek word for "fool" ("sapatao") referring to the frequent confusion of apatite with peridot, beryl, topaz or Paraíba Tourmaline - due to its colour range. (rocksandco.com)
  • An apatite coated article comprising a substrate having thereon an apatite layer which is formed by flame spraying apatite powder at from about 2,000 to 4,000 C., and a process for producing such an apatite coated article. (google.com)
  • 1. A process for producing an apatite coated article comprising a substrate having thereon an apatite layer, said process comprising flame spraying apatite powder at from about 2,000 to 4,000 C. onto said substrate, wherein said flame spraying is high-speed flame spraying using a gas jet wherein the gas jet speed has a Mach number of 2 or more. (google.com)
  • An object of the present invention is to provide a process for producing a composite article, and a composite article having an apatite layer which contains no decomposition product formed during the coating process, and wherein the apatite layer has excellent adhesive properties to the substrate comprised of metals, high-strength ceramics, etc. (google.com)
  • In a second step the coated substrate can be converted to a less reactive coating by being immersed into a basic or neutral solution to convert the coating into an apatite. (google.com)
  • 11. A method in accordance with claim 9 , further including a subsequent step of immersing the coated substrate into a basic or neutral solution to convert the said coating into an apatite. (google.com)
  • It is also known that apatite layers coating the surface of titanium implants improve bone response, but the adhesion of the layer to the substrate poses some problems. (upc.edu)
  • Both roughness and adhesion strength of the deposited apatite layer to the titanium substrate were higher than those of the plasma-sprayed apatite. (upc.edu)
  • Pretty earrings made with Apatite chip beads and sterling silver. (charmsoflight.com)
  • n trachyandesite and (2) apatite in volcanic rocks erupted from 20 volcanoes. (usgs.gov)
  • This is preferable to traditional rare-earth ores such as monazite, as apatite is not very radioactive and does not pose an environmental hazard in mine tailings. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, apatite often contains uranium and its equally radioactive decay-chain nuclides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wide bundles of collagen were embedded around the apatite particles, more at the 12-week time point. (lu.se)
  • Since ascorbate is important for the collagen synthesis and subsequent osteogenesis of mesenchymal stem cells, titanium coated with the ascorbate - apatite composite layer would be useful as a scaffold in bone tissue engineering and as a bone substitute. (researchmap.jp)
  • Nakano, Takayoshi 2018-03-01 00:00:00 Healthy trabecular bone shows highly anisotropic trabecular architecture and the preferential orientation of collagen and apatite inside a trabecula, both of which are predominantly directed along the cephalocaudal axis. (deepdyve.com)
  • We defined the trabecular architectural anisotropy and the preferential orientation of collagen and apatite as parameters of trabecular bone health. (deepdyve.com)
  • An ascorbate - apatite composite layer was successfully formed on NaOH- and heat-treated titanium by coprecipitating L-ascorbic acid phosphate and low-crystalline apatite in a supersaturated calcium phosphate solution at 37 degrees C for 48 h. (researchmap.jp)
  • Interestingly, the apatite growth is dependent on both the concentration of NaOH solution and the structure of the polymer surface. (gla.ac.uk)
  • The Ca/P molar ratio of the apatite deposited on the polymers increases with NaOH strength and SBF incubation time. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Apatites produced by substituting Y3+ and Na+ for Ca2+ in apatite structure showed an excellent conductivity. (epfl.ch)
  • The present invention relates to an apatite coated article, and more particularly it relates to an apatite coated article suitable for biomaterials such as artificial teeth, artificial bones, etc. (google.com)
  • The substitution of sulfate in apatite is of potential importance in synthetic biomaterials used in bone repair and reconstruction. (geoscienceworld.org)
  • Therefore, carbonate apatite (CO 3 Ap) nanoparticles were examined as an alternative strategy for effective gene delivery to the lungs. (hindawi.com)
  • Most apatite GCs crystallize through a homogenous nucleation and crystallization mechanism, which is aided by a prior liquid-liquid phase separation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Polyphosphates may be associated with biologically controlled apatite nucleation within vertebrates and invertebrates. (nih.gov)
  • As immersion time in SBF increased, further nucleation and growth produced a thicker apatite layer which can be expected to be highly bioactive. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Substitutions in apatites. (elsevier.com)
  • Several structural configurations of such substitutions have been presented as models for carbonate apatite. (springer.com)
  • Biomimetic apatite-forming ability of the deposited films was examined by soaking in simulated body fluid (SBF). (scientific.net)
  • Successive pulses of these fluids transport the LREE out of the original apatite, preferentially re-precipitating it on the rim. (nerc.ac.uk)
  • Etching of well-crystallized apatite grains occurred preferentially on {1010} faces. (ntu.edu.sg)
  • Cal Apatite Bone Builder Extra Strength is recommended for people supporting normal bone function. (acuatlanta.net)
  • Cal Apatite Bone Builder Extra Strength product is available only from licensed healthcare professionals. (acuatlanta.net)
  • Buy Cal Apatite Bone Builder Extra Strength Online here at AcuAtlanta.net or our clinic. (acuatlanta.net)
  • The Parker gem necklace in Apatite really pops! (gorjana.com)
  • Preparation involves the sintering causing the irreversible decomposition of calcium deficient apatites alternatively termed non-stoichiometric apatites or basic calcium phosphate, an example is: Ca10−δ(PO4)6−δ(HPO4)δ(OH)2−δ → (1-δ)Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 + 3δCa3(PO4)2 β-TCP can contain impurities, for example calcium pyrophosphate, CaP2O7 and apatite. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apatite-type oxides, La 10-x (Si/Ge) 6 O 26+z , have been attracting significant interest recently due to their high oxide ion conductivities. (springer.com)