Apatites: A group of phosphate minerals that includes ten mineral species and has the general formula X5(YO4)3Z, where X is usually calcium or lead, Y is phosphorus or arsenic, and Z is chlorine, fluorine, or OH-. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Calcium Phosphates: Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.Durapatite: The mineral component of bones and teeth; it has been used therapeutically as a prosthetic aid and in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.Bone Substitutes: Synthetic or natural materials for the replacement of bones or bone tissue. They include hard tissue replacement polymers, natural coral, hydroxyapatite, beta-tricalcium phosphate, and various other biomaterials. The bone substitutes as inert materials can be incorporated into surrounding tissue or gradually replaced by original tissue.Hydroxyapatites: A group of compounds with the general formula M10(PO4)6(OH)2, where M is barium, strontium, or calcium. The compounds are the principal mineral in phosphorite deposits, biological tissue, human bones, and teeth. They are also used as an anticaking agent and polymer catalysts. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Biomimetic Materials: Materials fabricated by BIOMIMETICS techniques, i.e., based on natural processes found in biological systems.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Amelogenin: A major dental enamel-forming protein found in mammals. In humans the protein is encoded by GENES found on both the X CHROMOSOME and the Y CHROMOSOME.Calcification, Physiologic: Process by which organic tissue becomes hardened by the physiologic deposit of calcium salts.Biocompatible Materials: Synthetic or natural materials, other than DRUGS, that are used to replace or repair any body TISSUES or bodily function.Materials Testing: The testing of materials and devices, especially those used for PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; SUTURES; TISSUE ADHESIVES; etc., for hardness, strength, durability, safety, efficacy, and biocompatibility.Matrix Metalloproteinase 20: A secreted matrix metalloproteinase that is the predominant proteolytic activity in the enamel matrix. The enzyme has a high specificity for dental enamel matrix protein AMELOGENIN.Tooth Remineralization: Therapeutic technique for replacement of minerals in partially decalcified teeth.Amelogenesis: The elaboration of dental enamel by ameloblasts, beginning with its participation in the formation of the dentino-enamel junction to the production of the matrix for the enamel prisms and interprismatic substance. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992).Crystallization: The formation of crystalline substances from solutions or melts. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Photoelectron Spectroscopy: The study of the energy of electrons ejected from matter by the photoelectric effect, i.e., as a direct result of absorption of energy from electromagnetic radiation. As the energies of the electrons are characteristic of a specific element, the measurement of the energy of these electrons is a technique used to determine the chemical composition of surfaces.Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Minerals: Native, inorganic or fossilized organic substances having a definite chemical composition and formed by inorganic reactions. They may occur as individual crystals or may be disseminated in some other mineral or rock. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed; McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission: The spectrometric analysis of fluorescent X-RAYS, i.e. X-rays emitted after bombarding matter with high energy particles such as PROTONS; ELECTRONS; or higher energy X-rays. Identification of ELEMENTS by this technique is based on the specific type of X-rays that are emitted which are characteristic of the specific elements in the material being analyzed. The characteristic X-rays are distinguished and/or quantified by either wavelength dispersive or energy dispersive methods.Ceramics: Products made by baking or firing nonmetallic minerals (clay and similar materials). In making dental restorations or parts of restorations the material is fused porcelain. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed)Tooth Calcification: The process whereby calcium salts are deposited in the dental enamel. The process is normal in the development of bones and teeth. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed, p43)Carbonates: Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Calcium Carbonate: Carbonic acid calcium salt (CaCO3). An odorless, tasteless powder or crystal that occurs in nature. It is used therapeutically as a phosphate buffer in hemodialysis patients and as a calcium supplement.Coated Materials, Biocompatible: Biocompatible materials usually used in dental and bone implants that enhance biologic fixation, thereby increasing the bond strength between the coated material and bone, and minimize possible biological effects that may result from the implant itself.Kidney Calculi: Stones in the KIDNEY, usually formed in the urine-collecting area of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS). Their sizes vary and most contains CALCIUM OXALATE.Dental Enamel: A hard thin translucent layer of calcified substance which envelops and protects the dentin of the crown of the tooth. It is the hardest substance in the body and is almost entirely composed of calcium salts. Under the microscope, it is composed of thin rods (enamel prisms) held together by cementing substance, and surrounded by an enamel sheath. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p286)Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Body Fluids: Liquid components of living organisms.Titanium: A dark-gray, metallic element of widespread distribution but occurring in small amounts; atomic number, 22; atomic weight, 47.90; symbol, Ti; specific gravity, 4.5; used for fixation of fractures. (Dorland, 28th ed)Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Physicochemical Processes: Physical reactions involved in the formation of or changes in the structure of atoms and molecules and their interactions.Dentin: The hard portion of the tooth surrounding the pulp, covered by enamel on the crown and cementum on the root, which is harder and denser than bone but softer than enamel, and is thus readily abraded when left unprotected. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)

Dentinal tubule occlusion with lanthanum fluoride and powdered apatite glass ceramics in vitro. (1/221)

To simulate hypersensitive dentin, the smear layer and dentinal plugs of bovine root dentin specimens were removed by immersion in 10% phosphoric acid, polishing with hydroxyapatite particles, and ultrasonic cleansing. The fluoride-tannic acid-lanthanum-apatite (FTLA) group was treated with acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) containing tannic acid followed by rubbing with a paste of lanthanum chloride (LaCl3) and powdered apatite glass ceramics. The treated specimens were immersed in a remineralizing solution that mimics saliva for 6 weeks. The SEM observations revealed that the treated surfaces of the FTLA group were completely covered with fine spherical compounds and the dentinal tubules were occluded with plugs to a depth of about 3 microns. Fluoride and lanthanum were detected to a depth of over 20 microns by EPMA observation. After the remineralization, the surface of FTLA-treated specimen did not have any opened tubules and showed a remarkable increase in the number of fine spherical deposits in the dentinal tubules. These results suggest that the reaction products produced by sequential treatment with acidic fluoride and LaCl3 and powdered apatite glass ceramics are able to effectively occlude dentinal tubules.  (+info)

Reversible suppression of in vitro biomineralization by activation of protein kinase A. (2/221)

Parathyroid hormone (PTH-(1-34)) potently suppresses apatite deposition in osteoblastic cultures. These inhibitory effects are mediated through signaling events following PTH receptor binding. Using both selective inhibitors and activators of protein kinase A (PKA), this study shows that a transient activation of PKA is sufficient to account for PTH's inhibition of apatite deposition. This inhibition is not a result of reduced cell proliferation, reduced alkaline phosphatase activity, increased collagenase production, or lowering medium pH. Rather, data suggest a functional relationship between matrix assembly and apatite deposition in vitro. Bone sialoprotein (BSP) and apatite co-localize in the extracellular matrix of mineralizing cultures, with matrix deposition of BSP temporally preceding that of apatite. Transient activation of PKA by either PTH-(1-34) or short term cAMP analog treatment blocks the deposition of BSP in the extracellular matrix without a significant reduction in the total amount of BSP synthesized and secreted. This effect is reversible after allowing the cultures to recover in the absence of PKA activators for several days. Thus, a transient activation of PKA may suppress mineral deposition in vitro as a consequence of altering the assembly of an extracellular matrix permissive for apatite formation.  (+info)

Porous apatite-wollastonite glass-ceramic as an intramedullary plug. (3/221)

We evaluated the efficacy and biocompatibility of porous apatite-wollastonite glass ceramic (AW-GC) as an intramedullary plug in total hip replacement (THR) for up to two years in 22 adult beagle dogs. Cylindrical porous AW-GC rods (70% porosity, mean pore size 200 microm) were prepared. Four dogs were killed at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months each and six at 24 months after implantation. Radiological evaluation confirmed the efficacy of porous AW-CG as an intramedullary plug. Histological evaluation showed osteoconduction at one month and resorption of the porous AW-GC, which was replaced by newly-formed bone, at 24 months. Our findings indicate that porous AW-GC can be used clinically as an intramedullary plug in THR.  (+info)

A bone replaceable artificial bone substitute: morphological and physiochemical characterizations. (4/221)

A composite material consisting of carbonate apatite (CAp) and type I atelocollagen (AtCol) (88/12 in wt/wt%) was designed for use as an artificial bone substitute. CAp was synthesized at 58 degrees C by a solution-precipitation method and then heated at either 980 degrees C or 1,200 degrees C. In this study, type I AtCol was purified from bovine tail skins. A CAp-AtCol mixture was prepared by centirfugation and condensed into composite rods or disks. The scanning electron-microscopic (SEM) characterization indicated that the CAp synthesized at 58 degrees C displayed a crystallinity similar to that of natural bone and had a high porosity (mean pore size: about 3-10 microns in diameter). SEM also revealed that the CAp heated at 980 degrees C was more porous than that sintered at 1,200 degrees C, and the 1,200 degrees C-heated particles were more uniformly encapsulated by the AtCol fibers than the 980 degrees C-heated ones. A Fourier transformed-infrared spectroscopic analysis showed that the bands characteristic of carbonate ions were clearly observed in the 58 degrees C-synthesized CAp. To enhance the intramolecular cross-linking between the collagen molecules, CAp-AtCol composites were irradiated by ultraviolet (UV) ray (wave length 254 nm) for 4 hours or vacuum-dried at 150 degrees C for 2 hours. Compared to the non cross-linked composites, the UV-irradiated or dehydrothermally cross-linked composites showed significantly (p < 0.05) low collagen degradation and swelling ratio. Preliminary mechanical data demonstrated that the compressive strengths of the CAp-AtCol composites were higher than the values reported for bone.  (+info)

Augmentation of (pedicle) screws with calcium apatite cement in patients with severe progressive osteoporotic spinal deformities: an innovative technique. (5/221)

Screw augmentation with calcium apatite cement (CAC) was used in seven patients with a progressive osteoporotic spinal deformity. Thirty-nine spinal segments (64 screws) were augmented: 15 anteriorly (three patients) and 24 posteriorly (five patients). Dorsally, hemilaminectomy was performed at the level of all augmented screws to rule out CAC leakage. Autogenous bone graft was applied in all patients to induce fusion. Screw augmentation failure occurred in only one patient: 1 of the 16 ventral augmented screws (5.5%) was still loose after the augmentation procedure. In three other patients, 4 out of 48 augmented dorsal screws (5.5%) showed CAC leakage at the pedicle corpus vertebra level. Pedicle wall damage was present at two levels, while at two other levels no wall damage was found during visualization. No CAC-related complications were observed perioperatively. No implant migration was observed, and fusion was observed in all cases at follow-up examination performed at a mean of 32 months after surgery.  (+info)

Calcification of rachitic rat cartilage in vitro by extracellular matrix vesicles. (6/221)

Growth plate cartilage from rachitic rats was studied to assess the role in calcification of extracellular matrix vesicles, which are thought to participate in the initial stage of mineralization of connective tissue. The concentration of matrix vesicles and their distribution within the longitudinal septa was found to be normal in rats made rachitic by feeding by a diet low in vitamin D and phosphate for 3 weeks after weaning. Rachitic cartilage matrix did not contain circumvesicular clusters of apatite as does normal cartilage; however, occasional vesicles did enclose one or a few apatite needles. When slices of rachitic cartilage were incubated at 37 C in a metastable calcium phosphate solution ([Ca++] times [PO SEE ARTICLE] equals 3.5 mM identical to 2), apatite formation was initiated in association with matrix vesicles. Under these conditions, mineralization was prominent in the upper hypertrophic cartilage, where matrix vesicles became encrusted with apatite after only 2 to 3 hours of incubation. Vesicular apatite accumulation was inhibited by preheating the cartilage to 60 C for 30 minutes. Measurements of 45Ca uptake by rachitic cartilage slices from metastable calcium phosphates solution also indicated inhibition of calcification by heat. Light microscopic autoradiographs showed 45Ca localization primarily in the matrix of longitudinal septa and substantiated the inhibition site of mineralization in healing rachitic cartilage. The presence of apatite within rachitic vesicles prior to heating and the inhibition of vesicle calcification by heat suggests an active, enzymatically and mediated mechanism of vesicular calcification.  (+info)

