Pathological condition characterized by the backflow of blood from the ASCENDING AORTA back into the LEFT VENTRICLE, leading to regurgitation. It is caused by diseases of the AORTIC VALVE or its surrounding tissue (aortic root).
The valve between the left ventricle and the ascending aorta which prevents backflow into the left ventricle.
Backflow of blood from the LEFT VENTRICLE into the LEFT ATRIUM due to imperfect closure of the MITRAL VALVE. This can lead to mitral valve regurgitation.
Backflow of blood from the RIGHT VENTRICLE into the RIGHT ATRIUM due to imperfect closure of the TRICUSPID VALVE.
Backflow of blood from the PULMONARY ARTERY into the RIGHT VENTRICLE due to imperfect closure of the PULMONARY VALVE.
A pathological constriction that can occur above (supravalvular stenosis), below (subvalvular stenosis), or at the AORTIC VALVE. It is characterized by restricted outflow from the LEFT VENTRICLE into the AORTA.
Flaps within the VEINS that allow the blood to flow only in one direction. They are usually in the medium size veins that carry blood to the heart against gravity.
Pathological conditions involving any of the various HEART VALVES and the associated structures (PAPILLARY MUSCLES and CHORDAE TENDINEAE).
Surgical insertion of synthetic material to repair injured or diseased heart valves.
The valve between the left atrium and left ventricle of the heart.
A device that substitutes for a heart valve. It may be composed of biological material (BIOPROSTHESIS) and/or synthetic material.
Surgery performed on the heart.
Prosthesis, usually heart valve, composed of biological material and whose durability depends upon the stability of the material after pretreatment, rather than regeneration by host cell ingrowth. Durability is achieved 1, mechanically by the interposition of a cloth, usually polytetrafluoroethylene, between the host and the graft, and 2, chemically by stabilization of the tissue by intermolecular linking, usually with glutaraldehyde, after removal of antigenic components, or the use of reconstituted and restructured biopolymers.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Conditions in which the production of adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS falls below the requirement of the body. Adrenal insufficiency can be caused by defects in the ADRENAL GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, or the HYPOTHALAMUS.
A valve situated at the entrance to the pulmonary trunk from the right ventricle.
The valve consisting of three cusps situated between the right atrium and right ventricle of the heart.
Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level in the ability to remove wastes, concentrate URINE, and maintain ELECTROLYTE BALANCE; BLOOD PRESSURE; and CALCIUM metabolism. Renal insufficiency can be classified by the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE.
Impaired venous blood flow or venous return (venous stasis), usually caused by inadequate venous valves. Venous insufficiency often occurs in the legs, and is associated with EDEMA and sometimes with VENOUS STASIS ULCERS at the ankle.
Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.
A malabsorption condition resulting from greater than 10% reduction in the secretion of pancreatic digestive enzymes (LIPASE; PROTEASES; and AMYLASE) by the EXOCRINE PANCREAS into the DUODENUM. This condition is often associated with CYSTIC FIBROSIS and with chronic PANCREATITIS.
Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.
The downward displacement of the cuspal or pointed end of the trileaflet AORTIC VALVE causing misalignment of the cusps. Severe valve distortion can cause leakage and allow the backflow of blood from the ASCENDING AORTA back into the LEFT VENTRICLE, leading to aortic regurgitation.
Inflammation of the ENDOCARDIUM caused by BACTERIA that entered the bloodstream. The strains of bacteria vary with predisposing factors, such as CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS; HEART VALVE DISEASES; HEART VALVE PROSTHESIS IMPLANTATION; or intravenous drug use.
The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.
Abnormal protrusion or billowing of one or both of the leaflets of MITRAL VALVE into the LEFT ATRIUM during SYSTOLE. This allows the backflow of blood into left atrium leading to MITRAL VALVE INSUFFICIENCY; SYSTOLIC MURMURS; or CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIA.
Failure of the PLACENTA to deliver an adequate supply of nutrients and OXYGEN to the FETUS.
Narrowing of the passage through the MITRAL VALVE due to FIBROSIS, and CALCINOSIS in the leaflets and chordal areas. This elevates the left atrial pressure which, in turn, raises pulmonary venous and capillary pressure leading to bouts of DYSPNEA and TACHYCARDIA during physical exertion. RHEUMATIC FEVER is its primary cause.
Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues using a transducer placed in the esophagus.
A type of heart valve surgery that involves the repair, replacement, or reconstruction of the annuli of HEART VALVES. It includes shortening the circumference of the annulus to improve valve closing capacity and reinforcing the annulus as a step in more complex valve repairs.
Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.

Frequency and long term follow up of valvar insufficiency caused by retrograde aortic radiofrequency catheter ablation procedures. (1/941)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency of valvar complications caused by left sided radiofrequency catheter ablation using the retrograde aortic technique. METHODS: 179 patients (118 male) with a mean (SD) age of 43 (17) years underwent 216 procedures at one centre. The target of the ablation was an accessory atrioventricular pathway in 144 patients, the atrioventricular junction in 29 patients, and a ventricular tachycardia in six patients. In 25 patients structural heart disease was identified before the procedure (ischaemic heart disease 10, cardiomyopathy nine, valvar three, other three). Echo/Doppler examinations were performed the day before the procedure and within 24 hours postablation; the investigations were all reviewed by the same investigator. Patients with identified valvar injury caused by the procedure were followed for 42 (7) months. RESULTS: Valvar injury caused by the ablation procedure was identified in four young (age 30 (8) years), otherwise healthy patients with left lateral atrioventricular accessory pathways. Mild mitral insufficiency with a central regurgitation jet was detected in two patients and remained unchanged at follow up. Mild aortic insufficiency was detected in another two patients. In one of these the regurgitation jet was central and remained unchanged at follow up. In one patient the regurgitation jet was located between the non-coronary and left cusps in relation to a loosely attached structure. Both the structure and the valvar regurgitation disappeared during follow up. No clinical complications occurred in any of the patients during follow up. CONCLUSION: In this study, the frequency of valvar complications after left sided radiofrequency catheter ablation using the retrograde aortic technique was 1.9%.  (+info)

Impact of vascular adaptation to chronic aortic regurgitation on left ventricular performance. (2/941)

BACKGROUND: This investigation was designed to test the hypothesis that vascular adaptation occurs in patients with chronic aortic regurgitation to maintain left ventricular (LV) performance. METHODS AND RESULTS: Forty-five patients with chronic aortic regurgitation (mean age 50+/-14 years) were studied using a micromanometer LV catheter to obtain LV pressures and radionuclide ventriculography to obtain LV volumes during multiple loading conditions and right atrial pacing. These 45 patients were subgrouped according to their LV contractility (Ees) and ejection fraction values. Group I consisted of 24 patients with a normal Ees. Group IIa consisted of 10 patients with impaired Ees values (Ees <1.00 mm Hg/mL) but normal LV ejection fractions; Group IIb consisted of 11 patients with impaired contractility and reduced LV ejection fractions. The left ventricular-arterial coupling ratio, Ees/Ea, where Ea was calculated by dividing the LV end-systolic pressure by LV stroke volume, averaged 1.60+/-0.91 in Group I. It decreased to 0.91+/-0.27 in Group IIa (P<0.05 versus Group I), and it decreased further in Group IIb to 0.43+/-0.24 (P<0.001 versus Groups I and IIa). The LV ejection fractions were inversely related to the Ea values in both the normal and impaired contractility groups (r=-0.48, P<0.05 and r=-0.56, P<0.01, respectively), although the slopes of these relationships differed (P<0.05). The average LV work was maximal in Group IIa when the left ventricular-arterial coupling ratio was near 1.0 because of a significant decrease in total arterial elastance (P<0.01 versus Group I). In contrast, the decrease in the left ventricular-arterial coupling ratio in Group IIb was caused by an increase in total arterial elastance, effectively double loading the LV, contributing to a decrease in LV pump efficiency (P<0.01 versus Group IIa and P<0.001 versus Group I). CONCLUSIONS: Vascular adaptation may be heterogeneous in patients with chronic aortic regurgitation. In some, total arterial elastance decreases to maximize LV work and maintain LV performance, whereas in others, it increases, thereby double loading the LV, contributing to afterload excess and a deterioration in LV performance that is most prominent in those with impaired contractility.  (+info)

Bileaflet mechanical prostheses for aortic valve replacement in patients younger than 65 years and 65 years of age or older: major thromboembolic and hemorrhagic complications. (3/941)

OBJECTIVE: To determine major thromboembolic and hemorrhagic complications and predictive risk factors associated with aortic valve replacement (AVR), using bileaflet mechanical prostheses (CarboMedics and St. Jude Medical). DESIGN: A case series. SETTING: Cardiac surgical services at the teaching institutions of the University of British Columbia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients 2 age groups who had undergone AVR between 1989 and 1994 were studied. Group 1 comprised 384 patients younger than 65 years. Group 2 comprised 215 patients 65 years of age and older. RESULTS: The linearized rates of major thromboembolism (TE) occurring after AVR were 1.54%/patient-year for group 1 and 3.32%/patient-year for group 2; the rates for major TE occurring more than 30 days after AVR were 1.13%/patient-year for group 1 and 1.55%/patient-year for group 2. The crude rates for major TE occurring within 30 days of AVR were 1.04% for group 1 and 3.72% for group 2. The death rate from major TE in group 1 was 0.31%/patient-year and in group 2 was 0.88%/patient-year. Of the major TE events occurring within 30 days, 100% of patients in both age groups were inadequately anticoagulated at the time of the event, and for events occurring more than 30 days after AVR, 45% in group 1 and 57% in group 2 were inadequately anticoagulated (INR less than 2.0). The overall linearized rates of major hemorrhage were 1.54%/patient-year for group 1 and 2.21%/patient-year for group 2. There were no cases of prosthesis thrombosis in either group. The mean (and standard error) overall freedom from major TE for group 1 patients at 5 years was 95.6% (1.4%) and with exclusion of early events was 96.7% (1.3%); for group 2 patients the rates were 90.0% (3.2%) and 93.7% (3.0%), respectively. The mean (and SE) overall freedom from major and fatal TE and hemorrhage for group 1 patients was 90.1% (2.3%) and with exclusion of early events was 91.2% (2.3%); for group 2 patients the rates were 87.9% (3.1%) and 92.5% (2.9%), respectively. The 5-year rate for freedom from valve-related death for group 1 patients was 96.3% (2.1%) and for group 2 patients was 97.2% (1.2%). CONCLUSION: The thromboembolic and hemorrhagic complications after AVR with bileaflet mechanical prostheses occur more frequently and result in more deaths in patients 65 years of age and older than in patients years younger than 65 years.  (+info)

