Pathological processes involving any part of the AORTA.
An abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of the THORACIC AORTA. This proximal descending portion of aorta gives rise to the visceral and the parietal branches above the aortic hiatus at the diaphragm.
Aneurysm caused by a tear in the TUNICA INTIMA of a blood vessel leading to interstitial HEMORRHAGE, and splitting (dissecting) of the vessel wall, often involving the AORTA. Dissection between the intima and media causes luminal occlusion. Dissection at the media, or between the media and the outer adventitia causes aneurismal dilation.
An abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of AORTA.
The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.
An autosomal dominant disorder of CONNECTIVE TISSUE with abnormal features in the heart, the eye, and the skeleton. Cardiovascular manifestations include MITRAL VALVE PROLAPSE, dilation of the AORTA, and aortic dissection. Other features include lens displacement (ectopia lentis), disproportioned long limbs and enlarged DURA MATER (dural ectasia). Marfan syndrome is associated with mutations in the gene encoding fibrillin, a major element of extracellular microfibrils of connective tissue.
Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.
The aorta from the DIAPHRAGM to the bifurcation into the right and left common iliac arteries.
Device constructed of either synthetic or biological material that is used for the repair of injured or diseased blood vessels.
Radiographic visualization of the aorta and its branches by injection of contrast media, using percutaneous puncture or catheterization procedures.
Minimally invasive procedures, diagnostic or therapeutic, performed within the BLOOD VESSELS. They may be perfomed via ANGIOSCOPY; INTERVENTIONAL MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; INTERVENTIONAL RADIOGRAPHY; or INTERVENTIONAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY.
Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of diseases or dysfunction of the cardiovascular system or its organs or demonstration of their physiological processes.
The tearing or bursting of the wall along any portion of the AORTA, such as thoracic or abdominal. It may result from the rupture of an aneurysm or it may be due to TRAUMA.
Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.
An abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of the ABDOMINAL AORTA which gives rise to the visceral, the parietal, and the terminal (iliac) branches below the aortic hiatus at the diaphragm.
Pathological conditions involving any of the various HEART VALVES and the associated structures (PAPILLARY MUSCLES and CHORDAE TENDINEAE).
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
Operative procedures for the treatment of vascular disorders.
'Elastin' is a highly elastic protein in connective tissue that allows many tissues in the body to resume their shape after stretching or contracting, such as the skin, lungs, and blood vessels.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
Reconstruction or repair of a blood vessel, which includes the widening of a pathological narrowing of an artery or vein by the removal of atheromatous plaque material and/or the endothelial lining as well, or by dilatation (BALLOON ANGIOPLASTY) to compress an ATHEROMA. Except for ENDARTERECTOMY, usually these procedures are performed via catheterization as minimally invasive ENDOVASCULAR PROCEDURES.
Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
The valve between the left ventricle and the ascending aorta which prevents backflow into the left ventricle.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.
A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.
Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.

Endovascular stent graft repair of aortopulmonary fistula. (1/1622)

Two patients who had aortopulmonary fistula of postoperative origin with hemoptysis underwent successful repair by means of an endovascular stent graft procedure. One patient had undergone repeated thoracotomies two times, and the other one time to repair anastomotic aneurysms of the descending aorta after surgery for Takayasu's arteritis. A self-expanding stainless steel stent covered with a Dacron graft was inserted into the lesion through the external iliac or femoral artery. The patients recovered well, with no signs of infection or recurrent hemoptysis 8 months after the procedure. Endovascular stent grafting may be a therapeutic option for treating patients with aortopulmonary fistula.  (+info)

Analysis of macrophage scavenger receptor (SR-A) expression in human aortic atherosclerotic lesions. (2/1622)

The class A scavenger receptors (SR-As) are trimeric, integral membrane glycoproteins that exhibit unusually broad ligand-binding properties. A number of studies have suggested that these receptors may play an important role in host defense and in many macrophage-associated pathological processes, including atherosclerosis and Alzheimer's disease. The study of the expression and function of these receptors in human disease has been hampered by the lack of suitable antibodies recognizing human SR-A. This has generated questions regarding the nature of receptors responsible for scavenger receptor activity detected in a variety of cell types, including monocytes, macrophages, smooth muscle cells, and endothelial cells. To address these questions, we have produced high-titer antisera recognizing human SR-A by using mice deficient for SR-A (SR-A -/-). We show that SR-A -/- mice produce a significantly higher-titer immune response than do wild-type (SR-A +/+) littermates, with antisera of the former having a broad species reactivity and recognizing SR-A from humans, mice, and rabbits. The antisera recognize both type I and II SR-A in a wide range of immunological techniques. Using these antisera we show that the expression of SR-A protein is induced during monocyte to macrophage differentiation and that SR-A mediates 80% of the uptake of acetylated low density lipoprotein by human monocyte-derived macrophages. We also establish that human SR-A is expressed by tissue macrophages in liver and lung and by macrophage-derived foam cells within aortic atherosclerotic lesions, with little detectable expression by smooth muscle cells or aortic endothelium.  (+info)

Enhanced fatty streak formation in C57BL/6J mice by immunization with heat shock protein-65. (3/1622)

Recent data suggest that the immune system is involved in atherogenesis. Thus, interest has been raised as to the possible antigens that could serve as the initiators of the immune reaction. In the current work, we studied the effects of immunization with recombinant heat shock protein-65 (HSP-65) and HSP-65-rich Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MT) on early atherogenesis in C57BL/6J mice fed either a normal chow diet or a high-cholesterol diet (HCD). A rapid, cellular immune response to HSP-65 was evident in mice immunized with HSP-65 or with MT but not in the animals immunized with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) alone. Early atherosclerosis was significantly enhanced in HCD-fed mice immunized with HSP-65 (n=10; mean aortic lesion size, 45 417+/-9258 microm2) or MT (n=15; 66 350+/-6850 microm2) compared with PBS-injected (n=10; 10 028+/-3599 microm2) or nonimmunized (n=10; 9500+/-2120 microm2) mice. No fatty streak lesions were observed in mice fed a chow diet regardless of the immunization protocol applied. Immunohistochemical analysis of atherosclerotic lesions from the HSP-65- and MT-immunized mice revealed infiltration of CD4 lymphocytes compared with the relatively lymphocyte-poor lesions in the PBS-treated or nonimmunized mice. Direct immunofluorescence analysis of lesions from HSP-65- and MT-immunized mice fed an HCD exhibited extensive deposits of immunoglobulins compared with the fatty streaks in the other study groups, consistent with the larger and more advanced lesions found in the former 2 groups. This model, which supports the involvement of HSP-65 in atherogenesis, furnishes a valuable tool to study the role of the immune system in atherogenesis.  (+info)

Atherosclerotic aortic gangliosides enhance integrin-mediated platelet adhesion to collagen. (4/1622)

Gangliosides, sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids, accumulate in atherosclerotic vessels. Their role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is unknown. Gangliosides isolated from tumor cells promote collagen-stimulated platelet aggregation and ATP secretion and enhance platelet adhesion to immobilized collagen. These activities are all mediated by ganglioside effects on the platelet integrin collagen receptor alpha2beta1. Therefore, we hypothesized that gangliosides isolated from atherosclerotic plaques would enhance platelet adhesion to immobilized collagen, a major component of the subendothelial matrix of blood vessels. Furthermore, we questioned whether this effect of atherosclerotic gangliosides might play a role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. To test this hypothesis, we isolated the gangliosides from postmortem aortas of patients with extensive atherosclerotic disease and examined their effects on platelet adhesion. Samples of aortic tissue taken from areas involved with atherosclerotic plaque demonstrated accumulation of gangliosides (64.9+/-6.5 nmol/g wet weight) compared with gangliosides isolated from control normal aortic tissue taken from children who died of noncardiac causes (NAGs; 21.1+/-6.4 nmol/g wet weight). Interestingly, samples of tissue taken from diseased aortas but from areas not involved with gross plaque formation also demonstrated ganglioside accumulation (47.6+/-12.8 nmol/g wet weight). Next, the activity of each of these gangliosides on platelet adhesion to immobilized type I collagen was studied. Atherosclerotic aortic gangliosides (AAGs) as well as those isolated from grossly unaffected areas of the same aorta (UAGs) both increased platelet adhesion compared with control NAGs (OD570, 0. 37+/-0.11 and 0.29+/-0.14 versus 0.16+/-0.07, respectively; P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively). These OD570 values corresponded to 9x10(5), 8x10(4), and 6x10(3) platelets per well after preincubation with 5 micromol/L AAG, UAG, and NAG, respectively. Increased adhesion was observed after preincubation with as little as 0.5 micromol/L AAG, and maximal adhesion was seen at 2.5 micromol/L, with a plateau extending to the highest concentration tested, 10 micromol/L. The effect of AAGs on platelet adhesion to collagen was abrogated by incubation of treated platelets with F-17 anti-alpha2 monoclonal antibody (OD570, 0.13+/-0.02). Finally, the effects of the major individual gangliosides isolated from atherosclerotic tissues, GM3 and GD3, were tested. GM3 increased adhesion to collagen (OD570, 0.415+/-0.06) as did GD3 (0.31+/-0.08). Similar to that of AAGs, the effect of both molecules was blocked by F-17 (0. 09+/-0.04 and 0.13+/-0.06, respectively). These experiments demonstrate that accumulated atherosclerotic gangliosides promote platelet adhesion to collagen, the major component of the subendothelial matrix. Furthermore, this activity is mediated by an effect of the gangliosides on the collagen-binding integrin alpha2beta1. This activity may provide a mechanism for the development of platelet thrombi at sites where atherosclerotic gangliosides accumulate and help to explain the role of platelets in the process of atherosclerotic disease progression.  (+info)

ApoA1 reduces free cholesterol accumulation in atherosclerotic lesions of ApoE-deficient mice transplanted with ApoE-expressing macrophages. (5/1622)

Along with apolipoprotein (apo) E, which promotes cholesterol efflux from foam cells, apoA1-containing high density lipoprotein (HDL) is thought to facilitate the transport of cholesterol from lesions. This role for apoA1 was tested in vivo by lethally irradiating apoE-deficient and apoE- plus apoA1-deficient mice and reconstituting them with bone marrow cells isolated from wild-type (WT) mice. ApoE, but not apoA1, was synthesized by the transplanted bone marrow-derived cells. Therefore, this transplantation procedure generated apoE-deficient animals with atherosclerotic lesions that contained both apoE and apoA1 (E/A1 mice) and apoE-deficient animals with lesions that contained apoE but no apoA1 (E/A1o mice). As shown previously, the transplanted WT macrophage-derived apoE dramatically lowered the plasma hypercholesterolemia in both groups. On feeding with an atherogenic diet after transplantation, plasma cholesterol levels were raised in both groups of mice, but the levels in the E/A1 mice at 20 weeks were 2- to 3-fold higher than in E/A1o mice. Immunohistochemical staining verified that apoE was abundant in lesions of both groups, whereas apoA1 was detected in the lesions of E/A1 mice only. Despite a 2- to 3-fold lower total plasma cholesterol in the E/A1o mice, the free cholesterol recovered from isolated aortas was approximately 60% higher and the mean lesion area in serial sections of the aortic valves 45% larger. Therefore, apoA1 reduces free cholesterol accumulation in vivo in atherosclerotic lesions.  (+info)

Generation and characterization of human smooth muscle cell lines derived from atherosclerotic plaque. (6/1622)

