An abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of the ABDOMINAL AORTA which gives rise to the visceral, the parietal, and the terminal (iliac) branches below the aortic hiatus at the diaphragm.
An abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of AORTA.
Pathological outpouching or sac-like dilatation in the wall of any blood vessel (ARTERIES or VEINS) or the heart (HEART ANEURYSM). It indicates a thin and weakened area in the wall which may later rupture. Aneurysms are classified by location, etiology, or other characteristics.
Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)
An abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of the THORACIC AORTA. This proximal descending portion of aorta gives rise to the visceral and the parietal branches above the aortic hiatus at the diaphragm.
The tearing or bursting of the wall along any portion of the AORTA, such as thoracic or abdominal. It may result from the rupture of an aneurysm or it may be due to TRAUMA.
Aneurysm due to growth of microorganisms in the arterial wall, or infection arising within preexisting arteriosclerotic aneurysms.
Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.
The aorta from the DIAPHRAGM to the bifurcation into the right and left common iliac arteries.
Device constructed of either synthetic or biological material that is used for the repair of injured or diseased blood vessels.
Radiographic visualization of the aorta and its branches by injection of contrast media, using percutaneous puncture or catheterization procedures.
Aneurysm caused by a tear in the TUNICA INTIMA of a blood vessel leading to interstitial HEMORRHAGE, and splitting (dissecting) of the vessel wall, often involving the AORTA. Dissection between the intima and media causes luminal occlusion. Dissection at the media, or between the media and the outer adventitia causes aneurismal dilation.
Operative procedures for the treatment of vascular disorders.
Abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of any one of the iliac arteries including the common, the internal, or the external ILIAC ARTERY.
A localized bulging or dilatation in the muscle wall of a heart (MYOCARDIUM), usually in the LEFT VENTRICLE. Blood-filled aneurysms are dangerous because they may burst. Fibrous aneurysms interfere with the heart function through the loss of contractility. True aneurysm is bound by the vessel wall or cardiac wall. False aneurysms are HEMATOMA caused by myocardial rupture.
Minimally invasive procedures, diagnostic or therapeutic, performed within the BLOOD VESSELS. They may be perfomed via ANGIOSCOPY; INTERVENTIONAL MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING; INTERVENTIONAL RADIOGRAPHY; or INTERVENTIONAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.
Devices that provide support for tubular structures that are being anastomosed or for body cavities during skin grafting.
Abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of CORONARY VESSELS. Most coronary aneurysms are due to CORONARY ATHEROSCLEROSIS, and the rest are due to inflammatory diseases, such as KAWASAKI DISEASE.
Inflammation of the wall of the AORTA.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Not an aneurysm but a well-defined collection of blood and CONNECTIVE TISSUE outside the wall of a blood vessel or the heart. It is the containment of a ruptured blood vessel or heart, such as sealing a rupture of the left ventricle. False aneurysm is formed by organized THROMBUS and HEMATOMA in surrounding tissue.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.
Postoperative hemorrhage from an endovascular AORTIC ANEURYSM repaired with endoluminal placement of stent grafts (BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESIS IMPLANTATION). It is associated with pressurization, expansion, and eventual rupture of the aneurysm.
Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.
Surgery which could be postponed or not done at all without danger to the patient. Elective surgery includes procedures to correct non-life-threatening medical problems as well as to alleviate conditions causing psychological stress or other potential risk to patients, e.g., cosmetic or contraceptive surgery.
Either of two large arteries originating from the abdominal aorta; they supply blood to the pelvis, abdominal wall and legs.
A method of delineating blood vessels by subtracting a tissue background image from an image of tissue plus intravascular contrast material that attenuates the X-ray photons. The background image is determined from a digitized image taken a few moments before injection of the contrast material. The resulting angiogram is a high-contrast image of the vessel. This subtraction technique allows extraction of a high-intensity signal from the superimposed background information. The image is thus the result of the differential absorption of X-rays by different tissues.
Polyester polymers formed from terephthalic acid or its esters and ethylene glycol. They can be formed into tapes, films or pulled into fibers that are pressed into meshes or woven into fabrics.
Reconstruction or repair of a blood vessel, which includes the widening of a pathological narrowing of an artery or vein by the removal of atheromatous plaque material and/or the endothelial lining as well, or by dilatation (BALLOON ANGIOPLASTY) to compress an ATHEROMA. Except for ENDARTERECTOMY, usually these procedures are performed via catheterization as minimally invasive ENDOVASCULAR PROCEDURES.
Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.
An autosomal dominant disorder of CONNECTIVE TISSUE with abnormal features in the heart, the eye, and the skeleton. Cardiovascular manifestations include MITRAL VALVE PROLAPSE, dilation of the AORTA, and aortic dissection. Other features include lens displacement (ectopia lentis), disproportioned long limbs and enlarged DURA MATER (dural ectasia). Marfan syndrome is associated with mutations in the gene encoding fibrillin, a major element of extracellular microfibrils of connective tissue.
Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.
A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.
The condition of an anatomical structure's being dilated beyond normal dimensions.
A protease of broad specificity, obtained from dried pancreas. Molecular weight is approximately 25,000. The enzyme breaks down elastin, the specific protein of elastic fibers, and digests other proteins such as fibrin, hemoglobin, and albumin. EC 3.4.21.36.
Malfunction of implantation shunts, valves, etc., and prosthesis loosening, migration, and breaking.
Hand-held tools or implements used by health professionals for the performance of surgical tasks.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
The tearing or bursting of the weakened wall of the aneurysmal sac, usually heralded by sudden worsening pain. The great danger of a ruptured aneurysm is the large amount of blood spilling into the surrounding tissues and cavities, causing HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK.
The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.
An abnormal passage between two or more BLOOD VESSELS, between ARTERIES; VEINS; or between an artery and a vein.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Pathological processes involving any part of the AORTA.
'Elastin' is a highly elastic protein in connective tissue that allows many tissues in the body to resume their shape after stretching or contracting, such as the skin, lungs, and blood vessels.
Migration of a foreign body from its original location to some other location in the body.
The artery supplying nearly all the left half of the transverse colon, the whole of the descending colon, the sigmoid colon, and the greater part of the rectum. It is smaller than the superior mesenteric artery (MESENTERIC ARTERY, SUPERIOR) and arises from the aorta above its bifurcation into the common iliac arteries.
Surgical union or shunt between ducts, tubes or vessels. It may be end-to-end, end-to-side, side-to-end, or side-to-side.
Severe or complete loss of motor function in the lower extremities and lower portions of the trunk. This condition is most often associated with SPINAL CORD DISEASES, although BRAIN DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; and MUSCULAR DISEASES may also cause bilateral leg weakness.
Reduced blood flow to the spinal cord which is supplied by the anterior spinal artery and the paired posterior spinal arteries. This condition may be associated with ARTERIOSCLEROSIS, trauma, emboli, diseases of the aorta, and other disorders. Prolonged ischemia may lead to INFARCTION of spinal cord tissue.
Abnormal passage communicating with the ESOPHAGUS. The most common type is TRACHEOESOPHAGEAL FISTULA between the esophagus and the TRACHEA.
The arterial trunk that arises from the abdominal aorta and after a short course divides into the left gastric, common hepatic and splenic arteries.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.
A large vessel supplying the whole length of the small intestine except the superior part of the duodenum. It also supplies the cecum and the ascending part of the colon and about half the transverse part of the colon. It arises from the anterior surface of the aorta below the celiac artery at the level of the first lumbar vertebra.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
Diagnostic and therapeutic procedures that are invasive or surgical in nature, and require the expertise of a specially trained radiologist. In general, they are more invasive than diagnostic imaging but less invasive than major surgery. They often involve catheterization, fluoroscopy, or computed tomography. Some examples include percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography, percutaneous transthoracic biopsy, balloon angioplasty, and arterial embolization.
An endopeptidase that is structurally similar to MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASE 2. It degrades GELATIN types I and V; COLLAGEN TYPE IV; and COLLAGEN TYPE V.
A vital statistic measuring or recording the rate of death from any cause in hospitalized populations.
Use of a balloon CATHETER to block the flow of blood through an artery or vein.
Formation and development of a thrombus or blood clot in the blood vessel.
The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.
Mild to moderate loss of bilateral lower extremity motor function, which may be a manifestation of SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; MUSCULAR DISEASES; INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION; parasagittal brain lesions; and other conditions.
Homopolymer of tetrafluoroethylene. Nonflammable, tough, inert plastic tubing or sheeting; used to line vessels, insulate, protect or lubricate apparatus; also as filter, coating for surgical implants or as prosthetic material. Synonyms: Fluoroflex; Fluoroplast; Ftoroplast; Halon; Polyfene; PTFE; Tetron.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.
The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.
Either of two fleshy protuberances at the lower posterior section of the trunk or HIP in humans and primate on which a person or animal sits, consisting of gluteal MUSCLES and fat.
Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.
Computed tomography where there is continuous X-ray exposure to the patient while being transported in a spiral or helical pattern through the beam of irradiation. This provides improved three-dimensional contrast and spatial resolution compared to conventional computed tomography, where data is obtained and computed from individual sequential exposures.
An abnormal anatomical passage between the INTESTINE, and another segment of the intestine or other organs. External intestinal fistula is connected to the SKIN (enterocutaneous fistula). Internal intestinal fistula can be connected to a number of organs, such as STOMACH (gastrocolic fistula), the BILIARY TRACT (cholecystoduodenal fistula), or the URINARY BLADDER of the URINARY TRACT (colovesical fistula). Risk factors include inflammatory processes, cancer, radiation treatment, and surgical misadventures (MEDICAL ERRORS).
Connective tissue comprised chiefly of elastic fibers. Elastic fibers have two components: ELASTIN and MICROFIBRILS.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.
The act of constricting.
Artery formed by the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL). Branches of the anterior cerebral artery supply the CAUDATE NUCLEUS; INTERNAL CAPSULE; PUTAMEN; SEPTAL NUCLEI; GYRUS CINGULI; and surfaces of the FRONTAL LOBE and PARIETAL LOBE.
Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.
A secreted endopeptidase homologous with INTERSTITIAL COLLAGENASE, but which possesses an additional fibronectin-like domain.
Organized collections of computer records, standardized in format and content, that are stored in any of a variety of computer-readable modes. They are the basic sets of data from which computer-readable files are created. (from ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
An abnormal direct communication between an artery and a vein without passing through the CAPILLARIES. An A-V fistula usually leads to the formation of a dilated sac-like connection, arteriovenous aneurysm. The locations and size of the shunts determine the degree of effects on the cardiovascular functions such as BLOOD PRESSURE and HEART RATE.
A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
Unanticipated information discovered in the course of testing or medical care. Used in discussions of information that may have social or psychological consequences, such as when it is learned that a child's biological father is someone other than the putative father, or that a person tested for one disease or disorder has, or is at risk for, something else.
Procedures that avoid use of open, invasive surgery in favor of closed or local surgery. These generally involve use of laparoscopic devices and remote-control manipulation of instruments with indirect observation of the surgical field through an endoscope or similar device.
Techniques for securing together the edges of a wound, with loops of thread or similar materials (SUTURES).
Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Incision into the side of the abdomen between the ribs and pelvis.
Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.
A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.
Platinum. A heavy, soft, whitish metal, resembling tin, atomic number 78, atomic weight 195.09, symbol Pt. (From Dorland, 28th ed) It is used in manufacturing equipment for laboratory and industrial use. It occurs as a black powder (platinum black) and as a spongy substance (spongy platinum) and may have been known in Pliny's time as "alutiae".
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
An autosomal dominant aneurysm with multisystem abnormalities caused by increased TGF-BETA signaling due to mutations in type I or II of TGF-BETA RECEPTOR. Additional craniofacial features include CLEFT PALATE; CRANIOSYNOSTOSIS; HYPERTELORISM; or bifid uvula. Phenotypes closely resemble MARFAN SYNDROME; Marfanoid craniosynostosis syndrome (Shprintzen-Goldberg syndrome); and EHLERS-DANLOS SYNDROME.
Restoration of an organ or other structure to its original site.
A slowly progressive condition of unknown etiology, characterized by deposition of fibrous tissue in the retroperitoneal space compressing the ureters, great vessels, bile duct, and other structures. When associated with abdominal aortic aneurysm, it may be called chronic periaortitis or inflammatory perianeurysmal fibrosis.
The therapy of the same disease in a patient, with the same agent or procedure repeated after initial treatment, or with an additional or alternate measure or follow-up. It does not include therapy which requires more than one administration of a therapeutic agent or regimen. Retreatment is often used with reference to a different modality when the original one was inadequate, harmful, or unsuccessful.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
First aid or other immediate intervention for accidents or medical conditions requiring immediate care and treatment before definitive medical and surgical management can be procured.
Artery arising from the brachiocephalic trunk on the right side and from the arch of the aorta on the left side. It distributes to the neck, thoracic wall, spinal cord, brain, meninges, and upper limb.
The largest branch of the celiac trunk with distribution to the spleen, pancreas, stomach and greater omentum.
Transducers that are activated by pressure changes, e.g., blood pressure.
Pathological conditions in the DUODENUM region of the small intestine (INTESTINE, SMALL).
Situations or conditions requiring immediate intervention to avoid serious adverse results.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
The continuation of the subclavian artery; it distributes over the upper limb, axilla, chest and shoulder.
The dilatation of the aortic wall behind each of the cusps of the aortic valve.
A synthetic tetracycline derivative with similar antimicrobial activity.
Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES, or transplanted BLOOD VESSELS, or other biological material to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.
Loss of blood during a surgical procedure.
Any of the large interior organs in any one of the three great cavities of the body, especially in the abdomen.
The first branch of the SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY with distribution to muscles of the NECK; VERTEBRAE; SPINAL CORD; CEREBELLUM; and interior of the CEREBRUM.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
Computer systems or networks designed to provide radiographic interpretive information.
A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.
The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.
An area occupying the most posterior aspect of the ABDOMINAL CAVITY. It is bounded laterally by the borders of the quadratus lumborum muscles and extends from the DIAPHRAGM to the brim of the true PELVIS, where it continues as the pelvic extraperitoneal space.
Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.
A family of zinc-dependent metalloendopeptidases that is involved in the degradation of EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX components.
Surgery performed on the heart or blood vessels.
Abnormal communication most commonly seen between two internal organs, or between an internal organ and the surface of the body.
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Removal of an implanted therapeutic or prosthetic device.
Various branches of surgical practice limited to specialized areas.
Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.
An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
Artery formed by the bifurcation of the BASILAR ARTERY. Branches of the posterior cerebral artery supply portions of the OCCIPITAL LOBE; PARIETAL LOBE; inferior temporal gyrus, brainstem, and CHOROID PLEXUS.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
A birth defect characterized by the narrowing of the AORTA that can be of varying degree and at any point from the transverse arch to the iliac bifurcation. Aortic coarctation causes arterial HYPERTENSION before the point of narrowing and arterial HYPOTENSION beyond the narrowed portion.
The continuation of the femoral artery coursing through the popliteal fossa; it divides into the anterior and posterior tibial arteries.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect combined with real-time imaging. The real-time image is created by rapid movement of the ultrasound beam. A powerful advantage of this technique is the ability to estimate the velocity of flow from the Doppler shift frequency.
Insertion of a catheter into a peripheral artery, vein, or airway for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes.
Cardiovascular manifestations of SYPHILIS, an infection of TREPONEMA PALLIDUM. In the late stage of syphilis, sometimes 20-30 years after the initial infection, damages are often seen in the blood vessels including the AORTA and the AORTIC VALVE. Clinical signs include syphilitic aortitis, aortic insufficiency, or aortic ANEURYSM.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Patient care procedures performed during the operation that are ancillary to the actual surgery. It includes monitoring, fluid therapy, medication, transfusion, anesthesia, radiography, and laboratory tests.
Conditions in which the KIDNEYS perform below the normal level in the ability to remove wastes, concentrate URINE, and maintain ELECTROLYTE BALANCE; BLOOD PRESSURE; and CALCIUM metabolism. Renal insufficiency can be classified by the degree of kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE.
The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.
Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.
Rare chronic inflammatory disease involving the small blood vessels. It is of unknown etiology and characterized by mucocutaneous ulceration in the mouth and genital region and uveitis with hypopyon. The neuro-ocular form may cause blindness and death. SYNOVITIS; THROMBOPHLEBITIS; gastrointestinal ulcerations; RETINAL VASCULITIS; and OPTIC ATROPHY may occur as well.
Obstruction of flow in biological or prosthetic vascular grafts.
Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery performed on the interior of blood vessels.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.
A polygonal anastomosis at the base of the brain formed by the internal carotid (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL), proximal parts of the anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral arteries (ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), the anterior communicating artery and the posterior communicating arteries.
Any operation on the cranium or incision into the cranium. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The performance of surgical procedures with the aid of a microscope.
Biocompatible materials usually used in dental and bone implants that enhance biologic fixation, thereby increasing the bond strength between the coated material and bone, and minimize possible biological effects that may result from the implant itself.
Diversion of the flow of blood from the pulmonary veins directly to the aorta, avoiding the left atrium and the left ventricle (Dorland, 27th ed). This is a temporary procedure usually performed to assist other surgical procedures.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Freedom of equipment from actual or potential hazards.
Pathological conditions of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM caused by infection of MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS. Tuberculosis involvement may include the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
A mixture of metallic elements or compounds with other metallic or metalloid elements in varying proportions.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The expenses incurred by a hospital in providing care. The hospital costs attributed to a particular patient care episode include the direct costs plus an appropriate proportion of the overhead for administration, personnel, building maintenance, equipment, etc. Hospital costs are one of the factors which determine HOSPITAL CHARGES (the price the hospital sets for its services).
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
The first and largest artery branching from the aortic arch. It distributes blood to the right side of the head and neck and to the right arm.
Microsurgical revascularization to improve intracranial circulation. It usually involves joining the extracranial circulation to the intracranial circulation but may include extracranial revascularization (e.g., subclavian-vertebral artery bypass, subclavian-external carotid artery bypass). It is performed by joining two arteries (direct anastomosis or use of graft) or by free autologous transplantation of highly vascularized tissue to the surface of the brain.
The removal of fluids or discharges from the body, such as from a wound, sore, or cavity.
A secreted matrix metalloproteinase which is highly expressed by MACROPHAGES where it may play a role in INFLAMMATION and WOUND HEALING.
An acute, febrile, mucocutaneous condition accompanied by swelling of cervical lymph nodes in infants and young children. The principal symptoms are fever, congestion of the ocular conjunctivae, reddening of the lips and oral cavity, protuberance of tongue papillae, and edema or erythema of the extremities.
The valve between the left ventricle and the ascending aorta which prevents backflow into the left ventricle.
Surgical incision into the chest wall.
Infections resulting from the implantation of prosthetic devices. The infections may be acquired from intraoperative contamination (early) or hematogenously acquired from other sites (late).
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Pathological condition characterized by the backflow of blood from the ASCENDING AORTA back into the LEFT VENTRICLE, leading to regurgitation. It is caused by diseases of the AORTIC VALVE or its surrounding tissue (aortic root).
Inflammation of the COLON due to colonic ISCHEMIA resulting from alterations in systemic circulation or local vasculature.
Three-dimensional representation to show anatomic structures. Models may be used in place of intact animals or organisms for teaching, practice, and study.
Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.
A systemic inflammatory response to a variety of clinical insults, characterized by two or more of the following conditions: (1) fever >38 degrees C or HYPOTHERMIA 90 beat/minute; (3) tachypnea >24 breaths/minute; (4) LEUKOCYTOSIS >12,000 cells/cubic mm or 10% immature forms. While usually related to infection, SIRS can also be associated with noninfectious insults such as TRAUMA; BURNS; or PANCREATITIS. If infection is involved, a patient with SIRS is said to have SEPSIS.
Splitting of the vessel wall in the VERTEBRAL ARTERY. Interstitial hemorrhage into the media of the vessel wall can lead to occlusion of the vertebral artery, aneurysm formation, or THROMBOEMBOLISM. Vertebral artery dissection is often associated with TRAUMA and injuries to the head-neck region but can occur spontaneously.
The period following a surgical operation.
Diversion of the flow of blood from the entrance of the right atrium directly to the aorta (or femoral artery) via an oxygenator thus bypassing both the heart and lungs.
The splitting of the vessel wall in one or both (left and right) internal carotid arteries (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL). Interstitial hemorrhage into the media of the vessel wall can lead to occlusion of the internal carotid artery and aneurysm formation.
The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
The two principal arteries supplying the structures of the head and neck. They ascend in the neck, one on each side, and at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage, each divides into two branches, the external (CAROTID ARTERY, EXTERNAL) and internal (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL) carotid arteries.
Hemorrhage following any surgical procedure. It may be immediate or delayed and is not restricted to the surgical wound.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Procedures to cause the disintegration of THROMBI by physical interventions.
Pathological processes involving any one of the BLOOD VESSELS in the vasculature outside the HEART.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
The evaluation of incidents involving the loss of function of a device. These evaluations are used for a variety of purposes such as to determine the failure rates, the causes of failures, costs of failures, and the reliability and maintainability of devices.
Abscess of the PSOAS MUSCLES resulting usually from disease of the lumbar vertebrae, with the pus descending into the muscle sheath. The infection is most commonly tuberculous or staphylococcal.
Non-striated, elongated, spindle-shaped cells found lining the digestive tract, uterus, and blood vessels. They are derived from specialized myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SMOOTH MUSCLE).
A collection of blood outside the BLOOD VESSELS. Hematoma can be localized in an organ, space, or tissue.
The outermost covering of organs, blood vessels, and other such structures in the body.