Minimally invasive aortic valve replacement through a transverse sternotomy: a word of caution. (4/941)

OBJECTIVES: To compare aortic valve replacement (AVR) using a minimally invasive approach through a transverse sternotomy with the established approach of median sternotomy. DESIGN: Retrospective, case-control study. PATIENTS: Fourteen high risk patients (median age 78, Parsonnet score of 18%) who underwent AVR performed through a minimally invasive transverse sternotomy were compared with a historical group of patients matched for age, sex, and Parsonnet score who underwent AVR performed through a median sternotomy by the same surgeon. OUTCOME MEASURES: Cross clamp time, total bypass time, intensive care stay, postoperative in-hospital stay, morbidity, and mortality. RESULTS: There were two deaths in the minimally invasive group and none in the control group (NS). The cross clamp and total bypass times were longer in the minimally invasive group (67 and 92 minutes v 46 and 66 minutes, p < 0.001). There was a higher incidence of re-exploration for bleeding (14% v 0%) and paravalvar leaks (21% v 0%) in the minimally invasive group but these differences were not significant. The minimally invasive group had a longer postoperative in-hospital stay (p = 0.025). The incidence of mortality or major morbidity was 43% (six of 14) in the minimally invasive group and 7% (one of 14) in the matched pairs (p = 0.013). CONCLUSIONS: AVR can be performed through a transverse sternotomy but the operation takes longer and there is an unacceptably high incidence of morbidity and mortality.  (+info)

Non-invasive assessment of left ventricular function after correction of severe aortic regurgitation. (5/941)

Twenty patients were studied with simultaneous left ventricular cavity echocardiograms and apex cardiograms during the first two weeks after correction of severe aortic regurgitation. Endocardial echoes and apex cardiograms were digitized, so that left ventricular dimensions, their rates of change, and echo dimension-apex cardiogram relations could be studied. After aortic valve replacement, there was an early reduction in end-diastolic dimension, within 2 days, from 7-0 +/- 0-8 cm to 5-7 +/- 1-0 cm (P less than 0-001), while peak normalized shortening rate (peak Vcf) dropped from 1-9 +/- 0-6 to 1-4 +/- 0-6 S-1 (P less than 0-01), and remained unchanged for the remainder of the study. Immediately after operation, striking abnormalities of isovolumic contraction and, to a lesser extent, of early relaxation, could be seen, which regressed over 4 to 7 days, except in 2 patients who developed a low output state. These changes in left ventricular dimension, Vcf, and isovolumic contraction could not have been described by an single "measure" of left ventricular function.  (+info)

Syphilitic aortic regurgitation. An appraisal of surgical treatment. (6/941)

During the 10 years from 1964 to 1973, fifteen patients with severe syphilitic aortic regurgitation were treated surgically at the National Heart Hospital. In thirteen the valve was replaced and in two it was repaired. In addition four had replacement of an aneurysmal ascending aorta with a Dacron graft and seven some form of plastic repair to the coronary ostia. Three patients died within 1 month of surgery and a further six during the follow-up period which varied from 1 to 55 months (mean 25-5). The six survivors have been followed-up for an average of 33 months. Factors contributing to this high mortality were analysed and it was found that the mean duration of effort dyspnoea was 22 months in the survivors compared with 48 months in those who had died. Similarly the average duration of nocturnal dyspnoea was 4 months in the survivors compared with a mean of 8 months in those who had died. Only six out of the fifteen patients had angina; this was present in two of the survivors and in four of the fatalities. The pulse pressure, heart size, and haemodynamic findings were similar in the two groups. The prognostic value of an elevated erythocyte sedimentation rate was also examined. It was concluded that preoperative investigations should include aortography, coronary arteriography, an assessment of left ventricular function, and whenever possible myocardial biopsy. These data were interpreted as suggesting that patients should be referred for surgery at an earlier stage in the disease--certainly before the onset of cardiac failure and--and that if this more aggresive attitude was adopted, as it has been in non-syphilitic cases of aortic valve disease, the present high mortality in this group would be reduced.  (+info)

Three-dimensional reconstruction of the color Doppler-imaged vena contracta for quantifying aortic regurgitation: studies in a chronic animal model. (7/941)

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of 3-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of color Doppler flow maps to image and extract the vena contracta cross-sectional area to determine the severity of aortic regurgitation (AR) in an animal model. Evaluation of the vena contracta with 2-dimensional imaging systems may not be sufficiently robust to fully characterize this region, which may be asymmetrically shaped. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 6 sheep with surgically induced chronic AR, 18 hemodynamically different states were studied. Instantaneous regurgitant flow rates were obtained by aortic and pulmonary electromagnetic flowmeters (EMFs) as reference standards, and aortic regurgitant effective orifice areas (EOAs) were determined from EMF regurgitant flow rates divided by continuous-wave (CW) Doppler velocities. Composite video data for color Doppler imaging of the aortic regurgitant flows were transferred into a TomTec computer after computer-controlled 180 degrees rotational acquisition. After the 3D data transverse to the flow jet were sectioned, the smallest proximal jet cross section was identified for direct measurement of the vena contracta area. Peak regurgitant flow rates and regurgitant stroke volumes were calculated as the product of these areas and the CW Doppler peak velocities and velocity-time integrals, respectively. There was an excellent correlation between the 3D-derived vena contracta areas and reference EOAs (r=0.99, SEE=0.01 cm2) and between 3D and reference peak regurgitant flow rates and regurgitant stroke volumes (r=0.99, difference=0.11 L/min; r=0.99, difference=1.5 mL/beat, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: 3D-based determination of the vena contracta cross-sectional area can provide accurate quantification of the severity of AR.  (+info)

Mortality and morbidity of aortic regurgitation in clinical practice. A long-term follow-up study. (8/941)

BACKGROUND: The outcome of aortic regurgitation conservatively followed in clinical practice is poorly defined. METHODS AND RESULTS: Long-term outcome of 246 patients with severe or moderately severe aortic regurgitation diagnosed by color Doppler echocardiography was analyzed. With conservative management, mortality rate was higher than expected (at 10 years, 34+/-5%, P<0. 001) and morbidity was high (10-year rates of 47+/-6% for heart failure and 62+/-4% for aortic valve surgery). At 10 years, 75+/-3% of patients had died or had surgery and 83+/-3% had had cardiovascular events. In multivariate analysis, predictors of survival were age (P<0.001), functional class (P<0.001), comorbidity index (P=0.033), atrial fibrillation (P=0.002), and left ventricular end-systolic diameter corrected for body surface area (P=0.025). Ejection fraction was also an independent predictor of overall survival, including postoperative follow-up of surgically treated patients (P<0.001). High risk during conservative treatment, with mortality rate in excess of that expected, was noted among patients with severe, even transient, symptoms (24.6% yearly, P<0.001) but also in those with mild (class II) symptoms (6.3% yearly, P=0.02) and in asymptomatic patients with left ventricular ejection fraction <55% (5.8% yearly, P=0.03) or with end-systolic diameter normalized to body surface area >/=25 mm/m2 (7.8% yearly, P=0.004). Surgery performed during follow-up was independently associated with reduced cardiovascular mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.54; P=0.048). CONCLUSIONS: Patients diagnosed with severe aortic regurgitation in clinical practice incur excess mortality and high morbidity, underscoring the serious prognosis of the disease. Surgery, which reduces cardiac mortality rates, should be considered promptly in high-risk patients.  (+info)

Aortic valve insufficiency, also known as aortic regurgitation or aortic incompetence, is a cardiac condition in which the aortic valve does not close properly during the contraction phase of the heart cycle. This allows blood to flow back into the left ventricle from the aorta, instead of being pumped out to the rest of the body. As a result, the left ventricle must work harder to maintain adequate cardiac output, which can lead to left ventricular enlargement and heart failure over time if left untreated.

The aortic valve is a trileaflet valve that lies between the left ventricle and the aorta. During systole (the contraction phase of the heart cycle), the aortic valve opens to allow blood to be pumped out of the left ventricle into the aorta and then distributed to the rest of the body. During diastole (the relaxation phase of the heart cycle), the aortic valve closes to prevent blood from flowing back into the left ventricle.

Aortic valve insufficiency can be caused by various conditions, including congenital heart defects, infective endocarditis, rheumatic heart disease, Marfan syndrome, and trauma. Symptoms of aortic valve insufficiency may include shortness of breath, fatigue, chest pain, palpitations, and edema (swelling). Diagnosis is typically made through physical examination, echocardiography, and other imaging studies. Treatment options depend on the severity of the condition and may include medication, surgery to repair or replace the aortic valve, or a combination of both.

The aortic valve is the valve located between the left ventricle (the lower left chamber of the heart) and the aorta (the largest artery in the body, which carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body). It is made up of three thin flaps or leaflets that open and close to regulate blood flow. During a heartbeat, the aortic valve opens to allow blood to be pumped out of the left ventricle into the aorta, and then closes to prevent blood from flowing back into the ventricle when it relaxes. Any abnormality or damage to this valve can lead to various cardiovascular conditions such as aortic stenosis, aortic regurgitation, or infective endocarditis.