The study of atherogenesis in humans has been restricted by the limited availability and brief in vitro life span of plaque smooth muscle cells (SMCs). We describe plaque SMC lines with extended life spans generated by the expression of the human papillomavirus (HPV)-16 E6 and E7 genes, which has been shown to extend the life span of normal adult human aortic SMCs. Resulting cell lines (pdSMC1A and 2) demonstrated at least 10-fold increases in life span; pdSMC1A became immortal. The SMC identity of both pdSMC lines was confirmed by SM22 mRNA expression. pdSMC2 were generally diploid but with various structural and numerical alterations; pdSMC1A demonstrated several chromosomal abnormalities, most commonly -Y, +7, -13, anomalies previously reported in both primary pdSMCs and atherosclerotic tissue. Confluent pdSMC2 appeared grossly similar to HPV-16 E6/E7-expressing normal adult aortic SMCs (AASMCs), exhibiting typical SMC morphology/growth patterns; pdSMC1A displayed irregular cell shape/organization with numerous mitotic figures. Dedifferentiation to a synthetic/proliferative phenotype has been hypothesized as a critical step in atherogenesis, because rat neonatal SMCs and adult intimal SMCs exhibit similar gene expression patterns. To confirm that our pdSMC lines likewise express this apparent plaque phenotype, osteopontin, platelet-derived growth factor B, and elastin mRNA levels were determined in pdSMC1A, pdSMC2, and AASMCs. However, no significant increases in osteopontin or platelet-derived growth factor B expression levels were observed in either pdSMC compared with AASMCs. pdSMC2 alone expressed high levels of elastin mRNA. Lower levels of SM22 mRNA in pdSMC1A suggested greater dedifferentiation and/or additional population doublings in pdSMC1A relative to pdSMC2. Both pdSMC lines (particularly 1A) demonstrated high message levels for matrix Gla protein, previously reported to be highly expressed by human neointimal SMCs in vitro. These results describe 2 novel plaque cell lines exhibiting various features of plaque SMC biology; pdSMC2 may represent an earlier plaque SMC phenotype, whereas pdSMC1A may be representative of cells comprising an advanced atherosclerotic lesion.  (+info)

Expression of interleukin-10 in advanced human atherosclerotic plaques: relation to inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and cell death. (7/1622)

Inflammation is a major feature of human atherosclerosis and is central to development and progression of the disease. A variety of proinflammatory cytokines are expressed in the atherosclerotic plaque and may modulate extracellular matrix remodeling, cell proliferation, and cell death. Little is known, however, about the expression and potential role of anti-inflammatory cytokines in human atherosclerosis. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a major anti-inflammatory cytokine whose expression and potential effects in advanced human atherosclerotic plaques have not been evaluated. We studied 21 advanced human atherosclerotic plaques. IL-10 expression was analyzed by use of reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemical techniques. Inducible nitric oxide synthase expression was assessed by using immunohistochemistry, and cell death was determined by use of the TUNEL method. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction identified IL-10 mRNA in 12 of 17 atherosclerotic plaques. Immunohistochemical staining of serial sections and double staining identified immunoreactive IL-10 mainly in macrophages, as well as in smooth muscle cells. Consistent with its anti-inflammatory properties, high levels of IL-10 expression were associated with significant decrease in inducible nitric oxide synthase expression (P<0.0001) and cell death (P<0. 0001). Hence, IL-10, a potent anti-inflammatory cytokine, is expressed in a substantial number of advanced human atherosclerotic plaques and might contribute to the modulation of the local inflammatory response and protect from excessive cell death in the plaque.  (+info)

Reduction of serum cholesterol and hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis in rabbits by secoisolariciresinol diglucoside isolated from flaxseed. (8/1622)

BACKGROUND: Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG) is a plant lignan isolated from flaxseed. Lignans are platelet-activating factor-receptor antagonists that would inhibit the production of oxygen radicals by polymorphonuclear leukocytes. SDG is an antioxidant. Antioxidants studied thus far are known to reduce hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of SDG on various blood lipid and aortic tissue oxidative stress parameters and on the development of atherosclerosis in rabbits fed a high-cholesterol diet. METHODS AND RESULTS: Rabbits were assigned to 4 groups: group 1, control; group 2, SDG control (15 mg. kg body wt-1. d-1 PO); group 3, 1% cholesterol diet; and group 4, same as group 3 but with added SDG (15 mg. kg body wt-1. d-1 PO). Blood samples were collected before (time 0) and after 4 and 8 weeks of experimental diets for measurement of serum triglycerides, total cholesterol (TC), and LDL, HDL, and VLDL cholesterol (LDL-C, HDL-C, and VLDL-C). The aorta was removed at the end of the protocol for assessment of atherosclerotic plaques; malondialdehyde, an aortic tissue lipid peroxidation product; and aortic tissue chemiluminescence, a marker for antioxidant reserve. Serum TC, LDL-C, and the ratios LDL-C/HDL-C and TC/HDL-C increased in groups 3 and 4 compared with time 0, the increase being smaller in group 4 than in group 3. Serum HDL-C decreased in group 3 and increased in group 4 compared with time 0, but changes were lower in group 3 than in group 4. SDG reduced TC and LDL-C by 33% and 35%, respectively, at week 8 but increased HDL-C significantly, by>140%, as early as week 4. It also decreased TC/LDL-C and LDL-C/HDL-C ratios by approximately 64%. There was an increase in aortic malondialdehyde and chemiluminescence in group 3, and they were lower in group 4 than in group 3. SDG reduced hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis by 73%. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that SDG reduced hypercholesterolemic atherosclerosis and that this effect was associated with a decrease in serum cholesterol, LDL-C, and lipid peroxidation product and an increase in HDL-C and antioxidant reserve.  (+info)

Aortic diseases refer to conditions that affect the aorta, which is the largest and main artery in the body. The aorta carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body. Aortic diseases can weaken or damage the aorta, leading to various complications. Here are some common aortic diseases with their medical definitions:

1. Aortic aneurysm: A localized dilation or bulging of the aortic wall, which can occur in any part of the aorta but is most commonly found in the abdominal aorta (abdominal aortic aneurysm) or the thoracic aorta (thoracic aortic aneurysm). Aneurysms can increase the risk of rupture, leading to life-threatening bleeding.
2. Aortic dissection: A separation of the layers of the aortic wall due to a tear in the inner lining, allowing blood to flow between the layers and potentially cause the aorta to rupture. This is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment.
3. Aortic stenosis: A narrowing of the aortic valve opening, which restricts blood flow from the heart to the aorta. This can lead to shortness of breath, chest pain, and other symptoms. Severe aortic stenosis may require surgical or transcatheter intervention to replace or repair the aortic valve.
4. Aortic regurgitation: Also known as aortic insufficiency, this condition occurs when the aortic valve does not close properly, allowing blood to leak back into the heart. This can lead to symptoms such as fatigue, shortness of breath, and palpitations. Treatment may include medication or surgical repair or replacement of the aortic valve.
5. Aortitis: Inflammation of the aorta, which can be caused by various conditions such as infections, autoimmune diseases, or vasculitides. Aortitis can lead to aneurysms, dissections, or stenosis and may require medical treatment with immunosuppressive drugs or surgical intervention.
6. Marfan syndrome: A genetic disorder that affects the connective tissue, including the aorta. People with Marfan syndrome are at risk of developing aortic aneurysms and dissections, and may require close monitoring and prophylactic surgery to prevent complications.

A thoracic aortic aneurysm is a localized dilatation or bulging of the thoracic aorta, which is the part of the aorta that runs through the chest cavity. The aorta is the largest artery in the body, and it carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body.

Thoracic aortic aneurysms can occur anywhere along the thoracic aorta, but they are most commonly found in the aortic arch or the descending thoracic aorta. These aneurysms can vary in size, and they are considered significant when they are 50% larger than the expected normal diameter of the aorta.

The exact cause of thoracic aortic aneurysms is not fully understood, but several factors can contribute to their development, including:

* Atherosclerosis (hardening and narrowing of the arteries)
* High blood pressure
* Genetic disorders such as Marfan syndrome or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
* Infections or inflammation of the aorta
* Trauma to the chest

Thoracic aortic aneurysms can be asymptomatic and found incidentally on imaging studies, or they may present with symptoms such as chest pain, cough, difficulty swallowing, or hoarseness. If left untreated, thoracic aortic aneurysms can lead to serious complications, including aortic dissection (tearing of the inner layer of the aorta) or rupture, which can be life-threatening.

Treatment options for thoracic aortic aneurysms include medical management with blood pressure control and cholesterol-lowering medications, as well as surgical repair or endovascular stenting, depending on the size, location, and growth rate of the aneurysm. Regular follow-up imaging is necessary to monitor the size and progression of the aneurysm over time.

A dissecting aneurysm is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition that occurs when there is a tear in the inner layer of the artery wall, allowing blood to flow between the layers of the artery wall. This can cause the artery to bulge or balloon out, leading to a dissection aneurysm.

Dissecting aneurysms can occur in any artery, but they are most commonly found in the aorta, which is the largest artery in the body. When a dissecting aneurysm occurs in the aorta, it is often referred to as a "dissecting aortic aneurysm."

Dissecting aneurysms can be caused by various factors, including high blood pressure, atherosclerosis (hardening and narrowing of the arteries), genetic disorders that affect the connective tissue, trauma, or illegal drug use (such as cocaine).

Symptoms of a dissecting aneurysm may include sudden severe chest or back pain, which can feel like ripping or tearing, shortness of breath, sweating, lightheadedness, or loss of consciousness. If left untreated, a dissecting aneurysm can lead to serious complications, such as rupture of the artery, stroke, or even death.

Treatment for a dissecting aneurysm typically involves surgery or endovascular repair to prevent further damage and reduce the risk of rupture. The specific treatment approach will depend on various factors, including the location and size of the aneurysm, the patient's overall health, and their medical history.

An aortic aneurysm is a medical condition characterized by the abnormal widening or bulging of the wall of the aorta, which is the largest artery in the body. The aorta carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body. When the aortic wall weakens, it can stretch and balloon out, forming an aneurysm.

Aortic aneurysms can occur anywhere along the aorta but are most commonly found in the abdominal section (abdominal aortic aneurysm) or the chest area (thoracic aortic aneurysm). The size and location of the aneurysm, as well as the patient's overall health, determine the risk of rupture and associated complications.

Aneurysms often do not cause symptoms until they become large or rupture. Symptoms may include:

* Pain in the chest, back, or abdomen
* Pulsating sensation in the abdomen
* Difficulty breathing
* Hoarseness
* Coughing or vomiting

Risk factors for aortic aneurysms include age, smoking, high blood pressure, family history, and certain genetic conditions. Treatment options depend on the size and location of the aneurysm and may include monitoring, medication, or surgical repair.

The thoracic aorta is the segment of the largest artery in the human body (the aorta) that runs through the chest region (thorax). The thoracic aorta begins at the aortic arch, where it branches off from the ascending aorta, and extends down to the diaphragm, where it becomes the abdominal aorta.

The thoracic aorta is divided into three parts: the ascending aorta, the aortic arch, and the descending aorta. The ascending aorta rises from the left ventricle of the heart and is about 2 inches (5 centimeters) long. The aortic arch curves backward and to the left, giving rise to the brachiocephalic trunk, the left common carotid artery, and the left subclavian artery. The descending thoracic aorta runs downward through the chest, passing through the diaphragm to become the abdominal aorta.

The thoracic aorta supplies oxygenated blood to the upper body, including the head, neck, arms, and chest. It plays a critical role in maintaining blood flow and pressure throughout the body.

Marfan syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects the body's connective tissue. Connective tissue helps to strengthen and support various structures in the body, including the skin, ligaments, blood vessels, and heart. In Marfan syndrome, the body produces an abnormal amount of a protein called fibrillin-1, which is a key component of connective tissue. This leads to problems with the formation and function of connective tissue throughout the body.

The most serious complications of Marfan syndrome typically involve the heart and blood vessels. The aorta, which is the large artery that carries blood away from the heart, can become weakened and stretched, leading to an increased risk of aortic dissection or rupture. Other common features of Marfan syndrome include long, thin fingers and toes; tall stature; a curved spine; and eye problems such as nearsightedness and lens dislocation.

Marfan syndrome is usually inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, which means that a child has a 50% chance of inheriting the gene mutation from a parent who has the condition. However, about 25% of cases are the result of a new mutation and occur in people with no family history of the disorder. There is no cure for Marfan syndrome, but treatment can help to manage the symptoms and reduce the risk of complications.

Blood vessel prosthesis implantation is a surgical procedure in which an artificial blood vessel, also known as a vascular graft or prosthetic graft, is inserted into the body to replace a damaged or diseased native blood vessel. The prosthetic graft can be made from various materials such as Dacron (polyester), PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene), or bovine/human tissue.

The implantation of a blood vessel prosthesis is typically performed to treat conditions that cause narrowing or blockage of the blood vessels, such as atherosclerosis, aneurysms, or traumatic injuries. The procedure may be used to bypass blocked arteries in the legs (peripheral artery disease), heart (coronary artery bypass surgery), or neck (carotid endarterectomy). It can also be used to replace damaged veins for hemodialysis access in patients with kidney failure.