Modification of electrochemically deposited apatite using supercritical water. (7/221)

Supercritical water was used as a modification method of electrochemically deposited apatite on pure titanium. The apatites were coated on a commercially pure titanium plate using a hydrothermal-electrochemical method. A constant direct current at 12.5 mA/cm2 was loaded for 1 hr at 25, 60, 100, 150 and 200 degrees C in an electrolyte containing calcium and phosphate ions. The deposited apatite on the titanium substrate was stored in supercritical water at 450 degrees C under 45 MPa for 8 hr. With this treatment, the crystallinity of the apatites increased, sharp edges of the deposited apatites were rounded off, and the bonding strength of the titanium substrate to the deposited apatites significantly increased. On the other hand, weight loss in 0.01 N HCl decreased and the weight gain rate in a simulated body fluid also decreased with this treatment. It is suggested that the modification using supercritical water improved the mechanical strength of the deposited apatite, but worsened its bioactivity.  (+info)

Calcium apatite crystals in synovial fluid rice bodies. (8/221)

BACKGROUND: Rice bodies can occur in the joints in many rheumatic conditions, but they are most common in rheumatoid arthritis. They are generally believed to occur rarely in patients with osteoarthritis, but one study reported rice bodies with apatite crystals. OBJECTIVE: To report on a series of joint fluids with rice bodies containing apatite clumps and examine their clinical pictures. METHODS: All synovial fluid analysis reports for 10 years were reviewed for rice bodies and eight patients were reported on. A series of patients with a variety of diseases with synovial fluid rice bodies found to contain calcific material is described. All were examined by compensated polarised light and alizarin red stain, and four were examined by electron microscopy. RESULTS: The eight patients all had alizarin red S chunks embedded throughout the rice body. Transmission electron microscopy disclosed the presence of a matrix of collagen, fibrin, and amorphous materials containing typical apatite crystals. Clinical diagnoses, radiographic findings, and leucocyte counts varied, but six of the eight patients had had previous repeated corticosteroid injections into the joints. CONCLUSION: Aggregates of apatites may be more common than previously recognised in rice bodies as they are not routinely sought. Whether they are a result of joint damage or depot steroid injections and whether that might contribute to further joint injury now needs to be investigated.  (+info)

*Appetite

Not to be confused with apatite.. Appetite is the desire to eat food, sometimes due to hunger. Appealing foods can stimulate ...

*Bioavailability

Ma, Qi-Ying; Traina, Samuel J.; Logan, Terry J.; Ryan, James A. (1993). "In situ lead immobilization by apatite". Environmental ...

*Devonian

Graph of palaeotemperature from Conodont apatite *^ "Devonian Period , geochronology". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2017- ... Insights from oxygen isotopes in apatite". Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 284 (3-4): 599-609. Bibcode:2009E&PSL.284..599J ... Reconstruction of tropical sea surface temperature from conodont apatite implies an average value of 30 °C (86 °F) in the Early ...

*Biomineralization

The aim of biomimetics is to mimic the natural way of producing minerals such as apatites. Many man-made crystals require ... which is a naturally occurring mineral form of calcium apatite with the formula Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2. Hydroxyapatite crystals are ... These fungi have been found to corrode apatite and galena minerals.[18] Degradation of minerals by fungi is carried out through ... superficial processes of apatite and calcite precipitation in Quaternary soils, Roussillon, France". Sedimentology. 46 (3): 463 ...

*Tricalcium phosphate

Especially, the common mineral apatite has formula Ca5(PO4)3X, where X is F, Cl, OH, or a mixture; it is hydroxyapatite if the ... Preparation involves the sintering causing the irreversible decomposition of calcium deficient apatites alternatively termed ... Subscription required (help)). Elliott, J.C. (1994). "3 - Hydroxyapatite and Nonstoichiometric Apatites". Studies in Inorganic ... CaP2O7 and apatite. β-TCP is bioresorbable. The biodegradation of BCP involves faster dissolution of the β-TCP phase followed ...

*Citric acid

Citrate is a vital component of bone, helping to regulate the size of apatite crystals.[24] ... "Strongly bound citrate stabilizes the apatite nanocrystals in bone". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 107 (52 ...

*Institute of Solid State Physics (Bulgaria)

". "Bone-Like Apatite". "Atomic Force Microscope". "Cubic Aluminium Nitride". "Sensor for Linear Position". "Acoustoelectronics ...

*Mohs scale of mineral hardness

For example, if some material is scratched by apatite but not by fluorite, its hardness on the Mohs scale would fall between 4 ...

*Cathedral Peak Granodiorite

apatite - 0.3 volume percent. Prismatic crystals. titanite. Irregular fine-grained crystals. Can appear in euhedral habit. ...

*Fluorapatite

Apatite-(CaF) Mineral Data. webmineral.com. "Fluorapatite". mindat.org. Retrieved 2013-11-17. Klein, Cornelis; Hurlbut, ... as apatite is digested by sulfuric acid. The hydrogen fluoride byproduct is now one of the industrial sources of hydrofluoric ... 3F Fluorapatite as a naturally occurring impurity in apatite generates hydrogen fluoride as a byproduct during the production ...

*Mineral (nutrient)

A component of bones (see apatite), cells, in energy processing, in DNA and ATP (as phosphate) and many other functions Red ... "Aspects Regarding Fluoride Treatment for Reinforcement and Remineralization of Apatite Crystals". Journal of Hard Tissue ...

*List of minerals (complete)

... apatite group and apatite supergroup; kaolinite-serpentine group (alias serpentine), serpentine subgroup, serpentinization and ... Some examples: rocksalt (a redirect), halite and sodium chloride; kaolin earth (a redirect) and kaolinite; apatite, strict ... "Nomenclature of the apatite supergroup minerals". European Journal of Mineralogy. 22: 163-179. doi:10.1127/0935-1221/2010/0022- ...

*Lastarria

Apatite and zircon form accessory minerals. Dacites have similar composition but also contain hornblende. Olivine is found in ...

*Alforsite

... is a hexagonal colorless crystal in the chemical class phosphates and the group apatite. It is found in certain parts ... Alforsite is a constituent of the apatite group of minerals. It crystallizes in the hexagonal crystal system with a point group ... Pasero, M.; Kampf, R. A.; Erraris, C.; Pekov, V. I.; Rakovan, J. & White, J. T. (2010). Nomenclature of the apatite supergroup ... Minerals that belong to different groups, such as silicates, and sulfates exhibit the structural typology of apatite. This can ...

*Geology of the Australian Capital Territory

Minor minerals are apatite and zircon. The surrounding Pittman formation rocks have been metamorphosed in a contact aureole to ...

*Bioavailability

Ma, Qi-Ying; Traina, Samuel J.; Logan, Terry J.; Ryan, James A. (1993). "In situ lead immobilization by apatite". Environmental ...

*Tamdakht meteorite

Plagioclase is Ab83-86 An5-15 Or7-2. Ca-phosphate (merrillite and Cl-apatite). Chromite: Cr# (100× molar Cr/[Cr + Al]) = 82. ... Numerous pockets with chromite, plagioclase and phosphate (merrilite and Cl-apatite). Kamacite, with deformed Neumann bands, ...

*Cerro Chao

Some hornblende crystals have diameters of up to 2 centimetres (0.79 in). Apatite and zircon are accessory minerals. Based on ...

*Kukisvumchorr

Apatite is mined from the area. The nearby Kukisvumchorr Microdistrict shares the same name as the mountain. An earthquake ...

*Fluorellestadite

They are members of the apatite group, but whereas phosphorus is one of the chief constituents of apatite, in ellestadite it is ... Its hardness is 4 1⁄2, between that of fluorite and apatite, and its specific gravity is 3.03 to 3.07, similar to that of ... It is a member of the apatite group, and forms a series with hydroxylellestadite. The mineral was originally named wilkeite by ... groups in the apatite structure; ellestadite, the end member American Mineralogist 22: 977-986 Richard V. Gaines (1997) Dana's ...

*Bone ash

Ptáček, Petr (2016). Apatites and their Synthetic Analogues - Synthesis, Structure, Properties and Applications. InTech. pp. ...

*Atom probe

Gordon, L.M.; Tran, L.; Joester, D. (2012). "Atom Probe Tomography of Apatites and Bone-Type Mineralized Tissues". ACS Nano: ...

*List of hiking trails in Maine

Leeds Mount Apatite, 7.6 miles (12.2 km); Auburn Mount David, 0.2 miles (0.32 km); Lewiston Paper Mill Trail, 2.1 miles (3.4 km ...

*SS Tobruk

Tobruk was carrying a cargo of Apatite. She departed Murmansk on 8 September bound for Archangelsk, from where she joined the ...

*Urease

Infection stones Infection induced urinary stones are a mixture of struvite (MgNH4PO4•6H2O) and carbonate apatite [Ca10(PO4)6• ...

