A group of phosphate minerals that includes ten mineral species and has the general formula X5(YO4)3Z, where X is usually calcium or lead, Y is phosphorus or arsenic, and Z is chlorine, fluorine, or OH-. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.
The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.
Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.
A group of compounds with the general formula M10(PO4)6(OH)2, where M is barium, strontium, or calcium. The compounds are the principal mineral in phosphorite deposits, biological tissue, human bones, and teeth. They are also used as an anticaking agent and polymer catalysts. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Materials fabricated by BIOMIMETICS techniques, i.e., based on natural processes found in biological systems.
Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.
A major dental enamel-forming protein found in mammals. In humans the protein is encoded by GENES found on both the X CHROMOSOME and the Y CHROMOSOME.
Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.
Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.
The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.
A secreted matrix metalloproteinase that is the predominant proteolytic activity in the enamel matrix. The enzyme has a high specificity for dental enamel matrix protein AMELOGENIN.
Therapeutic technique for replacement of minerals in partially decalcified teeth.
The elaboration of dental enamel by ameloblasts, beginning with its participation in the formation of the dentino-enamel junction to the production of the matrix for the enamel prisms and interprismatic substance. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992).
The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The study of the energy of electrons ejected from matter by the photoelectric effect, i.e., as a direct result of absorption of energy from electromagnetic radiation. As the energies of the electrons are characteristic of a specific element, the measurement of the energy of these electrons is a technique used to determine the chemical composition of surfaces.
A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.
Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The spectrometric analysis of fluorescent X-RAYS, i.e. X-rays emitted after bombarding matter with high energy particles such as PROTONS; ELECTRONS; or higher energy X-rays. Identification of ELEMENTS by this technique is based on the specific type of X-rays that are emitted which are characteristic of the specific elements in the material being analyzed. The characteristic X-rays are distinguished and/or quantified by either wavelength dispersive or energy dispersive methods.
Products made by baking or firing nonmetallic minerals (clay and similar materials). In making dental restorations or parts of restorations the material is fused porcelain. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)
The process whereby calcium salts are deposited in the dental enamel. The process is normal in the development of bones and teeth. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p43)
Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.
Biocompatible materials usually used in dental and bone implants that enhance biologic fixation, thereby increasing the bond strength between the coated material and bone, and minimize possible biological effects that may result from the implant itself.
Stones in the KIDNEY, usually formed in the urine-collecting area of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS). Their sizes vary and most contains CALCIUM OXALATE.
A hard thin translucent layer of calcified substance which envelops and protects the dentin of the crown of the tooth. It is the hardest substance in the body and is almost entirely composed of calcium salts. Under the microscope, it is composed of thin rods (enamel prisms) held together by cementing substance, and surrounded by an enamel sheath. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)
Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.
Liquid components of living organisms.
A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.
Physical reactions involved in the formation of or changes in the structure of atoms and molecules and their interactions.
The hard portion of the tooth surrounding the pulp, covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root, which is harder and denser than bone but softer than enamel, and is thus readily abraded when left unprotected. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)

Dentinal tubule occlusion with lanthanum fluoride and powdered apatite glass ceramics in vitro. (1/221)

To simulate hypersensitive dentin, the smear layer and dentinal plugs of bovine root dentin specimens were removed by immersion in 10% phosphoric acid, polishing with hydroxyapatite particles, and ultrasonic cleansing. The fluoride-tannic acid-lanthanum-apatite (FTLA) group was treated with acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) containing tannic acid followed by rubbing with a paste of lanthanum chloride (LaCl3) and powdered apatite glass ceramics. The treated specimens were immersed in a remineralizing solution that mimics saliva for 6 weeks. The SEM observations revealed that the treated surfaces of the FTLA group were completely covered with fine spherical compounds and the dentinal tubules were occluded with plugs to a depth of about 3 microns. Fluoride and lanthanum were detected to a depth of over 20 microns by EPMA observation. After the remineralization, the surface of FTLA-treated specimen did not have any opened tubules and showed a remarkable increase in the number of fine spherical deposits in the dentinal tubules. These results suggest that the reaction products produced by sequential treatment with acidic fluoride and LaCl3 and powdered apatite glass ceramics are able to effectively occlude dentinal tubules.  (+info)

Reversible suppression of in vitro biomineralization by activation of protein kinase A. (2/221)

Parathyroid hormone (PTH-(1-34)) potently suppresses apatite deposition in osteoblastic cultures. These inhibitory effects are mediated through signaling events following PTH receptor binding. Using both selective inhibitors and activators of protein kinase A (PKA), this study shows that a transient activation of PKA is sufficient to account for PTH's inhibition of apatite deposition. This inhibition is not a result of reduced cell proliferation, reduced alkaline phosphatase activity, increased collagenase production, or lowering medium pH. Rather, data suggest a functional relationship between matrix assembly and apatite deposition in vitro. Bone sialoprotein (BSP) and apatite co-localize in the extracellular matrix of mineralizing cultures, with matrix deposition of BSP temporally preceding that of apatite. Transient activation of PKA by either PTH-(1-34) or short term cAMP analog treatment blocks the deposition of BSP in the extracellular matrix without a significant reduction in the total amount of BSP synthesized and secreted. This effect is reversible after allowing the cultures to recover in the absence of PKA activators for several days. Thus, a transient activation of PKA may suppress mineral deposition in vitro as a consequence of altering the assembly of an extracellular matrix permissive for apatite formation.  (+info)

Porous apatite-wollastonite glass-ceramic as an intramedullary plug. (3/221)

We evaluated the efficacy and biocompatibility of porous apatite-wollastonite glass ceramic (AW-GC) as an intramedullary plug in total hip replacement (THR) for up to two years in 22 adult beagle dogs. Cylindrical porous AW-GC rods (70% porosity, mean pore size 200 microm) were prepared. Four dogs were killed at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months each and six at 24 months after implantation. Radiological evaluation confirmed the efficacy of porous AW-CG as an intramedullary plug. Histological evaluation showed osteoconduction at one month and resorption of the porous AW-GC, which was replaced by newly-formed bone, at 24 months. Our findings indicate that porous AW-GC can be used clinically as an intramedullary plug in THR.  (+info)

A bone replaceable artificial bone substitute: morphological and physiochemical characterizations. (4/221)

A composite material consisting of carbonate apatite (CAp) and type I atelocollagen (AtCol) (88/12 in wt/wt%) was designed for use as an artificial bone substitute. CAp was synthesized at 58 degrees C by a solution-precipitation method and then heated at either 980 degrees C or 1,200 degrees C. In this study, type I AtCol was purified from bovine tail skins. A CAp-AtCol mixture was prepared by centirfugation and condensed into composite rods or disks. The scanning electron-microscopic (SEM) characterization indicated that the CAp synthesized at 58 degrees C displayed a crystallinity similar to that of natural bone and had a high porosity (mean pore size: about 3-10 microns in diameter). SEM also revealed that the CAp heated at 980 degrees C was more porous than that sintered at 1,200 degrees C, and the 1,200 degrees C-heated particles were more uniformly encapsulated by the AtCol fibers than the 980 degrees C-heated ones. A Fourier transformed-infrared spectroscopic analysis showed that the bands characteristic of carbonate ions were clearly observed in the 58 degrees C-synthesized CAp. To enhance the intramolecular cross-linking between the collagen molecules, CAp-AtCol composites were irradiated by ultraviolet (UV) ray (wave length 254 nm) for 4 hours or vacuum-dried at 150 degrees C for 2 hours. Compared to the non cross-linked composites, the UV-irradiated or dehydrothermally cross-linked composites showed significantly (p < 0.05) low collagen degradation and swelling ratio. Preliminary mechanical data demonstrated that the compressive strengths of the CAp-AtCol composites were higher than the values reported for bone.  (+info)

Augmentation of (pedicle) screws with calcium apatite cement in patients with severe progressive osteoporotic spinal deformities: an innovative technique. (5/221)

