The tearing or bursting of the wall along any portion of the AORTA, such as thoracic or abdominal. It may result from the rupture of an aneurysm or it may be due to TRAUMA.
Forcible or traumatic tear or break of an organ or other soft part of the body.
A decrease in the rate of speed.
Radiographic visualization of the aorta and its branches by injection of contrast media, using percutaneous puncture or catheterization procedures.
Aneurysm caused by a tear in the TUNICA INTIMA of a blood vessel leading to interstitial HEMORRHAGE, and splitting (dissecting) of the vessel wall, often involving the AORTA. Dissection between the intima and media causes luminal occlusion. Dissection at the media, or between the media and the outer adventitia causes aneurismal dilation.
An abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of the THORACIC AORTA. This proximal descending portion of aorta gives rise to the visceral and the parietal branches above the aortic hiatus at the diaphragm.
Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.
Injuries caused by impact with a blunt object where there is no penetration of the skin.
General or unspecified injuries to the chest area.
An abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of AORTA.
A splenic rupture is a medical condition characterized by the traumatic tearing or disruption of the spleen, leading to potential internal bleeding and, if left untreated, potentially life-threatening complications.
The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.
Disease-related laceration or tearing of tissues of the heart, including the free-wall MYOCARDIUM; HEART SEPTUM; PAPILLARY MUSCLES; CHORDAE TENDINEAE; and any of the HEART VALVES. Pathological rupture usually results from myocardial infarction (HEART RUPTURE, POST-INFARCTION).
Inflammation of the wall of the AORTA.
An abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of the ABDOMINAL AORTA which gives rise to the visceral, the parietal, and the terminal (iliac) branches below the aortic hiatus at the diaphragm.
Device constructed of either synthetic or biological material that is used for the repair of injured or diseased blood vessels.
A complete separation or tear in the wall of the UTERUS with or without expulsion of the FETUS. It may be due to injuries, multiple pregnancies, large fetus, previous scarring, or obstruction.
Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Not an aneurysm but a well-defined collection of blood and CONNECTIVE TISSUE outside the wall of a blood vessel or the heart. It is the containment of a ruptured blood vessel or heart, such as sealing a rupture of the left ventricle. False aneurysm is formed by organized THROMBUS and HEMATOMA in surrounding tissue.
Pathological processes involving any part of the AORTA.
Operative procedures for the treatment of vascular disorders.
A lesion on the surface of the skin or a mucous surface, produced by the sloughing of inflammatory necrotic tissue.
Laceration or tearing of cardiac tissues appearing after MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
Spontaneous tearing of the membranes surrounding the FETUS any time before the onset of OBSTETRIC LABOR. Preterm PROM is membrane rupture before 37 weeks of GESTATION.
The aorta from the DIAPHRAGM to the bifurcation into the right and left common iliac arteries.
Accidents on streets, roads, and highways involving drivers, passengers, pedestrians, or vehicles. Traffic accidents refer to AUTOMOBILES (passenger cars, buses, and trucks), BICYCLING, and MOTORCYCLES but not OFF-ROAD MOTOR VEHICLES; RAILROADS nor snowmobiles.
Procedures that avoid use of open, invasive surgery in favor of closed or local surgery. These generally involve use of laparoscopic devices and remote-control manipulation of instruments with indirect observation of the surgical field through an endoscope or similar device.
A collection of blood outside the BLOOD VESSELS. Hematoma can be localized in an organ, space, or tissue.
Minimally invasive procedures, diagnostic or therapeutic, performed within the BLOOD VESSELS. They may be perfomed via ANGIOSCOPY; INTERVENTIONAL MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; INTERVENTIONAL RADIOGRAPHY; or INTERVENTIONAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY.
Tear or break of an organ, vessel or other soft part of the body, occurring in the absence of external force.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The tearing or bursting of the weakened wall of the aneurysmal sac, usually heralded by sudden worsening pain. The great danger of a ruptured aneurysm is the large amount of blood spilling into the surrounding tissues and cavities, causing HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Bursting of the STOMACH.
Injuries to the fibrous cords of connective tissue which attach muscles to bones or other structures.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Accumulations of blood in the PERITONEAL CAVITY due to internal HEMORRHAGE.
A fibrous cord that connects the muscles in the back of the calf to the HEEL BONE.
Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)
Economic aspects of the nursing profession.
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.
The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.
Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.

Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms: selecting patients for surgery. (1/892)

OBJECTIVES: Mortality from ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (RAAA) remains high. Despite this, withholding surgery on poor-prognosis patients with RAAA may create a difficult dilemma for the surgeon. Hardman et al. identified five independent, preoperative risk factors associated with mortality and proposed a model for preoperative patient selection. The aim of this study was to test the validity of the same model in an independent series of RAAA patients. METHODS: A consecutive series of patients undergoing surgery for RAAA was analysed retrospectively by case-note review. Thirty-day operative mortality and the presence of the five risk factors: age (> 76 years), creatinine (Cr) (> 190 mumol/l), haemoglobin (Hb) (< 9 g/dl), loss of consciousness and electrocardiographic (ECG) evidence of ischaemia were recorded for each patient. RESULTS: Complete data sets existed for 69 patients (mean age: 73 years, range: 38-86 years, male to female ratio: 6:1). Operative mortality was 43%. The cumulative effect of 0, 1 and 2 risk factors on mortality was 18%, 28% and 48%, respectively. All patients with three or more risk factors died (eight patients). CONCLUSIONS: These results lend support to the validity of the model. The potential to avoid surgery in patients with little or no chance of survival would spare unnecessary suffering, reduce operative mortality and enhance use of scarce resources.  (+info)

Repair of ruptured thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm is worthwhile in selected cases. (2/892)

INTRODUCTION: The risks and benefits of operating on patients with ruptured thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA) have not been defined. The aim of the present study is to report this unit's experience with operations performed for ruptured TAAA over a 10-year period. METHODS: Interrogation of a prospectively gathered computerised database. PATIENTS: Between 1 January 1983 and 30 June 1996, 188 consecutive patients with TAAA were operated on, of whom 23 (12%) were operated for rupture. RESULTS: There were nine survivors (40%). Patients whose preoperative systolic blood pressure remained above 100 mmHg were significantly more likely to survive (4/8 vs. 13/15, p = 0.03 by Fisher's exact test). Survival was also related to Crawford type: type I (two of three survived); II (none of six); III (two of six); and IV (five of eight). All non-type II, non-shocked patients survived operation. Survivors spent a median of 28 (range 10-66) postoperative days in hospital, of which a median of 6 (range 2-24) days were spent in the intensive care unit. Survivor morbidity comprised prolonged ventilation (> 5 days) (n = 3); tracheostomy (n = 1); and temporary haemofiltration (n = 2). No survivor developed paraplegia or required permanent dialysis. CONCLUSIONS: Patients in shock with a Crawford type II aneurysm have such a poor prognosis that intervention has to be questioned except in the most favourable of circumstances. However, patients with types I, III and IV who are not shocked on presentation can be salvaged and, where possible, should be transferred to a unit where appropriate expertise and facilities are available.  (+info)

Rupture of aortic aneurysm with right-sided haemothorax. (3/892)

A 62-yr-old male with a history of high blood pressure was admitted for persistent dyspnoea and a right-sided pleural effusion, complicated by a recent episode of shock. There was no history of trauma and the patient denied any thoracic pain. A chest tube was inserted which released nonclotting bloody fluid. A thoracic computed tomographic scan of the chest revealed an aneurysm of the inferior third of the descending thoracic aorta. The patient underwent a successful prosthetic graft replacement. We emphasize that rupture of aortic aneurysms should be considered in the evaluation of spontaneous haemothorax even if it is right-sided and not associated with pain.  (+info)

Frame dislocation of body middle rings in endovascular stent tube grafts. (4/892)

OBJECTIVES: To understand the cause, and propose a mechanism for frame dislocation in endovascular grafts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five tube grafts were explanted due to secondary distal leakage 15-21 months after operation. One bifurcated graft was removed during emergency operation after aortic rupture caused by secondary leakage. A second bifurcated graft was harvested from a patient with thrombotic occlusion of one limb, who died after transurethral prostatic resection. The inside of the grafts were examined endoscopically. The stent was inspected after removal of the fabric, broken ligatures were counted and examined by scanning electron microscopy. The fabric strength was tested by probe puncture. RESULTS: We found 17-44% of the stent ligatures of the body middle rings to be loose. The knots were intact. Degradation of the polyester textile was not observed. CONCLUSIONS: Continuous movements in the grafted aorta and blood pressure impose permanent stress to the stent frame and the polyester fabric resulting in morphological changes in the body middle ring of grafts. The clinical implications of the suture breakages are unknown although they may be related to distal secondary leakage in tube grafts.  (+info)

Acute renal impairment due to a primary aortocaval fistula is normalised after a successful operation. (5/892)

OBJECTIVES: To study renal function in patients with aortocaval fistula, before and after surgery. DESIGN: Retrospective study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: During the last 22 years nine male patients (median age 67, age range 50-72) with spontaneous aortocaval fistula in combination with AAA were operated upon. This constitutes 4% of the patients with ruptured AAA and 1.5% of all patients with AAA. RESULTS: A preoperative diagnosis of aortocaval fistula was established in three of the nine cases. The medium duration of symptoms prior to surgery was 5 days (range 4 h-14 days). The fistula was combined with an extravasating ruptured AAA in only three patients. Seven of the patients had acute renal insufficiency, with creatinine levels of in median 292 mumol (IQR 218-342). Creatinine declined to 172 mumol/l (IQR 170-313) on the fifth postoperative day in uncomplicated cases and to 86 mumol at discharge. One patient died due to multi-organ failure, whereas the other left hospital well and alive with normal renal function. CONCLUSION: Acute preoperative renal insufficiency due to an aortocaval fistula in patients with AAA is often due to venous congestion, and is normalised after successful surgery.  (+info)

Mortality in ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms. The Finnvasc Study Group. (6/892)