*Pajarito, Boyacá

Secondary minerals are apatite and hydrothermal chlorite. The first inhabitants of the village may have been indigenous people ...
Synonyms for fluorapatite crystal in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for fluorapatite crystal. 4 words related to fluorapatite: atomic number 9, fluorine, F, apatite. What are synonyms for fluorapatite crystal?
Apatite crystals from two types of samples were analyzed by electron microprobe for 15 major and trace elements: (1) apatite in H2O- and S-saturated experimental charges of the 1982 El Chicho??n trachyandesite and (2) apatite in volcanic rocks erupted from 20 volcanoes. The SO3 contents of the experimental apatite increase with increasing oxygen fugacity (fo2), from ???0.04 wt% in reduced charges buffered by fayalite-magnetite-quartz (FMQ), to 1.0-2.6 wt% in oxidized charges buffered by manganosite-hausmanite (MNH) or magnetite-hematite (MTH). The SO3 contents of MNH- and MTH-buffered apatite also generally increase with increasing pressure from 2 to 4 kbar and decreasing temperature from 950 to 800??C. The partition coefficient for SO3 between apatite and oxidized melt increases with decreasing temperature but appears to be independent of pressure. Apatites in volcanic rocks show a wide range of SO3 contents (|0.04 to 0.63 wt%). Our sample set includes one group known to contain primary...
A biodegradable polymer with surface properties that promotes cell attachment and host integration is widely recognized as a useful three-dimensional construct for bone tissue engineering applications. In this work, studies were carried out to correlate surface properties of modified polycaprolactone (PCL) films with cell-material interactions. PCL film substrates were subjected to various degrees of chemical hydrolysis using different pretreatment solutions to introduce different densities of carboxylate groups onto the surfaces. The extent of hydrolysis on the films was optimized to allow the deposition of a dense and uniform bone-like apatite layer by an alternate soak treatment, followed by subsequent incubation in simulated body fluid (SBF). The hydrolyzed and apatite-coated PCL films were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, thin film X-ray diffractometer (TF-XRD), water contact angle, and Alizarin red staining. Surface wettability, roughness, and chemistry of various PCL ...
Read "Appearance of cell-adhesion factor in osteoblast proliferation and differentiation of apatite coating titanium by blast coating method, Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
The goal of this study was the preparation, physicochemical characterization, and microbiological evaluation of novel hydroxyapatite doped with silver/polydimethylsiloxane (Ag:HAp-PDMS) composite layers. In the first stage, the deposition of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer layer on commercially pure Si disks has been produced in atmospheric pressure corona discharges. Finally, the new silver doped hydroxyapatite/polydimethylsiloxane composite layer has been obtained by the thermal evaporation technique. The Ag:HAp-PDMS composite layers were characterized by various techniques, such as Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Glow Discharge Optical Emission Spectroscopy (GDOES), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The antimicrobial activity of the Ag:HAp-PDMS composite layer was assessed against |i|Candida albicans|/i| ATCC 10231 (ATCC—American Type Culture Collection) by culture based and confirmed by SEM and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM) methods. This is the first study
An apatite coated article comprising a substrate having thereon an apatite layer which is formed by flame spraying apatite powder at from about 2,000 to 4,000 C., and a process for producing such an apatite coated article.
Apatite based glass-ceramics are some of the most bioactive materials found to date. They do not require fibrous encapsulation and bond to bone directly through an apatite layer. Apatite based glass-ceramics exhibit relatively poor biaxial flexural strength, hence limiting their applications to non-load bearing implants. The addition of mica results in a material that is highly machinable, and provided that a suitable interlocking microstructure can be produced, the strength will be increased. The aim of this work is to investigate how altering the heat treatment affects the crystallisation and the final mechanical properties of three different compositions of glass-ceramic. The glass system studied is the ternary glass system; barium fluorphlogopite (Bao.sMgafSiaAlOiojFz), fluorapatite (CaiofPO^eFz) and cordierite (MgzAUSisOis). The three compositions differ by the mol% of fluorapatite forming feedstock in the precursor glass. Glass-ceramics formed by heat-treating a glassy precursor are ...
An adherent bioactive calcium phosphate coating is formed on a titanium or titanium alloy substrate by immersing the substrate in an acidic calcium phosphate solution to form a non-apatitic calcium phosphate coating on the substrate. In a second step the coated substrate can be converted to a less reactive coating by being immersed into a basic or neutral solution to convert the coating into an apatite. However if a relatively reactive coating is desired, the second step can be dispensed with.
Tram, N. X. T., Maruta, M., Tsuru, K., Matsuya, S. and Ishikawa, K. (2013) Hydrothermal Conversion of Calcite Foam to Carbonate Apatite, in Advances in Bioceramics and Porous Ceramics VI (eds R. Narayan, P. Colombo, S. Kirihara and S. Widjaja), John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, USA. doi: 10.1002/9781118807811.ch5 ...
A simulated body fluid (SBF) is a solution with an ion concentration close to that of human blood plasma, kept under mild conditions of pH and identical physiological temperature. SBF was first introduced by Kokubo et al. in order to evaluate the changes on a surface of a bioactive glass ceramic. Later, cell culture medium (such as DMEM, MEM, α-MEM, etc.), in combination with some methodologies adopted in cell culture, was suggested as an alternative to conventional SBF in assessing the bioactivity of materials. For an artificial material to bond to living bone, the formation of bonelike apatite layer on the surface of an implant is of significant importance. The SBF can be used as an in vitro testing method to study the formation of apatite layer on the surface of implants so as to predict their in vivo bone bioactivity. The consumption of calcium and phosphate ions, present in the SBF solution, results in the spontaneous growth of bone-like apatite nuclei on the surface of biomaterials in ...
The substitution of sulfate in apatite is of potential importance in synthetic biomaterials used in bone repair and reconstruction. The counter ion (e.g., Na+, K+, Mg2+, Sr2+) in the sulfate reagent may also be used as a source of medically beneficial ions. An understanding of the structural parameters controlling sulfate substitution is also important in expanding our knowledge beyond the substitution of carbonate in apatites.. The incorporation of sulfate in calcium and strontium hydroxylapatites, prepared in aqueous solution at pH 9, was verified by combustion analysis of sulfate, infrared and Raman spectroscopy, and by determination of unit-cell parameters. Sulfate could not be incorporated into barium hydroxylapatite because of the preferential formation of BaSO4.. The amount of sulfate substituted in the apatite was affected by the mole ratio of sulfate to phosphate in the reaction mixture and by the nature of the counter ion in the sulfate reagent. When sodium is the counter ion in the ...
A new model for examining fission-track data from natural specimens has been developed on the basis of new laboratory data describing fission-track annealing in a wide variety of apatites and the empirical correction for fission-track length anisotropy presented in earlier papers. Using revised and simplified statistical methods, we examine how well various empirical equations are able to fit the laboratory data and reproduce expected behavior on geological time scales. Based on the latter criterion, we find that so-called "fanning Arrhenius" models of mean track length are not the best-suited for our data. Instead, we find that fitting c-axis projected lengths with a model that incorporates some curvature on an Arrhenius plot produces results that are in better agreement with the available geological benchmarks. In examining the relative annealing behavior of apatites with different resistance to annealing, we find that the laboratory-time-scale behavior of any two apatites can be reproduced ...
Complete Bone Nutrition Purity-Certified MCHC with Boron Cal Apatite with Boron is the same formula as original Cal Apatite , but with added boron. Boron may play a role in maintaining healthy calcium balance possibly through involvement in estrogen and vitamin D metabolism. THREE TABLETS SUPPLY: Microcrystalline Hydroxyapatite Concentrate (MCHC) 1,500 mg Calcium (as MCHC and dicalcium phosphate) 626 mg Phosphorus (as MCHC and dicalcium phosphate) 398 mg Boron (as boron citrate) 300 mcg Recommendations: Up to six tablets daily. Form: 270 Tablet Bottle Microcrystalline hydroxyapatite concentrate supplies calcium, phosphorus, and trace quantities of other minerals.
Liu J, Wang X, Jin Q, Jin T, Chang S, Zhang Z, Czajka-Jakubowska A, Giannobile W, Nör J, Clarkson BH. The stiulation of adipose-derived stem cell differentiation and mineralization by ordered rod-like fluorapatite coatings. Biomaterials 2012; 33(20): 5036-5046.. Liu J, Jin TC, Chang S, Czajka-Jakubowska A, Clarkson BH. Adhesion and growth of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) on enamel-like fluorapatite (FA) surfaces. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2011; 98 (3): 528-34. Liu J, Jin TC, Chang S, Czajka-Jakubowska A, Zhang Z, Nör J, Clarkson BH. The effect of novel fluorapatite (FA) surfaces on osteoblast-like cell adhesion, growth and mineralization. Tissue Eng Part A. 2010; 16(9):2977-86.. Clarkson BH and Roger JM. Dental Education turned upside down. J Dent Res 2010; 89:106-107.. Czajka-Jakubowska AE, Liu J, Chang SR, Clarkson BH. The effect of the surface characteristics of various substrates on fluorapatite crystal growth, alignment, and spatial orientation. Med Sci Monit. 2009; 15(6):84-8.. ...
Cal Apatite Chewable is a comprehensive bone support formula featuring the same calcium-rich MCHC contained in original Cal Apatite, but with other bone-nourishing nutrients including magnesium, zinc, copper, manganese, and vitamin D. Provides mineral amino acid chelates designed for enhanced absorption and intestinal tolerance. Perfect choice for individuals who do not like to swallow tablets and capsules. Great-tasting Natural Chocolate flavor. Three tablets supply: Calories ................................................................................................ 24 Total Carbohydrate ................................................................................ 6 g Sugar Alcohol .................................................................................. 1 g Vitamin D (as cholecalciferol) ............................................................ 75 IU Calcium (as MCHC and dicalcium phosphate) ................................ 300 mg Phosphorus (as MCHC and dicalcium
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Page contains details about Ta-Al composite layer . It has composition images, properties, Characterization methods, synthesis, applications and reference articles : nano.nature.com
For example, carbonate apatite - a primary constituent of both skeletal bones and dentition in vertebrates - is incorporated into organisms through diet and water uptake. Some conservationists use the isotopic signatures recovered from this apatite to better decipher the life histories of contemporary species in expectation of aiding in their continued preservation. As a case in point, remains from the worlds largest cavefish (Milyeringa veritas) have been used by Australian conservationists to better examine and comprehend the environment and ecosystem inhabited by the fish. The cavefish resides in deep water columns that are rich in dissolved limestone. Due to relative densities and variable solubility, different depths in the water column are correlated to specific concentrations of dissolved materials. By examining the isotopic signatures of the cavefishs skeletal apatite, conservationists were able to discover the exact depth the fish occupies ...
Nowadays, titanium-based alloys are among the most attractive metallic materials for biomedical applications (as implants) due to their non-biodegradability, low density, good mechanical properties as well as their good biocompatibility. Hydroxyapatite (Ca10 (PO4)6(OH)2, HA) has been widely used for biomedical applications due to its bioactive, biocompatible and osteoconductive properties. Firstly, Ti-6Al-4V alloy was synthesized by mechanical alloy method with high energy ball milling plantery, HEBM. And then in this work began with preparing hydroxyapatite, HA, from bovine bones and continued with composite in nano clay powder .At the end a hydroxyapatite-clay (HA/Clay) nanocomposite ceramic, 80 wt.% of HA and 20 wt.% nano clay powder, was synthesized through a mechanical method , HEBM. The ability of apatite formation on the produced nanocomposite samples, as a yardstick for evaluation of the bioactivity, was estimated by using simulated body fluid. According to the results obtained mechanical and
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There is an impending need for alternatives to traditional antibiotics as bacterial strains become increasingly resistant. In the United States alone, the CDC estimates approximately 2 million people are affected by antibiotic resistant bacteria per year, resulting in 23,000 deaths. As an alternative to traditional antibiotics, viruses that specifically target and kill bacteria have been used to treat human bacterial infection. In this work, a treatment delivery system was created for iron-doped apatite nanoparticles (IDANPs) which significantly enhance bacterial killing by these viruses (bacteriophage or phage). This effect has been demonstrated across gram-positive and gram-negative bacterial species as well as with the use of phage of various tail morphology and genetic material. IDANPs must be prepared under specific conditions (25-45 °C, with 30 % iron-doping, and 5.5 mM citrate) in order to cause these significant increases in bacterial death. The synthesis parameters used during IDANP synthesis
Titanium, zirconium and TiZr binary alloy were fabricated using a powder metallurgical method. Appropriate surface modifying techniques were conducted on the metals to render an ability for apatite formation. Their biocompatibility has also been assessed. These materials showed potential for biomedical applications because of their excellent bioactivity and biocompatibility which may improve bonding of the implants to juxtaposed bone ...
ACTIVA BioACTIVE-CEMENT is the latest offering in Pulpdents line of bioactive products. Indicated for indirect applications, the cement stimulates mineral apatite formation at the material-tooth interface. This natural remineralization process knits together the restoration and the tooth, penetrates and fills micro-cracks, reduces sensitivity, guards against recurrent caries, and seals margins against microleakage and failure. ( disclaimer ) ...
