Aortic Stenosis, Subvalvular: A pathological constriction occurring in the region below the AORTIC VALVE. It is characterized by restricted outflow from the LEFT VENTRICLE into the AORTA.Aortic Valve Stenosis: A pathological constriction that can occur above (supravalvular stenosis), below (subvalvular stenosis), or at the AORTIC VALVE. It is characterized by restricted outflow from the LEFT VENTRICLE into the AORTA.Aortic Stenosis, Supravalvular: A pathological constriction occurring in the region above the AORTIC VALVE. It is characterized by restricted outflow from the LEFT VENTRICLE into the AORTA.Mitral Valve: The valve between the left atrium and left ventricle of the heart.Aortic Valve: The valve between the left ventricle and the ascending aorta which prevents backflow into the left ventricle.Chordae Tendineae: The tendinous cords that connect each cusp of the two atrioventricular HEART VALVES to appropriate PAPILLARY MUSCLES in the HEART VENTRICLES, preventing the valves from reversing themselves when the ventricles contract.Mitral Valve Stenosis: Narrowing of the passage through the MITRAL VALVE due to FIBROSIS, and CALCINOSIS in the leaflets and chordal areas. This elevates the left atrial pressure which, in turn, raises pulmonary venous and capillary pressure leading to bouts of DYSPNEA and TACHYCARDIA during physical exertion. RHEUMATIC FEVER is its primary cause.Heart Valve Prosthesis: A device that substitutes for a heart valve. It may be composed of biological material (BIOPROSTHESIS) and/or synthetic material.Heart Valve Prosthesis Implantation: Surgical insertion of synthetic material to repair injured or diseased heart valves.Pulmonary Subvalvular Stenosis: Narrowing below the PULMONARY VALVE or well below it in the infundibuluar chamber where the pulmonary artery originates, usually caused by a defective VENTRICULAR SEPTUM or presence of fibrous tissues. It is characterized by restricted blood outflow from the RIGHT VENTRICLE into the PULMONARY ARTERY, exertional fatigue, DYSPNEA, and chest discomfort.Mitral Valve Insufficiency: Backflow of blood from the LEFT VENTRICLE into the LEFT ATRIUM due to imperfect closure of the MITRAL VALVE. This can lead to mitral valve regurgitation.Cardiac Catheterization: Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.Carotid Stenosis: Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)Catheterization: Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Mitral Valve Annuloplasty: A type of heart valve surgery that involves the repair, replacement, or reconstruction of the annulus of the MITRAL VALVE. It includes shortening the circumference of the annulus to improve valve closing capacity and reinforcing the annulus as a step in more complex valve repairs.Coronary Stenosis: Narrowing or constriction of a coronary artery.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Spinal Stenosis: Narrowing of the spinal canal.Pulmonary Valve Stenosis: The pathologic narrowing of the orifice of the PULMONARY VALVE. This lesion restricts blood outflow from the RIGHT VENTRICLE to the PULMONARY ARTERY. When the trileaflet valve is fused into an imperforate membrane, the blockage is complete.Tracheal StenosisTreatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Echocardiography, Transesophageal: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues using a transducer placed in the esophagus.Echocardiography, Doppler: Measurement of intracardiac blood flow using an M-mode and/or two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiogram while simultaneously recording the spectrum of the audible Doppler signal (e.g., velocity, direction, amplitude, intensity, timing) reflected from the moving column of red blood cells.Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic: A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease, characterized by left and/or right ventricular hypertrophy (HYPERTROPHY, LEFT VENTRICULAR; HYPERTROPHY, RIGHT VENTRICULAR), frequent asymmetrical involvement of the HEART SEPTUM, and normal or reduced left ventricular volume. Risk factors include HYPERTENSION; AORTIC STENOSIS; and gene MUTATION; (FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY).Aortic Valve Insufficiency: Pathological condition characterized by the backflow of blood from the ASCENDING AORTA back into the LEFT VENTRICLE, leading to regurgitation. It is caused by diseases of the AORTIC VALVE or its surrounding tissue (aortic root).Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Calcinosis: Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.Constriction, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.Pyloric Stenosis: Narrowing of the pyloric canal with varied etiology. A common form is due to muscle hypertrophy (PYLORIC STENOSIS, HYPERTROPHIC) seen in infants.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Bioprosthesis: Prosthesis, usually heart valve, composed of biological material and whose durability depends upon the stability of the material after pretreatment, rather than regeneration by host cell ingrowth. Durability is achieved 1, mechanically by the interposition of a cloth, usually polytetrafluoroethylene, between the host and the graft, and 2, chemically by stabilization of the tissue by intermolecular linking, usually with glutaraldehyde, after removal of antigenic components, or the use of reconstituted and restructured biopolymers.Williams Syndrome: A disorder caused by hemizygous microdeletion of about 28 genes on chromosome 7q11.23, including the ELASTIN gene. Clinical manifestations include SUPRAVALVULAR AORTIC STENOSIS; MENTAL RETARDATION; elfin facies; impaired visuospatial constructive abilities; and transient HYPERCALCEMIA in infancy. The condition affects both sexes, with onset at birth or in early infancy.Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular: Enlargement of the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is attributed to sustained abnormal pressure or volume loads and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Stroke Volume: The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.Ventricular Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.Discrete Subaortic Stenosis: A type of constriction that is caused by the presence of a fibrous ring (discrete type) below the AORTIC VALVE, anywhere between the aortic valve and the MITRAL VALVE. It is characterized by restricted outflow from the LEFT VENTRICLE into the AORTA.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Tricuspid Valve Stenosis: The pathologic narrowing of the orifice of the TRICUSPID VALVE. This hinders the emptying of RIGHT ATRIUM leading to elevated right atrial pressure and systemic venous congestion. Tricuspid valve stenosis is almost always due to RHEUMATIC FEVER.Angiodysplasia: Acquired degenerative dilation or expansion (ectasia) of normal BLOOD VESSELS, often associated with aging. They are isolated, tortuous, thin-walled vessels and sources of bleeding. They occur most often in mucosal capillaries of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT leading to GASTROINTESTINAL HEMORRHAGE and ANEMIA.Heart Valve Diseases: Pathological conditions involving any of the various HEART VALVES and the associated structures (PAPILLARY MUSCLES and CHORDAE TENDINEAE).Balloon Valvuloplasty: Widening of a stenosed HEART VALVE by the insertion of a balloon CATHETER into the valve and inflation of the balloon.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Phonocardiography: Graphic registration of the heart sounds picked up as vibrations and transformed by a piezoelectric crystal microphone into a varying electrical output according to the stresses imposed by the sound waves. The electrical output is amplified by a stethograph amplifier and recorded by a device incorporated into the electrocardiograph or by a multichannel recording machine.Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Renal Artery Obstruction: Narrowing or occlusion of the RENAL ARTERY or arteries. It is due usually to ATHEROSCLEROSIS; FIBROMUSCULAR DYSPLASIA; THROMBOSIS; EMBOLISM, or external pressure. The reduced renal perfusion can lead to renovascular hypertension (HYPERTENSION, RENOVASCULAR).Ventricular Dysfunction, Left: A condition in which the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the left ventricular wall.Stents: Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.Heart Murmurs: Heart sounds caused by vibrations resulting from the flow of blood through the heart. Heart murmurs can be examined by HEART AUSCULTATION, and analyzed by their intensity (6 grades), duration, timing (systolic, diastolic, or continuous), location, transmission, and quality (musical, vibratory, blowing, etc).Prosthesis Design: The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.Endocardial Fibroelastosis: A condition characterized by the thickening of ENDOCARDIUM due to proliferation of fibrous and elastic tissue, usually in the left ventricle leading to impaired cardiac function (CARDIOMYOPATHY, RESTRICTIVE). It is most commonly seen in young children and rarely in adults. It is often associated with congenital heart anomalies (HEART DEFECTS CONGENITAL;) INFECTION; or gene mutation. Defects in the tafazzin protein, encoded by TAZ gene, result in a form of autosomal dominant familial endocardial fibroelastosis.Angiography: Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Angioplasty, Balloon: Use of a balloon catheter for dilation of an occluded artery. It is used in treatment of arterial occlusive diseases, including renal artery stenosis and arterial occlusions in the leg. For the specific technique of BALLOON DILATION in coronary arteries, ANGIOPLASTY, BALLOON, CORONARY is available.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Carotid Artery, Internal: Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.Coronary Circulation: The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.Systole: Period of contraction of the HEART, especially of the HEART VENTRICLES.Endarterectomy, Carotid: The excision of the thickened, atheromatous tunica intima of a carotid artery.Asymptomatic Diseases: Diseases that do not exhibit symptoms.Arterial Occlusive Diseases: Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.ElastinUltrasonography, Doppler, Duplex: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect combined with real-time imaging. The real-time image is created by rapid movement of the ultrasound beam. A powerful advantage of this technique is the ability to estimate the velocity of flow from the Doppler shift frequency.Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Laryngostenosis: Developmental or acquired stricture or narrowing of the LARYNX. Symptoms of respiratory difficulty depend on the degree of laryngeal narrowing.Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Multidetector Computed Tomography: Types of spiral computed tomography technology in which multiple slices of data are acquired simultaneously improving the resolution over single slice acquisition technology.Prosthesis Fitting: The fitting and adjusting of artificial parts of the body. (From Stedman's, 26th ed)Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Kinetocardiography: The graphic recording of chest wall movement due to cardiac impulses.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Heart Auscultation: Act of listening for sounds within the heart.Heart Defects, Congenital: Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.Echocardiography, Stress: A method of recording heart motion and internal structures by combining ultrasonic imaging with exercise testing (EXERCISE TEST) or pharmacologic stress.Cardiomegaly: Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Ventricular Remodeling: The geometric and structural changes that the HEART VENTRICLES undergo, usually following MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. It comprises expansion of the infarct and dilatation of the healthy ventricle segments. While most prevalent in the left ventricle, it can also occur in the right ventricle.Aortic Coarctation: A birth defect characterized by the narrowing of the AORTA that can be of varying degree and at any point from the transverse arch to the iliac bifurcation. Aortic coarctation causes arterial HYPERTENSION before the point of narrowing and arterial HYPOTENSION beyond the narrowed portion.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Echocardiography, Doppler, Color: Echocardiography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image.Angiocardiography: Radiography of the heart and great vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Aortography: Radiographic visualization of the aorta and its branches by injection of contrast media, using percutaneous puncture or catheterization procedures.Pyloric Stenosis, Hypertrophic: Narrowing of the pyloric canal due to HYPERTROPHY of the surrounding circular muscle. It is usually seen in infants or young children.Cardiac Output: The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).Fetal Therapies: Prenatal interventions to correct fetal anomalies or treat FETAL DISEASES in utero. Fetal therapies include several major areas, such as open surgery; FETOSCOPY; pharmacological therapy; INTRAUTERINE TRANSFUSION; STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION; and GENETIC THERAPY.Ventricular Pressure: The pressure within a CARDIAC VENTRICLE. Ventricular pressure waveforms can be measured in the beating heart by catheterization or estimated using imaging techniques (e.g., DOPPLER ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY). The information is useful in evaluating the function of the MYOCARDIUM; CARDIAC VALVES; and PERICARDIUM, particularly with simultaneous measurement of other (e.g., aortic or atrial) pressures.