OBJECTIVE: To assess mortality related to rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysm (RAAA). DESIGN: A 4-year cross-sectional study based on a nationwide vascular registry Finnvasc and national cause-of-death registry (Statistics Finland). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 454 operations for RAAA among 11,747 surgical vascular reconstructions recorded in the Finnvasc registry and 1004 deaths due to RAAA during the same period based on Statistics Finland. RESULTS: The operative mortality rate was 49% based on the Finnvasc registry and 54% based on Statistics Finland. With all RAAA deaths at hospitals included, total hospital mortality was 68%. No association existed between hospital volume of RAAA operations and surgical mortality, although an inverse association did exist between hospital volume of RAAA operations and all RAAA deaths in the hospital (p = 0.01). The case fatality for RAAA in Finland was 80%. CONCLUSIONS: RAAA surgical mortality calculations for RAAA, based on a vascular registry, underestimate the true rate because some cases with fatal outcome tend to escape registration. Because surgical mortality rates may also be skewed by patient selection, total hospital RAAA mortality thus represents the results of RAAA treatment more accurately.  (+info)

Chronic aneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta presenting with right pleural effusion and left phrenic paralysis. (7/892)

A 62-year-old man was admitted to the emergency department with chronic dysphagia and lower back pain. Chest radiography revealed a wide mediastinal shadow and an elevated left diaphragm, which proved to be secondary to left phrenic paralysis. The patient was diagnosed with an aneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta and was admitted to the hospital. After the patient was admitted, the aneurysm ruptured into the right chest. The patient underwent an emergency operation to replace the ruptured segment with a synthetic graft. Postoperative recovery and follow-up were uneventful. This report describes an unusual presentation of a thoracic aortic aneurysm. Hemidiaphragmatic paralysis caused by compression of the phrenic nerve is an unusual complication that, to our knowledge, has not been previously reported.  (+info)

Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm in the Huntingdon district: a 10-year experience. (8/892)

A study was undertaken to establish the true incidence of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms (RAAA) in the Huntingdon districts. RAAAs in the Huntingdon district between 1986 and 1995 were studied retrospectively. Data were collected from hospital records and hospital and community autopsies. There was a total of 139 cases of RAAA; 119 were males and 20 females, giving a M:F ratio of 6:1. The incidence of RAAAs was 17.8/100,000 person years (py) in males and 3.0/100,000 py in females. Mean age at rupture was 75.5 years in men (95% confidence intervals (CI) 74-78 years) and 80.2 in women (95% CI 78.8-83 years). There was an age-specific increase in incidence after the age of 65 years in men and after 80 years in women, although 12.6% of all RAAAs occurred in men under 65 years. In all, 100 patients were confirmed to have died of RAAA during the 10-year period. This represents 79% of all ruptures discovered. Almost three-quarters of patients did not reach the operating theatre. Of the 61 patients operated on, 29 survived (48%). The size of the aneurysm at rupture was recorded in 68 cases (49%). The mean size was 8.14 cm (SD 2.0 cm). In five cases (7.4%), rupture occurred in AAAs smaller than 6 cm. The overall mortality from RAAA in Huntingdon health district is approximately 80% and three-quarters of all deaths occurred without an operation.  (+info)

Aortic rupture is a medical emergency that refers to the tearing or splitting of the aorta, which is the largest and main artery in the body. The aorta carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body. An aortic rupture can lead to life-threatening internal bleeding and requires immediate medical attention.

There are two types of aortic ruptures:

1. Aortic dissection: This occurs when there is a tear in the inner lining of the aorta, allowing blood to flow between the layers of the aortic wall. This can cause the aorta to bulge or split, leading to a rupture.
2. Thoracic aortic aneurysm rupture: An aneurysm is a weakened and bulging area in the aortic wall. When an aneurysm in the thoracic aorta (the part of the aorta that runs through the chest) ruptures, it can cause severe bleeding and other complications.

Risk factors for aortic rupture include high blood pressure, smoking, aging, family history of aortic disease, and certain genetic conditions such as Marfan syndrome or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Symptoms of an aortic rupture may include sudden severe chest or back pain, difficulty breathing, weakness, sweating, and loss of consciousness. Treatment typically involves emergency surgery to repair the aorta and control bleeding.

A rupture, in medical terms, refers to the breaking or tearing of an organ, tissue, or structure in the body. This can occur due to various reasons such as trauma, injury, increased pressure, or degeneration. A ruptured organ or structure can lead to serious complications, including internal bleeding, infection, and even death, if not treated promptly and appropriately. Examples of ruptures include a ruptured appendix, ruptured eardrum, or a ruptured disc in the spine.

In medical terms, deceleration refers to a decrease in the rate or speed of a physiological process or body function. It is often used in the context of fetal heart rate monitoring during labor and delivery, where a deceleration is a decrease in the fetal heart rate from its baseline level. Decelerations can be classified into early, late, and variable types based on their timing and shape, and they may indicate fetal distress or hypoxia if they are prolonged or severe. Other examples of deceleration in medical context include blood pressure deceleration during a surgical procedure or deceleration in the respiratory rate during anesthesia.

Aortography is a medical procedure that involves taking X-ray images of the aorta, which is the largest blood vessel in the body. The procedure is usually performed to diagnose or assess various conditions related to the aorta, such as aneurysms, dissections, or blockages.

To perform an aortography, a contrast dye is injected into the aorta through a catheter that is inserted into an artery, typically in the leg or arm. The contrast dye makes the aorta visible on X-ray images, allowing doctors to see its structure and any abnormalities that may be present.

The procedure is usually performed in a hospital or outpatient setting and may require sedation or anesthesia. While aortography can provide valuable diagnostic information, it also carries some risks, such as allergic reactions to the contrast dye, damage to blood vessels, or infection. Therefore, it is typically reserved for situations where other diagnostic tests have been inconclusive or where more invasive treatment may be required.

A dissecting aneurysm is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition that occurs when there is a tear in the inner layer of the artery wall, allowing blood to flow between the layers of the artery wall. This can cause the artery to bulge or balloon out, leading to a dissection aneurysm.

Dissecting aneurysms can occur in any artery, but they are most commonly found in the aorta, which is the largest artery in the body. When a dissecting aneurysm occurs in the aorta, it is often referred to as a "dissecting aortic aneurysm."

Dissecting aneurysms can be caused by various factors, including high blood pressure, atherosclerosis (hardening and narrowing of the arteries), genetic disorders that affect the connective tissue, trauma, or illegal drug use (such as cocaine).

Symptoms of a dissecting aneurysm may include sudden severe chest or back pain, which can feel like ripping or tearing, shortness of breath, sweating, lightheadedness, or loss of consciousness. If left untreated, a dissecting aneurysm can lead to serious complications, such as rupture of the artery, stroke, or even death.

Treatment for a dissecting aneurysm typically involves surgery or endovascular repair to prevent further damage and reduce the risk of rupture. The specific treatment approach will depend on various factors, including the location and size of the aneurysm, the patient's overall health, and their medical history.

A thoracic aortic aneurysm is a localized dilatation or bulging of the thoracic aorta, which is the part of the aorta that runs through the chest cavity. The aorta is the largest artery in the body, and it carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body.

Thoracic aortic aneurysms can occur anywhere along the thoracic aorta, but they are most commonly found in the aortic arch or the descending thoracic aorta. These aneurysms can vary in size, and they are considered significant when they are 50% larger than the expected normal diameter of the aorta.

The exact cause of thoracic aortic aneurysms is not fully understood, but several factors can contribute to their development, including:

* Atherosclerosis (hardening and narrowing of the arteries)
* High blood pressure
* Genetic disorders such as Marfan syndrome or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
* Infections or inflammation of the aorta
* Trauma to the chest

Thoracic aortic aneurysms can be asymptomatic and found incidentally on imaging studies, or they may present with symptoms such as chest pain, cough, difficulty swallowing, or hoarseness. If left untreated, thoracic aortic aneurysms can lead to serious complications, including aortic dissection (tearing of the inner layer of the aorta) or rupture, which can be life-threatening.

Treatment options for thoracic aortic aneurysms include medical management with blood pressure control and cholesterol-lowering medications, as well as surgical repair or endovascular stenting, depending on the size, location, and growth rate of the aneurysm. Regular follow-up imaging is necessary to monitor the size and progression of the aneurysm over time.

Blood vessel prosthesis implantation is a surgical procedure in which an artificial blood vessel, also known as a vascular graft or prosthetic graft, is inserted into the body to replace a damaged or diseased native blood vessel. The prosthetic graft can be made from various materials such as Dacron (polyester), PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene), or bovine/human tissue.

The implantation of a blood vessel prosthesis is typically performed to treat conditions that cause narrowing or blockage of the blood vessels, such as atherosclerosis, aneurysms, or traumatic injuries. The procedure may be used to bypass blocked arteries in the legs (peripheral artery disease), heart (coronary artery bypass surgery), or neck (carotid endarterectomy). It can also be used to replace damaged veins for hemodialysis access in patients with kidney failure.

The success of blood vessel prosthesis implantation depends on various factors, including the patient's overall health, the location and extent of the vascular disease, and the type of graft material used. Possible complications include infection, bleeding, graft thrombosis (clotting), and graft failure, which may require further surgical intervention or endovascular treatments.

Nonpenetrating wounds are a type of trauma or injury to the body that do not involve a break in the skin or underlying tissues. These wounds can result from blunt force trauma, such as being struck by an object or falling onto a hard surface. They can also result from crushing injuries, where significant force is applied to a body part, causing damage to internal structures without breaking the skin.

Nonpenetrating wounds can cause a range of injuries, including bruising, swelling, and damage to internal organs, muscles, bones, and other tissues. The severity of the injury depends on the force of the trauma, the location of the impact, and the individual's overall health and age.

While nonpenetrating wounds may not involve a break in the skin, they can still be serious and require medical attention. If you have experienced blunt force trauma or suspect a nonpenetrating wound, it is important to seek medical care to assess the extent of the injury and receive appropriate treatment.

Thoracic injuries refer to damages or traumas that occur in the thorax, which is the part of the body that contains the chest cavity. The thorax houses vital organs such as the heart, lungs, esophagus, trachea, and major blood vessels. Thoracic injuries can range from blunt trauma, caused by impacts or compressions, to penetrating trauma, resulting from stabbing or gunshot wounds. These injuries may cause various complications, including but not limited to:

1. Hemothorax - bleeding into the chest cavity
2. Pneumothorax - collapsed lung due to air accumulation in the chest cavity
3. Tension pneumothorax - a life-threatening condition where trapped air puts pressure on the heart and lungs, impairing their function
4. Cardiac tamponade - compression of the heart caused by blood or fluid accumulation in the pericardial sac
5. Rib fractures, which can lead to complications like punctured lungs or internal bleeding
6. Tracheobronchial injuries, causing air leaks and difficulty breathing
7. Great vessel injuries, potentially leading to massive hemorrhage and hemodynamic instability

Immediate medical attention is required for thoracic injuries, as they can quickly become life-threatening due to the vital organs involved. Treatment may include surgery, chest tubes, medications, or supportive care, depending on the severity and type of injury.