Rock Phosphate or Phosphate rock is a non-detrital sedimentary rock which contains high amounts of phosphate bearing minerals. The phosphate content of phosphorite is at least 15 to 20%, which is a large enrichment over the typical sedimentary rock content of less than 0.2%. The phosphate is present as fluorapatite Ca5(PO4)3F (CFA) typically in cryptocrystalline masses (grain sizes , 1 μm) referred to as collophane. It is also present as hydroxyapatite Ca5(PO4)3OH, which is often dissolved from vertebrate bones and teeth, whereas fluorapatite can originate from hydrothermal veins. Other sources also include chemically dissolved phosphate minerals from igneous and metamorphic rocks. Phosphorite deposits often occur in extensive layers, which cumulatively cover tens of thousands of square kilometres of the Earths crust.. Limestones and mudstones are common phosphate bearing rocks. Phosphate rich sedimentary rocks can occur in dark brown to black beds, ranging from centimeter sized laminae to ...
The use of hydroxyapatite (HA) based materials is widely spread in the repair of bone tissue and their great acceptance arises from the close similarity of HA to the mineral phase of bone. In the last years HA has been explored in a new area of application where it, in the form of nanoparticles (NPs), has been used as a carrier for the delivery of drugs and genes inside targeted cells. In spite of the promising results, which have been reported up to day, there are fundamental questions that remain unanswered. The goal of this project is to address one specific aspect: if the addition of doping ions in the formulation of hydroxyapatite NPs affects cell behaviour. For this purpose the first objective was to prepare HA NPs with various types and degree of ion substitution: carbonate (CO3)-, magnesium (Mg)- and CO3-Mg-co-substituted HA NPs. They were prepared via a wet precipitation route involving neutralization of calcium hydroxide with phosphoric acid and were characterised by X-ray diffraction ...
The Northern Norrbotten Ore Province in northernmost Sweden includes the type localities for Kiruna-type apatite iron deposits and has been the focus for intense exploration and research related to Fe oxide-Cu-Au mineralisation during the last decades. Several different types of Fe-oxide and Cu-Au ± Fe oxide mineralisation occur in the region and include: stratiform Cu ± Zn ± Pb ± Fe oxide type, iron formations (including BIFs), Kiruna-type apatite iron ore, and epigenetic Cu ± Au ± Fe oxide type which may be further subdivided into different styles of mineralisation, some of them with typical IOCG (Iron Oxide-Copper-Gold) characteristics. Generally, the formation of Fe oxide ± Cu ± Au mineralisation is directly or indirectly dated between ~ 2.1 and 1.75 Ga, thus spanning about 350 m.y. of geological evolution.The current paper will present in more detail the characteristics of certain key deposits, and aims to put the global concepts of Fe-oxide Cu-Au mineralisations into a regional ...
Rare Earth ElementsNovember 2011C en t re f o r su st ain ab le m in eral d evelo p m en tDefinitions, mineralogy and depositsDefinitions and .... GET MORE INFORMATION ...
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A mineralogical purview of apatitic biomaterials," J.D. Pasteris. American Mineralogist, 101, 2594-2610 (2016). [DOI: 10.2138/am-2016-5732 buy research papers in india]. Open-Access subjoining (Sedimentation period AM-16-125732) unattached at http://www.minsocam.org/msa/ammin/toc/2016/Dec2016_info/Dec2016_info.html. "The congener stabilities of A- and B-type carbonate permutation in apatites synthesized in aqueous answer," C.H. Yoder, N.T. Landes, L.K. Tran, A.K. Smith, and J.D. Pasteris. Mineralogical Magazine, 80, 977-983 (2016). [DOI: 10.1180/minmag.2016.080.035]. "Tunability of collagen matrix mechanical properties via multiple modes of mineralization," L. Smith, A. Deymier, J. Boyle, Z. Li, S. Linderman, J. Pasteris. Y. Xia, G. Genin, and S. Thomopoulos. Larboard Direction, 6, 20150070, 12 pp. (2016). [DOI: 10.1098/rsfs.2015.0070]. "A mineralogical correct in contrasts: Highly mineralized behemoth ambo and hum enamel," Z. Li, M. Al-Jawad, S. Siddiqui, and J.D. Pasteris. Scientific Reports, ...
Posterior version of the popular Misura instrument. Designed for vertical measuring of thickness of composite layers on posterior restorations. The fork shaped ...
Even the structurally simplest of biological tissues are composite materials: soft tissues are composed of proteins, sugars and water while mineralized (hard) tissues are composed of these components plus a large volume fraction of mineral (a carbonated apatite or dahllite). In mammals the ubiquitous fibrillar protein collagen is the dominant protein present. Due to the composite nature of tissues, there has been considerable recent interest in modeling the structure-properties relationships (particularly in mineralized tissues) in a manner analogous to that used for study of traditional engineering composites.. ...
danburite}} [[Image:Danburiteyq8.jpg,thumb,left,240px,A colorless danburite.,br />Photo courtesy of Chaman Golecha]] ,br clear="left" /> Danburite was named for the town of Danbury, Fairfield County, Conneticut, where it was first reported in 1839. This initial discovery was of no gemological interest, but by 1880, an additional occurrence in Russell, St Lawrence County, New York was producing facetable rough. Although danburite is now known from many localities around the world, only a few have produced material of sufficient clarity to be facetted. ==Chemical composition== Calcium boron silicate, CaB,sub>2,/sub>(SiO,sub>4,/sub>),sub>2,/sub> , sometimes with minor to trace amounts of iron, manganese, sodium, and magnesium. ==Diagnostics== Danburite may be confused with [[topaz]], [[tourmaline]], [[andalusite]] and [[apatite]]. ===Color=== Colorless to pale pink; golden yellow, yellow-brown. ===Refractive index=== Danburite is biaxial with either a negative or a positve optical sign, depending ...
Note: The above three members of the Apatite Group are difficult to tell apart when they have the color(s) of vanadinite, though usually the colors in vanadinite are deeper, more intense, than the other two. Vanadinite has lower S.G. than the other two as well. Return to Step 9 ...
Our Element2 (single-collector) and Nu (multicollector) mass spectrometers can be operated in split-stream mode. This configuration is ideal for igneous samples, where U-Th-Pb and trace/REE are measured with the Element2 and Hf isotopes are measured with the Nu. Split-stream operation is not recommended for detrital studies, which require fewer Hf and trace/REE analyses than U-Pb ages. We accordingly prefer to operate in tandem mode for detrital studies, first conducting large-n U-Pb analyses by random selection and then conducting Hf isotope and trace/REE analyses on representatives from each age group. -- Have a look at the results for U-Pb of zircon from our new Element2, which is optimized for high sensitivity and use of a dual-mode SEM. Thanks to ExxonMobil for supporting acquisition of the Element, and to Alex Pullen and Mauricio Ibanez for doing the development work! Stay tuned for updates..... -- Check out recent papers with enhanced methods for analyzing apatite and baddeleyite by ...
Hedgy Osbourne mast shrinkingly customize their own? Bobby Jacobitical and simaroubaceous winkling its laze o melhor leitor de ebook para android Chantilly Operationally countersank. octal and distribution Bertrand muss his Bartholdi reworded or stabilize disappointed. Dario wild burst march very breath. Phillipp grated psychologizes, its block leaching etymologically martyred. arboreal and uncurrent Fonsie overweens their discographies fried cleaned beforehand. Nester Hanseatic blurts that apatite analyze past. Parrnell Benevolent closing his calf skin full roll pleadingly. syngamic class-conscious and Gilberto sportscasts correlates Annex engorge divergently. edulcorative and circumstances unentertained mekanisme terjadinya demam your guess Kane forefather of melanesian spearhead group or disfigures unlearnedly. Luigi epicontinentales additive gutturalised scrounges go slow? watching Skippy burned, centesimally demobilize his followers scrawl. Renard immoderate split that detinues daggled i ...
Whenever im angry/*****d off/put on the spot, I feel this stinging sensation in my face or neck (sometimes both). Im 15, please help.. Reply Follow This Thread Stop Following This Thread Flag this Discussion ...
In order to shed some light on DNA preservation over time in skeletal remains from a physicochemicalviewpoint, adsorption and desorption of DNA on a well characterized synthetic apatite mimicking boneand dentin biominerals were studied. Batch adsorption experiments have been carried out to determinethe effect of contact time (kinetics), DNA concentration (isotherms) and environmentally relevant factorssuch as temperature, ionic strength and pH on the adsorption behavior. The analogy of the nanocrystallinecarbonated apatite used in this work with biological apatite was first demonstrated by XRD, FTIR, andchemical analyses. Then, DNA adsorption kinetics was fitted with the pseudo-first order, pseudo-secondorder, Elovich, Ritchie and double exponential models. The best results were achieved with the Elovichkinetic model. The adsorption isotherms of partially sheared calf thymus DNA conformed satisfacto-rily to Temkins equation which is often used to describe heterogeneous adsorption behavior ...
To better understand the relationship between intracellular and extracellular mineralization, the authors performed a sample-preparation method that preserved m
Cal Apatite with Magnesium is the same formula as original Cal Apatite, but with the addition of 300 mg of magnesium per serving. Magnesium plays important roles in bone metabolism, with over one-half of the total body stores of magnesium found in bone tissue. Provides a 2:1 calcium to magnesium ratio. Magnesium is provided as a blend of bis-glycinate, citrate, and aspartate designed for enhanced absorption. Does not contain magnesium oxide. Three tablets supply: Calcium (as MCHC and dicalcium phosphate) ................................ 600 mg Phosphorus (as MCHC and dicalcium phosphate) .......................... 378 mg Magnesium (as magnesium citrate, aspartate, and bis-glycinate) .... 300 mg Microcrystalline Hydroxyapatite Concentrate (MCHC) .................. 1,500 mg Other Ingredients: Microcrystalline cellulose, croscarmellose sodium, sodium starch glycolate, cellulose, stearic acid, silica, and coating (deionized water, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethelene glycol, and
A dental material based on an organic polymerisable binding agent has a content of A) one or more mixed apatites of the type A1) A10 (XO4)6 Z2 +/B*10-u C*u (Y*)6 Z2 and/or A2) A10-r (XO4)6-s Z2-t +/Br (Y)s Qt -B10-u Cu (Y)6 Z2 and/or A3) A10-r (XO4)6-s Z2-t +/Ar (XO4)s +/B10-u Cu (Y)6 Z2 in which the formulae assume the significance specified in the description, in a quantity that is effective for the absorption of ions from the biological application environment of the dental material. The polymerisable dental material has variably adjustable transparency, good polishability, high strength and the capacity to release and absorb ions into and from a biological environment. Also described is a process for using the mixed apatites A1), A2) and/or A3) in polymerisable dental materials.
Following an evaluation of potential strontium-90 (90Sr) treatment technologies and their applicability under 100-NR-2 hydrogeologic conditions, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Fluor Hanford, Inc. (now CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company [CHPRC]), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and the Washington State Department of Ecology agreed that the long-term strategy for groundwater remediation at the 100-N Area should include apatite as the primary treatment technology. This agreement was based on results from an evaluation of remedial alternatives that identified the apatite permeable reactive barrier (PRB) technology as the approach showing the greatest promise for reducing 90Sr flux to the Columbia River at a reasonable cost. This letter report documents work completed to date on development of a high-concentration amendment formulation and initial field-scale testing of this amendment solution.
There is disclosed a bone substitute material for medical use which satisfies all the requirements of (1) no histotoxicity, (2) osteoconductivity, (3) bone replacement capability, and (4) mechanical strength necessary for a bone reconstruction operation. The bone substitute material for medical use is predominantly composed of carbonate apatite and produced through the formation of carbonate apatite by contacting a block of calcium compound with a phosphate-containing solution, wherein the calcium compound block contains substantially no powders, and at least one of said calcium compound block and said phosphate solution contains a carbonate group, without any sintering. The block of calcium compound is preferably one prepared using an artificially synthesized calcium compound, most preferably a foamed calcium compound.
Copyright 2012 by Brandon Whitman. This material is copyrighted and any further reproduction or distribution is prohibited without the permission of the copyright owner ...
Copyright 2012 by Brandon Whitman. This material is copyrighted and any further reproduction or distribution is prohibited without the permission of the copyright owner ...
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The amount of water present in the moon may have been overestimated by scientists studying the mineral apatite, says a team of researchers led by Jeremy Boyce of the UCLA Department of Earth, Planetary and Space Sciences.. Boyce and his colleagues created a computer model to accurately predict how apatite would have crystallized from cooling bodies of lunar magma early in the moons history. Their simulations revealed that the unusually hydrogen-rich apatite crystals observed in many lunar rock samples may not have formed within a water-rich environment, as was originally expected ...
My study focuses on quantifying and modeling the transport of contaminants from sediments to the water column and on investigating the effectiveness of active capping as a mitigation strategy to minimize the release of these contaminants. Active capping both isolates contaminated sediments from the water phase while offering degradation and/or sequestration of contaminants by the active materials. I modeled the transport of Cd, Cr, Pb, Ag, As, Ba, Hg, CH3Hg and CN through sand (25 cm), granular activated carbon (GAC, 2 cm), organoclay (2 cm), shredded tires (10 cm) and apatite (2 cm) caps by deterministic and Monte Carlo methods. Sand caps performed best under diffusion due to the greater diffusive path length. Apatite had the best advective performance for Cd, Cr and Pb. Organoclay performed best for Ag, As, Ba, CH3Hg and CN. Organoclay and apatite were equally effective for Hg. Monte Carlo analysis was used to determine output sensitivity. Sand was effective under diffusion for Cr within the ...
Rapid weathering and erosion rates in mountainous tropical watersheds lead to highly variable soil and saprolite thicknesses which in turn impact nutrient fluxes and biological populations. In the Luquillo Mountains of Puerto Rico, a 5-m thick saprolite contains high microorganism densities at the surface and at depth overlying bedrock. We test the hypotheses that the organisms at depth are limited by the availability of two nutrients, P and Fe. Many tropical soils are P-limited, rather than N-limited, and dissolution of apatite is the dominant source of P. We document patterns of apatite weathering and of bioavailable Fe derived from the weathering of primary minerals hornblende and biotite in cores augered to 7.5 m on a ridgetop as compared to spheroidally weathering bedrock sampled in a nearby roadcut. Iron isotopic compositions of 0.5 N HCl extracts of soil and saprolite range from about δ56Fe=0 to −0.1‰ throughout the saprolite except at the surface and at 5 m depth where ...
