An acronym for Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation, a scoring system using routinely collected data and providing an accurate, objective description for a broad range of intensive care unit admissions, measuring severity of illness in critically ill patients.
Hospital units providing continuous surveillance and care to acutely ill patients.
Advanced and highly specialized care provided to medical or surgical patients whose conditions are life-threatening and require comprehensive care and constant monitoring. It is usually administered in specially equipped units of a health care facility.
A disease or state in which death is possible or imminent.
A vital statistic measuring or recording the rate of death from any cause in hospitalized populations.
A progressive condition usually characterized by combined failure of several organs such as the lungs, liver, kidney, along with some clotting mechanisms, usually postinjury or postoperative.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.
Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).
The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS. Pancreatitis is classified as acute unless there are computed tomographic or endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatographic findings of CHRONIC PANCREATITIS (International Symposium on Acute Pancreatitis, Atlanta, 1992). The two most common forms of acute pancreatitis are ALCOHOLIC PANCREATITIS and gallstone pancreatitis.
The region in the abdomen extending from the thoracic DIAPHRAGM to the plane of the superior pelvic aperture (pelvic inlet). The abdominal cavity contains the PERITONEUM and abdominal VISCERA, as well as the extraperitoneal space which includes the RETROPERITONEAL SPACE.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Arizona" is a proper noun and refers to a state in the southwestern United States, not a medical term or condition. It would not have a medical definition.
Abrupt reduction in kidney function. Acute kidney injury encompasses the entire spectrum of the syndrome including acute kidney failure; ACUTE KIDNEY TUBULAR NECROSIS; and other less severe conditions.
A systemic inflammatory response to a variety of clinical insults, characterized by two or more of the following conditions: (1) fever >38 degrees C or HYPOTHERMIA 90 beat/minute; (3) tachypnea >24 breaths/minute; (4) LEUKOCYTOSIS >12,000 cells/cubic mm or 10% immature forms. While usually related to infection, SIRS can also be associated with noninfectious insults such as TRAUMA; BURNS; or PANCREATITIS. If infection is involved, a patient with SIRS is said to have SEPSIS.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Panama Canal Zone" is geographical and historical, not medical. It refers to the area surrounding and including the Panama Canal that was controlled by the United States from 1903 to 1979, and it's not a medical concept that would have a definition in a medical context.
Failure to adequately provide oxygen to cells of the body and to remove excess carbon dioxide from them. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Sepsis associated with HYPOTENSION or hypoperfusion despite adequate fluid resuscitation. Perfusion abnormalities may include, but are not limited to LACTIC ACIDOSIS; OLIGURIA; or acute alteration in mental status.
Pathological elevation of intra-abdominal pressure (>12 mm Hg). It may develop as a result of SEPSIS; PANCREATITIS; capillary leaks, burns, or surgery. When the pressure is higher than 20 mm Hg, often with end-organ dysfunction, it is referred to as abdominal compartment syndrome.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Health care provided to a critically ill patient during a medical emergency or crisis.
The presence of viable bacteria circulating in the blood. Fever, chills, tachycardia, and tachypnea are common acute manifestations of bacteremia. The majority of cases are seen in already hospitalized patients, most of whom have underlying diseases or procedures which render their bloodstreams susceptible to invasion.
Serious INFLAMMATION of the LUNG in patients who required the use of PULMONARY VENTILATOR. It is usually caused by cross bacterial infections in hospitals (NOSOCOMIAL INFECTIONS).
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A peptide hormone that lowers calcium concentration in the blood. In humans, it is released by thyroid cells and acts to decrease the formation and absorptive activity of osteoclasts. Its role in regulating plasma calcium is much greater in children and in certain diseases than in normal adults.
A scale that assesses the response to stimuli in patients with craniocerebral injuries. The parameters are eye opening, motor response, and verbal response.
Individual members of North American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia.
Infection within the PERITONEAL CAVITY. A frequent cause is an ANASTOMOTIC LEAK following surgery.
Any infection which a patient contracts in a health-care institution.
A form of invasive candidiasis where species of CANDIDA are present in the blood.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Final stage of a liver disease when the liver failure is irreversible and LIVER TRANSPLANTATION is needed.
A severe form of acute INFLAMMATION of the PANCREAS characterized by one or more areas of NECROSIS in the pancreas with varying degree of involvement of the surrounding tissues or organ systems. Massive pancreatic necrosis may lead to DIABETES MELLITUS, and malabsorption.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Vermont" is a U.S. state and not a medical term. Therefore, it doesn't have a medical definition. It is located in the New England region of the United States and is known for its scenic beauty, particularly its green mountains, and is also renowned for its production of maple syrup. If you have any questions about medical topics or terms, I would be happy to help with those!
The process of accepting patients. The concept includes patients accepted for medical and nursing care in a hospital or other health care institution.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.

The impact of a multidisciplinary approach on caring for ventilator-dependent patients. (1/731)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the clinical and financial outcomes of a highly structured multidisciplinary care model for patients in an intensive care unit (ICU) who require prolonged mechanical ventilation. The structured model outcomes (protocol group) are compared with the preprotocol outcomes. DESIGN: Descriptive study with financial analysis. SETTING: A twelve-bed medical-surgical ICU in a non-teaching tertiary referral center in Ogden, Utah. STUDY PARTICIPANTS: During a 54 month period, 469 consecutive intensive care patients requiring mechanical ventilation for longer than 72 hours who did not meet exclusion criteria were studied. INTERVENTIONS: A multidisciplinary team was formed to coordinate the care of ventilator-dependent patients. Care was integrated by daily collaborative bedside rounds, monthly meetings, and implementation of numerous guidelines and protocols. Patients were followed from the time of ICU admission until the day of hospital discharge. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Patients were assigned APACHE II scores on admission to the ICU, and were divided into eight diagnostic categories. ICU length of stay, hospital length of stay, costs, charges, reimbursement, and in-hospital mortality were measured. RESULTS: Mortality in the preprotocol and protocol group, after adjustment for APACHE II scores, remained statistically unchanged (21-23%). After we implemented the new care model, we demonstrated significant decreases in the mean survivor's ICU length of stay (19.8 days to 14.7 days, P= 0.001), hospital length of stay (34.6 days to 25.9 days, P=0.001), charges (US$102500 to US$78500, P=0.001), and costs (US$71900 to US$58000, P=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of a structured multidisciplinary care model to care for a heterogeneous population of ventilator-dependent ICU patients was associated with significant reductions in ICU and hospital lengths of stay, charges, and costs. Mortality rates were unaffected.  (+info)

Comparison of indirect calorimetry, the Fick method, and prediction equations in estimating the energy requirements of critically ill patients. (2/731)

BACKGROUND: Accurate measurement of resting energy expenditure (REE) is helpful in determining the energy needs of critically ill patients requiring nutritional support. Currently, the most accurate clinical tool used to measure REE is indirect calorimetry, which is expensive, requires trained personnel, and has significant error at higher inspired oxygen concentrations. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to compare REE measured by indirect calorimetry with REE calculated by using the Fick method and prediction equations by Harris-Benedict, Ireton-Jones, Fusco, and Frankenfield. DESIGN: REEs of 36 patients [12 men and 24 women, mean age 58+/-22 y and mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score 22+/-8] in a hospital intensive care unit and receiving mechanical ventilation and total parenteral nutrition (TPN) were measured for > or = 15 min by using indirect calorimetry and compared with REEs calculated from a mean of 2 sets of hemodynamic measurements taken during the metabolic testing period with an oximetric pulmonary artery catheter. RESULTS: Mean REE by indirect calorimetry was 8381+/-1940 kJ/d and correlated poorly with the other methods tested (r = 0.057-0.154). This correlation did not improve after adjusting for changes in respiratory quotient (r2 = 0.28). CONCLUSIONS: These data do not support previous findings showing a strong correlation between REE determined by the Fick method and other prediction equations and indirect calorimetry. In critically ill patients receiving TPN, indirect calorimetry, if available, remains the most appropriate clinical tool for accurate measurement of REE.  (+info)