The success of blood vessel prosthesis implantation depends on various factors, including the patient's overall health, the location and extent of the vascular disease, and the type of graft material used. Possible complications include infection, bleeding, graft thrombosis (clotting), and graft failure, which may require further surgical intervention or endovascular treatments.

The abdominal aorta is the portion of the aorta, which is the largest artery in the body, that runs through the abdomen. It originates from the thoracic aorta at the level of the diaphragm and descends through the abdomen, where it branches off into several smaller arteries that supply blood to the pelvis, legs, and various abdominal organs. The abdominal aorta is typically divided into four segments: the suprarenal, infrarenal, visceral, and parietal portions. Disorders of the abdominal aorta can include aneurysms, atherosclerosis, and dissections, which can have serious consequences if left untreated.

A blood vessel prosthesis is a medical device that is used as a substitute for a damaged or diseased natural blood vessel. It is typically made of synthetic materials such as polyester, Dacron, or ePTFE (expanded polytetrafluoroethylene) and is designed to mimic the function of a native blood vessel by allowing the flow of blood through it.

Blood vessel prostheses are used in various surgical procedures, including coronary artery bypass grafting, peripheral arterial reconstruction, and the creation of arteriovenous fistulas for dialysis access. The choice of material and size of the prosthesis depends on several factors, such as the location and diameter of the vessel being replaced, the patient's age and overall health status, and the surgeon's preference.

It is important to note that while blood vessel prostheses can be effective in restoring blood flow, they may also carry risks such as infection, thrombosis (blood clot formation), and graft failure over time. Therefore, careful patient selection, surgical technique, and postoperative management are crucial for the success of these procedures.

Aortography is a medical procedure that involves taking X-ray images of the aorta, which is the largest blood vessel in the body. The procedure is usually performed to diagnose or assess various conditions related to the aorta, such as aneurysms, dissections, or blockages.

To perform an aortography, a contrast dye is injected into the aorta through a catheter that is inserted into an artery, typically in the leg or arm. The contrast dye makes the aorta visible on X-ray images, allowing doctors to see its structure and any abnormalities that may be present.

The procedure is usually performed in a hospital or outpatient setting and may require sedation or anesthesia. While aortography can provide valuable diagnostic information, it also carries some risks, such as allergic reactions to the contrast dye, damage to blood vessels, or infection. Therefore, it is typically reserved for situations where other diagnostic tests have been inconclusive or where more invasive treatment may be required.

Endovascular procedures are minimally invasive medical treatments that involve accessing and repairing blood vessels or other interior parts of the body through small incisions or punctures. These procedures typically use specialized catheters, wires, and other tools that are inserted into the body through an artery or vein, usually in the leg or arm.

Endovascular procedures can be used to treat a wide range of conditions, including aneurysms, atherosclerosis, peripheral artery disease, carotid artery stenosis, and other vascular disorders. Some common endovascular procedures include angioplasty, stenting, embolization, and thrombectomy.

The benefits of endovascular procedures over traditional open surgery include smaller incisions, reduced trauma to surrounding tissues, faster recovery times, and lower risks of complications such as infection and bleeding. However, endovascular procedures may not be appropriate for all patients or conditions, and careful evaluation and consideration are necessary to determine the best treatment approach.

Diagnostic techniques in cardiovascular medicine refer to the various tests and methods used to diagnose and evaluate conditions related to the heart and blood vessels. These techniques can be non-invasive or invasive and are designed to provide critical information about a patient's cardiovascular health, such as heart function, blood flow, and the presence of any abnormalities or diseases. Here are some common diagnostic techniques used in cardiovascular medicine:

1. Electrocardiogram (ECG): An ECG is a non-invasive test that records the electrical activity of the heart. It can help detect heart conditions such as arrhythmias, heart attacks, and structural abnormalities.
2. Echocardiogram: This is a non-invasive ultrasound test that produces images of the heart's structures, including the chambers, valves, and major blood vessels. It can help assess heart function, identify damage from heart attacks, and detect various cardiovascular conditions.
3. Stress testing: A stress test involves exercising on a treadmill or stationary bike while being monitored by an ECG to evaluate the heart's response to physical exertion. It can help diagnose coronary artery disease, assess exercise capacity, and determine the need for further testing or treatment.
4. Cardiac catheterization: This is an invasive procedure where a thin, flexible tube (catheter) is inserted into a blood vessel in the arm or leg and guided to the heart. It can help diagnose and treat various cardiovascular conditions, such as blocked arteries, heart valve problems, and congenital heart defects.
5. Coronary angiography: During a cardiac catheterization, a special dye is injected into the coronary arteries to visualize blood flow using X-ray imaging. This can help identify blockages or narrowing in the coronary arteries and guide treatment decisions.
6. Nuclear stress testing: This test combines the use of a radioactive tracer with exercise or pharmacological stress to evaluate heart function and blood flow. It can help diagnose coronary artery disease, assess the effectiveness of treatments, and determine the need for further interventions.
7. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI): This non-invasive imaging technique uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed images of the heart's structure and function. It can help diagnose various cardiovascular conditions, such as heart muscle disorders, valve problems, and congenital heart defects.
8. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE): This is a specialized ultrasound technique where a probe is inserted through the esophagus to obtain detailed images of the heart's structure and function. It can help diagnose conditions such as blood clots, valve problems, and infective endocarditis.
9. Positron emission tomography (PET) scanning: This imaging technique uses a small amount of radioactive tracer to evaluate the metabolic activity of the heart. It can help diagnose coronary artery disease, assess the effectiveness of treatments, and determine the need for further interventions.
10. Electrophysiology studies (EPS): These are invasive procedures where catheters are inserted into the heart to study its electrical system. They can help diagnose and treat various arrhythmias, such as atrial fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia, and Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome.

Aortic rupture is a medical emergency that refers to the tearing or splitting of the aorta, which is the largest and main artery in the body. The aorta carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body. An aortic rupture can lead to life-threatening internal bleeding and requires immediate medical attention.

There are two types of aortic ruptures:

1. Aortic dissection: This occurs when there is a tear in the inner lining of the aorta, allowing blood to flow between the layers of the aortic wall. This can cause the aorta to bulge or split, leading to a rupture.
2. Thoracic aortic aneurysm rupture: An aneurysm is a weakened and bulging area in the aortic wall. When an aneurysm in the thoracic aorta (the part of the aorta that runs through the chest) ruptures, it can cause severe bleeding and other complications.

Risk factors for aortic rupture include high blood pressure, smoking, aging, family history of aortic disease, and certain genetic conditions such as Marfan syndrome or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Symptoms of an aortic rupture may include sudden severe chest or back pain, difficulty breathing, weakness, sweating, and loss of consciousness. Treatment typically involves emergency surgery to repair the aorta and control bleeding.

A stent is a small mesh tube that's used to treat narrow or weak arteries. Arteries are blood vessels that carry blood away from your heart to other parts of your body. A stent is placed in an artery as part of a procedure called angioplasty. Angioplasty restores blood flow through narrowed or blocked arteries by inflating a tiny balloon inside the blocked artery to widen it.

The stent is then inserted into the widened artery to keep it open. The stent is usually made of metal, but some are coated with medication that is slowly and continuously released to help prevent the formation of scar tissue in the artery. This can reduce the chance of the artery narrowing again.

Stents are also used in other parts of the body, such as the neck (carotid artery) and kidneys (renal artery), to help maintain blood flow and prevent blockages. They can also be used in the urinary system to treat conditions like ureteropelvic junction obstruction or narrowing of the urethra.

An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a localized dilatation or bulging of the abdominal aorta, which is the largest artery in the body that supplies oxygenated blood to the trunk and lower extremities. Normally, the diameter of the abdominal aorta measures about 2 centimeters (cm) in adults. However, when the diameter of the aorta exceeds 3 cm, it is considered an aneurysm.

AAA can occur anywhere along the length of the abdominal aorta, but it most commonly occurs below the renal arteries and above the iliac bifurcation. The exact cause of AAA remains unclear, but several risk factors have been identified, including smoking, hypertension, advanced age, male gender, family history, and certain genetic disorders such as Marfan syndrome and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

The main concern with AAA is the risk of rupture, which can lead to life-threatening internal bleeding. The larger the aneurysm, the greater the risk of rupture. Symptoms of AAA may include abdominal or back pain, a pulsating mass in the abdomen, or symptoms related to compression of surrounding structures such as the kidneys, ureters, or nerves. However, many AAAs are asymptomatic and are discovered incidentally during imaging studies performed for other reasons.

Diagnosis of AAA typically involves imaging tests such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) scan, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Treatment options depend on the size and location of the aneurysm, as well as the patient's overall health status. Small AAAs that are not causing symptoms may be monitored with regular imaging studies to assess for growth. Larger AAAs or those that are growing rapidly may require surgical repair, either through open surgery or endovascular repair using a stent graft.

Heart valve diseases are a group of conditions that affect the function of one or more of the heart's four valves (tricuspid, pulmonic, mitral, and aortic). These valves are responsible for controlling the direction and flow of blood through the heart. Heart valve diseases can cause the valves to become narrowed (stenosis), leaky (regurgitation or insufficiency), or improperly closed (prolapse), leading to disrupted blood flow within the heart and potentially causing symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, chest pain, and irregular heart rhythms. The causes of heart valve diseases can include congenital defects, age-related degenerative changes, infections, rheumatic heart disease, and high blood pressure. Treatment options may include medications, surgical repair or replacement of the affected valve(s), or transcatheter procedures.

The aorta is the largest artery in the human body, which originates from the left ventricle of the heart and carries oxygenated blood to the rest of the body. It can be divided into several parts, including the ascending aorta, aortic arch, and descending aorta. The ascending aorta gives rise to the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle. The aortic arch gives rise to the brachiocephalic, left common carotid, and left subclavian arteries, which supply blood to the head, neck, and upper extremities. The descending aorta travels through the thorax and abdomen, giving rise to various intercostal, visceral, and renal arteries that supply blood to the chest wall, organs, and kidneys.

Vascular surgical procedures are operations that are performed to treat conditions and diseases related to the vascular system, which includes the arteries, veins, and capillaries. These procedures can be invasive or minimally invasive and are often used to treat conditions such as peripheral artery disease, carotid artery stenosis, aortic aneurysms, and venous insufficiency.

Some examples of vascular surgical procedures include:

* Endarterectomy: a procedure to remove plaque buildup from the inside of an artery
* Bypass surgery: creating a new path for blood to flow around a blocked or narrowed artery
* Angioplasty and stenting: using a balloon to open a narrowed artery and placing a stent to keep it open
* Aneurysm repair: surgically repairing an aneurysm, a weakened area in the wall of an artery that has bulged out and filled with blood
* Embolectomy: removing a blood clot from a blood vessel
* Thrombectomy: removing a blood clot from a vein

These procedures are typically performed by vascular surgeons, who are trained in the diagnosis and treatment of vascular diseases.

Elastin is a protein that provides elasticity to tissues and organs, allowing them to resume their shape after stretching or contracting. It is a major component of the extracellular matrix in many tissues, including the skin, lungs, blood vessels, and ligaments. Elastin fibers can stretch up to 1.5 times their original length and then return to their original shape due to the unique properties of this protein. The elastin molecule is made up of cross-linked chains of the protein tropoelastin, which are produced by cells called fibroblasts and then assembled into larger elastin fibers by enzymes called lysyl oxidases. Elastin has a very long half-life, with some estimates suggesting that it can remain in the body for up to 70 years or more.

Postoperative complications refer to any unfavorable condition or event that occurs during the recovery period after a surgical procedure. These complications can vary in severity and may include, but are not limited to:

1. Infection: This can occur at the site of the incision or inside the body, such as pneumonia or urinary tract infection.
2. Bleeding: Excessive bleeding (hemorrhage) can lead to a drop in blood pressure and may require further surgical intervention.
3. Blood clots: These can form in the deep veins of the legs (deep vein thrombosis) and can potentially travel to the lungs (pulmonary embolism).
4. Wound dehiscence: This is when the surgical wound opens up, which can lead to infection and further complications.
5. Pulmonary issues: These include atelectasis (collapsed lung), pneumonia, or respiratory failure.
6. Cardiovascular problems: These include abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias), heart attack, or stroke.
7. Renal failure: This can occur due to various reasons such as dehydration, blood loss, or the use of certain medications.
8. Pain management issues: Inadequate pain control can lead to increased stress, anxiety, and decreased mobility.
9. Nausea and vomiting: These can be caused by anesthesia, opioid pain medication, or other factors.
10. Delirium: This is a state of confusion and disorientation that can occur in the elderly or those with certain medical conditions.