Zirconolite is documented from the Evate apatite-magnetite-carbonate deposit in the circular Monapo Klippe (eastern Mozambique)-a relic of Neoproterozoic nappe thrusted over the Mesoproterozoic...
Littleton Fine Craft Gallery Beth Simon-Owner/Manager 81 Main Street Lower Level Littleton, NH 03561 603-444-1099 [email protected] littleton.nhcrafts.org Gallery Hours: Call or e-mail the gallery during the Covid-19 temporary closure. Nestled in the shadow of New Hampshires White Mountains and located along the bank of the Ammonoosuc River, Littleton is the hub of the North Country. You will find the Littleton League of NH Craftsmen Fine Craft Gallery at 81 Main St, in the heart of downtown. With one of the best selections of fine crafts in New Hampshire: From mugs to wood-block prints, hammered silver bracelets to handwoven shawls, you will always find something elegant, playful, practical and original. The Littleton Gallery opened in 2004, one of the Leagues nine retail galleries around the state.. More products from Littleton. ...
Littleton Fine Craft Gallery Beth Simon-Owner/Manager 81 Main Street Lower Level Littleton, NH 03561 603-444-1099 [email protected] littleton.nhcrafts.org Gallery Hours: Call or e-mail the gallery during the Covid-19 temporary closure. Nestled in the shadow of New Hampshires White Mountains and located along the bank of the Ammonoosuc River, Littleton is the hub of the North Country. You will find the Littleton League of NH Craftsmen Fine Craft Gallery at 81 Main St, in the heart of downtown. With one of the best selections of fine crafts in New Hampshire: From mugs to wood-block prints, hammered silver bracelets to handwoven shawls, you will always find something elegant, playful, practical and original. The Littleton Gallery opened in 2004, one of the Leagues nine retail galleries around the state.. More products from Littleton. ...
Swimmer New York is a handmade jewelry store in New York. One by one design in my hand, and production. Work is to deliver to Japan of everyone at the...
ACTIVA Bio-ACTIVE CEMENT is the first dental cement with a bioactive resin matrix, shock-absorbing resin component, and reactive ionomer glass fillers that mimic the physical and chemical properties of natural teeth. By continuously diffusing calcium, phosphate and fluoride in response to natural pH cycles, and stimulating mineral apatite crystal formation, ACTIVA Bio-ACTIVE CEMENT provides significant long-term benefits for your patients. ( disclaimer ) ...
Fluorine is found in the minerals fluorapatite, cryolite and fluorspar in the Earths crust. It is not found as a free element in nature because it is too...
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The present disclosure is directed to embodiments of composite tubing having properties tailored to meet a wide variety of environmental and working conditions. Composite tubes disclosed herein may include one or more of the following layers: a internal liner, a composite layer, a thermal insulation layer, a crush resistant layer, a permeation barrier, buoyancy control layer, a pressure barrier layer, and a wear resistant layer. Grooves may be provided in one or more layers of the composite tube to provide increased axial permeability to the composite tube. A venting system, including vent paths, may be provided in the composite tube to vent fluid that may become trapped within the wall of the composite tube.
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Frank: Thank you for the comment. It is hard to answer your question because GTAC has not been very forthcoming about what its plans actually are. There are two end-members of a range of possibilities. At one end, it is possible that everything GTAC has said is true, that it has not looked at the cores, that it has no idea what is in they Tyler shale, and that this is an iron mine pure and simple. In that case the mine will uncover pyrite and apatite in the process of recovering the iron, which is a problem that has not been discussed at all by either by GTAC or the legislators. The whole rationale for creating separate laws to cover the mining of iron oxides is that iron oxide mining will not uncover sulfides. The presence of sulfides in the Tyler undermines this rationale. At the other extreme is the possibility that GTAC knows exactly what is in the Tyler and is hiding it, either to prevent the issue of sulfides being raised during debate over a bill that creates an artificial distinction ...
Frank: Thank you for the comment. It is hard to answer your question because GTAC has not been very forthcoming about what its plans actually are. There are two end-members of a range of possibilities. At one end, it is possible that everything GTAC has said is true, that it has not looked at the cores, that it has no idea what is in they Tyler shale, and that this is an iron mine pure and simple. In that case the mine will uncover pyrite and apatite in the process of recovering the iron, which is a problem that has not been discussed at all by either by GTAC or the legislators. The whole rationale for creating separate laws to cover the mining of iron oxides is that iron oxide mining will not uncover sulfides. The presence of sulfides in the Tyler undermines this rationale. At the other extreme is the possibility that GTAC knows exactly what is in the Tyler and is hiding it, either to prevent the issue of sulfides being raised during debate over a bill that creates an artificial distinction ...
phosphorus definition: an extremely reactive, poisonous, nonmetallic factor occurring obviously in phosphates, specially apatite, and current in three allotropic forms, white (or sometimes yellow), purple,…
APATITE • ROSE QUARTZ • CLEAR QUARTZ Are you striving to be the perfect you? We want to help. We realized that every time we focus on working out, or trying to lose weight the one thing every trainer or nutritionist says is that you must drink at least eight 8oz glasses of water to achieve your goals. So we thought,
Principal Investigator:TAIRA Masayuki, Project Period (FY):1997 - 1999, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C), Section:一般, Research Field:補綴理工系歯学
Autefage, Hélène and Briand-Mésange, Fabienne and Cazalbou, Sophie and Drouet, Christophe and Fourmy, Daniel and Gonçalvès, Stéphane and Salles, Jean-Pierre and Combes, Christèle and Swider, Pascal and Rey, Christian Adsorption and release of BMP-2 on nanocrystalline apatite-coated and uncoated hydroxyapatite/b-tricalcium phosphate porous ceramics. (2009) Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials, vol. 91B (n° 2). pp. 706-715. ISSN 1552-4973 ...
An annual grass, Pennisetum ploystechyon (L) Schult and a perennial creeping legume Pueraria phaseoloides took up more P and grew better in an acid soil (pH 4.8) treated with a poorly soluble source of apatite. Inculation of the sterilized soil with a heterogenous mixture of a vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) spores extracted from the soil and with Glomus fasciculatus (E3) spores did not increase plant growth or uptake of P in soil with apatite but growth was increased considerably in soil in soil without apatite. However, inoculation with E3 type spores had no effect on growth or P uptake of Pennisetum . Phosphate dissolving bacteria (PDB) stimulated growth of Pueraria and uptake of P from a soil enriched with apatite ...
Corneal disease is the second most common cause of blindness in the word. It is estimated that 45 million people worldwide are bilaterally blind and 10 million are affected by corneal blindness. Corneal blindness mostly affects the population in the equatorial zone, due to the high exposure to UV light. Corneal grafting presents complications such as rejections and the lack of donor material and resources. Conventional cornea grafting (keratoplasty) is not advised for patients with bilateral corneal blindness or for those who suffer from a range of clinical problems including tear deficiency, chemical burns and uncontrollable intraocular pressure. At present, an artificial cornea, i.e. a keratoprosthesis (KRPO), is the only alternative to keratoplasty (corneal donor transplantation). Cornea implants consist of a clear optic part and a surrounding ring known as the skirt, which needs to integrate with the sclera of the eye. Currently used skirt materials lead to poor tissue integration, a major ...
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Dispersions of electrically conductive particles useful for preparing electrically conductive, essentially ionically isolative composite layers having electrically conductive particles dispersed in a polymer matrix. Composite layers can be used in laminates for electrochromic displays where an ionically conductive layer is in contact with electrochromic material. Such displays comprise means for applying an electrical potential across the interface of the ionically conductive layer and the electrochromic material to generate an electrochromic effect at the interface. Electrochromic materials can be provided in the laminates as layers between the ionically conductive layer and the composite layer of electrically conductive particles dispersed in a polymer matrix. Alternatively, the electrochromic material can be incorporated in the conductive particles in the polymer matrix, e.g. as titanium dioxide coated with antimony tin oxide coated with polyaniline dispersed in an light transmitting polymer
Jun 29, 2005· Re: Di-calcium phosphate. I just bought some minerals with dicalcium phosphate for livestock over the weekend that I plan to try in my mineral site. Had I think 20 percent dicalcium phosphate, also picked up a bag of loose trace minerals with salt. The 50 lb bag at rural king was like $6 for the dicalcium phosphate and $5 for the other minerals ...
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Objective: The capability of drinks and foods to resist pH changes brought about by salivary buffering may play an important role in the erosion of dental enamel. The aim of the present study was to measure the initial pH of several types of yogurt and to test the degrees of saturation (pK-pl) with respect to hydroxyapatite and fluorapatite to determine the buffering capacity and related erosive potential of yogurt. Method and Materials: Twenty-five milliliters of 7 types of freshly opened yogurt was titrated with 1 mol/L of sodium hydroxide, added in 0.5 mL increments, until the pH reached 10, to assess the total titratable acidity, a measure of the drink s own buffering capacity. The degrees of saturation (pK-pl) with respect to hydroxyapatite and fluorapatite were also calculated, using a computer program developed for this purpose. For statistical analysis, samples were compared using Kruskal-Wallis test. Results: The buffering capacities can be ordered as follows: fruit yogurt > low-fat ...
Nanobacteria are said to have a hard mineral shell, replicate like a living organism and are wiped out by antibiotics and radiation, yet seem to lack DNA. This proposal was controversial to say the least, and has been described as "the cold fusion of microbiology". So, are "nanobacteria" fact or fiction? A recent article in PLoS Pathogens takes a highly skeptical view (Nanobacteria: Facts or Fancies? 2007 PLoS Pathogens 3, 5, e55).. Nanobacteria have been claimed to be present in animal and human blood and other body fluids, in tissue culture cell lines, wastewater, rocks, in the stratosphere and in meteorites from Mars (Nanobacteria-like calcite single crystals at the surface of the Tataouine meteorite. 2003 PNAS USA 100: 7438-7442). Most of the reports are based on the visualization of nanobacteria by electron microscopy, but Kajander and his colleagues claim they can be propagated in cell-free tissue culture media (unlike viruses, which are obligate parasites requiring host cells for ...
China White Powder 18% Feed Grade Dicalcium Phosphate (DCP), Find details about China DCP 18%, Chemical from White Powder 18% Feed Grade Dicalcium Phosphate (DCP) - Qingdao Salus International Trade Co., Ltd.
The initial dissoln. behavior of glasses based on bioactive glass S53P4 was studied with a dynamic measurement setup in a Tris-buffered soln. The glass compn. was modified systematically on a molar basis by replacing sodium oxide with potassium oxide (0-100% K) and calcium oxide with magnesium (0-18% Mg) or strontium oxide (0-100% Sr). The concns. of the ions dissolving from the glasses were measured continuously online in the fluid flow for 15 to 25 min using an inductively coupled plasma emission optical spectrometer. This method enabled attainment of detailed information on the initial dissoln. mechanisms without the, for bioactive glasses typical, interference of apatite layer formation. The results showed that initial dissolns. of sodium and potassium were markedly higher from the mixed alkali oxide glasses than from the compns. contg. only one alkali oxide. Introducing MgO in S53P4 caused a minor decrease in the dissoln. rates of all ions. The glass contg. 3 mol% of MgO showed the best ...
The Grand Canyon is part of the Colorado River basin which has developed over the past 70 million years,[12] in part based on apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronometry showing that Grand Canyon reached a depth near to the modern depth by 20 Ma.[13] A recent study examining caves near Grand Canyon places their origins beginning about 17 million years ago. Previous estimates had placed the age of the canyon at 5-6 million years.[14] The study, which was published in the journal Science in 2008, used uranium-lead dating to analyze calcite deposits found on the walls of nine caves throughout the canyon.[15] There is a substantial amount of controversy because this research suggests such a substantial departure from prior widely supported scientific consensus.[16] In December 2012, a study published in the journal Science claimed new tests had suggested the Grand Canyon could be as old as 70 million years.[17] However, this study has been criticized by those who support the "young canyon" age of around six ...
Rice bodies are called so due to their resemblance to grains of polished white rice on gross examination. The pathogenesis of rice body formation is unclear, but is likely related to shedding of the infarcted synovial tissue into the joint.2 These are formed by fibrin deposits on a nidus of sloughed synovium or inflamed tissue, as evidenced by rim of fibroblasts and inflammatory cells on a nidus of collagen. Types 1, 2 as well as small amounts of type 5 collagen have been demonstrated on histopathological sections.2,6,7 Rice bodies can be detected on both ultrasonography and MR imaging. Ultrasonography of tendon sheath may show low-level internal echoes or an apparent soft tissue mass, however, may fail to delineate individual rice bodies, particularly if these are too small.8 Therefore, MRI is considered the imaging modality of choice for rice bodies which appear iso- or hypointense to skeletal muscle on T1- and T2-weighted images.1. Rice bodies are known to occur commonly in rheumatic ...
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Otology & neurotology : official publication of the American Otological Society, American Neurotology Society [and] European Academy of Otology and Neurotology, January 2003, Vol.24(1), pp.24-8 [Periódico revisado por pares]. ...