Circulating interleukin 6 and interleukin 10 in community acquired pneumonia. (3/731)

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory cytokine concentrations correlate with severity of sepsis. We hypothesised that patients with community acquired pneumonia (CAP) associated with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) would have greater interleukin 6 (IL-6) production due to activation of the inflammatory cytokine cascade, matched by a significant anti-inflammatory cytokine response. Interleukin 10 (IL-10) was evaluated as a potential surrogate marker of severity of sepsis in CAP and age related impairment of the cytokine response was studied in elderly patients with CAP. METHODS: Circulating immunoreactive IL-6 and IL-10 levels were measured in 38 patients with CAP subdivided into a group fulfilling the criteria for SIRS (n = 28) and a non-SIRS group (n = 10) in a variety of age groups and correlated with APACHE II scores. RESULTS: 80% had circulating IL-6 levels (median 46.7 pg/ml, range 4.6-27,000) and 60% had circulating IL-10 levels (median 15.5 pg/ml, range 2.5-765). Concentrations of both were significantly increased in patients with SIRS compared with non-SIRS patients. Those with activation of the inflammatory cytokine cascade (IL-6 positive) produced more IL-10 than IL-6 negative patients. Older patients had a similar cytokine response. Both cytokines correlated positively with APACHE II scores. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first demonstration of circulating IL-10 in CAP. A greater counter-inflammatory response in patients with SIRS and in IL-6 positive patients suggests a potential immunomodulatory role for IL-10 in controlling the inflammatory cytokine response in CAP. IL-10 concentrations correlate with severity of illness in CAP and may be of prognostic importance. There is no age related impairment in the cytokine response.  (+info)

Neutrophil CD11b and soluble ICAM-1 and E-selectin in community acquired pneumonia. (4/731)

It was hypothesized that there would be an upregulation of systemic neutrophil CD11b expression in pneumonia. Expression of CD11b and concentrations of soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1 and E-selectin were evaluated as potential surrogate markers of the severity of pneumonia. Possible age-related immunosenescence in relation to neutrophil CD11b expression in elderly patients with pneumonia was examined for. In patients with community-acquired pneumonia (n = 36) neutrophil CD11b expression was measured by flow cytometry and soluble ICAM-1 and E-selectin concentrations by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. An upregulation of neutrophil CD11b expression and increased soluble adhesion molecule concentrations on admission were confirmed, but the concentrations did not correlate with patient Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores. Neutrophil CD11b expression was similar between elderly (age range 70-100 yrs) and younger (age range 18-70 yrs) patients with pneumonia. In conclusion, there is evidence of neutrophil and endothelial cell activation in pneumonia as indicated by upregulation of CD11b and increased soluble intercellular adhesion molecule and E-selectin, however, they do not appear to be good surrogate markers of severity of infection. Advanced age does not influence adhesion molecule expression in pneumonia.  (+info)

Amphotericin B with and without itraconazole for invasive aspergillosis: A three-year retrospective study. (5/731)

BACKGROUND: Treatment of invasive aspergillosis is frequently unsuccessful, so innovations in therapy are needed. Clinical studies demonstrate that itraconazole may be an effective alternative to amphotericin B. Itraconazole also has been combined with amphotericin B in animal models of aspergillosis, but this regimen produced antagonistic effects. OBJECTIVES: To determine the role of itraconazole in the adjunctive treatment of invasive aspergillosis. METHODS: A review was conducted of all patients with definite or probable aspergillosis from January 1995 to December 1997 who were treated with conventional amphotericin B alone or in combination with itraconazole. RESULTS: Of 21 patients, 10 received amphotericin B and 11 received the combination. The two groups of patients were comparable clinically at baseline (including similar mean APACHE III scores). Both groups received similar doses and days of amphotericin B treatment. Of the patients who received combination therapy, nine (82%) were cured or improved, and of those who received only amphotericin B, five (50%) were cured or improved. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that itraconazole and amphotericin B given together are not clinically antagonistic and that the promise of combination therapy for aspergillosis should be evaluated further in a randomized clinical trial.  (+info)

Intensive care for very elderly patients: outcome and risk factors for in-hospital mortality. (6/731)

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate outcome and risk factors, particularly the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II scoring system, for in-hospital mortality in very elderly patients after admission to an intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS: Retrospective chart review of patients > or =85 years admitted to the ICU. We recorded age, sex, previous medical history, primary diagnosis, date of admission and discharge or death, APACHE II score on admission, use of mechanical ventilation and inotropics, and complications during ICU admission. RESULTS: 104 patients > or =85 years (1.3% of all ICU admissions) were studied. The ICU and in-hospital mortality rates for these patients were 22 and 36% respectively. Factors correlated with a greater in-hospital mortality were: an admission diagnosis of acute respiratory failure (chi2; P = 0.007), the use of mechanical ventilation (chi2; P = 0.00005) and inotropes (chi2; P = 0.00001), complications during ICU admission (chi2; P = 0.004), in particular acute renal failure (chi2; P = 0.005), and an APACHE II score > or =25 (chi2; P = 0.001). The APACHE II scoring system and the use of inotropes were independently correlated with mortality. CONCLUSION: ICU and in-hospital mortality are higher in very elderly patients, particularly in those with an APACHE II score > or =25. The most important predictors of mortality are the use of inotropes and the severity of the acute illness.  (+info)

Markers of systemic inflammation predicting organ failure in community-acquired septic shock. (7/731)

To obtain predictors of organ failure (OF), we studied markers of systemic inflammation [circulating levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, soluble IL-2 receptor (sIL-2R), soluble E-selectin and C-reactive protein, and neutrophil and monocyte CD11b expression] and routine blood cell counts in 20 patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome and positive blood culture. Eight patients with shock due to community-acquired infection developed OF, whereas 11 normotensive patients and one patient with shock did not (NOF group). The first blood sample was collected within 48 h after taking the blood culture (T1). OF patients, as compared with NOF patients, had at T1 a lower monocyte count, a lower platelet count, higher levels of CD11b expression on both neutrophils and monocytes, and higher concentrations of IL-6, IL-8 and sIL-2R. C-reactive protein and soluble E-selectin concentrations did not differ between groups. No parameter alone identified all patients that subsequently developed OF. However, a sepsis-related inflammation severity score (SISS), developed on the basis of the presence or absence of shock and on the levels of markers at T1, identified each patient that developed OF. The maximum SISS value was 7. The range of SISS values in OF patients was 2-5, and that in NOF patients was 0-1. In conclusion, high levels of CD11b expression, depressed platelet and monocyte counts, and high concentrations of IL-6, IL-8 and sIL-2R predict OF in patients with community-acquired septic shock, and the combination of these markers may provide the means to identify sepsis patients who will develop OF.  (+info)

Serum interleukin 10 and interleukin 11 in patients with acute pancreatitis. (8/731)