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Arterial Pressure: The blood pressure in the ARTERIES. It is commonly measured with a SPHYGMOMANOMETER on the upper arm which represents the arterial pressure in the BRACHIAL ARTERY.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Postoperative Period: The period following a surgical operation.Heart Sounds: The sounds heard over the cardiac region produced by the functioning of the heart. There are four distinct sounds: the first occurs at the beginning of SYSTOLE and is heard as a "lubb" sound; the second is produced by the closing of the AORTIC VALVE and PULMONARY VALVE and is heard as a "dupp" sound; the third is produced by vibrations of the ventricular walls when suddenly distended by the rush of blood from the HEART ATRIA; and the fourth is produced by atrial contraction and ventricular filling.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.AzetidinesSyncope: A transient loss of consciousness and postural tone caused by diminished blood flow to the brain (i.e., BRAIN ISCHEMIA). Presyncope refers to the sensation of lightheadedness and loss of strength that precedes a syncopal event or accompanies an incomplete syncope. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp367-9)Coronary Artery Disease: Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Patient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Angiography, Digital Subtraction: A method of delineating blood vessels by subtracting a tissue background image from an image of tissue plus intravascular contrast material that attenuates the X-ray photons. The background image is determined from a digitized image taken a few moments before injection of the contrast material. The resulting angiogram is a high-contrast image of the vessel. This subtraction technique allows extraction of a high-intensity signal from the superimposed background information. The image is thus the result of the differential absorption of X-rays by different tissues.Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Esophageal Stenosis: A stricture of the ESOPHAGUS. Most are acquired but can be congenital.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome: A condition caused by underdevelopment of the whole left half of the heart. It is characterized by hypoplasia of the left cardiac chambers (HEART ATRIUM; HEART VENTRICLE), the AORTA, the AORTIC VALVE, and the MITRAL VALVE. Severe symptoms appear in early infancy when DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS closes.Dobutamine: A catecholamine derivative with specificity for BETA-1 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS. It is commonly used as a cardiotonic agent after CARDIAC SURGERY and during DOBUTAMINE STRESS ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY.Diastole: Post-systolic relaxation of the HEART, especially the HEART VENTRICLES.Doppler Effect: Changes in the observed frequency of waves (as sound, light, or radio waves) due to the relative motion of source and observer. The effect was named for the 19th century Austrian physicist Johann Christian Doppler.Rheumatic Heart Disease: Cardiac manifestation of systemic rheumatological conditions, such as RHEUMATIC FEVER. Rheumatic heart disease can involve any part the heart, most often the HEART VALVES and the ENDOCARDIUM.Therapies, Investigational: Treatments which are undergoing clinical trials or for which there is insufficient evidence to determine their effects on health outcomes; coverage for such treatments is often denied by health insurers.Aortic Diseases: Pathological processes involving any part of the AORTA.Death, Sudden: The abrupt cessation of all vital bodily functions, manifested by the permanent loss of total cerebral, respiratory, and cardiovascular functions.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Intracranial Arteriosclerosis: Vascular diseases characterized by thickening and hardening of the walls of ARTERIES inside the SKULL. There are three subtypes: (1) atherosclerosis with fatty deposits in the ARTERIAL INTIMA; (2) Monckeberg's sclerosis with calcium deposits in the media and (3) arteriolosclerosis involving the small caliber arteries. Clinical signs include HEADACHE; CONFUSION; transient blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX); speech impairment; and HEMIPARESIS.Reoperation: A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Vascular Patency: The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.Angioplasty: Reconstruction or repair of a blood vessel, which includes the widening of a pathological narrowing of an artery or vein by the removal of atheromatous plaque material and/or the endothelial lining as well, or by dilatation (BALLOON ANGIOPLASTY) to compress an ATHEROMA. Except for ENDARTERECTOMY, usually these procedures are performed via catheterization as minimally invasive ENDOVASCULAR PROCEDURES.Graft Occlusion, Vascular: Obstruction of flow in biological or prosthetic vascular grafts.Pulse: The rhythmical expansion and contraction of an ARTERY produced by waves of pressure caused by the ejection of BLOOD from the left ventricle of the HEART as it contracts.Ochronosis: The yellowish discoloration of connective tissue due to deposition of HOMOGENTISIC ACID (a brown-black pigment). This is due to defects in the metabolism of PHENYLALANINE and TYROSINE. Ochronosis occurs in ALKAPTONURIA, but has also been associated with exposure to certain chemicals (e.g., PHENOL, trinitrophenol, BENZENE DERIVATIVES).Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Coronary Artery Bypass: Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.Angina Pectoris: The symptom of paroxysmal pain consequent to MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA usually of distinctive character, location and radiation. It is thought to be provoked by a transient stressful situation during which the oxygen requirements of the MYOCARDIUM exceed that supplied by the CORONARY CIRCULATION.Echocardiography, Three-Dimensional: Echocardiography amplified by the addition of depth to the conventional two-dimensional ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY visualizing only the length and width of the heart. Three-dimensional ultrasound imaging was first described in 1961 but its application to echocardiography did not take place until 1974. (Mayo Clin Proc 1993;68:221-40)Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Alkaptonuria: An inborn error of amino acid metabolism resulting from a defect in the enzyme HOMOGENTISATE 1,2-DIOXYGENASE, an enzyme involved in the breakdown of PHENYLALANINE and TYROSINE. It is characterized by accumulation of HOMOGENTISIC ACID in the urine, OCHRONOSIS in various tissues, and ARTHRITIS.Cardiac Valve Annuloplasty: A type of heart valve surgery that involves the repair, replacement, or reconstruction of the annuli of HEART VALVES. It includes shortening the circumference of the annulus to improve valve closing capacity and reinforcing the annulus as a step in more complex valve repairs.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Pericardium: A conical fibro-serous sac surrounding the HEART and the roots of the great vessels (AORTA; VENAE CAVAE; PULMONARY ARTERY). Pericardium consists of two sacs: the outer fibrous pericardium and the inner serous pericardium. The latter consists of an outer parietal layer facing the fibrous pericardium, and an inner visceral layer (epicardium) resting next to the heart, and a pericardial cavity between these two layers.Iliac Artery: Either of two large arteries originating from the abdominal aorta; they supply blood to the pelvis, abdominal wall and legs.Single-Payer System: An approach to health care financing with only one source of money for paying health care providers. The scope may be national (the Canadian System), state-wide, or community-based. The payer may be a governmental unit or other entity such as an insurance company. The proposed advantages include administrative simplicity for patients and providers, and resulting significant savings in overhead costs. (From Slee and Slee, Health Care Reform Terms, 1993, p106)Vertebrobasilar Insufficiency: Localized or diffuse reduction in blood flow through the vertebrobasilar arterial system, which supplies the BRAIN STEM; CEREBELLUM; OCCIPITAL LOBE; medial TEMPORAL LOBE; and THALAMUS. Characteristic clinical features include SYNCOPE; lightheadedness; visual disturbances; and VERTIGO. BRAIN STEM INFARCTIONS or other BRAIN INFARCTION may be associated.Fractional Flow Reserve, Myocardial: The ratio of maximum blood flow to the MYOCARDIUM with CORONARY STENOSIS present, to the maximum equivalent blood flow without stenosis. The measurement is commonly used to verify borderline stenosis of CORONARY ARTERIES.Simvastatin: A derivative of LOVASTATIN and potent competitive inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HYDROXYMETHYLGLUTARYL COA REDUCTASES), which is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. It may also interfere with steroid hormone production. Due to the induction of hepatic LDL RECEPTORS, it increases breakdown of LDL CHOLESTEROL.Preoperative Care: Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Cineangiography: Motion pictures of the passage of contrast medium through blood vessels.Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine: A type of imaging technique used primarily in the field of cardiology. By coordinating the fast gradient-echo MRI sequence with retrospective ECG-gating, numerous short time frames evenly spaced in the cardiac cycle are produced. These images are laced together in a cinematic display so that wall motion of the ventricles, valve motion, and blood flow patterns in the heart and great vessels can be visualized.Cardiovascular Abnormalities: Congenital, inherited, or acquired anomalies of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM, including the HEART and BLOOD VESSELS.Carotid Artery Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Cerebral Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.Heart Septal Defects, Ventricular: Developmental abnormalities in any portion of the VENTRICULAR SEPTUM resulting in abnormal communications between the two lower chambers of the heart. Classification of ventricular septal defects is based on location of the communication, such as perimembranous, inlet, outlet (infundibular), central muscular, marginal muscular, or apical muscular defect.Ventricular Outflow Obstruction: Occlusion of the outflow tract in either the LEFT VENTRICLE or the RIGHT VENTRICLE of the heart. This may result from CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS, predisposing heart diseases, complications of surgery, or HEART NEOPLASMS.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Cardiac Surgical Procedures: Surgery performed on the heart.Carotid Arteries: Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.Torsion, Mechanical: A twisting deformation of a solid body about an axis. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Ultrasonography: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Eunuchism: The state of being a eunuch, a male without TESTES or whose testes failed to develop. It is characterized by the lack of mature male GERM CELLS and TESTICULAR HORMONES.Endomyocardial Fibrosis: A condition characterized by the thickening of the ventricular ENDOCARDIUM and subendocardium (MYOCARDIUM), seen mostly in children and young adults in the TROPICAL CLIMATE. The fibrous tissue extends from the apex toward and often involves the HEART VALVES causing restrictive blood flow into the respective ventricles (CARDIOMYOPATHY, RESTRICTIVE).Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit HMG-CoA reductases. They have been shown to directly lower cholesterol synthesis.Syndrome: A characteristic symptom complex.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Aortic Valve Prolapse: The downward displacement of the cuspal or pointed end of the trileaflet AORTIC VALVE causing misalignment of the cusps. Severe valve distortion can cause leakage and allow the backflow of blood from the ASCENDING AORTA back into the LEFT VENTRICLE, leading to aortic regurgitation.Dilatation, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being dilated beyond normal dimensions.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Cardiomyopathies: A group of diseases in which the dominant feature is the involvement of the CARDIAC MUSCLE itself. Cardiomyopathies are classified according to their predominant pathophysiological features (DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY; HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY; RESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY) or their etiological/pathological factors (CARDIOMYOPATHY, ALCOHOLIC; ENDOCARDIAL FIBROELASTOSIS).Hypertension, Renovascular: Hypertension due to RENAL ARTERY OBSTRUCTION or compression.Femoral Artery: The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.Electric Wiring: An arrangement of wires distributing electricity.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.FluorobenzenesIschemic Attack, Transient: Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)Tricuspid Valve: The valve consisting of three cusps situated between the right atrium and right ventricle of the heart.Arteriovenous Shunt, Surgical: Surgical shunt allowing direct passage of blood from an artery to a vein. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Regional Blood Flow: The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.