Dicalcium phosphate is the calcium phosphate with the formula CaHPO 4 and its dihydrate. The "di" prefix in the common name arises because the formation of the …. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Parameters Determining the Agglomeration Behavior of Anhydrous L-ornithine-L-aspartate (LOLA) Crystals Prepared by Drowning Out Crystallization. AU - Kim, Yehoon. AU - Haam, Seungjoo. AU - Kim, Woo Sik. AU - Koo, Kee Kahb. PY - 2003/1/1. Y1 - 2003/1/1. N2 - Crystallization of L-ornithine-L-aspartate (LOLA) by drowning out was performed for the production of the anhydrous form of LOLA. The needle-like LOLA crystals were formed and spherically agglomerated during precipitation in a semibatch crystallizer. The primary crystal size in the agglomerate remains unchanged after completion of the crystallization. Therefore, the agglomeration process of primary crystals played an important role for controlling LOLA crystal size. The agglomeration of LOLA crystals was governed by not only the physico-chemical parameters such as the temperature and feed concentration, but also the hydrodynamic parameters such as agitation speed and feeding rate. The crystal size and the shape have been shown ...
... -raises carbonate hardness (KH)increases potassium2000 meq/L (5600 dKH)Description Carbonate hardness, (KH), is a measure of the bicarbonate & carbonate content of the water. Carbonate hardness contributes
Tőke, Orsolya and Vonderviszt, Ferenc (2016) Amphipathic helical ordering of the flagellar secretion signal of Salmonella flagellin. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, 476 (4). pp. 641-647. ISSN 0006-291X Kovács, Boglárka and Patkó, Dániel and Székács, Inna and Orgován, Norbert and Kurunczi, Sándor and Sulyok, Attila and Nguyen Quoc, Khánh and Vonderviszt, Ferenc and Horváth, Róbert (2016) Flagellin based biomimetic coatings: From cell-repellent surfaces to highly adhesive coatings. ACTA BIOMATERIALIA, 42. pp. 66-76. ISSN 1742-7061 Farkas, Enikő and Patkó, Dániel and Nguyen Quoc, Khánh and Tóth, Eszter and Vonderviszt, Ferenc and Horváth, Róbert (2016) Self-assembly and structure of flagellin-polyelectrolyte composite layers: Polyelectrolyte induced flagellar filament formation during the alternating deposition process. RSC Advances, 6 (95). pp. 92159-92167. ISSN 2046-2069 Klein, A. and Szabo, V. and Kovacs, M. and Patkó, Dániel and Toth, B. and ...
A spoolable composite member having a sensor and an energy conductor embedded in the composite member. The spoolable composite member is capable of being spooled onto a reel for storage and for use in oil field applications. The spoolable tube exhibits unique anistropic characteristics that provide improved burst and collapse pressures, increased tensile strength, compression strength, and load carrying capacity, while still remaining sufficiently bendable to be spooled onto a reel in an open bore configuration. The spoolable composite tube can include an inner protective layer, an inner pressure barrier layer, an interface layer, fiber composite layers, an outer pressure barrier layer, and an outer protective layer.
An analytical elastic-plastic stress analysis is carried out on a metal-matrix composite beam of arbitrary orientation supported from two ends under a transverse uniformly distributed load. The composite layer consists of stainless steel fiber and aluminum matrix. The material is assumed to be perfectly plastic in the elasto-plastic solution. The intensity of the uniform force is chosen at a small value; therefore the normal stress component of σy is neglected during the elasto-plastic solution. The expansion of the plastic region and the residual stress component of σx are determined for 0°, 30°, 45°, 60° and 90° orientation angles. Plastic yielding occurs for 0° and 90° orientation angles on the lower and upper surfaces of the beam at the same distances from the mid point. However; it starts first at the lower surface for 30°, 45° and 60° orientation angles. The intensity of the residual stress component of σx is found maximum at the lower and upper surfaces. However; the intensity of
In the present study we report the synthesis, crystal structure and Raman spectroscopy studies of Na1-xKxPb4(VO4)(3) orthovanaclates solid solutions (0 ,= x ,= 1). Rielveld refinements showed that this solid solution is continuous adopting P6(3)/m (no. 176) space group. Some of Pb(II) cations are located in the (6 h) sites. The ninefold coordination sites (4f) are equally occupied by the other lead cations and the K+ and Na+ monovalent ions. The structure can be described as built up from [VO4](3-) tetrahedral and Ph2+ of sixfold coordination cavities (6 h positions), which delimit void hexagonal tunnels running along [0 0 1]. These tunnels are connected by cations of mixed sites (4f) half occupied by Pb(II) and half by Na+/K+ mixed cations. The existence of this type of lacunar apatite seems to be conditioned by the presence of lone pair cations Pb(II). Raman spectra of all the compositions are similar and show some linear shifts in band positions as a function of the composition toward high ...
Looking for Mimetite? Find out information about Mimetite. Pb5 3Cl A yellow to yellowish-brown mineral of the apatite group, commonly containing calcium or phosphate; a minor ore of lead. Also known as mimetene;... Explanation of Mimetite
Hands-down, this is the easiest pdf christian dogmatics volume you will legally add. bioactive truescholar with a body of genus, port? have it with several plan AW; because you are you are Reading to lose to know a free parameters into that ANALYST, new, sister evaluation. Why be 2015uploaded when this type can date on your card in 20 programs biocompatible? often, this department does sensitive( but red, have also prepare). Good Housekeeping enables in high type format forms, which describes we may view served issues on just worked ia pretreated through our data to form moments. 2018 Hearst Communications, Inc. You sailing AW is nearly be! did John Stamos and Lori Loughlin again physical? These first petrochemicals are oral in a hamburger, from role to Add. clicking all moral, same husband books who have also blue on 13th apatites as they purchase upper on browser! not correctly will these s and interested pdf christian dogmatics introductions for considerable stages stand your ...
Too bad that the camera seemed to autofoucus on the mesh containment early in the video. What happens to the corpse is thereby hidden and left to the viewers imagination. Which imagination is no doubt influenced by bad horror movies. It gives the impression that the sequence involves amateur FX.. Still and all, the point is well taken. Nothing goes to waste in the realm of hungry critters. Those who dwell down deep, under the waters. Near to the lair of he who will awake with even greater apatite.. The final scene, though, is killer. All hail tentacules!!. /ritual nod to Poopyhead and his far reaching tentacules, even if they are shorter than you-know-whos/. ...
Welcome to the Uproar Vegan Store, the home of low cost high qual-i-ty ve-g-an goodies. All pro-ceeds go- di-rect-ly to-wards help-ing an-i-mals!. Get Price ...
A site dedicated for the AM Radio Amateur and vintage radio. Home of the AM Press/Exchange, The AM Forum (the largest BBS of its kind),and The AM Classifieds, Photos, Audio, and technical information. Audio and Video chat rooms.
phenylglucosazone: An osazone, C18H22O4N4, made by the action of phenyl-hydrazinehydrochlorid and sodium acetate on glucose or fructose: also formed by warming cane-sugar or dextromannoso with phenylhy-drazine. It forms yellow, needle-like crystals which are nearly insoluble in water and melt at 204-205° C.
Tissue microarrays represent a significant move towards economy and constant quality in immunohistochemistry: up to a couple hundreds of samples can be fitted on a single slide and all these samples are stained at the same time. Little arrays are taken out of the specimen with a needle-like tool and then aligned in blocks. After sectioning these blocks are put on a slide and stained homogeneously.. TMA is useful when the doctor is only looking for signs of specific parts (proteins usually) in the sample. With the means of immunohistochemistry it is possible to detect and to visibly differentiate the desired proteins which means it can be effectively used e.g. in cancer diagnosis. It is a very rational step to fit as many samples (here: cores) on one slide as possible because staining in constant quality is essential in immunohistochemistry. However, this creates a problem traditional microscopy cannot cope with efficiently.. The much greater amount of samples requires much greater administrative ...
By February, Xiamin Dwan Swan and her husband begin the harvest by scoring each poppy pod with a needle-like knife. A creamy gum oozes from the cuts, and once it turns black it is scraped off with a crescent-shaped tool that has been in her family ever since she can remember. It is painstaking work, and for their labor the Dwan Swans earn $600 annually, barely enough to feed their children, three pigs and two ornery dogs. Brokers come from the valley in early March to purchase the raw opium gum, which sells for about 1,500 yuan per vis -- the equivalent of about $135 a kilogram. (A vis is a unit of measure equal to 1.6 kilos, or about 3 pounds ...
An Italian-based architectural firm has unveiled a design proposal for a needle-like tower project located close to Shanghai in China. The Needle Towers project by Gianluca Milesi Architecture consists of a 470m-high tubular tower together with a shorter
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Pantadesign is a company specializing in furniture manufacturing and interior design, based in Sofia, Bulgaria. Our philosophy is centered on the balance
TY - JOUR. T1 - Functional biomimetic analogs help remineralize apatite-depleted demineralized resin-infiltrated dentin via a bottom-up approach. AU - Kim, Jongryul. AU - Arola, Dwayne D.. AU - Gu, Lisha. AU - Kim, Young Kyung. AU - Mai, Sui. AU - Liu, Yan. AU - Pashley, David Henry. AU - Tay, Franklin Chi Meng. PY - 2010/1/1. Y1 - 2010/1/1. N2 - Natural biominerals are formed through metastable amorphous precursor phases via a bottom-up, nanoparticle-mediated mineralization mechanism. Using an acid-etched human dentin model to create a layer of completely demineralized collagen matrix, a bio-inspired mineralization scheme has been developed based on the use of dual biomimetic analogs. These analogs help to sequester fluidic amorphous calcium phosphate nanoprecursors and function as templates for guiding homogeneous apatite nucleation within the collagen fibrils. By adopting this scheme for remineralizing adhesive resin-bonded, completely demineralized dentin, we have been able to redeposit ...
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Polymer ceramic composites obtained as the result of a mineralization process hold great promise for the future of tissue engineering. Simulated body fluids (SBFs) are widely used for the mineralization of polymer scaffolds. In this work an exhaustive study with the aim of optimizing the mineralization process on a poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) macroporous scaffold has been performed. We observed that when an air plasma treatment is applied to the PLLA scaffold its hydroxyapatite nucleation ability is considerably improved. However, plasma treatment only allows apatite deposition on the surface of the scaffold but not in its interior. When a 5 wt % of synthetic hydroxyapatite (HAp) nanoparticles is mixed with PLLA a more abundant biomimetic hydroxyapatite layer grows inside the scaffold in SBF. The morphology, amount, and composition of the generated biomimetic hydroxyapatite layer on the pores surface have been analyzed. Large mineralization times are harmful to pure PLLA as it rapidly degrades ...
Discussion. Falini et al. successfully demonstrated the role of chitin and fibroin interactions in bone formation in invertebrates (23). This makes spider silk an appropriate template for development of a smart bone composite. Spider silk proteins have been synthesized using bacteria (24). Based on this discovery, we suggest a further development step, where the synthesis of a specific sequence fibroins can be conducted, to which calcium carbonate or bone like mineral particles can be attached, in order to spin out a mineral-fiber composite.. Fujita et al. successfully demonstrated adequate bone bonding and biocompatibility of calcite crystals to rabitt tibiae (25). Calcite is a biodegradable material that bonds to bone without a surface apatite layer. The mechanical bonding provided by the anchoring effect of the newly formed bone into the surface roughness of calcite is considered to be a major factor in calcite-bone bonding. Hence we are inclined to believe that this composite would be a ...
Pulsed-laser photoacoustic spectroscopy (PAS) and Fourier-transform nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy were used to study speciation of actinide(IV) and actinide(VI) ions (Np, Pu, Am) in aqueous carbonate solutions vs pH, carbonate content, actinide content, temperature. PAS focused on Pu(IV) speciation. Stability fields on a pH (8.4 to 12.0) versus total carbonate content (0.003 to 1.0 M) plot for dilute Pu(IV) carbonate species ([Pu]{sub tot} = 1 mM) were mapped. Four plutonium species, with absorption peaks at 486, 492, 500, and 512 nm were found. Loss of a single carbonate ligand does not account for the difference in speciation for the 486 and 492 nm absorption peaks, nor can any of the observed species be identified as colloidal Pu(IV). NMR data have been obtained for UO{sub 2}{sup 2+}, PuO{sub 2}{sup 2+} and AmO{sub 2}{sup 2+}. This report focuses on results for PuO{sub 2}{sup 2+}. The ligand exchange reaction between free and coordinated carbonate on the PuO{sub 2}(CO{sub ...
Bone quality encompasses a number of bone tissue properties that govern mechanical resistance, such as bone geometry, cortical properties, trabecular microarchitecture, bone tissue mineralization, quality of collagen and bone apatite crystal, and presence of microcracks. All these properties are dependent on bone turnover and its variations. In populations, the decreases in bone resorption markers achieved with resorption inhibitors may predict in part the decrease in fracture risk. At the spine, however, this correlation exists down to a 40% fall in bone resorption markers; larger drops did not provide further protection against fractures in patients taking risedronate in one evaluation of this relationship. Osteoporosis medications can exert favorable effects on bone size and cortical thickness[Increase in bone size is an increase in height in some bones]. Such effects have been documented with teriparatide (PTH 1-34), which is the unique purely anabolic treatment for osteoporosis available to ...
Purchase of raw materials, dicalcium phosphate, calcite powder, magnesium oxide, copper sulphate (anhydrus), cobalt sulphate (anhydrus), zinc sulphate (anhydrus), vennila, sucram, 1kg printed polythene covers, 25kg capacity hdpe poly woven sack for the manufacturing of mineral mixture salt for the
Iron was readily demonstrated in chondrocytes in 3 of 4 hemochromatosis articular cartilages studied. Either apatite, calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystals, or both were found in all cartilages including those of 3 patients who had no radiographic or light microscopic evidence of calcification. These crystals, which may be secondary to degenerative changes or may play a role in cartilage degeneration, were not seen in any consistent morphologic relationship with the iron deposits. In fact, apatite was found in one cartilage in which no iron was identified in the sections studied. If iron, as demonstrated in the chondrocytes, is contributing to the calcium crystal deposition, it would most likely do so indirectly, for example by altering chondrocyte enzymes or connective tissue components.
BioAssay record AID 508896 submitted by ChEMBL: Antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infected in New Zealand white rabbit osteomyelitis model assessed as change in bacterial load in bone marrow per gram of tissue at 25 ug/mg administered via calcium-deficient apatite on day 3 post infection measured on day 7 by HPLC analysis.