Mitral valve insufficiency, also known as mitral regurgitation, is a cardiac condition in which the mitral valve located between the left atrium and left ventricle of the heart does not close properly, causing blood to flow backward into the atrium during contraction of the ventricle. This leads to an increased volume load on the left heart chamber and can result in symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and fluid retention. The condition can be caused by various factors including valve damage due to degenerative changes, infective endocarditis, rheumatic heart disease, or trauma. Treatment options include medication, mitral valve repair, or replacement surgery depending on the severity and underlying cause of the insufficiency.

Tricuspid valve insufficiency, also known as tricuspid regurgitation, is a cardiac condition in which the tricuspid valve located between the right atrium and right ventricle of the heart does not close properly, allowing blood to flow back into the right atrium during contraction of the right ventricle. This results in a portion of the blood being pumped inefficiently, which can lead to volume overload of the right side of the heart and potentially result in symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, and fluid retention. The condition can be congenital or acquired, with common causes including dilated cardiomyopathy, infective endocarditis, rheumatic heart disease, and trauma.

Pulmonary Valve Insufficiency, also known as Pulmonary Regurgitation, is a cardiac condition in which the pulmonary valve located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery does not close properly. This leads to the backward leakage or regurgitation of blood from the pulmonary artery into the right ventricle during diastole, causing an increased volume load on the right ventricle.

The severity of Pulmonary Valve Insufficiency can vary from mild to severe and may be caused by congenital heart defects, infective endocarditis, Marfan syndrome, rheumatic heart disease, or as a result of aging, or following certain cardiac procedures such as pulmonary valvotomy or ventriculostomy.

Mild Pulmonary Valve Insufficiency may not cause any symptoms and may only require periodic monitoring. However, severe Pulmonary Valve Insufficiency can lead to right-sided heart failure, arrhythmias, and other complications if left untreated. Treatment options for Pulmonary Valve Insufficiency include medication, surgical repair or replacement of the pulmonary valve, or a combination of these approaches.

Aortic valve stenosis is a cardiac condition characterized by the narrowing or stiffening of the aortic valve, which separates the left ventricle (the heart's main pumping chamber) from the aorta (the large artery that carries oxygen-rich blood to the rest of the body). This narrowing or stiffening prevents the aortic valve from opening fully, resulting in reduced blood flow from the left ventricle to the aorta and the rest of the body.

The narrowing can be caused by several factors, including congenital heart defects, calcification (hardening) of the aortic valve due to aging, or scarring of the valve due to rheumatic fever or other inflammatory conditions. As a result, the left ventricle must work harder to pump blood through the narrowed valve, which can lead to thickening and enlargement of the left ventricular muscle (left ventricular hypertrophy).

Symptoms of aortic valve stenosis may include chest pain or tightness, shortness of breath, fatigue, dizziness or fainting, and heart palpitations. Severe aortic valve stenosis can lead to serious complications such as heart failure, arrhythmias, or even sudden cardiac death. Treatment options may include medications to manage symptoms, lifestyle changes, or surgical intervention such as aortic valve replacement.

Venous valves are one-way flaps made of thin, flexible tissue that lie inside your veins. They allow blood to flow towards the heart but prevent it from flowing backward. These valves are especially important in the veins of the legs, where they help to counteract the force of gravity and ensure that blood flows back up to the heart. When venous valves become damaged or weakened, blood can pool in the veins, leading to conditions such as varicose veins or chronic venous insufficiency.

Heart valve diseases are a group of conditions that affect the function of one or more of the heart's four valves (tricuspid, pulmonic, mitral, and aortic). These valves are responsible for controlling the direction and flow of blood through the heart. Heart valve diseases can cause the valves to become narrowed (stenosis), leaky (regurgitation or insufficiency), or improperly closed (prolapse), leading to disrupted blood flow within the heart and potentially causing symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, chest pain, and irregular heart rhythms. The causes of heart valve diseases can include congenital defects, age-related degenerative changes, infections, rheumatic heart disease, and high blood pressure. Treatment options may include medications, surgical repair or replacement of the affected valve(s), or transcatheter procedures.

Heart valve prosthesis implantation is a surgical procedure where an artificial heart valve is inserted to replace a damaged or malfunctioning native heart valve. This can be necessary for patients with valvular heart disease, including stenosis (narrowing) or regurgitation (leaking), who do not respond to medical management and are at risk of heart failure or other complications.

There are two main types of artificial heart valves used in prosthesis implantation: mechanical valves and biological valves. Mechanical valves are made of synthetic materials, such as carbon and metal, and can last a long time but require lifelong anticoagulation therapy to prevent blood clots from forming. Biological valves, on the other hand, are made from animal or human tissue and typically do not require anticoagulation therapy but may have a limited lifespan and may need to be replaced in the future.

The decision to undergo heart valve prosthesis implantation is based on several factors, including the patient's age, overall health, type and severity of valvular disease, and personal preferences. The procedure can be performed through traditional open-heart surgery or minimally invasive techniques, such as robotic-assisted surgery or transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Recovery time varies depending on the approach used and individual patient factors.

The mitral valve, also known as the bicuspid valve, is a two-leaflet valve located between the left atrium and left ventricle in the heart. Its function is to ensure unidirectional flow of blood from the left atrium into the left ventricle during the cardiac cycle. The mitral valve consists of two leaflets (anterior and posterior), the chordae tendineae, papillary muscles, and the left atrial and ventricular myocardium. Dysfunction of the mitral valve can lead to various heart conditions such as mitral regurgitation or mitral stenosis.

A heart valve prosthesis is a medical device that is implanted in the heart to replace a damaged or malfunctioning heart valve. The prosthetic valve can be made of biological tissue (such as from a pig or cow) or artificial materials (such as carbon or polyester). Its function is to allow for the proper directional flow of blood through the heart, opening and closing with each heartbeat to prevent backflow of blood.

There are several types of heart valve prostheses, including:

1. Mechanical valves: These are made entirely of artificial materials and have a longer lifespan than biological valves. However, they require the patient to take blood-thinning medication for the rest of their life to prevent blood clots from forming on the valve.
2. Bioprosthetic valves: These are made of biological tissue and typically last 10-15 years before needing replacement. They do not require the patient to take blood-thinning medication, but there is a higher risk of reoperation due to degeneration of the tissue over time.
3. Homografts or allografts: These are human heart valves that have been donated and preserved for transplantation. They have similar longevity to bioprosthetic valves and do not require blood-thinning medication.
4. Autografts: In this case, the patient's own pulmonary valve is removed and used to replace the damaged aortic valve. This procedure is called the Ross procedure and has excellent long-term results, but it requires advanced surgical skills and is not widely available.

The choice of heart valve prosthesis depends on various factors, including the patient's age, overall health, lifestyle, and personal preferences.

Cardiac surgical procedures are operations that are performed on the heart or great vessels (the aorta and vena cava) by cardiothoracic surgeons. These surgeries are often complex and require a high level of skill and expertise. Some common reasons for cardiac surgical procedures include:

1. Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG): This is a surgery to improve blood flow to the heart in patients with coronary artery disease. During the procedure, a healthy blood vessel from another part of the body is used to create a detour around the blocked or narrowed portion of the coronary artery.
2. Valve repair or replacement: The heart has four valves that control blood flow through and out of the heart. If one or more of these valves become damaged or diseased, they may need to be repaired or replaced. This can be done using artificial valves or valves from animal or human donors.
3. Aneurysm repair: An aneurysm is a weakened area in the wall of an artery that can bulge out and potentially rupture. If an aneurysm occurs in the aorta, it may require surgical repair to prevent rupture.
4. Heart transplantation: In some cases, heart failure may be so severe that a heart transplant is necessary. This involves removing the diseased heart and replacing it with a healthy donor heart.
5. Arrhythmia surgery: Certain types of abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias) may require surgical treatment. One such procedure is called the Maze procedure, which involves creating a pattern of scar tissue in the heart to disrupt the abnormal electrical signals that cause the arrhythmia.
6. Congenital heart defect repair: Some people are born with structural problems in their hearts that require surgical correction. These may include holes between the chambers of the heart or abnormal blood vessels.

Cardiac surgical procedures carry risks, including bleeding, infection, stroke, and death. However, for many patients, these surgeries can significantly improve their quality of life and longevity.

A bioprosthesis is a type of medical implant that is made from biological materials, such as heart valves or tendons taken from animals (xenografts) or humans (allografts). These materials are processed and sterilized to be used in surgical procedures to replace damaged or diseased tissues in the body.

Bioprosthetic implants are often used in cardiac surgery, such as heart valve replacement, because they are less likely to cause an immune response than synthetic materials. However, they may have a limited lifespan due to calcification and degeneration of the biological tissue over time. Therefore, bioprosthetic implants may need to be replaced after several years.

Bioprostheses can also be used in other types of surgical procedures, such as ligament or tendon repair, where natural tissue is needed to restore function and mobility. These prostheses are designed to mimic the properties of native tissues and provide a more physiological solution than synthetic materials.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Adrenal insufficiency is a condition in which the adrenal glands do not produce adequate amounts of certain hormones, primarily cortisol and aldosterone. Cortisol helps regulate metabolism, respond to stress, and suppress inflammation, while aldosterone helps regulate sodium and potassium levels in the body to maintain blood pressure.

Primary adrenal insufficiency, also known as Addison's disease, occurs when there is damage to the adrenal glands themselves, often due to autoimmune disorders, infections, or certain medications. Secondary adrenal insufficiency occurs when the pituitary gland fails to produce enough adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which stimulates the adrenal glands to produce cortisol.

Symptoms of adrenal insufficiency may include fatigue, weakness, weight loss, decreased appetite, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, low blood pressure, dizziness, and darkening of the skin. Treatment typically involves replacing the missing hormones with medications taken orally or by injection.

The pulmonary valve, also known as the pulmonic valve, is a semilunar valve located at the exit of the right ventricle of the heart and the beginning of the pulmonary artery. It has three cusps or leaflets that prevent the backflow of blood from the pulmonary artery into the right ventricle during ventricular diastole, ensuring unidirectional flow of blood towards the lungs for oxygenation.