Pathological features of hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) in the elderly. (1/45)

The pathological findings and available clinical data in 15 necropsy cases of HOCM, aged over 61 years, are reported. Three patients were in the eighth decade and 4 in the ninth; 8 were women. Five presented as sudden death, 2 died in congestive cardiac failure, and 7 died of unrelated conditions and HOCM was an apparently incidental postmortem finding. Compared with cases under 60 years, the hearts of the elderly patients were heavier and less likely to show typical asymmetrical hypertrophy, the free wall of the left ventricle also being thickened in two-thirds of the cases over 60 years. Most of the elderly cases showed a distinctive band of fibrous thickening over the upper part of the interventricular septum. This lesion had a "mirror image" relation to the lower part of the aortic surface of the anterior mitral cusp, with the histological features of a friction lesion. It appears to be a morphological expression of the systolic contact of anterior mitral cusp and interventricular septum seen on cineangiography and thus diagnostic of HOCM. Once formed, the fibrous band appears to persist even if the obstructive element disappears. It is, therefore, a valuable diagnostic feature indicating a diagnosis of HOCM in an age group where the morphology is usually not the classical asymmetrical form and in which this diagnosis is usually not considered.  (+info)

Subaortic stenosis diagnosed in the course of a twins pregnancy: a controversial management. (2/45)

Fixed subaortic stenosis, commonly associated with other congenital cardiac defects, is the cause of 10 per cent of cases of congenital obstruction of the left ventricular outflow. Corrective surgery is frequently a successful treatment, recommendations being based on the transaortic gradient in Europe while in the USA the most prevalent opinion is surgical repair independently of the gradient. We present a case of adult clinical onset of a fixed subaortic stenosis during pregnancy, in which hemodynamic changes are significant, that was medically treated and followed in the outpatient clinic of our hospital, and review the state of the art of the management and surgical indications of this condition.  (+info)

Ultrastructural features of degenerated cardiac muscle cells in patients with cardiac hypertrophy. (3/45)

Degenerated cardiac muscle cells were present in hypertrophied ventricular muscle obtained at operation from 12 (38%) of 32 patients with asymmetric septal hypertrophy (hypertrophic cardiomyopathy) or aortic valvular disease. Degenerated cells demonstrated a wide variety of ultrastructural alterations. Mildly altered cells were normal-sized or hypertrophied and showed focal changes, including preferential loss of thick (myosin) filaments, streaming and clumping of Z band material, and proliferation of the tubules of sarcoplasmic reticulum. Moderately and severely degenerated cells were normal-sized or atrophic and showed additional changes, including extensive myofibrillar lysis and loss of T tubules. The appearance of the most severely degenerated cells usually reflected the cytoplasmic organelle (sarcoplasmic reticulum, glycogen, or mitochondria) which underwent proliferation and filled the myofibril-free areas of these cells. Moderately and severely degenerated cells were present in areas of fibrosis, had thickened basement membranes, and had lost their intercellular connections. These observations suggest that degenerated cardiac muscle cells have poor contractile function and may be responsible for impaired cardiac performance in some patients with chronic ventricular hypertrophy.  (+info)

Neurally-mediated increase in calcineurin activity regulates cardiac contractile function in absence of hypertrophy. (4/45)

OBJECTIVE: The calcineurin pathway has been involved in the development of cardiac hypertrophy, yet it remains unknown whether calcineurin activity can be regulated in myocardium independently from hypertrophy and cardiac load. METHODS: To test that hypothesis, we measured calcineurin activity in a rat model of infrarenal aortic constriction (IR), which affects neurohormonal pathways without increasing cardiac afterload. RESULTS: In this model, there was no change in arterial pressure over the 4-week experimental period, and the left ventricle/body weight ratio did not increase. At 2 weeks after IR, calcineurin activity was increased 1.8-fold (P<0.05) and remained elevated at 4 weeks (1.7-fold, P<0.05). Similarly, the cardiac activity of calcium calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) was increased significantly after IR, which confirms a regulation of Ca(2+)-dependent enzymes in this model. In cardiac myocytes, the increased activity of calcineurin was accompanied by a significant decrease in L-type Ca(2+) channel activity (I(Ca)) and contraction velocity (-dL/dt). Cardiac denervation prevented the activation of calcineurin after IR, which demonstrates that a neurohormonal mechanism is responsible for the changes in enzymatic activity. In addition, cardiac denervation suppressed the effects of IR on I(Ca) and -dL/dt, which shows that calcineurin activation is related to altered contractility. However, action potential duration, the densities of inward rectifier K(+) currents (I(K1)), and outward K(+) currents (I(to) and I(K)) were not altered in IR myocytes. CONCLUSIONS: Calcineurin can be activated in the heart through a neural stimulus, which induces alterations in Ca(2+) currents and contractility. These effects occur in the absence of myocyte hypertrophy, electrophysiological changes in action potential, and K(+) channel currents.  (+info)