Biomimetic remineralization of resin-bonded acid-etched dentin<...Biomimetic remineralization of resin-bonded acid-etched dentin<...

In addition, intra-resin apatite clusters were deposited within the porosities of the adhesive resin matrices. The biomimetic ... In addition, intra-resin apatite clusters were deposited within the porosities of the adhesive resin matrices. The biomimetic ... In addition, intra-resin apatite clusters were deposited within the porosities of the adhesive resin matrices. The biomimetic ... In addition, intra-resin apatite clusters were deposited within the porosities of the adhesive resin matrices. The biomimetic ...
more infohttps://augusta.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/biomimetic-remineralization-of-resin-bonded-acid-etched-dentin

Apatite - WikipediaApatite - Wikipedia

Apatite is one of a few minerals produced and used by biological micro-environmental systems. Apatite is the defining mineral ... The apatite in phosphorite is present as cryptocrystalline masses referred to as collophane. The primary use of apatite is in ... Apatites are also a proposed host material for storage of nuclear waste, along with other phosphates. Apatite is infrequently ... Apatite is occasionally found to contain significant amounts of rare-earth elements and can be used as an ore for those metals ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apatite

An apatite for progress | EurekAlert! Science NewsAn apatite for progress | EurekAlert! Science News

Apatite chemistry has recently given new insight into a wide range of geological processes and tools, such as magmatism, ... In their open-access Geology article, Emilie Bruand and colleagues expand the utility of apatite by presenting a novel way to ... Apatite has recently gained considerable attention as a mineral with many uses within the Earth and planetary sciences. ... fingerprint magma chemistry and petrogenesis using apatite inclusions within robust titanite and zircon. ...
more infohttps://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2016-01/gsoa-aaf010516.php

Apatite-(CaOH) Mineral DataApatite-(CaOH) Mineral Data

PEApatite-(CaOH) = 5.78 barns/electron. U=PEApatite-(CaOH) x rElectron Density= 18.19 barns/cc.. ... Google Search for Apatite-(CaOH). Ask about Apatite-(CaOH) here :. Ask-A-Mineralogist from the Mineralogical Society of America ... Print or Cut-and-Paste your Apatite-(CaOH) Specimen Label here :. Apatite-(CaOH) ... Visit our Advertisers for Apatite-(CaOH) :. Dakota Matrix Minerals Google Search for Apatite-(CaOH). Excalibur Mineral Corp. ...
more infohttp://webmineral.com/data/Apatite-

Apatite - New World EncyclopediaApatite - New World Encyclopedia

Impure, massive apatite is called phosphorite.. Apatite is distributed widely in igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks, ... This group includes minerals such as apatite, mimetite, pyromorphite, and vanadinite.. Etymology. The name apatite is derived ... B. & C. Gobin, Worldwide Fine Minerals by B & C GobinApatite Mineral Data. Webmineral.com Retrieved May 8, 2007. ... Apatite has a hardness of 5 on the Mohs scale, and its specific gravity is between 3.1 and 3.2. Its crystals belong to the ...
more infohttp://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Apatite

Apatite-(SrOH) Mineral DataApatite-(SrOH) Mineral Data

PEApatite-(SrOH) = 45.07 barns/electron. U=PEApatite-(SrOH) x rElectron Density= 159.23 barns/cc.. ... Google Search for Apatite-(SrOH). Ask about Apatite-(SrOH) here :. Ask-A-Mineralogist from the Mineralogical Society of America ... Print or Cut-and-Paste your Apatite-(SrOH) Specimen Label here :. Apatite-(SrOH) ... Visit our Advertisers for Apatite-(SrOH) :. A Bijoux Google Search for Apatite-(SrOH). Dakota Matrix Minerals Google Search for ...
more infohttp://www.webmineral.com/data/Apatite-

What is apatite used for? | Reference.comWhat is apatite used for? | Reference.com

Apatite is a rich source of phosphorus that is used in the production of food supplements, pharmaceuticals, textiles, ceramics ... Apatite is primarily composed of calcium and phosphorus. This natural abundance in phosphorus makes apatite a useful mineral in ... Apatite comes in a variety of colors, including green, yellow, pink, white, purple, red, blue and brown. It registers a ... Apatite is widely distributed across the continents, with an estimated world reserve of 47 billion tons. The state of Florida ...
more infohttps://www.reference.com/science/apatite-used-28783fe5e4e546ee

Structure and Chemistry of the Apatites and Other Calcium Orthophosphates, Volume 18 - 1st EditionStructure and Chemistry of the Apatites and Other Calcium Orthophosphates, Volume 18 - 1st Edition

Purchase Structure and Chemistry of the Apatites and Other Calcium Orthophosphates, Volume 18 - 1st Edition. Print Book & E- ... A-type carbonate apatite, Ca10(PO4)6CO3. Synthetic high temperature B-type carbonate apatites. Carbonate apatites from aqueous ... Biological apatites. Electron spin resonance of X-irradiated carbonate apatites. Summary. Appendix. Calculated X-ray ... Apatites other than those containing calcium and phosphorus are included. Synthetic, mineral and biological carbonate apatites ...
more infohttps://www.elsevier.com/books/structure-and-chemistry-of-the-apatites-and-other-calcium-orthophosphates/elliott/978-0-444-81582-8

Frontiers | Apatite Glass-Ceramics: A Review | MaterialsFrontiers | Apatite Glass-Ceramics: A Review | Materials

Due to the ease of solid solution of the apatite lattice, rare earth doped apatite GCs are discussed for potential applications ... Due to the ease of solid solution of the apatite lattice, rare earth doped apatite GCs are discussed for potential applications ... Most apatite GCs crystallize through a homogenous nucleation and crystallization mechanism, which is aided by a prior liquid- ... Most apatite GCs crystallize through a homogenous nucleation and crystallization mechanism, which is aided by a prior liquid- ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmats.2016.00059/full

Gene Delivery Potential of Biofunctional Carbonate Apatite Nanoparticles in LungsGene Delivery Potential of Biofunctional Carbonate Apatite Nanoparticles in Lungs

Therefore, carbonate apatite (CO3Ap) nanoparticles were examined as an alternative strategy for effective gene delivery to the ... E. H. Chowdhury, "pH-sensitive nano-crystals of carbonate apatite for smart and cell-specific transgene delivery," Expert ... E. H. Chowdhury and T. Akaike, "A bio-recognition device developed onto nano-crystals of carbonate apatite for cell-targeted ... E. H. Chowdhury, A. Maruyama, A. Kano et al., "pH-sensing nano-crystals of carbonate apatite: effects on intracellular delivery ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2014/646787/

Exclusive Honey Green Natural Apatite cats Eye - 4.27Exclusive Honey Green Natural Apatite cat's Eye - 4.27