Repair of ruptured thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm is worthwhile in selected cases. (1/1156)

INTRODUCTION: The risks and benefits of operating on patients with ruptured thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA) have not been defined. The aim of the present study is to report this unit's experience with operations performed for ruptured TAAA over a 10-year period. METHODS: Interrogation of a prospectively gathered computerised database. PATIENTS: Between 1 January 1983 and 30 June 1996, 188 consecutive patients with TAAA were operated on, of whom 23 (12%) were operated for rupture. RESULTS: There were nine survivors (40%). Patients whose preoperative systolic blood pressure remained above 100 mmHg were significantly more likely to survive (4/8 vs. 13/15, p = 0.03 by Fisher's exact test). Survival was also related to Crawford type: type I (two of three survived); II (none of six); III (two of six); and IV (five of eight). All non-type II, non-shocked patients survived operation. Survivors spent a median of 28 (range 10-66) postoperative days in hospital, of which a median of 6 (range 2-24) days were spent in the intensive care unit. Survivor morbidity comprised prolonged ventilation (> 5 days) (n = 3); tracheostomy (n = 1); and temporary haemofiltration (n = 2). No survivor developed paraplegia or required permanent dialysis. CONCLUSIONS: Patients in shock with a Crawford type II aneurysm have such a poor prognosis that intervention has to be questioned except in the most favourable of circumstances. However, patients with types I, III and IV who are not shocked on presentation can be salvaged and, where possible, should be transferred to a unit where appropriate expertise and facilities are available.  (+info)

Rupture of aortic aneurysm with right-sided haemothorax. (2/1156)

A 62-yr-old male with a history of high blood pressure was admitted for persistent dyspnoea and a right-sided pleural effusion, complicated by a recent episode of shock. There was no history of trauma and the patient denied any thoracic pain. A chest tube was inserted which released nonclotting bloody fluid. A thoracic computed tomographic scan of the chest revealed an aneurysm of the inferior third of the descending thoracic aorta. The patient underwent a successful prosthetic graft replacement. We emphasize that rupture of aortic aneurysms should be considered in the evaluation of spontaneous haemothorax even if it is right-sided and not associated with pain.  (+info)

The value of late computed tomographic scanning in identification of vascular abnormalities after abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. (3/1156)

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of late arterial abnormalities after aortic aneurysm repair and thus to suggest a routine for postoperative radiologic follow-up examination and to establish reference criteria for endovascular repair. METHODS: Computed tomographic (CT) scan follow-up examination was obtained at 8 to 9 years after abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair on a cohort of patients enrolled in the Canadian Aneurysm Study. The original registry consisted of 680 patients who underwent repair of nonruptured AAA. When the request for CT scan follow-up examination was sent in 1994, 251 patients were alive and potentially available for CT scan follow-up examination and 94 patients agreed to undergo abdominal and thoracic CT scanning procedures. Each scan was interpreted independently by two vascular radiologists. RESULTS: For analysis, the aorta was divided into five defined segments and an aneurysm was defined as a more than 50% enlargement from the expected normal value as defined in the reporting standards for aneurysms. With this strict definition, 64.9% of patients had aneurysmal dilatation and the abnormality was considered as a possible indication for surgical repair in 13.8%. Of the 39 patients who underwent initial repair with a tube graft, 12 (30.8%) were found to have an iliac aneurysm and six of these aneurysms (15.4%) were of possible surgical significance. Graft dilatation was observed from the time of operation (median graft size of 18 mm) to a median size of 22 mm as measured by means of CT scanning at follow-up examination. Fluid or thrombus was seen around the graft in 28% of the cases, and bowel was believed to be intimately associated with the graft in 7%. CONCLUSION: Late follow-up CT scans after AAA repair often show vascular abnormalities. Most of these abnormalities are not clinically significant, but, in 13.8% of patients, the thoracic or abdominal aortic segment was aneurysmal and, in 15.4% of patients who underwent tube graft placement, one of the iliac arteries was significantly abnormal to warrant consideration for surgical repair. On the basis of these findings, a routine CT follow-up examination after 5 years is recommended. This study provides a population-based study for comparison with the results of endovascular repair.  (+info)

Endovascular repair of a descending thoracic aortic aneurysm: a tip for systemic pressure reduction. (4/1156)

A proposed technique for systemic pressure reduction during deployment of a stent graft was studied. A 67-year-old man, who had a descending thoracic aneurysm, was successfully treated with an endovascular procedure. An occluding balloon was introduced into the inferior vena cava (IVC) through the femoral vein. The balloon volume was manipulated with carbon dioxide gas to reduce the venous return, resulting in a transient and well-controlled hypotension. This IVC-occluding technique for systemic pressure reduction may be safe and convenient to minimize distal migration of stent grafts.  (+info)

Endovascular stent graft repair of aortopulmonary fistula. (5/1156)

Two patients who had aortopulmonary fistula of postoperative origin with hemoptysis underwent successful repair by means of an endovascular stent graft procedure. One patient had undergone repeated thoracotomies two times, and the other one time to repair anastomotic aneurysms of the descending aorta after surgery for Takayasu's arteritis. A self-expanding stainless steel stent covered with a Dacron graft was inserted into the lesion through the external iliac or femoral artery. The patients recovered well, with no signs of infection or recurrent hemoptysis 8 months after the procedure. Endovascular stent grafting may be a therapeutic option for treating patients with aortopulmonary fistula.  (+info)

Intraoperative transoesophageal echocardiography as an adjuvant to fluoroscopy during endovascular thoracic aortic repair. (6/1156)

OBJECTIVES: To define the utility of intraoperative transeophageal echocardiography (TEE) during endovascular thoracic aortic repair. DESIGN: Retrospective study. MATERIALS: Five patients underwent six transluminal endovascular stent-graft procedures for repair of thoracic aortic disease. METHODS: After induction of anaesthesia, a multiplane or biplane TEE probe was placed to obtain views of the diseased aorta. Both transverse and longitudinal planes of the aortic arch and descending thoracic aortic segments were imaged. The aortic pathology was confirmed by TEE and the proximal and distal extents of the intrathoracic lesion were defined. Doppler and colour-flow imaging was used to identify flow patterns through the aorta before and after stent-graft deployment. RESULTS: Visualisation and confirmation of the aortic pathology by ultrasonography was accomplished in all patients. TEE was able to confirm proper placement of the endograft relative to the aortic lesion after deployment and was able to confirm exclusion of blood flow into the aneurysm sacs. CONCLUSIONS: TEE may facilitate repair by confirming aortic pathology, identifying endograft placement, assessment of the adequacy of aneurysm sack isolation, as well as dynamic intraoperative cardiac assessment.  (+info)

The role of radial elastic properties in the development of aortic dissections. (7/1156)

PURPOSE: The response of the upper and lower thoracic aorta to radial tensile stresses was compared with the response to circumferential and longitudinal stresses to understand the role of tensile stress in the tearing phase of an aortic dissection. METHODS: Square tissue samples (1.6 by 1.6 cm) were cut from the upper and lower segments of six porcine thoracic aortas and were elongated in the radial direction with a tensile testing machine. The radial extensibility of the thoracic aorta was compared with adjacent tissue samples that were tested in tension in the circumferential and longitudinal directions based on Young's modulus (ie, the ratio of tensile stress to strain). RESULTS: The elastic properties of the thoracic aorta in the radial direction were markedly different from both the circumferential and longitudinal properties. The average Young's modulus (calculated immediately before failing) was significantly lower in the radial direction for both the upper and lower thoracic segments (61.4 +/- 4.3 kPa, SEM) than the Young's modulus of corresponding segments in the circumferential and longitudinal directions that were not tested to failure (151.1 +/- 8.6 kPa and 112.7 +/- 9.2 kPa, respectively; P <. 05). Sections 7 micrometer thick were collected from four samples obtained from one upper thoracic aorta that were strained at 0, 1.0, 2.5, and 4.0 and then stained either with Movat's pentachrome or with hematoxylin and eosin. Histological analysis of the samples stressed in the radial direction revealed that smooth muscle cells were torn loose from their attachments to each other and to adjacent elastin. CONCLUSION: Although the aorta normally functions under radial compressive stresses associated with lumen blood pressure, these results show that the aorta tears radially at a much lower value of stress than would have been predicted from previous studies that have reported longitudinal and circumferential Young's modulus. This could explain why dissections propagate readily once the initial tear occurs.  (+info)

Chronic aneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta presenting with right pleural effusion and left phrenic paralysis. (8/1156)

A 62-year-old man was admitted to the emergency department with chronic dysphagia and lower back pain. Chest radiography revealed a wide mediastinal shadow and an elevated left diaphragm, which proved to be secondary to left phrenic paralysis. The patient was diagnosed with an aneurysm of the descending thoracic aorta and was admitted to the hospital. After the patient was admitted, the aneurysm ruptured into the right chest. The patient underwent an emergency operation to replace the ruptured segment with a synthetic graft. Postoperative recovery and follow-up were uneventful. This report describes an unusual presentation of a thoracic aortic aneurysm. Hemidiaphragmatic paralysis caused by compression of the phrenic nerve is an unusual complication that, to our knowledge, has not been previously reported.  (+info)

An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a localized dilatation or bulging of the abdominal aorta, which is the largest artery in the body that supplies oxygenated blood to the trunk and lower extremities. Normally, the diameter of the abdominal aorta measures about 2 centimeters (cm) in adults. However, when the diameter of the aorta exceeds 3 cm, it is considered an aneurysm.

AAA can occur anywhere along the length of the abdominal aorta, but it most commonly occurs below the renal arteries and above the iliac bifurcation. The exact cause of AAA remains unclear, but several risk factors have been identified, including smoking, hypertension, advanced age, male gender, family history, and certain genetic disorders such as Marfan syndrome and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

The main concern with AAA is the risk of rupture, which can lead to life-threatening internal bleeding. The larger the aneurysm, the greater the risk of rupture. Symptoms of AAA may include abdominal or back pain, a pulsating mass in the abdomen, or symptoms related to compression of surrounding structures such as the kidneys, ureters, or nerves. However, many AAAs are asymptomatic and are discovered incidentally during imaging studies performed for other reasons.

Diagnosis of AAA typically involves imaging tests such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) scan, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Treatment options depend on the size and location of the aneurysm, as well as the patient's overall health status. Small AAAs that are not causing symptoms may be monitored with regular imaging studies to assess for growth. Larger AAAs or those that are growing rapidly may require surgical repair, either through open surgery or endovascular repair using a stent graft.

An aortic aneurysm is a medical condition characterized by the abnormal widening or bulging of the wall of the aorta, which is the largest artery in the body. The aorta carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body. When the aortic wall weakens, it can stretch and balloon out, forming an aneurysm.

Aortic aneurysms can occur anywhere along the aorta but are most commonly found in the abdominal section (abdominal aortic aneurysm) or the chest area (thoracic aortic aneurysm). The size and location of the aneurysm, as well as the patient's overall health, determine the risk of rupture and associated complications.

Aneurysms often do not cause symptoms until they become large or rupture. Symptoms may include:

* Pain in the chest, back, or abdomen
* Pulsating sensation in the abdomen
* Difficulty breathing
* Hoarseness
* Coughing or vomiting

Risk factors for aortic aneurysms include age, smoking, high blood pressure, family history, and certain genetic conditions. Treatment options depend on the size and location of the aneurysm and may include monitoring, medication, or surgical repair.

An aneurysm is a localized, balloon-like bulge in the wall of a blood vessel. It occurs when the pressure inside the vessel causes a weakened area to swell and become enlarged. Aneurysms can develop in any blood vessel, but they are most common in arteries at the base of the brain (cerebral aneurysm) and the main artery carrying blood from the heart to the rest of the body (aortic aneurysm).

Aneurysms can be classified as saccular or fusiform, depending on their shape. A saccular aneurysm is a round or oval bulge that projects from the side of a blood vessel, while a fusiform aneurysm is a dilated segment of a blood vessel that is uniform in width and involves all three layers of the arterial wall.

The size and location of an aneurysm can affect its risk of rupture. Generally, larger aneurysms are more likely to rupture than smaller ones. Aneurysms located in areas with high blood pressure or where the vessel branches are also at higher risk of rupture.

Ruptured aneurysms can cause life-threatening bleeding and require immediate medical attention. Symptoms of a ruptured aneurysm may include sudden severe headache, neck stiffness, nausea, vomiting, blurred vision, or loss of consciousness. Unruptured aneurysms may not cause any symptoms and are often discovered during routine imaging tests for other conditions.

Treatment options for aneurysms depend on their size, location, and risk of rupture. Small, unruptured aneurysms may be monitored with regular imaging tests to check for growth or changes. Larger or symptomatic aneurysms may require surgical intervention, such as clipping or coiling, to prevent rupture and reduce the risk of complications.

An intracranial aneurysm is a localized, blood-filled dilation or bulging in the wall of a cerebral artery within the skull (intracranial). These aneurysms typically occur at weak points in the arterial walls, often at branching points where the vessel divides into smaller branches. Over time, the repeated pressure from blood flow can cause the vessel wall to weaken and balloon out, forming a sac-like structure. Intracranial aneurysms can vary in size, ranging from a few millimeters to several centimeters in diameter.

There are three main types of intracranial aneurysms:

1. Saccular (berry) aneurysm: This is the most common type, characterized by a round or oval shape with a narrow neck and a bulging sac. They usually develop at branching points in the arteries due to congenital weaknesses in the vessel wall.
2. Fusiform aneurysm: These aneurysms have a dilated segment along the length of the artery, forming a cigar-shaped or spindle-like structure. They are often caused by atherosclerosis and can affect any part of the cerebral arteries.
3. Dissecting aneurysm: This type occurs when there is a tear in the inner lining (intima) of the artery, allowing blood to flow between the layers of the vessel wall. It can lead to narrowing or complete blockage of the affected artery and may cause subarachnoid hemorrhage if it ruptures.

Intracranial aneurysms can be asymptomatic and discovered incidentally during imaging studies for other conditions. However, when they grow larger or rupture, they can lead to severe complications such as subarachnoid hemorrhage, stroke, or even death. Treatment options include surgical clipping, endovascular coiling, or flow diversion techniques to prevent further growth and potential rupture of the aneurysm.

A thoracic aortic aneurysm is a localized dilatation or bulging of the thoracic aorta, which is the part of the aorta that runs through the chest cavity. The aorta is the largest artery in the body, and it carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body.

Thoracic aortic aneurysms can occur anywhere along the thoracic aorta, but they are most commonly found in the aortic arch or the descending thoracic aorta. These aneurysms can vary in size, and they are considered significant when they are 50% larger than the expected normal diameter of the aorta.

The exact cause of thoracic aortic aneurysms is not fully understood, but several factors can contribute to their development, including:

* Atherosclerosis (hardening and narrowing of the arteries)
* High blood pressure
* Genetic disorders such as Marfan syndrome or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
* Infections or inflammation of the aorta
* Trauma to the chest

Thoracic aortic aneurysms can be asymptomatic and found incidentally on imaging studies, or they may present with symptoms such as chest pain, cough, difficulty swallowing, or hoarseness. If left untreated, thoracic aortic aneurysms can lead to serious complications, including aortic dissection (tearing of the inner layer of the aorta) or rupture, which can be life-threatening.

Treatment options for thoracic aortic aneurysms include medical management with blood pressure control and cholesterol-lowering medications, as well as surgical repair or endovascular stenting, depending on the size, location, and growth rate of the aneurysm. Regular follow-up imaging is necessary to monitor the size and progression of the aneurysm over time.

Aortic rupture is a medical emergency that refers to the tearing or splitting of the aorta, which is the largest and main artery in the body. The aorta carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body. An aortic rupture can lead to life-threatening internal bleeding and requires immediate medical attention.

There are two types of aortic ruptures:

1. Aortic dissection: This occurs when there is a tear in the inner lining of the aorta, allowing blood to flow between the layers of the aortic wall. This can cause the aorta to bulge or split, leading to a rupture.
2. Thoracic aortic aneurysm rupture: An aneurysm is a weakened and bulging area in the aortic wall. When an aneurysm in the thoracic aorta (the part of the aorta that runs through the chest) ruptures, it can cause severe bleeding and other complications.

Risk factors for aortic rupture include high blood pressure, smoking, aging, family history of aortic disease, and certain genetic conditions such as Marfan syndrome or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Symptoms of an aortic rupture may include sudden severe chest or back pain, difficulty breathing, weakness, sweating, and loss of consciousness. Treatment typically involves emergency surgery to repair the aorta and control bleeding.

An infected aneurysm, also known as a mycotic aneurysm, is a localized dilation or bulging of the wall of a blood vessel that has been invaded and damaged by infectious organisms. This type of aneurysm can occur in any blood vessel, but they are most commonly found in the aorta and cerebral arteries.

Infected aneurysms are usually caused by bacterial or fungal infections that spread through the bloodstream from another part of the body, such as endocarditis (infection of the heart valves), pneumonia, or skin infections. The infection weakens the vessel wall, causing it to bulge and potentially rupture, which can lead to serious complications such as hemorrhage, stroke, or even death.

Symptoms of infected aneurysm may include fever, chills, fatigue, weakness, weight loss, and localized pain or tenderness in the area of the aneurysm. Diagnosis is typically made through imaging tests such as CT angiography, MRI, or ultrasound, along with blood cultures to identify the causative organism. Treatment usually involves a combination of antibiotics to eliminate the infection and surgical intervention to repair or remove the aneurysm.

Blood vessel prosthesis implantation is a surgical procedure in which an artificial blood vessel, also known as a vascular graft or prosthetic graft, is inserted into the body to replace a damaged or diseased native blood vessel. The prosthetic graft can be made from various materials such as Dacron (polyester), PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene), or bovine/human tissue.

The implantation of a blood vessel prosthesis is typically performed to treat conditions that cause narrowing or blockage of the blood vessels, such as atherosclerosis, aneurysms, or traumatic injuries. The procedure may be used to bypass blocked arteries in the legs (peripheral artery disease), heart (coronary artery bypass surgery), or neck (carotid endarterectomy). It can also be used to replace damaged veins for hemodialysis access in patients with kidney failure.

The success of blood vessel prosthesis implantation depends on various factors, including the patient's overall health, the location and extent of the vascular disease, and the type of graft material used. Possible complications include infection, bleeding, graft thrombosis (clotting), and graft failure, which may require further surgical intervention or endovascular treatments.

The abdominal aorta is the portion of the aorta, which is the largest artery in the body, that runs through the abdomen. It originates from the thoracic aorta at the level of the diaphragm and descends through the abdomen, where it branches off into several smaller arteries that supply blood to the pelvis, legs, and various abdominal organs. The abdominal aorta is typically divided into four segments: the suprarenal, infrarenal, visceral, and parietal portions. Disorders of the abdominal aorta can include aneurysms, atherosclerosis, and dissections, which can have serious consequences if left untreated.