Screw augmentation with calcium apatite cement (CAC) was used in seven patients with a progressive osteoporotic spinal deformity. Thirty-nine spinal segments (64 screws) were augmented: 15 anteriorly (three patients) and 24 posteriorly (five patients). Dorsally, hemilaminectomy was performed at the level of all augmented screws to rule out CAC leakage. Autogenous bone graft was applied in all patients to induce fusion. Screw augmentation failure occurred in only one patient: 1 of the 16 ventral augmented screws (5.5%) was still loose after the augmentation procedure. In three other patients, 4 out of 48 augmented dorsal screws (5.5%) showed CAC leakage at the pedicle corpus vertebra level. Pedicle wall damage was present at two levels, while at two other levels no wall damage was found during visualization. No CAC-related complications were observed perioperatively. No implant migration was observed, and fusion was observed in all cases at follow-up examination performed at a mean of 32 months after surgery.  (+info)

Calcification of rachitic rat cartilage in vitro by extracellular matrix vesicles. (6/221)

Growth plate cartilage from rachitic rats was studied to assess the role in calcification of extracellular matrix vesicles, which are thought to participate in the initial stage of mineralization of connective tissue. The concentration of matrix vesicles and their distribution within the longitudinal septa was found to be normal in rats made rachitic by feeding by a diet low in vitamin D and phosphate for 3 weeks after weaning. Rachitic cartilage matrix did not contain circumvesicular clusters of apatite as does normal cartilage; however, occasional vesicles did enclose one or a few apatite needles. When slices of rachitic cartilage were incubated at 37 C in a metastable calcium phosphate solution ([Ca++] times [PO SEE ARTICLE] equals 3.5 mM identical to 2), apatite formation was initiated in association with matrix vesicles. Under these conditions, mineralization was prominent in the upper hypertrophic cartilage, where matrix vesicles became encrusted with apatite after only 2 to 3 hours of incubation. Vesicular apatite accumulation was inhibited by preheating the cartilage to 60 C for 30 minutes. Measurements of 45Ca uptake by rachitic cartilage slices from metastable calcium phosphates solution also indicated inhibition of calcification by heat. Light microscopic autoradiographs showed 45Ca localization primarily in the matrix of longitudinal septa and substantiated the inhibition site of mineralization in healing rachitic cartilage. The presence of apatite within rachitic vesicles prior to heating and the inhibition of vesicle calcification by heat suggests an active, enzymatically and mediated mechanism of vesicular calcification.  (+info)

Modification of electrochemically deposited apatite using supercritical water. (7/221)

Supercritical water was used as a modification method of electrochemically deposited apatite on pure titanium. The apatites were coated on a commercially pure titanium plate using a hydrothermal-electrochemical method. A constant direct current at 12.5 mA/cm2 was loaded for 1 hr at 25, 60, 100, 150 and 200 degrees C in an electrolyte containing calcium and phosphate ions. The deposited apatite on the titanium substrate was stored in supercritical water at 450 degrees C under 45 MPa for 8 hr. With this treatment, the crystallinity of the apatites increased, sharp edges of the deposited apatites were rounded off, and the bonding strength of the titanium substrate to the deposited apatites significantly increased. On the other hand, weight loss in 0.01 N HCl decreased and the weight gain rate in a simulated body fluid also decreased with this treatment. It is suggested that the modification using supercritical water improved the mechanical strength of the deposited apatite, but worsened its bioactivity.  (+info)

Calcium apatite crystals in synovial fluid rice bodies. (8/221)

BACKGROUND: Rice bodies can occur in the joints in many rheumatic conditions, but they are most common in rheumatoid arthritis. They are generally believed to occur rarely in patients with osteoarthritis, but one study reported rice bodies with apatite crystals. OBJECTIVE: To report on a series of joint fluids with rice bodies containing apatite clumps and examine their clinical pictures. METHODS: All synovial fluid analysis reports for 10 years were reviewed for rice bodies and eight patients were reported on. A series of patients with a variety of diseases with synovial fluid rice bodies found to contain calcific material is described. All were examined by compensated polarised light and alizarin red stain, and four were examined by electron microscopy. RESULTS: The eight patients all had alizarin red S chunks embedded throughout the rice body. Transmission electron microscopy disclosed the presence of a matrix of collagen, fibrin, and amorphous materials containing typical apatite crystals. Clinical diagnoses, radiographic findings, and leucocyte counts varied, but six of the eight patients had had previous repeated corticosteroid injections into the joints. CONCLUSION: Aggregates of apatites may be more common than previously recognised in rice bodies as they are not routinely sought. Whether they are a result of joint damage or depot steroid injections and whether that might contribute to further joint injury now needs to be investigated.  (+info)

Apatite is a group of phosphate minerals, primarily consisting of fluorapatite, chlorapatite, and hydroxylapatite. They are important constituents of rocks and bones, and they have a wide range of applications in various industries. In the context of medicine, apatites are most notable for their presence in human teeth and bones.

Hydroxylapatite is the primary mineral component of tooth enamel, making up about 97% of its weight. It provides strength and hardness to the enamel, enabling it to withstand the forces of biting and chewing. Fluorapatite, a related mineral that contains fluoride ions instead of hydroxyl ions, is also present in tooth enamel and helps to protect it from acid erosion caused by bacteria and dietary acids.

Chlorapatite has limited medical relevance but can be found in some pathological calcifications in the body.

In addition to their natural occurrence in teeth and bones, apatites have been synthesized for various medical applications, such as bone graft substitutes, drug delivery systems, and tissue engineering scaffolds. These synthetic apatites are biocompatible and can promote bone growth and regeneration, making them useful in dental and orthopedic procedures.

Calcium phosphates are a group of minerals that are important components of bones and teeth. They are also found in some foods and are used in dietary supplements and medical applications. Chemically, calcium phosphates are salts of calcium and phosphoric acid, and they exist in various forms, including hydroxyapatite, which is the primary mineral component of bone tissue. Other forms of calcium phosphates include monocalcium phosphate, dicalcium phosphate, and tricalcium phosphate, which are used as food additives and dietary supplements. Calcium phosphates are important for maintaining strong bones and teeth, and they also play a role in various physiological processes, such as nerve impulse transmission and muscle contraction.

Dura Mater: The tough, outer membrane that covers the brain and spinal cord.

Hydroxyapatite: A naturally occurring mineral form of calcium apatite, also known as dahllite, with the formula Ca5(PO4)3(OH), is the primary mineral component of biological apatites found in bones and teeth.

Therefore, "Durapatite" isn't a recognized medical term, but it seems like it might be a combination of "dura mater" and "hydroxyapatite." If you meant to ask about a material used in medical or dental applications that combines properties of both dura mater and hydroxyapatite, please provide more context.

Bone substitutes are materials that are used to replace missing or damaged bone in the body. They can be made from a variety of materials, including natural bone from other parts of the body or from animals, synthetic materials, or a combination of both. The goal of using bone substitutes is to provide structural support and promote the growth of new bone tissue.

Bone substitutes are often used in dental, orthopedic, and craniofacial surgery to help repair defects caused by trauma, tumors, or congenital abnormalities. They can also be used to augment bone volume in procedures such as spinal fusion or joint replacement.

There are several types of bone substitutes available, including:

1. Autografts: Bone taken from another part of the patient's body, such as the hip or pelvis.
2. Allografts: Bone taken from a deceased donor and processed to remove any cells and infectious materials.
3. Xenografts: Bone from an animal source, typically bovine or porcine, that has been processed to remove any cells and infectious materials.
4. Synthetic bone substitutes: Materials such as calcium phosphate ceramics, bioactive glass, and polymer-based materials that are designed to mimic the properties of natural bone.

The choice of bone substitute material depends on several factors, including the size and location of the defect, the patient's medical history, and the surgeon's preference. It is important to note that while bone substitutes can provide structural support and promote new bone growth, they may not have the same strength or durability as natural bone. Therefore, they may not be suitable for all applications, particularly those that require high load-bearing capacity.

Hydroxyapatite is a calcium phosphate mineral that makes up about 70% of the inorganic component of bone and teeth in humans and other animals. It has the chemical formula Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2. Hydroxyapatite is a naturally occurring mineral form of calcium apatite, with the idealized crystal structure consisting of alternating calcium and phosphate layers.