Prompt identification and management of these complications are crucial to ensure the best possible outcome for the patient.

Angioplasty is a medical procedure used to open narrowed or blocked blood vessels, often referred to as coronary angioplasty when it involves the heart's blood vessels (coronary arteries). The term "angio" refers to an angiogram, which is a type of X-ray image that reveals the inside of blood vessels.

The procedure typically involves the following steps:

1. A thin, flexible catheter (tube) is inserted into a blood vessel, usually through a small incision in the groin or arm.
2. The catheter is guided to the narrowed or blocked area using real-time X-ray imaging.
3. Once in place, a tiny balloon attached to the tip of the catheter is inflated to widen the blood vessel and compress any plaque buildup against the artery walls.
4. A stent (a small mesh tube) may be inserted to help keep the blood vessel open and prevent it from narrowing again.
5. The balloon is deflated, and the catheter is removed.

Angioplasty helps improve blood flow, reduce symptoms such as chest pain or shortness of breath, and lower the risk of heart attack in patients with blocked arteries. It's important to note that angioplasty is not a permanent solution for coronary artery disease, and lifestyle changes, medications, and follow-up care are necessary to maintain long-term cardiovascular health.

Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) is a non-invasive medical imaging technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to create detailed images of the blood vessels or arteries within the body. It is a type of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) that focuses specifically on the circulatory system.

MRA can be used to diagnose and evaluate various conditions related to the blood vessels, such as aneurysms, stenosis (narrowing of the vessel), or the presence of plaques or tumors. It can also be used to plan for surgeries or other treatments related to the vascular system. The procedure does not use radiation and is generally considered safe, although people with certain implants like pacemakers may not be able to have an MRA due to safety concerns.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

The aortic valve is the valve located between the left ventricle (the lower left chamber of the heart) and the aorta (the largest artery in the body, which carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body). It is made up of three thin flaps or leaflets that open and close to regulate blood flow. During a heartbeat, the aortic valve opens to allow blood to be pumped out of the left ventricle into the aorta, and then closes to prevent blood from flowing back into the ventricle when it relaxes. Any abnormality or damage to this valve can lead to various cardiovascular conditions such as aortic stenosis, aortic regurgitation, or infective endocarditis.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Prosthesis design is a specialized field in medical device technology that involves creating and developing artificial substitutes to replace a missing body part, such as a limb, tooth, eye, or internal organ. The design process typically includes several stages: assessment of the patient's needs, selection of appropriate materials, creation of a prototype, testing and refinement, and final fabrication and fitting of the prosthesis.

The goal of prosthesis design is to create a device that functions as closely as possible to the natural body part it replaces, while also being comfortable, durable, and aesthetically pleasing for the patient. The design process may involve collaboration between medical professionals, engineers, and designers, and may take into account factors such as the patient's age, lifestyle, occupation, and overall health.

Prosthesis design can be highly complex, particularly for advanced devices such as robotic limbs or implantable organs. These devices often require sophisticated sensors, actuators, and control systems to mimic the natural functions of the body part they replace. As a result, prosthesis design is an active area of research and development in the medical field, with ongoing efforts to improve the functionality, comfort, and affordability of these devices for patients.

A reoperation is a surgical procedure that is performed again on a patient who has already undergone a previous operation for the same or related condition. Reoperations may be required due to various reasons, such as inadequate initial treatment, disease recurrence, infection, or complications from the first surgery. The nature and complexity of a reoperation can vary widely depending on the specific circumstances, but it often carries higher risks and potential complications compared to the original operation.

Contrast media are substances that are administered to a patient in order to improve the visibility of internal body structures or processes in medical imaging techniques such as X-rays, CT scans, MRI scans, and ultrasounds. These media can be introduced into the body through various routes, including oral, rectal, or intravenous administration.

Contrast media work by altering the appearance of bodily structures in imaging studies. For example, when a patient undergoes an X-ray examination, contrast media can be used to highlight specific organs, tissues, or blood vessels, making them more visible on the resulting images. In CT and MRI scans, contrast media can help to enhance the differences between normal and abnormal tissues, allowing for more accurate diagnosis and treatment planning.

There are several types of contrast media available, each with its own specific properties and uses. Some common examples include barium sulfate, which is used as a contrast medium in X-ray studies of the gastrointestinal tract, and iodinated contrast media, which are commonly used in CT scans to highlight blood vessels and other structures.

While contrast media are generally considered safe, they can sometimes cause adverse reactions, ranging from mild symptoms such as nausea or hives to more serious complications such as anaphylaxis or kidney damage. As a result, it is important for healthcare providers to carefully evaluate each patient's medical history and individual risk factors before administering contrast media.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

Risk assessment in the medical context refers to the process of identifying, evaluating, and prioritizing risks to patients, healthcare workers, or the community related to healthcare delivery. It involves determining the likelihood and potential impact of adverse events or hazards, such as infectious diseases, medication errors, or medical devices failures, and implementing measures to mitigate or manage those risks. The goal of risk assessment is to promote safe and high-quality care by identifying areas for improvement and taking action to minimize harm.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