An aortic aneurysm is a medical condition characterized by the abnormal widening or bulging of the wall of the aorta, which is the largest artery in the body. The aorta carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body. When the aortic wall weakens, it can stretch and balloon out, forming an aneurysm.

Aortic aneurysms can occur anywhere along the aorta but are most commonly found in the abdominal section (abdominal aortic aneurysm) or the chest area (thoracic aortic aneurysm). The size and location of the aneurysm, as well as the patient's overall health, determine the risk of rupture and associated complications.

Aneurysms often do not cause symptoms until they become large or rupture. Symptoms may include:

* Pain in the chest, back, or abdomen
* Pulsating sensation in the abdomen
* Difficulty breathing
* Hoarseness
* Coughing or vomiting

Risk factors for aortic aneurysms include age, smoking, high blood pressure, family history, and certain genetic conditions. Treatment options depend on the size and location of the aneurysm and may include monitoring, medication, or surgical repair.

A splenic rupture is a medical condition characterized by a tear or complete breakage in the spleen, leading to the release of blood into the abdominal cavity. The spleen is a soft, fist-shaped organ located in the upper left part of the abdomen, which plays an essential role in filtering the blood and fighting infections.

Splenic rupture can occur as a result of trauma, such as a car accident or a direct blow to the abdomen, or it may develop spontaneously due to underlying medical conditions, such as cancer, infection, or inflammatory diseases. The severity of the rupture can vary from a small tear to a complete shattering of the spleen, leading to significant bleeding and potentially life-threatening complications.

Symptoms of splenic rupture may include sudden, severe pain in the left upper abdomen or shoulder, lightheadedness, dizziness, shortness of breath, rapid heartbeat, and decreased blood pressure. If left untreated, a splenic rupture can lead to shock, organ failure, and even death. Treatment typically involves surgery to remove the spleen (splenectomy) or repair the damage, followed by close monitoring and supportive care to manage any complications.

The thoracic aorta is the segment of the largest artery in the human body (the aorta) that runs through the chest region (thorax). The thoracic aorta begins at the aortic arch, where it branches off from the ascending aorta, and extends down to the diaphragm, where it becomes the abdominal aorta.

The thoracic aorta is divided into three parts: the ascending aorta, the aortic arch, and the descending aorta. The ascending aorta rises from the left ventricle of the heart and is about 2 inches (5 centimeters) long. The aortic arch curves backward and to the left, giving rise to the brachiocephalic trunk, the left common carotid artery, and the left subclavian artery. The descending thoracic aorta runs downward through the chest, passing through the diaphragm to become the abdominal aorta.

The thoracic aorta supplies oxygenated blood to the upper body, including the head, neck, arms, and chest. It plays a critical role in maintaining blood flow and pressure throughout the body.

A heart rupture, also known as cardiac rupture, is a serious and life-threatening condition that occurs when there is a tear or hole in the muscle wall of the heart. This can happen as a result of a severe injury to the heart, such as from a car accident or a fall, or it can occur as a complication of a heart attack.

During a heart attack, blood flow to a portion of the heart is blocked, causing the heart muscle to become damaged and die. If the damage is extensive, the weakened heart muscle may rupture, leading to bleeding into the pericardial sac (the space surrounding the heart) or into one of the heart chambers.

A heart rupture can cause sudden cardiac arrest and death if not treated immediately. Symptoms of a heart rupture may include chest pain, shortness of breath, rapid heartbeat, and loss of consciousness. Treatment typically involves emergency surgery to repair or replace the damaged portion of the heart.

Aortitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the aorta, which is the largest artery in the body that carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body. The inflammation can cause damage to the aortic wall, leading to weakening, bulging (aneurysm), or tearing (dissection) of the aorta. Aortitis can be caused by various conditions, including infections, autoimmune diseases, and certain medications. It is essential to diagnose and treat aortitis promptly to prevent serious complications.

An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a localized dilatation or bulging of the abdominal aorta, which is the largest artery in the body that supplies oxygenated blood to the trunk and lower extremities. Normally, the diameter of the abdominal aorta measures about 2 centimeters (cm) in adults. However, when the diameter of the aorta exceeds 3 cm, it is considered an aneurysm.

AAA can occur anywhere along the length of the abdominal aorta, but it most commonly occurs below the renal arteries and above the iliac bifurcation. The exact cause of AAA remains unclear, but several risk factors have been identified, including smoking, hypertension, advanced age, male gender, family history, and certain genetic disorders such as Marfan syndrome and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

The main concern with AAA is the risk of rupture, which can lead to life-threatening internal bleeding. The larger the aneurysm, the greater the risk of rupture. Symptoms of AAA may include abdominal or back pain, a pulsating mass in the abdomen, or symptoms related to compression of surrounding structures such as the kidneys, ureters, or nerves. However, many AAAs are asymptomatic and are discovered incidentally during imaging studies performed for other reasons.

Diagnosis of AAA typically involves imaging tests such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) scan, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Treatment options depend on the size and location of the aneurysm, as well as the patient's overall health status. Small AAAs that are not causing symptoms may be monitored with regular imaging studies to assess for growth. Larger AAAs or those that are growing rapidly may require surgical repair, either through open surgery or endovascular repair using a stent graft.

A blood vessel prosthesis is a medical device that is used as a substitute for a damaged or diseased natural blood vessel. It is typically made of synthetic materials such as polyester, Dacron, or ePTFE (expanded polytetrafluoroethylene) and is designed to mimic the function of a native blood vessel by allowing the flow of blood through it.

Blood vessel prostheses are used in various surgical procedures, including coronary artery bypass grafting, peripheral arterial reconstruction, and the creation of arteriovenous fistulas for dialysis access. The choice of material and size of the prosthesis depends on several factors, such as the location and diameter of the vessel being replaced, the patient's age and overall health status, and the surgeon's preference.

It is important to note that while blood vessel prostheses can be effective in restoring blood flow, they may also carry risks such as infection, thrombosis (blood clot formation), and graft failure over time. Therefore, careful patient selection, surgical technique, and postoperative management are crucial for the success of these procedures.

Uterine rupture is a serious obstetrical complication characterized by the disruption or tearing of all layers of the uterine wall, including the serosa (outer covering), myometrium (middle layer of muscle), and endometrium (inner lining). This can occur during pregnancy, labor, or delivery. In some cases, it may also involve the rupture of the adjacent structures such as bladder or broad ligament. Uterine rupture is a medical emergency that requires immediate surgical intervention to prevent maternal and fetal mortality or morbidity.

The symptoms of uterine rupture might include severe abdominal pain, vaginal bleeding, loss of fetal heart rate, changes in the mother's vital signs, and shock. The risk factors for uterine rupture include previous cesarean delivery, grand multiparity (having given birth to five or more pregnancies), use of labor-inducing drugs like oxytocin, and instrumental deliveries with vacuum extractors or forceps.

The management of uterine rupture typically involves an emergency laparotomy (open abdominal surgery) to repair the tear and stop any bleeding. In some cases, a hysterectomy (removal of the uterus) may be necessary if the damage is too severe or if there are other complications. The prognosis for both mother and baby depends on various factors like the extent of the injury, timeliness of treatment, and the overall health status of the patient before the event.

A stent is a small mesh tube that's used to treat narrow or weak arteries. Arteries are blood vessels that carry blood away from your heart to other parts of your body. A stent is placed in an artery as part of a procedure called angioplasty. Angioplasty restores blood flow through narrowed or blocked arteries by inflating a tiny balloon inside the blocked artery to widen it.

The stent is then inserted into the widened artery to keep it open. The stent is usually made of metal, but some are coated with medication that is slowly and continuously released to help prevent the formation of scar tissue in the artery. This can reduce the chance of the artery narrowing again.

Stents are also used in other parts of the body, such as the neck (carotid artery) and kidneys (renal artery), to help maintain blood flow and prevent blockages. They can also be used in the urinary system to treat conditions like ureteropelvic junction obstruction or narrowing of the urethra.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

A false aneurysm, also known as a pseudoaneurysm, is a type of aneurysm that occurs when there is a leakage or rupture of blood from a blood vessel into the surrounding tissues, creating a pulsating hematoma or collection of blood. Unlike true aneurysms, which involve a localized dilation or bulging of the blood vessel wall, false aneurysms do not have a complete covering of all three layers of the arterial wall (intima, media, and adventitia). Instead, they are typically covered by only one or two layers, such as the intima and adventitia, or by surrounding tissues like connective tissue or fascia.

False aneurysms can result from various factors, including trauma, infection, iatrogenic causes (such as medical procedures), or degenerative changes in the blood vessel wall. They are more common in arteries than veins and can occur in any part of the body. If left untreated, false aneurysms can lead to serious complications such as rupture, thrombosis, distal embolization, or infection. Treatment options for false aneurysms include surgical repair, endovascular procedures, or observation with regular follow-up imaging.

Aortic diseases refer to conditions that affect the aorta, which is the largest and main artery in the body. The aorta carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body. Aortic diseases can weaken or damage the aorta, leading to various complications. Here are some common aortic diseases with their medical definitions:

1. Aortic aneurysm: A localized dilation or bulging of the aortic wall, which can occur in any part of the aorta but is most commonly found in the abdominal aorta (abdominal aortic aneurysm) or the thoracic aorta (thoracic aortic aneurysm). Aneurysms can increase the risk of rupture, leading to life-threatening bleeding.
2. Aortic dissection: A separation of the layers of the aortic wall due to a tear in the inner lining, allowing blood to flow between the layers and potentially cause the aorta to rupture. This is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment.
3. Aortic stenosis: A narrowing of the aortic valve opening, which restricts blood flow from the heart to the aorta. This can lead to shortness of breath, chest pain, and other symptoms. Severe aortic stenosis may require surgical or transcatheter intervention to replace or repair the aortic valve.
4. Aortic regurgitation: Also known as aortic insufficiency, this condition occurs when the aortic valve does not close properly, allowing blood to leak back into the heart. This can lead to symptoms such as fatigue, shortness of breath, and palpitations. Treatment may include medication or surgical repair or replacement of the aortic valve.
5. Aortitis: Inflammation of the aorta, which can be caused by various conditions such as infections, autoimmune diseases, or vasculitides. Aortitis can lead to aneurysms, dissections, or stenosis and may require medical treatment with immunosuppressive drugs or surgical intervention.
6. Marfan syndrome: A genetic disorder that affects the connective tissue, including the aorta. People with Marfan syndrome are at risk of developing aortic aneurysms and dissections, and may require close monitoring and prophylactic surgery to prevent complications.