The tricuspid valve is the heart valve that separates the right atrium and the right ventricle in the human heart. It is called "tricuspid" because it has three leaflets or cusps, which are also referred to as flaps or segments. These cusps are named anterior, posterior, and septal. The tricuspid valve's function is to prevent the backflow of blood from the ventricle into the atrium during systole, ensuring unidirectional flow of blood through the heart.

Renal insufficiency, also known as kidney failure, is a medical condition in which the kidneys are unable to properly filter waste products and excess fluids from the blood. This results in a buildup of these substances in the body, which can cause a variety of symptoms such as weakness, shortness of breath, and fluid retention. Renal insufficiency can be acute, meaning it comes on suddenly, or chronic, meaning it develops over time. It is typically diagnosed through blood tests, urine tests, and imaging studies. Treatment may include medications to control symptoms, dietary changes, and in severe cases, dialysis or a kidney transplant.

Venous insufficiency is a medical condition that occurs when the veins, particularly in the legs, have difficulty returning blood back to the heart due to impaired valve function or obstruction in the vein. This results in blood pooling in the veins, leading to symptoms such as varicose veins, swelling, skin changes, and ulcers. Prolonged venous insufficiency can cause chronic pain and affect the quality of life if left untreated.

Cardiac catheterization is a medical procedure used to diagnose and treat cardiovascular conditions. In this procedure, a thin, flexible tube called a catheter is inserted into a blood vessel in the arm or leg and threaded up to the heart. The catheter can be used to perform various diagnostic tests, such as measuring the pressure inside the heart chambers and assessing the function of the heart valves.

Cardiac catheterization can also be used to treat certain cardiovascular conditions, such as narrowed or blocked arteries. In these cases, a balloon or stent may be inserted through the catheter to open up the blood vessel and improve blood flow. This procedure is known as angioplasty or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).

Cardiac catheterization is typically performed in a hospital cardiac catheterization laboratory by a team of healthcare professionals, including cardiologists, radiologists, and nurses. The procedure may be done under local anesthesia with sedation or general anesthesia, depending on the individual patient's needs and preferences.

Overall, cardiac catheterization is a valuable tool in the diagnosis and treatment of various heart conditions, and it can help improve symptoms, reduce complications, and prolong life for many patients.

Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) is a condition characterized by the reduced ability to digest and absorb nutrients due to a lack of digestive enzymes produced by the exocrine glands in the pancreas. These enzymes, including lipases, amylases, and proteases, are necessary for breaking down fats, carbohydrates, and proteins in food during the digestion process.

When EPI occurs, undigested food passes through the gastrointestinal tract, leading to malabsorption of nutrients, which can result in various symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, weight loss, and steatorrhea (fatty stools). EPI is often associated with chronic pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis, pancreatic cancer, or other conditions that damage the exocrine glands in the pancreas.

EPI can be diagnosed through various tests, including fecal elastase testing, fecal fat quantification, and imaging studies to assess the structure and function of the pancreas. Treatment typically involves replacing the missing enzymes with oral supplements taken with meals and snacks to improve digestion and absorption of nutrients. In addition, dietary modifications and management of underlying conditions are essential for optimal outcomes.

Calcinosis is a medical condition characterized by the abnormal deposit of calcium salts in various tissues of the body, commonly under the skin or in the muscles and tendons. These calcium deposits can form hard lumps or nodules that can cause pain, inflammation, and restricted mobility. Calcinosis can occur as a complication of other medical conditions, such as autoimmune disorders, kidney disease, and hypercalcemia (high levels of calcium in the blood). In some cases, the cause of calcinosis may be unknown. Treatment for calcinosis depends on the underlying cause and may include medications to manage calcium levels, physical therapy, and surgical removal of large deposits.

Aortic valve prolapse is a cardiac condition in which the aortic valve leaflets bulge or billow into the left ventricle during systole, the phase of the heart cycle when the ventricles contract to pump blood out of the heart. The aortic valve typically has three leaflets that open and close to regulate the flow of blood between the left ventricle and the aorta. In aortic valve prolapse, one or more of these leaflets become floppy, allowing blood to leak back into the left ventricle, a condition known as aortic regurgitation.

Aortic valve prolapse can be congenital or acquired. Some people are born with abnormalities in the aortic valve that make it more prone to prolapse, while others may develop the condition due to degenerative changes in the valve tissue over time. Certain factors, such as Marfan syndrome, bicuspid aortic valve, and infective endocarditis, can increase the risk of aortic valve prolapse.

The symptoms of aortic valve prolapse can vary depending on the severity of the condition. Mild cases may not cause any noticeable symptoms, while more severe cases can lead to shortness of breath, fatigue, chest pain, and irregular heart rhythms. Treatment for aortic valve prolapse may include monitoring, medication, or surgical repair or replacement of the aortic valve.

Bacterial endocarditis is a medical condition characterized by the inflammation and infection of the inner layer of the heart, known as the endocardium. This infection typically occurs when bacteria enter the bloodstream and attach themselves to damaged or abnormal heart valves or other parts of the endocardium. The bacteria can then multiply and cause the formation of vegetations, which are clusters of infected tissue that can further damage the heart valves and lead to serious complications such as heart failure, stroke, or even death if left untreated.

Bacterial endocarditis is a relatively uncommon but potentially life-threatening condition that requires prompt medical attention. Risk factors for developing bacterial endocarditis include pre-existing heart conditions such as congenital heart defects, artificial heart valves, previous history of endocarditis, or other conditions that damage the heart valves. Intravenous drug use is also a significant risk factor for this condition.

Symptoms of bacterial endocarditis may include fever, chills, fatigue, muscle and joint pain, shortness of breath, chest pain, and a new or changing heart murmur. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, blood cultures, and imaging tests such as echocardiography. Treatment usually involves several weeks of intravenous antibiotics to eradicate the infection, and in some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to repair or replace damaged heart valves.

Prosthesis design is a specialized field in medical device technology that involves creating and developing artificial substitutes to replace a missing body part, such as a limb, tooth, eye, or internal organ. The design process typically includes several stages: assessment of the patient's needs, selection of appropriate materials, creation of a prototype, testing and refinement, and final fabrication and fitting of the prosthesis.

The goal of prosthesis design is to create a device that functions as closely as possible to the natural body part it replaces, while also being comfortable, durable, and aesthetically pleasing for the patient. The design process may involve collaboration between medical professionals, engineers, and designers, and may take into account factors such as the patient's age, lifestyle, occupation, and overall health.

Prosthesis design can be highly complex, particularly for advanced devices such as robotic limbs or implantable organs. These devices often require sophisticated sensors, actuators, and control systems to mimic the natural functions of the body part they replace. As a result, prosthesis design is an active area of research and development in the medical field, with ongoing efforts to improve the functionality, comfort, and affordability of these devices for patients.

Mitral valve prolapse (MVP) is a heart condition where the mitral valve, which separates the left atrium and left ventricle in the heart, doesn't function properly. In MVP, one or both of the mitral valve flaps (known as leaflets) bulge or billow into the left atrium during the contraction of the left ventricle. This prolapse can cause a leakage of blood back into the atrium, known as mitral regurgitation. In many cases, MVP is asymptomatic and doesn't require treatment, but in some instances, it may lead to complications such as infective endocarditis or arrhythmias. The exact causes of MVP are not fully understood, but it can be associated with certain genetic factors, connective tissue disorders, and mitral valve abnormalities present at birth.

Placental insufficiency is a condition in which the placenta does not provide adequate nutrients and oxygen to the developing fetus. This can occur due to various reasons, such as poor placental development, damage to the placenta, or problems with the blood flow to the placenta. As a result, the fetus may receive less oxygen and nutrients than it needs for proper growth and development, which can lead to a range of complications, including low birth weight, preterm birth, and developmental delays.

The medical definition of placental insufficiency is: "a condition in which the placenta fails to provide adequate support to the developing fetus, resulting in impaired fetal growth and development." This condition can be diagnosed through various tests, such as ultrasound, fetal monitoring, and blood tests, and may require close monitoring and management throughout pregnancy to ensure the best possible outcomes for both the mother and the baby.

Mitral valve stenosis is a cardiac condition characterized by the narrowing or stiffening of the mitral valve, one of the four heart valves that regulate blood flow through the heart. This narrowing prevents the mitral valve from fully opening during diastole (relaxation phase of the heart cycle), leading to restricted flow of oxygenated blood from the left atrium into the left ventricle.

The narrowing or stiffening of the mitral valve can be caused by various factors, such as rheumatic heart disease, congenital heart defects, aging, or calcium deposits on the valve leaflets. As a result, the left atrium has to work harder to pump blood into the left ventricle, causing increased pressure in the left atrium and pulmonary veins. This can lead to symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, coughing, and heart palpitations.

Mitral valve stenosis is typically diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, and imaging techniques like echocardiography or cardiac catheterization. Treatment options may include medications to manage symptoms and prevent complications, as well as surgical interventions such as mitral valve repair or replacement to alleviate the stenosis and improve heart function.

Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is a type of echocardiogram, which is a medical test that uses sound waves to create detailed images of the heart. In TEE, a special probe containing a transducer is passed down the esophagus (the tube that connects the mouth to the stomach) to obtain views of the heart from behind. This allows for more detailed images of the heart structures and function compared to a standard echocardiogram, which uses a probe placed on the chest. TEE is often used in patients with poor image quality from a standard echocardiogram or when more detailed images are needed to diagnose or monitor certain heart conditions. It is typically performed by a trained cardiologist or sonographer under the direction of a cardiologist.

Cardiac valve annuloplasty is a surgical procedure that involves repairing and reinforcing the ring-like structure (annulus) surrounding the heart valves, primarily the mitral or tricuspid valves. This procedure is often performed to correct valve leaks or regurgitation caused by various conditions such as valve disease or dilated cardiomyopathy.