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Thoracic Aortic Disease - Northwestern Memorial Hospital. Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Archived 2012-05-02 at the Wayback Machine ... A thoracic aortic aneurysm is an aortic aneurysm that presents primarily in the thorax. A thoracic aortic aneurysm is the " ... Each year in the United States, some 45,000 people die from diseases of the aorta and its branches. Acute aortic dissection, a ... Guidelines were issued in March 2010 for early detection of thoracic aortic disease, by the American College of Cardiology, the ...
MYH11 Aortic aneurysm, familial thoracic 6; 611788; ACTA2 Aortic valve disease; 109730; NOTCH1 Apert syndrome; 101200; FGFR2 ... RNF212 Refsum disease; 266500; PEX7 Refsum disease; 266500; PHYH Refsum disease, infantile form; 266510; PEX26 Refsum disease, ... PSEN1 Alzheimer disease-10; 104300; AD10 Alzheimer disease-2; 104310; APOE Alzheimer disease-4; 606889; PSEN2 Alzheimer disease ... RLBP1 Niemann-Pick disease, type A; 257200; SMPD1 Niemann-Pick disease, type B; 607616; SMPD1 Niemann-Pick disease, type C1; ...
Ascending aortic aneurysm > 50mm and connective tissue disease Ascending aortic aneurysm > 50mm and risk factors and connective ... of the aortic valve. Thus, congenital aortic stenosis may be treated by aortic valve repair. In acquired aortic stenosis valve ... Aortic valve repair or aortic valve reconstruction is the reconstruction of both form and function of a dysfunctional aortic ... In most instances, aortic valve repair will be performed for aortic regurgitation (insufficiency). Aortic valve repair may also ...
Skeletal deformities and aortic valve disease may occur. These patients may live into adulthood. MPS I is inherited in an ... Aortic valve disease may occur. Upper and lower respiratory-tract infections can be frequent. Most children develop limited ... Mucopolysaccharidosis type I is a spectrum of diseases in the mucopolysaccharidosis family. It results in the buildup of ... the person should not show any symptoms of the disease.[citation needed] MPS I is divided into three subtypes based on severity ...
Aortic valve disease may occur.[citation needed] Airway obstruction is frequent, usually secondary to abnormal cervical ... A similar disease of "gargoylism" had been described in 1917 by Charles A. Hunter. Hurler did not mention Hunter's paper. ... Most vectors can correct the disease in the liver and spleen, and can correct brain effects with a high dosage. Gene therapy ... The Storage Disease Collaborative Study Group". Blood. 91 (7): 2601-8. doi:10.1182/blood.V91.7.2601. PMID 9516162. Staba SL, ...
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... acute aortic syndrome, and aortic ruptures. Aortobifemoral bypass is also used to treat atherosclerotic disease of the ... an open aortic operation may be called an Infrarenal aortic repair, a Thoracic aortic repair, or a Thoracoabdominal aortic ... Open aortic surgery (OAS) is used to treat patients with aortic aneurysms greater than 5.5 cm in diameter, to treat aortic ... At medical centers with a high volume of open aortic surgery, the fastest option for open aortic surgery was sequential aortic ...
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He serves as the Director of the Yale Center for Thoracic Aortic Disease. He received his undergraduate degree with a triple ... Yale Center for Thoracic Aortic Disease v t e (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, Living ... He specializes and practises suspended animation on his patients "About the Director". Yale Center for Thoracic Aortic Disease ...
Patients referred for this procedure may have coronary artery disease (CAD); aortic, mitral or tricuspid valve diseases; or ... Other centers that utilize the MICS CABG technique for coronary heart disease are the University of Ottawa Heart Center (ON, ... 92% of patients were free from angina and none of the participants experienced any aortic complications, repeat ... Coronary artery bypass Mitral valve repair Mitral valve replacement Aortic valve replacement Atrial septal defects Hybrid ...
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Aortic valve stenosis and mitral valve dysplasia are heart diseases. Diagnosis is made by color doppler echocardiography ... Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) and Bull Terrier hereditary nephritis (BTHN) are autosomal dominant diseases. PKD is diagnosed ... PLL is a late-onset disease that typically affects dogs between the ages of mid-2 and 7. Younger and older cases are known. In ... The Bull Terrier does not carry the PLL gene, so all progeny are phenotypically normal for the disease. Dogs portal List of dog ...
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Medical examinations discovered serious aortic calcification and some coronary artery disease. Meanwhile, Kimball had ... First, an aortic valve replacement would be required. Second, an important coronary artery with a blockage should be treated ...
Dissection of the aortic arch is rare due to medial scarring. As a result of this advanced disease process, normal methods of ... If the disease progresses, syphilitic aortitis leads to an aortic aneurysm. Overall, tertiary syphilis is a rare cause of ... The infection often has no symptoms until the patient develops an aneurysm because of the aortic dilatation. The disease is ... Bacterial diseases, Sexually transmitted diseases and infections, Syphilis). ...
In humans, mutations in Notch most often result in bicuspid aortic valve disease and calcification of the aortic valve. Bone ... Garg V. et al "Mutations in NOTCH1 cause aortic valve disease." Nature September 2005 437(7056) p 270 - 274. doi:10.1038/ ... Other outcomes of aortic arch artery anomalies includes a double aortic arch, variable absence of the carotid arteries and left ... The group of cells found in the third aortic arch gives rise to common carotid arteries. Cells found in the fourth aortic arch ...
The disease is either arisen spontaneously from aortic illnesses or postoperatively. It deprives patients of motor function or ... arterial occlusion by aortic intima separated from endothelial wall in aortic dissection, and aortic coarctation. Embolism, ... On the other hand, diabetes mellitus, peripheral artery disease, smoking and cholesterol are associated more with such disease ... Diseases in aorta are recognized as a widely seen contributor of spontaneous spinal cord ischaemia, represented by rupturing of ...
"Impact of aortic stiffness on survival in end-stage renal disease". Circulation. 99 (18): 2434-9. doi:10.1161/01.cir.99.18.2434 ... Increased aortic PWV has been shown to predict cardiovascular, and in some cases all cause, mortality in individuals with end ... Typical values of PWV in the aorta range from approximately 5 m/s to >15 m/s.[citation needed] Measurement of aortic PWV ... Laurent S, Boutouyrie P, Asmar R, Gautier I, Laloux B, Guize L, Ducimetiere P, Benetos A (May 2001). "Aortic stiffness is an ...
Rivière is credited as the first physician to describe aortic valve disease. During an autopsy of a patient in 1646 who died ... He further observed that the aortic valve was "hardened." This work was described by French Physician René Laennec as the first ... During his career he specialized in pharmacology, anatomy, and surgery and was the first physician to describe aortic valve ... His works covered a variety of medical topics including the history of epidemics, surgical methods, disease descriptions, ...
Chronic aortic regurgitation due to aortic root disease may also be seen. Although infrequent, myocardial infarction (heart ... With Behçet's disease as a pre-existing disease in pregnancy or acquired, the pregnancy does not have an adverse effect on the ... Inflammatory eye disease can develop early in the disease course and lead to permanent vision loss in 20 percent of cases. ... Behçet's disease has a high degree of resemblance to diseases that cause mucocutaneous lesions such as Herpes simplex labialis ...
Rare causes of aortic stenosis include Fabry disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, Paget disease, high blood uric acid levels ... Finally, aortic stenosis often co-exists with some degree of aortic insufficiency (aortic regurgitation). Hence, the physical ... Aortic stenosis is the most common valvular heart disease in the developed world. It affects about 2% of people who are over 65 ... A bicuspid aortic valve affects about one to two percent of the population. As of 2014 rheumatic heart disease mostly occurs in ...
Prognosis of canines with aortic stenosis depends on the severity of the disease. Mild stenosis usually does not affect ... Canine subvalvular aortic stenosis (SAS) is an abnormal, congenital heart murmur caused by subaortic stenosis (SAS). There is a ... Aortic stenosis is often initially detected upon hearing a heart murmur during a routine physical examination by a veterinarian ... "Aortic Stenosis in Dogs". vca_corporate. Retrieved 2019-12-22. Burke A. "Heart Murmur in Dogs". American Kennel Club. Retrieved ...
... (BAV) is a form of heart disease in which two of the leaflets of the aortic valve fuse during development ... July 2013). "Aortic dilation in bicuspid aortic valve disease: flow pattern is a major contributor and differs with valve ... Bicuspid aortic valve disease andascending aortic aneurysms: gaps in knowledge. Hindawi 2012; 2012:145202 - 145218. Bissell MM ... A bicuspid aortic valve may cause the heart's aortic valve to narrow (aortic stenosis). This narrowing prevents the valve from ...
However, TIAs can result from emboli in calcific aortic disease and aortic coarctation. Spinal arteriovenous malformations ( ... Gradual onset diseases are more common (85-90% of all diseases leading to a diagnosis of malformation) and are usually due to ... Malformations can be recognised as part of an acute illness or gradual onset disease. In diseases such as subarachnoid ... Vascular myelopathy (vascular disease of the spinal cord) refers to an abnormality of the spinal cord in regard to its blood ...
... he suffered from narrowing of the aortic valve related to rheumatic heart disease. As Smithy began to operate on a series of ... In late June, Smithy sent Blalock a letter indicating that he had a young man from New York whose aortic stenosis was nearly ... On October 28, Smithy died; he had never been able to undergo surgery on his own aortic valve. An autopsy later showed that the ... By 1946, Smithy had devised what he called a valvulotome, an instrument he used to cut away scar tissue from the aortic valve. ...
... doxycycline and progression of calcific aortic valve disease in hyperlipidemic mice". Sci Rep. 6: 32659. Bibcode:2016NatSR... ... Clinical Infectious Diseases. 55 (12): 1642-9. doi:10.1093/cid/cis784. PMID 22972867. "Lyme disease. Treatment". 21 December ... slightly longer in those with end-stage kidney disease, and significantly longer in those with liver disease. Expired ... doxycycline is frequently used to treat Lyme disease, chronic prostatitis, sinusitis, pelvic inflammatory disease, acne, ...
Causes of Aortic Valve Disease. Aortic valve disease can occur for many reasons. Some people are born with defects that prevent ... Expert Diagnosis of Aortic Valve Disease at UCLA. Doctors can often diagnosis aortic valve disease during a physical ... At the UCLA Aortic Center, our goal is to improve the quality of life of our patients with aortic valve disease. Our expert ... Symptoms of Aortic Valve Disease. People with aortic valve defects can have a variety of symptoms depending on whether blood is ...
Diseases of the aorta can be life-threatening, so it is important to receive an early diagnosis as well as treatment. The ... Patients with the following genetic diseases can benefit from the GMAD Clinic: ... The Genetically Mediated Aortic Disease (GMAD) Clinic, a unique program within Cooper and Inspira Cardiac Care, screens and ... Other familial thoracic aortic aneurysm disorders. Signs and symptoms that you may have a genetically mediated aortic diseases ...
Common indications for aortic valve replacement in children include the following: Hypoplasia of the aortic valve annulus in ... the neonate Progressive stenosis of the aortic valve in infants and children Multilevel left ventricular outflow tract ... Aortic valve replacement (AVR) may occasionally be required in infants and children. ... Significant immune complex disease as a coexisting disease, especially if it is the etiology of the aortic valve disease. (eg, ...
Mycoplasma genitalium Endocarditis in Prosthetic Aortic Valve. Emerging Infectious Diseases. 2023;29(10):2164-2166. doi:10.3201 ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC twenty four seven. Saving Lives, Protecting People ... Trans-esophageal echocardiography without doppler (A) and with doppler (B) of the mechanical aortic heart valve in a woman ...
Aortic disease occurs when the aortic wall is weakened and either bulges, causing an aortic aneurysm or tears, causing an ... Rapid aortic growth is a risk factor for rupture.. *Multidisciplinary aortic teams - For individuals who require aortic ... This new aortic disease guideline replaces the "2010 ACCF/AHA Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Patients with ... Thoracic Aortic Disease" and the "2015 Surgery for Aortic Dilation in Patients with Bicuspid Aortic Valves: A Statement of ...
Watch our full video called Aortic Valve Disease: Treatment Options Including TAVR now. ... Aortic stenosis occurs when the hearts aortic valve narrows. This narrowing reduces or blocks blood flow from your heart into ... Aortic stenosis cannot be medically reversed or stopped and requires surgical intervention to treat. At this seminar, learn ... about aortic valve replacement options, including minimally invasive procedures and TAVR (transcatheter aortic valve ...
The treatment of an aortic aneurysm depends on its severity ... Heart Disease - Aortic Aneurysm. *Heart Disease - Types of ... h2,,a id=Treating_Aneurysm name=Treating_Aneurysm,Treating Aortic Aneurysm,/a,,/h2, ... Treating Aortic Aneurysm. The treatment of an aortic aneurysm depends on its severity ... The treatment of an aortic aneurysm depends on its severity. In cases where an abdominal aortic aneurysm does not exceed five ...
Cardiologists in Cannon Falls provide care for aortic valve disease. Learn about signs, symptoms, and treatment options. Call ... Types of aortic valve disease. Aortic valve stenosis In this condition, the flaps, or cusps, of the aortic valve may become ... Aortic Valve Disease Treatment in Cannon Falls Aortic valve disease is a condition where the valve between the main pumping ... Some people with aortic valve disease may not experience symptoms for many years. Signs and symptoms of aortic valve disease ...
... has been associated with numerous vascular complications but only rarely with fibrosing disorders or valvular heart disease. ... Mitral and aortic valve disease associated with ergotamine therapy for migraine. Report of two cases and review of literature ... The surgically excised mitral and aortic valves were involved by a proliferative process that was strikingly similar to lesions ... described in patients with carcinoid heart disease and methysergide-associated valvular disease. ...
Disease Training Video is designed to provide an introduction to the Doppler evaluation of commonly seen mitral and aortic ... Doppler Evaluation of Aortic Valve Heart Disease Training Video is designed to provide an introduction to the Doppler ... Identify common pathology for aortic valve disease.. *Recognize cardiology pathology and correlate the two dimensional and ... evaluation of commonly seen mitral and aortic valvular heart disease. Date of Original Release: 10/24/2022 This edition valid ...
Aortic Valve Disease. Erynn Richardson, FNP-C. July 28, 2023. Erynn Richardson, FNP-C, is an advanced practice provider at ... cardiology and interventional cardiology at the Yale School of Medicine and then further trained in structural heart disease at ...