A blood vessel prosthesis is a medical device that is used as a substitute for a damaged or diseased natural blood vessel. It is typically made of synthetic materials such as polyester, Dacron, or ePTFE (expanded polytetrafluoroethylene) and is designed to mimic the function of a native blood vessel by allowing the flow of blood through it.

Blood vessel prostheses are used in various surgical procedures, including coronary artery bypass grafting, peripheral arterial reconstruction, and the creation of arteriovenous fistulas for dialysis access. The choice of material and size of the prosthesis depends on several factors, such as the location and diameter of the vessel being replaced, the patient's age and overall health status, and the surgeon's preference.

It is important to note that while blood vessel prostheses can be effective in restoring blood flow, they may also carry risks such as infection, thrombosis (blood clot formation), and graft failure over time. Therefore, careful patient selection, surgical technique, and postoperative management are crucial for the success of these procedures.

Aortography is a medical procedure that involves taking X-ray images of the aorta, which is the largest blood vessel in the body. The procedure is usually performed to diagnose or assess various conditions related to the aorta, such as aneurysms, dissections, or blockages.

To perform an aortography, a contrast dye is injected into the aorta through a catheter that is inserted into an artery, typically in the leg or arm. The contrast dye makes the aorta visible on X-ray images, allowing doctors to see its structure and any abnormalities that may be present.

The procedure is usually performed in a hospital or outpatient setting and may require sedation or anesthesia. While aortography can provide valuable diagnostic information, it also carries some risks, such as allergic reactions to the contrast dye, damage to blood vessels, or infection. Therefore, it is typically reserved for situations where other diagnostic tests have been inconclusive or where more invasive treatment may be required.

A dissecting aneurysm is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition that occurs when there is a tear in the inner layer of the artery wall, allowing blood to flow between the layers of the artery wall. This can cause the artery to bulge or balloon out, leading to a dissection aneurysm.

Dissecting aneurysms can occur in any artery, but they are most commonly found in the aorta, which is the largest artery in the body. When a dissecting aneurysm occurs in the aorta, it is often referred to as a "dissecting aortic aneurysm."

Dissecting aneurysms can be caused by various factors, including high blood pressure, atherosclerosis (hardening and narrowing of the arteries), genetic disorders that affect the connective tissue, trauma, or illegal drug use (such as cocaine).

Symptoms of a dissecting aneurysm may include sudden severe chest or back pain, which can feel like ripping or tearing, shortness of breath, sweating, lightheadedness, or loss of consciousness. If left untreated, a dissecting aneurysm can lead to serious complications, such as rupture of the artery, stroke, or even death.

Treatment for a dissecting aneurysm typically involves surgery or endovascular repair to prevent further damage and reduce the risk of rupture. The specific treatment approach will depend on various factors, including the location and size of the aneurysm, the patient's overall health, and their medical history.

Vascular surgical procedures are operations that are performed to treat conditions and diseases related to the vascular system, which includes the arteries, veins, and capillaries. These procedures can be invasive or minimally invasive and are often used to treat conditions such as peripheral artery disease, carotid artery stenosis, aortic aneurysms, and venous insufficiency.

Some examples of vascular surgical procedures include:

* Endarterectomy: a procedure to remove plaque buildup from the inside of an artery
* Bypass surgery: creating a new path for blood to flow around a blocked or narrowed artery
* Angioplasty and stenting: using a balloon to open a narrowed artery and placing a stent to keep it open
* Aneurysm repair: surgically repairing an aneurysm, a weakened area in the wall of an artery that has bulged out and filled with blood
* Embolectomy: removing a blood clot from a blood vessel
* Thrombectomy: removing a blood clot from a vein

These procedures are typically performed by vascular surgeons, who are trained in the diagnosis and treatment of vascular diseases.

An iliac aneurysm is a localized dilation or bulging of the iliac artery, which are the main blood vessels that supply blood to the lower extremities. The iliac arteries branch off from the abdominal aorta and divide into the internal and external iliac arteries. An aneurysm occurs when the wall of the artery becomes weakened and balloons out, leading to an increased risk of rupture and serious complications such as bleeding and organ damage. Iliac aneurysms are often asymptomatic but can cause symptoms such as abdominal or back pain, leg pain, or a pulsating mass in the abdomen or groin. They are typically diagnosed through imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI and may require surgical intervention to prevent rupture and other complications.

A heart aneurysm, also known as a ventricular aneurysm, is a localized bulging or ballooning of the heart muscle in the left ventricle, which is the main pumping chamber of the heart. This condition typically occurs following a myocardial infarction (heart attack), where blood flow to a portion of the heart muscle is blocked, leading to tissue death and weakness in the heart wall. As a result, the weakened area may stretch and form a sac-like bulge or aneurysm.

Heart aneurysms can vary in size and may cause complications such as blood clots, arrhythmias (irregular heartbeats), or heart failure. In some cases, they may be asymptomatic and discovered during routine imaging tests. The diagnosis of a heart aneurysm is typically made through echocardiography, cardiac MRI, or cardiac CT scans. Treatment options depend on the size, location, and symptoms of the aneurysm and may include medications, surgical repair, or implantation of a device to support heart function.

Endovascular procedures are minimally invasive medical treatments that involve accessing and repairing blood vessels or other interior parts of the body through small incisions or punctures. These procedures typically use specialized catheters, wires, and other tools that are inserted into the body through an artery or vein, usually in the leg or arm.

Endovascular procedures can be used to treat a wide range of conditions, including aneurysms, atherosclerosis, peripheral artery disease, carotid artery stenosis, and other vascular disorders. Some common endovascular procedures include angioplasty, stenting, embolization, and thrombectomy.

The benefits of endovascular procedures over traditional open surgery include smaller incisions, reduced trauma to surrounding tissues, faster recovery times, and lower risks of complications such as infection and bleeding. However, endovascular procedures may not be appropriate for all patients or conditions, and careful evaluation and consideration are necessary to determine the best treatment approach.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

Therapeutic embolization is a medical procedure that involves intentionally blocking or obstructing blood vessels to stop excessive bleeding or block the flow of blood to a tumor or abnormal tissue. This is typically accomplished by injecting small particles, such as microspheres or coils, into the targeted blood vessel through a catheter, which is inserted into a larger blood vessel and guided to the desired location using imaging techniques like X-ray or CT scanning. The goal of therapeutic embolization is to reduce the size of a tumor, control bleeding, or block off abnormal blood vessels that are causing problems.

A stent is a small mesh tube that's used to treat narrow or weak arteries. Arteries are blood vessels that carry blood away from your heart to other parts of your body. A stent is placed in an artery as part of a procedure called angioplasty. Angioplasty restores blood flow through narrowed or blocked arteries by inflating a tiny balloon inside the blocked artery to widen it.

The stent is then inserted into the widened artery to keep it open. The stent is usually made of metal, but some are coated with medication that is slowly and continuously released to help prevent the formation of scar tissue in the artery. This can reduce the chance of the artery narrowing again.

Stents are also used in other parts of the body, such as the neck (carotid artery) and kidneys (renal artery), to help maintain blood flow and prevent blockages. They can also be used in the urinary system to treat conditions like ureteropelvic junction obstruction or narrowing of the urethra.

A coronary aneurysm is a localized dilation or bulging of a portion of the wall of a coronary artery, which supplies blood to the muscle tissue of the heart. It's similar to a bubble or balloon-like structure that forms within the artery wall due to weakness in the arterial wall, leading to abnormal enlargement or widening.

Coronary aneurysms can vary in size and may be classified as true or false aneurysms based on their structure. True aneurysms involve all three layers of the artery wall, while false aneurysms (also known as pseudoaneurysms) only have one or two layers involved, with the remaining layer disrupted.

These aneurysms can lead to complications such as blood clots forming inside the aneurysm sac, which can then dislodge and cause blockages in smaller coronary arteries (embolism). Additionally, coronary aneurysms may rupture, leading to severe internal bleeding and potentially life-threatening situations.

Coronary aneurysms are often asymptomatic but can present with symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, or palpitations, especially if the aneurysm causes a significant narrowing (stenosis) in the affected artery. They can be diagnosed through imaging techniques like coronary angiography, computed tomography (CT), or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Treatment options include medications to manage symptoms and prevent complications, as well as surgical interventions such as stenting or bypass grafting to repair or reroute the affected artery.

Aortitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the aorta, which is the largest artery in the body that carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body. The inflammation can cause damage to the aortic wall, leading to weakening, bulging (aneurysm), or tearing (dissection) of the aorta. Aortitis can be caused by various conditions, including infections, autoimmune diseases, and certain medications. It is essential to diagnose and treat aortitis promptly to prevent serious complications.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

A false aneurysm, also known as a pseudoaneurysm, is a type of aneurysm that occurs when there is a leakage or rupture of blood from a blood vessel into the surrounding tissues, creating a pulsating hematoma or collection of blood. Unlike true aneurysms, which involve a localized dilation or bulging of the blood vessel wall, false aneurysms do not have a complete covering of all three layers of the arterial wall (intima, media, and adventitia). Instead, they are typically covered by only one or two layers, such as the intima and adventitia, or by surrounding tissues like connective tissue or fascia.

False aneurysms can result from various factors, including trauma, infection, iatrogenic causes (such as medical procedures), or degenerative changes in the blood vessel wall. They are more common in arteries than veins and can occur in any part of the body. If left untreated, false aneurysms can lead to serious complications such as rupture, thrombosis, distal embolization, or infection. Treatment options for false aneurysms include surgical repair, endovascular procedures, or observation with regular follow-up imaging.

Postoperative complications refer to any unfavorable condition or event that occurs during the recovery period after a surgical procedure. These complications can vary in severity and may include, but are not limited to:

1. Infection: This can occur at the site of the incision or inside the body, such as pneumonia or urinary tract infection.
2. Bleeding: Excessive bleeding (hemorrhage) can lead to a drop in blood pressure and may require further surgical intervention.
3. Blood clots: These can form in the deep veins of the legs (deep vein thrombosis) and can potentially travel to the lungs (pulmonary embolism).
4. Wound dehiscence: This is when the surgical wound opens up, which can lead to infection and further complications.
5. Pulmonary issues: These include atelectasis (collapsed lung), pneumonia, or respiratory failure.
6. Cardiovascular problems: These include abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias), heart attack, or stroke.
7. Renal failure: This can occur due to various reasons such as dehydration, blood loss, or the use of certain medications.
8. Pain management issues: Inadequate pain control can lead to increased stress, anxiety, and decreased mobility.
9. Nausea and vomiting: These can be caused by anesthesia, opioid pain medication, or other factors.
10. Delirium: This is a state of confusion and disorientation that can occur in the elderly or those with certain medical conditions.

Prompt identification and management of these complications are crucial to ensure the best possible outcome for the patient.

Prosthesis design is a specialized field in medical device technology that involves creating and developing artificial substitutes to replace a missing body part, such as a limb, tooth, eye, or internal organ. The design process typically includes several stages: assessment of the patient's needs, selection of appropriate materials, creation of a prototype, testing and refinement, and final fabrication and fitting of the prosthesis.

The goal of prosthesis design is to create a device that functions as closely as possible to the natural body part it replaces, while also being comfortable, durable, and aesthetically pleasing for the patient. The design process may involve collaboration between medical professionals, engineers, and designers, and may take into account factors such as the patient's age, lifestyle, occupation, and overall health.

Prosthesis design can be highly complex, particularly for advanced devices such as robotic limbs or implantable organs. These devices often require sophisticated sensors, actuators, and control systems to mimic the natural functions of the body part they replace. As a result, prosthesis design is an active area of research and development in the medical field, with ongoing efforts to improve the functionality, comfort, and affordability of these devices for patients.

An endoleak is a complication that can occur following minimally invasive endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) for abdominal aortic aneurysms. It refers to the persistence or recurrence of blood flow outside the lumen of the endograft but within the aneurysm sac. Endoleaks are classified into different types based on their source and can be categorized as follows:

1. Type I endoleak: This type of endoleak occurs due to inadequate sealing at the attachment sites between the endograft and the aortic wall. It can further be divided into two subtypes - Type Ia (proximal) and Type Ib (distal).
2. Type II endoleak: This type of endoleak results from retrograde flow from branch vessels that enter the aneurysm sac, such as lumbar arteries or inferior mesenteric artery. Type II endoleaks are often asymptomatic and may not require immediate treatment.
3. Type III endoleak: This type of endoleak occurs due to a defect in the structural integrity of the endograft itself, leading to communication between different components of the graft or between the graft and another vessel.
4. Type IV endoleak: This type of endoleak is caused by porosity in the graft material, allowing for leakage through the graft wall itself. It typically resolves on its own within 30 days post-procedure.
5. Type V endoleak (also known as endotension): This type of endoleak is characterized by an increase in sac size without a demonstrable endoleak on imaging. The exact cause remains unclear, but it may be related to continued pressurization of the aneurysm sac due to transmission of systemic pressure through the graft fabric.

Endoleaks can lead to persistent enlargement of the aneurysm sac and potential rupture if not addressed promptly. Therefore, regular follow-up imaging is essential after EVAR to monitor for endoleak development and address any issues that arise.

Cerebral angiography is a medical procedure that involves taking X-ray images of the blood vessels in the brain after injecting a contrast dye into them. This procedure helps doctors to diagnose and treat various conditions affecting the blood vessels in the brain, such as aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, and stenosis (narrowing of the blood vessels).

During the procedure, a catheter is inserted into an artery in the leg and threaded through the body to the blood vessels in the neck or brain. The contrast dye is then injected through the catheter, and X-ray images are taken to visualize the blood flow through the brain's blood vessels.

Cerebral angiography provides detailed images of the blood vessels in the brain, allowing doctors to identify any abnormalities or blockages that may be causing symptoms or increasing the risk of stroke. Based on the results of the cerebral angiography, doctors can develop a treatment plan to address these issues and prevent further complications.

Elective surgical procedures are operations that are scheduled in advance because they do not involve a medical emergency. These surgeries are chosen or "elective" based on the patient's and doctor's decision to improve the patient's quality of life or to treat a non-life-threatening condition. Examples include but are not limited to:

1. Aesthetic or cosmetic surgery such as breast augmentation, rhinoplasty, etc.
2. Orthopedic surgeries like knee or hip replacements
3. Cataract surgery
4. Some types of cancer surgeries where the tumor is not spreading or causing severe symptoms
5. Gastric bypass for weight loss

It's important to note that while these procedures are planned, they still require thorough preoperative evaluation and preparation, and carry risks and benefits that need to be carefully considered by both the patient and the healthcare provider.

The iliac arteries are major branches of the abdominal aorta, the large artery that carries oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the rest of the body. The iliac arteries divide into two branches, the common iliac arteries, which further bifurcate into the internal and external iliac arteries.

The internal iliac artery supplies blood to the lower abdomen, pelvis, and the reproductive organs, while the external iliac artery provides blood to the lower extremities, including the legs and feet. Together, the iliac arteries play a crucial role in circulating blood throughout the body, ensuring that all tissues and organs receive the oxygen and nutrients they need to function properly.

Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is a medical imaging technique used to visualize the blood vessels and blood flow within the body. It combines the use of X-ray technology with digital image processing to produce detailed images of the vascular system.

In DSA, a contrast agent is injected into the patient's bloodstream through a catheter, which is typically inserted into an artery in the leg and guided to the area of interest using fluoroscopy. As the contrast agent flows through the blood vessels, X-ray images are taken at multiple time points.

The digital subtraction process involves taking a baseline image without contrast and then subtracting it from subsequent images taken with contrast. This allows for the removal of background structures and noise, resulting in clearer images of the blood vessels. DSA can be used to diagnose and evaluate various vascular conditions, such as aneurysms, stenosis, and tumors, and can also guide interventional procedures such as angioplasty and stenting.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Polyethylene Terephthalates" is not a medical term. It is a type of polymer used in the manufacturing of various products, such as plastic bottles and textile fibers. Medically, you might encounter the abbreviation "PET" or "PET scan," which stands for "Positron Emission Tomography." A PET scan is a type of medical imaging that provides detailed pictures of the body's interior. If you have any medical terms you would like defined, I'd be happy to help!

Angioplasty is a medical procedure used to open narrowed or blocked blood vessels, often referred to as coronary angioplasty when it involves the heart's blood vessels (coronary arteries). The term "angio" refers to an angiogram, which is a type of X-ray image that reveals the inside of blood vessels.

The procedure typically involves the following steps:

1. A thin, flexible catheter (tube) is inserted into a blood vessel, usually through a small incision in the groin or arm.
2. The catheter is guided to the narrowed or blocked area using real-time X-ray imaging.
3. Once in place, a tiny balloon attached to the tip of the catheter is inflated to widen the blood vessel and compress any plaque buildup against the artery walls.
4. A stent (a small mesh tube) may be inserted to help keep the blood vessel open and prevent it from narrowing again.
5. The balloon is deflated, and the catheter is removed.

Angioplasty helps improve blood flow, reduce symptoms such as chest pain or shortness of breath, and lower the risk of heart attack in patients with blocked arteries. It's important to note that angioplasty is not a permanent solution for coronary artery disease, and lifestyle changes, medications, and follow-up care are necessary to maintain long-term cardiovascular health.

Angiography is a medical procedure in which an x-ray image is taken to visualize the internal structure of blood vessels, arteries, or veins. This is done by injecting a radiopaque contrast agent (dye) into the blood vessel using a thin, flexible catheter. The dye makes the blood vessels visible on an x-ray image, allowing doctors to diagnose and treat various medical conditions such as blockages, narrowing, or malformations of the blood vessels.

There are several types of angiography, including:

* Cardiac angiography (also called coronary angiography) - used to examine the blood vessels of the heart
* Cerebral angiography - used to examine the blood vessels of the brain
* Peripheral angiography - used to examine the blood vessels in the limbs or other parts of the body.

Angiography is typically performed by a radiologist, cardiologist, or vascular surgeon in a hospital setting. It can help diagnose conditions such as coronary artery disease, aneurysms, and peripheral arterial disease, among others.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

A reoperation is a surgical procedure that is performed again on a patient who has already undergone a previous operation for the same or related condition. Reoperations may be required due to various reasons, such as inadequate initial treatment, disease recurrence, infection, or complications from the first surgery. The nature and complexity of a reoperation can vary widely depending on the specific circumstances, but it often carries higher risks and potential complications compared to the original operation.

Marfan syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects the body's connective tissue. Connective tissue helps to strengthen and support various structures in the body, including the skin, ligaments, blood vessels, and heart. In Marfan syndrome, the body produces an abnormal amount of a protein called fibrillin-1, which is a key component of connective tissue. This leads to problems with the formation and function of connective tissue throughout the body.

The most serious complications of Marfan syndrome typically involve the heart and blood vessels. The aorta, which is the large artery that carries blood away from the heart, can become weakened and stretched, leading to an increased risk of aortic dissection or rupture. Other common features of Marfan syndrome include long, thin fingers and toes; tall stature; a curved spine; and eye problems such as nearsightedness and lens dislocation.

Marfan syndrome is usually inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, which means that a child has a 50% chance of inheriting the gene mutation from a parent who has the condition. However, about 25% of cases are the result of a new mutation and occur in people with no family history of the disorder. There is no cure for Marfan syndrome, but treatment can help to manage the symptoms and reduce the risk of complications.

A subarachnoid hemorrhage is a type of stroke that results from bleeding into the space surrounding the brain, specifically within the subarachnoid space which contains cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This space is located between the arachnoid membrane and the pia mater, two of the three layers that make up the meninges, the protective covering of the brain and spinal cord.

The bleeding typically originates from a ruptured aneurysm, a weakened area in the wall of a cerebral artery, or less commonly from arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) or head trauma. The sudden influx of blood into the CSF-filled space can cause increased intracranial pressure, irritation to the brain, and vasospasms, leading to further ischemia and potential additional neurological damage.

Symptoms of a subarachnoid hemorrhage may include sudden onset of severe headache (often described as "the worst headache of my life"), neck stiffness, altered mental status, nausea, vomiting, photophobia, and focal neurological deficits. Rapid diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent further complications and improve the chances of recovery.