Vascular surgical procedures are operations that are performed to treat conditions and diseases related to the vascular system, which includes the arteries, veins, and capillaries. These procedures can be invasive or minimally invasive and are often used to treat conditions such as peripheral artery disease, carotid artery stenosis, aortic aneurysms, and venous insufficiency.

Some examples of vascular surgical procedures include:

* Endarterectomy: a procedure to remove plaque buildup from the inside of an artery
* Bypass surgery: creating a new path for blood to flow around a blocked or narrowed artery
* Angioplasty and stenting: using a balloon to open a narrowed artery and placing a stent to keep it open
* Aneurysm repair: surgically repairing an aneurysm, a weakened area in the wall of an artery that has bulged out and filled with blood
* Embolectomy: removing a blood clot from a blood vessel
* Thrombectomy: removing a blood clot from a vein

These procedures are typically performed by vascular surgeons, who are trained in the diagnosis and treatment of vascular diseases.

A medical definition of an ulcer is:

A lesion on the skin or mucous membrane characterized by disintegration of surface epithelium, inflammation, and is associated with the loss of substance below the normal lining. Gastric ulcers and duodenal ulcers are types of peptic ulcers that occur in the gastrointestinal tract.

Another type of ulcer is a venous ulcer, which occurs when there is reduced blood flow from vein insufficiency, usually in the lower leg. This can cause skin damage and lead to an open sore or ulcer.

There are other types of ulcers as well, including decubitus ulcers (also known as pressure sores or bedsores), which are caused by prolonged pressure on the skin.

Post-infarction heart rupture is a serious and potentially fatal complication that can occur after a myocardial infarction (heart attack). It is defined as the disruption or tearing of the heart muscle (myocardium) in the area that was damaged by the heart attack. This condition typically occurs within 1 to 7 days following a heart attack, and it's more common in elderly patients and those with large infarctions.

There are three main types of post-infarction heart rupture:

1. Ventricular free wall rupture: This is the most common type, where there is a tear in the left ventricular wall, leading to rapid bleeding into the pericardial sac (the space surrounding the heart). This can cause cardiac tamponade, which is a life-threatening situation characterized by increased pressure in the pericardial sac, compromising cardiac filling and reducing cardiac output.

2. Ventricular septal rupture: In this case, there is a tear in the interventricular septum (the wall separating the left and right ventricles), leading to a communication between the two chambers. This results in a shunt of blood from the high-pressure left ventricle to the low-pressure right ventricle, causing a sudden increase in pulmonary congestion and reduced systemic output.

3. Papillary muscle rupture: The papillary muscles are finger-like projections that attach the heart valves (mitral and tricuspid) to the ventricular walls. Rupture of these muscles can lead to severe mitral or tricuspid regurgitation, causing acute pulmonary edema and reduced cardiac output.

Symptoms of post-infarction heart rupture may include chest pain, shortness of breath, palpitations, hypotension, tachycardia, and signs of cardiogenic shock (such as cold sweats, weak pulse, and altered mental status). Diagnosis is typically made using echocardiography, CT angiography, or MRI. Treatment usually involves emergency surgical intervention to repair the rupture and stabilize the patient's hemodynamic condition.

A fatal outcome is a term used in medical context to describe a situation where a disease, injury, or illness results in the death of an individual. It is the most severe and unfortunate possible outcome of any medical condition, and is often used as a measure of the severity and prognosis of various diseases and injuries. In clinical trials and research, fatal outcome may be used as an endpoint to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of different treatments or interventions.

Premature rupture of fetal membranes (PROM) is a medical condition that occurs when the amniotic sac, which surrounds and protects the developing fetus, breaks or ruptures prematurely before labor begins. The amniotic sac is made up of two layers of fetal membranes - the inner amnion and the outer chorion.

In a normal pregnancy, the fetal membranes rupture spontaneously during labor as a sign that the delivery process has begun. However, if the membranes rupture before 37 weeks of gestation, it is considered premature rupture of membranes. PROM can lead to complications such as preterm labor, infection, and fetal distress.

PROM can be classified into two types based on the timing of membrane rupture:

1. Preterm Premature Rupture of Membranes (PPROM): When the membranes rupture before 37 weeks of gestation, it is called preterm premature rupture of membranes. PPROM increases the risk of preterm labor and delivery, which can lead to various complications for the newborn, such as respiratory distress syndrome, brain bleeding, and developmental delays.
2. Term Premature Rupture of Membranes (TPROM): When the membranes rupture at or after 37 weeks of gestation, it is called term premature rupture of membranes. TPROM may not necessarily lead to complications if labor begins soon after the membrane rupture and there are no signs of infection. However, if labor does not start within 24 hours of membrane rupture, the risk of infection increases, and the healthcare provider may consider inducing labor or performing a cesarean delivery.

The exact cause of premature rupture of fetal membranes is not always known, but several factors can increase the risk, including previous PROM, bacterial infections, smoking, substance abuse, and trauma to the uterus. Healthcare providers monitor women with PROM closely for signs of infection and preterm labor and may recommend treatments such as antibiotics, corticosteroids, or hospitalization to reduce the risk of complications.

The abdominal aorta is the portion of the aorta, which is the largest artery in the body, that runs through the abdomen. It originates from the thoracic aorta at the level of the diaphragm and descends through the abdomen, where it branches off into several smaller arteries that supply blood to the pelvis, legs, and various abdominal organs. The abdominal aorta is typically divided into four segments: the suprarenal, infrarenal, visceral, and parietal portions. Disorders of the abdominal aorta can include aneurysms, atherosclerosis, and dissections, which can have serious consequences if left untreated.

Traffic accidents are incidents that occur when a vehicle collides with another vehicle, a pedestrian, an animal, or a stationary object, resulting in damage or injury. These accidents can be caused by various factors such as driver error, distracted driving, drunk driving, speeding, reckless driving, poor road conditions, and adverse weather conditions. Traffic accidents can range from minor fender benders to severe crashes that result in serious injuries or fatalities. They are a significant public health concern and cause a substantial burden on healthcare systems, emergency services, and society as a whole.

Minimally invasive surgical procedures are a type of surgery that is performed with the assistance of specialized equipment and techniques to minimize trauma to the patient's body. This approach aims to reduce blood loss, pain, and recovery time as compared to traditional open surgeries. The most common minimally invasive surgical procedure is laparoscopy, which involves making small incisions (usually 0.5-1 cm) in the abdomen or chest and inserting a thin tube with a camera (laparoscope) to visualize the internal organs.

The surgeon then uses long, slender instruments inserted through separate incisions to perform the necessary surgical procedures, such as cutting, coagulation, or suturing. Other types of minimally invasive surgical procedures include arthroscopy (for joint surgery), thoracoscopy (for chest surgery), and hysteroscopy (for uterine surgery). The benefits of minimally invasive surgical procedures include reduced postoperative pain, shorter hospital stays, quicker return to normal activities, and improved cosmetic results. However, not all surgeries can be performed using minimally invasive techniques, and the suitability of a particular procedure depends on various factors, including the patient's overall health, the nature and extent of the surgical problem, and the surgeon's expertise.

A hematoma is defined as a localized accumulation of blood in a tissue, organ, or body space caused by a break in the wall of a blood vessel. This can result from various causes such as trauma, surgery, or certain medical conditions that affect coagulation. The severity and size of a hematoma may vary depending on the location and extent of the bleeding. Symptoms can include swelling, pain, bruising, and decreased mobility in the affected area. Treatment options depend on the size and location of the hematoma but may include observation, compression, ice, elevation, or in some cases, surgical intervention.

Endovascular procedures are minimally invasive medical treatments that involve accessing and repairing blood vessels or other interior parts of the body through small incisions or punctures. These procedures typically use specialized catheters, wires, and other tools that are inserted into the body through an artery or vein, usually in the leg or arm.

Endovascular procedures can be used to treat a wide range of conditions, including aneurysms, atherosclerosis, peripheral artery disease, carotid artery stenosis, and other vascular disorders. Some common endovascular procedures include angioplasty, stenting, embolization, and thrombectomy.

The benefits of endovascular procedures over traditional open surgery include smaller incisions, reduced trauma to surrounding tissues, faster recovery times, and lower risks of complications such as infection and bleeding. However, endovascular procedures may not be appropriate for all patients or conditions, and careful evaluation and consideration are necessary to determine the best treatment approach.

Spontaneous rupture in medical terms refers to the sudden breaking or tearing of an organ, tissue, or structure within the body without any identifiable trauma or injury. This event can occur due to various reasons such as weakening of the tissue over time because of disease or degeneration, or excessive pressure on the tissue.

For instance, a spontaneous rupture of the appendix is called an "appendiceal rupture," which can lead to peritonitis, a serious inflammation of the abdominal cavity. Similarly, a spontaneous rupture of a blood vessel, like an aortic aneurysm, can result in life-threatening internal bleeding.

Spontaneous ruptures are often medical emergencies and require immediate medical attention for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

A reoperation is a surgical procedure that is performed again on a patient who has already undergone a previous operation for the same or related condition. Reoperations may be required due to various reasons, such as inadequate initial treatment, disease recurrence, infection, or complications from the first surgery. The nature and complexity of a reoperation can vary widely depending on the specific circumstances, but it often carries higher risks and potential complications compared to the original operation.

An acute disease is a medical condition that has a rapid onset, develops quickly, and tends to be short in duration. Acute diseases can range from minor illnesses such as a common cold or flu, to more severe conditions such as pneumonia, meningitis, or a heart attack. These types of diseases often have clear symptoms that are easy to identify, and they may require immediate medical attention or treatment.

Acute diseases are typically caused by an external agent or factor, such as a bacterial or viral infection, a toxin, or an injury. They can also be the result of a sudden worsening of an existing chronic condition. In general, acute diseases are distinct from chronic diseases, which are long-term medical conditions that develop slowly over time and may require ongoing management and treatment.

Examples of acute diseases include:

* Acute bronchitis: a sudden inflammation of the airways in the lungs, often caused by a viral infection.
* Appendicitis: an inflammation of the appendix that can cause severe pain and requires surgical removal.
* Gastroenteritis: an inflammation of the stomach and intestines, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.
* Migraine headaches: intense headaches that can last for hours or days, and are often accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light and sound.
* Myocardial infarction (heart attack): a sudden blockage of blood flow to the heart muscle, often caused by a buildup of plaque in the coronary arteries.
* Pneumonia: an infection of the lungs that can cause coughing, chest pain, and difficulty breathing.
* Sinusitis: an inflammation of the sinuses, often caused by a viral or bacterial infection.