In addition to its natural occurrence in bone and teeth, hydroxyapatite has various medical applications due to its biocompatibility and osteoconductive properties. It is used as a coating on orthopedic implants to promote bone growth and integration with the implant, and it is also used in dental and oral healthcare products for remineralization of tooth enamel. Furthermore, hydroxyapatite has been studied for its potential use in drug delivery systems, tissue engineering, and other biomedical applications.

Biomimetic materials are synthetic or natural substances that mimic the chemical, physical, and biological properties of living systems or tissues. These materials are designed to interact with cells, tissues, and organs in ways that resemble the body's own structures and processes. They can be used in a variety of medical applications, including tissue engineering, drug delivery, and medical devices.

Biomimetic materials may be composed of polymers, ceramics, metals, or composites, and they can be designed to have specific properties such as mechanical strength, biocompatibility, and degradability. They may also incorporate bioactive molecules, such as growth factors or drugs, to promote healing or prevent infection.

The goal of using biomimetic materials is to create medical solutions that are more effective, safer, and more compatible with the body than traditional synthetic materials. By mimicking the body's own structures and processes, these materials can help to reduce inflammation, promote tissue regeneration, and improve overall patient outcomes.

Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is a type of electron microscopy that uses a focused beam of electrons to scan the surface of a sample and produce a high-resolution image. In SEM, a beam of electrons is scanned across the surface of a specimen, and secondary electrons are emitted from the sample due to interactions between the electrons and the atoms in the sample. These secondary electrons are then detected by a detector and used to create an image of the sample's surface topography. SEM can provide detailed images of the surface of a wide range of materials, including metals, polymers, ceramics, and biological samples. It is commonly used in materials science, biology, and electronics for the examination and analysis of surfaces at the micro- and nanoscale.

Amelogenin is a protein that plays a crucial role in the formation and mineralization of enamel, which is the hard, calcified tissue that covers the outer surface of teeth. It is expressed during tooth development and is secreted by ameloblasts, the cells responsible for producing enamel.

Amelogenin makes up approximately 90% of the organic matrix of developing enamel and guides the growth and organization of hydroxyapatite crystals, which are the primary mineral component of enamel. The protein is subsequently degraded and removed as the enamel matures and becomes fully mineralized.

Mutations in the gene that encodes amelogenin (AMELX on the X chromosome) can lead to various inherited enamel defects, such as amelogenesis imperfecta, which is characterized by thin, soft, or poorly formed enamel. Additionally, because of its high expression in developing teeth and unique size and structure, amelogenin has been widely used as a marker in forensic dentistry for human identification and sex determination.

Physiologic calcification is the normal deposit of calcium salts in body tissues and organs. It is a natural process that occurs as part of the growth and development of the human body, as well as during the repair and remodeling of tissues.

Calcium is an essential mineral that plays a critical role in many bodily functions, including bone formation, muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and blood clotting. In order to maintain proper levels of calcium in the body, excess calcium that is not needed for these functions may be deposited in various tissues as a normal part of the aging process.

Physiologic calcification typically occurs in areas such as the walls of blood vessels, the lungs, and the heart valves. While these calcifications are generally harmless, they can sometimes lead to complications, particularly if they occur in large amounts or in sensitive areas. For example, calcification of the coronary arteries can increase the risk of heart disease, while calcification of the lung tissue can cause respiratory symptoms.

It is important to note that pathologic calcification, on the other hand, refers to the abnormal deposit of calcium salts in tissues and organs, which can be caused by various medical conditions such as chronic kidney disease, hyperparathyroidism, and certain infections. Pathologic calcification is not a normal process and can lead to serious health complications if left untreated.

Biocompatible materials are non-toxic and non-reacting substances that can be used in medical devices, tissue engineering, and drug delivery systems without causing harm or adverse reactions to living tissues or organs. These materials are designed to mimic the properties of natural tissues and are able to integrate with biological systems without being rejected by the body's immune system.

Biocompatible materials can be made from a variety of substances, including metals, ceramics, polymers, and composites. The specific properties of these materials, such as their mechanical strength, flexibility, and biodegradability, are carefully selected to meet the requirements of their intended medical application.

Examples of biocompatible materials include titanium used in dental implants and joint replacements, polyethylene used in artificial hips, and hydrogels used in contact lenses and drug delivery systems. The use of biocompatible materials has revolutionized modern medicine by enabling the development of advanced medical technologies that can improve patient outcomes and quality of life.

I'm happy to help! However, I must clarify that "materials testing" is not a medical term per se. It is a term used in various fields, including engineering and materials science, to describe the process of subjecting materials to different tests to evaluate their properties and performance under various conditions.

In the context of medical devices or implants, materials testing may refer to the evaluation of the physical and mechanical properties of materials used in their construction. These tests can include assessments of strength, durability, biocompatibility, and other factors that are critical to ensuring the safety and efficacy of medical devices.

Medical device manufacturers must comply with regulatory standards for materials testing to ensure that their products meet specific requirements for performance, safety, and quality. These standards may vary depending on the type of device, its intended use, and the country or region in which it will be marketed and sold.

Matrix metalloproteinase-20 (MMP-20) is a type of enzyme that belongs to the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family. MMPs are involved in the breakdown and remodeling of extracellular matrix components, such as collagen and elastin.

MMP-20, also known as Enamelysin, is primarily expressed in developing teeth and plays a crucial role in tooth development and mineralization. It is responsible for the degradation of enamel proteins during tooth formation, helping to shape and harden the enamel matrix. MMP-20 is secreted by ameloblasts, which are the cells that produce enamel.

Defects in MMP-20 have been associated with dental disorders such as Amelogenesis imperfecta, a group of genetic conditions characterized by abnormalities in tooth enamel formation and structure.

Tooth remineralization is a natural process by which minerals, such as calcium and phosphate, are redeposited into the microscopic pores (hydroxyapatite crystals) in the enamel of a tooth. This process can help to repair early decay and strengthen the teeth. It occurs when the mouth's pH is neutral or slightly alkaline, which allows the minerals in our saliva, fluoride from toothpaste or other sources, and calcium and phosphate ions from foods to be absorbed into the enamel. Remineralization can be promoted through good oral hygiene practices, such as brushing with a fluoride toothpaste, flossing, and eating a balanced diet that includes foods rich in calcium and phosphate.

Amelogenesis is the biological process of forming enamel, which is the hard and highly mineralized outer layer of teeth. Enamel is primarily made up of calcium and phosphate minerals and is the toughest substance in the human body. Amelogenesis involves the synthesis, secretion, and maturation of enamel proteins by specialized cells called ameloblasts.

The medical definition of 'Amelogenesis' refers to a genetic disorder that affects the development and formation of tooth enamel. This condition is also known as Amelogenesis Imperfecta (AI) and can result in teeth that are discolored, sensitive, and prone to decay. There are several types of Amelogenesis Imperfecta, each with its own set of symptoms and genetic causes.

In summary, 'Amelogenesis' is the biological process of enamel formation, while 'Amelogenesis Imperfecta' is a genetic disorder that affects this process, leading to abnormal tooth enamel development.

Crystallization is a process in which a substance transitions from a liquid or dissolved state to a solid state, forming a crystal lattice. In the medical context, crystallization can refer to the formation of crystals within the body, which can occur under certain conditions such as changes in pH, temperature, or concentration of solutes. These crystals can deposit in various tissues and organs, leading to the formation of crystal-induced diseases or disorders.

For example, in patients with gout, uric acid crystals can accumulate in joints, causing inflammation, pain, and swelling. Similarly, in nephrolithiasis (kidney stones), minerals in the urine can crystallize and form stones that can obstruct the urinary tract. Crystallization can also occur in other medical contexts, such as in the formation of dental calculus or plaque, and in the development of cataracts in the eye.