BACKGROUND: Proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines are involved in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis. AIMS: To measure the serial serum levels of interleukin 10 and interleukin 11 in patients with acute pancreatitis and analyse the relation of these anti-inflammatory cytokines to disease severity. METHODS: In 50 patients with acute pancreatitis, the serum concentrations of interleukin 10 and interleukin 11 were determined on days one, two, three, four, and seven after admission. Serum C reactive protein levels were evaluated on days one and two. Severity of pancreatitis was determined according to the Atlanta criteria. RESULTS: Serum concentrations of interleukin 10 on days one to seven were significantly higher in patients with severe pancreatitis than in those with mild pancreatitis. Patients with severe attacks had significantly elevated serum interleukin 11 concentrations on days two to four compared with those with mild attacks, but not on days one and seven. With cut off levels of 30 pg/ml for interleukin 10, 10.5 pg/ml for interleukin 11, and 115 mg/l for C reactive protein, the accuracy rates for detecting severe pancreatitis were 84%, 64%, and 78% respectively on day one and 82%, 74%, and 84% respectively on day two. CONCLUSIONS: Serum interleukin 10 and interleukin 11 concentrations reflect the severity of acute pancreatitis. Interleukin 10 is a useful variable for early prediction of the prognosis of acute pancreatitis.  (+info)

"APACHE" stands for "Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation." It is a system used to assess the severity of illness in critically ill patients and predict their risk of mortality. The APACHE score is calculated based on various physiological parameters, such as heart rate, blood pressure, temperature, respiratory rate, and laboratory values, as well as age and chronic health conditions.

There are different versions of the APACHE system, including APACHE II, III, and IV, each with its own set of variables and scoring system. The most commonly used version is APACHE II, which includes 12 physiological variables measured during the first 24 hours of ICU admission, as well as age and chronic health points.

The APACHE score is widely used in research and clinical settings to compare the severity of illness and outcomes between different patient populations, evaluate the effectiveness of treatments and interventions, and make informed decisions about resource allocation and triage.

An Intensive Care Unit (ICU) is a specialized hospital department that provides continuous monitoring and advanced life support for critically ill patients. The ICU is equipped with sophisticated technology and staffed by highly trained healthcare professionals, including intensivists, nurses, respiratory therapists, and other specialists.

Patients in the ICU may require mechanical ventilation, invasive monitoring, vasoactive medications, and other advanced interventions due to conditions such as severe infections, trauma, cardiac arrest, respiratory failure, or post-surgical complications. The goal of the ICU is to stabilize patients' condition, prevent further complications, and support organ function while the underlying illness is treated.

ICUs may be organized into different units based on the type of care provided, such as medical, surgical, cardiac, neurological, or pediatric ICUs. The length of stay in the ICU can vary widely depending on the patient's condition and response to treatment.

Intensive care is a specialized level of medical care that is provided to critically ill patients. It's usually given in a dedicated unit of a hospital called the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) or Critical Care Unit (CCU). The goal of intensive care is to closely monitor and manage life-threatening conditions, stabilize vital functions, and support organs until they recover or the patient can be moved to a less acute level of care.

Intensive care involves advanced medical equipment and technologies, such as ventilators to assist with breathing, dialysis machines for kidney support, intravenous lines for medication administration, and continuous monitoring devices for heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen levels, and other vital signs.

The ICU team typically includes intensive care specialists (intensivists), critical care nurses, respiratory therapists, and other healthcare professionals who work together to provide comprehensive, round-the-clock care for critically ill patients.

A critical illness is a serious condition that has the potential to cause long-term or permanent disability, or even death. It often requires intensive care and life support from medical professionals. Critical illnesses can include conditions such as:

1. Heart attack
2. Stroke
3. Organ failure (such as kidney, liver, or lung)
4. Severe infections (such as sepsis)
5. Coma or brain injury
6. Major trauma
7. Cancer that has spread to other parts of the body

These conditions can cause significant physical and emotional stress on patients and their families, and often require extensive medical treatment, rehabilitation, and long-term care. Critical illness insurance is a type of insurance policy that provides financial benefits to help cover the costs associated with treating these serious medical conditions.

Hospital mortality is a term used to describe the number or rate of deaths that occur in a hospital setting during a specific period. It is often used as a measure of the quality of healthcare provided by a hospital, as a higher hospital mortality rate may indicate poorer care or more complex cases being treated. However, it's important to note that hospital mortality rates can be influenced by many factors, including the severity of illness of the patients being treated, patient demographics, and the availability of resources and specialized care. Therefore, hospital mortality rates should be interpreted with caution and in the context of other quality metrics.

Multiple Organ Failure (MOF) is a severe condition characterized by the dysfunction or failure of more than one organ system in the body. It often occurs as a result of serious illness, trauma, or infection, such as sepsis. The organs that commonly fail include the lungs, kidneys, liver, and heart. This condition can lead to significant morbidity and mortality if not promptly diagnosed and treated.

The definition of MOF has evolved over time, but a widely accepted one is the "Sequential Organ Failure Assessment" (SOFA) score, which evaluates six organ systems: respiratory, coagulation, liver, cardiovascular, renal, and neurologic. A SOFA score of 10 or more indicates MOF, and a higher score is associated with worse outcomes.

MOF can be classified as primary or secondary. Primary MOF occurs when the initial insult directly causes organ dysfunction, such as in severe trauma or septic shock. Secondary MOF occurs when the initial injury or illness has been controlled, but organ dysfunction develops later due to ongoing inflammation and other factors.

Early recognition and aggressive management of MOF are crucial for improving outcomes. Treatment typically involves supportive care, such as mechanical ventilation, dialysis, and medication to support cardiovascular function. In some cases, surgery or other interventions may be necessary to address the underlying cause of organ dysfunction.

A Severity of Illness Index is a measurement tool used in healthcare to assess the severity of a patient's condition and the risk of mortality or other adverse outcomes. These indices typically take into account various physiological and clinical variables, such as vital signs, laboratory values, and co-morbidities, to generate a score that reflects the patient's overall illness severity.

Examples of Severity of Illness Indices include the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) system, the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS), and the Mortality Probability Model (MPM). These indices are often used in critical care settings to guide clinical decision-making, inform prognosis, and compare outcomes across different patient populations.

It is important to note that while these indices can provide valuable information about a patient's condition, they should not be used as the sole basis for clinical decision-making. Rather, they should be considered in conjunction with other factors, such as the patient's overall clinical presentation, treatment preferences, and goals of care.

Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to an infection injures its own tissues and organs. It is characterized by a whole-body inflammatory state (systemic inflammation) that can lead to blood clotting issues, tissue damage, and multiple organ failure.

Sepsis happens when an infection you already have triggers a chain reaction throughout your body. Infections that lead to sepsis most often start in the lungs, urinary tract, skin, or gastrointestinal tract.

Sepsis is a medical emergency. If you suspect sepsis, seek immediate medical attention. Early recognition and treatment of sepsis are crucial to improve outcomes. Treatment usually involves antibiotics, intravenous fluids, and may require oxygen, medication to raise blood pressure, and corticosteroids. In severe cases, surgery may be required to clear the infection.

Artificial respiration is an emergency procedure that can be used to provide oxygen to a person who is not breathing or is breathing inadequately. It involves manually forcing air into the lungs, either by compressing the chest or using a device to deliver breaths. The goal of artificial respiration is to maintain adequate oxygenation of the body's tissues and organs until the person can breathe on their own or until advanced medical care arrives. Artificial respiration may be used in conjunction with cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in cases of cardiac arrest.

"Length of Stay" (LOS) is a term commonly used in healthcare to refer to the amount of time a patient spends receiving care in a hospital, clinic, or other healthcare facility. It is typically measured in hours, days, or weeks and can be used as a metric for various purposes such as resource planning, quality assessment, and reimbursement. The length of stay can vary depending on the type of illness or injury, the severity of the condition, the patient's response to treatment, and other factors. It is an important consideration in healthcare management and can have significant implications for both patients and providers.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

A Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve is a graphical representation used in medical decision-making and statistical analysis to illustrate the performance of a binary classifier system, such as a diagnostic test or a machine learning algorithm. It's a plot that shows the tradeoff between the true positive rate (sensitivity) and the false positive rate (1 - specificity) for different threshold settings.