Rheologic genesis of discrete subvalvular aortic stenosis: a Doppler echocardiographic study. (5/45)

To determine whether morphologic structures or abnormal flow patterns predispose to pathologic proliferation of subvalvular tissue, 26 patients (mean age 19.8 +/- 10.3 years) were studied greater than or equal to 6 months after operation for isolated discrete subvalvular aortic stenosis. The aortic root diameter and the mitral-aortic separation were measured with sector echocardiography. Flow patterns in the left ventricular outflow tract of these patients and control subjects were evaluated with a color flow mapping system optimized for the detection of turbulence. All control subjects had laminar flow throughout systole in the left ventricular outflow tract. By contrast, turbulence originating well below the site where the shelf had previously been resected was observed in 20 (77%) of the 26 patients. In 16 of these 20 patients turbulence was caused by a ridge, which in 13 patients could be identified as the offshoot of a ventricular band. In four patients the turbulence was caused by malalignment of the muscular and membranous septum, resulting in protrusion of the muscular septum into the outflow tract. Except for the latter four patients, the aortic root diameter was 84 +/- 10% of values predicted by body surface area, with values in six patients falling below the third percentile (p less than 0.01). The mitral-aortic separation was 9.7 +/- 3.5 mm, values in 21 patients falling above the 97th percentile (p less than 0.001). These data support the theory that discrete subvalvular aortic stenosis may be caused by a chronic flow disturbance, preferably in a small and long outflow tract. Left ventricular bands, if reaching the outflow tract, may be a factor.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)  (+info)

Echocardiographic assessment of subvalvular aortic stenosis before and after operation. (6/45)

The development of two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography has provided a noninvasive technique for the diagnosis and serial assessment of patients with subvalvular aortic stenosis. The clinical records and echocardiographic data were reviewed of all patients with subaortic stenosis diagnosed between 1983 and 1991. Of the 77 patients identified (45 male and 32 female), 28 had isolated subaortic stenosis and 49 had associated cardiac lesions. The most frequently encountered associated lesions were ventricular septal defect (n = 19) and coarctation of the aorta/interrupted aortic arch (n = 14). Serial echocardiographic studies, performed in 38 of the 77 patients, documented significant progression of the left ventricular outflow tract gradient in 25 patients (66%) and development of aortic regurgitation in 25 patients (66%). Surgical resection was performed in 36 patients. The preoperative outflow tract peak gradient was 62.9 +/- 31 mm Hg (range 0 to 153), whereas the immediate postoperative gradient was 14.4 +/- 14 mm Hg (range 0 to 67). The two patients with a significant residual gradient (37 and 67 mm Hg, respectively) in the immediate postoperative period had severe subaortic stenosis preoperatively with marked left ventricular hypertrophy and intracavitary gradient. The immediate postoperative echocardiograms demonstrated no worsening of aortic regurgitation in any patient and regression of regurgitation in one patient from mild to none. Intermediate-term follow-up studies were available for review in 13 postoperative patients at a mean of 4 years postoperatively. In 2(15%) of these 13 patients, subaortic stenosis recurred; however, the degree of aortic regurgitation did not increase in any patient.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)  (+info)

Left subclavian artery to descending aorta bypass for coarctation physiology after descending aortic repair. (7/45)

Stenosis of the aorta observed after descending aorta replacement for traumatic aortic injury was managed by a placement of a bypass between the left subclavian artery and the distal descending aorta with success.  (+info)

Subaortic stenosis caused by an unusual fibrous blood-filled cyst of the left ventricle with outflow tract obstruction associated with a ventricular septal defect. (8/45)

A large blood-filled cyst formed from a fibrous tissue tag of a right ventricular septal aneurysm was successfully resected. This cyst, which was causing subaortic stenosis, was attached to the margin of the closed ventricular septal defect and not to the mitral valve itself nor the papillary muscle of the left ventricle.  (+info)