X-ray diffraction (XRD) is not strictly a medical definition, but it is a technique commonly used in the field of medical research and diagnostics. XRD is a form of analytical spectroscopy that uses the phenomenon of X-ray diffraction to investigate the crystallographic structure of materials. When a beam of X-rays strikes a crystal, it is scattered in specific directions and with specific intensities that are determined by the arrangement of atoms within the crystal. By measuring these diffraction patterns, researchers can determine the crystal structures of various materials, including biological macromolecules such as proteins and viruses.

In the medical field, XRD is often used to study the structure of drugs and drug candidates, as well as to analyze the composition and structure of tissues and other biological samples. For example, XRD can be used to investigate the crystal structures of calcium phosphate minerals in bone tissue, which can provide insights into the mechanisms of bone formation and disease. Additionally, XRD is sometimes used in the development of new medical imaging techniques, such as phase-contrast X-ray imaging, which has the potential to improve the resolution and contrast of traditional X-ray images.

Photoelectron Spectroscopy (PES) is not typically considered a medical definition, but it is a term used in physical and analytical chemistry. However, I can provide a definition for you:

Photoelectron Spectroscopy (PES) is a technique used to study the electronic structure of atoms, molecules, and solids by irradiating them with photons (usually from a laser or a synchrotron light source) and measuring the kinetic energy of the ejected electrons. The technique provides information about the energy levels of the electrons in the sample, which can be used to determine its chemical composition, bonding, and electronic structure. PES is a valuable tool in surface science, materials research, and environmental analysis.

Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy is a type of infrared spectroscopy that uses the Fourier transform mathematical technique to convert the raw data obtained from an interferometer into a more interpretable spectrum. This technique allows for the simultaneous collection of a wide range of wavelengths, resulting in increased sensitivity and speed compared to traditional dispersive infrared spectroscopy.

FTIR spectroscopy measures the absorption or transmission of infrared radiation by a sample as a function of frequency, providing information about the vibrational modes of the molecules present in the sample. This can be used for identification and quantification of chemical compounds, analysis of molecular structure, and investigation of chemical interactions and reactions.

In summary, FTIR spectroscopy is a powerful analytical technique that uses infrared radiation to study the vibrational properties of molecules, with increased sensitivity and speed due to the use of Fourier transform mathematical techniques and an interferometer.

In the context of nutrition and health, minerals are inorganic elements that are essential for various bodily functions, such as nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance, and bone structure. They are required in small amounts compared to macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats) and are obtained from food and water.

Some of the major minerals include calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and chloride, while trace minerals or microminerals are required in even smaller amounts and include iron, zinc, copper, manganese, iodine, selenium, and fluoride.

It's worth noting that the term "minerals" can also refer to geological substances found in the earth, but in medical terminology, it specifically refers to the essential inorganic elements required for human health.

X-ray emission spectrometry is a technique used to analyze the elements present in a sample by measuring the characteristic X-rays that are emitted when the sample is bombarded with high-energy X-rays or charged particles. The sample is excited to emit X-rays, which have specific energies (wavelengths) that correspond to the energy levels of the electrons in the atoms of the elements present in the sample. These X-ray emissions are then detected and analyzed using a spectrometer, which separates and measures the intensity of the different X-ray energies. The resulting spectrum provides information about the identity and quantity of the elements present in the sample. This technique is widely used in materials analysis, particularly for the identification and quantification of heavy metals and other elements in a variety of samples, including geological, biological, and industrial materials.

In the field of medicine, ceramics are commonly referred to as inorganic, non-metallic materials that are made up of compounds such as oxides, carbides, and nitrides. These materials are often used in medical applications due to their biocompatibility, resistance to corrosion, and ability to withstand high temperatures. Some examples of medical ceramics include:

1. Bioceramics: These are ceramic materials that are used in medical devices and implants, such as hip replacements, dental implants, and bone grafts. They are designed to be biocompatible, which means they can be safely implanted into the body without causing an adverse reaction.
2. Ceramic coatings: These are thin layers of ceramic material that are applied to medical devices and implants to improve their performance and durability. For example, ceramic coatings may be used on orthopedic implants to reduce wear and tear, or on cardiovascular implants to prevent blood clots from forming.
3. Ceramic membranes: These are porous ceramic materials that are used in medical filtration systems, such as hemodialysis machines. They are designed to selectively filter out impurities while allowing essential molecules to pass through.
4. Ceramic scaffolds: These are three-dimensional structures made of ceramic material that are used in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. They provide a framework for cells to grow and multiply, helping to repair or replace damaged tissues.

Overall, medical ceramics play an important role in modern healthcare, providing safe and effective solutions for a wide range of medical applications.

Tooth calcification, also known as dental calculus or tartar formation, refers to the hardening of plaque on the surface of teeth. This process occurs when minerals from saliva combine with bacterial deposits and dental plaque, resulting in a hard, calcified substance that adheres to the tooth surface. Calcification can occur both above and below the gum line, and if not removed through professional dental cleanings, it can lead to periodontal disease, tooth decay, and other oral health issues.

Carbonates are a class of chemical compounds that consist of a metal or metalloid combined with carbonate ions (CO32-). These compounds form when carbon dioxide (CO2) reacts with a base, such as a metal hydroxide. The reaction produces water (H2O), carbonic acid (H2CO3), and the corresponding carbonate.

Carbonates are important in many biological and geological processes. In the body, for example, calcium carbonate is a major component of bones and teeth. It also plays a role in maintaining pH balance by reacting with excess acid in the stomach to form carbon dioxide and water.

In nature, carbonates are common minerals found in rocks such as limestone and dolomite. They can also be found in mineral waters and in the shells of marine organisms. Carbonate rocks play an important role in the global carbon cycle, as they can dissolve or precipitate depending on environmental conditions, which affects the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3. It is a common substance found in rocks and in the shells of many marine animals. As a mineral, it is known as calcite or aragonite.

In the medical field, calcium carbonate is often used as a dietary supplement to prevent or treat calcium deficiency. It is also commonly used as an antacid to neutralize stomach acid and relieve symptoms of heartburn, acid reflux, and indigestion.

Calcium carbonate works by reacting with hydrochloric acid in the stomach to form water, carbon dioxide, and calcium chloride. This reaction helps to raise the pH level in the stomach and neutralize excess acid.

It is important to note that excessive use of calcium carbonate can lead to hypercalcemia, a condition characterized by high levels of calcium in the blood, which can cause symptoms such as nausea, vomiting, constipation, confusion, and muscle weakness. Therefore, it is recommended to consult with a healthcare provider before starting any new supplement regimen.

Biocompatible coated materials refer to surfaces or substances that are treated or engineered with a layer or film designed to interact safely and effectively with living tissues or biological systems, without causing harm or adverse reactions. The coating material is typically composed of biomaterials that can withstand the conditions of the specific application while promoting a positive response from the body.

The purpose of these coatings may vary depending on the medical device or application. For example, they might be used to enhance the lubricity and wear resistance of implantable devices, reduce the risk of infection, promote integration with surrounding tissues, control drug release, or prevent the formation of biofilms.

Biocompatible coated materials must undergo rigorous testing and evaluation to ensure their safety and efficacy in various clinical settings. This includes assessing potential cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, sensitization, hemocompatibility, carcinogenicity, and other factors that could impact the body's response to the material.

Examples of biocompatible coating materials include:

1. Hydrogels: Cross-linked networks of hydrophilic polymers that can be used for drug delivery, tissue engineering, or as lubricious coatings on medical devices.
2. Self-assembling monolayers (SAMs): Organosilane or thiol-based molecules that form a stable, well-ordered film on surfaces, which can be further functionalized to promote specific biological interactions.
3. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG): A biocompatible polymer often used as a coating material due to its ability to reduce protein adsorption and cell attachment, making it useful for preventing biofouling or thrombosis on medical devices.
4. Bioactive glass: A type of biomaterial composed of silica-based glasses that can stimulate bone growth and healing when used as a coating material in orthopedic or dental applications.
5. Drug-eluting coatings: Biocompatible polymers impregnated with therapeutic agents, designed to release the drug over time to promote healing, prevent infection, or inhibit restenosis in various medical devices.