The x-axis of an ROC curve represents the false positive rate (the proportion of negative cases incorrectly classified as positive), while the y-axis represents the true positive rate (the proportion of positive cases correctly classified as positive). Each point on the curve corresponds to a specific decision threshold, with higher points indicating better performance.

The area under the ROC curve (AUC) is a commonly used summary measure that reflects the overall performance of the classifier. An AUC value of 1 indicates perfect discrimination between positive and negative cases, while an AUC value of 0.5 suggests that the classifier performs no better than chance.

ROC curves are widely used in healthcare to evaluate diagnostic tests, predictive models, and screening tools for various medical conditions, helping clinicians make informed decisions about patient care based on the balance between sensitivity and specificity.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Prognosis is a medical term that refers to the prediction of the likely outcome or course of a disease, including the chances of recovery or recurrence, based on the patient's symptoms, medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests. It is an important aspect of clinical decision-making and patient communication, as it helps doctors and patients make informed decisions about treatment options, set realistic expectations, and plan for future care.

Prognosis can be expressed in various ways, such as percentages, categories (e.g., good, fair, poor), or survival rates, depending on the nature of the disease and the available evidence. However, it is important to note that prognosis is not an exact science and may vary depending on individual factors, such as age, overall health status, and response to treatment. Therefore, it should be used as a guide rather than a definitive forecast.

Pancreatitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the pancreas, a gland located in the abdomen that plays a crucial role in digestion and regulating blood sugar levels. The inflammation can be acute (sudden and severe) or chronic (persistent and recurring), and it can lead to various complications if left untreated.

Acute pancreatitis often results from gallstones or excessive alcohol consumption, while chronic pancreatitis may be caused by long-term alcohol abuse, genetic factors, autoimmune conditions, or metabolic disorders like high triglyceride levels. Symptoms of acute pancreatitis include severe abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, and increased heart rate, while chronic pancreatitis may present with ongoing abdominal pain, weight loss, diarrhea, and malabsorption issues due to impaired digestive enzyme production. Treatment typically involves supportive care, such as intravenous fluids, pain management, and addressing the underlying cause. In severe cases, hospitalization and surgery may be necessary.

The abdominal cavity is the portion of the abdominothoracic cavity that lies between the diaphragm and the pelvic inlet. It contains the stomach, small intestine, colon, liver, pancreas, spleen, kidneys, adrenal glands, and associated blood vessels and nerves. The abdominal cavity is enclosed by the abdominal wall, which consists of muscles, fascia, and skin. It is divided into several compartments by various membranes, including the peritoneum, a serous membrane that lines the walls of the cavity and covers many of the organs within it. The abdominal cavity provides protection and support for the organs it contains, and also serves as a site for the absorption and digestion of food.

I believe you are looking for a medical condition or term related to the state of Arizona. However, there is no specific medical condition or term named "Arizona." If you're looking for medical conditions or healthcare-related information specific to Arizona, I could provide some general statistics or facts about healthcare in Arizona. Please clarify if this is not what you were looking for.

Arizona has a diverse population and unique healthcare needs. Here are some key points related to healthcare in Arizona:

1. Chronic diseases: Arizona experiences high rates of chronic diseases, such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease, which can lead to various health complications if not managed properly.
2. Mental health: Access to mental health services is a concern in Arizona, with a significant portion of the population living in areas with mental health professional shortages.
3. Rural healthcare: Rural communities in Arizona often face challenges accessing quality healthcare due to provider shortages and longer travel distances to medical facilities.
4. COVID-19 pandemic: Like other states, Arizona has been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, which has strained healthcare resources and highlighted existing health disparities among various populations.
5. Indigenous communities: Arizona is home to several indigenous communities, including the Navajo Nation, which faces significant health challenges, such as higher rates of diabetes, heart disease, and COVID-19 infections compared to the general population.

If you were looking for information on a specific medical condition or term related to Arizona, please provide more context so I can give a more accurate response.

Acute kidney injury (AKI), also known as acute renal failure, is a rapid loss of kidney function that occurs over a few hours or days. It is defined as an increase in the serum creatinine level by 0.3 mg/dL within 48 hours or an increase in the creatinine level to more than 1.5 times baseline, which is known or presumed to have occurred within the prior 7 days, or a urine volume of less than 0.5 mL/kg per hour for six hours.

AKI can be caused by a variety of conditions, including decreased blood flow to the kidneys, obstruction of the urinary tract, exposure to toxic substances, and certain medications. Symptoms of AKI may include decreased urine output, fluid retention, electrolyte imbalances, and metabolic acidosis. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the injury and providing supportive care, such as dialysis, to help maintain kidney function until the injury resolves.

Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) is not a specific disease, but rather a systemic response to various insults or injuries within the body. It is defined as a combination of clinical signs that indicate a widespread inflammatory response in the body. According to the American College of Chest Physicians/Society of Critical Care Medicine (ACCP/SCCM) consensus criteria, SIRS is characterized by the presence of at least two of the following conditions:

1. Body temperature >38°C (100.4°F) or 90 beats per minute
3. Respiratory rate >20 breaths per minute or arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) 12,000 cells/mm3, 10% bands (immature white blood cells)

SIRS can be caused by various factors, including infections (sepsis), trauma, burns, pancreatitis, and immune-mediated reactions. Prolonged SIRS may lead to organ dysfunction and failure, which can progress to severe sepsis or septic shock if not treated promptly and effectively.

Organophosphate (OP) poisoning refers to the toxic effects that occur after exposure to organophosphate compounds, which are commonly used as pesticides, nerve agents, and plasticizers. These substances work by irreversibly inhibiting acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme that breaks down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the nervous system. As a result, excessive accumulation of acetylcholine leads to overstimulation of cholinergic receptors, causing a wide range of symptoms.

The severity and type of symptoms depend on the dose, duration, and route of exposure (inhalation, ingestion, or skin absorption). The primary manifestations of organophosphate poisoning are:

1. Muscarinic effects: Excess acetylcholine at muscarinic receptors in the parasympathetic nervous system results in symptoms such as narrowed pupils (miosis), increased salivation, lacrimation, sweating, bronchorrhea (excessive respiratory secretions), diarrhea, bradycardia (decreased heart rate), and hypotension.
2. Nicotinic effects: Overstimulation of nicotinic receptors at the neuromuscular junction leads to muscle fasciculations, weakness, and paralysis. This can also cause tachycardia (increased heart rate) and hypertension.
3. Central nervous system effects: OP poisoning may result in headache, dizziness, confusion, seizures, coma, and respiratory depression.

Treatment for organophosphate poisoning includes decontamination, supportive care, and administration of antidotes such as atropine (to block muscarinic effects) and pralidoxime (to reactivate acetylcholinesterase). Delayed treatment can lead to long-term neurological damage or even death.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Panama Canal Zone" is not a medical term. It refers to an historical territory that surrounds and includes the Panama Canal, which was under the control of the United States from 1903 to 1979. It's more of a geopolitical or historical term rather than a medical one.

Respiratory insufficiency is a condition characterized by the inability of the respiratory system to maintain adequate gas exchange, resulting in an inadequate supply of oxygen and/or removal of carbon dioxide from the body. This can occur due to various causes, such as lung diseases (e.g., chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, pneumonia), neuromuscular disorders (e.g., muscular dystrophy, spinal cord injury), or other medical conditions that affect breathing mechanics and/or gas exchange.