Murmur of subvalvular aortic stenosis is unlikely to radiate to the carotids. Murmur of supravalvar aortic stenosis may radiate more to the right carotid.
CASO CLÍNICO Subaortic Stenosis Diagnosed in the Course of a Twins Pregnancy: A Controversial Management [33] J. M. SOBRINO MARQUEZ, F. J. RODRIGUEZ-VERA, J. M. GARCÍA MORENO, R. GRAELL ESCOBAR, A. MATA Hospital Juan Ramón Jiménez de Huelva, Spain Rev Port Cardiol 2002; 21 (4) : 447-450 ABSTRACT Fixed subaortic stenosis, commonly associated with other congenital cardiac defects, is the cause of 10 per cent of cases of congenital obstruction of the left ventricular outflow. Corrective surgery is frequently a successful treatment, recommendations being based on the transaortic gradient in Europe while in the USA the most prevalent opinion is surgical repair independently of the gradient. We present a case of adult clinical onset of a fixed subaortic stenosis during pregnancy, in which hemodynamic changes are significant, that was medically treated and followed in the outpatient clinic of our hospital, and review the state of the art of the management and surgical indications of this condition. ...
Recurrence of SAS during follow-up was defined as the new echocardiographic appearance of previously undetected lesions or Doppler gradients, or as significant progression of a residual lesion, causing a significant LVOT gradient (,20 mm Hg). Nonprogressive echogenic residual lesions were not included.. SAS recurred in 15 patients (20%), at a rate of 3.8 cases per 100 patient-years of follow-up (including re-recurrence). Multivariate hazard analysis demonstrated a strong independent influence of the preoperative gradient on recurrence per patient-year of follow up (p , 10−4). Inclusion of an age-gradient interaction variable did not influence outcome in this model, but lower patient age was also an independent predictor of recurrence (p = 0.002). A tunnel-type lesion was five times more likely than a discrete lesion to recur after transaortic resection: Five of seven patients with this type of obstruction (71.4%) had at least one recurrence versus only 10 (14.7%, p = 0.003) of 68 patients with ...
Newfoundlands -- those massive, furry, black dogs -- have captured many a heart with their hallmark size, sweet nature and loyalty. Unfortunately these gentle giants own hearts are all too often afflicted with a potentially lethal congenital disease called subvalvular aortic stenosis, or SAS, which also affects children and other dog breeds including the golden retriever.
OBJECTIVE--To compare the incidence and prognosis of subaortic stenosis associated with a ventricular septal defect and to define the morphological basis of subaortic stenosis. DESIGN--Presentation and follow up data on 202 patients with subaortic stenosis seen at the Royal Liverpool Childrens Hospital between 1 January 1960 and 31 December 1991 were reviewed. Survivors were traced to assess their current clinical state. Necropsy specimens of 291 patients with lesions associated with subaortic stenosis were also examined. RESULTS--In the clinical study; 65 (32.1%) of the 202 patients with subaortic stenosis had a ventricular septal defect (excluding an atrioventricular septal defect). 32 of these patients had a short segment (fibromuscular) subaortic stenosis. 33 had subaortic stenosis produced by deviation of muscular components of the outflow tracts. In 17 patients (51.5%) this was caused by posterior deviation or extension of structures into the left ventricular outflow tract, resulting in ...
PROGNOSIS: Mild subaortic stenosis is of no consequence to an individual dog and it is usually recommended that the dos not be bred. Moderate or severe subaortic stenosis may cause symptoms and may increase the risk of sudden death. Depending on the exact degree of severity, treatment may be required, and other measures (such as limiting activity) may be recommended to minimize the amount of work done by the heart. There is no cure for subaortic stenosis. Since it is thought to be of genetic origin it is often recommended that dogs with subaortic stenosis not be bred to avoid passing the disease along to future generations.. TREATMENT/PROCEDURE: If the disease is mild, treatment is not required. However, subaortic stenosis can get worse as a growing dog reaches its adult age and body size. Therefore, dogs with moderate or severe subaortic stenosis, may require medication. The most common form of treatment is a medication given orally called βeta blockers, which reduce the intensity of the ...
Data concerning 17 consecutive patients with discrete subaortic stenosis are recorded. Twelve patients underwent operative resection of the obstructing lesion. Of these all except one were symptomatic and all had electrocardiographic evidence of left ventricular hypertrophy or left ventricular hypertrophy with strain. They had a peak resting systolic left ventricular outflow tract gradient of greater than 50 mmHg as predicted from the combined cuff measurement of systolic blood pressure and the echocardiographically estimated left ventricular systolic pressure and/or as determined by cardiac catheterisation. The outflow tract gradient as predicted from M-mode echocardiography and peak systolic pressure showed close correlation with that measured at cardiac catheterisation or operation. During the postoperative follow-up from one month to 11 years, of 11 patients, one patient required a further operation for recurrence of the obstruction four years after the initial operation. All patients are ...
In this study, we have analyzed data on a large cohort of patients with relatively long postoperative follow-up of up to 20.7 years (median 8.2 years) to determine independent predictors of reoperation for recurrent discrete subaortic stenosis after successful primary resection. The present study used reoperation rather than recurrence as a concrete clinically relevant outcome. Earlier studies, which report recurrence rates ranging from 0% to 55%, are difficult to compare, because they use different criteria for recurrence of DSS or, often, report no specific criteria at all (7,9-12). Nonetheless, when looking at recurrence as a secondary outcome, we identified independent predictors similar to those identified for reoperation.. Although some previous studies have suggested that performing myomectomy during first surgery reduces the incidence of recurrence (9,17-19), other authors have questioned this finding (7,20). In the present study, patients who underwent myomectomy showed a trend toward ...
Using this EOA, the indexed size for this patient is 0.6 cm2/m2, which is under the upper limit for acceptable size and consistent with that of PPM.5. This case also illustrates the discrete nature of these subaortic membranes and their ability to regrow6 (Fig. 2A); our patient had regrowth within 8 years. Subaortic membranes can present as membranous (approximately 5%) and tunnel-type (approximately 15%), further divided into short-segment and long-segment tunnels.6. Concern for PPM is an aspect of this case that makes the determination of the elevated gradients difficult to interpret. We were fortunate to have the TEE from her previous operation to assist in understanding the performance of this patients mechanical prosthesis. Based on the indexed valve area of 0.6 cm2/m2, the size is below a valve size of 0.65 cm2/m2, consistent with that of severe PPM.5 The historical peak gradient does not discount PPM as a cause of elevated gradients, but it confirms that the valve function has not ...
BACKGROUND: Congenital subaortic stenosis entails a lesion spectrum, ranging from an isolated obstructive membrane, to complex tunnel narrowing of the left outflow associated with other cardiac defects. We review our experience with this anomaly, and analyze risk factors leading to restenosis requiring reoperation. METHODS: From 1994 to 2006, 58 children (median age 4.3 years, range 7 days-13.7 years) underwent primary relief of subaortic stenosis. Patients were divided into simple lesions (n=43) or complex stenosis (n=15) associated with other major cardiac defects. Age, pre- and postoperative gradient over the left outflow, associated aortic or mitral valve insufficiency, chromosomal anomalies, arteria lusoria, and operative technique (membrane resection (22) vs associated myectomy (34) vs Konno (2)) were analyzed as risk factors for reoperation (Kaplan-Meier, Cox regression). RESULTS: There was no operative mortality. Median follow-up spanned 2.7 years (range 0.1-10), with one late death at 4 ...
Dr. Bansal responded: Nice question!. Excellent - physiology at work! in subaortic stenosis, it is basically the muscular component of left ventricular outflow tract which is narrow. With increased preload - greater blood in lv - this stretches the muscle and allows for easier exit through the lvot and softer sound of murmur.
For the latest air quality reports for Glenville, PA, check out WeatherBug. From air pollution information to risk factors and tips, our air quality index has it all for Glenville, PA
Looking for information on Dog Subaortic Stenosis (SAS) in San Antonio? We have compiled a list of businesses and services around San Antonio that should help you with your search. We hope this page helps you find information on Dog Subaortic Stenosis (SAS) in San Antonio.
The angiographic features of the left ventricle were examined in patients with idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis who had clinical and hemodynamic evidence of obstruction. Of 36 combined hemodynamic and angiographic studies considered to be technically satisfactory, 33 showed a characteristic combination of abnormalities. In the frontal projection in systole, a linear radiolucent area extended across the left ventricular outflow tract 2 to 2.5 cm below the aortic annulus, at a level corresponding to the site of intraventricular pressure change. In the left oblique and lateral projections, the mitral leaflets did not swing posteriorly in a normal fashion, but projected into the outflow tract during mid and late systole. The radiolucent line, seen in the frontal views, was considered to represent contact of the leading edge of the leaflet with the hypertrophied muscular interventricular septum. The jet of mitral regurgitation, when present, was seen immediately below the anterior mitral ...
Only 10 years have elapsed since the concept of functional obstruction to left ventricular ejection was introduced to clinical medicine (1), and in the interim the features of obstructive cardiomyopathy, or idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis, have become generally recognized. It seems certain that the increasingly frequent recognition of this disease has resulted largely from wider application of left heart catheterization techniques; nevertheless, while the diagnosis initially was based on hemodynamic features peculiar to this disease, it has become possible with increasing experience to recognize and assess the severity of this lesion on clinical grounds alone (2).. Work originating in a ...
Diagnosis Code Q24.4 information, including descriptions, synonyms, code edits, diagnostic related groups, ICD-9 conversion and references to the diseases index.