Kidney calculi, also known as kidney stones, are hard deposits made of minerals and salts that form inside your kidneys. They can range in size from a grain of sand to a golf ball. When they're small enough, they can be passed through your urine without causing too much discomfort. However, larger stones may block the flow of urine, causing severe pain and potentially leading to serious complications such as urinary tract infections or kidney damage if left untreated.

The formation of kidney calculi is often associated with factors like dehydration, high levels of certain minerals in your urine, family history, obesity, and certain medical conditions such as gout or inflammatory bowel disease. Symptoms of kidney stones typically include severe pain in the back, side, lower abdomen, or groin; nausea and vomiting; fever and chills if an infection is present; and blood in the urine. Treatment options depend on the size and location of the stone but may include medications to help pass the stone, shock wave lithotripsy to break up the stone, or surgical removal of the stone in severe cases.

Dental enamel is the hard, white, outermost layer of a tooth. It is a highly mineralized and avascular tissue, meaning it contains no living cells or blood vessels. Enamel is primarily composed of calcium and phosphate minerals and serves as the protective covering for the crown of a tooth, which is the portion visible above the gum line.

Enamel is the hardest substance in the human body, and its primary function is to provide structural support and protection to the underlying dentin and pulp tissues of the tooth. It also plays a crucial role in chewing and biting by helping to distribute forces evenly across the tooth surface during these activities.

Despite its hardness, dental enamel can still be susceptible to damage from factors such as tooth decay, erosion, and abrasion. Once damaged or lost, enamel cannot regenerate or repair itself, making it essential to maintain good oral hygiene practices and seek regular dental checkups to prevent enamel damage and protect overall oral health.

Surface properties in the context of medical science refer to the characteristics and features of the outermost layer or surface of a biological material or structure, such as cells, tissues, organs, or medical devices. These properties can include physical attributes like roughness, smoothness, hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity, and electrical conductivity, as well as chemical properties like charge, reactivity, and composition.

In the field of biomaterials science, understanding surface properties is crucial for designing medical implants, devices, and drug delivery systems that can interact safely and effectively with biological tissues and fluids. Surface modifications, such as coatings or chemical treatments, can be used to alter surface properties and enhance biocompatibility, improve lubricity, reduce fouling, or promote specific cellular responses like adhesion, proliferation, or differentiation.

Similarly, in the field of cell biology, understanding surface properties is essential for studying cell-cell interactions, cell signaling, and cell behavior. Cells can sense and respond to changes in their environment, including variations in surface properties, which can influence cell shape, motility, and function. Therefore, characterizing and manipulating surface properties can provide valuable insights into the mechanisms of cellular processes and offer new strategies for developing therapies and treatments for various diseases.

Body fluids refer to the various liquids that can be found within and circulating throughout the human body. These fluids include, but are not limited to:

1. Blood: A fluid that carries oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and waste products throughout the body via the cardiovascular system. It is composed of red and white blood cells suspended in plasma.
2. Lymph: A clear-to-white fluid that circulates through the lymphatic system, helping to remove waste products, bacteria, and damaged cells from tissues while also playing a crucial role in the immune system.
3. Interstitial fluid: Also known as tissue fluid or extracellular fluid, it is the fluid that surrounds the cells in the body's tissues, allowing for nutrient exchange and waste removal between cells and blood vessels.
4. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF): A clear, colorless fluid that circulates around the brain and spinal cord, providing protection, cushioning, and nutrients to these delicate structures while also removing waste products.
5. Pleural fluid: A small amount of lubricating fluid found in the pleural space between the lungs and the chest wall, allowing for smooth movement during respiration.
6. Pericardial fluid: A small amount of lubricating fluid found within the pericardial sac surrounding the heart, reducing friction during heart contractions.
7. Synovial fluid: A viscous, lubricating fluid found in joint spaces, allowing for smooth movement and protecting the articular cartilage from wear and tear.
8. Urine: A waste product produced by the kidneys, consisting of water, urea, creatinine, and various ions, which is excreted through the urinary system.
9. Gastrointestinal secretions: Fluids produced by the digestive system, including saliva, gastric juice, bile, pancreatic juice, and intestinal secretions, which aid in digestion, absorption, and elimination of food particles.
10. Reproductive fluids: Secretions from the male (semen) and female (cervical mucus, vaginal lubrication) reproductive systems that facilitate fertilization and reproduction.

Titanium is not a medical term, but rather a chemical element (symbol Ti, atomic number 22) that is widely used in the medical field due to its unique properties. Medically, it is often referred to as a biocompatible material used in various medical applications such as:

1. Orthopedic implants: Titanium and its alloys are used for making joint replacements (hips, knees, shoulders), bone plates, screws, and rods due to their high strength-to-weight ratio, excellent corrosion resistance, and biocompatibility.
2. Dental implants: Titanium is also commonly used in dental applications like implants, crowns, and bridges because of its ability to osseointegrate, or fuse directly with bone tissue, providing a stable foundation for replacement teeth.
3. Cardiovascular devices: Titanium alloys are used in the construction of heart valves, pacemakers, and other cardiovascular implants due to their non-magnetic properties, which prevent interference with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans.
4. Medical instruments: Due to its resistance to corrosion and high strength, titanium is used in the manufacturing of various medical instruments such as surgical tools, needles, and catheters.

In summary, Titanium is a chemical element with unique properties that make it an ideal material for various medical applications, including orthopedic and dental implants, cardiovascular devices, and medical instruments.

"Bone" is the hard, dense connective tissue that makes up the skeleton of vertebrate animals. It provides support and protection for the body's internal organs, and serves as a attachment site for muscles, tendons, and ligaments. Bone is composed of cells called osteoblasts and osteoclasts, which are responsible for bone formation and resorption, respectively, and an extracellular matrix made up of collagen fibers and mineral crystals.

Bones can be classified into two main types: compact bone and spongy bone. Compact bone is dense and hard, and makes up the outer layer of all bones and the shafts of long bones. Spongy bone is less dense and contains large spaces, and makes up the ends of long bones and the interior of flat and irregular bones.

The human body has 206 bones in total. They can be further classified into five categories based on their shape: long bones, short bones, flat bones, irregular bones, and sesamoid bones.

Physicochemical processes refer to interactions and changes that occur at the interface of physical and chemical systems in a living organism or biological sample. These processes are crucial in understanding various biological phenomena, including cellular functions, metabolic pathways, and drug actions. They involve the transformation of energy and matter, as well as the formation and breaking of chemical bonds.

Examples of physicochemical processes include:

1. Membrane transport: The movement of molecules across biological membranes through passive diffusion or active transport.
2. Enzyme kinetics: The study of how enzymes catalyze biochemical reactions, including the rate of reaction and the factors that affect it.
3. Protein folding: The process by which a protein molecule assumes its three-dimensional structure, which is critical for its function.
4. Acid-base equilibria: The balance between acids and bases in biological systems, which affects various physiological processes such as pH regulation.
5. Oxidation-reduction reactions: The transfer of electrons between molecules, which plays a crucial role in energy metabolism and other cellular functions.
6. Conformational changes: The alterations in the shape or structure of biological macromolecules, such as proteins and nucleic acids, that are critical for their function.
7. Phase transitions: The transformation of matter from one physical state to another, such as the melting of lipid membranes or the denaturation of proteins.

Understanding physicochemical processes is essential in developing medical interventions, including drugs and therapies, as well as in diagnosing and treating various diseases.

Dentin is the hard, calcified tissue that lies beneath the enamel and cementum of a tooth. It forms the majority of the tooth's structure and is composed primarily of mineral salts (hydroxyapatite), collagenous proteins, and water. Dentin has a tubular structure, with microscopic channels called dentinal tubules that radiate outward from the pulp chamber (the center of the tooth containing nerves and blood vessels) to the exterior of the tooth. These tubules contain fluid and nerve endings that are responsible for the tooth's sensitivity to various stimuli such as temperature changes, pressure, or decay. Dentin plays a crucial role in protecting the dental pulp while also providing support and structure to the overlying enamel and cementum.