It's important to note that while some acute diseases may resolve on their own with rest and supportive care, others may require medical intervention or treatment to prevent complications and promote recovery. If you are experiencing symptoms of an acute disease, it is always best to seek medical attention to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

A ruptured aneurysm is a serious medical condition that occurs when the wall of an artery or a blood vessel weakens and bulges out, forming an aneurysm, which then bursts, causing bleeding into the surrounding tissue. This can lead to internal hemorrhage, organ damage, and even death, depending on the location and severity of the rupture.

Ruptured aneurysms are often caused by factors such as high blood pressure, smoking, aging, and genetic predisposition. They can occur in any part of the body but are most common in the aorta (the largest artery in the body) and the cerebral arteries (in the brain).

Symptoms of a ruptured aneurysm may include sudden and severe pain, weakness or paralysis, difficulty breathing, confusion, loss of consciousness, and shock. Immediate medical attention is required to prevent further complications and increase the chances of survival. Treatment options for a ruptured aneurysm may include surgery, endovascular repair, or medication to manage symptoms and prevent further bleeding.

The aorta is the largest artery in the human body, which originates from the left ventricle of the heart and carries oxygenated blood to the rest of the body. It can be divided into several parts, including the ascending aorta, aortic arch, and descending aorta. The ascending aorta gives rise to the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle. The aortic arch gives rise to the brachiocephalic, left common carotid, and left subclavian arteries, which supply blood to the head, neck, and upper extremities. The descending aorta travels through the thorax and abdomen, giving rise to various intercostal, visceral, and renal arteries that supply blood to the chest wall, organs, and kidneys.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

A stomach rupture, also known as gastrointestinal perforation, is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition that occurs when there is a hole or tear in the lining of the stomach. This can allow the contents of the stomach to leak into the abdominal cavity, causing inflammation and infection (peritonitis).

Stomach rupture can be caused by several factors, including trauma, severe gastritis or ulcers, tumors, or certain medical procedures. Symptoms may include sudden and severe abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, and decreased bowel sounds. If left untreated, stomach rupture can lead to sepsis, organ failure, and even death. Treatment typically involves surgery to repair the perforation and antibiotics to treat any resulting infection.

Tendon injuries, also known as tendinopathies, refer to the damage or injury of tendons, which are strong bands of tissue that connect muscles to bones. Tendon injuries typically occur due to overuse or repetitive motion, causing micro-tears in the tendon fibers. The most common types of tendon injuries include tendinitis, which is inflammation of the tendon, and tendinosis, which is degeneration of the tendon's collagen.

Tendon injuries can cause pain, swelling, stiffness, and limited mobility in the affected area. The severity of the injury can vary from mild discomfort to severe pain that makes it difficult to move the affected joint. Treatment for tendon injuries may include rest, ice, compression, elevation (RICE) therapy, physical therapy, medication, or in some cases, surgery. Preventing tendon injuries involves warming up properly before exercise, using proper form and technique during physical activity, gradually increasing the intensity and duration of workouts, and taking regular breaks to rest and recover.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

Hemoperitoneum is a medical condition characterized by the presence of blood in the peritoneal cavity, which is the space between the lining of the abdominal wall and the organs within it. This can occur due to various reasons such as trauma, rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm, ectopic pregnancy, or other conditions that cause bleeding into the abdomen.

The accumulation of blood in the peritoneal cavity can lead to symptoms such as abdominal pain, tenderness, distension, and hypovolemic shock due to blood loss. Hemoperitoneum is a serious medical condition that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment to prevent further complications.

The Achilles tendon, also known as the calcaneal tendon, is a strong band of tissue that connects the calf muscles to the heel bone (calcaneus). It plays a crucial role in enabling activities such as walking, running, and jumping by facilitating the movement of the foot downward, which is called plantar flexion. Injuries to the Achilles tendon, such as tendinitis or ruptures, can be quite painful and impact mobility.

An intracranial aneurysm is a localized, blood-filled dilation or bulging in the wall of a cerebral artery within the skull (intracranial). These aneurysms typically occur at weak points in the arterial walls, often at branching points where the vessel divides into smaller branches. Over time, the repeated pressure from blood flow can cause the vessel wall to weaken and balloon out, forming a sac-like structure. Intracranial aneurysms can vary in size, ranging from a few millimeters to several centimeters in diameter.

There are three main types of intracranial aneurysms:

1. Saccular (berry) aneurysm: This is the most common type, characterized by a round or oval shape with a narrow neck and a bulging sac. They usually develop at branching points in the arteries due to congenital weaknesses in the vessel wall.
2. Fusiform aneurysm: These aneurysms have a dilated segment along the length of the artery, forming a cigar-shaped or spindle-like structure. They are often caused by atherosclerosis and can affect any part of the cerebral arteries.
3. Dissecting aneurysm: This type occurs when there is a tear in the inner lining (intima) of the artery, allowing blood to flow between the layers of the vessel wall. It can lead to narrowing or complete blockage of the affected artery and may cause subarachnoid hemorrhage if it ruptures.

Intracranial aneurysms can be asymptomatic and discovered incidentally during imaging studies for other conditions. However, when they grow larger or rupture, they can lead to severe complications such as subarachnoid hemorrhage, stroke, or even death. Treatment options include surgical clipping, endovascular coiling, or flow diversion techniques to prevent further growth and potential rupture of the aneurysm.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Economics, Nursing" is not a standard medical or nursing term or concept. Economics is the social science that deals with the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, while nursing is a field of healthcare concerned with the care of individuals, families, and communities to achieve, maintain, or recover optimal health and quality of life.

If you're looking for information on how economics intersects with nursing or healthcare more broadly, there is a subfield of study known as "health economics" that examines issues related to the financing, delivery, and consumption of healthcare resources. However, I would need more context to provide a more specific definition or explanation.

Lactation is the process by which milk is produced and secreted from the mammary glands of female mammals, including humans, for the nourishment of their young. This physiological function is initiated during pregnancy and continues until it is deliberately stopped or weaned off. The primary purpose of lactation is to provide essential nutrients, antibodies, and other bioactive components that support the growth, development, and immune system of newborns and infants.

The process of lactation involves several hormonal and physiological changes in a woman's body. During pregnancy, the hormones estrogen and progesterone stimulate the growth and development of the mammary glands. After childbirth, the levels of these hormones drop significantly, allowing another hormone called prolactin to take over. Prolactin is responsible for triggering the production of milk in the alveoli, which are tiny sacs within the breast tissue.

Another hormone, oxytocin, plays a crucial role in the release or "let-down" of milk from the alveoli to the nipple during lactation. This reflex is initiated by suckling or thinking about the baby, which sends signals to the brain to release oxytocin. The released oxytocin then binds to receptors in the mammary glands, causing the smooth muscles around the alveoli to contract and push out the milk through the ducts and into the nipple.

Lactation is a complex and highly regulated process that ensures the optimal growth and development of newborns and infants. It provides not only essential nutrients but also various bioactive components, such as immunoglobulins, enzymes, and growth factors, which protect the infant from infections and support their immune system.

In summary, lactation is the physiological process by which milk is produced and secreted from the mammary glands of female mammals for the nourishment of their young. It involves hormonal changes, including the actions of prolactin, oxytocin, estrogen, and progesterone, to regulate the production, storage, and release of milk.

An algorithm is not a medical term, but rather a concept from computer science and mathematics. In the context of medicine, algorithms are often used to describe step-by-step procedures for diagnosing or managing medical conditions. These procedures typically involve a series of rules or decision points that help healthcare professionals make informed decisions about patient care.

For example, an algorithm for diagnosing a particular type of heart disease might involve taking a patient's medical history, performing a physical exam, ordering certain diagnostic tests, and interpreting the results in a specific way. By following this algorithm, healthcare professionals can ensure that they are using a consistent and evidence-based approach to making a diagnosis.

Algorithms can also be used to guide treatment decisions. For instance, an algorithm for managing diabetes might involve setting target blood sugar levels, recommending certain medications or lifestyle changes based on the patient's individual needs, and monitoring the patient's response to treatment over time.

Overall, algorithms are valuable tools in medicine because they help standardize clinical decision-making and ensure that patients receive high-quality care based on the latest scientific evidence.

Colorectal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the colon or rectum, which can be benign or malignant. These growths can arise from the inner lining (mucosa) of the colon or rectum and can take various forms such as polyps, adenomas, or carcinomas.

Benign neoplasms, such as hyperplastic polyps and inflammatory polyps, are not cancerous but may need to be removed to prevent the development of malignant tumors. Adenomas, on the other hand, are precancerous lesions that can develop into colorectal cancer if left untreated.

Colorectal cancer is a malignant neoplasm that arises from the uncontrolled growth and division of cells in the colon or rectum. It is one of the most common types of cancer worldwide and can spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system.

Regular screening for colorectal neoplasms is recommended for individuals over the age of 50, as early detection and removal of precancerous lesions can significantly reduce the risk of developing colorectal cancer.

Health care costs refer to the expenses incurred for medical services, treatments, procedures, and products that are used to maintain or restore an individual's health. These costs can be categorized into several types:

1. Direct costs: These include payments made for doctor visits, hospital stays, medications, diagnostic tests, surgeries, and other medical treatments and services. Direct costs can be further divided into two subcategories:
* Out-of-pocket costs: Expenses paid directly by patients, such as co-payments, deductibles, coinsurance, and any uncovered medical services or products.
* Third-party payer costs: Expenses covered by insurance companies, government programs (like Medicare, Medicaid), or other entities that pay for health care services on behalf of patients.
2. Indirect costs: These are the expenses incurred as a result of illness or injury that indirectly impact an individual's ability to work and earn a living. Examples include lost productivity, absenteeism, reduced earning capacity, and disability benefits.
3. Non-medical costs: These are expenses related to caregiving, transportation, home modifications, assistive devices, and other non-medical services required for managing health conditions or disabilities.

Health care costs can vary significantly depending on factors such as the type of medical service, geographic location, insurance coverage, and individual health status. Understanding these costs is essential for patients, healthcare providers, policymakers, and researchers to make informed decisions about treatment options, resource allocation, and health system design.