We would like to send you information about relevant academic and professional offerings. Please check the box if you wish to receive such information. See our Privacy Policy. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Surgery for Aortic Stenosis in Children. T2 - A 40-Year Experience. AU - Brown, John. AU - Ruzmetov, Mark. AU - Vijay, Palaniswamy. AU - Rodefeld, Mark. AU - Turrentine, Mark. PY - 2003/11. Y1 - 2003/11. N2 - Background. Aortic stenosis (AS) is encountered in approximately 5% of children with heart disease. The indications for surgery and the surgical techniques for AS are well established. This report focuses on the early and long-term outcomes in children with AS over a 40-year period. Methods. Included in this study were 508 patients ranging in ages from 1 day to 19 years, who were operated on for AS between 1960 and 2002 . Eighty-one percent (414 of 508) of the patients had left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO) at a single level: 40 supravalvar, 242 valvar (critical AS in 85 neonates and young infants and in 157 older children), and 132 subvalvar. Nineteen percent (94 of 508) of the patients had LVOTO at more than one level. Associated congenital cardiac defects ...
A lot has been going on since the last update. It has been extremely tough, because lost two puppies, Cabot and Jack. Cabot passed away at 5 weeks without any warning signs in my arms and was sent to EVIRA to be autopsied. While waiting for the results we rushed everyone else to the sauna cottage for a few very nervous days, writing up every time the pups ate, peed and pooped. We had no idea of what could have taken Cabot away from us. After a phone call from EVIRA, it didnt take our concerns away, but we were able to breathe and move the puppies back into their cottage and out door area. Cabot had passed away from SAS (subaortic stenosis). It IS quite a common disease in Newfoundlands, but something we had never encountered before. After calling up several cardiologists, we were able to book a doppler ultrasound appointment for the rest of the puppies a week away (age 6 weeks) at Animagi Jyv skyl , a three hour drive away.. Having to drive Annina & Dave (who had been looking after the puppies ...
Left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO) is an important source of morbidity and mortality after repair of atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD). The intrinsic anatomy of the left ventricular outflow tract in AVSD is complex and predisposes
We present a patient with cardiac involvement by a metastatic high-grade pleomorphic sarcoma. The tumor metastasized to the endocardium of the left ventricle as well as the lungs, adrenal glands, and thoracolumbar spine. The sarcoma obstructed the left ventricular outflow tract. Approximately 5 months after diagnosis, despite chemotherapy, our patient died suddenly. The exact cause of death is unknown, but presumably cardiac in origin
To the Editor:. We read with great interest the article by Maron et al1 reporting hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) as a predominantly obstructive disease. The authors describe in their carefully conducted study a cohort of 320 patients, 70% of whom present with either resting or provocable obstruction of the left ventricular outflow tract.. Our own data from a cohort of 186 unrelated HCM patients confirm that distribution: 65% of our patients presented with significant left ventricular outflow tract gradient either at rest or on exercise.2 We assume that the patients examined by Maron et al were also familially unrelated. However, HCM is an autosomal dominant heritable disorder with a 50% chance of transmission to the offspring. To make a reliable estimation for the prevalence of obstruction in HCM, it would be reasonable to also include other affected family members into this estimation. The wide spectrum of clinical expression is a well-known phenomenon of HCM and is sometimes particularly ...
Learn more about Aortic Stenosis -- Adult at Coliseum Health System DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
Store Levitra Super Active+ at room temperature, between 68 and 77 degrees F (20 and 25 degrees C). Store away from heat, moisture, and light. Keep Levitra Super Active+ out of the reach of children and away from pets.. Warnings/Precautions. Levitra Super Active+ has vasodilator properties which may result in mild and transient decreases in blood pressure. Patients with left ventricular outflow obstruction, e.g., aortic stenosis and idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis, can be sensitive to the action of vasodilators including Type 5 phosphodiesterase inhibitors ...
Anesthesia for elective cesarean section in a patient with idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis. She weighs 80 kg.. 1. Would a regional or a general be preferred? Explain your rationale.. 2. What local anesthetic and technique would you use for a regional?. 3. What is ion trapping, and what is its significance to obstetrics?. Ion trapping occurs in an acidic environment when ionized local anesthetic accumulates. It can be seen in the case of an acidic fetus, and leads to an increased concentration of local anesthetic in the fetal blood, and can jeopardize the fetal circulatory systems own response to asphyxia.. 4. What is the maximum dose of 0.25% bupivacaine that the surgeon can use for infiltration of the surgical incision site?. The maximum dose is 80 kg X 2mg/kg, which is 160 mg total. At 2.5 mg per cc, the total injected safe dose is 160 divided by 2.5, or 64 cc.. 5. Why is epinephrine added to local anesthetics?. To cause local vasoconstriction, decrease the vascular absorption of ...
Learn more about Aortic Stenosis -- Child at Doctors Hospital of Augusta DefinitionCausesRisk FactorsSymptomsDiagnosisTreatmentPreventionrevision ...
Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment of Valvular Disorders from the Professional Version of the Merck Manuals.
Definition of Ventricular outflow tract in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is Ventricular outflow tract? Meaning of Ventricular outflow tract as a finance term. What does Ventricular outflow tract mean in finance?
The aorta is the largest artery in the body. It is the main blood vessel that serves as a passageway for oxygen-filled blood to pass from the left side of the heart to be distributed throughout the entire body. Aortic stenosis may be due to the malformation of the aorta or a defect in the left ventricle.
RRH: Rural and Remote Health. Published article number: 2284 - Is there a rural gradient in the diagnosis of aortic stenosis? An analysis of a remote Scottish cohort
The management of elderly patients with severe, symptomatic aortic stenosis has undergone a significant transformation over the last 10 years.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate clinical outcomes of neonates who underwent a Norwood operation as a first step of a planned biventricular repair and the impact of associated risk factors. A retrospective cohort study was performed on
Case report: A 28-year-old male presented with grade III to IV dyspnea with previous history of infective endocarditis. Preoperative transthoracic echocardiogram (TTE) showed calcified BAV with severe aortic valve regurgitation and stenosis, severe tricuspid regurgitation, and pulmonary artery hypertension along with ruptured SOVA arising from right coronary sinus and draining into the right ventricle. Intraoperative TEE confirmed the TTE findings and in addition showed the presence of two jets arising from the SOVA draining into right ventricle, a subaortic membrane, and a perforation in the aortic cusp opening into left ventricle. The ruptured SOVA was repaired using single patch technique and aortic valve was replaced. The completeness of the repair was checked using TEE to exclude failure of closure of additional opening if any and the patient was discharged from hospital after 7 days of uneventful postoperative course ...
The aorta, the bodys largest blood vessel, starts from the left ventricle of the heart and carries oxygen-rich blood to the body. Blood flows from the left ventricle into the aorta through the aortic valve, one of the four valves in the heart.. In aortic stenosis, the aortic valve is narrow. This decreases the amount of blood flowing into the aorta and out to the rest of the body. Aortic stenosis is most common in adults over 50, but can be present at birth (congenital).. Aortic stenosis makes the heart work harder to pump blood to the body. Over time, this added stress can weaken the heart and lead to life-threatening heart problems.. Aortic stenosis can be identified before birth, allowing babies born with severe cases to be treated right away. Babies with aortic stenosis can have trouble gaining weight, problems with feeding, and serious breathing problems that develop soon after birth. Older children also may have a heart murmur. These children may be sent for an echocardiogram, a type of ...
Generic Inderal is used for treating high blood pressure or atrial fibrillation. It is used in patients with angina to decrease angina frequency and increase exercise tolerance; to decrease the risk of heart death in certain patients who have survived a heart attack; to manage certain types of tremors, a heart condition called hypertrophic subaortic stenosis, or certain symptoms of pheochromocytoma (an adrenal tumor). It is also used to prevent migraine headaches.. Generic Inderal (Propranolol 10/20/40 Mg) # Worldwide Delivery @ Online shop. Online shopping like never before! Get the latest trends ruling the charts in WorldWide. With the most greatest range of pharmacy!
I have Aortic stenosis and I was wondering if smoking marijuana would effect it in any ways at all? I am not looking for you to tell me if I should smoke marijuana or not in just want to know the site effects of it with my condition.
TAVR: A New Treatment for Aortic Stenosis. Covenant Health is one of the largest health systems in the Lubbock, TX region. Serving over 1.2 million people, they always strive to uphold a sacred Christian mission of healing.
We use cookies to ensure that we give you the best experience on our website. If you click Continue well assume that you are happy to receive all cookies and you wont see this message again. Click Find out more for information on how to change your cookie settings ...
So it is with interest that I noticed a new experimental technology introduced to our group yesterday which is about to begin clinical trials at our institution. This device uses a minimally invasive, percutaneous pericardial approach that applies a device that squeezes together the left ventricular walls beneath the mitral leaflets and maintains this force by way of a subvalvular cord passed through the heart walls and held on place by two epicardial pads on the outside surface of the heart. It is hoped that this technology would improve mitral valve closure while limiting the progressive dilation of the left ventricle ...
This study will be a prospective, double-blind, placebo-controlled, two-armed clinical trial trial to test the influence of statin therapy on the progression of calcified aortic stenosis in patients with asymptomatic mild to moderate aortic stenosis. After completion of all baseline investigations patients will be randomly assigned to the verum group (fluvastatin group) or to the control group (placebo group). Patients in the verum group will receive fluvastatin in a starting dose of 40 mg per day. The dose should be increased up to 80 mg per day. The treatment should be continued until the study end (24 months). Follow up investigations will be performed after 6, 12, and 18 months. After 24 months the final investigations will be performed ...