Those most similar to apatite are also known as apatites, such as lead apatite (pyromorphite) and barium apatite (alforsite). ... Apatite is also occasionally a source of uranium and vanadium, present as trace elements in the mineral. Fluoro-chloro apatite ... Apatites are also a proposed host material for storage of nuclear waste, along with other phosphates. Apatite is infrequently ... Economic quantities of apatite are also sometimes found in nepheline syenite or in carbonatites. Apatite is the defining ...
... is a generic name for apatite-structure materials that contain lead as the divalent cation. A Copper-doped lead- ... apatite has been proposed as a room-temperature superconductor. A number of minerals are known. All have a hexagonal crystal ...
... causing irreversible decomposition of calcium deficient apatites alternatively termed non-stoichiometric apatites or basic ... Especially, the common mineral apatite has formula Ca5(PO4)3X, where X is F, Cl, OH, or a mixture; it is hydroxyapatite if the ... Elliott, J.C. (1994). "3 - Hydroxyapatite and Nonstoichiometric Apatites". Studies in Inorganic Chemistry. Vol. 18. Elsevier. ... CaP2O7 and apatite. β-TCP is bioresorbable. The biodegradation of BCP involves faster dissolution of the β-TCP phase followed ...
ISBN 978-0-945005-07-0. "Kirovskii apatite mine. Mindat". Viñals, J., Calvo, M., Sanz, A. y Martí, J. (2013). "Zeolites and ...
"Bone-Like Apatite". YouTube. "Atomic Force Microscope". YouTube. "Cubic Aluminium Nitride". YouTube. "Sensor for Linear ...
Tampieri, A; Celotti, G; Landi, E (2005). "From biomimetic apatites to biologically inspired composites". Analytical and ...
When in the presence of carbonate, calcium readily reacts to form calcium carbonate instead of apatite minerals. With the free ... In a process called 'apatite precipitation', free phosphate ions react with the calcium ions abundant in water to precipitate ... Gulbrandsen, R. A. (1969-06-01). "Physical and chemical factors in the formation of marine apatite". Economic Geology. 64 (4): ... Nathan, Yaacov; Sass, Eytan (November 1981). "Stability relations of apatites and calcium carbonates". Chemical Geology. 34 (1- ...
apatite - 0.3 volume percent. Prismatic crystals. titanite. Irregular fine-grained crystals. Can appear in euhedral habit. ...
... apatite, magnetite. Cathedral Peak Granodiorite El Capitan Granite Fine Gold Intrusive Suite Geology of the Yosemite area ...
Kohn, Matthew J.; Cerling, Thure E. (2002-01-01). "Stable Isotope Compositions of Biological Apatite". Reviews in Mineralogy ... while apatite , a mineral component of bones and teeth, has an ~14‰ offset from dietary plants due fractionation associated ...
Apatite and zircon form accessory minerals. Dacites have similar composition but also contain hornblende. Olivine is found in ...
... apatite group and apatite supergroup; kaolinite-serpentine group (alias serpentine), serpentine subgroup, serpentinization and ... Pasero M, Kampf AR, Ferraris C, Pekov IV, Rakovan JR, White TJ (2010). "Nomenclature of the apatite supergroup minerals". ... Some examples: rocksalt (a redirect), halite and sodium chloride; kaolin earth (a redirect) and kaolinite; apatite, strict ...
... is a hexagonal colorless crystal in the chemical class phosphates and the group apatite. It is found in certain parts ... Alforsite is a constituent of the apatite group of minerals. It crystallizes in the hexagonal crystal system with a point group ... Pasero, M.; Kampf, R. A.; Erraris, C.; Pekov, V. I.; Rakovan, J. & White, J. T. (2010). Nomenclature of the apatite supergroup ... Minerals that belong to different groups, such as silicates, and sulfates exhibit the structural typology of apatite. This can ...
Minor minerals are apatite and zircon. The surrounding Pittman formation rocks have been metamorphosed in a contact aureole to ...
Ma, Qi-Ying; Traina, Samuel J.; Logan, Terry J.; Ryan, James A. (1993). "In situ lead immobilization by apatite". Environmental ...
Plagioclase is Ab83-86 An5-15 Or7-2. Ca-phosphate (merrillite and Cl-apatite). Chromite: Cr# (100× molar Cr/[Cr + Al]) = 82. ... Numerous pockets with chromite, plagioclase and phosphate (merrilite and Cl-apatite). Kamacite, with deformed Neumann bands, ...
Phenocrysts include mainly plagioclase, with less common olivine and titanomagnetite; apatite has been reported as well. The ...
Some hornblende crystals have diameters of up to 2 centimetres (0.79 in). Apatite and zircon are accessory minerals. Based on ...
Apatite is mined from the area. The nearby Kukisvumchorr Microdistrict shares the same name as the mountain. An earthquake ...
They are members of the apatite group, but whereas phosphorus is one of the chief constituents of apatite, in ellestadite it is ... Its hardness is 4+1⁄2, between that of fluorite and apatite, and its specific gravity is 3.03 to 3.07, similar to that of ... It is a member of the apatite group, and forms a series with hydroxylellestadite. The mineral was originally named wilkeite by ... groups in the apatite structure; ellestadite, the end member American Mineralogist 22: 977-986 Richard V. Gaines (1997) Dana's ...
Apatite is a hard, insoluble compound. Acid (H+), produced especially after a high-sugar meal, attacks the apatite: Ca5(PO4)3OH ... Ca5(PO4)3+(aq) + F−(aq) → Ca5(PO4)3F(s) Fluorapatite resists attacks by acids better than apatite itself, so the tooth enamel ... The process is reversible as saliva supplies back OH− to reform apatite. If fluoride, F−, ions are present in saliva, ... s) + H+(aq) → Ca5(PO4)3+(aq) + H2O(ℓ) The degradation of apatite by loss of OH− causes the enamel to dissolve. ...
Carbon isotope analysis of fossil bone apatite. S. Afr. J. Sci. 83: 712-713 Lee-Thorp J.A., N.J. van der Merwe 1991. Aspects of ... apatite) as the sample material instead of traditionally used collagen. Lee-Thorp remained at her alma mater, working as a ... "Stable carbon isotope ratio differences between bone collagen and bone apatite, and their relationship to diet". Journal of ... "Aspects of the chemistry of modern and fossil biological apatites". Journal of Archaeological Science. 18 (3): 343-354. Bibcode ...
... morphology and crystal growth of biogenic and synthetic apatites". Connective Tissue Research. 25 (2): 103-119. doi:10.3109/ ...
R chondrites contain amphibole minerals, and lesser biotites and apatites. As with the other classes and subclasses, the R ... Jones, R (2016). "Phosphate Minerals in the H Group of Ordinary Chondrites, and Fluid Activity Recorded in Apatite ... Clues from apatite in eucrites". Meteoritics & Planetary Science. 48 (11): 2135-2154. Bibcode:2013M&PS...48.2135S. doi:10.1111/ ...
Ptáček, Petr (2016-04-13). Apatites and their Synthetic Analogues: Synthesis, Structure, Properties and Applications. BoD - ...
The mineral is rare and is also a member of the Apatite group. It is named in 1891 by Hjalmar Sjögren after Anton von Swab. The ... Ptáček, Petr (13 April 2016). Apatites and their Synthetic Analogues: Synthesis, Structure, Properties and Applications. BoD - ... mineral is isomorphous with Apatite and Mimetite. Svabite can be found in countries like Sweden or Germany. The mineral is rare ...
Gordon, L.M.; Tran, L.; Joester, D. (2012). "Atom Probe Tomography of Apatites and Bone-Type Mineralized Tissues". ACS Nano. 6 ...
May 2014). "Synthesis and thermal expansion of M 3 I M 2 II (SO4)3L (L = Halogen) compounds with the apatite structure". ... Perret, René; Bouillet, Anne-Marie (1975). "Les apatites˗sulfates Na3Cd2 (SO4)3Cl et Na3Pb2 (SO4)3Cl". Bulletin de Minéralogie ... The first apatite-type sulfate ultraviolet nonlinear optical material with sharply enlarged birefringence". Journal of Alloys ...
Leeds Mount Apatite, 7.6 miles (12.2 km); Auburn Mount David, 0.2 miles (0.32 km); Lewiston Paper Mill Trail, 2.1 miles (3.4 km ...
Tobruk was carrying a cargo of Apatite. She departed Murmansk on 8 September bound for Archangelsk, from where she joined the ...
Those most similar to apatite are also known as apatites, such as lead apatite (pyromorphite) and barium apatite (alforsite). ... Apatite is also occasionally a source of uranium and vanadium, present as trace elements in the mineral. Fluoro-chloro apatite ... Apatites are also a proposed host material for storage of nuclear waste, along with other phosphates. Apatite is infrequently ... Economic quantities of apatite are also sometimes found in nepheline syenite or in carbonatites. Apatite is the defining ...
Apatite Value, Price, and Jewelry Information Although too brittle for most jewelry use, properly cut apatite gems are truly ... Apatite Value, Price, and Jewelry Information Although too brittle for most jewelry use, properly cut apatite gems are truly ... Two of the trickiest gemstone separations to make are scapolite from citrine and apatite from tourmaline. Learn some tips for ...