Respiratory insufficiency can manifest as hypoxemia (low oxygen levels in the blood) and/or hypercapnia (high carbon dioxide levels in the blood). Symptoms of respiratory insufficiency may include shortness of breath, rapid breathing, fatigue, confusion, and in severe cases, loss of consciousness or even death. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition and may include oxygen therapy, mechanical ventilation, medications, and/or other supportive measures.

Septic shock is a serious condition that occurs as a complication of an infection that has spread throughout the body. It's characterized by a severe drop in blood pressure and abnormalities in cellular metabolism, which can lead to organ failure and death if not promptly treated.

In septic shock, the immune system overreacts to an infection, releasing an overwhelming amount of inflammatory chemicals into the bloodstream. This leads to widespread inflammation, blood vessel dilation, and leaky blood vessels, which can cause fluid to leak out of the blood vessels and into surrounding tissues. As a result, the heart may not be able to pump enough blood to vital organs, leading to organ failure.

Septic shock is often caused by bacterial infections, but it can also be caused by fungal or viral infections. It's most commonly seen in people with weakened immune systems, such as those who have recently undergone surgery, have chronic medical conditions, or are taking medications that suppress the immune system.

Prompt diagnosis and treatment of septic shock is critical to prevent long-term complications and improve outcomes. Treatment typically involves aggressive antibiotic therapy, intravenous fluids, vasopressors to maintain blood pressure, and supportive care in an intensive care unit (ICU).

Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) is an abnormal increase in the pressure within the abdominal cavity, typically defined as a sustained or repeated pathological elevation in the intravesical pressure greater than 12 mmHg (millimeters of mercury). It can lead to reduced blood flow to organs in the abdomen and can cause serious complications if not properly managed.

The causes of IAH are varied, including conditions such as ascites, liver disease, intra-abdominal infection or inflammation, trauma, and abdominal surgery. In some cases, it may also be caused by the use of certain medications that can affect abdominal muscle tone or fluid balance.

IAH is often classified into four grades based on the degree of pressure elevation: Grade I (12-15 mmHg), Grade II (16-20 mmHg), Grade III (21-25 mmHg), and Grade IV (>25 mmHg).

If left untreated, IAH can lead to a number of serious complications, including organ dysfunction, respiratory compromise, decreased cardiac output, and even death. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the pressure elevation, as well as supportive measures such as fluid management, decompressive laparotomy, or use of abdominal drains.

The Predictive Value of Tests, specifically the Positive Predictive Value (PPV) and Negative Predictive Value (NPV), are measures used in diagnostic tests to determine the probability that a positive or negative test result is correct.

Positive Predictive Value (PPV) is the proportion of patients with a positive test result who actually have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true positives divided by the total number of positive results (true positives + false positives). A higher PPV indicates that a positive test result is more likely to be a true positive, and therefore the disease is more likely to be present.

Negative Predictive Value (NPV) is the proportion of patients with a negative test result who do not have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true negatives divided by the total number of negative results (true negatives + false negatives). A higher NPV indicates that a negative test result is more likely to be a true negative, and therefore the disease is less likely to be present.

The predictive value of tests depends on the prevalence of the disease in the population being tested, as well as the sensitivity and specificity of the test. A test with high sensitivity and specificity will generally have higher predictive values than a test with low sensitivity and specificity. However, even a highly sensitive and specific test can have low predictive values if the prevalence of the disease is low in the population being tested.

Critical care, also known as intensive care, is a medical specialty that deals with the diagnosis and management of life-threatening conditions that require close monitoring and organ support. Critical care medicine is practiced in critical care units (ICUs) or intensive care units of hospitals. The goal of critical care is to prevent further deterioration of the patient's condition, to support failing organs, and to treat any underlying conditions that may have caused the patient to become critically ill.

Critical care involves a multidisciplinary team approach, including intensivists (specialist doctors trained in critical care), nurses, respiratory therapists, pharmacists, and other healthcare professionals. The care provided in the ICU is highly specialized and often involves advanced medical technology such as mechanical ventilation, dialysis, and continuous renal replacement therapy.

Patients who require critical care may have a wide range of conditions, including severe infections, respiratory failure, cardiovascular instability, neurological emergencies, and multi-organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS). Critical care is an essential component of modern healthcare and has significantly improved the outcomes of critically ill patients.

Bacteremia is the presence of bacteria in the bloodstream. It is a medical condition that occurs when bacteria from another source, such as an infection in another part of the body, enter the bloodstream. Bacteremia can cause symptoms such as fever, chills, and rapid heart rate, and it can lead to serious complications such as sepsis if not treated promptly with antibiotics.

Bacteremia is often a result of an infection elsewhere in the body that allows bacteria to enter the bloodstream. This can happen through various routes, such as during medical procedures, intravenous (IV) drug use, or from infected wounds or devices that come into contact with the bloodstream. In some cases, bacteremia may also occur without any obvious source of infection.

It is important to note that not all bacteria in the bloodstream cause harm, and some people may have bacteria in their blood without showing any symptoms. However, if bacteria in the bloodstream multiply and cause an immune response, it can lead to bacteremia and potentially serious complications.

Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a specific type of pneumonia that develops in patients who have been mechanically ventilated through an endotracheal tube for at least 48 hours. It is defined as a nosocomial pneumonia (healthcare-associated infection occurring >48 hours after admission) that occurs in this setting. VAP is typically caused by aspiration of pathogenic microorganisms from the oropharynx or stomach into the lower respiratory tract, and it can lead to significant morbidity and mortality.

The diagnosis of VAP is often challenging due to the overlap of symptoms with other respiratory conditions and the potential for contamination of lower respiratory samples by upper airway flora. Clinical criteria, radiographic findings, and laboratory tests, such as quantitative cultures of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid or protected specimen brush, are often used in combination to make a definitive diagnosis.

Preventing VAP is crucial in critically ill patients and involves several evidence-based strategies, including elevating the head of the bed, oral care with chlorhexidine, and careful sedation management to allow for spontaneous breathing trials and early extubation when appropriate.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Calcitonin is a hormone that is produced and released by the parafollicular cells (also known as C cells) of the thyroid gland. It plays a crucial role in regulating calcium homeostasis in the body. Specifically, it helps to lower elevated levels of calcium in the blood by inhibiting the activity of osteoclasts, which are bone cells that break down bone tissue and release calcium into the bloodstream. Calcitonin also promotes the uptake of calcium in the bones and increases the excretion of calcium in the urine.

Calcitonin is typically released in response to high levels of calcium in the blood, and its effects help to bring calcium levels back into balance. In addition to its role in calcium regulation, calcitonin may also have other functions in the body, such as modulating immune function and reducing inflammation.

Clinically, synthetic forms of calcitonin are sometimes used as a medication to treat conditions related to abnormal calcium levels, such as hypercalcemia (high blood calcium) or osteoporosis. Calcitonin can be administered as an injection, nasal spray, or oral tablet, depending on the specific formulation and intended use.

The Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) is a standardized tool used by healthcare professionals to assess the level of consciousness and neurological response in a person who has suffered a brain injury or illness. It evaluates three aspects of a patient's responsiveness: eye opening, verbal response, and motor response. The scores from these three categories are then added together to provide an overall GCS score, which can range from 3 (indicating deep unconsciousness) to 15 (indicating a normal level of consciousness). This scale helps medical professionals to quickly and consistently communicate the severity of a patient's condition and monitor their progress over time.