The renal artery is a pair of blood vessels that originate from the abdominal aorta and supply oxygenated blood to each kidney. These arteries branch into several smaller vessels that provide blood to the various parts of the kidneys, including the renal cortex and medulla. The renal arteries also carry nutrients and other essential components needed for the normal functioning of the kidneys. Any damage or blockage to the renal artery can lead to serious consequences, such as reduced kidney function or even kidney failure.

Pathologic dilatation refers to an abnormal and excessive widening or enlargement of a body cavity or organ, which can result from various medical conditions. This abnormal dilation can occur in different parts of the body, including the blood vessels, digestive tract, airways, or heart chambers.

In the context of the cardiovascular system, pathologic dilatation may indicate a weakening or thinning of the heart muscle, leading to an enlarged chamber that can no longer pump blood efficiently. This condition is often associated with various heart diseases, such as cardiomyopathy, valvular heart disease, or long-standing high blood pressure.

In the gastrointestinal tract, pathologic dilatation may occur due to mechanical obstruction, neuromuscular disorders, or inflammatory conditions that affect the normal motility of the intestines. Examples include megacolon in Hirschsprung's disease, toxic megacolon in ulcerative colitis, or volvulus (twisting) of the bowel.

Pathologic dilatation can lead to various complications, such as reduced organ function, impaired circulation, and increased risk of infection or perforation. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may involve medications, surgery, or other interventions to address the root problem and prevent further enlargement.

Pancreatic elastase is a type of elastase that is specifically produced by the pancreas. It is an enzyme that helps in digesting proteins found in the food we eat. Pancreatic elastase breaks down elastin, a protein that provides elasticity to tissues and organs in the body.

In clinical practice, pancreatic elastase is often measured in stool samples as a diagnostic tool to assess exocrine pancreatic function. Low levels of pancreatic elastase in stool may indicate malabsorption or exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, which can be caused by various conditions such as chronic pancreatitis, cystic fibrosis, or pancreatic cancer.

Prosthesis failure is a term used to describe a situation where a prosthetic device, such as an artificial joint or limb, has stopped functioning or failed to meet its intended purpose. This can be due to various reasons, including mechanical failure, infection, loosening of the device, or a reaction to the materials used in the prosthesis.

Mechanical failure can occur due to wear and tear, manufacturing defects, or improper use of the prosthetic device. Infection can also lead to prosthesis failure, particularly in cases where the prosthesis is implanted inside the body. The immune system may react to the presence of the foreign material, leading to inflammation and infection.

Loosening of the prosthesis can also cause it to fail over time, as the device becomes less stable and eventually stops working properly. Additionally, some people may have a reaction to the materials used in the prosthesis, leading to tissue damage or other complications that can result in prosthesis failure.

In general, prosthesis failure can lead to decreased mobility, pain, and the need for additional surgeries or treatments to correct the problem. It is important for individuals with prosthetic devices to follow their healthcare provider's instructions carefully to minimize the risk of prosthesis failure and ensure that the device continues to function properly over time.

Surgical instruments are specialized tools or devices that are used by medical professionals during surgical procedures to assist in various tasks such as cutting, dissecting, grasping, holding, retracting, clamping, and suturing body tissues. These instruments are designed to be safe, precise, and effective, with a variety of shapes, sizes, and materials used depending on the specific surgical application. Some common examples of surgical instruments include scalpels, forceps, scissors, hemostats, retractors, and needle holders. Proper sterilization and maintenance of these instruments are crucial to ensure patient safety and prevent infection.

Risk assessment in the medical context refers to the process of identifying, evaluating, and prioritizing risks to patients, healthcare workers, or the community related to healthcare delivery. It involves determining the likelihood and potential impact of adverse events or hazards, such as infectious diseases, medication errors, or medical devices failures, and implementing measures to mitigate or manage those risks. The goal of risk assessment is to promote safe and high-quality care by identifying areas for improvement and taking action to minimize harm.

A ruptured aneurysm is a serious medical condition that occurs when the wall of an artery or a blood vessel weakens and bulges out, forming an aneurysm, which then bursts, causing bleeding into the surrounding tissue. This can lead to internal hemorrhage, organ damage, and even death, depending on the location and severity of the rupture.

Ruptured aneurysms are often caused by factors such as high blood pressure, smoking, aging, and genetic predisposition. They can occur in any part of the body but are most common in the aorta (the largest artery in the body) and the cerebral arteries (in the brain).

Symptoms of a ruptured aneurysm may include sudden and severe pain, weakness or paralysis, difficulty breathing, confusion, loss of consciousness, and shock. Immediate medical attention is required to prevent further complications and increase the chances of survival. Treatment options for a ruptured aneurysm may include surgery, endovascular repair, or medication to manage symptoms and prevent further bleeding.

The thoracic aorta is the segment of the largest artery in the human body (the aorta) that runs through the chest region (thorax). The thoracic aorta begins at the aortic arch, where it branches off from the ascending aorta, and extends down to the diaphragm, where it becomes the abdominal aorta.

The thoracic aorta is divided into three parts: the ascending aorta, the aortic arch, and the descending aorta. The ascending aorta rises from the left ventricle of the heart and is about 2 inches (5 centimeters) long. The aortic arch curves backward and to the left, giving rise to the brachiocephalic trunk, the left common carotid artery, and the left subclavian artery. The descending thoracic aorta runs downward through the chest, passing through the diaphragm to become the abdominal aorta.

The thoracic aorta supplies oxygenated blood to the upper body, including the head, neck, arms, and chest. It plays a critical role in maintaining blood flow and pressure throughout the body.

A vascular fistula is an abnormal connection or passage between the artery and vein, which usually results from a surgical procedure to create access for hemodialysis in patients with chronic kidney disease. This communication allows blood to flow directly from the artery into the vein, bypassing the capillary network and causing high-flow conditions in the affected area. Over time, the increased pressure and flow can lead to various complications such as venous hypertension, stenosis, aneurysm formation, or even heart failure if left untreated. Vascular fistulas may also occur spontaneously due to certain medical conditions like vasculitis, trauma, or infection, although this is less common.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Aortic diseases refer to conditions that affect the aorta, which is the largest and main artery in the body. The aorta carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body. Aortic diseases can weaken or damage the aorta, leading to various complications. Here are some common aortic diseases with their medical definitions:

1. Aortic aneurysm: A localized dilation or bulging of the aortic wall, which can occur in any part of the aorta but is most commonly found in the abdominal aorta (abdominal aortic aneurysm) or the thoracic aorta (thoracic aortic aneurysm). Aneurysms can increase the risk of rupture, leading to life-threatening bleeding.
2. Aortic dissection: A separation of the layers of the aortic wall due to a tear in the inner lining, allowing blood to flow between the layers and potentially cause the aorta to rupture. This is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment.
3. Aortic stenosis: A narrowing of the aortic valve opening, which restricts blood flow from the heart to the aorta. This can lead to shortness of breath, chest pain, and other symptoms. Severe aortic stenosis may require surgical or transcatheter intervention to replace or repair the aortic valve.
4. Aortic regurgitation: Also known as aortic insufficiency, this condition occurs when the aortic valve does not close properly, allowing blood to leak back into the heart. This can lead to symptoms such as fatigue, shortness of breath, and palpitations. Treatment may include medication or surgical repair or replacement of the aortic valve.
5. Aortitis: Inflammation of the aorta, which can be caused by various conditions such as infections, autoimmune diseases, or vasculitides. Aortitis can lead to aneurysms, dissections, or stenosis and may require medical treatment with immunosuppressive drugs or surgical intervention.
6. Marfan syndrome: A genetic disorder that affects the connective tissue, including the aorta. People with Marfan syndrome are at risk of developing aortic aneurysms and dissections, and may require close monitoring and prophylactic surgery to prevent complications.

Elastin is a protein that provides elasticity to tissues and organs, allowing them to resume their shape after stretching or contracting. It is a major component of the extracellular matrix in many tissues, including the skin, lungs, blood vessels, and ligaments. Elastin fibers can stretch up to 1.5 times their original length and then return to their original shape due to the unique properties of this protein. The elastin molecule is made up of cross-linked chains of the protein tropoelastin, which are produced by cells called fibroblasts and then assembled into larger elastin fibers by enzymes called lysyl oxidases. Elastin has a very long half-life, with some estimates suggesting that it can remain in the body for up to 70 years or more.

Foreign-body migration is a medical condition that occurs when a foreign object, such as a surgical implant, tissue graft, or trauma-induced fragment, moves from its original position within the body to a different location. This displacement can cause various complications and symptoms depending on the type of foreign body, the location it migrated to, and the individual's specific physiological response.

Foreign-body migration may result from insufficient fixation or anchoring of the object during implantation, inadequate wound healing, infection, or an inflammatory reaction. Symptoms can include pain, swelling, redness, or infection at the new location, as well as potential damage to surrounding tissues and organs. Diagnosis typically involves imaging techniques like X-rays, CT scans, or MRIs to locate the foreign body, followed by a surgical procedure to remove it and address any resulting complications.

The Inferior Mesenteric Artery (IMA) is a major artery that supplies blood to the distal portion of the large intestine, including the descending colon, sigmoid colon, and rectum. It originates from the abdominal aorta, typically at the level of the third lumbar vertebra (L3), and descends anteriorly to the left psoas major muscle before crossing the iliac crest and entering the pelvis.

Once in the pelvis, the IMA divides into several branches, including the left colic artery, which supplies the descending colon; the sigmoidal branches, which supply the sigmoid colon; and the superior rectal artery, which supplies the upper part of the rectum. The inferior mesenteric artery plays a crucial role in maintaining blood flow to the distal gut and is often evaluated during surgical procedures involving the abdomen or pelvis.

Surgical anastomosis is a medical procedure that involves the connection of two tubular structures, such as blood vessels or intestines, to create a continuous passage. This technique is commonly used in various types of surgeries, including vascular, gastrointestinal, and orthopedic procedures.

During a surgical anastomosis, the ends of the two tubular structures are carefully prepared by removing any damaged or diseased tissue. The ends are then aligned and joined together using sutures, staples, or other devices. The connection must be secure and leak-free to ensure proper function and healing.

The success of a surgical anastomosis depends on several factors, including the patient's overall health, the location and condition of the structures being joined, and the skill and experience of the surgeon. Complications such as infection, bleeding, or leakage can occur, which may require additional medical intervention or surgery.

Proper postoperative care is also essential to ensure the success of a surgical anastomosis. This may include monitoring for signs of complications, administering medications to prevent infection and promote healing, and providing adequate nutrition and hydration.

Paraplegia is a medical condition characterized by partial or complete loss of motor function and sensation in the lower extremities, typically affecting both legs. This results from damage to the spinal cord, often due to trauma such as accidents, falls, or gunshot wounds, or from diseases like spina bifida, polio, or tumors. The specific area and extent of the injury on the spinal cord determine the severity and location of paralysis. Individuals with paraplegia may require assistive devices for mobility, such as wheelchairs, and may face various health challenges, including pressure sores, urinary tract infections, and chronic pain.

Spinal cord ischemia refers to a reduction or interruption of blood flow to the spinal cord, leading to insufficient oxygen and nutrient supply. This condition can cause damage to the spinal cord tissue, potentially resulting in neurological deficits, such as muscle weakness, sensory loss, or autonomic dysfunction. Spinal cord ischemia may be caused by various factors, including atherosclerosis, embolism, spinal artery stenosis, or complications during surgery. The severity and extent of the neurological impairment depend on the duration and location of the ischemic event in the spinal cord.

An esophageal fistula is an abnormal connection or passage between the esophagus (the tube that carries food and liquids from the throat to the stomach) and another organ, such as the trachea (windpipe) or the skin. This condition can result from complications of certain medical conditions, including cancer, prolonged infection, or injury to the esophagus.

Esophageal fistulas can cause a variety of symptoms, including difficulty swallowing, coughing, chest pain, and fever. They can also lead to serious complications, such as pneumonia or sepsis, if left untreated. Treatment for an esophageal fistula typically involves surgical repair of the abnormal connection, along with management of any underlying conditions that may have contributed to its development.

The celiac artery, also known as the anterior abdominal aortic trunk, is a major artery that originates from the abdominal aorta and supplies oxygenated blood to the foregut, which includes the stomach, liver, spleen, pancreas, and upper part of the duodenum. It branches into three main branches: the left gastric artery, the splenic artery, and the common hepatic artery. The celiac artery plays a crucial role in providing blood to these vital organs, and any disruption or damage to it can lead to serious health consequences.

The aorta is the largest artery in the human body, which originates from the left ventricle of the heart and carries oxygenated blood to the rest of the body. It can be divided into several parts, including the ascending aorta, aortic arch, and descending aorta. The ascending aorta gives rise to the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle. The aortic arch gives rise to the brachiocephalic, left common carotid, and left subclavian arteries, which supply blood to the head, neck, and upper extremities. The descending aorta travels through the thorax and abdomen, giving rise to various intercostal, visceral, and renal arteries that supply blood to the chest wall, organs, and kidneys.

Patient selection, in the context of medical treatment or clinical research, refers to the process of identifying and choosing appropriate individuals who are most likely to benefit from a particular medical intervention or who meet specific criteria to participate in a study. This decision is based on various factors such as the patient's diagnosis, stage of disease, overall health status, potential risks, and expected benefits. The goal of patient selection is to ensure that the selected individuals will receive the most effective and safe care possible while also contributing to meaningful research outcomes.

The superior mesenteric artery (SMA) is a major artery that supplies oxygenated blood to the intestines, specifically the lower part of the duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum, ascending colon, and the first and second parts of the transverse colon. It originates from the abdominal aorta, located just inferior to the pancreas, and passes behind the neck of the pancreas before dividing into several branches to supply the intestines. The SMA is an essential vessel in the digestive system, providing blood flow for nutrient absorption and overall gut function.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Three-dimensional (3D) imaging in medicine refers to the use of technologies and techniques that generate a 3D representation of internal body structures, organs, or tissues. This is achieved by acquiring and processing data from various imaging modalities such as X-ray computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound, or confocal microscopy. The resulting 3D images offer a more detailed visualization of the anatomy and pathology compared to traditional 2D imaging techniques, allowing for improved diagnostic accuracy, surgical planning, and minimally invasive interventions.

In 3D imaging, specialized software is used to reconstruct the acquired data into a volumetric model, which can be manipulated and viewed from different angles and perspectives. This enables healthcare professionals to better understand complex anatomical relationships, detect abnormalities, assess disease progression, and monitor treatment response. Common applications of 3D imaging include neuroimaging, orthopedic surgery planning, cancer staging, dental and maxillofacial reconstruction, and interventional radiology procedures.

Interventional radiography is a subspecialty of radiology that uses imaging guidance (such as X-ray fluoroscopy, ultrasound, CT, or MRI) to perform minimally invasive diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. These procedures typically involve the insertion of needles, catheters, or other small instruments through the skin or a natural body opening, allowing for targeted treatment with reduced risk, trauma, and recovery time compared to traditional open surgeries.

Examples of interventional radiography procedures include:

1. Angiography: Imaging of blood vessels to diagnose and treat conditions like blockages, narrowing, or aneurysms.
2. Biopsy: The removal of tissue samples for diagnostic purposes.
3. Drainage: The removal of fluid accumulations (e.g., abscesses, cysts) or the placement of catheters to drain fluids continuously.
4. Embolization: The blocking of blood vessels to control bleeding, tumor growth, or reduce the size of an aneurysm.
5. Stenting and angioplasty: The widening of narrowed or blocked vessels using stents (small mesh tubes) or balloon catheters.
6. Radiofrequency ablation: The use of heat to destroy tumors or abnormal tissues.
7. Cryoablation: The use of extreme cold to destroy tumors or abnormal tissues.

Interventional radiologists are medical doctors who have completed specialized training in both diagnostic imaging and interventional procedures, allowing them to provide comprehensive care for patients requiring image-guided treatments.

Medical Definition:

Matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), also known as gelatinase B or 92 kDa type IV collagenase, is a member of the matrix metalloproteinase family. These enzymes are involved in degrading and remodeling the extracellular matrix (ECM) components, playing crucial roles in various physiological and pathological processes such as wound healing, tissue repair, and tumor metastasis.

MMP-9 is secreted as an inactive zymogen and activated upon removal of its propeptide domain. It can degrade several ECM proteins, including type IV collagen, elastin, fibronectin, and gelatin. MMP-9 has been implicated in numerous diseases, such as cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, neurological disorders, and cardiovascular diseases. Its expression is regulated at the transcriptional, translational, and post-translational levels, and its activity can be controlled by endogenous inhibitors called tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs).

Hospital mortality is a term used to describe the number or rate of deaths that occur in a hospital setting during a specific period. It is often used as a measure of the quality of healthcare provided by a hospital, as a higher hospital mortality rate may indicate poorer care or more complex cases being treated. However, it's important to note that hospital mortality rates can be influenced by many factors, including the severity of illness of the patients being treated, patient demographics, and the availability of resources and specialized care. Therefore, hospital mortality rates should be interpreted with caution and in the context of other quality metrics.

Balloon occlusion is a medical procedure that involves the use of a small, deflated balloon at the end of a catheter, which can be inserted into a blood vessel or other tubular structure in the body. Once the balloon is in position, it is inflated with a fluid or gas to create a blockage or obstruction in the vessel. This can be used for various medical purposes, such as:

1. Controlling bleeding: By inflating the balloon in a blood vessel, doctors can temporarily stop the flow of blood to a specific area, allowing them to treat injuries or abnormalities that are causing excessive bleeding.
2. Vessel narrowing or blockage assessment: Balloon occlusion can be used to assess the severity of narrowing or blockages in blood vessels. By inflating the balloon and measuring the pressure differences upstream and downstream, doctors can determine the extent of the obstruction and plan appropriate treatment.
3. Embolization therapy: In some cases, balloon occlusion is used to deliver embolic agents (such as coils, particles, or glue) that block off blood flow to specific areas. This can be useful in treating conditions like tumors, arteriovenous malformations, or aneurysms.
4. Temporary vessel occlusion during surgery: During certain surgical procedures, it may be necessary to temporarily stop the flow of blood to a specific area. Balloon occlusion can be used to achieve this quickly and safely.
5. Assisting in the placement of stents or other devices: Balloon occlusion can help position and deploy stents or other medical devices by providing temporary support or blocking off blood flow during the procedure.

It is important to note that balloon occlusion procedures carry potential risks, such as vessel injury, infection, or embolism (the blockage of a blood vessel by a clot or foreign material). These risks should be carefully weighed against the benefits when considering this type of treatment.

Thrombosis is the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) inside a blood vessel, obstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system. When a clot forms in an artery, it can cut off the supply of oxygen and nutrients to the tissues served by that artery, leading to damage or tissue death. If a thrombus forms in the heart, it can cause a heart attack. If a thrombus breaks off and travels through the bloodstream, it can lodge in a smaller vessel, causing blockage and potentially leading to damage in the organ that the vessel supplies. This is known as an embolism.

Thrombosis can occur due to various factors such as injury to the blood vessel wall, abnormalities in blood flow, or changes in the composition of the blood. Certain medical conditions, medications, and lifestyle factors can increase the risk of thrombosis. Treatment typically involves anticoagulant or thrombolytic therapy to dissolve or prevent further growth of the clot, as well as addressing any underlying causes.

The femoral artery is the major blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the lower extremity of the human body. It is a continuation of the external iliac artery and becomes the popliteal artery as it passes through the adductor hiatus in the adductor magnus muscle of the thigh.

The femoral artery is located in the femoral triangle, which is bound by the sartorius muscle anteriorly, the adductor longus muscle medially, and the biceps femoris muscle posteriorly. It can be easily palpated in the groin region, making it a common site for taking blood samples, measuring blood pressure, and performing surgical procedures such as femoral artery catheterization and bypass grafting.

The femoral artery gives off several branches that supply blood to the lower limb, including the deep femoral artery, the superficial femoral artery, and the profunda femoris artery. These branches provide blood to the muscles, bones, skin, and other tissues of the leg, ankle, and foot.

Paraparesis is a medical term that refers to a mild to moderate form of paralysis affecting the lower limbs, specifically the legs. It is characterized by partial loss of strength and mobility, which may result in difficulty walking or maintaining balance. Paraparesis can be caused by various conditions such as spinal cord injuries, multiple sclerosis, spina bifida, or other neurological disorders affecting the spinal cord.