... will cover a broad range of topics related to Aortic Diseases. Subjects discussed include, but are not limited to: Diseases of ... will cover a broad range of topics related to Aortic Diseases. Subjects discussed include, but are not limited to: Diseases of ... Endovascular Treatment Options for the Aortic Arch; Treatment of Complex Thoracoabdominal Aortic Disease; Treatment of ... and Neuroprotection Strategies in Aortic Surgery, among others.. Companion Products. *Aortic Diseases, An Issue of Cardiology ...
... to take part in new clinical study of a minimally treatment for thoracic aortic arch disease. ... New minimally invasive treatment for thoracic aortic arch disease. By Liam Connolly. UC Davis Medical Center is one of 30 ... Thousands of patients have new hope for treatment of thoracic aortic arch disease, thanks to a new minimally invasive treatment ... "Treating patients with thoracic aortic arch disease presents many challenges due to the size, shape and location," Maximus ...
Conclusions: ELN mutations may cause severe aortic disease in patients with cutis laxa. Thus regular cardiac monitoring is ... Aortic aneurysmal disease and cutis laxa caused by defects in the elastin gene ... Aortic aneurysmal disease and cutis laxa caused by defects in the elastin gene ... both with variable expression of an aortic aneurysmal phenotype ranging from mild dilatation to severe aneurysm or aortic ...
Background Cohort studies have demonstrated associations between calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) and Lp(a). As Lp(a) is ... Association between lipoprotein(a), LPA genetic risk score, aortic valve disease, and subsequent major adverse cardiovascular ... Association between lipoprotein(a), LPA genetic risk score, aortic valve disease, and subsequent major adverse cardiovascular ... Association between lipoprotein(a), LPA genetic risk score, aortic valve disease, and subsequent major adverse cardiovascular ...
Noncompaction Cardiomyopathy, Sick Sinus Disease, and Aortic Dilatation: Too Much for a Single Diagnosis? JACC: Case Reports , ... Noncompaction Cardiomyopathy, Sick Sinus Disease, and Aortic Dilatation: Too Much for a Single Diagnosis? ... Noncompaction Cardiomyopathy, Sick Sinus Disease, and Aortic Dilatation: Too Much for a Single Diagnosis?. ... aortic dilatation; cardiomyopathy; HCN4; noncompaction; sinus bradycardia; sinus node dysfunction. UCL classification:. UCL. ...
Nyman U, Uher P, Lindh M, Lindblad B, Ivancev K. Primary stenting in infrarenal aortic occlusive disease. Cardiovascular and ... Nyman, U., Uher, P., Lindh, M., Lindblad, B., & Ivancev, K. (2000). Primary stenting in infrarenal aortic occlusive disease. ... Nyman, U, Uher, P, Lindh, M, Lindblad, B & Ivancev, K 2000, Primary stenting in infrarenal aortic occlusive disease, ... Primary stenting in infrarenal aortic occlusive disease. / Nyman, Ulf; Uher, Petr; Lindh, Mats et al. ...
... aortic disease, Multidisciplinary Aortic Team, aortic surgery, thoracic aortic aneurysms, aortic root replacement surgery, type ... Bicuspid aortic valve, aortic repair, aortic dissection, aortic aneurysm, surgical aortic valve replacement, type b aortic ... Diseases/Conditions (MeSH). D001018 - Aortic Diseases, D065467 - Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement, D001019 - Aortic ... thoracic endovascular aortic repair, endovascular repair, Thoracoabdominal Aortic Aneurysm, aortic imaging, aortic rupture, ...
The first aortic event was defined as an elective aortic aneurysm surgery or any aortic dissection. The median age for a first ... "Comparative Risks of Initial Aortic Events Associated with Genetic Thoracic Aortic Disease," was Ellen Regalado, PhD, of ... In thoracic aortic disease, the aorta - the main artery that carries blood out of the heart to the lungs - develops a weakening ... Gene mutations influence risk of thoracic aortic disease severity, according to UTHealth Houston research. Written by: Deborah ...
Postponed! Final Fridays: Back to Basics of Thoracic Aortic Disease with Dr. Sherene Shalhub. ...
Familial thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection (familial TAAD) involves problems with the aorta, the large blood vessel that ... 2014 ESC Guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of aortic diseases: Document covering acute and chronic aortic diseases of ... Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center. *Familial thoracic aortic aneurysm and aortic dissection ... Genetic testing in aortic aneurysm disease: PRO. Cardiol Clin. 2010 May;28(2):191-7. doi: 10.1016/j.ccl.2010.01.017. Citation ...
Objective The aim of this study was to assess natural course of rheumatic aortic regurgitation (AR) in patients wh ... Mild aortic stenosis and mixed aortic disease were excluded. Results At the last follow-up control, 118 patients 94.4 % were in ... Natural Evolution of Aortic Valve Regurgitation Following Surgery for Rheumatic Mitral Valve Disease. Noureddine ATMANI [2] , ... "Natural Evolution of Aortic Valve Regurgitation Following Surgery for Rheumatic Mitral Valve Disease", International Journal of ...
Aortic Aneurysm, Aortic Disease, Aortic Dissection Saha Legacy Continues With Establishment of Aortic Research Center at the ... Tag: Aortic Disease. AORTIC ANEURYSM EXPERTS/QUOTES - Grant Wahl - U-Mich Health. December 14, 2022. sarah JonasExpert Pitch ... the Saha Aortic Center will promote research and education to advance clinical care for disease of the aorta. Aortic disease ... Aortic Disease, Aortic Dissection, Cardiology, Cardiovascular, Cardiovascular Surgery, Vascular Surgery Tied to Undiagnosed ...
Increasing recognition of the specific risks and symptoms of heart valve disease ... At Rock from the Heart, we realize that many families affected by aortic disease live on a fixed income. Your generous ... Rock from the Heart uses music to inspire and provide hope to people affected by aortic disease. ... Rock from the Heart Aortic Health Symposium - Fargo. May 3, 2024 @ 1:00 pm - 9:30 pm. ...
AORTIC VALVE DISEASE 2; AOVD2. Echinobase Genes: smad6 Human Disease Resource: OMIM Disease Ontology (DO): DOID:1712 - aortic ...
Vascular Disease and Surgery. View all - Vascular Disease and Surgery Aortic Disease - General Aneurysm Carotid Artery Disease ... CV Disease in Special Populations. View all - CV Disease in Special Populations Cardio-oncology Amyloidosis Cardiotoxicity ... Trauma Stroke Peripheral Artery Disease - General Occlusive Venous Disease - General Pulmonary Embolism Deep Vascular ... AnticoagulationCOVID-19CV Disease in Special PopulationsDemographicDigital HealthElectrophysiology & ArrhythmiaHeart Failure ...
Mr Dominic PJ Howard talks about the current management and Oxford research on aortic disease, and the endovascular revolution ... Mr Adam Howard discusses the exciting area of laparoscopic aortic surgery and where that is placed in this field. ... Laparoscopic aortic surgery: Credible or just plain crazy? ...
able accurately achieve acquisition additional adjacent adjunct administration affords alone angiography aortic applied ... clinical clinically coils components concentric consensus consistent contrast core despite detect differentiate discuss disease ...
... and 1000s of other diseases, symptoms, drugs, doctors, specialists, and clinics in our trustworth ... What is aortic stenosis?. Aortic stenosis is abnormal narrowing of the aortic valve. A number of conditions cause disease ... Aortic valve stenosis facts. *Aortic stenosis is narrowing of the aortic valve, impeding delivery of blood from the heart to ... Bicuspid aortic valve is the most common cause of aortic stenosis in patients under age 65. Normal aortic valves have three ...
  • Screen first-degree relatives of individuals diagnosed with aneurysms of the aortic root or ascending thoracic aorta, or those with aortic dissection to identify individuals most at risk for aortic disease. (
  • Consider transferring clinically stable patients with acute type A aortic dissection to a high-volume aortic center to improve survival. (
  • Operative repair of type A aortic dissection should entail at least an open distal anastomosis rather than just a simple supracoronary interposition graft. (
  • An increasing role exists for thoracic endovascular aortic repair in the management of uncomplicated type B aortic dissection. (
  • For more information, please go to Aortic Dissection , Aortic Dissection Imaging , Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm , Bedside Ultrasonography Evaluation of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm , Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm , Thoracic Endovascular Aortic Repair (TEVAR) , Bicuspid Aortic Valve , Coronary Artery Atherosclerosis , and Noncoronary Atherosclerosis . (
  • A newer classification system was proposed in 2020 to define aortic dissections in greater detail based on the location of entry tear and extent of dissection [ Isselbacher et al 2022 ]. (
  • In type A dissections blood within the aortic wall can either flow distally, up the ascending aorta (anterograde dissection), or back toward the aortic root (retrograde dissection). (
  • Aortic dilatation is generally the first feature of familial TAAD to develop, although in some affected individuals dissection occurs with little or no aortic dilatation. (
  • HealthDay News - In a mouse model of moderate, sporadic aortic aneurysm and dissection (AAD), ciprofloxacin increases susceptibility to aortic dissection and rupture, according to a study published online July 25 in JAMA Surgery . (
  • When affected by disease, the aorta can split (dissection) or dilate (aneurysm) and in either case, the rupture may have fatal results. (
  • An aortic dissection is a tear in the inner lining of your aorta. (
  • An aortic dissection occurring in the ascending aorta is termed Type A and is an emergency that usually requires surgical intervention, while an aortic dissection occurring in the descending aorta is termed Type B and may be managed without surgery by controlling your blood pressure. (
  • If you develop an aortic tear causing dissection, you may experience sudden severe pain accompanied by a drop in your blood pressure, nausea, and dizziness. (
  • For mild symptoms, you will be prescribed medications like calcium channel blockers or beta-blockers to minimize the risk of aortic dissection or rupture. (
  • Aortic dissection (AD) occurs when an injury to the innermost layer of the aorta allows blood to flow between the layers of the aortic wall, forcing the layers apart. (
  • Aortic dissection can quickly lead to death from insufficient blood flow to the heart or complete rupture of the aorta. (
  • Neurological complications of aortic dissection, such as stroke and paralysis, are due to the involvement of one or more arteries supplying portions of the central nervous system. (
  • BACKGROUND: Ascending aortic dilation is important in bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) disease, with increased risk of aortic dissection. (
  • The death certificate and autopsy report were completed by the state medical examiner's office On July 8, 2013, a 37-year-old male career fire and listed "aortic dissection due to hypertensive fighter died from a dissected aorta while on duty. (
  • NIOSH con- previous medical call (1230 hours) triggered the tacted the affected FD on July 9, 2013, to gather aortic dissection. (
  • Progressive aortic dilation is associated with severe complications such as ascending aorta aneurysm, dissection, and rupture. (
  • This study sought to compare the risk of first aortic event, specifically thoracic aortic aneurysm surgery or an aortic dissection , among 7 HTAD genes and variant types within each gene . (
  • in contrast, patients with TGFBR2 variants had lower cumulative incidence of type A aortic dissection than elective aneurysm surgery . (
  • Cumulative incidence of type B aortic dissection was higher for ACTA2, PRKG1, and TGFBR2 than other genes . (
  • For example, the aorta's walls can weaken and bulge, causing an aneurysm, or they can tear, causing an aortic dissection. (
  • The risk of having an aortic aneurysm or dissection increases with the size of the injury, but the minimum size for recommending surgery was lowered for people being treated at institutions with multidisciplinary aortic teams and experienced surgeons. (
  • Bicuspid Aortic Valve Disease (BAV) patients with an aneurysmal proximal thoracic aorta have a higher risk of acute aortic dissection compared to TAV patients [1]. (
  • Acute type A aortic dissection is a feared complication of thoracic aortic aneurysm because it is associated with a mortality rate of 1-2% per hour after the onset of symptoms, and about 90% deaths within 90 days if left untreated [2]. (
  • Total RNA was isolated from samples collected from patients who underwent aortic repair surgery due to damages associated with aortic diseases (aortic dissection, aortic aneurism or advanced atherosclerosis). (
  • Segmented data of patient's contrast-enhanced CT scan was analyzed for aortic dissection and penetrating aortic ulcer (PAU). (
  • Aortic dissection was detected by checking for an abnormal shape of the aorta using edge oriented methods. (
  • The aortic dissection detection process had a sensitivity of 0.8218 and a specificity of 0.9907. (
  • The aortic dissection detection process and the PAU detection process were successful in removing innocuous images, but additional methods are necessary for improving recognition of images with aortic disease. (
  • By examining the scan for signs of serious heart conditions, for instance coronary stenosis, pulmonary embolism, and aortic dissection (AD), TRO images can be used to determine if a patient should be released or admitted for further evaluation. (
  • The doctor's astute decision potentially served as a lifesaver - an aortic aneurysm was discovered - and a mere five days later, Pam found herself in the hospital, not for a simple knee repair, but for open-heart surgery to prevent a potentially life-threatening aortic dissection or rupture. (
  • It is characterized by a narrowing (stenosis) of the section of the aorta just above the valve that connects the aorta to the heart (aortic valve). (
  • Surgery is recommended for patients with aneurysms of aortic root and ascending thoracic aorta with a confirmed growth rate of ≥0.3 cm per year across 2 consecutive years or ≥0.5 cm in 1 year. (
  • Since the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the clinical application of this technology in the thoracic aorta in 2005, there has been a rapid growth in this treatment modality as numerous endovascular devices have been introduced in the application of thoracic aortic pathology. (
  • We divide valvular heart diseases into two broad types: valvular stenosis and valvular insufficiency," says Dr. Wattanaphol Phipathananunth , Cardiologist "In valvular stenosis the aortic valve that separates the left ventricle and the body's main blood delivery artery (aorta), does not fully open, which then restricts blood flow to the aorta. (
  • Additional malformations were aortic regurgitation, persistent ductus arteriosus, coarctation of the aorta, ventricular septal defect, partial anomalous pulmonary venous drainage, and mitral stenosis. (
  • A thoracic aortic aneurysm is a permanent, localized enlargement of the thoracic aorta. (
  • this review focuses on aneurysms involving the aortic root and/or ascending aorta (see Figure 1 ). (
  • blood flows from the lumen of the aorta and enters the inner wall separating the intima and media layers of the aortic wall. (
  • The aortic valve allows oxygen-rich blood to flow from the heart to the aorta, the main blood vessel that brings blood to the body. (
  • The bicuspid aortic valve defects are sometimes associated with other defects of the aorta and other left side heart abnormalities. (
  • In familial TAAD, the aorta can become weakened and stretched (aortic dilatation), which can lead to a bulge in the blood vessel wall (an aneurysm). (
  • These aortic abnormalities are potentially life-threatening because they can decrease blood flow to other parts of the body such as the brain or other vital organs, or cause the aorta to break open (rupture). (