"Native Americans" is the preferred term for the indigenous peoples of the continental United States, including those from Alaska and Hawaii. The term "Indians" is often used to refer to this group, but it can be seen as misleading or inaccurate since it implies a connection to India rather than recognition of their unique cultures and histories. However, some Native Americans prefer to use the term "Indian" to describe themselves.

It's important to note that there is no single medical definition for this group, as they are not a homogeneous population. Instead, they consist of hundreds of distinct tribes with diverse cultures, languages, and traditions. Each tribe may have its own unique genetic makeup, which can influence health outcomes and responses to medical treatments.

Therefore, when discussing medical issues related to Native Americans, it's essential to consider the specific tribal affiliations and cultural factors that may impact their health status and healthcare needs.

Intra-abdominal infections (IAIs) refer to the invasion and multiplication of pathogenic microorganisms within the abdominopelvic cavity, which can lead to inflammation, abscess formation, and potentially sepsis if left untreated. These infections can arise from various sources, including perforations of the gastrointestinal tract, abdominal surgical procedures, or direct spread from neighboring organs. Commonly involved pathogens include bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Bacteroides fragilis, although fungi and viruses can also be implicated in certain situations.

IAIs are classified into two main categories: complicated and uncomplicated. Complicated IAIs involve deep-seated infections that spread beyond the confines of a single organ, often leading to abscess formation or peritonitis. Uncomplicated IAIs, on the other hand, are typically limited to a single organ, such as appendicitis or cholecystitis, without spreading to the peritoneal cavity.

Clinical manifestations of IAIs vary depending on the severity and location of the infection but may include abdominal pain, distention, nausea, vomiting, fever, and altered bowel habits. Diagnosis often relies on a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies (such as ultrasound or CT scan), and laboratory tests (including white blood cell count, C-reactive protein, and procalcitonin levels). Treatment typically involves antibiotic therapy, source control (e.g., surgical intervention to repair perforations or drain abscesses), and supportive care.

Cross infection, also known as cross-contamination, is the transmission of infectious agents or diseases between patients in a healthcare setting. This can occur through various means such as contaminated equipment, surfaces, hands of healthcare workers, or the air. It is an important concern in medical settings and measures are taken to prevent its occurrence, including proper hand hygiene, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), environmental cleaning and disinfection, and safe injection practices.

Candidemia is a medical condition defined as the presence of the fungus Candida in the bloodstream. It is a type of invasive candidiasis, which occurs when Candida invades normally sterile areas of the body such as the blood, heart, brain, eyes, or bones. Candidemia is usually acquired in healthcare settings and can cause serious illness, especially in people with weakened immune systems. Symptoms may include fever, chills, hypotension, and organ dysfunction. Treatment typically involves antifungal medications.

An acute disease is a medical condition that has a rapid onset, develops quickly, and tends to be short in duration. Acute diseases can range from minor illnesses such as a common cold or flu, to more severe conditions such as pneumonia, meningitis, or a heart attack. These types of diseases often have clear symptoms that are easy to identify, and they may require immediate medical attention or treatment.

Acute diseases are typically caused by an external agent or factor, such as a bacterial or viral infection, a toxin, or an injury. They can also be the result of a sudden worsening of an existing chronic condition. In general, acute diseases are distinct from chronic diseases, which are long-term medical conditions that develop slowly over time and may require ongoing management and treatment.

Examples of acute diseases include:

* Acute bronchitis: a sudden inflammation of the airways in the lungs, often caused by a viral infection.
* Appendicitis: an inflammation of the appendix that can cause severe pain and requires surgical removal.
* Gastroenteritis: an inflammation of the stomach and intestines, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.
* Migraine headaches: intense headaches that can last for hours or days, and are often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound.
* Myocardial infarction (heart attack): a sudden blockage of blood flow to the heart muscle, often caused by a buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries.
* Pneumonia: an infection of the lungs that can cause coughing, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
* Sinusitis: an inflammation of the sinuses, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.

It's important to note that while some acute diseases may resolve on their own with rest and supportive care, others may require medical intervention or treatment to prevent complications and promote recovery. If you are experiencing symptoms of an acute disease, it is always best to seek medical attention to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment.

End-stage liver disease (ESLD) is a term used to describe advanced and irreversible liver damage, usually caused by chronic liver conditions such as cirrhosis, hepatitis, or alcoholic liver disease. At this stage, the liver can no longer function properly, leading to a range of serious complications.

The symptoms of ESLD may include:

* Jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes)
* Ascites (accumulation of fluid in the abdomen)
* Encephalopathy (confusion, drowsiness, or coma caused by the buildup of toxins in the brain)
* Bleeding from the gastrointestinal tract
* Infections
* Kidney failure

Treatment for ESLD typically focuses on managing symptoms and preventing complications. In some cases, a liver transplant may be necessary to improve survival. However, due to the shortage of available donor livers, many people with ESLD are not eligible for transplantation. The prognosis for individuals with ESLD is generally poor, with a median survival time of less than one year.

Acute necrotizing pancreatitis is a severe and potentially life-threatening form of acute pancreatitis, which is an inflammatory condition of the pancreas. In acute necrotizing pancreatitis, there is widespread death (necrosis) of pancreatic tissue due to autodigestion caused by the activation and release of digestive enzymes within the pancreas. This condition can lead to systemic inflammation, organ failure, and infection of the necrotic areas in the pancreas. It typically has a more complicated clinical course and worse prognosis compared to acute interstitial pancreatitis, which is another form of acute pancreatitis without significant necrosis.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Vermont" is not a medical term. It is a geographical location, being the name of a state in the United States. If you have any questions about medical conditions or terminology, I would be happy to try and help answer those!

Patient admission in a medical context refers to the process by which a patient is formally accepted and registered into a hospital or healthcare facility for treatment or further medical care. This procedure typically includes the following steps:

1. Patient registration: The patient's personal information, such as name, address, contact details, and insurance coverage, are recorded in the hospital's system.
2. Clinical assessment: A healthcare professional evaluates the patient's medical condition to determine the appropriate level of care required and develop a plan for treatment. This may involve consulting with other healthcare providers, reviewing medical records, and performing necessary tests or examinations.
3. Bed assignment: Based on the clinical assessment, the hospital staff assigns an appropriate bed in a suitable unit (e.g., intensive care unit, step-down unit, general ward) for the patient's care.
4. Informed consent: The healthcare team explains the proposed treatment plan and associated risks to the patient or their legal representative, obtaining informed consent before proceeding with any invasive procedures or significant interventions.
5. Admission orders: The attending physician documents the admission orders in the medical chart, specifying the diagnostic tests, medications, treatments, and care plans for the patient during their hospital stay.
6. Notification of family members or caregivers: Hospital staff informs the patient's emergency contact or next of kin about their admission and provides relevant information regarding their condition, treatment plan, and any necessary follow-up instructions.
7. Patient education: The healthcare team educates the patient on what to expect during their hospital stay, including potential side effects, self-care strategies, and discharge planning.