The term "para" means "two," and "paresis" comes from the Greek word "paresis," which means "loosening" or "relaxation." Therefore, paraparesis implies weakness or partial paralysis in two lower extremities. It is important to note that while paraparesis can impact a person's ability to walk and perform daily activities, it does not necessarily lead to complete loss of movement or sensation in the affected limbs.

Proper diagnosis and management of the underlying cause are crucial for improving symptoms and preventing further progression of paraparesis. Treatment options may include physical therapy, medications, assistive devices, or surgical interventions depending on the specific condition causing the paraparesis.

Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is not inherently a medical term, but it is a chemical compound with significant uses in the medical field. Medically, PTFE is often referred to by its brand name, Teflon. It is a synthetic fluoropolymer used in various medical applications due to its unique properties such as high resistance to heat, electrical and chemical interaction, and exceptional non-reactivity with body tissues.

PTFE can be found in medical devices like catheters, where it reduces friction, making insertion easier and minimizing trauma. It is also used in orthopedic and dental implants, drug delivery systems, and sutures due to its biocompatibility and non-adhesive nature.

Cardiovascular models are simplified representations or simulations of the human cardiovascular system used in medical research, education, and training. These models can be physical, computational, or mathematical and are designed to replicate various aspects of the heart, blood vessels, and blood flow. They can help researchers study the structure and function of the cardiovascular system, test new treatments and interventions, and train healthcare professionals in diagnostic and therapeutic techniques.

Physical cardiovascular models may include artificial hearts, blood vessels, or circulation systems made from materials such as plastic, rubber, or silicone. These models can be used to study the mechanics of heart valves, the effects of different surgical procedures, or the impact of various medical devices on blood flow.

Computational and mathematical cardiovascular models use algorithms and equations to simulate the behavior of the cardiovascular system. These models may range from simple representations of a single heart chamber to complex simulations of the entire circulatory system. They can be used to study the electrical activity of the heart, the biomechanics of blood flow, or the distribution of drugs in the body.

Overall, cardiovascular models play an essential role in advancing our understanding of the human body and improving patient care.

"Length of Stay" (LOS) is a term commonly used in healthcare to refer to the amount of time a patient spends receiving care in a hospital, clinic, or other healthcare facility. It is typically measured in hours, days, or weeks and can be used as a metric for various purposes such as resource planning, quality assessment, and reimbursement. The length of stay can vary depending on the type of illness or injury, the severity of the condition, the patient's response to treatment, and other factors. It is an important consideration in healthcare management and can have significant implications for both patients and providers.

The buttocks are the rounded part of the lower back, above the hips. They are formed by the masses of muscle tissue (gluteal muscles) and fat that cover the coccyx and sacrum, which are the terminal parts of the vertebral column. The primary function of the gluteal muscles is to provide stability and strength for walking, running, and jumping movements.

In anatomical terms, the buttocks are also known as the natis or nates. Medical professionals may use these terms when discussing conditions or treatments related to this area of the body.

Intraoperative complications refer to any unforeseen problems or events that occur during the course of a surgical procedure, once it has begun and before it is completed. These complications can range from minor issues, such as bleeding or an adverse reaction to anesthesia, to major complications that can significantly impact the patient's health and prognosis.

Examples of intraoperative complications include:

1. Bleeding (hemorrhage) - This can occur due to various reasons such as injury to blood vessels or organs during surgery.
2. Infection - Surgical site infections can develop if the surgical area becomes contaminated during the procedure.
3. Anesthesia-related complications - These include adverse reactions to anesthesia, difficulty maintaining the patient's airway, or cardiovascular instability.
4. Organ injury - Accidental damage to surrounding organs can occur during surgery, leading to potential long-term consequences.
5. Equipment failure - Malfunctioning surgical equipment can lead to complications and compromise the safety of the procedure.
6. Allergic reactions - Patients may have allergies to certain medications or materials used during surgery, causing an adverse reaction.
7. Prolonged operative time - Complications may arise if a surgical procedure takes longer than expected, leading to increased risk of infection and other issues.

Intraoperative complications require prompt identification and management by the surgical team to minimize their impact on the patient's health and recovery.

Spiral Computed Tomography (CT), also known as Helical CT, is a type of computed tomography scan in which the X-ray tube and detector rotate around the patient in a spiral path, capturing data as the table moves the patient through the scanner. This continuous spiral motion allows for faster and more detailed volumetric imaging of internal organs and structures, reducing the need for multiple slices and providing improved image reconstruction. It is commonly used to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, including cancer, heart disease, and trauma injuries.

An intestinal fistula is an abnormal communication or connection between the intestines (or a portion of the intestine) and another organ or the skin surface. This connection forms a tract or passage, allowing the contents of the intestines, such as digestive enzymes, bacteria, and waste materials, to leak into other body areas or outside the body. Intestinal fistulas can develop due to various reasons, including inflammatory bowel diseases (like Crohn's disease), infections, complications from surgery, radiation therapy, or trauma. They can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, skin irritation, and infection. Treatment of intestinal fistulas often involves a combination of medical management, nutritional support, and surgical intervention.

Elastic tissue is a type of connective tissue found in the body that is capable of returning to its original shape after being stretched or deformed. It is composed mainly of elastin fibers, which are protein molecules with a unique structure that allows them to stretch and recoil. Elastic tissue is found in many areas of the body, including the lungs, blood vessels, and skin, where it provides flexibility and resilience.

The elastin fibers in elastic tissue are intertwined with other types of connective tissue fibers, such as collagen, which provide strength and support. The combination of these fibers allows elastic tissue to stretch and recoil efficiently, enabling organs and tissues to function properly. For example, the elasticity of lung tissue allows the lungs to expand and contract during breathing, while the elasticity of blood vessels helps maintain blood flow and pressure.

Elastic tissue can become less flexible and resilient with age or due to certain medical conditions, such as emphysema or Marfan syndrome. This can lead to a variety of health problems, including respiratory difficulties, cardiovascular disease, and skin sagging.

Medical survival rate is a statistical measure used to determine the percentage of patients who are still alive for a specific period of time after their diagnosis or treatment for a certain condition or disease. It is often expressed as a five-year survival rate, which refers to the proportion of people who are alive five years after their diagnosis. Survival rates can be affected by many factors, including the stage of the disease at diagnosis, the patient's age and overall health, the effectiveness of treatment, and other health conditions that the patient may have. It is important to note that survival rates are statistical estimates and do not necessarily predict an individual patient's prognosis.

Carotid artery diseases refer to conditions that affect the carotid arteries, which are the major blood vessels that supply oxygen-rich blood to the head and neck. The most common type of carotid artery disease is atherosclerosis, which occurs when fatty deposits called plaques build up in the inner lining of the arteries.

These plaques can cause the arteries to narrow or become blocked, reducing blood flow to the brain and increasing the risk of stroke. Other carotid artery diseases include carotid artery dissection, which occurs when there is a tear in the inner lining of the artery, and fibromuscular dysplasia, which is a condition that affects the muscle and tissue in the walls of the artery.

Symptoms of carotid artery disease may include neck pain or pulsations, transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) or "mini-strokes," and strokes. Treatment options for carotid artery disease depend on the severity and type of the condition but may include lifestyle changes, medications, endarterectomy (a surgical procedure to remove plaque from the artery), or angioplasty and stenting (procedures to open blocked arteries using a balloon and stent).

In medical terms, constriction refers to the narrowing or tightening of a body part or passageway. This can occur due to various reasons such as spasms of muscles, inflammation, or abnormal growths. It can lead to symptoms like difficulty in breathing, swallowing, or blood flow, depending on where it occurs. For example, constriction of the airways in asthma, constriction of blood vessels in hypertension, or constriction of the esophagus in certain digestive disorders.

The Anterior Cerebral Artery (ACA) is a paired set of arteries that originate from the internal carotid artery or its branch, the posterior communicating artery. They supply oxygenated blood to the frontal lobes and parts of the parietal lobes of the brain.

The ACA runs along the medial side of each hemisphere, anterior to the corpus callosum, which is the largest bundle of nerve fibers connecting the two hemispheres of the brain. It gives off branches that supply the motor and sensory areas of the lower extremities, as well as the areas responsible for higher cognitive functions such as language, memory, and emotion.

The ACA is divided into several segments: A1, A2, A3, and A4. The A1 segment runs from its origin at the internal carotid artery to the anterior communicating artery, which connects the two ACAs. The A2 segment extends from the anterior communicating artery to the bifurcation of the ACA into its terminal branches. The A3 and A4 segments are the distal branches that supply the frontal and parietal lobes.

Interruptions or blockages in the flow of blood through the ACA can lead to various neurological deficits, including weakness or paralysis of the lower extremities, language impairment, and changes in cognitive function.

The internal carotid artery is a major blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the brain. It originates from the common carotid artery and passes through the neck, entering the skull via the carotid canal in the temporal bone. Once inside the skull, it branches into several smaller vessels that supply different parts of the brain with blood.

The internal carotid artery is divided into several segments: cervical, petrous, cavernous, clinoid, and supraclinoid. Each segment has distinct clinical significance in terms of potential injury or disease. The most common conditions affecting the internal carotid artery include atherosclerosis, which can lead to stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA), and dissection, which can cause severe headache, neck pain, and neurological symptoms.

It's important to note that any blockage or damage to the internal carotid artery can have serious consequences, as it can significantly reduce blood flow to the brain and lead to permanent neurological damage or even death. Therefore, regular check-ups and screening tests are recommended for individuals at high risk of developing vascular diseases.

Matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), also known as gelatinase A, is an enzyme that belongs to the matrix metalloproteinase family. MMPs are involved in the breakdown of extracellular matrix components, and MMP-2 is responsible for degrading type IV collagen, a major component of the basement membrane. This enzyme plays a crucial role in various physiological processes, including tissue remodeling, wound healing, and angiogenesis. However, its dysregulation has been implicated in several pathological conditions, such as cancer, arthritis, and cardiovascular diseases. MMP-2 is synthesized as an inactive proenzyme and requires activation by other proteases or chemical modifications before it can exert its proteolytic activity.

A database, in the context of medical informatics, is a structured set of data organized in a way that allows for efficient storage, retrieval, and analysis. Databases are used extensively in healthcare to store and manage various types of information, including patient records, clinical trials data, research findings, and genetic data.

As a topic, "Databases" in medicine can refer to the design, implementation, management, and use of these databases. It may also encompass issues related to data security, privacy, and interoperability between different healthcare systems and databases. Additionally, it can involve the development and application of database technologies for specific medical purposes, such as clinical decision support, outcomes research, and personalized medicine.

Overall, databases play a critical role in modern healthcare by enabling evidence-based practice, improving patient care, advancing medical research, and informing health policy decisions.

An arteriovenous fistula is an abnormal connection or passageway between an artery and a vein. This connection causes blood to flow directly from the artery into the vein, bypassing the capillary network that would normally distribute the oxygen-rich blood to the surrounding tissues.

Arteriovenous fistulas can occur as a result of trauma, disease, or as a planned surgical procedure for patients who require hemodialysis, a treatment for advanced kidney failure. In hemodialysis, the arteriovenous fistula serves as a site for repeated access to the bloodstream, allowing for efficient removal of waste products and excess fluids.

The medical definition of an arteriovenous fistula is:

"An abnormal communication between an artery and a vein, usually created by surgical means for hemodialysis access or occurring as a result of trauma, congenital defects, or disease processes such as vasculitis or neoplasm."

The Chi-square distribution is a continuous probability distribution that is often used in statistical hypothesis testing. It is the distribution of a sum of squares of k independent standard normal random variables. The resulting quantity follows a chi-square distribution with k degrees of freedom, denoted as χ²(k).

The probability density function (pdf) of the Chi-square distribution with k degrees of freedom is given by:

f(x; k) = (1/ (2^(k/2) * Γ(k/2))) \* x^((k/2)-1) \* e^(-x/2), for x > 0 and 0, otherwise.

Where Γ(k/2) is the gamma function evaluated at k/2. The mean and variance of a Chi-square distribution with k degrees of freedom are k and 2k, respectively.

The Chi-square distribution has various applications in statistical inference, including testing goodness-of-fit, homogeneity of variances, and independence in contingency tables.

Incidental findings are diagnoses or conditions that are discovered unintentionally while evaluating a patient for a different condition or symptom. These findings are not related to the primary reason for the medical examination, investigation, or procedure. They can occur in various contexts such as radiology studies, laboratory tests, or physical examinations.

Incidental findings can sometimes lead to further evaluation and management, depending on their nature and potential clinical significance. However, they also pose challenges related to communication, informed consent, and potential patient anxiety or harm. Therefore, it is essential to have clear guidelines for managing incidental findings in clinical practice.

Minimally invasive surgical procedures are a type of surgery that is performed with the assistance of specialized equipment and techniques to minimize trauma to the patient's body. This approach aims to reduce blood loss, pain, and recovery time as compared to traditional open surgeries. The most common minimally invasive surgical procedure is laparoscopy, which involves making small incisions (usually 0.5-1 cm) in the abdomen or chest and inserting a thin tube with a camera (laparoscope) to visualize the internal organs.

The surgeon then uses long, slender instruments inserted through separate incisions to perform the necessary surgical procedures, such as cutting, coagulation, or suturing. Other types of minimally invasive surgical procedures include arthroscopy (for joint surgery), thoracoscopy (for chest surgery), and hysteroscopy (for uterine surgery). The benefits of minimally invasive surgical procedures include reduced postoperative pain, shorter hospital stays, quicker return to normal activities, and improved cosmetic results. However, not all surgeries can be performed using minimally invasive techniques, and the suitability of a particular procedure depends on various factors, including the patient's overall health, the nature and extent of the surgical problem, and the surgeon's expertise.

Suture techniques refer to the various methods used by surgeons to sew or stitch together tissues in the body after an injury, trauma, or surgical incision. The main goal of suturing is to approximate and hold the edges of the wound together, allowing for proper healing and minimizing scar formation.

There are several types of suture techniques, including:

1. Simple Interrupted Suture: This is one of the most basic suture techniques where the needle is passed through the tissue at a right angle, creating a loop that is then tightened to approximate the wound edges. Multiple stitches are placed along the length of the incision or wound.
2. Continuous Locking Suture: In this technique, the needle is passed continuously through the tissue in a zigzag pattern, with each stitch locking into the previous one. This creates a continuous line of sutures that provides strong tension and support to the wound edges.
3. Running Suture: Similar to the continuous locking suture, this technique involves passing the needle continuously through the tissue in a straight line. However, instead of locking each stitch, the needle is simply passed through the previous loop before being tightened. This creates a smooth and uninterrupted line of sutures that can be easily removed after healing.
4. Horizontal Mattress Suture: In this technique, two parallel stitches are placed horizontally across the wound edges, creating a "mattress" effect that provides additional support and tension to the wound. This is particularly useful in deep or irregularly shaped wounds.
5. Vertical Mattress Suture: Similar to the horizontal mattress suture, this technique involves placing two parallel stitches vertically across the wound edges. This creates a more pronounced "mattress" effect that can help reduce tension and minimize scarring.
6. Subcuticular Suture: In this technique, the needle is passed just below the surface of the skin, creating a smooth and barely visible line of sutures. This is particularly useful in cosmetic surgery or areas where minimizing scarring is important.

The choice of suture technique depends on various factors such as the location and size of the wound, the type of tissue involved, and the patient's individual needs and preferences. Proper suture placement and tension are crucial for optimal healing and aesthetic outcomes.

Neurosurgical procedures are operations that are performed on the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves. These procedures are typically carried out by neurosurgeons, who are medical doctors with specialized training in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the nervous system. Neurosurgical procedures can be used to treat a wide range of conditions, including traumatic injuries, tumors, aneurysms, vascular malformations, infections, degenerative diseases, and congenital abnormalities.

Some common types of neurosurgical procedures include:

* Craniotomy: A procedure in which a bone flap is temporarily removed from the skull to gain access to the brain. This type of procedure may be performed to remove a tumor, repair a blood vessel, or relieve pressure on the brain.
* Spinal fusion: A procedure in which two or more vertebrae in the spine are fused together using bone grafts and metal hardware. This is often done to stabilize the spine and alleviate pain caused by degenerative conditions or spinal deformities.
* Microvascular decompression: A procedure in which a blood vessel that is causing pressure on a nerve is repositioned or removed. This type of procedure is often used to treat trigeminal neuralgia, a condition that causes severe facial pain.
* Deep brain stimulation: A procedure in which electrodes are implanted in specific areas of the brain and connected to a battery-operated device called a neurostimulator. The neurostimulator sends electrical impulses to the brain to help alleviate symptoms of movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease or dystonia.
* Stereotactic radiosurgery: A non-invasive procedure that uses focused beams of radiation to treat tumors, vascular malformations, and other abnormalities in the brain or spine. This type of procedure is often used for patients who are not good candidates for traditional surgery due to age, health status, or location of the lesion.

Neurosurgical procedures can be complex and require a high degree of skill and expertise. Patients considering neurosurgical treatment should consult with a qualified neurosurgeon to discuss their options and determine the best course of action for their individual situation.

The Predictive Value of Tests, specifically the Positive Predictive Value (PPV) and Negative Predictive Value (NPV), are measures used in diagnostic tests to determine the probability that a positive or negative test result is correct.

Positive Predictive Value (PPV) is the proportion of patients with a positive test result who actually have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true positives divided by the total number of positive results (true positives + false positives). A higher PPV indicates that a positive test result is more likely to be a true positive, and therefore the disease is more likely to be present.

Negative Predictive Value (NPV) is the proportion of patients with a negative test result who do not have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true negatives divided by the total number of negative results (true negatives + false negatives). A higher NPV indicates that a negative test result is more likely to be a true negative, and therefore the disease is less likely to be present.

The predictive value of tests depends on the prevalence of the disease in the population being tested, as well as the sensitivity and specificity of the test. A test with high sensitivity and specificity will generally have higher predictive values than a test with low sensitivity and specificity. However, even a highly sensitive and specific test can have low predictive values if the prevalence of the disease is low in the population being tested.

A laparotomy is a surgical procedure that involves making an incision in the abdominal wall to gain access to the abdominal cavity. This procedure is typically performed to diagnose and treat various conditions such as abdominal trauma, tumors, infections, or inflammatory diseases. The size of the incision can vary depending on the reason for the surgery and the extent of the condition being treated. Once the procedure is complete, the incision is closed with sutures or staples.

The term "laparotomy" comes from the Greek words "lapara," which means "flank" or "side," and "tome," which means "to cut." Together, they describe the surgical procedure that involves cutting into the abdomen to examine its contents.

Arterial occlusive diseases are medical conditions characterized by the blockage or narrowing of the arteries, which can lead to a reduction in blood flow to various parts of the body. This reduction in blood flow can cause tissue damage and may result in serious complications such as tissue death (gangrene), organ dysfunction, or even death.

The most common cause of arterial occlusive diseases is atherosclerosis, which is the buildup of plaque made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances in the inner lining of the artery walls. Over time, this plaque can harden and narrow the arteries, restricting blood flow. Other causes of arterial occlusive diseases include blood clots, emboli (tiny particles that travel through the bloodstream and lodge in smaller vessels), inflammation, trauma, and certain inherited conditions.

Symptoms of arterial occlusive diseases depend on the location and severity of the blockage. Common symptoms include:

* Pain, cramping, or fatigue in the affected limb, often triggered by exercise and relieved by rest (claudication)
* Numbness, tingling, or weakness in the affected limb
* Coldness or discoloration of the skin in the affected area
* Slow-healing sores or wounds on the toes, feet, or legs
* Erectile dysfunction in men

Treatment for arterial occlusive diseases may include lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking, exercising regularly, and eating a healthy diet. Medications to lower cholesterol, control blood pressure, prevent blood clots, or manage pain may also be prescribed. In severe cases, surgical procedures such as angioplasty, stenting, or bypass surgery may be necessary to restore blood flow.