During the annuloplasty procedure, the surgeon typically uses an artificial ring-like device (annuloplasty ring) made of fabric, metal, or a combination of both to reshape and stabilize the damaged annulus. The ring is sewn in place, reducing the size of the valve opening and helping the valve leaflets to coapt properly, thereby preventing valve leaks and improving heart function.

Annuloplasty can be performed as a standalone procedure or in combination with other cardiac surgeries such as valve replacement or repair. The specific technique and approach may vary depending on the individual patient's needs and the surgeon's preference.

Echocardiography is a medical procedure that uses sound waves to produce detailed images of the heart's structure, function, and motion. It is a non-invasive test that can help diagnose various heart conditions, such as valve problems, heart muscle damage, blood clots, and congenital heart defects.

During an echocardiogram, a transducer (a device that sends and receives sound waves) is placed on the chest or passed through the esophagus to obtain images of the heart. The sound waves produced by the transducer bounce off the heart structures and return to the transducer, which then converts them into electrical signals that are processed to create images of the heart.

There are several types of echocardiograms, including:

* Transthoracic echocardiography (TTE): This is the most common type of echocardiogram and involves placing the transducer on the chest.
* Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE): This type of echocardiogram involves passing a specialized transducer through the esophagus to obtain images of the heart from a closer proximity.
* Stress echocardiography: This type of echocardiogram is performed during exercise or medication-induced stress to assess how the heart functions under stress.
* Doppler echocardiography: This type of echocardiogram uses sound waves to measure blood flow and velocity in the heart and blood vessels.

Echocardiography is a valuable tool for diagnosing and managing various heart conditions, as it provides detailed information about the structure and function of the heart. It is generally safe, non-invasive, and painless, making it a popular choice for doctors and patients alike.