Costs refer to the total amount of resources, such as money, time, and labor, that are expended in the provision of a medical service or treatment. Costs can be categorized into direct costs, which include expenses directly related to patient care, such as medication, supplies, and personnel; and indirect costs, which include overhead expenses, such as rent, utilities, and administrative salaries.

Cost analysis is the process of estimating and evaluating the total cost of a medical service or treatment. This involves identifying and quantifying all direct and indirect costs associated with the provision of care, and analyzing how these costs may vary based on factors such as patient volume, resource utilization, and reimbursement rates.

Cost analysis is an important tool for healthcare organizations to understand the financial implications of their operations and make informed decisions about resource allocation, pricing strategies, and quality improvement initiatives. It can also help policymakers and payers evaluate the cost-effectiveness of different treatment options and develop evidence-based guidelines for clinical practice.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

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The condition can be mimicked by a ruptured cyst of the pericardium, ruptured aortic aneurysm and acute coronary syndrome. ... 2007). "Thoracic aortic aneurysm: direct sign of rupture". Cardiovasc J Afr. 18 (3): 180-1. PMID 17612751. Nishigami K, ... These include aortic dissection, intramural thrombus, and penetrating atherosclerotic aortic ulcer. AAS can be caused by a ... Macura, KJ; Corl FM; Fishman EK; Bluemke DA (1 August 2003). "Pathogenesis in acute aortic syndromes: aortic dissection, ...
a ruptured aortic aneurysm. a ruptured renal aneurysm. acute pancreatitis.[citation needed] malignancy. Retroperitoneal bleeds ... A Clinical Sign of a Forthcoming Life-Threatening Rupture of an Intraparenchymal Aneurysm of Renal Artery (Wunderlich's ...
The wall strength of ruptured aneurysmal aortic wall was also found to be 54.2 N/cm2, which is much lower than that of a ... The aorta, namely aortic aneurysms including thoracic aortic aneurysms and abdominal aortic aneurysms. The brain, including ... Charles de Gaulle, who died from a ruptured aneurysm within his neck Richard Holbrooke, who died from a thoracic aortic ... Lucille Ball, who died from an aortic rupture in the abdominal area days after having undergone apparently successful heart ...
He died unexpectedly from an aortic rupture. He was elected in 1972 a member of the United States National Academy of Sciences ...
Mary Wells Ashworth, 89, American historian, aortic rupture. Hans F. Koenekamp, 100, American special effects artist and ...
Rula Quawas, 57, Jordanian feminist academic, aortic rupture. Luis María Ramírez Boettner, 99, Paraguayan lawyer and diplomat, ... Red West, 81, American actor and stuntman (Walking Tall, Road House, The Wild Wild West), aortic aneurysm. Torvild Aakvaag, 90 ...
Viewegh survived a traumatic aortic rupture in 2012. Michal Viewegh was born in Prague on March 31, 1962. His mother is a ... Můj život po životě (My Life After Life), published in 2013, details his recovery from his ruptured aorta. Since the ruptured ... Viewegh said that when he thinks about the fact that 90% of people with a ruptured aorta do not survive, he does not worry ... On December 12, 2012, Viewegh suffered a traumatic aorta rupture. He suffered from depression and memory loss during his ...
Bobsam Elejiko, 30, Nigerian footballer, traumatic aortic rupture. Guido Falaschi, 22, Argentine racing driver, racing accident ... "Hickstead died of ruptured aorta". The Globe and Mail. September 6, 2012. "Hal Kanter dies at 92; Emmy-winning comedy writer, ... Louis Cardinals), aortic aneurysm. H. G. Francis, 75, German science fiction author. Guo Tao, 85, Chinese lieutenant general. ... ruptured aorta. Hal Kanter, 92, American screenwriter, director and producer (Julia), complications from pneumonia. Peretz ...
Manila, 26, American Thoroughbred racehorse, aortic ring rupture. Miguel Serrano, 91, Chilean poet, diplomat and neo-Nazi, ... Spanish) Lux Interior, 62, American singer, songwriter and musician (The Cramps), aortic dissection. Ed Schwartz, 62, American ...
Bruce Beeby, 91, Australian actor (Journey into Space). Thomas Blondeau, 35, Flemish writer and poet, aortic rupture. Jovanka ... Tomoyuki Dan, 50, Japanese actor (Kamen Rider W) and voice actor (Naruto, Mobile Suit Victory Gundam), aortic dissection. ...
Austrian, Robert (April 1, 1957). "Pneumococcal Endocarditis, Meningitis, and Rupture of the Aortic Valve". Archives of ...
In February 2019, Lindholm suddenly died following an aortic rupture. (For Olli Lindholm discography with Yö, refer to the ...
Jón Páll Sigmarsson, 32, Icelandic bodybuilder and strongman, aortic rupture. Đoko Slijepčević, 85, Serbian historian. Svetozar ...
Harris' father died in 1993 after having a aortic rupture. Harris' mother then lived with her for 21 years until her death in ...
The autopsy revealed Dajo had died of an aortic rupture.[better source needed] • «Mirin Dajo. Leben, Glaube, Tod, ...
Griffin, 85, died from a ruptured aortic aneurysm. She was in rehearsals for a new solo show about Margaret Mitchell that would ...
Cohen, J.R.; Graver, L.M. (November 1995). "The ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm of Albert Einstein". Surgery, Gynecology & ...
Cohen, J. R.; Graver, L. M. (November 1995). "The ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm of Albert Einstein". Surgery, Gynecology ... Einstein experienced internal bleeding caused by the rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm, which had previously been ... Albert Einstein Dies in Sleep at 76; World Mourns Loss of Great Scientist, Rupture of Aorta Causes Death, Body Cremated, ... Deaths from abdominal aortic aneurysm, Einstein family, ETH Zurich alumni, Academic staff of ETH Zurich, European democratic ...
Qi Qian; Kianoush B. Kashani; Dylan V. Miller (10 September 2009). "Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm related to IgG4 ... Satomi Kasashima; Yoh Zen (26 January 2011). "IgG4-related Inflammatory Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm, Spectrum of IgG4-related ...
Sergey Dorenko, 59, Russian journalist and news presenter (Vremya), aortic rupture. Dave Edstrom, 80, American decathlete, Pan ... Andrei Guzienko, 55, Ukrainian footballer (Alga Frunze, Prykarpattya Ivano-Frankivsk, Bukovyna Chernivtsi), ruptured aneurysm. ...
Masakane Yonekura, 80, actor and stage director, abdominal aortic aneurysm rupture. September 4 - Ichirō Satsuki, 95, rōkyoku ...
He died on February 28, 2009, due to "Aortic Ring Rupture". Manila's 1987 Arlington Million "Manila". Racingmuseum.org. 2008-01 ...
It may cause aortic regurgitation, thoracic aortic dissection, aneurysm and rupture. It is often associated with connective ... In tertiary syphilis the aortic root becomes so dilated that the aortic valve becomes incompetent and cor bovinum results. The ... "Orphanet: Familial aortic dissection". Orpha.net. Retrieved 29 May 2019. Elgendy, Azza. "Annuloaortic ectasia , Radiology ... Annuloaortic ectasia is a dilation of the proximal ascending aorta and aortic annulus. ...
Subsequent reports identified aortic rupture as the cause of Dorenko's death. It was reported that Dorenko had been aware of ...
Reinert died on January 24, 2020, due to an aortic rupture. Many artists have cited Reinert as an influence, including Peter ...
Aneurysm may also rupture. It is fragile and may burst under stress. The rupture of an aortic aneurysm is a catastrophic, life- ... Inflammatory aortic aneurysm (IAA), also known as Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA), is a type of abdominal aortic ... abdominal aortic aneurysm may be caused by an infection or inflammation that weakens a section of the aortic wall. In general, ... "Infected aortic aneurysm and inflammatory aortic aneurysm-In search of an optimal differential diagnosis". Journal of ...
Christine Dacera, 23, Filipino flight attendant, ruptured aortic aneurysm. Carrie Dann, 88, American Western Shoshone ... Carlos do Carmo, 81, Portuguese fado singer ("Uma flor de verde pinho"), ruptured aneurysm. Ben Chafin, 60, American politician ... Mike Reese, 42, American politician, member of the Pennsylvania House of Representatives (since 2009), ruptured brain aneurysm ... Carlos Joseph, 40, American football player (San Diego Chargers, Manchester Wolves), ruptured brain aneurysm. Sid Lerner, 90, ...
... ruptured stomach aortic artery. Danny Steinmann, 70, American film director (Friday the 13th: A New Beginning). Jim Whalen, 69 ...
Aortic rupture is the rupture or breakage of the aorta, the largest artery in the body. Aortic rupture is a rare, extremely ... The most common cause is an abdominal aortic aneurysm that has ruptured spontaneously. Aortic rupture is distinct from aortic ... Traumatic aortic rupture Aortic rupture secondary to an aortic aneurysm Tearing pain, located in the abdomen, flank, groin, or ... Death The most common cause of aortic rupture is a ruptured aortic aneurysm. Other causes include trauma and iatrogenic ( ...
... are segmental dilatations of the aortic wall that cause the vessel to be larger than 1.5 times its normal diameter or that ... encoded search term (Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Rupture Imaging) and Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Rupture Imaging What to Read Next ... Angiographic findings of abdominal aortic aneurysms rupture include the following:. * Contained rupture: Circumscribed ... Common and uncommon CT findings in rupture and impending rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysms. Clin Radiol. 2013 Sep. 68(9): ...
Therefore, identifying the rupture sites is important to perform endovascular stent grafting. A 78-year old man who had ... Non-anastomotic graft rupture is a rare but critical complication after abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair. ... Non-anastomotic graft rupture is a rare but critical complication after abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair. Therefore, ... Efficacy of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in detecting graft rupture sites after abdominal aortic aneurysm repair Interact ...
MLD models can be used as a predictive tool to determine rupture potential in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) ... and ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms: in search of new rupture risk predictors," European Journal of Vascular and ... A Review of Computational Methods to Predict the Risk of Rupture of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms. Tejas Canchi. ,1,2S. D. Kumar. ... As stated previously, rupture does not occur at the region of the aortic wall with maximum lumen diameter. This method can thus ...
tell me what it feels like to have aortic aneurysm rupture or tear? « Reply #1 on: 10/01/2009 08:39:06 » ... tell me what it feels like to have aortic aneurysm rupture or tear? « Reply #2 on: 10/01/2009 09:00:54 » ... tell me what it feels like to have aortic aneurysm rupture or tear? « Reply #3 on: 10/01/2009 10:14:00 » ... tell me what it feels like to have aortic aneurysm rupture or tear? « Reply #4 on: 10/01/2009 10:35:26 » ...
Aortic regurgitation. *Aortic rupture. *Bacterial endocarditis. *Dissecting aortic aneurysm. *Enlargement of the base of the ... The aorta, the main blood vessel that takes blood from the heart to the body may stretch or become weak (called aortic dilation ... Some people may need surgery to replace the aortic root and valve. ...
Ruptured mycotic aortic aneurysm in a sooty mangabey (Cercocebus atys). Comp Med 2011; 61(6): 532-7. ...
View other providers who treat Ruptured Aortic Aneurysm Second-Degree Burns * View other providers who treat Second-Degree ...