Equipment design, in the medical context, refers to the process of creating and developing medical equipment and devices, such as surgical instruments, diagnostic machines, or assistive technologies. This process involves several stages, including:

1. Identifying user needs and requirements
2. Concept development and brainstorming
3. Prototyping and testing
4. Design for manufacturing and assembly
5. Safety and regulatory compliance
6. Verification and validation
7. Training and support

The goal of equipment design is to create safe, effective, and efficient medical devices that meet the needs of healthcare providers and patients while complying with relevant regulations and standards. The design process typically involves a multidisciplinary team of engineers, clinicians, designers, and researchers who work together to develop innovative solutions that improve patient care and outcomes.

A feasibility study is a preliminary investigation or analysis conducted to determine the viability of a proposed project, program, or product. In the medical field, feasibility studies are often conducted before implementing new treatments, procedures, equipment, or facilities. These studies help to assess the practicality and effectiveness of the proposed intervention, as well as its potential benefits and risks.

Feasibility studies in healthcare typically involve several steps:

1. Problem identification: Clearly define the problem that the proposed project, program, or product aims to address.
2. Objectives setting: Establish specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound (SMART) objectives for the study.
3. Literature review: Conduct a thorough review of existing research and best practices related to the proposed intervention.
4. Methodology development: Design a methodology for data collection and analysis that will help answer the research questions and achieve the study's objectives.
5. Resource assessment: Evaluate the availability and adequacy of resources, including personnel, time, and finances, required to carry out the proposed intervention.
6. Risk assessment: Identify potential risks and challenges associated with the implementation of the proposed intervention and develop strategies to mitigate them.
7. Cost-benefit analysis: Estimate the costs and benefits of the proposed intervention, including direct and indirect costs, as well as short-term and long-term benefits.
8. Stakeholder engagement: Engage relevant stakeholders, such as patients, healthcare providers, administrators, and policymakers, to gather their input and support for the proposed intervention.
9. Decision-making: Based on the findings of the feasibility study, make an informed decision about whether or not to proceed with the proposed project, program, or product.

Feasibility studies are essential in healthcare as they help ensure that resources are allocated efficiently and effectively, and that interventions are evidence-based, safe, and beneficial for patients.

Vascular patency is a term used in medicine to describe the state of a blood vessel (such as an artery or vein) being open, unobstructed, and allowing for the normal flow of blood. It is an important concept in the treatment and management of various cardiovascular conditions, such as peripheral artery disease, coronary artery disease, and deep vein thrombosis.

Maintaining vascular patency can help prevent serious complications like tissue damage, organ dysfunction, or even death. This may involve medical interventions such as administering blood-thinning medications to prevent clots, performing procedures to remove blockages, or using devices like stents to keep vessels open. Regular monitoring of vascular patency is also crucial for evaluating the effectiveness of treatments and adjusting care plans accordingly.

Calcium chloride is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula CaCl2. It is a white, odorless, and tasteless solid that is highly soluble in water. Calcium chloride is commonly used as a de-icing agent, a desiccant (drying agent), and a food additive to enhance texture and flavor.

In medical terms, calcium chloride can be used as a medication to treat hypocalcemia (low levels of calcium in the blood) or hyperkalemia (high levels of potassium in the blood). It is administered intravenously and works by increasing the concentration of calcium ions in the blood, which helps to regulate various physiological processes such as muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and blood clotting.

However, it is important to note that calcium chloride can have adverse effects if not used properly or in excessive amounts. It can cause tissue irritation, cardiac arrhythmias, and other serious complications. Therefore, its use should be monitored carefully by healthcare professionals.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Platinum" is not a medical term. Platinum is a chemical element with the symbol Pt and atomic number 78. It is a dense, malleable, ductile, highly unreactive, precious, silverish-white transition metal.

However, in the field of oncology, platinum-based compounds are used as chemotherapeutic drugs. These include:

1. Cisplatin: This is a platinum-containing drug that is used to treat various types of cancers such as testicular cancer, ovarian cancer, bladder cancer, and others. It works by forming crosslinks with the DNA of cancer cells, which disrupts their function and leads to cell death.

2. Carboplatin: This is another platinum-based chemotherapy drug that is used to treat various types of cancers such as ovarian cancer, lung cancer, and others. It is less toxic than cisplatin but has similar mechanisms of action.

3. Oxaliplatin: This is a third platinum-based chemotherapy drug that is used to treat colon cancer and rectal cancer. Like the other two drugs, it forms crosslinks with DNA and disrupts cell function leading to cell death.

These drugs are not made of pure platinum but contain platinum compounds that have been synthesized for medical use.

A fatal outcome is a term used in medical context to describe a situation where a disease, injury, or illness results in the death of an individual. It is the most severe and unfortunate possible outcome of any medical condition, and is often used as a measure of the severity and prognosis of various diseases and injuries. In clinical trials and research, fatal outcome may be used as an endpoint to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of different treatments or interventions.

Loeys-Dietz Syndrome (LDS) is a genetic disorder that affects the connective tissue in the body. It is characterized by widespread arterial abnormalities, including aneurysms and dissections, which can occur at a young age and in smaller arteries than is typically seen in other genetic disorders. LDS also features distinctive facial features, skeletal abnormalities, and skin manifestations.

The syndrome is caused by mutations in genes that provide instructions for making proteins involved in the development and maintenance of the connective tissue, which provides structure, strength, and flexibility to various parts of the body. The most commonly affected genes are TGFBR1 and TGFBR2, which encode transforming growth factor beta receptors 1 and 2, respectively.

LDS is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, meaning that a child has a 50% chance of inheriting the mutated gene from an affected parent. However, de novo (spontaneous) mutations can also occur, resulting in individuals with LDS who do not have a family history of the condition.

Due to the significant risk of arterial complications and other potentially life-threatening manifestations, individuals with LDS require close medical monitoring and management by a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals.

Replantation is a surgical procedure in which a body part that has been completely detached or amputated is reattached to the body. This procedure involves careful reattachment of bones, muscles, tendons, nerves, and blood vessels to restore function and sensation to the greatest extent possible. The success of replantation depends on various factors such as the level of injury, the condition of the amputated part, and the patient's overall health.

Retroperitoneal fibrosis (RPF) is a rare and progressive condition characterized by the abnormal growth of fibrous tissue in the retroperitoneal space, which is the area behind the peritoneum (the lining that covers the abdominal cavity). This fibrous tissue can encase and compress vital structures such as the ureters, blood vessels, and nerves, leading to various symptoms.

RPF can be idiopathic (without a known cause) or secondary to other conditions like infections, malignancies, autoimmune diseases, or medications. The exact pathogenesis of RPF is not fully understood, but it's believed that an abnormal immune response and inflammation play significant roles in its development.

Symptoms of RPF may include:

1. Flank pain or back pain
2. Renal insufficiency or kidney failure due to ureteral compression
3. Hydronephrosis (dilatation of the renal pelvis and calyces)
4. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE) due to vascular compression
5. Neurological symptoms due to nerve compression
6. Weight loss, fatigue, and fever (in some cases)

Diagnosis of RPF typically involves imaging studies such as computed tomography (CT) scans or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), along with laboratory tests and sometimes biopsy for confirmation. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause but generally involve immunosuppressive medications, corticosteroids, and surgical intervention in severe cases.

In medical terms, "retreatment" refers to the process of providing additional treatment or courses of therapy to an individual who has previously undergone a medical intervention but has not achieved the desired outcomes or has experienced a recurrence of symptoms. This may apply to various medical conditions and treatments, including dental procedures, cancer therapies, mental health treatments, and more.

In the context of dentistry, specifically endodontics (root canal treatment), retreatment is the process of repeating the root canal procedure on a tooth that has already been treated before. This may be necessary if the initial treatment was not successful in eliminating infection or if reinfection has occurred. The goal of retreatment is to preserve the natural tooth and alleviate any persistent pain or discomfort.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

Emergency treatment refers to the urgent medical interventions and care provided to individuals who are experiencing a severe injury, illness, or life-threatening condition. The primary aim of emergency treatment is to stabilize the patient's condition, prevent further harm, and provide immediate medical attention to save the patient's life or limb.

Emergency treatment may include various medical procedures, such as cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), airway management, administering medications, controlling bleeding, treating burns, immobilizing fractures, and providing pain relief. The specific emergency treatment provided will depend on the nature and severity of the patient's condition.

Emergency treatment is typically delivered in an emergency department (ED) or a similar setting, such as an urgent care center, ambulance, or helicopter transport. Healthcare professionals who provide emergency treatment include emergency physicians, nurses, paramedics, and other specialists trained in emergency medicine.

It's important to note that emergency treatment is different from routine medical care, which is usually provided on a scheduled basis and focuses on preventing, diagnosing, and managing chronic or ongoing health conditions. Emergency treatment, on the other hand, is provided in response to an acute event or crisis that requires immediate attention and action.

The subclavian artery is a major blood vessel that supplies the upper limb and important structures in the neck and head. It arises from the brachiocephalic trunk (in the case of the right subclavian artery) or directly from the aortic arch (in the case of the left subclavian artery).

The subclavian artery has several branches, including:

1. The vertebral artery, which supplies blood to the brainstem and cerebellum.
2. The internal thoracic artery (also known as the mammary artery), which supplies blood to the chest wall, breast, and anterior mediastinum.
3. The thyrocervical trunk, which gives rise to several branches that supply the neck, including the inferior thyroid artery, the suprascapular artery, and the transverse cervical artery.
4. The costocervical trunk, which supplies blood to the neck and upper back, including the posterior chest wall and the lower neck muscles.

The subclavian artery is a critical vessel in maintaining adequate blood flow to the upper limb, and any blockage or damage to this vessel can lead to significant morbidity, including arm pain, numbness, weakness, or even loss of function.

The splenic artery is the largest branch of the celiac trunk, which arises from the abdominal aorta. It supplies blood to the spleen and several other organs in the upper left part of the abdomen. The splenic artery divides into several branches that ultimately form a network of capillaries within the spleen. These capillaries converge to form the main venous outflow, the splenic vein, which drains into the hepatic portal vein.

The splenic artery is a vital structure in the human body, and any damage or blockage can lead to serious complications, including splenic infarction (reduced blood flow to the spleen) or splenic rupture (a surgical emergency that can be life-threatening).

A pressure transducer is a device that converts a mechanical force or pressure exerted upon it into an electrical signal which can be measured and standardized. In medical terms, pressure transducers are often used to measure various bodily pressures such as blood pressure, intracranial pressure, or intraocular pressure. These transducers typically consist of a diaphragm that is deflected by the pressure being measured, which then generates an electrical signal proportional to the amount of deflection. This signal can be processed and displayed in various ways, such as on a monitor or within an electronic medical record system.

Duodenal diseases refer to a range of medical conditions that affect the duodenum, which is the first part of the small intestine. Here are some examples of duodenal diseases:

1. Duodenitis: This is inflammation of the duodenum, which can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and bloating. Duodenitis can be caused by bacterial or viral infections, excessive use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), or chronic inflammation due to conditions like Crohn's disease.
2. Peptic ulcers: These are sores that develop in the lining of the duodenum, usually as a result of infection with Helicobacter pylori bacteria or long-term use of NSAIDs. Symptoms can include abdominal pain, bloating, and heartburn.
3. Duodenal cancer: This is a rare type of cancer that affects the duodenum. Symptoms can include abdominal pain, weight loss, and blood in the stool.
4. Celiac disease: This is an autoimmune disorder that causes the immune system to attack the lining of the small intestine in response to gluten, a protein found in wheat, barley, and rye. This can lead to inflammation and damage to the duodenum.
5. Duodenal diverticulosis: This is a condition in which small pouches form in the lining of the duodenum. While many people with duodenal diverticulosis do not experience symptoms, some may develop complications such as inflammation or infection.
6. Duodenal atresia: This is a congenital condition in which the duodenum does not form properly, leading to blockage of the intestine. This can cause symptoms such as vomiting and difficulty feeding in newborns.

An emergency is a sudden, unexpected situation that requires immediate medical attention to prevent serious harm, permanent disability, or death. Emergencies can include severe injuries, trauma, cardiac arrest, stroke, difficulty breathing, severe allergic reactions, and other life-threatening conditions. In such situations, prompt medical intervention is necessary to stabilize the patient's condition, diagnose the underlying problem, and provide appropriate treatment.

Emergency medical services (EMS) are responsible for providing emergency care to patients outside of a hospital setting, such as in the home, workplace, or public place. EMS personnel include emergency medical technicians (EMTs), paramedics, and other first responders who are trained to assess a patient's condition, provide basic life support, and transport the patient to a hospital for further treatment.

In a hospital setting, an emergency department (ED) is a specialized unit that provides immediate care to patients with acute illnesses or injuries. ED staff includes physicians, nurses, and other healthcare professionals who are trained to handle a wide range of medical emergencies. The ED is equipped with advanced medical technology and resources to provide prompt diagnosis and treatment for critically ill or injured patients.

Overall, the goal of emergency medical care is to stabilize the patient's condition, prevent further harm, and provide timely and effective treatment to improve outcomes and save lives.

Disease progression is the worsening or advancement of a medical condition over time. It refers to the natural course of a disease, including its development, the severity of symptoms and complications, and the impact on the patient's overall health and quality of life. Understanding disease progression is important for developing appropriate treatment plans, monitoring response to therapy, and predicting outcomes.

The rate of disease progression can vary widely depending on the type of medical condition, individual patient factors, and the effectiveness of treatment. Some diseases may progress rapidly over a short period of time, while others may progress more slowly over many years. In some cases, disease progression may be slowed or even halted with appropriate medical interventions, while in other cases, the progression may be inevitable and irreversible.

In clinical practice, healthcare providers closely monitor disease progression through regular assessments, imaging studies, and laboratory tests. This information is used to guide treatment decisions and adjust care plans as needed to optimize patient outcomes and improve quality of life.

Preoperative care refers to the series of procedures, interventions, and preparations that are conducted before a surgical operation. The primary goal of preoperative care is to ensure the patient's well-being, optimize their physical condition, reduce potential risks, and prepare them mentally and emotionally for the upcoming surgery.

Preoperative care typically includes:

1. Preoperative assessment: A thorough evaluation of the patient's overall health status, including medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and diagnostic imaging, to identify any potential risk factors or comorbidities that may impact the surgical procedure and postoperative recovery.
2. Informed consent: The process of ensuring the patient understands the nature of the surgery, its purpose, associated risks, benefits, and alternative treatment options. The patient signs a consent form indicating they have been informed and voluntarily agree to undergo the surgery.
3. Preoperative instructions: Guidelines provided to the patient regarding their diet, medication use, and other activities in the days leading up to the surgery. These instructions may include fasting guidelines, discontinuing certain medications, or arranging for transportation after the procedure.
4. Anesthesia consultation: A meeting with the anesthesiologist to discuss the type of anesthesia that will be used during the surgery and address any concerns related to anesthesia risks, side effects, or postoperative pain management.
5. Preparation of the surgical site: Cleaning and shaving the area where the incision will be made, as well as administering appropriate antimicrobial agents to minimize the risk of infection.
6. Medical optimization: Addressing any underlying medical conditions or correcting abnormalities that may negatively impact the surgical outcome. This may involve adjusting medications, treating infections, or managing chronic diseases such as diabetes.
7. Emotional and psychological support: Providing counseling, reassurance, and education to help alleviate anxiety, fear, or emotional distress related to the surgery.
8. Preoperative holding area: The patient is transferred to a designated area near the operating room where they are prepared for surgery by changing into a gown, having intravenous (IV) lines inserted, and receiving monitoring equipment.

By following these preoperative care guidelines, healthcare professionals aim to ensure that patients undergo safe and successful surgical procedures with optimal outcomes.

A Severity of Illness Index is a measurement tool used in healthcare to assess the severity of a patient's condition and the risk of mortality or other adverse outcomes. These indices typically take into account various physiological and clinical variables, such as vital signs, laboratory values, and co-morbidities, to generate a score that reflects the patient's overall illness severity.

Examples of Severity of Illness Indices include the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) system, the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS), and the Mortality Probability Model (MPM). These indices are often used in critical care settings to guide clinical decision-making, inform prognosis, and compare outcomes across different patient populations.

It is important to note that while these indices can provide valuable information about a patient's condition, they should not be used as the sole basis for clinical decision-making. Rather, they should be considered in conjunction with other factors, such as the patient's overall clinical presentation, treatment preferences, and goals of care.

The axillary artery is a major blood vessel in the upper limb. It is the continuation of the subclavian artery and begins at the lateral border of the first rib, where it becomes the brachial artery. The axillary artery supplies oxygenated blood to the upper extremity, chest wall, and breast.

The axillary artery is divided into three parts based on the surrounding structures:

1. First part: From its origin at the lateral border of the first rib to the medial border of the pectoralis minor muscle. It lies deep to the clavicle and is covered by the scalene muscles, the anterior and middle scalene being the most important. The branches arising from this portion are the superior thoracic artery and the thyrocervical trunk.
2. Second part: Behind the pectoralis minor muscle. The branches arising from this portion are the lateral thoracic artery and the subscapular artery.
3. Third part: After leaving the lower border of the pectoralis minor muscle, it becomes the brachial artery. The branches arising from this portion are the anterior circumflex humeral artery and the posterior circumflex humeral artery.

The axillary artery is a common site for surgical interventions such as angioplasty and stenting to treat peripheral arterial disease, as well as for bypass grafting in cases of severe atherosclerosis or occlusion.

The Sinus of Valsalva are three pouch-like dilations or outpouchings located at the upper part (root) of the aorta, just above the aortic valve. They are named after Antonio Maria Valsalva, an Italian anatomist and physician. These sinuses are divided into three parts:

1. Right Sinus of Valsalva: It is located to the right of the ascending aorta and usually gives rise to the right coronary artery.
2. Left Sinus of Valsalva: It is situated to the left of the ascending aorta and typically gives rise to the left coronary artery.
3. Non-coronary Sinus of Valsalva: This sinus is located in between the right and left coronary sinuses, and it does not give rise to any coronary arteries.

These sinuses play a crucial role during the cardiac cycle, particularly during ventricular contraction (systole). The pressure difference between the aorta and the ventricles causes the aortic valve cusps to be pushed into these sinuses, preventing the backflow of blood from the aorta into the ventricles.

Anatomical variations in the size and shape of the Sinuses of Valsalva can occur, and certain conditions like congenital heart diseases (e.g., aortic valve stenosis or bicuspid aortic valve) may affect their structure and function. Additionally, aneurysms or ruptures of the sinuses can lead to severe complications, such as cardiac tamponade, endocarditis, or stroke.

Doxycycline is a broad-spectrum antibiotic, which is a type of medication used to treat infections caused by bacteria and other microorganisms. It belongs to the tetracycline class of antibiotics. Doxycycline works by inhibiting the production of proteins that bacteria need to survive and multiply.

Doxycycline is used to treat a wide range of bacterial infections, including respiratory infections, skin infections, urinary tract infections, sexually transmitted diseases, and severe acne. It is also used to prevent malaria in travelers who are visiting areas where malaria is common.

Like all antibiotics, doxycycline should be taken exactly as directed by a healthcare professional. Misuse of antibiotics can lead to the development of drug-resistant bacteria, which can make infections harder to treat in the future.

It's important to note that doxycycline can cause photosensitivity, so it is recommended to avoid prolonged sun exposure and use sun protection while taking this medication. Additionally, doxycycline should not be taken during pregnancy or by children under the age of 8 due to potential dental and bone development issues.

Vascular grafting is a surgical procedure where a vascular graft, which can be either a natural or synthetic tube, is used to replace or bypass a damaged or diseased portion of a blood vessel. The goal of this procedure is to restore normal blood flow to the affected area, thereby preventing tissue damage or necrosis due to insufficient oxygen and nutrient supply.

The vascular graft can be sourced from various locations in the body, such as the saphenous vein in the leg, or it can be made of synthetic materials like polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) or Dacron. The choice of graft depends on several factors, including the size and location of the damaged vessel, the patient's overall health, and the surgeon's preference.

Vascular grafting is commonly performed to treat conditions such as atherosclerosis, peripheral artery disease, aneurysms, and vasculitis. This procedure carries risks such as bleeding, infection, graft failure, and potential complications related to anesthesia. However, with proper postoperative care and follow-up, vascular grafting can significantly improve the patient's quality of life and overall prognosis.