Congenital quadricuspid aortic valve associated with aortic insufficiency and mitral regurgitation. Journal of Cardiothoracic ... and aortic valve replacement, usually with a synthetic valve. Quadricuspid aortic valves are very rare cardiac valvular ... A short-axis ultrasound of the aortic valve allows for the best view of the aortic valve, and gives a clear indication of the ... Tutarel, O. (2004). The quadricuspid aortic valve: a comprehensive review. The Journal of Heart Valve Disease, 13(4), 534-537. ...
Cardiac arrhythmia Aortic valve insufficiency Pulmonary artery hypertension: PAH has the following symptoms; dyspnea and ... Severe aortic stenosis Unstable ischemia Unstable arrythmia Irregular or resting pulse greater than 100 bpm Resting systolic ... including aortic distensibility, blood pressure, LV diastolic compliance and skeletal muscle function, aerobic exercise has the ... 110 mm Hg Severe pulmonary hypertension Chronic fatigue syndrome Suspected or known dissecting aortic aneurysm Recent systemic ...
The abnormal "collapsing" pulse of aortic valve insufficiency is named Corrigan's pulse after him. Corrigan was born in Thomas ... Armand Trousseau, the French clinician, proposed that aortic heart disease should be called Corrigan's disease. The Corrigan ...
The free margins of valve cusps no longer approximate leading to aortic valve insufficiency. As blood regurgitates into the ... Due to syphilitic aortitis (a complication of tertiary syphilis) the aortic valve ring becomes dilated. ... usually in earlier times in the context of tertiary syphilis but currently more often due to chronic aortic regurgitation, ...
In most instances, aortic valve repair will be performed for aortic regurgitation (insufficiency). Aortic valve repair may also ... of the aortic valve. Thus, congenital aortic stenosis may be treated by aortic valve repair. In acquired aortic stenosis valve ... Aortic valve repair or aortic valve reconstruction is the reconstruction of both form and function of a dysfunctional aortic ... aortic valve. The colleagues of Dwight Harken reported in 1958 on their experience with aortic valve repair for aortic ...
1991). "[Mitral valve aneurysm associated with mitral insufficiency in absence of aortic insufficiency]". Arq. Bras. Cardiol. ...
Cardiovascular involvement may include inflammation of the aorta, aortic valve insufficiency or disturbances of the heart's ... and a small number of people have aortic insufficiency. The stiffness of the thoracic ribs results in ventilation being mainly ... Other complications are aortic regurgitation, Achilles tendinitis, AV node block, and amyloidosis. Owing to lung fibrosis, ... pulmonary disease and heart valve disease may lead suspicion away from other juvenile spondyloarthropathies. The Schober's test ...
Aortic valve diseases like aortic stenosis and insufficiency also increase the afterload, whereas mitral valve regurgitation ... Aortic valve stenosis is abnormal narrowing of the aortic valve. This results in much greater LV pressures than the aortic ... Aortic insufficiency (AI) is a condition in which the aortic valve fails to close completely at the end of systolic ejection, ... The constant backflow of blood through the leaky aortic valve implies that there is no true phase of isovolumic relaxation. The ...
This method assumes that the aortic valve does not have aortic insufficiency.[citation needed] Another way to quantify the ... Tricuspid regurgitation Aortic regurgitation Pulmonary insufficiency "Mitral valve regurgitation - Symptoms and causes". Mayo ... mitral valve replacement and mitral valve repair. Mitral valve repair is preferred to mitral valve replacement where a repair ... The mitral valve apparatus comprises two valve leaflets, the mitral annulus, which forms a ring around the valve leaflets, and ...
The aortic valve may need to be replaced because: The valve is leaky (aortic insufficiency, also known as aortic regurgitation ... Aortic valve replacement is a procedure whereby the failing aortic valve of a patient's heart is replaced with an artificial ... The heart is now still and the surgeon removes the patient's diseased aortic valve. The cusps of the aortic valve are excised, ... The risk of dying as a result of aortic valve replacement is estimated at 1-3%. Combining aortic valve replacement with ...
... congenital 746.2 Ebstein's anomaly 746.3 Congenital stenosis of aortic valve 746.4 Congenital insufficiency of aortic valve ... Brugada syndrome 747 Other congenital anomalies of circulatory system 747.1 Coarctation of aorta 747.11 Interruption of aortic ... 746.5 Congenital mitral stenosis 746.6 Congenital mitral insufficiency 746.7 Hypoplastic left heart syndrome 746.8 Other ...
... aortic coarctation, tricuspid valve insufficiency, and mitral valve stenosis. Contrary, those with Tbx2 gene deletion have ... Cardiac development is heavily regulated and requires the development of the four cardiac chambers, septum, and various valve ...
The following conditions will always exclude patients for treatment: Severe aortic valve insufficiency Aortic dissection Severe ... "Intra-Aortic Balloon Pump Overview". 5 January 2019. Usage of Intra-Aortic Balloon Pump in High Risk Coronary Artery Bypass ... The intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) is a mechanical device that increases myocardial oxygen perfusion and indirectly increases ... Placing the balloon too distal from the aortic arch may induce occlusion of the renal artery and subsequent kidney failure. ...
... aortic valve insufficiency MeSH C14.280.484.150 - aortic valve stenosis MeSH C14.280.484.150.060 - aortic stenosis, ... heart valve prolapse MeSH C14.280.484.400.100 - aortic valve prolapse MeSH C14.280.484.400.500 - mitral valve prolapse MeSH ... mitral valve insufficiency MeSH C14.280.484.517 - mitral valve stenosis MeSH C14.280.484.640 - pulmonary atresia MeSH C14.280. ... pulmonary valve insufficiency MeSH C14.280.484.716 - pulmonary valve stenosis MeSH C14.280.484.716.525 - leopard syndrome MeSH ...
... of the heart valves); for example, aortic valve insufficiency causes regurgitation through that valve, called aortic ... The various types of heart valve regurgitation via insufficiency are as follows: Aortic regurgitation: the backflow of blood ... is the percentage of blood that regurgitates back through the aortic valve to the left ventricle due to aortic insufficiency, ... owing to insufficiency of the aortic semilunar valve; it may be chronic or acute. Mitral regurgitation: the backflow of blood ...
Individuals who have undergone aortic valve replacement for aortic insufficiency are at particularly high risk because aortic ... A bicuspid aortic valve (a type of congenital heart disease involving the aortic valve) is found in 7-14% of individuals who ... A secondary indication is acute aortic valve insufficiency (regurgitation): ascending aortic dissections often involve the ... Aortic insufficiency (AI) occurs in half to two-thirds of ascending AD, and the diastolic heart murmur of aortic insufficiency ...
... heart disease Aortic insufficiency Mitral stenosis Tricuspid valve stenosis Pulmonary valve stenosis Mitral insufficiency/ ... Angina Acute coronary syndrome Anomic aphasia Aortic dissection Aortic regurgitation Aortic stenosis Apoplexy Apraxia ... Congenital heart defects Aortic coarctation (Aortic coarctation) Acyanotic heart defect Atrial septal defect Cor triatriatum ... regurgitation Tricuspid insufficiency/regurgitation Pulmonary insufficiency/regurgitation See also Category:Vascular surgery ...
This insufficiency can affect any of the valves as in aortic insufficiency, mitral insufficiency, pulmonary insufficiency and ... as in mitral valve stenosis, tricuspid valve stenosis, pulmonary valve stenosis and aortic valve stenosis. Stenosis of the ... The other two valves are at the entrance to the arteries leaving the heart these are the semilunar valves - the aortic valve at ... For example, valvular disease of the aortic valve, such as aortic stenosis or aortic regurgitation, may cause breathlessness, ...
Aortic valve repair Cardiac surgery Mitral valve insufficiency MitraClip Lewis, Sharon (2015). Medical-Surgical Nursing: ... of the mitral valve. The mitral valve is the "inflow valve" for the left side of the heart. Blood flows from the lungs, where ... Not all damaged valves are suitable for repair; in some, the state of valve disease is too advanced and replacement is ... Infection of the valve can occur, which is dangerous and difficult to treat. Patients with mechanical heart valves are required ...
Abrupt loss of function of the aortic valve results in acute aortic insufficiency and loss in the normal diastolic blood ... Once diagnosed, the two options are to repair or replace the valve. Aortic valve repair or aortic valve reconstruction ... the momentum of the vortex at the outlet of the valve forces the aortic valve to close. The closure of the aortic valve ... Replacement of the aortic valve is done by replacing the native valve with a prosthetic valve. Traditionally, this has been a ...
... valvular insufficiency of both aortic valve and pulmonary valve. During only an intervention Di Benedetto was able to remove ... implant the aortic valve using the patient's own tissues and replace the pulmonary valve with a trans ventricular valve of last ... Eight-year experience in aortic valve sparing aortic root reimplantation for aneurysms. European Heart Journal 30 (Suppl.); 977 ... In 2011 was one of the few in Europe to have performed two successful interventions of replacement of aortic valves with ...
395 Diseases of aortic valve 395.0 Rheumatic aortic stenosis 395.1 Rheumatic aortic insufficiency 395.2 Rheumatic aortic ... ulceration 441 Aortic aneurysm and dissection 441.0 Aortic Dissection 441.3 Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm, ruptured 441.4 Abdominal ... stenosis with insufficiency 395.9 Other and unspecified 396 Diseases of mitral and aortic valves 397 Diseases of other ... Diseases of mitral valve 394.0 Mitral stenosis 394.1 Rheumatic mitral insufficiency 394.2 Mitral stenosis with insufficiency ...
... in patients with aortic stenosis or aortic insufficiency, ALC-1 expression in left ventricles was elevated, and following valve ... and myosin light chain-1 expression of the hypertrophied left ventricle in aortic valve disease before and after valve ...
He had end-stage coronary artery disease and severe aortic stenosis and insufficiency, caused by calcific alteration of one of ... his heart valves. At the time of his death, Ford was the longest-lived U.S. president, having lived 93 years and 165 days (45 ...
... aortic insufficiency), a serious complication of alternate treatments such as aortic valve replacement (AVR) and percutaneous ... Left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO) is caused by narrowing of the aortic valve (aortic stenosis) and other valve ... the native aortic valve is left completely undisturbed.[citation needed] With aortic valve replacement (AVR) as the accepted ... Aortic Valve Bypass Surgery: Midterm Clinical Outcomes in a High-Risk Aortic Stenosis Population. Circulation 2008; 110:1460- ...
... (AR), also known as aortic insufficiency (AI), is the leaking of the aortic valve of the heart that causes ... "Aortic valve replacement - Why it's done - NHS Choices". www.nhs.uk. Retrieved 4 June 2016. "Aortic insufficiency: MedlinePlus ... Aortic valve regurgitation vs aortic valve stenosis Phonocardiograms from normal and abnormal heart sounds The physical ... Carrel, Thierry (2009-01-01). "Aortic valve and/or aortic root replacement using an aortic homograft". Multimedia Manual of ...
... may refer to: Aortic insufficiency (AI), also known as aortic regurgitation (AR), the leaking of the aortic valve ... refers to the failure of the heart's tricuspid valve to close properly during systole Vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI), or ... insufficient blood flow to the placenta during pregnancy Pulmonary valve insufficiency (or incompetence, or regurgitation) is a ... condition where the pulmonary valve is not strong enough to prevent backflow into the right ventricle Tricuspid insufficiency, ...
There is also late-onset aortic or mitral insufficiency caused by thickening or deformation of fibrosed valves, with the timing ... "Aortic valve replacement for aortic regurgitation due to Kawasaki disease. Report of two cases". The Journal of Heart Valve ... Valvular insufficiencies, particularly of mitral or tricuspid valves, are often observed in the acute phase of Kawasaki disease ... delayed aortic and mitral insufficiency secondary to active valvulitis". Journal of the American College of Cardiology. 7 (4): ...
Processes that lead to aortic insufficiency usually involve dilation of the valve annulus, thus displacing the valve leaflets, ... and its presence can lead to tricuspid valve regurgitation. A bicuspid aortic valve is an aortic valve with only 2 cusps as ... Aortic stenosis due to calcification of tricuspid aortic valve with age comprises >50% of the disease. Aortic stenosis due to ... Aortic insufficiency, or regurgitation, is characterized by an inability of the valve leaflets to appropriately close at the ...
Aortic insufficiency (Aortic Regurgitation) increases afterload, because a percentage of the blood that ejects forward ... The remaining blood loaded into the LV is then optimally ejected out through the aortic valve. With an extra pathway for blood ... For instance, if the blood pressure is 120/80, and the aortic valve stenosis creates a trans-valvular gradient of 30 mmHg, the ... This is because the aortic valve won't open until the pressure generated in the left ventricle is higher than the elevated ...
Aortic valve insufficiency results from leakage and backflow of blood that is ejected from the left ventricle (LV) into the ... Other than aortic valve insufficiency associated with congenital heart disease, the incidence of aortic valve insufficiency is ... encoded search term (Pediatric Aortic Valve Insufficiency) and Pediatric Aortic Valve Insufficiency What to Read Next on ... Acute severe aortic insufficiency. In acute severe aortic valve insufficiency due to endocarditis or sudden trauma, the LV ...