The doctors at the Wake Forest Baptist Health Heart and Vascular Center use an integrated team approach and personalized treatment programs to provide comprehensive prevention, diagnosis, treatment and management of aortic stenosis.
Learn about the veterinary topic of Aortic Stenosis. Find specific details on this topic and related topics from the Merck Vet Manual.
LONDON, July 21 /PRNewswire/ -- The SEAS (Simvastatin and Ezetimibe in Aortic Stenosis) study has investigated the effects of intensive cholesterol lowering with the combination of simvastatin (40 mg
Clinical Trials - clinicaltrials.gov The aim of this project is to investigate the association of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and severe aortic stenosis (AS), ...
Figure 2: From the LVOT and LVOT cross cut systolic frames (top left panel and top right panel, respectively), several planes are laid out perpendicular to the stenotic jet along the aortic root (represented by the sold gray lines). The resulting images are displayed in the bottom panel. In this example, the slice thickness is 5mm and the slice interval is 3mm. These very small increments mean that there will be an overlap between images, allowing for correct positioning over the valve tips for planimetry.(Click on the bottom picture to enlarge in a new window) ...
When you have aortic stenosis, your doctor may tell you that its time for surgery. Aortic stenosis occurs when the valve on the
TY - JOUR. T1 - Linkage analysis of left ventricular outflow tract malformations (aortic valve stenosis, coarctation of the aorta, and hypoplastic left heart syndrome). AU - McBride, Kim L.. AU - Zender, Gloria A.. AU - Fitzgerald-Butt, Sara M.. AU - Koehler, Daniel. AU - Menesses-Diaz, Andres. AU - Fernbach, Susan. AU - Lee, Kwanghyuk. AU - Towbin, Jeffrey A.. AU - Leal, Suzanne. AU - Belmont, John W.. PY - 2009/1/15. Y1 - 2009/1/15. N2 - The left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) malformations aortic valve stenosis (AVS), coarctation of the aorta (CoA), and hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) are significant causes of infant mortality. These three malformations are thought to share developmental pathogenetic mechanisms. A strong genetic component has been demonstrated earlier, but the underlying genetic etiologies are unknown. Our objective was to identify genetic susceptibility loci for the broad phenotype of LVOT malformations. We genotyped 411 microsatellites spaced at an average of 10 cM ...
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) may be defined as left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy in the absence of an underlying cause such as systemic hypertension or valvular aortic stenosis.1 Left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO) is caused by septal hypertrophy combined with abnormal systolic anterior motion (SAM) of the mitral valve, and this, in turn, produces variable degrees of mitral valve regurgitation (MR). LVOTO in HCM is distinct in morphology and prognosis from congenital membranous subaortic stenosis, which is rarely associated with SAM. Some patients with HCM will have symptoms due to mid ventricular obstruction. Hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM) is important for surgeons because obstruction may occur in over 70 percent of patients with HCM,2 and transaortic septal ...
Source: Heart (British Cardiac Society). 2003 September; 89(9): 1019-22. cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_ uids=12923015&dopt=Abstract • Carotid stent-supported angioplasty in a patient with symptomatic and critical aortic stenosis. Author(s): Li SS, Yiu SF, Chiang CS. Source: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions : Official Journal of the Society for Cardiac Angiography & Interventions. 2002 August; 56(4): 498-502. cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_ uids=12124961&dopt=Abstract 28 Aortic Stenosis • Cerebral embolism after retrograde catheterisation of aortic valve in aortic stenosis. Author(s): Lee YS, Chou YY. Source: Proc Natl Sci Counc Repub China B. 1997 October; 21(4): 137-43. cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_ uids=9369023&dopt=Abstract • Evaluation and management of patients with aortic stenosis. Author(s): Carabello BA. Source: Circulation. 2002 April 16; 105(15): 1746-50. cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_ uids=11956110&dopt=Abstract • Evaluation by exercise testing of children with mild ...
Question - Have moderate aortic stenosis as a result of BAV, pain in chest. What can be inferred from EKG results?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Aortic valve stenosis, Ask a Cardiologist
The 2012 ESC/EACTS guidelines for AS recommend replacement for Class I patients, i.e. those with severe AS and symptoms. TAVI is indicated in patients with severe symptomatic AS who are not suitable for AVR as assessed by a "heart team" and should be considered in high risk patients who may still be suitable for surgery, but in whom TAVI is favored by a "heart team" based on the individual risk profile.2 The 2008 ACC/AHA guidelines recommend that AVR should be performed in virtually all symptomatic patients with severe AS. Both guidelines stress that age is not a contraindication to surgery.2,3. Download Aortic Stenosis Brochure. ...
What is the management of patients with aortic stenosis (symptomatic and asymptomatic)?. Aortic stenosis (AS) patients who are asymptomatic should be followed clinically and by echocardiogram. The ACC/AHA guidelines [1] recommend asymptomatic AS patients to have serial echocardiographic testing with the following time intervals:. ...
Latest urology and nephrology news, research and treatment articles for urologists and nephrologists to stay updated. Clinical reviews on renal and urology treatments.
Physician assistants and nurse practitioners use Clinical Advisor for updated medical guidance to diagnose and treat common medical conditions in daily practice.
Physician assistants and nurse practitioners use Clinical Advisor for updated medical guidance to diagnose and treat common medical conditions in daily practice.
The major clinical sign is fainting (syncope). Heart defects Subvalvular aortic stenosis (Subaortic stenosis; SAS) is a ... Pulmonic stenosis* is a congenital heart disease in dogs characterized by right ventricular outflow tract obstruction. Most ... Cauda equina syndrome*, also known as degenerative lumbosacral stenosis, in dogs is a compression of the cauda equina by a ... Tetralogy of Fallot* is a congenital heart defect in dogs that includes four separate defects: pulmonic stenosis, a ventricular ...
Another genetic problem is subvalvular aortic stenosis (SAS). This is a common heart defect in Newfoundlands involving ...
At the same time, the Valsalva maneuver (phase II) decreases the intensity of most other murmurs, including aortic stenosis and ... namely those of dynamic subvalvular left ventricular outflow obstruction. ... due to decreased left atrial return and increased aortic volume, respectively. Venous blood can once more enter the chest and ...
... the space between the arachnoid mater and pia mater in the brain Subvalvular aortic stenosis (non-human), an abnormal, ...
... syndrome Subcortical laminar heterotopia Subependymal nodular heterotopia Subpulmonary stenosis Subvalvular aortic stenosis ... Subacute cerebellar degeneration Subacute sclerosing leucoencephalitis Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis Subaortic stenosis ...
The measurement using echocardiogram may be inaccurate in cases of Aortic subvalvular stenosis, because there is not a uniform ... Aortic valve area calculation is an indirect method of determining the area of the aortic valve (aortic valve area or AVA). The ... "Survival in elderly patients with severe aortic stenosis is dramatically improved by aortic valve replacement: results from a ... A valve area of less than 0.8 cm² is considered to be severe aortic stenosis. There are many ways to calculate the valve area ...
Aortic stenosis in the Rottweiler appears to be true subvalvular aortic stenosis (SAS), similar to that in the Newfoundland dog ... Canine subvalvular aortic stenosis (SAS) is an abnormal, congenital heart murmur caused by subaortic stenosis (SAS). There is a ... Also, an animal might have signs of subaortic stenosis, and yet offspring with signs of SAS may not be seen for a couple of ... Any animal that has subaortic stenosis should not be bred, because they can definitely pass the defect on to future offspring. ...
Subvalvular aortic stenosis is usually due to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), with murmur loudest over the left sternal ... Aortic outflow obstruction (Aortic stenosis) Can be due to aortic valve stenosis or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), with a ... The second most common cause is congenital bicuspid aortic valves (normal valve is tricuspid). In aortic stenosis, heaving ... Supravalvular aortic stenosis is loudest at a point slightly higher than in that of valvular AS and may radiate more to the ...
... aortic stenosis, subvalvular MeSH C14.280.484.150.070.160 --- cardiomyopathy, hypertrophic MeSH C14.280.484.150.070.210 --- ... aortic valve insufficiency MeSH C14.280.484.150 --- aortic valve stenosis MeSH C14.280.484.150.060 --- aortic stenosis, ... aortic rupture MeSH C14.907.055.239 --- aortic aneurysm MeSH C14.907.055.239.075 --- aortic aneurysm, abdominal MeSH C14.907. ... aortic aneurysm, thoracic MeSH C14.907.109.139.175 --- aortic rupture MeSH C14.907.109.239 --- aortic arch syndromes MeSH ...
Severe mitral regurgitation usually results from a tear in one of the valve leaflets or the subvalvular apparatus. It can lead ... This happens in ventricular diastole (after closure of the aortic valve), when the pressure in the ventricle precipitously ... Mitral stenosis typically progresses slowly (over decades) from the initial signs of mitral stenosis to NYHA functional class ... Echocardiography in Mitral stenosis at Wikiecho Echocardiographic features of Mitral Stenosis Mitral Valve Repair at The Mount ...
This sign can be used to differentiate HCM from aortic stenosis. In individuals with aortic stenosis, after a premature ... surgical correction of hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy with extended myectomy and reconstruction of the subvalvular ... and the aortic valve is open. In individuals with aortic stenosis or with HCM with an outflow tract gradient, there will be a ... Because of the fixed obstruction that the stenotic aortic valve represents, the post-PVC ascending aortic pressure will ...
... tricuspid valve stenosis, pulmonary valve stenosis and aortic valve stenosis. Stenosis of the mitral valve is a common ... The function of the subvalvular apparatus is to keep the valves from prolapsing into the atria when they close. The subvalvular ... For example, valvular disease of the aortic valve, such as aortic stenosis or aortic regurgitation, may cause breathlessness, ... This condition is often undiagnosed until calcific aortic stenosis has developed, and this usually happens around ten years ...
At the same time, the Valsalva maneuver (phase II) decreases the intensity of most other murmurs, including aortic stenosis and ... namely those of dynamic subvalvular left ventricular outflow obstruction. ... due to decreased left atrial return and increased aortic volume, respectively. Venous blood can once more enter the chest and ...