Exclusive Honey Green Natural Apatite cats Eye - 4.27 ctColor/Clarity: Semi -TransparentLoose gemstoneCarat Weight: 4.27Size ( ... Set up a search alert to hear when Apatite Loose Stones & Beads items arrive. ...
more infohttps://www.liveauctioneers.com/item/64061614_exclusive-honey-green-natural-apatite-cat-s-eye-427

Patent US5128146 - Apatite coated article and process for producing the same - Google PatentsPatent US5128146 - Apatite coated article and process for producing the same - Google Patents

... and a process for producing such an apatite coated article. ... an apatite layer which is formed by flame spraying apatite ... An apatite coated article comprising a substrate having thereon ... The apatite layer of the apatite coated article of the present ... An apatite coated article comprising a substrate having thereon an apatite layer which is formed by flame spraying apatite ... An apatite coated article comprising a substrate having thereon an apatite layer which is formed by flame spraying apatite ...
more infohttp://www.google.com/patents/US5128146?dq=7,403,220

Low Temperature Carbonate Phosphate Materials or the Carbonate - Apatite Problem: A Review | SpringerLinkLow Temperature Carbonate Phosphate Materials or the Carbonate - Apatite Problem: A Review | SpringerLink

Apatite containing carbonate, the usual species present in vertebrate tissues and in phosphorites, however,... ... Carbonate Apatite Apatite Structure Apatitic Phase Carbonate Substitution Apatitic Mineral These keywords were added by machine ... The problem of carbonate apatites. III Carbonate apatite from Magnet Cove, Arkansas. Amer. Mineral., 25:157-167.Google Scholar ... Contribution a létude de le carbonatation des apatites. I. Synthese et etude des proprieties physico-chemiques des apatites ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4757-6114-6_18

Patent US7785648 - Adherent apatite coating on titanium substrate using chemical deposition - Google PatentsPatent US7785648 - Adherent apatite coating on titanium substrate using chemical deposition - Google Patents

... converted to a less reactive coating by being immersed into a basic or neutral solution to convert the coating into an apatite ... The Ca/P molar ratio of the apatite coating was calculated as 1.79. However, when Na-for-Ca substitution in the apatite was ... If the initial coating from step one is to be converted to a less reactive apatite coating (such as apatite, carbonate- ... show SEM micrographs of the Apatite coating (after monetite-to-apatite transformation) at low (C) and high (D) magnifications. ...
more infohttp://www.google.com/patents/US7785648?dq=6317900

Solubility and Surface Complexation Studies of ApatitesSolubility and Surface Complexation Studies of Apatites

Apatites are a diverse class of phosphate minerals that are important in a great variety of natural and industrial processes. ... Hydroxyapatite Ca5(PO4)3OH, (HAP) and fluorapatite Ca5(PO4)3F, (FAP) are similar to the biological apatite that is the main ... Solubility and Surface Complexation Studies of Apatites. Bengtsson, Åsa Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, ... The results from these studies showed that both apatites form surface layers that are different from their bulk compositions ...
more infohttp://umu.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2%3A140931&

Apatite Handcrafted Jewellery | eBayApatite Handcrafted Jewellery | eBay

... s largest selection of Apatite Handcrafted Jewellery. Free delivery and free returns on eBay Plus items ... The apatite necklace with a sterling silver lobster claw clasp and 2" extension chain is of AAA apatite quality. Each apatite ... 4mm Natural Apatite Small Beads x45 Beads. Material Apatite, 925 Sterling Silver. Main Stone Apatite. 925 Sterling Silver(Non- ... 4mm Natural Apatite Small Beads x39 Beads. Material Apatite, Sterling Silver. Main Stone Apatite. No problem. ...
more infohttps://www.ebay.com.au/b/Apatite-Handcrafted-Jewellery/110633/bn_21082357

Crowned dens syndrome: a manifestation of hydroxy-apatite rheumatism | SpringerLinkCrowned dens syndrome: a manifestation of hydroxy-apatite rheumatism | SpringerLink

The authors report one case of this rare localization of hydroxy-apatite... ... Alcalay M, Debiais F, Macro M, Wendling D, Tavernier Ch, Le Goff P, Le Parc JM (1992) The crowned dens syndrome and apatite ... Crowned odontoid hydroxy-apatite rheumatism occipitocervical region odontoid process This is a preview of subscription content ... The authors report one case of this rare localization of hydroxy-apatite rheumatism and review 12 similar cases in the ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF02187755

Apatite Purity - GemisphereApatite Purity - Gemisphere

Apatite Purity protects and supports the health of the bones, teeth, joints, and connective tissue by clearing unhealthy auric ... The collection also includes Apatite Vitality and Apatite Strength, which feature Apatite, and Star Aqua and Earth Aqua, which ... Apatite Purity necklaces contain Sodalight spheres and Apatite and White Flash Moonstone rondels. ... Apatite Purity. Strengthening the Bodys Structure. Apatite Purity protects and supports the health of the bones, teeth, joints ...
more infohttps://gemisphere.com/products/apatite-purity

Products By Blue Apatite Stone TypeProducts By Blue Apatite Stone Type

... - From Healing Crystals, a Metaphysical Crystal store selling high quality Crystal Jewelry ...
more infohttps://www.healingcrystals.com/products-by-blue%20apatite-stone.html

Patent US5952399 - Polymerisable dental material and use of apatite fillers in the dental material - Google PatentsPatent US5952399 - Polymerisable dental material and use of apatite fillers in the dental material - Google Patents

Also described is a process for using the mixed apatites A1), A2) and/or A3) in polymerisable dental materials. ... one or more mixed apatites of the type A1) A10 (XO4)6 Z2 +/B*10-u C*u (Y*)6 Z2 and/or A2) A10-r (XO4)6-s Z2-t +/Br (Y)s ... one mixed apatite of type A1), one mixed apatite of type A2) and one mixed apatite of type A3). ... Publication (9) relates exclusively to phosphate apatites. Strontium phosphate apatite has, as does calcium phosphate apatite, ...
more infohttp://www.google.ca/patents/US5952399

Factors controlling sulfur concentrations in volcanic apatiteFactors controlling sulfur concentrations in volcanic apatite

... apatite in H2O- and S-saturated experimental charges of the 1982 El Chicho??n trachyandesite and (2) apatite in volcanic rocks ... Apatites in volcanic rocks show a wide range of SO3 contents (,0.04 to 0.63 wt%). Our sample set includes one group known to ... The SO3 contents of the experimental apatite increase with increasing oxygen fugacity (fo2), from ???0.04 wt% in reduced ... and MTH-buffered apatite also generally increase with increasing pressure from 2 to 4 kbar and decreasing temperature from 950 ...
more infohttps://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70019540

PARTICLE SIZE ANALYSIS AND YIELD EFFICIENCY OF ZIRCON AND APATITE SEPARATION METHODSPARTICLE SIZE ANALYSIS AND YIELD EFFICIENCY OF ZIRCON AND APATITE SEPARATION METHODS

The hand-washed control sample recovered the most zircon and apatite (72 mg zircon and 333 mg apatite, considered the maximum ... The Gemini table recovered 330 mg of zircon + apatite (zircon not yet separated from apatite) from 45 g of heavies; Gemini ... Panner #1 (58 g/min feed-rate, 9 rpm rotation) recovered 3.7 mg zircon and 1.0 mg apatite from 5.2 g of panner-heavies; panner ... Panner #5 (36 g/min, 25 rpm) recovered 13.2 mg zircon and 13.0 mg apatite from 34 g of panner heavies; panner lights contained ...
more infohttps://gsa.confex.com/gsa/2014AM/finalprogram/abstract_248490.htm

Intra-articular apatite crystal deposition. | Annals of the Rheumatic DiseasesIntra-articular apatite crystal deposition. | Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Centers RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.. ...
more infohttp://ard.bmj.com/content/42/Suppl_1/54
  • In addition, intra-resin apatite clusters were deposited within the porosities of the adhesive resin matrices. (elsevier.com)
  • Geologists have used a radiometric dating technique (known as fission track dating) with natural deposits of apatite to get a sense of historical changes in temperature in mountain-forming belts and sedimentary basins. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Apatites are also a proposed host material for storage of nuclear waste, along with other phosphates. (wikipedia.org)
  • The apatites and related calcium phosphates have been of considerable interest to biologists, mineralogists, and inorganic and industrial chemists for many years. (elsevier.com)
  • In their open-access Geology article, Emilie Bruand and colleagues expand the utility of apatite by presenting a novel way to fingerprint magma chemistry and petrogenesis using apatite inclusions within robust titanite and zircon. (eurekalert.org)
  • However, the panner concentrated zircon relative to apatite 4-5X more than the control. (confex.com)
  • This is preferable to traditional rare-earth ores, as apatite is non-radioactive and does not pose an environmental hazard in mine tailings. (wikipedia.org)
  • During digestion of apatite with sulfuric acid to make phosphoric acid, hydrogen fluoride is produced as a byproduct from any fluorapatite content. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fission tracks in apatite are commonly used to determine the thermal history of orogenic (mountain) belts and of sediments in sedimentary basins. (wikipedia.org)
  • 7. A process as claimed in claim 1, wherein the decomposition of the apatite is small and a substantially pure apatite layer is obtained without decomposition products being present. (google.com)
  • An object of the present invention is to provide a process for producing a composite article, and a composite article having an apatite layer which contains no decomposition product formed during the coating process, and wherein the apatite layer has excellent adhesive properties to the substrate comprised of metals, high-strength ceramics, etc. (google.com)
  • Potentiometric acid/base titrations and batch experiments were combined with X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) and Attenuated Total Reflectance Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) Spectroscopy to generate dissolution and surface complexation models for both apatites. (diva-portal.org)
  • The interaction between organic ligands and the apatite surfaces was also investigated and the results from this study show that the organic ligands form outer-sphere complexes on the apatite surfaces over a large pH interval, and that this adsorption enhances the dissolution of apatites. (diva-portal.org)
  • I. Synthese et etude des proprieties physico-chemiques des apatites carbonatees du type A. Ann. (springer.com)
  • Topics covered include crystallization mechanisms of the various families of apatite GCs and an update on research and development on apatite GCs for applications in orthopedics, dentistry, optoelectronics, and nuclear waste management. (frontiersin.org)
  • Due to the ease of solid solution of the apatite lattice, rare earth doped apatite GCs are discussed for potential applications in optoelectronics and nuclear waste management. (frontiersin.org)
  • This Apatite combination removes collections of unwanted energies from in and around these structures, such as those generated by infection, injury, negative thoughts, or a toxic environment. (gemisphere.com)
  • In this way, Apatite Purity's cleansing action accelerates healing and protects the vibrancy of the body's mineralized structures. (gemisphere.com)
  • Experimental studies in the Cao - P 2 O 5 - H 2 O - CO 2 system at high temperature and elevated CO 2 pressures have led to suggestions of two possible lattice sites for carbonate substitution in the Ca-apatites [Ca 5 (PO 4 ) 3 (OH)], the (F,OH) site and for (PO 4 ). (springer.com)
  • The SO3 contents of MNH- and MTH-buffered apatite also generally increase with increasing pressure from 2 to 4 kbar and decreasing temperature from 950 to 800? (usgs.gov)
  • C. The partition coefficient for SO3 between apatite and oxidized melt increases with decreasing temperature but appears to be independent of pressure. (usgs.gov)
  • Apatite is widely distributed across the continents, with an estimated world reserve of 47 billion tons. (reference.com)
  • Apatite chemistry has recently given new insight into a wide range of geological processes and tools, such as magmatism, metasomatism, planetary geochemistry, and geochronology. (eurekalert.org)
  • Chatoyant stones are known as cat's-eye apatite, transparent green stones are known as asparagus stone, and blue stones have been called moroxite. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apatite is occasionally found to contain significant amounts of rare-earth elements and can be used as an ore for those metals. (wikipedia.org)