Surgical blood loss is the amount of blood that is lost during a surgical procedure. It can occur through various routes such as incisions, punctures or during the removal of organs or tissues. The amount of blood loss can vary widely depending on the type and complexity of the surgery being performed.

Surgical blood loss can be classified into three categories:

1. Insensible losses: These are small amounts of blood that are lost through the skin, respiratory tract, or gastrointestinal tract during surgery. They are not usually significant enough to cause any clinical effects.
2. Visible losses: These are larger amounts of blood that can be seen and measured directly during surgery. They may require transfusion or other interventions to prevent hypovolemia (low blood volume) and its complications.
3. Hidden losses: These are internal bleeding that cannot be easily seen or measured during surgery. They can occur in the abdominal cavity, retroperitoneal space, or other areas of the body. They may require further exploration or imaging studies to diagnose and manage.

Surgical blood loss can lead to several complications such as hypovolemia, anemia, coagulopathy (disorders of blood clotting), and organ dysfunction. Therefore, it is essential to monitor and manage surgical blood loss effectively to ensure optimal patient outcomes.

Viscera is a medical term that refers to the internal organs of the body, specifically those contained within the chest and abdominal cavities. These include the heart, lungs, liver, pancreas, spleen, kidneys, and intestines. In some contexts, it may also refer to the reproductive organs. The term viscera is often used in anatomical or surgical descriptions, and is derived from the Latin word "viscus," meaning "an internal organ."

The vertebral artery is a major blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the brain and upper spinal cord. It arises from the subclavian artery, then ascends through the transverse processes of several cervical vertebrae before entering the skull through the foramen magnum. Inside the skull, it joins with the opposite vertebral artery to form the basilar artery, which supplies blood to the brainstem and cerebellum. The vertebral artery also gives off several important branches that supply blood to various regions of the brainstem and upper spinal cord.

Logistic models, specifically logistic regression models, are a type of statistical analysis used in medical and epidemiological research to identify the relationship between the risk of a certain health outcome or disease (dependent variable) and one or more independent variables, such as demographic factors, exposure variables, or other clinical measurements.

In contrast to linear regression models, logistic regression models are used when the dependent variable is binary or dichotomous in nature, meaning it can only take on two values, such as "disease present" or "disease absent." The model uses a logistic function to estimate the probability of the outcome based on the independent variables.

Logistic regression models are useful for identifying risk factors and estimating the strength of associations between exposures and health outcomes, adjusting for potential confounders, and predicting the probability of an outcome given certain values of the independent variables. They can also be used to develop clinical prediction rules or scores that can aid in decision-making and patient care.

Ischemia is the medical term used to describe a lack of blood flow to a part of the body, often due to blocked or narrowed blood vessels. This can lead to a shortage of oxygen and nutrients in the tissues, which can cause them to become damaged or die. Ischemia can affect many different parts of the body, including the heart, brain, legs, and intestines. Symptoms of ischemia depend on the location and severity of the blockage, but they may include pain, cramping, numbness, weakness, or coldness in the affected area. In severe cases, ischemia can lead to tissue death (gangrene) or organ failure. Treatment for ischemia typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the blocked blood flow, such as through medication, surgery, or lifestyle changes.

The Kaplan-Meier estimate is a statistical method used to calculate the survival probability over time in a population. It is commonly used in medical research to analyze time-to-event data, such as the time until a patient experiences a specific event like disease progression or death. The Kaplan-Meier estimate takes into account censored data, which occurs when some individuals are lost to follow-up before experiencing the event of interest.

The method involves constructing a survival curve that shows the proportion of subjects still surviving at different time points. At each time point, the survival probability is calculated as the product of the conditional probabilities of surviving from one time point to the next. The Kaplan-Meier estimate provides an unbiased and consistent estimator of the survival function, even when censoring is present.

In summary, the Kaplan-Meier estimate is a crucial tool in medical research for analyzing time-to-event data and estimating survival probabilities over time while accounting for censored observations.

Computer-assisted radiographic image interpretation is the use of computer algorithms and software to assist and enhance the interpretation and analysis of medical images produced by radiography, such as X-rays, CT scans, and MRI scans. The computer-assisted system can help identify and highlight certain features or anomalies in the image, such as tumors, fractures, or other abnormalities, which may be difficult for the human eye to detect. This technology can improve the accuracy and speed of diagnosis, and may also reduce the risk of human error. It's important to note that the final interpretation and diagnosis is always made by a qualified healthcare professional, such as a radiologist, who takes into account the computer-assisted analysis in conjunction with their clinical expertise and knowledge.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Finite Element Analysis" (FEA) is not a medical term. It is a computational technique used in engineering and physical sciences. FEA is a computerized method for predicting how a product reacts to real-world forces, vibration, heat, fluid flow, and other physical effects. It's a way that engineers can simulate the performance of a product or system before it is built, which can help reduce costs, improve quality, and shorten the development time.

However, in a medical context, FEA might be used in the field of biomechanical engineering to analyze the mechanical behavior of biological systems, such as bones, joints, or soft tissues, under various loads and conditions. This can help researchers and clinicians better understand the mechanisms of injury, disease, or the effects of treatment, and develop more effective prevention, diagnostic, or therapeutic strategies.

Cerebral arteries refer to the blood vessels that supply oxygenated blood to the brain. These arteries branch off from the internal carotid arteries and the vertebral arteries, which combine to form the basilar artery. The major cerebral arteries include:

1. Anterior cerebral artery (ACA): This artery supplies blood to the frontal lobes of the brain, including the motor and sensory cortices responsible for movement and sensation in the lower limbs.
2. Middle cerebral artery (MCA): The MCA is the largest of the cerebral arteries and supplies blood to the lateral surface of the brain, including the temporal, parietal, and frontal lobes. It is responsible for providing blood to areas involved in motor function, sensory perception, speech, memory, and vision.
3. Posterior cerebral artery (PCA): The PCA supplies blood to the occipital lobe, which is responsible for visual processing, as well as parts of the temporal and parietal lobes.
4. Anterior communicating artery (ACoA) and posterior communicating arteries (PComAs): These are small arteries that connect the major cerebral arteries, forming an important circulatory network called the Circle of Willis. The ACoA connects the two ACAs, while the PComAs connect the ICA with the PCA and the basilar artery.

These cerebral arteries play a crucial role in maintaining proper brain function by delivering oxygenated blood to various regions of the brain. Any damage or obstruction to these arteries can lead to serious neurological conditions, such as strokes or transient ischemic attacks (TIAs).

The retroperitoneal space refers to the area within the abdominal cavity that is located behind (retro) the peritoneum, which is the smooth serous membrane that lines the inner wall of the abdomen and covers the abdominal organs. This space is divided into several compartments and contains vital structures such as the kidneys, adrenal glands, pancreas, duodenum, aorta, and vena cava.

The retroperitoneal space can be further categorized into two regions:

1. The posterior pararenal space, which is lateral to the psoas muscle and contains fat tissue.
2. The perirenal space, which surrounds the kidneys and adrenal glands and is filled with fatty connective tissue.

Disorders or conditions affecting the retroperitoneal space may include infections, tumors, hematomas, or inflammation, which can lead to various symptoms depending on the specific structures involved. Imaging techniques such as CT scans or MRI are commonly used to diagnose and assess retroperitoneal pathologies.

Ligation, in the context of medical terminology, refers to the process of tying off a part of the body, usually blood vessels or tissue, with a surgical suture or another device. The goal is to stop the flow of fluids such as blood or other substances within the body. It is commonly used during surgeries to control bleeding or to block the passage of fluids, gases, or solids in various parts of the body.

Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a group of enzymes responsible for the degradation and remodeling of the extracellular matrix, the structural framework of most tissues in the body. These enzymes play crucial roles in various physiological processes such as tissue repair, wound healing, and embryonic development. They also participate in pathological conditions like tumor invasion, metastasis, and inflammatory diseases by breaking down the components of the extracellular matrix, including collagens, elastins, proteoglycans, and gelatins. MMPs are zinc-dependent endopeptidases that require activation from their proenzyme form to become fully functional. Their activity is tightly regulated at various levels, including gene expression, protein synthesis, and enzyme inhibition by tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMPs). Dysregulation of MMPs has been implicated in several diseases, making them potential therapeutic targets for various clinical interventions.

Cardiovascular surgical procedures refer to a range of surgeries performed on the heart and blood vessels to treat or manage various cardiovascular conditions. These surgeries can be open or minimally invasive, and they aim to correct structural abnormalities, improve blood flow, or replace damaged or diseased parts of the cardiovascular system.

Some common types of cardiovascular surgical procedures include:

1. Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG): This surgery involves taking a healthy blood vessel from another part of the body and using it to create a detour around a blocked or narrowed coronary artery, improving blood flow to the heart muscle.
2. Heart valve repair or replacement: When one or more heart valves become damaged or diseased, they may not open or close properly, leading to reduced blood flow or leakage of blood backward through the valve. In these cases, surgeons may repair or replace the affected valve with a mechanical or biological prosthetic valve.
3. Aneurysm repair: An aneurysm is a weakened area in the wall of an artery that can bulge and potentially rupture, causing severe bleeding. Surgeons can repair an aneurysm by reinforcing the weakened area with a graft or by replacing the affected section of the blood vessel.
4. Heart transplant: In cases where heart failure is irreversible and all other treatment options have been exhausted, a heart transplant may be necessary. This procedure involves removing the damaged heart and replacing it with a healthy donor heart.
5. Ventricular assist devices (VADs): These are mechanical pumps that can be implanted to help support heart function in patients with advanced heart failure who are not candidates for heart transplants. VADs can help improve blood flow, reduce symptoms, and increase the patient's quality of life.
6. Minimally invasive procedures: Advances in technology have led to the development of several minimally invasive cardiovascular surgical procedures, such as robotic-assisted heart surgery, video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS), and transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). These techniques typically involve smaller incisions, reduced blood loss, shorter hospital stays, and faster recovery times compared to traditional open-heart surgeries.

A fistula is an abnormal connection or passage between two organs, vessels, or body parts that usually do not connect. It can form as a result of injury, infection, surgery, or disease. A fistula can occur anywhere in the body but commonly forms in the digestive system, genital area, or urinary system. The symptoms and treatment options for a fistula depend on its location and underlying cause.

Medical mass screening, also known as population screening, is a public health service that aims to identify and detect asymptomatic individuals in a given population who have or are at risk of a specific disease. The goal is to provide early treatment, reduce morbidity and mortality, and prevent the spread of diseases within the community.

A mass screening program typically involves offering a simple, quick, and non-invasive test to a large number of people in a defined population, regardless of their risk factors or symptoms. Those who test positive are then referred for further diagnostic tests and appropriate medical interventions. Examples of mass screening programs include mammography for breast cancer detection, PSA (prostate-specific antigen) testing for prostate cancer, and fecal occult blood testing for colorectal cancer.

It is important to note that mass screening programs should be evidence-based, cost-effective, and ethically sound, with clear benefits outweighing potential harms. They should also consider factors such as the prevalence of the disease in the population, the accuracy and reliability of the screening test, and the availability and effectiveness of treatment options.

In epidemiology, the incidence of a disease is defined as the number of new cases of that disease within a specific population over a certain period of time. It is typically expressed as a rate, with the number of new cases in the numerator and the size of the population at risk in the denominator. Incidence provides information about the risk of developing a disease during a given time period and can be used to compare disease rates between different populations or to monitor trends in disease occurrence over time.

"Device Removal" in a medical context generally refers to the surgical or nonsurgical removal of a medical device that has been previously implanted in a patient's body. The purpose of removing the device may vary, depending on the individual case. Some common reasons for device removal include infection, malfunction, rejection, or when the device is no longer needed.

Examples of medical devices that may require removal include pacemakers, implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs), artificial joints, orthopedic hardware, breast implants, cochlear implants, and intrauterine devices (IUDs). The procedure for device removal will depend on the type of device, its location in the body, and the reason for its removal.

It is important to note that device removal carries certain risks, such as bleeding, infection, damage to surrounding tissues, or complications related to anesthesia. Therefore, the decision to remove a medical device should be made carefully, considering both the potential benefits and risks of the procedure.

Surgical specialties are branches of medical practice in which surgeons perform surgical procedures to treat various diseases, injuries, or deformities. These specialties require advanced training, knowledge, and skills beyond general surgery. Here are some examples of surgical specialties:

1. Cardiothoracic Surgery: This specialty focuses on the surgical treatment of conditions related to the heart, lungs, and other structures in the chest.
2. Neurosurgery: Neurosurgeons specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the nervous system, including the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves.
3. Orthopedic Surgery: Orthopedic surgeons treat conditions related to the musculoskeletal system, including bones, joints, ligaments, tendons, and muscles.
4. Ophthalmology: Ophthalmologists specialize in medical and surgical treatment of eye disorders and diseases.
5. Otolaryngology (ENT): Otolaryngologists treat conditions related to the ear, nose, throat, head, and neck.
6. Plastic Surgery: Plastic surgeons perform cosmetic and reconstructive procedures to improve the appearance or function of various parts of the body.
7. Urology: Urologists specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of conditions related to the urinary system and male reproductive organs.
8. Vascular Surgery: Vascular surgeons treat disorders of the circulatory system, including arteries and veins.
9. Pediatric Surgery: Pediatric surgeons specialize in the surgical care of children, from infants to adolescents.
10. Surgical Oncology: Surgical oncologists focus on the surgical removal of tumors and other cancerous growths.

Surgical specialists must complete a residency program in their chosen specialty after completing medical school. Some may also pursue fellowship training to gain further expertise in a subspecialty area.

Catheterization is a medical procedure in which a catheter (a flexible tube) is inserted into the body to treat various medical conditions or for diagnostic purposes. The specific definition can vary depending on the area of medicine and the particular procedure being discussed. Here are some common types of catheterization:

1. Urinary catheterization: This involves inserting a catheter through the urethra into the bladder to drain urine. It is often performed to manage urinary retention, monitor urine output in critically ill patients, or assist with surgical procedures.
2. Cardiac catheterization: A procedure where a catheter is inserted into a blood vessel, usually in the groin or arm, and guided to the heart. This allows for various diagnostic tests and treatments, such as measuring pressures within the heart chambers, assessing blood flow, or performing angioplasty and stenting of narrowed coronary arteries.
3. Central venous catheterization: A catheter is inserted into a large vein, typically in the neck, chest, or groin, to administer medications, fluids, or nutrition, or to monitor central venous pressure.
4. Peritoneal dialysis catheterization: A catheter is placed into the abdominal cavity for individuals undergoing peritoneal dialysis, a type of kidney replacement therapy.
5. Neurological catheterization: In some cases, a catheter may be inserted into the cerebrospinal fluid space (lumbar puncture) or the brain's ventricular system (ventriculostomy) to diagnose or treat various neurological conditions.

These are just a few examples of catheterization procedures in medicine. The specific definition and purpose will depend on the medical context and the particular organ or body system involved.

Angiotensin II is a potent vasoactive peptide hormone that plays a critical role in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which is a crucial regulator of blood pressure and fluid balance in the body. It is formed from angiotensin I through the action of an enzyme called angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE).

Angiotensin II has several physiological effects on various organs, including:

1. Vasoconstriction: Angiotensin II causes contraction of vascular smooth muscle, leading to an increase in peripheral vascular resistance and blood pressure.
2. Aldosterone release: Angiotensin II stimulates the adrenal glands to release aldosterone, a hormone that promotes sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion in the kidneys, thereby increasing water retention and blood volume.
3. Sympathetic nervous system activation: Angiotensin II activates the sympathetic nervous system, leading to increased heart rate and contractility, further contributing to an increase in blood pressure.
4. Thirst regulation: Angiotensin II stimulates the hypothalamus to increase thirst, promoting water intake and helping to maintain intravascular volume.
5. Cell growth and fibrosis: Angiotensin II has been implicated in various pathological processes, such as cell growth, proliferation, and fibrosis, which can contribute to the development of cardiovascular and renal diseases.

Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are two classes of medications commonly used in clinical practice to target the RAAS by blocking the formation or action of angiotensin II, respectively. These drugs have been shown to be effective in managing hypertension, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease.

Mechanical stress, in the context of physiology and medicine, refers to any type of force that is applied to body tissues or organs, which can cause deformation or displacement of those structures. Mechanical stress can be either external, such as forces exerted on the body during physical activity or trauma, or internal, such as the pressure changes that occur within blood vessels or other hollow organs.

Mechanical stress can have a variety of effects on the body, depending on the type, duration, and magnitude of the force applied. For example, prolonged exposure to mechanical stress can lead to tissue damage, inflammation, and chronic pain. Additionally, abnormal or excessive mechanical stress can contribute to the development of various musculoskeletal disorders, such as tendinitis, osteoarthritis, and herniated discs.

In order to mitigate the negative effects of mechanical stress, the body has a number of adaptive responses that help to distribute forces more evenly across tissues and maintain structural integrity. These responses include changes in muscle tone, joint positioning, and connective tissue stiffness, as well as the remodeling of bone and other tissues over time. However, when these adaptive mechanisms are overwhelmed or impaired, mechanical stress can become a significant factor in the development of various pathological conditions.

Recurrence, in a medical context, refers to the return of symptoms or signs of a disease after a period of improvement or remission. It indicates that the condition has not been fully eradicated and may require further treatment. Recurrence is often used to describe situations where a disease such as cancer comes back after initial treatment, but it can also apply to other medical conditions. The likelihood of recurrence varies depending on the type of disease and individual patient factors.

The Posterior Cerebral Artery (PCA) is one of the major arteries that supplies blood to the brain. It is a branch of the basilar artery, which is formed by the union of the two vertebral arteries. The PCA supplies oxygenated blood to the occipital lobe (responsible for visual processing), the temporal lobe (involved in auditory and memory functions), and the thalamus and midbrain (relay station for sensory and motor signals).

The PCA has two segments: the precommunicating segment (P1) and the postcommunicating segment (P2). The P1 segment runs posteriorly along the cerebral peduncle, while the P2 segment courses around the midbrain to reach the occipital lobe.

Atherosclerosis, embolism, or other vascular conditions can affect the PCA and lead to a variety of neurological symptoms, including visual loss, memory impairment, and difficulty with language processing.

Survival analysis is a branch of statistics that deals with the analysis of time to event data. It is used to estimate the time it takes for a certain event of interest to occur, such as death, disease recurrence, or treatment failure. The event of interest is called the "failure" event, and survival analysis estimates the probability of not experiencing the failure event until a certain point in time, also known as the "survival" probability.

Survival analysis can provide important information about the effectiveness of treatments, the prognosis of patients, and the identification of risk factors associated with the event of interest. It can handle censored data, which is common in medical research where some participants may drop out or be lost to follow-up before the event of interest occurs.

Survival analysis typically involves estimating the survival function, which describes the probability of surviving beyond a certain time point, as well as hazard functions, which describe the instantaneous rate of failure at a given time point. Other important concepts in survival analysis include median survival times, restricted mean survival times, and various statistical tests to compare survival curves between groups.

Aortic coarctation is a narrowing of the aorta, the largest blood vessel in the body that carries oxygen-rich blood from the heart to the rest of the body. This condition usually occurs in the part of the aorta that is just beyond where it arises from the left ventricle and before it divides into the iliac arteries.

In aortic coarctation, the narrowing can vary from mild to severe, and it can cause a variety of symptoms depending on the severity of the narrowing and the age of the individual. In newborns and infants with severe coarctation, symptoms may include difficulty breathing, poor feeding, and weak or absent femoral pulses (located in the groin area). Older children and adults with mild to moderate coarctation may not experience any symptoms until later in life, when high blood pressure, headaches, nosebleeds, leg cramps, or heart failure develop.

Aortic coarctation is typically diagnosed through physical examination, imaging tests such as echocardiography, CT angiography, or MRI, and sometimes cardiac catheterization. Treatment options include surgical repair or balloon dilation (also known as balloon angioplasty) to open the narrowed section of the aorta. If left untreated, aortic coarctation can lead to serious complications such as high blood pressure, heart failure, stroke, and rupture or dissection of the aorta.

The popliteal artery is the continuation of the femoral artery that passes through the popliteal fossa, which is the area behind the knee. It is the major blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the lower leg and foot. The popliteal artery divides into the anterior tibial artery and the tibioperoneal trunk at the lower border of the popliteus muscle. Any damage or blockage to this artery can result in serious health complications, including reduced blood flow to the leg and foot, which may lead to pain, cramping, numbness, or even tissue death (gangrene) if left untreated.