"Im assuming then what youre describing is annular rupture, pericardial effusion, and aortic dissection. Is that correct?" ... In patients with vs without BVF, the mean aortic valve area was 0.85 vs 0.90 cm2 and mean gradient 40.5 vs 39.4 mm Hg. ... In terms of hemodynamics, aortic valve area at discharge increased significantly with BVF vs without (1.6 vs 1.4 cm2), starting ... "We noted modest differences in echocardiographic gradients and aortic valve area - far less than previously reported," Garcia ...
Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm: outcomes following open and endovascular repair.Midwest Anesthesia Residents Conference, ...
This book considers mainly etiology, pathogenesis, and pathophysiology of aortic aneurysms (AA) and aneurysm rupture and ... Etiology, Pathogenesis and Pathophysiology of Aortic Aneurysms and Aneurysm Rupture - 222 pages, 19.66 MB (PDF) ... Etiology, Pathogenesis and Pathophysiology of Aortic Aneurysms and Aneurysm Rupture by Reinhart Grundmann ... Initial pathological events in AA involve recruitment and infiltration of leukocytes into the aortic adventitia and media, ...
Fatal Aortic Rupture following Endovascular Aneurysm Repair in a Case with Traumatic Thoracic Aortic Injury * Full Text ...
The cause of death was listed as head trauma with probable aortic rupture. It is recommended that employers be certain that ...
GCA may cause vascular complications like stroke, coronary artery occlusion, thoracic aortic aneurysms and rupture, and aortic ... Aortic aneurysms are twice as common in GCA patients.. Systemic features. One-third to two-thirds of patients show systemic ... GCA is one form of vascular inflammatory disorder that affects the large aortic branches, especially those of the carotid ... Other tests include angiography of the aortic arch and branches, or PET for non-invasive diagnosis. ...
Vascular: Arterial (including aortic) aneurysms, dissections, and rupture. Cardiac: Heart failure. Previous ...
The likelihood that an aneurysm will rupture is influenced by a number of... ... The majority of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are asymptomatic and are detected as an incidental finding on ultrasonography ... Amato A, Abraham F, Kraide H. Endotension: rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysym. J Vasc Bras 2012; 11: 162-165.. 30. Toya N, ... Rate and predictability of graft rupture after endovascular and open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair: data from the EVAR ...
Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms - Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment from the MSD Manuals - Medical Consumer ... Treatment of a ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm Rupture or impending rupture of an abdominal aortic aneurysm requires ... See also Overview of Aortic Aneurysms and Aortic Dissection. Overview of Aortic Aneurysms and Aortic Dissection The aorta, ... Abdominal aortic aneurysms that are less than 2 inches (5 centimeters) wide rarely rupture. The only treatments required may be ...
... including heart conditions like aortic dissection and aortic rupture.. Is there a relationship between mosaic Turner syndrome ...
The relationship between aortic wall distensibility and rupture of infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm. KA Wilson, AJ Lee, PR ... Aortic wall inflammation predicts abdominal aortic aneurysm expansion, rupture, and need for surgical repair. MA3RS Study ... Relationship between abdominal aortic aneurysm wall compliance and clinical outcome: a preliminary analysis. K Wilson, A ... The relationship between abdominal aortic aneurysm distensibility and serum markers of elastin and collagen metabolism. KA ...
IBD is a valid alternative for maintaining the pelvic circulation for endovascular aortic aneurysm repair of ruptured ... IBD is a valid alternative for maintaining the pelvic circulation for endovascular aortic aneurysm repair of ruptured ... review of all consecutive patients undergoing acute endovascular repair of ruptured aortoiliac aneurysm with an IBD at 8 aortic ... review of all consecutive patients undergoing acute endovascular repair of ruptured aortoiliac aneurysm with an IBD at 8 aortic ...
Marfans syndrome, with its lethal association with ruptured aortic aneurysms, deserves particular note because of helpful ... Aortic stenosis. Personal history of exercise-induced chest pain, breathlessness, light-headedness, syncope or dizziness.. ... Congenital coronary anomalies are multiple, the most common being misplaced aortic ostium, in which the left main and right ... aortic stenosis, idiopathic concentric left ventricular hypertrophy and, possibly, mitral valve prolapse. ...
Intraoperative Unfractionated Heparin Unresponsiveness during Endovascular Repair of a Ruptured Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm ...
... of the arrests included in our study may have been due to noncardiac causes such as pulmonary embolism or aortic rupture. ...
In studies that report on the biomechanical characteristics of the thoracic aorta, distinction between the aortic root and ... Background The aortic root has unique embryological development and is a highly sophisticated and complex structure. ... The risk of aortic dissection and rupture is often related to the transverse diameter of the aortic sinuses. It is rare with ... Rupture of the aortic root: A rare but life-threatening complication of transcatheter aortic valve replacement. Wein Klin ...
When Margaret suffered a ruptured aortic aneurysm in a small town on the East Cape, she had to be ... ... Aortic aneurysm, Aortic dissection. Aortic dissection became a well-known term for Janine in 2013 when she experienced the ...
... to treat ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms has increased over the past decade. Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is condition ... They distinguish between endovascular repair "with rupture" and for "other than rupture." The CPT code changes for endovascular ... 34702 for rupture including temporary aortic and/or iliac balloon occlusion, when performed (eg, for aneurysm, pseudoaneurysm, ... 34704 for rupture including temporary aortic and/or iliac balloon occlusion, when performed (eg, for aneurysm, pseudoaneurysm, ...
We divided repairs of abdominal aortic aneurysm into ruptured and non-ruptured (according to whether the primary diagnosis was ... for repair of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm, 7.3% for repair of unruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm, and 5.1% for ... for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (2001-2 to 2004-5), 6.8% for unruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (2001-2 to 2004-5), ... 12 781 repairs of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (5987 deaths, 46.8%), 31 705 repairs of unruptured abdominal aortic ...
Faulkner also spoke about his health, following his scary experience with an aortic rupture while onstage with Judas Priest at ...
  • citation needed] Aortic ruptures can be repaired surgically via open aortic surgery or using endovascular therapy (EVAR), regardless of cause, just as non-ruptured aortic aneurysms are repaired. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) are segmental dilatations of the aortic wall that cause the vessel to be larger than 1.5 times its normal diameter or that cause the distal aorta to exceed 3 cm. (medscape.com)
  • MLD models can be used as a predictive tool to determine rupture potential in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) along with CFD-based prediction of parameters like wall shear stress and pressure distributions. (hindawi.com)
  • Aortic aneurysms are twice as common in GCA patients. (news-medical.net)
  • Abdominal aortic aneurysms are bulges (dilations) in the wall of the aorta in the part that passes through the abdomen (abdominal aorta). (msdmanuals.com)
  • Abdominal aortic aneurysms typically slowly expand and sometimes rupture. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Aneurysms may cause a pulsing sensation in the abdomen and, when they rupture, cause deep, excruciating pain, low blood pressure, and death. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Overview of Aortic Aneurysms and Aortic Dissection The aorta, which is about 1 inch (2.5 centimeters) in diameter, is the largest artery of the body. (msdmanuals.com)
  • About 20% of abdominal aneurysms eventually rupture. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Smoking is a major risk factor for development of abdominal aortic aneurysms, especially in men. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Our objective is to determine the maximal pressures at which dissection occurs or tissue failure occurs in the aortic root compared to that of the ascending aorta in the presence of aortic aneurysms. (researchsquare.com)
  • This may help guide preoperative monitoring, diagnosis and the decision for operative intervention for aortic root aneurysms in the normal and susceptible populations. (researchsquare.com)
  • Using a saline filled needle and syringe, artificial fluid-filled aneurysms were created between the intima and medial layers of the aortic root. (researchsquare.com)
  • Aneurysms of the aortic root arise relatively deep within the heart and because of frequently associated complications, such as aortic insufficiency, present a more complicated problem than the more distal aneurysms of the ascending aorta (Najafi et al. (researchsquare.com)
  • PURPOSE: To evaluate the outcomes of preserving the internal iliac artery (IIA) with iliac branched devices (IBDs) during acute endovascular repair of ruptured aortoiliac aneurysms. (lu.se)
  • CONCLUSION: IBD is a valid alternative for maintaining the pelvic circulation for endovascular aortic aneurysm repair of ruptured aortoiliac aneurysms. (lu.se)
  • CLINICAL IMPACT: This multicenter study demonstrates that ruptured aortoiliac aneurysms do not necessarily require mandatory occlusion of hypogastric arteries. (lu.se)
  • The use of endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) to treat ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms has increased over the past decade. (outsourcestrategies.com)
  • Wortmann M, Skorubskaya E, Peters AS, Hakimi M, Böckler D, Dihlmann S. Necrotic cell debris induces a NF-κB-driven inflammasome response in vascular smooth muscle cells derived from abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA-SMC). (uni-heidelberg.de)
  • Erhart P, Schiele S, Ginsbach P, Grond-Ginsbach C, Hakimi M, Böckler D, Lorenzo-Bermejo J, Dihlmann S. Gene Expression Profiling in Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms After Finite Element Rupture Risk Assessment. (uni-heidelberg.de)
  • Erhart P, Grond-Ginsbach C, Hakimi M, Lasitschka F, Dihlmann S, Böckler D, Hyhlik-Dürr A. Finite element analysis of abdominal aortic aneurysms: predicted rupture risk correlates with aortic wall histology in individual patients. (uni-heidelberg.de)
  • Dihlmann S, Erhart P, Mehrabi A, Nickkholgh A, Lasitschka F, Böckler D, Hakimi M. Increased expression and activation of absent in melanoma 2 inflammasome components in lymphocytic infiltrates of abdominal aortic aneurysms. (uni-heidelberg.de)
  • Symptomatic or ruptured AAA, mycotic aneurysms, isolated iliac aneurysms and complex abdominal aortic repairs were excluded. (who.int)
  • Aortic rupture is distinct from aortic dissection, which is a tear through the inner wall of the aorta that can block the flow of blood through the aorta to the heart or abdominal organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • I'm assuming then what you're describing is annular rupture, pericardial effusion, and aortic dissection. (medscape.com)
  • Pressure measurement was taken at time of loss of tissue integrity, obvious tissue dissection or aneurysm rupture, and the tissue structure was then visually examined. (researchsquare.com)