Aortic valve insufficiency results from leakage and backflow of blood that is ejected from the left ventricle (LV) into the ... Other than aortic valve insufficiency associated with congenital heart disease, the incidence of aortic valve insufficiency is ... encoded search term (Pediatric Aortic Valve Insufficiency) and Pediatric Aortic Valve Insufficiency What to Read Next on ... Acute severe aortic insufficiency. In acute severe aortic valve insufficiency due to endocarditis or sudden trauma, the LV ...
Pathology of the aortic valve (stenosis, insufficiency). Pathology of the aortic valve (stenosis, insufficiency). ...
Aortic valve insufficiency. *Pleuritis. *Stroke *Gastrointestinal bleeding or pain from blockage of bowel blood vessels ...
Aortic Valve Insufficiency/ Regurgitation. 4. 4. Mitral Regurgitation. 4. 4. Pneumothorax. 4. 4. ...
Aortic Valve / surgery * Aortic Valve Insufficiency / epidemiology * Aortic Valve Stenosis / epidemiology * Aortic Valve ... 5-year outcomes of transcatheter aortic valve replacement or surgical aortic valve replacement for high surgical risk patients ... and 3 years is much the same with transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) or surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) for ... We recorded no structural valve deterioration requiring surgical valve replacement in either group. Moderate or severe aortic ...
What to know about aortic valve insufficiency. Aortic valve insufficiency develops when the aortic valve does not close tightly ... What are the treatments for a leaky heart valve?. The type of heart valve causing the leak and the severity of the condition ... What to know about the recovery time for a heart valve replacement through the groin. Recovery time for heart valve replacement ... 2022). Aortic valve disease.. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK542205/. ...
Congenital quadricuspid aortic valve associated with aortic insufficiency and mitral regurgitation. Journal of Cardiothoracic ... and aortic valve replacement, usually with a synthetic valve. Quadricuspid aortic valves are very rare cardiac valvular ... A short-axis ultrasound of the aortic valve allows for the best view of the aortic valve, and gives a clear indication of the ... Tutarel, O. (2004). The quadricuspid aortic valve: a comprehensive review. The Journal of Heart Valve Disease, 13(4), 534-537. ...
aortic valve insufficiency. *aortic valve stenosis. Data availability statement. Data may be obtained from a third party and ... Funding The PERIcardial SurGical AOrtic Valve ReplacemeNt (PERIGON) Pivotal Trial was funded by Medtronic Inc. ... Perioperative care differences of surgical aortic valve replacement between North America and Europe ... Perioperative care differences of surgical aortic valve replacement between North America and Europe ...
He had aortic valve insufficiency and had been catheterized 3 months earlier. His condition was septic, with clinical symptoms ... The bicuspid native aortic valve was resected the same day, and several bacterial patches were observed. His perioperative ... 2 from the aortic wall and 1 from the psoas abscess) of the 4 samples. The patients condition was treated with piperacillin- ... linked to an infected aortic aneurysm (diameter 40 mm). The aneurysm was resected and replaced by a Y-prosthesis, and the psoas ...
... are located in the left ventricle outflow tract beneath the aortic valve. They are the most common VSD subtype in the United ... Aortic valve insufficiency if there is evidence of leaflet prolapse. * Subaortic stenosis ... Perimembranous ventricular septal defects (VSDs) are located in the left ventricle outflow tract beneath the aortic valve. They ... small perimembranous VSDs may lead to the development of aortic insufficiency. ...
Severe aortic valve insufficiency *Severe aortic or mitral valve stenosis. Study Requirements. ...
Explore the pathogenic potential of group G streptococci in spondylodiscitis and native valve endocarditis. ... echocardiography revealed a nodule of increased echogenicity in the mitral valve and aortic valvular insufficiency. Six days ... The patient had a past history of coronary heart disease and aortic regurgitation and type 2 diabetes. The patient denyed any ... Infective endocarditis (IE) occurs in older group who has prosthetic valves or structural heart diseases. Few of them have ...
... but surgical valves had less aortic insufficiency. ... Aortic valve performance looked a bit better in the TAVI arm ( ... meeting provided a lot of new data on the transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) vs surgical aortic valve replacement ( ... So, it makes me wonder about an analysis of events by surgical valve in the SAVR arm. I realize that both groups have valves ... Uncertain: These are bioprosthetic valves; 5 years is good, but you really start seeing things with bioprosthetic valves at 8 ...
... cut-away view through the aorta of the heart showing aortic valve regurgitation (insufficiency). ... Next, three views of the aortic valve compare a normal aortic valve, a bicuspid aortic valve, and a bicuspid aortic valve with ... Next, two views of the aortic valve compare a normal aortic valve and a bicuspid aortic valve. ... Aortic Valve. This stock medical illustration clearly shows the cusps that make up the aortic valve. The location of the right ...
Aortic Aneurysm / etiology * Aortic Arch Syndromes / epidemiology* * Aortic Valve Insufficiency / etiology * Female ... aortic regurgitation and aortic or arterial aneurysm) attributed to Takayasus disease at the time when the diagnosis was ...
Mitral regurgitation after previous aortic valve surgery for bicuspid aortic valve insufficiency ... A comparison between surgical risk scores for predicting outcome in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation ... conventional sternotomy mitral valve surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Abdullah, AL OTAIBI, Saurabh GUPTA, Emilie ... Evaluation of risk prediction models, V-POSSUM and GAS, in patients with acute abdominal aortic rupture treated with EVAR or an ...
We have identified in an exact and certain way a pathology of aortic valve that is called aortic insufficiency, the doctor ... The 79-year-old will undergo surgery by the middle of next week to replace a defective aortic valve, Alberto Zangrillo told ... Theres only one way to correct it, which is the substitution of the aortic valve. ...
A modulated speed pulse allows intermittent opening of aortic valve, to mitigate aortic insufficiency and/or stenosis caused by ... To mitigate valvar insufficiency or stenosis, ACT allowed opening aortic valve without decreasing MAP and CO. ... Apical Aortic Blood Pump (AABP) was used for ACT validation. Flow estimator error is 0.23 L/min (p = 0.9416; ? = 0.05). MAP ...
Diastolic murmurs associated with aortic/pulmonary insufficiency are heard over the related valve regions. Continuous (" ... valves; Aortic valve closure normally precedes the pulmonic valve because systemic pressure exceeds pulmonary pressure and this ... When ventricular pressure increases and exceeds aortic and pulmonic pressure, aortic and pulmonic valves open, causing rapid ... forces the aortic valve to close earlier than the pulmonic valve. S2 is normally louder at the left cardiac base, shorter and ...
Aortic insufficiency (leaking of the valve that separates the left ventricle from the aorta) ...
The tone so described was recorded in healthy persons and heart patients with isolated aortic valve insufficiency; in a ...
The tone so described was recorded in healthy persons and heart patients with isolated aortic valve insufficiency; in a ...
Heart (eg, aortic valve insufficiency), lung (restrictive lung disease) and kidney (eg, IgA nephropathy) involvement can also ...
Implications of Bicuspid Aortic Valve Disease and Aortic Stenosis/Insufficiency as Risk Factors for Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm. ... Boodhwani, M., Guo, M. H., Dryden, A., & Glineur, D. (2023). Severe aortic valve insufficiency with a "normal" appearing aortic ... Early and late effects of aortic root enlargement: Results from the Pericardial Surgical Aortic Valve Replacement Pivotal Trial ... Prevalence and Phenotypic Characterization of Patients with Bicuspid Aortic Valve and Large Aortic Annular Diameter. Journal of ...
The infection led to severe aortic valve insufficiency and rapid death before the patient could be subjected to surgery. This ... The infection led to severe aortic valve insufficiency and rapid death before the patient could be subjected to surgery. This ... Aerococcus sanguinicola, Aortic valve, Infective endocarditis. in IDCases. volume. 31. article number. e01732. publisher. ... Here we report a case of A. sanguinicola native valve aortic IE in a 68-year-old man with an underlying urinary tract condition ...
EDS: soft/stretchy skin, loose ligaments, hypermobile joints, poor wound healing, cardiac valve insufficiency, aortic aneurysms ...
  • In fact, more than half of patients who present with pure aortic regurgitation (AR) without any associated cardiac anomalies have aortic valve insufficiency caused by aortic root disease. (medscape.com)
  • Aortic regurgitation. (medscape.com)
  • In long-standing aortic regurgitation, this compensatory mechanism begins to deteriorate. (medscape.com)
  • When LV function cannot continue to compensate for volume overload, the LV dilates, and LV end-diastolic volume increases, even without further increase in aortic regurgitation volume. (medscape.com)
  • A transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) indicates if there is an aortic regurgitation, but a 3-D transesophageal echocardiogram can give a better view of the aortic valve. (wikipedia.org)
  • Congenital quadricuspid aortic valve associated with aortic insufficiency and mitral regurgitation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Quadricuspid aortic valve: a rare etiology of aortic regurgitation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methods Patients with moderate or greater aortic stenosis or regurgitation requiring SAVR were enrolled in a prospective observational cohort evaluating the safety and efficacy of a new stented bioprosthesis at 25 centres in North America (Canada and the USA) and 13 centres in Europe (Germany, the Netherlands, France, the UK, Switzerland and Italy). (bmj.com)
  • The patient had a past history of coronary heart disease and aortic regurgitation and type 2 diabetes. (scirp.org)
  • These patients were classified according to the presence and severity of four major complications (Takayasu's retinopathy, secondary hypertension, aortic regurgitation and aortic or arterial aneurysm) attributed to Takayasu's disease at the time when the diagnosis was established: no complications (group I) or mild single complication (group IIa) and severe single complication (group IIb) or multiple complications (group III). (nih.gov)
  • Review of the intraoperative management and hemodynamic goals for patients with aortic stenosis, mitral stenosis, aortic insufficiency, and mitral valve regurgitation. (asda.org)
  • These articles and videos discuss the advantages and newest innovations in aortic valve repair surgery for patients with aortic stenosis and aortic regurgitation. (biostable-s-e.com)
  • Aortic regurgitation was produced by perforation of the aortic valve in 20 rabbits. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Haemodynamics, myocardial beta-adrenoceptor binding number and catecholamines were measured in each period after production of aortic regurgitation. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure increased and cardiac output decreased progressively over the week following production of aortic regurgitation, but they returned towards normal during the subsequent 3 weeks. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Left ventricular free wall thickness increased 4 weeks after production of aortic regurgitation, and plasma norepinephrine increased 1 day after the procedure. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Maximal binding sites of myocardial beta-adrenoceptors ( 125 I-iodocyanopindolol) were decreased 1 day and 1 week after production of aortic regurgitation. (elsevierpure.com)
  • There is no aortic regurgitation signal, and there are a lot of valve clicks, which I want you to look at closely for a second, because we'll come back to those. (medscape.com)
  • Minimal degrees of regurgitation (i.e., trace or mild mitral regurgitation {MR} or trace aortic regurgitation {AR}) are relatively common in the general population and are not generally considered abnormal. (cdc.gov)
  • The Placement of Aortic Transcatheter Valves (PARTNER) trial showed that mortality at 1 year, 2 years, and 3 years is much the same with transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) or surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) for high-risk patients with aortic stenosis. (nih.gov)
  • In 2012, we performed the first transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) in Alabama, and UAB has performed more TAVR procedures than any other hospital in the state. (uabmedicine.org)
  • Aortic insufficiency caused by paravalvular leakage (PVL) is one of the most feared complications following transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVI) in patients. (awionline.org)
  • Amet suffers from chronic rheumatic heart disease, aortic insufficiency, coronary artery disease and third level mitral valve prolapse, and urgently needs a heart valve transplant. (khpg.org)
  • The role of radionuclide ventriculograms in determining the indications for valve replacement in chronic aortic valve insufficiency]. (bvsalud.org)
  • An belly aortic aneurysm is an enlargement of the decrease a part of the aorta that extends via the belly space (at instances, the upper portion of the aorta within the chest can be enlarged) treatment xanax withdrawal [url=http://www.cimarronbsa.org/order-cheap/Albenza/]albenza 400 mg generic amex[/url]. (ehd.org)
  • Perform routine Doppler measurements and apply the Doppler criteria for grading aortic valve stenosis and insufficiency. (gcus.com)