Apatite appears in a range of colours and like most other minerals the colour depends on the additional minerals found where ... Apatite is an important source of phosphorous, a chemical used in matches. Apatite appears in a range of colours and like most ... APATITE: A BRIEF HISTORY. Spanish apatite is often referred to as asparagus stone, due to its yellowish green colour. ... Apatites beautiful blue stones are found in the Mogok Stone Tract of Myanmar and in the gem gravels of Sri Lanka. When cut en ...
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Apatite: Synthesis, Structural Characterization and Biomedical Applications. $295.00. José Manuel Delgado-López, PhD (Editor) ... Home / Shop / Books / Science and Technology / Earth Sciences / Mineralogy / Apatite: Synthesis, Structural Characterization ... Nanocrystalline apatites constitute the main inorganic part of human hard tissues (bone and teeth), and a growing focus is ... The aim of the second part is to show the most important analytical techniques for the characterization of apatite features and ...
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Apatite in colors like; golden, Paraiba-like, teal, blue-green, blue, green and more. ... Discover a large selection of Apatite gemstones in many shapes and sizes. ... Apatite Weight. Apatite Size. Apatite Clarity. Apatite Price. Apatite Origin. Cutting Style and Extra Options ... Blue Apatite Brown Apatite Golden Apatite Gray Green Apatite Multicolor Orange Pink Purple Red Turquoise Apatite Violet White ...
Contrasting histopathology and crystal deposits in kidneys of idiopathic stone formers who produce hydroxy apatite, brushite, ...
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Apatites Record Sedimentary Provenance Change 4-5 Myrs Before Clay in the Oligocene/Miocene Alpine Molasse. Hülscher, Julian; ... Apatites Record Sedimentary Provenance Change 4-5 Myrs Before Clay in the Oligocene/Miocene Alpine Molasse ... Apatites Record Sedimentary Provenance Change 4-5 Myrs Before Clay in the Oligocene/Miocene Alpine Molasse ... Apatites Record Sedimentary Provenance Change 4-5 Myrs Before Clay in the Oligocene/Miocene Alpine Molasse ...
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We use apatite fission-track analyses to investigate the magnitude and timing of post-Triassic uplift and exhumation. Results ... Thermal evolution and resources of the Bowland Basin (NW England) from apatite fission-track analyses and multidimensional ... 2023 Thermal evolution and resources of the Bowland Basin (NW England) from apatite fission-track analyses and multidimensional ...
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Wholesale Beads Since 2003. San Diego, California, USA. Phone: 480-759-2090 ...
Blue Apatite Trillions available in the following sizes. Please click on the stone size option for pricing. Price listed is for ... 4.5mm to 7mm Blue Apatite Trillions - 4.5mm is backordered and will ship as soon as it is back in stock. ... 4.5mm to 7mm Blue Apatite Trillions ...
  • Like other gemstones Apatite Gemstone Beads is also a versatile gemstone which apart from being used as jewelry item for enhancing the looks of wearer is also used as a healing stone for various physical ailments. (ratnasagarjewels.com)
  • An Apatite Strength necklace of rounded crystal gemstones deeply purifies and strengthens the energies that govern both the physical body's mineral balance and an individual's intuitive sense of self and knowing. (gemisphere.com)
  • Apatite gemstones are fairly soft but their amazing colors are irresistible for jewelers. (gemselect.com)
  • Because of its wide color range, apatite has often been mistaken for many other gemstones, including topaz, tourmaline, and various beryl varieties. (jtv.com)
  • A stack of three oval cabochon apatite gemstones set in sterling silver bezels on a wide sterling silver band, virtually glows on your hand. (papertrailrhinebeck.com)
  • An Apatite Strength necklace of rounded gemstone crystals supports longevity and well-being by helping maintain the strength and vibrancy of these foundational structures and preventing issues from arising in them. (gemisphere.com)
  • The Apatite in the necklace also supports improved absorption and regulation of nutrition, particularly mineral nutrition. (gemisphere.com)
  • If crystals of rutile have grown in the crystal of apatite, in the right light the cut stone displays a cat's-eye effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • The regolith is derived from weathering of a dolomitic marble and consists mostly of iron oxide minerals with accessory apatite, zircon, xenotime, rutile, monazite, and the columbium minerals aeschynite, columbite, and ilmenorutile. (cdc.gov)
  • We have methods set up for precise U-Pb ages for a number of uranium bearing accessory minerals such as zircon, monazite, baddeleyite, rutile, titanite and apatite among others. (lu.se)
  • This is preferable to traditional rare-earth ores such as monazite, as apatite is not very radioactive and does not pose an environmental hazard in mine tailings. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mineral was named apatite by the German geologist Abraham Gottlob Werner in 1786, although the specific mineral he had described was reclassified as fluorapatite in 1860 by the German mineralogist Karl Friedrich August Rammelsberg. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apatite is very common as an accessory mineral in igneous and metamorphic rocks, where it is the most common phosphate mineral. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apatite is the defining mineral for 5 on the Mohs scale. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apatite is also occasionally a source of uranium and vanadium, present as trace elements in the mineral. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apatite Strength deeply purifies and strengthens the energies that govern the body's mineral balance and an individual's intuitive sense of self and knowing. (gemisphere.com)
  • When you wear Apatite Strength, the flow of indigo ray increases through your brow chakra and washes downward through your body, striking a deep note of knowing and remembering, while purifying the physical tissues that contain a high mineral content. (gemisphere.com)
  • Apatite is the name for a mineral group as well as the generic term for many phosphates, but gem-quality apatite is a special gemstone found in a beautiful variety of colors. (jtv.com)
  • Phosphorite contains calcium phosphate mixed with limestone (calcium carbonates) minerals and apatite-a mineral with high phosphate and fluoride content. (cdc.gov)
  • We review the microstructure of enamel and bone while discussing the mechanism underlying apatite crystal formation to infer the morphology of cementum apatite crystals and their complex structure with collagen fibers. (bvsalud.org)
  • Apatite is often mistaken for other minerals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Coarsely crystalline apatite is usually restricted to pegmatites, gneiss derived from sediments rich in carbonate minerals, skarns, or marble. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apatite is one of a few minerals produced and used by biological micro-environmental systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apatite appears in a range of colours and like most other minerals the colour depends on the additional minerals found where the gemstone grows. (astleyclarke.com)
  • The double strand is set with fine apatite beads. (ylang23.com)
  • Phosphorite is a phosphate-rich sedimentary rock containing as much as 80% apatite, which is present as cryptocrystalline masses referred to as collophane. (wikipedia.org)
  • A relatively rare form of apatite in which most of the OH groups are absent and containing many carbonate and acid phosphate substitutions is a large component of bone material. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary use of apatite is as a source of phosphate in the manufacture of fertilizer and in other industrial uses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calcium oxalate crystal deposition disease Basic calcium phosphate (apatite) and calcium oxalate crystal disorders tend to cause clinical manifestations similar to those of other crystal-induced arthritides. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Apatites are also a proposed host material for storage of nuclear waste, along with other phosphates. (wikipedia.org)
  • In fact, it is reasonable to hypothesize that by virtue of their high similarity with the biogenic calcium phosphates, synthetic nano-sized and ionic substituted apatite nanocrystals can display better biological performances than coarser and ceramic hydroxyapatite. (novapublishers.com)