  • Macroscopic examination revealed luminal tears around the coronary ostia in 2/5 specimens, and in all specimens, there was propagation of the dissection in the aortic root in a circumferential direction. (researchsquare.com)
  • In all ascending aorta specimens, the maximal aortic pressures exceeded 300mmHg without tissue failure or dissection, and eventual apparatus failure. (researchsquare.com)
  • Conclusion Our results indicate that the aneurysmal aortic root tissues are at greater risk of rupture and dissection propagation at lower aortic pressure. (researchsquare.com)
  • Aortic root replacement is associated with high mortality and morbidity and is therefore frequently avoided in cases of acute aortic dissection for fear of increased surgical risk. (researchsquare.com)
  • Surgical repair of AAA can be performed in two ways, by traditional open surgery or endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR). (hindawi.com)
  • It was found that the previous codes did not distinguish between ruptured and elective aneurysm repair, and did not recognize the unique challenges and benefits of percutaneous arterial access. (outsourcestrategies.com)
  • We examined mortality for three index procedures (coronary artery bypass graft, abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, and colectomy for bowel cancer) used in three large clinical datasets (the national adult cardiac surgical database, the national vascular database, and a colorectal cancer database collected by the Association of Coloproctology of Great Britain and Ireland). (bmj.com)
  • it is two to three times more common than rupture of the abdominal aorta (Saliba, Sia et al. (researchsquare.com)
  • Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is condition that describes a bulging, weak spot in the abdominal aorta. (outsourcestrategies.com)
  • New CPT Codes to Capture Work Involved in Performing EVAR The changes in the EVR code set were prompted by Relative Value Scale Update Committee (RUC) screening which identified simultaneous reporting of several endovascular aortic repair codes as potentially misvalued. (outsourcestrategies.com)
  • If indicated, treatment with EVAR or open repair of the diseased aorta can limit the risk of aortic rupture. (wikipedia.org)
  • EVAR is an advanced, preferred technique for the treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). (outsourcestrategies.com)
  • Approximation of the aortic wall layers within the dissected sinuses of Valsalva with a biological glue and subsequent supracoronary aortic replacement offers a simple and efficient method of preserving the native valve and abolishing the aortic insufficiency when it is caused by the distortion of root anatomy. (researchsquare.com)
  • In studies that report on the biomechanical characteristics of the thoracic aorta, distinction between the aortic root and ascending aorta regions is nonexistent. (researchsquare.com)
  • An aortic occlusion balloon can be placed to stabilize the patient and prevent further blood loss prior to the induction of anesthesia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aortic rupture is the rupture or breakage of the aorta, the largest artery in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rupture results from either loss of wall strength to the point at which systemic pressure is greater than wall strength, or external destruction of the wall of the aorta, by a tumor or traumatic means. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bleeding can be retroperitoneal or intraperitoneal, or the rupture can create an aortocaval (between the aorta and inferior vena cava) or aortoenteric (between the aorta and intestine) fistula. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Prevention of aortic rupture begins with screening for disease of the aorta. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methods We developed a simple aortic root and ascending aorta pressure testing unit in series. (researchsquare.com)
  • Ten fresh porcine hearts were obtained from the local abattoir (n=5 aortic root and n=5 ascending aorta for comparison). (researchsquare.com)
  • Dilatación anormal en forma de globo o de saco en la pared de la aorta torácica descendente. (bvsalud.org)
  • The most common cause is an abdominal aortic aneurysm that has ruptured spontaneously. (wikipedia.org)
  • These can continue to expand and rupture spontaneously, exsanguinate, and cause death. (medscape.com)
  • Bioprosthetic valve fracture (BVF) was associated with a doubling of in-hospital mortality in patients undergoing valve-in-valve transcatheter aortic valve replacement (ViV TAVR), new registry data show. (medscape.com)
  • Ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm: outcomes following open and endovascular repair. (mayoclinic.org)
  • however, PEA can sometimes include an aortic disease and intracranial haemorrhage, with extremely poor neurological outcomes, and can thus not be used as a suitable candidate. (bvsalud.org)
  • GCA is one form of vascular inflammatory disorder that affects the large aortic branches, especially those of the carotid arteries that supply the spine (vertebral), upper limb (subclavian), and extracranial branches. (news-medical.net)
  • This narrative review describes the main applications of de la ultrasonografía en ultrasound in anesthesia, ultrasound-guided techniques, and current trends in the perioperative anesthetic management of anestesia the surgical patient. (bvsalud.org)
  • The most commonly used noninvasive methods to identify abdominal aortic aneurysm are ultrasound and computed tomography. (medscape.com)
  • Some people may need surgery to replace the aortic root and valve. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In patients with vs without BVF, the mean aortic valve area was 0.85 vs 0.90 cm 2 and mean gradient 40.5 vs 39.4 mm Hg. (medscape.com)
  • In terms of hemodynamics, aortic valve area at discharge increased significantly with BVF vs without (1.6 vs 1.4 cm 2 ), starting from 0.8 cm 2 at baseline in both groups. (medscape.com)
  • We noted modest differences in echocardiographic gradients and aortic valve area - far less than previously reported," Garcia said. (medscape.com)
  • Risk factors for aneurysm rupture in patients kept under ultrasound surveillance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, identifying the rupture sites is important to perform endovascular stent grafting. (nih.gov)
  • An aortic rupture can be classified according to its cause into one of the following main types: Traumatic aortic rupture Aortic rupture secondary to an aortic aneurysm Tearing pain, located in the abdomen, flank, groin, or back Loss of consciousness Low blood pressure from hypovolemic shock Fast heart rate Blue discoloration of the skin Altered mental status Bruising of the flank, a sign of retroperitoneal bleeding. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clinical and radiologic findings are consistent with a diagnosis of contained AAA rupture with left retroperitoneal hematoma. (medscape.com)
  • MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a multicenter retrospective review of all consecutive patients undergoing acute endovascular repair of ruptured aortoiliac aneurysm with an IBD at 8 aortic centers between December 2012 and June 2020. (lu.se)
  • There are several risk factors that have been known to affect the genesis, growth, and rupture of AAA: advanced age, greater height, coronary artery disease, atherosclerosis, high cholesterol levels, hypertension [ 10 ], and smoking [ 11 , 12 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Patients All patients admitted to an NHS hospital within England for isolated coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm, and colorectal excision for cancer from 1996-7 to 2003-4. (bmj.com)
  • EVR Base Line Codes The new EVR CPT codes sets, which include rupture codes, extend the anatomic pathology treated via endovascular methods and acknowledge the higher level of clinical intensity involved. (outsourcestrategies.com)
  • tell me what it feels like to have aortic aneurysm rupture or tear? (thenakedscientists.com)
  • Constant exposure to high pulsatile pressure and shear stress leads to a weakening of the aortic wall in susceptible patients resulting in an intimal tear (Zeng, Shi et al. (researchsquare.com)
  • There were no signs of hemothorax or aortic injury. (bvsalud.org)
  • Non-anastomotic graft rupture is a rare but critical complication after abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair. (nih.gov)
  • They distinguish between endovascular repair "with rupture" and for "other than rupture. (outsourcestrategies.com)
  • Results During the study period 152 523 cases of isolated CABG with 3247 deaths in hospital (2.1%), 12 781 repairs of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (5987 deaths, 46.8%), 31 705 repairs of unruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (3246 deaths, 10.2%), and 144 370 colorectal resections for cancer (10 424 deaths, 7.2%) were recorded. (bmj.com)
  • The power of the complex predictive model was comparable with that of models based on clinical datasets with ROC curve scores of 0.77 ( v 0.78 from clinical database) for isolated CABG, 0.66 ( v 0.65) and 0.74 ( v 0.70) for repairs of ruptured and unruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm, respectively, and 0.80 ( v 0.78) for colorectal excision for cancer. (bmj.com)
  • The cyclic stress caused by the pulse wave in conjunction with factors which decrease the strength of the wall may lead to dilatation and ultimately to rupture [ 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Wortmann M, Xiao X, Wabnitz G, Samstag Y, Hakimi M, Böckler D, Dihlmann S. AIM2 levels and DNA-triggered inflammasome response are increased in peripheral leukocytes of patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm. (uni-heidelberg.de)
  • Wu X, Cakmak S, Wortmann M, Hakimi M, Zhang J, Böckler D, Dihlmann S. Sex- and disease-specific inflammasome signatures in circulating blood leukocytes of patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm. (uni-heidelberg.de)
  • Key pathobiologic processes of AAA progression and rupture include neovascularization, necrotic inflammation, microcalcification, and proteolytic degradation of the extracellular matrix. (medscape.com)
  • People who have an abdominal aortic aneurysm often have no symptoms, but some people become aware of a pulsing sensation in their abdomen. (msdmanuals.com)
  • AAA rupture is an important cause of unheralded deaths in people older than 55 years. (medscape.com)
  • This publication was the first of its kind in South Africa (SA), and aneurysm rupture during the next year? (who.int)
  • I know someone who survived a ruptured aortal aneurism, which is not the more usual outcome, and my step father died from one. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • Faulkner also spoke about his health, following his scary experience with an aortic rupture while onstage with Judas Priest at a show in 2021 that resulted in emergency heart surgery. (noisecreep.com)
  • Aortic rupture is a rare, extremely dangerous condition. (wikipedia.org)
  • Results In the aortic root, mean maximal pressure (mmHg) at tissue failure was 208mmHg. (researchsquare.com)
  • Quality of life and long-term results after ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm. (bvsalud.org)
  • Death The most common cause of aortic rupture is a ruptured aortic aneurysm. (wikipedia.org)
  • The functional limits of the aneurysmal aortic root. (researchsquare.com)
  • Background The aortic root has unique embryological development and is a highly sophisticated and complex structure. (researchsquare.com)
  • This examination provides key information about the extent of aneurysmal disease, and it can be used to confirm and localize the site of rupture (see the image below). (medscape.com)