  • In the remainder of cases, the abnormalities are thought to be caused by factors that are not inherited, such as damage to the walls of the aorta from aging, tobacco use, injury, or disease. (
  • Aorta : official journal of the Aortic Institute at Yale-New Haven Hospital. (
  • Aortic disease occurs when the aorta either splits, dissects, or dilates, forming an aneurysm. (
  • In Aortic Stenosis (AS) or Aortic regurgitation, the aortic valve doesn't open or close completely, restricting the flow of blood from the left ventricle of the heart to the aorta and the rest of the body or leakage of blood back into the left ventricle. (
  • Aortic valve is present between the left ventricle of heart and aorta (the largest artery in the body). (
  • The main function of the aortic valve is to open and close and allow blood to flow from the left ventricle to the aorta through which oxygen-rich blood is supplied to the entire body and the coronary arteries. (
  • Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) - a disease that leaves the aortic valve stiff and calcified, preventing blood flow from the heart into the aorta - affects one quarter of the U.S. population aged 65 and over. (
  • Aortic disease refers to the various disorders or conditions affecting the aorta. (
  • An aortic aneurysm occurs when the walls of the aorta begin to weaken, gradually lose their elasticity and expand or bulge outwards. (
  • It can occur in any part of the aorta and would be classified as thoracic aortic aneurysm or abdominal aortic aneurysm depending on the part of the aorta affected. (
  • A penetrating ulcer also termed penetrating atherosclerotic ulcer, occurs when the plaque in your aorta forms ulcers that penetrate your aortic wall. (
  • There are numerous conditions and diseases that can cause damage to the aorta. (
  • Surgery for aortic aneurysm involves replacing the damaged aorta with a graft. (
  • Anterior chest pain is associated with dissections involving the ascending aorta, while interscapular back pain is associated with descending aortic dissections. (
  • It is usually associated with pericardial tamponade, severe aortic insufficiency, or rupture of the aorta. (
  • Some patients with a bicuspid aortic valve may also develop dilation (enlargement) of aorta. (
  • But when the weakened area, tear, or degeneration of the aorta occurs in the chest and abdomen or pelvic area, we classify it as a complex aortic disease. (
  • A remarkable result is that little variations of the reflection coefficient of the vale due to the modelled diseases cause significant changes of the pressure profiles, especially at the ascending aorta, the left brachial artery and in the anterior communicating artery. (
  • The updated guidance replaces two older documents for identifying and treating disease in the aorta, the artery that carries blood away from the heart as it moves through the chest and abdomen. (
  • When this happens in the part of the aorta that runs through the abdomen, it is called an abdominal aortic aneurysm. (
  • An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a bulge in the major artery - the aorta - that moves blood away from the heart to the rest of the body. (
  • The condition is described as supravalvular because the section of the aorta that is narrowed is located just above the valve that connects the aorta with the heart (the aortic valve). (
  • Aortic narrowing causes the heart to work harder to pump blood through the aorta, resulting in the signs and symptoms of SVAS. (
  • The mean size of proximal thoracic aorta at initial encounter, including aortic root, ascending, and arch, for the watched group was 52.1 ± 1.62mm and 52.6 ± 1.81mm in the immediately operated group, p=0.06. (
  • Aortic cross-clamp was applied distally beyond the dilated ascending aorta root and 500 ml of cold blood cardioplegia administered retrogradely into the coronary sinus to stun the heart. (
  • Consistent with the valve calcification phenotype, Notch1 transcripts were most abundant in the developing aortic valve of mice, and Notch1 repressed the activity of Runx2, a central transcriptional regulator of osteoblast cell fate. (
  • Diseases like Marfan's syndrome (genetic disorder that affects the tissues holding the body's cells, tissues and organs together), syphilis (sexually transmitted infection) and tuberculosis (bacterial infection that affects the lungs) can weaken the layers of the aortic wall. (
  • In this educational review, we cover the pathophysiology, presentation and assessment of aortic stenosis (AS) and aortic regurgitation (AR), including the role of imaging modalities beyond echocardiography. (
  • Even for patients who are treated with the valvotomy only, an aortic valve replacement will eventually become necessary because of calcification or valve regurgitation. (
  • Aortic valve diseases such as aortic stenosis and aortic regurgitation, are the most frequent valvular heart diseases. (
  • A trans-thoracic echocardiogram demonstrated mixed aortic valve disease with severe transvalvular regurgitation and a peak gradient of 59 mmHg accompanied by LV dilatation at 6.4 cm. (
  • Although similar to vascular atherosclerosis, CAVD is not atherosclerosis of the aortic valve. (
  • A number of conditions can lead to aortic disease, including atherosclerosis in which plaque builds up inside the artery walls. (
  • From the medical management of atherosclerosis to the complex surgical repair of aortic dissections, our expert team is available around the clock for rapid evaluation and treatment of our patients. (
  • Estes JE Jr. Abdominal aortic aneurysm: A study of 102 cases. (
  • Nursing Central , (
  • Open surgical repair: During an open surgical repair, your surgeon makes an incision on the chest, for a thoracic aortic aneurysm, and in the abdomen, for an abdominal aortic aneurysm. (
  • Different types of aortic aneurysm include abdominal, thoracic or thoraco-abdominal. (
  • An abdominal aortic aneurysm can occur without any symptoms, and it may not always require treatment. (
  • In this article, we discuss what an abdominal aortic aneurysm is and how to treat it. (
  • It is speculated that this lack of efficacy may be due to initiation of therapeutic interventions at an irreversible stage of CAVD or that because only a fraction of PPP2R1B patients with aortic sclerosis develop symptomatic aortic valve stenosis it may be hard to demonstrate treatment efficacy in the presence of a large number of low risk subjects. (
  • A 40 year-old female, with a history of cardiac surgery for congenital aortic valve stenosis and von Willebrand's disease (VWD) presented with increasing shortness of breath due to mixed aortic valve dysfunction. (
  • Moderate aortic insufficiency is poorly tolerated by the left ventricle and will likely result in aortic valve replacement. (
  • Patients with BAV generally function well until midlife, when symptoms of aortic insufficiency or aortic stenosis appear. (
  • With extensive experience in treating BAV disease, Cleveland Clinic surgeons recommend a different approach: valve repair for patients with aortic insufficiency, and valve replacement with a bioprosthesis for patients with symptomatic aortic stenosis and those whose valves cannot be repaired. (
  • Cleveland Clinic is one of a select number of U.S. centers offering repair of BAV in patients with aortic insufficiency. (
  • MRI hemodynamic markers of progressive bicuspid aortic valve-related aortic disease. (
  • Aortic dilation in bicuspid aortic valve disease: flow pattern is a major contributor and differs with valve fusion type. (
  • We used cardiovascular MR to understand the pathophysiology better by examining the links between 3-dimensional flow abnormalities, aortic function, and aortic dilation. (
  • Patients with BAV with normal flow patterns had similar aortic dimensions and wall shear stress to healthy volunteers and younger patients with BAV showed abnormal flow patterns but no aortic dilation, both further supporting the importance of flow pattern in the pathogenesis of aortic dilation. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: Flow abnormalities may be a major contributor to aortic dilation in BAV. (
  • Researchers at the Northwestern Medicine Department of Radiology , Northwestern Medicine Bluhm Cardiovascular Institute, and the Libin Cardiovascular Institute, Cumming School of Medicine, University of Calgary * evaluated the role of wall shear stress as a predictor of progressive aortic dilation in patients with bicuspid aortic valve disease. (
  • Our findings indicate a potential role of 4D flow MRI derived wall shear stress as a new biomarker for arterial wall remodeling leading to higher rates of progressive aortic dilation in bicuspid aortic valve disease, thus exposing patients to a greater risk for aortic complications," said Michael Markl, Ph.D. , professor & vice chair for research, Departments of Radiology & Biomedical Engineering at Northwestern University. (
  • The study identified 72 bicuspid aortic valve patients who underwent MRI for surveillance of aortic dilation at baseline and follow-up five or more years later. (
  • For patients with higher rates of aortic dilation, 19.9 percent had elevated wall shear stress at baseline compared to 5.7 percent for those with slower growth rates. (
  • The BAV registry was developed to better characterize patients with bicuspid aortic valve disease by assessing patterns of aortic dilation, potential genetic markers, and the effects of medical intervention in this population. (
  • Here, we show that mutations in the signalling and transcriptional regulator NOTCH1 cause a spectrum of developmental aortic valve anomalies and severe valve calcification in non-syndromic autosomal-dominant human pedigrees. (
  • Aortic stenosis has three levels of severity: mild, moderate, and severe. (
  • But in severe aortic stenosis, the physician will consider valvular replacement for treatment. (
  • Aortic dissections usually cause severe, sudden chest or back pain, and may also result in unusually pale skin (pallor), a very faint pulse, numbness or tingling (paresthesias) in one or more limbs, or paralysis. (
  • Moderate aortic destruction was seen on aortic challenge, with development of AAD and severe AAD in 45 and 24 percent of mice, respectively, but no rupture or death. (
  • Severe aortic destruction and a significantly increased incidence of AAD (79 percent), severe AAD (67 percent), and rupture and premature death (15 percent) occurred in challenged mice that received ciprofloxacin. (
  • Symptoms vary from mild to severe and are normally developed during severe disease of the valve. (
  • At the age of 25 years, she had undergone a homograft aortic valve replacement (AVR) for congenital bicuspid aortic valve disease and severe aortic stenosis. (
  • Outcomes in moderate mixed aortic valve disease: is it time for a paradigm shift? (
  • The purpose of this Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) is to encourage innovative molecular and physiological research that could lead to early diagnosis or effective medical therapy for calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD). (
  • Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) covers a spectrum of disease from initial changes in the cell biology of the valve leaflets, through early calcification, tissue remodeling and aortic sclerosis, to outflow obstruction and aortic stenosis. (
  • In 2011, the NHLBI issued its original Request for Applications (RFA) on Basic Research in Calcific Aortic Valve Disease (RFA-HL-12-015). (
  • Lack of periostin leads to suppression of Notch1 signaling and calcific aortic valve disease. (
  • Keywords: Molecular imaging Aortic valve Inflammation Calcification Matrix metalloproteinases INTRODUCTION Aortic stenosis is the most common cause of valvular heart disease and calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD) is the most common cause of aortic stenosis ( 1 ). (
  • At centers with multidisciplinary aortic teams and experienced surgeons, the threshold for surgical intervention for sporadic aortic root and ascending aortic aneurysms is now 5.0 cm (from 5.5 cm) in select individuals, and it is even lower in specific settings among patients with heritable thoracic aortic aneurysms. (
  • The echocardiography convention for assessment of aortic root and ascending aortic diameters has been to measure leading edge to leading edge in end-diastole [ Evangelista et al 2010 ]. (
  • Nomograms and z scores based on reference values for aortic root and ascending aortic diameters that account for biologic sex normalized to body surface area (aortic size index) are commonly used in the pediatric population to interpret clinically significant aortic dilatation in a growing child, but can also be applied to adults [ Devereux et al 2012 , Campens et al 2014 ]. (
  • Her medical history included systemic lupus erythematosus diagnosed in 2000 (on azathioprine), a mechanical aortic valve placed in 2019 (St. Jude Medical, (on acenocoumarol), and a resection of uterine polyps in November 2021. (
  • The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the probabilities of death from any cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) death. (
  • From 2006 to 2016, the NHLBI and the National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (NIAMS) co-funded the National Registry of Genetically Triggered Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms and Cardiovascular Conditions (GenTAC). (
  • The GenTAC Registry demonstrated the value of studying groups of participants with different genetic diseases who have similar cardiovascular outcomes. (
  • By providing clinical and biological data, the GenTAC Registry is helping improve the diagnosis and clinical care of genetically triggered thoracic aortic aneurysms and their complications, especially those affecting the cardiovascular system. (
  • People with AS are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). (
  • To prevent aortic disease, you should follow a healthy lifestyle, abstain from smoking, consume a nutritious diet that excludes excess fats and visit your cardiologist regularly for a cardiovascular check-up. (
  • cardiovascular disease" as the cause of death. (
  • High dietary salt intake is a challenge of modern lifestyles because it is known to be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. (
  • Evidence has suggested a role for a molecule found in the body called marinobufagenin (MBG), which suppresses the activity of sodium pumps that move sodium ions into and out of cells when salt intake is high and is associated with conditions linked to cardiovascular disease. (
  • Similarly, their studies in young rats that chronically consumed a high-salt diet showed that, compared to rats on a normal-salt diet, the animals consuming excess salt had elevated levels of MBG, an increase in aortic stiffness, and greater activation of a cellular signaling pathway related to cardiovascular disease. (
  • The results of these studies suggest that MBG mediates the link between dietary salt intake and aortic stiffness, a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and accelerated cardiovascular aging. (
  • They also support the idea that reducing salt consumption to five grams per day or less, an important lifestyle change recommendation by the World Health Organization (WHO), would help restore aortic elasticity and decrease left ventricular mass by reducing the production of MBG, ultimately lowering the risk of cardiovascular diseases. (
  • Centre for Inherited Cardiovascular Diseases, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom. (
  • Age and gender-matched aortic controls from cardiovascular (CV) healthy donors obtained from commercial sources (Capital Biosciences, MD) were used for comparison. (
  • Indeed, human aortic VSMC from cardiovascular healthy donor showed induction of C-α1 transcript in response to the treatment. (
  • The following case study will be referenced at the upcoming Cardiovascular Disease Management: A Case-Based Approach, 3rd Annual Symposium, which will take place October 1-2, 2015 at the historic Arizona Biltmore Hotel in Phoenix, Arizona. (