  • combined vitium (stenosis and insufficiency) in one patient, # combined mitral tricuspid insufficiency in one patient. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recently, the percentage of individuals with aortic valve insufficiency caused by aortic root disease has been steadily increasing compared with the percentage of those with valvular disease. (medscape.com)
  • Quadricuspid aortic valves are very rare cardiac valvular anomalies with a prevalence of 0.013% to 0.043% of cardiac cases and a prevalence of 1 in 6000 patients that undertake aortic valve surgery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Doppler Evaluation of Aortic Valve Heart Disease Training Video is designed to provide an introduction to the Doppler evaluation of commonly seen mitral and aortic valvular heart disease. (gcus.com)
  • Although valvular lesions were observed on both sides of the heart, a left-sided valve was affected in all cases. (cdc.gov)
  • Because symptoms frequently occur relatively late during the course of valvular incompetence, the prevalence of valve lesions was assessed for patients who were exposed to these drugs but who had no obvious history of cardiac disease or cardiac symptoms. (cdc.gov)
  • The 79-year-old will undergo surgery by the middle of next week to replace a defective aortic valve, Alberto Zangrillo told reporters in Rome. (bbc.com)
  • Aortic valve insufficiency results from leakage and backflow of blood that is ejected from the left ventricle (LV) into the ascending aorta back into the left ventricle. (medscape.com)
  • The aortic valve is composed of 3 thin leaflets (ie, cusps) that project from the wall of the proximal ascending aorta. (medscape.com)
  • In the embryonic stage, the truncus arteriosus connects to the dorsal aspect of the aorta via 6 pairs of aortic arches. (medscape.com)
  • Regardless of etiology, aortic valve insufficiency results in volume overload on the LV because the LV is forced to pump the entire diastolic volume received from the left atrium and the regurgitant volume from the aorta through an incompetent aortic valve. (medscape.com)
  • The aortic valve connects the left ventricle to the aorta. (pediatricheartspecialists.com)
  • This increase in pressure causes the aortic valve to open, allowing blood to pass from the left ventricle into the aorta. (pediatricheartspecialists.com)
  • Aortic valve insufficiency refers to leakage of blood backwards from the aorta into left ventricle because of inadequate or incomplete closure of the aortic valve. (pediatricheartspecialists.com)
  • The main focuses of clinical practice include coronary artery bypass grafting, modern procedures for heart valve reconstruction and replacement, treatment of diseases of the thoracic aorta, as well as treatment of heart failure by implanting an artificial heart. (bookinghealth.com)
  • Aortic insufficiency is a heart valve disease in which the aortic valve does not close tightly, allowing a small amount of blood to flow in the wrong direction from the aorta (the largest blood vessel) into the left ventricle (a chamber of the heart). (uabmedicine.org)
  • We had the M-modes to the aortic valve, and you notice that in the M-mode of the aortic valve, the aorta was going up and down a lot. (medscape.com)
  • Then you have the isovolumic contraction period, and then the aortic valve click demonstrating the aortic valve opening, followed by the ejection period, during which you have the continuous-wave Doppler signal through the left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) and the aorta. (medscape.com)
  • Causes of acquired aortic valve insufficiency include endocarditis, trauma, systemic diseases, and connective tissue syndromes. (medscape.com)
  • In all patients with spondylodiscitis, infective endocarditis should be considered, particularly in patients with heart valve disease history, since spondylodiscitis may be the presenting sign of an infective endocarditis. (scirp.org)
  • The present case illustrates the pathogenic potential of group G streptococci in spondylodiscitis and native valve endocarditis. (scirp.org)
  • Infective endocarditis (IE) occurs in older group who has prosthetic valves or structural heart diseases. (scirp.org)
  • Staphylococcus aureus and viridans streptococci are the most common causes of native valve infective endocarditis. (scirp.org)
  • Until this report, there has been no previous report of spondylodiscitis and native valve endocarditis due to G group Streptococcus in the literature. (scirp.org)
  • Today, aortic insufficiency usually is caused by conditions such as high blood pressure, endocarditis (inflammation of the inner layer of the heart), syphilis, lupus, congenital (present at birth) heart valve defects, and other conditions. (uabmedicine.org)
  • Patients in Europe were older, had a lower body mass index, less bicuspid disease and worse degree of aortic stenosis at baseline. (bmj.com)
  • The bicuspid native aortic valve was resected the same day, and several bacterial patches were observed. (cdc.gov)
  • [1] J.C.P. Williams observed in four patients an association between supravalvular aortic stenosis and the common physical and mental characteristics of this patient population and stated that it "may constitute a previously unrecognized syndrome" [1] . (physio-pedia.com)
  • We have identified in an exact and certain way a pathology of aortic valve that is called aortic insufficiency,' the doctor said. (bbc.com)
  • Identify common pathology for aortic valve disease. (gcus.com)
  • Recognize cardiology pathology and correlate the two dimensional and Doppler echocardiography findings associated with various types of aortic valve disease. (gcus.com)
  • Aortic valve insufficiency can be due to, or associated with, congenital heart disease. (medscape.com)
  • A quadricuspid aortic valve (QAV) is a rare congenital heart defect characterized by the presence of four cusps, instead of the usual three found normally in the aortic valve. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additional congenital heart lesions (eg, muscular right ventricular outflow tract obstruction, pulmonary valve stenosis, pulmonary venous obstruction, persistent elevation of PVR, mitral stenosis) can restrict shunting, possibly leading to right-to-left shunting at the VSD, depending on the ultimate resistance balance between the systemic and the total right-sided resistances. (medscape.com)
  • Congenital heart valve defects where the AORTIC VALVE has two instead of normal three cusps. (bvsalud.org)
  • Aortic valve replacement may be needed in some cases. (medlineplus.gov)
  • We recorded no structural valve deterioration requiring surgical valve replacement in either group. (nih.gov)
  • The typical method of treatment is through surgery such as aortic valve reconstruction surgery (AVRS) and aortic valve replacement, usually with a synthetic valve. (wikipedia.org)
  • Objective To describe differences between North America and Europe in the perioperative management of patients undergoing surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR). (bmj.com)
  • There was a way for Jack to get his valve replaced and maintain his physical independence through a fully robotic aortic valve replacement. (uchicagomedicine.org)
  • Depending on the symptoms and severity, treatments may include blood pressure medication, angiotensin-converting enzyme ( ACE ) inhibitors (drugs that helps relax blood vessels), limits on activity, or aortic valve replacement surgery. (uabmedicine.org)
  • The fourth dysplastic cusp is incapable of fully closing the aortic annulus, which causes a backflow of blood through the aortic valve. (wikipedia.org)
  • Small VSDs (defined as VSD dimension less than half the size of the aortic annulus diameter) are usually isolated defects with otherwise normal cardiac anatomy and function. (medscape.com)
  • Large VSDs (defined as defect size equal to or greater than the diameter of the aortic annulus) typically have left heart dilatation and pulmonary artery hypertension with normal left ventricular systolic function. (medscape.com)
  • Cardiol Young " Echocardiographic versus Angiographic measurement of the Aortic Valve Annulus in children undergoing balloon Aortic Valvuloplasty: method affects outcomes . (bcm.edu)
  • Comprehensive assessment of a quadricuspid aortic valve and coronary arteries by multidetector cardiac CT. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cardiac auscultation revealed diastolic murmur in the aortic area and systolic murmur in the left sternal border and apex. (scirp.org)
  • Sex Differences in Thoracic Aortic Disease and Dissection: JACC Review Topic of the Week. (ottawaheart.ca)
  • Perimembranous ventricular septal defects (VSDs) are located in the left ventricle outflow tract beneath the aortic valve. (medscape.com)
  • Few of them have underlying rheumatic valve disease. (scirp.org)
  • In the past, rheumatic fever was the main cause of aortic insufficiency, but the use of antibiotics to treat infections has made rheumatic fever less common. (uabmedicine.org)
  • The Journal of Heart Valve Disease, 13(4), 534-537. (wikipedia.org)
  • It provides ongoing care - sometimes for life - to patients who have or are at risk for structural heart and valve disease. (uabmedicine.org)
  • It aims to improve quality of life and survival for people with heart valve disease through timely diagnosis and appropriate intervention. (bvsalud.org)
  • Supply, which is always abnormally tenuous because of the lower-than-normal coronary driving pressure (difference in aortic diastolic pressure and ventricular diastolic pressure), cannot keep up with the increased demand. (medscape.com)
  • We used a computer-generated randomisation sequence to randomly assign high-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis to either SAVR or TAVR with a balloon-expandable bovine pericardial tissue valve by either a transfemoral or transapical approach. (nih.gov)
  • The infection led to severe aortic valve insufficiency and rapid death before the patient could be subjected to surgery. (lu.se)
  • This demonstrates that IE caused by A. sanguinicola can be severe and cause valve destruction. (lu.se)
  • I am showing you a continuous-wave Doppler in the short axis around the aortic-valve level. (medscape.com)
  • In the next slide, there is a continuous-wave Doppler through the aortic valve. (medscape.com)
  • You can see the opening and closing of the mechanical aortic and the mechanical mitral valve because of the location of the continuous-wave Doppler going through both the aortic prosthesis and the "anterior" prosthesis of the mitral valve. (medscape.com)
  • The continuous-wave Doppler for the mitral valve did not demonstrate any mitral gurgitation signal. (medscape.com)
  • Well, let's take another look at a continuous-wave Doppler that I already showed you through the aortic valve. (medscape.com)
  • Compare this with the concentric hypertrophy observed in aortic stenosis. (medscape.com)
  • These include abnormalities of the aortic valve leaflets and pathologies of the proximal aortic root. (medscape.com)
  • This new capability greatly expands the variety of treatable pathologies that cause aortic insufficiency. (biostable-s-e.com)
  • Aortic valve repair for tri-leaflet aortic insufficiency associated with asymmetric aortic root aneurysms Article from Annals of Cardiothoracic Surgery (Submitted Jan 26, 2019. (biostable-s-e.com)
  • 2021. Strategies to improve survival from surgery for heart valve implantation in sheep. (awionline.org)
  • If an "X" shape is seen, then the patient can be diagnosed with having a quadricuspid aortic valve. (wikipedia.org)
  • For over a decade, he's replaced aortic valves by making a six centimeter incision, lending to a faster recovery for the patient. (uchicagomedicine.org)
  • Mid-term results in patients having tricuspidization of the quadricuspid aortic valve. (wikipedia.org)
  • As an added service, patients who have been told by non-UAB doctors that they need valve surgery can speak to a UAB structural heart and valve surgeon for a second opinion. (uabmedicine.org)
  • Afin de préciser le statut en sélénium à Cotonou les auteurs ont dosé le sélénium plasmatique chez 10 béninoises(âge moyen = 27,1 ans) atteintes de CMPP, chez 18 patients/es atteints/es de CMD (11 femmes,7 hommes, âge moyen = 38,9 ans) et chez 46 béninoises « témoins » en bonne santé ayant accouché récemment (âge moyen = 29,8 ans). (bvsalud.org)
  • There is no correlation between the anatomy and functional status of the aortic cusps. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common complications of QAV are aortic regurgitations. (wikipedia.org)
  • The HAART Aortic Annuloplasty Device reduces annular dilatation and recreates normal leaflet coaptation geometry through internal geometric ring annuloplasty. (biostable-s-e.com)
  • The therapeutic options include aortic surgery, coronary artery bypass grafting, transplantation surgery, surgical treatment of heart rhythm disorders (arrhythmias), minimally invasive surgery, surgical treatment of the heart valves, including reconstructive interventions. (bookinghealth.com)
  • Our experienced surgeons and cardiologists take a comprehensive approach to diagnosing and treating this condition, and their expertise ranges from traditional open-heart surgery to robotic-assisted valve repair and the latest in minimally invasive surgical techniques, which require only small incisions (cuts). (uabmedicine.org)
  • As you will see in the echocardiograms, they have mechanical mitral and aortic prostheses. (medscape.com)
  • The defect may be partially or completely occluded by the septal leaflet of the tricuspid valve. (medscape.com)
  • Radionuclide ventriculography--a noninvasive method of diagnosis and quantification of tricuspid valve insufficiency]. (bvsalud.org)
  • A short-axis ultrasound of the aortic valve allows for the best view of the aortic valve, and gives a clear indication of the adduction pattern of the aortic valves. (wikipedia.org)
  • That's when he found Dr. Husam Balkhy at UChicago Medicine, who specializes in a far less invasive procedure for replacing aortic valves. (uchicagomedicine.org)