1976) Discrete subvalvular aortic stenosis in childhood. Am J Cardiol 38:53-61. ... 1990) Subvalvular aortic stenosis: timing of operation. Ann Thorac Surg 50:29-34. ... 1990) Reappraisal of localized resection for subvalvular aortic stenosis. Ann Thorac Surg 50:197-203. ... discrete subvalvular aortic stenosis: natural history and hemodynamics. J Am Coll Cardiol 14:1539-1544. ...
... a linear radiolucent area extended across the left ventricular outflow tract 2 to 2.5 cm below the aortic annulus, at a level ... Angiographic Anatomy of the Left Ventricle and Mitral Valve in Idiopathic Hypertrophic Subaortic Stenosis. ALLAN L. SIMON, JOHN ... The angiographic features of the left ventricle were examined in patients with idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis who ... Angiographic Anatomy of the Left Ventricle and Mitral Valve in Idiopathic Hypertrophic Subaortic Stenosis ...
Aortic stenosis in the Rottweiler appears to be true subvalvular aortic stenosis (SAS), similar to that in the Newfoundland dog ... Canine subvalvular aortic stenosis (SAS) is an abnormal, congenital heart murmur caused by subaortic stenosis (SAS). There is a ... Also, an animal might have signs of subaortic stenosis, and yet offspring with signs of SAS may not be seen for a couple of ... Any animal that has subaortic stenosis should not be bred, because they can definitely pass the defect on to future offspring. ...
You are here: Home / About the Breed / Health & Research / Heart Disease: Subvalvular Aortic Stenosis (SAS) ... Heart Disease: Subvalvular Aortic Stenosis (SAS) *New OFA-ACVIM Advanced Cardiac Database (ACA) ... Subvalvular aortic stenosis (SAS), the most common congenital heart disease in Golden Retrievers, Newfoundlands and Rottweilers ...
Long-term outcomes and risk factors for aortic regurgitation after discrete subvalvular aortic stenosis resection in children ... Long-term outcomes and risk factors for aortic regurgitation after discrete subvalvular aortic stenosis resection in children ... Long-term outcomes and risk factors for aortic regurgitation after discrete subvalvular aortic stenosis resection in children ...
... resources and questions answered by our Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Specialists for Subvalvular aortic stenosis ... PubMed is a searchable database of medical literature and lists journal articles that discuss Subvalvular aortic stenosis. ... discrete fibromuscular subaortic stenosis (fibromuscular tissue encircling the LVOT) and tunnel subaortic stenosis ( ... Fixed subaortic stenosis (FSS) is a rare heart malformation characterized by the obstruction by membranous or fibromuscular ...
Subvalvular Aortic Stenosis: Fibromuscular Type with Severe Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction. ... Sadeghian H., Savand-Roomi Z. (2015) Subvalvular Aortic Stenosis: Fibromuscular Type with Severe Left Ventricular Outflow Tract ... Schneider DJ, Moore J. Aortic stenosis. In: Allen HA, Driscoll D, Shaddy RE, Feltes TF, editors. Moss and Adams heart disease ... Aortic stenosis. In: Moller JH, Hoffman JIE, editors. Pediatric cardiovascular medicine. 1st ed. Philadelphia: Churchill ...
Learn more about treatment for subaortic stenosis here at Ohio State. ... Subvalvular aortic stenosis is a heart defect of the left ventricle. ... Subvalvular Aortic Stenosis. Subvalvular aortic stenosis is a congenital heart defect that limits blood flow out of the heart. ... Symptoms of subvalvular aortic stenosis. Children who have subvalvular aortic stenosis may not have symptoms, but the condition ...
Discrete Subvalvular Aortic Stenosis With Recurrent Patent Ductus Arteriosus. A Gürbüz, L Y?l?k, U Yetkin, ? Yürekli, Z Apal?, ... Discrete subvalvular aortic stenosis in childhood. Study of 51 patients. Am J Cardiol 1976;38(1):53-61.. 10. Penkoske PA, ... 5. Tokel K, Ozme S, Cil E, Ozkutlu S, Celiker A, Saraçlar M, Bilgiç A, Ozer S. "Acquired" subvalvular aortic stenosis after ... 8. Tokel K, Ozme S, Cil E, Ozkutlu S, Celiker A, Saraçlar M, Bilgiç A, Ozer S. "Acquired" subvalvular aortic stenosis after ...
Subvalvular aortic stenosis (SAS) is one of the most common diagnosed heart defects in dogs and the Rottweiler breed has a high ... Subvalvular aortic stenosis (SAS) is one of the most common diagnosed heart defects in dogs and the Rottweiler breed has a high ... Home > Research > Participate in Research > Identification of Genetic Markers for Subvalvular Aortic Stenosis in Rottweilers ... Identification of Genetic Markers for Subvalvular Aortic Stenosis in Rottweilers 08/16/2018 ...
Subvalvular Aortic Stenosis. Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). TOF with MAPCA (Main Aorta to Pulmonary Connecting Artery) ...
... mitral stenosis and regurgitation (MS and MR), aortic stenosis and regurgitation (AS and AR), atrioventricular (AV) canal ... Pulmonic Stenosis PS is a right ventricular outflow tract obstruction presenting as 1) valvular; 2) subvalvular; or 3) ... Aortic Stenosis AS is the obstruction of the left ventricle outflow tract. AS accounts for 7% of CHD and is described by ... A large PDA results in pulmonary overcirculation and low aortic diastolic pressure, leading to extensive aortic runoff and ...
Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: Aortic Valve Stenosis U.S. FDA Resources ...
Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center resources: Aortic Valve Stenosis U.S. FDA Resources ...
Aortic valve insufficiency results from leakage and backflow of blood that is ejected from the left ventricle (LV) into the ... Management of aortic stenosis: is cardiac catheterization necessary?. Am J Cardiol. 1991 May 1. 67(11):1031-2. [Medline]. ... Anatomy of the aortic valve. The aortic valve is composed of 3 thin leaflets (ie, cusps) that project from the wall of the ... Aortic valve-sparing operations in patients with aneurysms of the aortic root or ascending aorta. Ann Thorac Surg. 2002 Nov. 74 ...
Subvalvular Aortic Stenosis In Dogs And Cats. An Inherited Heart Defect Common in Large Breed Dogs ...
Analysis of blood samples and pedigrees of Newfoundlands and Golden Retrievers indicates that subvalvular aortic stenosis (SAS ... 1419: Inheritance and Molecular Genetic Evaluation in Newfoundlands and Golden Retrievers with Subvalvular Aortic Stenosis. ... Analysis of blood samples and pedigrees of Newfoundlands and Golden Retrievers indicates that subvalvular aortic stenosis (SAS ... Inheritance and Molecular Genetic Evaluation in Newfoundlands and Golden Retrievers with Subvalvular Aortic Stenosis ...
Subvalvular Aortic Stenosis (Membranous Type with Circular Web) with Severe Left Ventricular Outflow Tract and Moderate Aortic ... Recurrence of Subvalvular Aortic Stenosis After Surgery with Mild Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction and Moderate ... Recurrence of Subvalvular Aortic Stenosis After Surgery with Severe Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction and Severe ... Subvalvular Aortic Stenosis (Membranous Type Without Attachment to Anterior Mitral Leaflet) with Severe Left Ventricular ...
... including subvalvular aortic stenosis. The Goldens ears should be checked weekly for signs of infection, and the teeth should ...
Subvalvular aortic stenosis (SAS). *Boxers are sensitive to the common sedative Acepromazine, which can cause dangerous heart ...
Surgical relief of diffuse subvalvular aortic stenosis. Circulation. 1961;24:739.. *Riggin EA. Allscripts EPSi. Mayo Clinic, ...
Aortic Stenosis and Atresia ,/li,,/ul,,ul,,li,3 types: ,/li,,/ul,,ul,,li,a) valvular ,/li,,/ul,,ul,,li,b) subvalvular ,/li,,/ul ... Aortic stenosis (valvular) 1 - narrowed aortic valve Flow patterns are normal but blood flow to the aorta is reduced as ... ul,,li,Subaortic stenosis ,/li,,/ul,,ul,,li,a) thickened ring below level of cusps ,/li,,/ul,,ul,,li,Supraventricular aortic ... ul,,li,Valvular (severe) aortic stenosis or ,/li,,/ul,,ul,,li,atresia ,/li,,/ul,,ul,,li,a) outflow obstruction ,/li,,/ul,,ul,, ...
... clinicaltrials.gov Pulmonary hypertension is common in patients with aortic stenosis and is associated with worse operative and ... Aortic Valve Stenosis. A pathological constriction that can occur above (supravalvular stenosis), below (subvalvular stenosis ... Aortic Stenosis, Subvalvular. A pathological constriction occurring in the region below the AORTIC VALVE. It is characterized ... Aortic stenosis is a major cause of morbidity around the world. Progressive aortic stenosis leads to cardiac hypertrophy as a ...
Pulmonary stenosis. >> Aortic stenosis. Cyanotic. - R>>L Shunts. >> Tetralogy of Fallot. >> Ebsteins anomaly. - Others. >> ... Subvalvular. - Supravalvular. - Idiopathic hypertrophic subalrtic stenosis (IHSS) = HOCM 36 What is the management of aortic ... Narrow mitral/aortic valves. - Small ascending aorta. - Contracted aorta. >> Culminates to systemic hypoperfusion. >> DUCTAL- ... Critical pulmonary stenosis. - Pulmonary atresia. - Tricuspid atresia. - Tetralogy of Fallot. - Transposition of great vessels ...
... subvalvular aortic stenosis associated with valvular aortic stenosis.. Authors:. Salvatore Patanè Filippo Marte Gianluca Di ... Subvalvular aortic stenosis associated with valvular aortic regurgitation in young child.. Authors:. Salvatore Patanè Francesco ... Revelation of quadricuspid aortic valve at aortography in elderly patient with severe aortic regurgitation.. Authors:. ... Isolated supravalvular pulmonary stenosis in a 25-day-old newborn infant: an occasional and early diagnosis.. Authors:. ...
  • The PDA in tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary atresia (ToF-PA) arises, in the left aortic arch, from underneath the arch and connects to the proximal left pulmonary artery [ncbi.nlm.nih.gov] In that case, typically, precordial activity is increased and peripheral pulses are bounding . (symptoma.com)
  • [en.wikipedia.org] Pulmonic Stenosis (PS) This is typically congenital and found in children as part of the Tetralogy of Fallot constellation. (symptoma.com)
  • Subvalvular aortic stenosis (SAS), the most common congenital heart disease in Golden Retrievers, Newfoundlands and Rottweilers, is a troublesome disease. (grca.org)
  • Analysis of blood samples and pedigrees of Newfoundlands and Golden Retrievers indicates that subvalvular aortic stenosis (SAS), a thickening of a specific part of the heart wall, is likely inherited as an autosomal dominant pattern with variable penetrance (varying degrees of symptoms and signs). (akcchf.org)
  • Newfoundland dogs are beloved for their sweet nature and massive, furry size, but the breed is prone to an inherited heart disease, subvalvular aortic stenosis, or SAS, which also affects golden retrievers and children. (ucdavis.edu)
  • This case report describes a case of a 49-year-old male, with a past medical history significant for congenital aortic stenosis, who presented with progressive shortness of breath and decreased stamin. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Its open aortic resection is safer and more likely to achieve a better haemodynamic result. (ispub.com)
  • An important gene associated with Quadricuspid Aortic Valve is CYP21A2 (Cytochrome P450 Family 21 Subfamily A Member 2). (malacards.org)
  • Supply, which is always abnormally tenuous because of the lower-than-normal coronary driving pressure (difference in aortic diastolic pressure and ventricular diastolic pressure), cannot keep up with the increased demand. (medscape.com)
  • Yudi MB, Sharma SK, Tang GHL, Kini A. Coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention after transcatheter aortic valve replacement. (edwards.com)