The goal of patient admission is to ensure a smooth transition into the healthcare facility, providing timely and appropriate care while maintaining open communication with patients, families, and caregivers throughout the process.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

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"Apache Flume". Apache Software Foundation. Retrieved 2023-03-01. v t e (Articles with short description, Short description is ... Apache Flume is a distributed, reliable, and available software for efficiently collecting, aggregating, and moving large ... Computer programming portal Free and open-source software portal List of Apache Software Foundation projects Hortonworks ... different from Wikidata, Data mining and machine learning software, Apache Software Foundation projects, Free software ...
Java XML Apache Xerces libxml2 Saxon XSLT "'[ANNOUNCEMENT] Apache XalanJ 2.7.3' - MARC". "alphaWorks : LotusXSL : Overview". ... "Apache Xalan XSLT Compiler (XSLTC) Integrated into the Java Web Services Developer Pack (WSDP)". 2002-08-26. "launchpad : XEL ... Xalan is a popular open source software library from the Apache Software Foundation, that implements the XSLT 1.0 XML ... Xalan Home page v t e (Apache Software Foundation projects, Java (programming language) libraries, Java platform, Software ...
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The name "CXF" was derived by combining "Celtix" and "XFire". CXF is often used with Apache ServiceMix, Apache Camel and Apache ... "Apache CXF -- Project Status". Retrieved 2022-09-27. Open Source FUSE Services Framework - based on CXF Deinum ... Apache CXF supports the Java programming interfaces JAX-WS,: 638 JAX-RS, JBI, JCA, JMX, JMS over SOAP, Spring,: 635-641 and the ... Apache CXF is an open source software project developing a Web services framework. It originated as the combination of Celtix ...
... , a Blueprint Container implementations and extensions of application-focused specifications defined by OSGi ... Apache Aries: Marrying OSGi with Java EE in dzone by Nitin Bharti, 14 May 2010 Official website EV Web Directory Gawor, Jarek ( ... Apache Software Foundation projects, Free software programmed in Java (programming language), All stub articles, Free software ... Java Management Extensions Java Naming and Directory Interface integration Application Assembly and Deployment Apache Maven ...
Apache Hive/Apache Flink/Apache Spark), which provide certain functionality of Apache POI, such as the processing of Excel ... Apache POI-HWPF, Apache POI-HSLF, Apache POI-Ruby, Apache "HadoopOffice for Hive/Flink/Spark". 2018-07-19. ... Apache POI, a project run by the Apache Software Foundation, and previously a sub-project of the Jakarta Project, provides pure ... Retrieved 2019-03-07. "POI-HPBF - Java API To Access Microsoft Publisher Format Files". ...
"FAQ - Apache MINA". "Apache MINA - FAQ". Archived from the original on 25 July 2011. Retrieved 2016-03-08. "Apache MINA ... This makes it easy for the users to concentrate on the application logic and leave the I/O handling to Apache MINA. Unified ... Apache MINA (Multipurpose Infrastructure for Network Applications) is an open source Java network application framework. MINA ... Official website v t e (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Apache Software ...
  • Apache 2.4 offers numerous enhancements, improvements, and performance boosts over the 2.2 codebase. (
  • Please see the CHANGES_2.4 file, linked from the download page, for a full list of changes. (
  • This release requires the Apache Portable Runtime (APR), minimum version 1.5.x, and APR-Util, minimum version 1.5.x. (
  • When upgrading or installing this version of Apache, please bear in mind that if you intend to use Apache with one of the threaded MPMs (other than the Prefork MPM), you must ensure that any modules you will be using (and the libraries they depend on) are thread-safe. (
  • The Apache team maintains excellent documentation, publicly available on their web site at . (
  • For example, a general reference for the configuration directives is located at . (
  • or their operating system's software update mechanism. (
  • Acrónimo inglés para Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (Evaluación de Fisiología Aguda y Enfermedad Crónica), un sistema de puntuación que emplea datos recopilados rutinariamente y que proporciona una descripción precisa y objetiva para un amplio rango de ingresos en unidades de cuidados intensivos, midiendo la gravedad de la enfermedad en pacientes en estado crítico. (
  • Apache Hive is a data warehouse software project built on top of Apache Hadoop for providing data query and analysis. (
  • With the exception of the Kiowa Apache, who joined the Kiowa tribal circle (adopting Kiowa customs and allegiance), the Apache traditionally functioned without a centralized tribal organization. (
  • Questions on how to manage the Apache HTTP Server should be directed at either our IRC channel, #httpd, on, or sent to our mailing lists . (
  • Installers are available for most platforms from . (
  • This version of Apache is our latest GA release of the new generation 2.4.x branch of Apache HTTPD and represents fifteen years of innovation by the project, and is recommended over all previous releases. (
  • You'll need Apache httpd 2.0 or newer, the mod_dav DAV module that comes with it, Subversion, and the mod_dav_svn filesystem provider module distributed with Subversion. (
  • Please see # # for more information. (
  • Apache HBase monitoring is part of Instana's automated Application Performance Monitoring solution . (
  • When the Instana agent is deployed into an infrastructure containing Apache HBase, it automatically detects the technology and configures itself to monitor Hbase along with its configuration data and performance metrics. (
  • After Instana automatically deploys its Apache HBase monitoring, it will immediately map out HBase's infrastructure. (
  • A complete list is available in the Instana Apache HBase Monitoring Documentation . (
  • Instana tracks Apache HBase Key Performance Indicators to infer a health state about HBase within the context of the monitored environment. (
  • If there is an issue with Apache HBase health or performance, the Instana UI will flag the issue and change the health color of the instance. (
  • Since Apache HBase is written in Java, a complete understanding of the overall system's performance health includes JVM monitoring , which also happens automatically - and includes built in health rules to detect issues with JVM memory, cache, and deadlocks. (
  • Although the Apache eventually chose to adopt a nomadic way of life that relied heavily on horse transport, semisedentary Plains Apache farmers were living along the Dismal River in what is now Kansas as recently as 1700. (
  • The remaining Plains Apache were severely pressured and retreated to the south and west. (
  • The Plains Apache are located in Oklahoma, headquartered around Anadarko, and are federally recognized as the Apache Tribe of Oklahoma. (
  • AWS is aware of the recently disclosed security issue relating to the open-source Apache "Log4j2" utility (CVE-2021-44228). (
  • On December 10, 2021, CloudHSM released JCE SDK v3.4.1 with a fixed version of Apache Log4j. (
  • The Apache Maven team is pleased to announce the release of the Apache Maven Dependency Plugin, version 3.1.2 The dependency plugin provides the capability to manipulate artifacts. (
  • The Apache Tomcat software is developed in an open and participatory environment and released under the Apache License version 2 . (
  • Update: Update the packaged version of the Apache Tomcat Native Library to 2.0.4 to pick up the Windows binaries built with with OpenSSL 3.0.9. (
  • This page lists the currently available documents of the Apache HTTP Server Version 2.5 Documentation . (
  • Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 . (
  • We consider this release to be the best version of Apache available, and encourage users of all prior versions to upgrade. (
  • This text is a work in progress-highly subject to change-and may not accurately describe any released version of the Apache™ Subversion® software. (
  • CloudHSM JCE SDK versions earlier than 3.4.1 include a version of Apache Log4j affected by this issue. (
  • The Apache Tomcat Project is proud to announce the release of version 10.0.14 of Apache Tomcat. (
  • The Apache Struts library is updated to version to address multiple security issues," VMware said in a security advisory Tuesday that coincided with the release of vCenter Operations Management Suite (vCOps) version 5.8.2. (
  • While initially developed by Facebook, Apache Hive is used and developed by other companies such as Netflix and the Financial Industry Regulatory Authority (FINRA). (
  • Amazon maintains a software fork of Apache Hive included in Amazon Elastic MapReduce on Amazon Web Services. (
  • This page uses material from the Wikipedia article Apache Hive external site , which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0 external site . (
  • Hot Technology: Apache Hive by U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License . (