  • Cardiovascular effects: Carefully consider whether patients with certain underlying conditions (e.g., cardiovascular disease, impaired autonomic control of blood pressure, aortic stenosis) could be adversely affected by vasodilatory effects of Tadalafil (PAH). (
  • For patients with suitable anatomy, a potential option might be endovascular repair of thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms with endografts. (
  • Society for Vascular Surgery clinical practice guidelines of thoracic endovascular aortic repair for descending thoracic aortic aneurysms. (
  • Endovascular repair of thoracic aortic aneurysm has become an important treatment modality in patients who are at increased risk for open surgical repair. (
  • Although thoracic aortic aneurysm is the only FDA-approved treatment indication for endovascular repair, this technology may lead to a broader clinical applicability in other thoracic pathologies. (
  • This article reviews the current endovascular devices designed for the treatment of thoracic aortic pathology. (
  • Using fenestrated and branched endovascular aortic repair (FEVAR/BEVAR), I can implant a device that repairs the aortic pathology using stent grafts, without the need for big incisions or the physiologic stress of open surgery. (
  • Rapid aortic growth is a risk factor for rupture, and the definition for rapid aneurysm growth rate has been updated. (
  • While aortic aneurysms are common worldwide, it is difficult to determine their exact prevalence because they usually cause no symptoms unless they rupture. (
  • Despite the frequency, neither the mechanisms of valve calcification nor the developmental origin of a two, rather than three, leaflet aortic valve is known. (
  • 47 had right-left (RL) aortic leaflet fusion and 12 had right-noncoronary (RN) fusion. (
  • They identified that cells from one of the three distinct layers in an aortic valve leaflet, the lamina fibrosa, had the highest propensity to calcify. (
  • This was connected with a significant reduction in aortic valve leaflet separation and increase in trans-aortic valve flow velocity. (
  • Two-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in the midesophageal, long-axis view (left) demonstrated aortic valve thickening (double white arrows) and an anterior mitral leaflet mass (single white arrow) consistent with vegetations and endocarditis. (
  • Color doppler TEE (right) showed a torrential regurgitant aortic jet directly striking the anterior mitral leaflet (black arrow), causing premature middiastolic rebound into the left ventricular inflow tract and a middiastolic (Austin Flint) murmur. (
  • The goals of this overview on heritable thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections (shortened in this GeneReview to heritable thoracic aortic disease [HTAD]) are the following. (
  • Thoracic aortic disease refers to thoracic aortic aneurysms and aortic dissections for the purpose of this GeneReview . (
  • Aortic dissections are most commonly classified using Stanford and Debakey criteria. (
  • Ruptured aortic aneurysms and dissections are estimated to cause almost 30,000 deaths in the United States each year. (
  • Problems such as aortic aneurysms , tears , ruptures, dissections, ulcers , and connective tissue disorders often occur in patients who may be poor candidates for open surgery. (
  • Dedicated anesthesia and intensive care teams with advanced training in caring for patients with complex aortic disease. (
  • Teams may include cardiac and vascular surgeons with experience treating complex aortic disease at medical centers that treat a high volume of these patients. (
  • You will need to visit a heart specialist or cardiologist to diagnose aortic disease. (
  • Our patients benefit from access to the amenities of a leading academic medical center, including the most advanced imaging techniques to help diagnose aortic disease as soon as possible. (
  • RESULTS: Aortic stenosis and aortic incompetence patients had similar New York Heart Association (NYHA) classes (2.77 +/- 0.12 vs 2.44 +/- 0.18), ejection fractions (normal), left ventricular (LV) end-diastolic pressures, and LV wall thickness. (
  • Ciprofloxacin should be used with caution in patients with aortic dilatation, as well as in those at high risk for AAD," the authors write. (
  • 72 patients with congenital aortic stenosis whose ages ranged from 1 month to 15 years were under supervision for periods ranging from several months to more than 9 years. (
  • Supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS) is a type of heart defect. (
  • When Do Symptoms of Supravalvular aortic stenosis Begin? (
  • Supravalvular aortic stenosis (SVAS) is a heart defect that develops before birth. (
  • It is reasonable for patients undergoing aortic root replacement surgery to receive valve-sparing aortic root replacement if the valve is suitable for repair and when performed by experienced surgeons in a multidisciplinary aortic team. (
  • We review current treatment strategies and emphasise the use and indications for transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) in view of recent data highlighting its emergence as a novel treatment option for patients with AS, who are unsuitable for conventional aortic valve replacement (AVR). (
  • TAVI, transcatheter aortic valve implantation. (
  • In addition, over 24,000 transcatheter aortic valve replacements were performed in the US in 2015 and that number is expected to grow as the technology is extended to patients at lower surgical risk. (
  • Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation (TAVI) is where the physician inserts a prosthetic heart valve through the femoral artery in the groin or through a small cut on the left side of the chest to get to the apex (tip) of the heart. (
  • Their conclusion: A minimally invasive transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) procedure could save his life. (
  • The procedure is called as Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) or sometimes as transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI). (
  • Becoming common in adults, especially those thought to be poor surgical candidates, is transcatheter aortic valve replacement. (
  • Currently treatment for CAVD is limited to valve replacement valvuloplasty or transcatheter aortic valve replacement for symptomatic stenosis. (
  • Aortic stenosis, the clinical consequence of CAVD, is frequently cited as the most common valvular heart disease in developed countries. (
  • They are intended be used with the 2020 ACC/AHA guideline managing patients with valvular heart disease. (
  • Although surgery is a highly effective standard treatment for aortic valvular stenosis, not all patients are able to receive it. (
  • The medical team is made up of surgeons with different areas of specialty who work together for more comprehensive healthcare for those needing treatment for heart or vascular disease. (
  • European Reference Network for Rare Multisystemic Vascular Disease (VASCERN), Heritable Thoracic Aortic Disease Working Group. (
  • Other risk factors may include prior vascular disease and hypercholesterolemia (high cholesterol). (
  • Next, we investigated if sGC splicing is altered in vascular disease. (
  • This result allows us to suggest that preferential splicing of C-α1 supports sGC activity in oxidative environment and its deregulation contributes to vascular disease. (
  • Pathogenic variants in 11 genes predispose individuals to heritable thoracic aortic disease (HTAD), but limited data are available to stratify the risk for aortic events associated with these genes . (
  • Over the past few decades, research into diagnostic radiology has provided more tools for handling symptoms of cardiac disease [ 5 ]. (
  • For diagnosing chest pain, several studies have demonstrated that a contrast-enhanced CT scan of thoracic cavity is an effective, accurate, and noninvasive method with a high negative predictive value for cardiac diseases [ 8 - 11 ]. (
  • As these protocols become widely used in diagnosing cardiac disease, the burden of a radiologist increases considerably. (
  • Moreover, there are difficulties in locating candidates of potential cardiac disease due to their small size or subtle appearance. (
  • Second, highlight areas of images with potential signs of cardiac disease which would reduce the chance of radiologists overlooking them. (
  • Cardiac high-energy phosphate metabolism in patients with aortic valve disease assessed by 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy. (
  • BACKGROUND: The purpose of this work was to determine the clinical and hemodynamic correlates of alterations in cardiac high-energy phosphate metabolism in patients with aortic stenosis and with aortic incompetence. (
  • In either case, the results can be life-threatening, making it imperative that any person who experiences symptoms of aortic disease should see a top vascular specialist in Bergen County for diagnosis and treatment. (
  • The overall prevalence of aortic stenosis in the US is 0.4%, but the figure increases to 1.3% for those over 65 years old and as high as 12.4% for those over 75 years old. (
  • The high prevalence of aortic sclerosis in general population (~25% in subjects >65 years old ( 5 ) would suggest that early diagnosis by itself may not be sufficient and it would be important to identify the subset of patients who would most benefit from preventive and restorative interventions. (
  • For individuals who require aortic intervention, note that outcomes are optimized when surgery is performed by an experienced surgeon working in a multidisciplinary aortic team. (
  • Shared decision-making between the patient and multidisciplinary aortic team is highly encouraged in the following patients: (1) patients on the borderline of thresholds for repair or those who are eligible for different types of surgical repair and (2) individuals with aortic disease who are pregnant or may become pregnant, for consideration of their risks of pregnancy. (
  • MedStar Health's multidisciplinary aortic team is exceptionally well-equipped to provide complex patients with holistic care. (
  • We hope this new guideline can inform clinical practices with up-to-date and synthesized recommendations, targeted toward a full multidisciplinary aortic team working to provide the best possible care. (
  • For the best surgical outcomes, the guidelines recommend multidisciplinary aortic teams and experienced surgeons. (
  • The occurrence and timing of these aortic abnormalities vary, even within the same affected family. (
  • Often, patients are not referred for aortic valve surgery until they are severely symptomatic. (
  • For patients with symptomatic aortic stenosis, a biological valve offers excellent durability without the need for anticoagulation. (
  • Patients were categorized into two groups: immediately operated (n=89), versus watched group (n=59) i.e., monitored until either symptomatic, aortic diameter ≥ 5.5 cm or operated at surgeons' discretion/patient preference. (
  • 2022 ACC/AHA Guideline for the Diagnosis and Management of Aortic Disease: A Report of the American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology Joint Committee on Clinical Practice Guidelines. (
  • Cite this: Aortic Disease Clinical Practice Guidelines (ACC/AHA, 2022) - Medscape - Dec 09, 2022. (
  • Define the clinical characteristics of thoracic aortic disease. (
  • These collaborations resulted in publications that led to a greater understanding of the disease and improvements in patient health through better diagnosis and clinical care. (
  • The GenTAC Registry facilitated research in the diagnosis and clinical care of people who have genetically triggered thoracic aortic aneurysm. (
  • The UCLA Aortic Center provides the highest quality clinical care to patients with aortic disease. (
  • Gene - and variant-specific data on aortic events in individuals with HTAD support personalized aortic surveillance and clinical management. (
  • Isselbacher is a clinical cardiologist and co-director of the Massachusetts General Hospital Thoracic Aortic Center in Boston. (
  • In November 2022, guidelines on the diagnosis and management of aortic disease were published by the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and the American Heart Association (AHA). (
  • New guidelines for the diagnosis and management of aortic disease were published yesterday in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology and Circulation. (
  • The American Heart Association and American College of Cardiology have issued new guidelines for diagnosing and managing diseases that affect the body's largest artery, providing recommendations for surgery, imaging, family screening and more. (
  • Rationale and Objectives: Abnormal blood flow with bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) has been characterized with four-dimensional flow magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), but this approach is time consuming and requires technical expertise. (
  • Aortic valve disease refers to any abnormal conditions or disorders affecting the aortic valve in your heart. (
  • The study employed a new 4D flow MRI heatmap concept to detect abnormal aortic wall shear stress, a known stimulus for arterial wall dysfunction. (
  • Patients come to us with general heart disease symptoms of fatigue and exhaustion, but we are unable to pinpoint the specific problem without a detailed diagnosis," says Dr. Wattanaphol. (
  • We developed the next stage of our computer assisted diagnosis (CAD) system to aid radiologists in evaluating CT images for aortic disease by removing innocuous images and highlighting signs of aortic disease. (
  • During the diagnosis phase, actions may become repetitive due to the large number of images and many of the images have no signs of diseases. (
  • A team of researchers from BWH has tackled this problem by comprehensively analyzing gene expression and protein distribution in human aortic valves obtained from valve replacement surgery. (
  • The Ross repair will require reoperation as an adult as the prosthestic pulmonary valve will become progressively insufficient and adversely effect right ventricular function and often the neo-aortic valve becomes insufficient requiring prosthetic valve replacement of both the aortic and pulmonary valves. (
  • Two recent sizeable retrospective reviews yield insights from Cleveland Clinic's more than three decades of experience repairing bicuspid valves and using bioprostheses for aortic valve replacement. (
  • However, splicing of sGC genes in human aortic tissue was never investigated. (
  • We report a case of Mycoplasma genitalium endocarditis in a prosthetic heart valve of a woman who sought care in Switzerland for acute aortic valve dysfunction 3 years after valve replacement. (
  • Over 47,000 surgical aortic valve replacements were performed in the US in 2015, second only to coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) among major cardiothoracic surgical procedures. (
  • Surgical aortic valve replacement is the standard treatment, which entails open-heart surgery to remove the old valve and surgically implant a new one. (
  • This study aims to determine the long-term outcomes and rate of reoperation among BAV patients with aortic diameter of 5-5.5cm who underwent immediate surgical repair versus surveillance. (
  • Our study showed that the rate of reoperation was similar between groups and survival outcomes were acceptable in observed asymptomatic BAV patients without significant family history and with proximal aortic diameter of 5- 5.5cm. (
  • You see a 50 year old gentleman with 3 vessel coronary disease. (
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (
  • The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), an institute within the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), is the federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness. (
  • The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. (