  • The first part is intended to be a comprehensive review of the importance and the occurrence of calcium phosphates in nature (geological and biological occurrence) and to underline the peculiar characteristics of nanocrystalline apatites. (novapublishers.com)
  • Chatoyant stones are known as cat's-eye apatite, transparent green stones are known as asparagus stone, and blue stones have been called moroxite. (wikipedia.org)
  • When cut en cabochon in the correct direction, some can display a unique 'cat's eye' effect. (astleyclarke.com)
  • Beautiful blue stones are found in the Mogok Stone Tract of Myanmar and in the gem gravels of Sri Lanka, some of which have a fibrous structure and, when cut en cabochon in the correct direction, display a 'cat's eye' effect. (astleyclarke.com)
  • After the deposition of apatite by the biomimetic method in SBF-0 and 6, the coating showed a molar ratio of Ca/P of approximately 1.0, characterizing the formation of poor crystallinity apatites. (bvsalud.org)
  • Conclusion: The combination of laser irradiation and chemical deposition of apatites by the biomimetic method in SBF-6, although performing better in terms of bioactivity and topography of alloys, the mass gain was not statistically significant at the 5% level. (bvsalud.org)
  • Cementum is key to periodontal tissue regeneration: A review on apatite microstructures for creation of novel cementum-based dental implants. (bvsalud.org)
  • Although too brittle for most jewelry use, properly cut apatite gems are truly magnificent. (gemsociety.org)
  • All the gems in Apatite Strength combine to create a powerful formula for rebuilding mineralized tissue, supporting the alignment of facial and cranial bones, and moving these physical elements closer to optimal health. (gemisphere.com)
  • For contrast, some exceptional quality nuggets of one of the world's lesser known gems, Apatite. (braybrook.co.uk)
  • Major sources for gem apatite are Brazil, Myanmar, and Mexico. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apatite is mined in Brazil, Burma and Mexico. (exoticindiaart.com)
  • The long-established sources for gem-quality apatite are Brazil and Mexico, but more recent African discoveries have thrust it into the spotlight once again. (jtv.com)
  • Spanish apatite is often referred to as 'asparagus stone', due to its yellowish green colour. (astleyclarke.com)
  • The collection also includes Apatite Vitality and Apatite Strength, which feature Apatite, and Star Aqua and Earth Aqua, which feature Aquamarine. (gemisphere.com)
  • Nanocrystalline apatites constitute the main inorganic part of human hard tissues (bone and teeth), and a growing focus is devoted to prepare synthetic analogs, so-called "biomimetic", able to precisely mimic the morphological and physical-chemical features of biological apatites. (novapublishers.com)
  • This book is divided in three main parts and is principally devoted to highlight the recent progresses on the preparation and characterization of multifunctional nanocrystalline apatites with tailored properties to be used as healthcare materials (i.e. nanoparticles for drug or gene delivery and materials for bone substitution and regeneration). (novapublishers.com)
  • Use of Apatite can be regarded as boon for persons suffering from the problem of arthritis or problem of bone pain due to growing age. (ratnasagarjewels.com)
  • Fluoridated water allows exchange in the teeth of fluoride ions for hydroxyl groups in apatite. (wikipedia.org)
  • Normally Apatite is derived from the teeth of vertebrate animals, fishes, birds, cows and human bones. (ratnasagarjewels.com)
  • Apatite Strength increases the flow of indigo ray through your brow chakra, striking a deep note of knowing while purifying your bones, joints, teeth, and connective tissue. (gemisphere.com)
  • Apatite, often linked to inspiration and communication, is said to bridge the gap between the heart and the mind, fostering a harmonious dialogue within. (exoticindiaart.com)
  • As a stone of ambition and inspiration, Apatite encourages you to think outside of the box and see all the possibilities to get inspired by life. (energymuse.com)
  • When you are finished creating your vision board, place your Blue Apatite Point on top of it as a reminder to seek out inspiration from the world around you. (energymuse.com)
  • Although the primary focus of Apatite Strength is the mineralized tissues and structures of the body, all of these secondary effects are part of the necklace's energy signature and benefits. (gemisphere.com)
  • Apatite Strength works at the origin point of the energies that become the body's structural tissues and one's identity as an individual being. (gemisphere.com)
  • During digestion of apatite with sulfuric acid to make phosphoric acid, hydrogen fluoride is produced as a byproduct from any fluorapatite content. (wikipedia.org)
  • An elegant, curved design showcases electric-blue apatite from Madagascar giving this handcrafted sterling silver pendant a chic, artistic vibe. (hsn.com)
  • An interesting fact about Apatite gemstone is that its features and benefits are similar to its crystal blue color which helps in calming down the aggressive nature of the wearer. (ratnasagarjewels.com)
  • If you are feeling uninspired, connect with a Blue Apatite Point to reignite your imagination and appetite for life. (energymuse.com)
  • Blue Apatite inspires you to see the world with a new sense of curiosity. (energymuse.com)
  • The blue hues of Blue Apatite bring a new flow of energy to your mind, so you can get out of your old way of thinking and step into a new mind-set. (energymuse.com)
  • Prepare to see the world with a fresh set of eyes with your Blue Apatite Point in hand. (energymuse.com)
  • Hold your Blue Apatite Point in your hands and say, "I am inspired! (energymuse.com)
  • Blue Apatite opens the throat chakra. (charmsoflight.com)
  • Blue Apatite connects to a very high level of spiritual guidance. (charmsoflight.com)
  • The fountain pen Classic M205 Apatite is equipped with the famous Pelikan differential piston mechanism. (oblationpapers.com)
  • Wearing the round shaped Apatite gemstone in form necklaces nourishes the body of wearer and enhances the flow of necessary nutrients in bones and other parts of body including joints and marrow. (ratnasagarjewels.com)
  • Apatite Strength necklaces contain Indigo spheres and Apatite and White Flash Moonstone rondels. (gemisphere.com)
  • Apatite Strength is part of Gemisphere's Longevity Collection of therapeutic necklaces. (gemisphere.com)
  • Apatite is also found in clastic sedimentary rock as grains eroded out of the source rock. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ground apatite was used as a pigment for the Terracotta Army of 3rd-century BCE China, and in Qing Dynasty enamel for metalware. (wikipedia.org)
  • A pretty little 6mm Apatite crystal, wrapped with sterling silver wire. (charmsoflight.com)
  • When you are already fascinated by this Edelstein Ink of the year Apatite, this series will complement your color addiction. (oblationpapers.com)
  • Apatite is an important source of phosphorous, a chemical used in matches. (astleyclarke.com)
  • The aim of the second part is to show the most important analytical techniques for the characterization of apatite features and to describe the new theories behind the apatite crystallization and dissolution processes. (novapublishers.com)
  • The chapters of this book, written by eminent scientists, will serve as an important and useful reference source for a broad audience that consists of both expert (materials scientists, biomedical engineers and biologists) and non-expert readers to who want to improve their knowledge in the field of apatite based biomaterials. (novapublishers.com)
  • A significant apatite from the most important European locale: Apatite from the Panasqueira Mine is justly famous as among the best examples of the species. (irocks.com)
  • Your Apatite Point can help to draw out the excitement and exhilaration of doing things differently and busting out of your routine. (energymuse.com)
  • Apatite is occasionally found to contain significant amounts of rare-earth elements and can be used as an ore for those metals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Economic quantities of apatite are also sometimes found in nepheline syenite or in carbonatites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recent work by our group in the Teton Range, WY, combined apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe) thermochronology, landscape analysis, and seismic reflection imaging of glacial lakes to investigate temporal and mechanistic controls on short- to long-term denudation. (confex.com)

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