  • Two months after critical vulnerabilities were patched in Apache Struts, a popular open-source framework for developing Java-based Web applications, VMware released a security update to incorporate the fixes in its vCenter Operations Management Suite product. (
  • Apache Struts was an emergency update released on April 24 after it was revealed that a fix included in Struts for a remote code execution vulnerability was insufficient and could be bypassed. (
  • The Apache Tomcat software is an open source implementation of the Java Servlet, JavaServer Pages, Java Expression Language and Java WebSocket technologies. (
  • The Apache Tomcat project is intended to be a collaboration of the best-of-breed developers from around the world. (
  • Apache Tomcat software powers numerous large-scale, mission-critical web applications across a diverse range of industries and organizations. (
  • This conversion is performed using the Apache Tomcat migration tool for Jakarta EE tool which is also available as a separate download for off-line use. (
  • Keep up with the ASF's news and announcements by subscribing to the Apache Announcements List , as well as following the Foundation Blog , Apache Weekly News Round-Ups , @TheASF on Twitter , The Apache Software Foundation on LinkedIn , on the ASF's YouTube channel , and on Feathercast , the voice of the ASF. (
  • LinkedIn: Apache Kafka was originally developed at LinkedIn. (
  • The other Chiricahua are enrolled in the Fort Sill Apache Tribe of Oklahoma, headquartered in Apache, Oklahoma. (
  • Apache Kafka is an open-source distributed event streaming platform, primarily used for building real-time data pipelines and applications. (
  • Netflix: The popular streaming platform Netflix uses Apache Kafka to manage their massive data pipelines, allowing the company to capture, analyze, and process billions of events and data points daily. (
  • Toree provides applications with a mechanism to interactively and remotely access Apache Spark. (
  • The Apache Spark sensor is automatically deployed and installed after you install the Instana agent. (
  • Apache people have moved throughout the United States and elsewhere, including urban centers. (
  • The Apache Incubator provides a path for projects and their communities that want to enter the ASF. (
  • The Apache Incubator is the primary entry path into The Apache Software Foundation for projects and their communities wishing to become part of the Foundation's efforts. (
  • All code donations from external organisations and existing external projects seeking to join the Apache community enter through the Incubator. (
  • The majority moved to the Mescalero Reservation and form, with the larger Mescalero political group, the Mescalero Apache Tribe of the Mescalero Apache Reservation, along with the Lipan Apache. (
  • The Western Apache, located in Arizona, is divided into several reservations, which crosscut cultural divisions. (
  • The Western Apache reservations include the Fort Apache Indian Reservation, San Carlos Apache Indian Reservation, Yavapai-Apache Nation and Tonto-Apache Reservation. (
  • Before Spanish colonization, Apache domain extended over what are now (in the United States) east-central and southeastern Arizona , southeastern Colorado , southwestern and eastern New Mexico , and western Texas and (in Mexico) northern Chihuahua and Sonora states. (
  • Historically, the Apache homelands have consisted of high mountains, sheltered and watered valleys, deep canyons, deserts, and the southern Great Plains, including areas in what is now Eastern Arizona, Northern Mexico (Sonora and Chihuahua) and New Mexico, West Texas, and Southern Colorado. (
  • The first Apache raids on Sonora appear to have taken place during the late 17th century. (
  • The Apache HTTP server is the software that (along with the PHP scripting language) 'runs' Moodle. (
  • IIS on Windows) but the Apache HTTP Server is very popular on all platforms. (
  • Please note the 2.2.x branch has now passed the end of life at the Apache HTTP Server project and no further activity will occur including security patches. (
  • directives are used to set the privileges of the Apache HTTP Server child processes. (
  • The Apache HTTP Server is a " heavy-duty " network server that Subversion can leverage. (
  • Apache Kafka is a distributed streaming platform that enables high-throughput, fault-tolerant, and scalable data integration and processing, making it suitable for real-time Analytics and Event-driven architectures. (
  • Moved JAR file related to Apache POI to the 'compile' directory. (
  • Distant cousins of the Apache are the Navajo, with whom they share the Southern Athabaskan languages. (
  • Distant cousins and Apache subgroup the Navajo, in their language, refer to themselves as the Diné. (
  • The distribution of the deposits by counties is as follows: 1 in Navajo, and 1 in Apache, 37 in Gila, 4 in Graham, 13 in Greenlee, 25 in Pinal, 13 in Pima, 12 in Santa Cruz, and 45 in Cochise. (
  • Much of the following discussion includes references to Apache configuration directives. (
  • Apache , North American Indians who, under such leaders as Cochise , Mangas Coloradas , Geronimo , and Victorio, figured largely in the history of the Southwest during the latter half of the 19th century. (
  • Apache Kafka®, Kafka, and associated open source project names are trademarks of the Apache Software Foundation. (
  • I am trying to read a parquet file using the Apache Arrow library. (
  • At a later location in your configuration file, you now need to tell Apache where you keep your Subversion repository (or repositories). (
  • Welcome to The Apache Software Foundation! (
  • Apache and the Apache feather logo are trademarks of The Apache Software Foundation. (
  • Developed by the Apache Software Foundation, it offers high-throughput, fault-tolerant, and low-latency capabilities for handling massive amounts of data. (
  • Please read Verifying Apache Software Foundation Releases for more information on why you should verify our releases. (
  • Apache Software Foundation. (
  • In my experience, building an Apache web server with ModSSL and OpenSSL is the most beneficial software combination. (
  • The result is a standardized, robust system that is conveniently packaged as part of the Apache 2.0 software, supported by numerous operating systems and third-party products, and doesn't require network administrators to open up yet another custom port. (
  • The Apache Software Foundation has no affiliation with and does not endorse, or review the materials provided here or at any of our Meetups. (
  • Apache Ivy, Apache Ant, Ivy, Ant, Apache, the Apache Ivy logo, the Apache Ant logo and the Apache feather logo are trademarks of The Apache Software Foundation. (
  • citation needed] Modern Apache people use the Spanish term to refer to themselves and tribal functions, and so does the US government. (
  • Apache is straightforward to build from source if you have to and the PHP documentation contains an article on building both Apache and PHP together - although you should rarely need to do that. (
  • Modules written for Apache 2.2 will need to be recompiled in order to run with Apache 2.4, and require minimal or no source code changes. (
  • The purpose of this guide is to assist RedHat Linux users with the installation of server (SSL) certificates using the Apache web server. (
  • Then, beginning with Section 4, I will go through the step-by-step procedures for generating keys and installing certificates on a RedHat-Apache server compiled with ModSSL and OpenSSL. (
  • The procedures in Section 4 will also work with commercial SSL-server packages such as Stronghold and Raven that are closely related to Apache. (
  • [65] While an Apache-Subversion server has more features than svnserve , it's also a bit more difficult to set up. (
  • In some cases the Apache server complains in the URI size. (
  • Now, providing further evidence of how flexible Mesos can be, Apple announced during a meetup this week at its Cupertino, California, headquarters that its ever popular Siri application is being powered by Apache Mesos. (
  • Get full access to Learning Apache Cassandra and 60K+ other titles, with a free 10-day trial of O'Reilly. (
  • Apache Kafka is an important technology term as it refers to a highly scalable, fast, and fault-tolerant distributed data streaming platform that allows for real-time processing, analysis, and storage of vast amounts of data. (
  • Apache Kafka is a distributed data streaming platform that allows organizations to process, manage, and store continuous streams of records in a fault-tolerant way. (
  • Get Learning Apache Cassandra now with the O'Reilly learning platform. (
  • From Google Summer of Code to community events, get started here to learn how to become an Apache contributor. (
  • Debian provides instructions for installing a self-signed certificate on their wiki and includes general information on configuring Apache for SSL. (
  • Apache Shiro™ is a powerful and easy-to-use Java security framework that performs authentication, authorization, cryptography, and session management. (
  • This document describes my approach to building mySQL, then Apache and PHP4. (

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