Ultrasonography, Doppler, and Duplex are diagnostic medical techniques that use sound waves to create images of internal body structures and assess their function. Here are the definitions for each:

1. Ultrasonography: Also known as ultrasound, this is a non-invasive imaging technique that uses high-frequency sound waves to produce images of internal organs and tissues. A small handheld device called a transducer is placed on the skin surface, which emits and receives sound waves. The returning echoes are then processed to create real-time visual images of the internal structures.
2. Doppler: This is a type of ultrasound that measures the velocity and direction of blood flow in the body by analyzing the frequency shift of the reflected sound waves. It can be used to assess blood flow in various parts of the body, such as the heart, arteries, and veins.
3. Duplex: Duplex ultrasonography is a combination of both gray-scale ultrasound and Doppler ultrasound. It provides detailed images of internal structures, as well as information about blood flow velocity and direction. This technique is often used to evaluate conditions such as deep vein thrombosis, carotid artery stenosis, and peripheral arterial disease.

In summary, ultrasonography is a diagnostic imaging technique that uses sound waves to create images of internal structures, Doppler is a type of ultrasound that measures blood flow velocity and direction, and duplex is a combination of both techniques that provides detailed images and information about blood flow.

Peripheral catheterization is a medical procedure that involves the insertion of a thin, flexible tube (catheter) into a peripheral vein, which is a blood vessel located outside of the chest and abdomen. This type of catheterization is typically performed to administer medications, fluids, or nutritional support, or to monitor various physiological parameters such as central venous pressure.

Peripheral catheters are usually inserted into veins in the hands or arms, although they can also be placed in other peripheral veins. The procedure is typically performed using aseptic technique to minimize the risk of infection. Once the catheter is in place, it may be secured with a dressing or suture to prevent movement and dislodgement.

Peripheral catheterization is a relatively safe and common procedure that is routinely performed in hospitals, clinics, and other healthcare settings. However, like any medical procedure, it carries a small risk of complications such as infection, bleeding, or damage to the vein or surrounding tissues.

Cardiovascular syphilis is a tertiary stage of syphilis, a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum. In this stage, the infection can affect the heart and blood vessels, leading to various complications. Medical definitions describe cardiovascular syphilis as follows:

1. According to the Merck Manual, cardiovascular syphilis is characterized by the development of vasculitic lesions in the aorta and its major branches, causing damage to the heart valves and blood vessels. Common manifestations include aortic regurgitation (backflow of blood), aneurysms (bulging or ballooning of the aorta), and aortic dissection (tearing of the inner layer of the aorta).
2. The National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD) defines cardiovascular syphilis as a late complication of syphilis, which can involve inflammation of the aorta and its branches, leading to aneurysms or aortic insufficiency. This stage usually develops 10-30 years after the initial infection.
3. The World Health Organization (WHO) explains that tertiary syphilis can affect the cardiovascular system, causing inflammation of the aorta and its branches. This may result in aortic aneurysms or aortic insufficiency, which can lead to heart failure if left untreated.

In summary, cardiovascular syphilis is a severe and potentially life-threatening complication of tertiary syphilis, involving inflammation and damage to the heart and blood vessels. Early detection and treatment of syphilis are crucial to prevent these late manifestations.

"Age factors" refer to the effects, changes, or differences that age can have on various aspects of health, disease, and medical care. These factors can encompass a wide range of issues, including:

1. Physiological changes: As people age, their bodies undergo numerous physical changes that can affect how they respond to medications, illnesses, and medical procedures. For example, older adults may be more sensitive to certain drugs or have weaker immune systems, making them more susceptible to infections.
2. Chronic conditions: Age is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and arthritis. As a result, age-related medical issues are common and can impact treatment decisions and outcomes.
3. Cognitive decline: Aging can also lead to cognitive changes, including memory loss and decreased decision-making abilities. These changes can affect a person's ability to understand and comply with medical instructions, leading to potential complications in their care.
4. Functional limitations: Older adults may experience physical limitations that impact their mobility, strength, and balance, increasing the risk of falls and other injuries. These limitations can also make it more challenging for them to perform daily activities, such as bathing, dressing, or cooking.
5. Social determinants: Age-related factors, such as social isolation, poverty, and lack of access to transportation, can impact a person's ability to obtain necessary medical care and affect their overall health outcomes.

Understanding age factors is critical for healthcare providers to deliver high-quality, patient-centered care that addresses the unique needs and challenges of older adults. By taking these factors into account, healthcare providers can develop personalized treatment plans that consider a person's age, physical condition, cognitive abilities, and social circumstances.

Intraoperative care refers to the medical care and interventions provided to a patient during a surgical procedure. This care is typically administered by a team of healthcare professionals, including anesthesiologists, surgeons, nurses, and other specialists as needed. The goal of intraoperative care is to maintain the patient's physiological stability throughout the surgery, minimize complications, and ensure the best possible outcome.

Intraoperative care may include:

1. Anesthesia management: Administering and monitoring anesthetic drugs to keep the patient unconscious and free from pain during the surgery.
2. Monitoring vital signs: Continuously tracking the patient's heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, body temperature, and other key physiological parameters to ensure they remain within normal ranges.
3. Fluid and blood product administration: Maintaining adequate intravascular volume and oxygen-carrying capacity through the infusion of fluids and blood products as needed.
4. Intraoperative imaging: Utilizing real-time imaging techniques, such as X-ray, ultrasound, or CT scans, to guide the surgical procedure and ensure accurate placement of implants or other devices.
5. Neuromonitoring: Using electrophysiological methods to monitor the functional integrity of nerves and neural structures during surgery, particularly in procedures involving the brain, spine, or peripheral nerves.
6. Intraoperative medication management: Administering various medications as needed for pain control, infection prophylaxis, or the treatment of medical conditions that may arise during the surgery.
7. Temperature management: Regulating the patient's body temperature to prevent hypothermia or hyperthermia, which can have adverse effects on surgical outcomes and overall patient health.
8. Communication and coordination: Ensuring effective communication among the members of the surgical team to optimize patient care and safety.

Renal insufficiency, also known as kidney failure, is a medical condition in which the kidneys are unable to properly filter waste products and excess fluids from the blood. This results in a buildup of these substances in the body, which can cause a variety of symptoms such as weakness, shortness of breath, and fluid retention. Renal insufficiency can be acute, meaning it comes on suddenly, or chronic, meaning it develops over time. It is typically diagnosed through blood tests, urine tests, and imaging studies. Treatment may include medications to control symptoms, dietary changes, and in severe cases, dialysis or a kidney transplant.

The basilar artery is a major blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the brainstem and cerebellum. It is formed by the union of two vertebral arteries at the lower part of the brainstem, near the junction of the medulla oblongata and pons.

The basilar artery runs upward through the center of the brainstem and divides into two posterior cerebral arteries at the upper part of the brainstem, near the midbrain. The basilar artery gives off several branches that supply blood to various parts of the brainstem, including the pons, medulla oblongata, and midbrain, as well as to the cerebellum.

The basilar artery is an important part of the circle of Willis, a network of arteries at the base of the brain that ensures continuous blood flow to the brain even if one of the arteries becomes blocked or narrowed.

Arteriosclerosis is a general term that describes the hardening and stiffening of the artery walls. It's a progressive condition that can occur as a result of aging, or it may be associated with certain risk factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, smoking, and a sedentary lifestyle.

The process of arteriosclerosis involves the buildup of plaque, made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances, in the inner lining of the artery walls. Over time, this buildup can cause the artery walls to thicken and harden, reducing the flow of oxygen-rich blood to the body's organs and tissues.

Arteriosclerosis can affect any of the body's arteries, but it is most commonly found in the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart, the cerebral arteries that supply blood to the brain, and the peripheral arteries that supply blood to the limbs. When arteriosclerosis affects the coronary arteries, it can lead to heart disease, angina, or heart attack. When it affects the cerebral arteries, it can lead to stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). When it affects the peripheral arteries, it can cause pain, numbness, or weakness in the limbs, and in severe cases, gangrene and amputation.

Behçet syndrome is a rare inflammatory disease that can cause symptoms in various parts of the body. It's characterized by recurrent mouth sores (aphthous ulcers), genital sores, and inflammation of the eyes (uveitis). The condition may also cause skin lesions, joint pain and swelling, and inflammation of the digestive tract, brain, or spinal cord.

The exact cause of Behçet syndrome is not known, but it's thought to be an autoimmune disorder, in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks its own healthy cells and tissues. The condition tends to affect men more often than women and typically develops during a person's 20s or 30s.

There is no cure for Behçet syndrome, but treatments can help manage symptoms and prevent complications. Treatment options may include medications such as corticosteroids, immunosuppressants, and biologics to reduce inflammation, as well as pain relievers and other supportive therapies.

Graft occlusion in the context of vascular surgery refers to the complete or partial blockage of a blood vessel that has been surgically replaced or repaired with a graft. The graft can be made from either synthetic materials or autologous tissue (taken from another part of the patient's body).

Graft occlusion can occur due to various reasons, including:

1. Thrombosis: Formation of a blood clot within the graft, which can obstruct blood flow.
2. Intimal hyperplasia: Overgrowth of the inner lining (intima) of the graft or the adjacent native vessel, causing narrowing of the lumen and reducing blood flow.
3. Atherosclerosis: Deposition of cholesterol and other substances in the walls of the graft, leading to hardening and narrowing of the vessel.
4. Infection: Bacterial or fungal infection of the graft can cause inflammation, weakening, and ultimately occlusion of the graft.
5. Mechanical factors: Kinking, twisting, or compression of the graft can lead to obstruction of blood flow.

Graft occlusion is a significant complication following vascular surgery, as it can result in reduced perfusion to downstream tissues and organs, leading to ischemia (lack of oxygen supply) and potential tissue damage or loss.

Angioscopy is a medical diagnostic procedure that uses a small fiber-optic scope, called an angioscope, to directly visualize the interior of blood vessels. The angioscope is inserted into the vessel through a small incision or catheter and allows physicians to examine the vessel walls for abnormalities such as plaque buildup, inflammation, or damage. This procedure can be used to diagnose and monitor conditions such as coronary artery disease, peripheral artery disease, and vasculitis. It can also be used during surgical procedures to assist with the placement of stents or other devices in the blood vessels.

The odds ratio (OR) is a statistical measure used in epidemiology and research to estimate the association between an exposure and an outcome. It represents the odds that an event will occur in one group versus the odds that it will occur in another group, assuming that all other factors are held constant.

In medical research, the odds ratio is often used to quantify the strength of the relationship between a risk factor (exposure) and a disease outcome. An OR of 1 indicates no association between the exposure and the outcome, while an OR greater than 1 suggests that there is a positive association between the two. Conversely, an OR less than 1 implies a negative association.

It's important to note that the odds ratio is not the same as the relative risk (RR), which compares the incidence rates of an outcome in two groups. While the OR can approximate the RR when the outcome is rare, they are not interchangeable and can lead to different conclusions about the association between an exposure and an outcome.

Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is a protein involved in the metabolism of lipids, particularly cholesterol. It is produced primarily by the liver and is a component of several types of lipoproteins, including very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) and high-density lipoproteins (HDL).

ApoE plays a crucial role in the transport and uptake of lipids in the body. It binds to specific receptors on cell surfaces, facilitating the delivery of lipids to cells for energy metabolism or storage. ApoE also helps to clear cholesterol from the bloodstream and is involved in the repair and maintenance of tissues.

There are three major isoforms of ApoE, designated ApoE2, ApoE3, and ApoE4, which differ from each other by only a few amino acids. These genetic variations can have significant effects on an individual's risk for developing certain diseases, particularly cardiovascular disease and Alzheimer's disease. For example, individuals who inherit the ApoE4 allele have an increased risk of developing Alzheimer's disease, while those with the ApoE2 allele may have a reduced risk.

In summary, Apolipoprotein E is a protein involved in lipid metabolism and transport, and genetic variations in this protein can influence an individual's risk for certain diseases.

The Circle of Willis is a circulatory arrangement in the brain where the major arteries that supply blood to the brain converge to form an almost circular structure. It is named after Thomas Willis, an English physician who first described it in 1664.

This circle is formed by the joining of the two internal carotid arteries, which divide into the anterior cerebral and middle cerebral arteries, with the basilar artery, which arises from the vertebral arteries. These vessels anastomose, or connect, to form a polygon-like structure at the base of the brain.

The Circle of Willis plays a crucial role in maintaining adequate blood flow to the brain, as it allows for collateral circulation. If one of the arteries that make up the circle becomes blocked or narrowed, blood can still reach the affected area through the other vessels in the circle. This helps to minimize the risk of stroke and other neurological disorders.

A craniotomy is a surgical procedure where a bone flap is temporarily removed from the skull to access the brain. This procedure is typically performed to treat various neurological conditions, such as brain tumors, aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, or traumatic brain injuries. After the underlying brain condition is addressed, the bone flap is usually replaced and secured back in place with plates and screws. The purpose of a craniotomy is to provide access to the brain for diagnostic or therapeutic interventions while minimizing potential damage to surrounding tissues.

Microsurgery is a surgical technique that requires the use of an operating microscope and fine instruments to perform precise surgical manipulations. It is commonly used in various fields such as ophthalmology, neurosurgery, orthopedic surgery, and plastic and reconstructive surgery. The magnification provided by the microscope allows surgeons to work on small structures like nerves, blood vessels, and tiny bones. Some of the most common procedures that fall under microsurgery include nerve repair, replantation of amputated parts, and various types of reconstructions such as free tissue transfer for cancer reconstruction or coverage of large wounds.

Biocompatible coated materials refer to surfaces or substances that are treated or engineered with a layer or film designed to interact safely and effectively with living tissues or biological systems, without causing harm or adverse reactions. The coating material is typically composed of biomaterials that can withstand the conditions of the specific application while promoting a positive response from the body.

The purpose of these coatings may vary depending on the medical device or application. For example, they might be used to enhance the lubricity and wear resistance of implantable devices, reduce the risk of infection, promote integration with surrounding tissues, control drug release, or prevent the formation of biofilms.

Biocompatible coated materials must undergo rigorous testing and evaluation to ensure their safety and efficacy in various clinical settings. This includes assessing potential cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, sensitization, hemocompatibility, carcinogenicity, and other factors that could impact the body's response to the material.

Examples of biocompatible coating materials include:

1. Hydrogels: Cross-linked networks of hydrophilic polymers that can be used for drug delivery, tissue engineering, or as lubricious coatings on medical devices.
2. Self-assembling monolayers (SAMs): Organosilane or thiol-based molecules that form a stable, well-ordered film on surfaces, which can be further functionalized to promote specific biological interactions.
3. Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG): A biocompatible polymer often used as a coating material due to its ability to reduce protein adsorption and cell attachment, making it useful for preventing biofouling or thrombosis on medical devices.
4. Bioactive glass: A type of biomaterial composed of silica-based glasses that can stimulate bone growth and healing when used as a coating material in orthopedic or dental applications.
5. Drug-eluting coatings: Biocompatible polymers impregnated with therapeutic agents, designed to release the drug over time to promote healing, prevent infection, or inhibit restenosis in various medical devices.

A heart bypass surgery, also known as coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), is a surgical procedure performed to improve blood flow to the heart in patients with severe coronary artery disease. In a left heart bypass, specifically, the left internal thoracic artery or the left great saphenous vein is used to create a bypass graft for the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery, which is the primary blood supplier to the front part of the heart. This surgical procedure helps to restore adequate oxygenated blood supply to the heart muscle and alleviate symptoms such as angina and shortness of breath, thereby reducing the risk of heart attacks and improving overall cardiac function.

A case-control study is an observational research design used to identify risk factors or causes of a disease or health outcome. In this type of study, individuals with the disease or condition (cases) are compared with similar individuals who do not have the disease or condition (controls). The exposure history or other characteristics of interest are then compared between the two groups to determine if there is an association between the exposure and the disease.

Case-control studies are often used when it is not feasible or ethical to conduct a randomized controlled trial, as they can provide valuable insights into potential causes of diseases or health outcomes in a relatively short period of time and at a lower cost than other study designs. However, because case-control studies rely on retrospective data collection, they are subject to biases such as recall bias and selection bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, it is important to carefully design and conduct case-control studies to minimize these potential sources of bias.

Equipment safety in a medical context refers to the measures taken to ensure that medical equipment is free from potential harm or risks to patients, healthcare providers, and others who may come into contact with the equipment. This includes:

1. Designing and manufacturing the equipment to meet safety standards and regulations.
2. Properly maintaining and inspecting the equipment to ensure it remains safe over time.
3. Providing proper training for healthcare providers on how to use the equipment safely.
4. Implementing safeguards, such as alarms and warnings, to alert users of potential hazards.
5. Conducting regular risk assessments to identify and address any potential safety concerns.
6. Reporting and investigating any incidents or accidents involving the equipment to determine their cause and prevent future occurrences.

"Cardiovascular Tuberculosis" refers to a form of tuberculosis (TB) where the bacteria (Mycobacterium tuberculosis) infects the heart or the blood vessels. This is a less common manifestation of TB, but it can have serious consequences if left untreated.

In cardiovascular TB, the bacteria can cause inflammation and damage to the heart muscle (myocarditis), the sac surrounding the heart (pericarditis), or the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle. This can lead to symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, coughing, fatigue, and fever. In severe cases, it can cause heart failure or life-threatening arrhythmias.

Cardiovascular TB is usually treated with a combination of antibiotics that are effective against the TB bacteria. The treatment may last for several months to ensure that all the bacteria have been eliminated. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair or replace damaged heart valves or vessels. Early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent serious complications and improve outcomes in patients with cardiovascular TB.

'Alloys' is not a medical term. It is a term used in materials science and engineering to describe a mixture or solid solution composed of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal. The components are typically present in significant amounts (>1% by weight). The properties of alloys, such as their strength, durability, and corrosion resistance, often differ from those of the constituent elements.

While not directly related to medicine, some alloys do have medical applications. For example, certain alloys are used in orthopedic implants, dental restorations, and other medical devices due to their desirable properties such as biocompatibility, strength, and resistance to corrosion.

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures used to describe the performance of a diagnostic test or screening tool in identifying true positive and true negative results.

* Sensitivity refers to the proportion of people who have a particular condition (true positives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true positive rate" or "recall." A highly sensitive test will identify most or all of the people with the condition, but may also produce more false positives.
* Specificity refers to the proportion of people who do not have a particular condition (true negatives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true negative rate." A highly specific test will identify most or all of the people without the condition, but may also produce more false negatives.

In medical testing, both sensitivity and specificity are important considerations when evaluating a diagnostic test. High sensitivity is desirable for screening tests that aim to identify as many cases of a condition as possible, while high specificity is desirable for confirmatory tests that aim to rule out the condition in people who do not have it.

It's worth noting that sensitivity and specificity are often influenced by factors such as the prevalence of the condition in the population being tested, the threshold used to define a positive result, and the reliability and validity of the test itself. Therefore, it's important to consider these factors when interpreting the results of a diagnostic test.

Hospital costs are the total amount of money that is expended by a hospital to provide medical and healthcare services to patients. These costs can include expenses related to:

* Hospital staff salaries and benefits
* Supplies, such as medications, medical devices, and surgical equipment
* Utilities, such as electricity, water, and heating
* Facility maintenance and renovation
* Equipment maintenance and purchase
* Administrative costs, such as billing and insurance processing

Hospital costs can also be classified into fixed and variable costs. Fixed costs are those that do not change with the volume of services provided, such as rent or depreciation of equipment. Variable costs are those that change with the volume of services provided, such as supplies and medications.

It's important to note that hospital costs can vary widely depending on factors such as the complexity of care provided, the geographic location of the hospital, and the patient population served. Additionally, hospital costs may not always align with charges or payments for healthcare services, which can be influenced by factors such as negotiated rates with insurance companies and government reimbursement policies.

Nonparametric statistics is a branch of statistics that does not rely on assumptions about the distribution of variables in the population from which the sample is drawn. In contrast to parametric methods, nonparametric techniques make fewer assumptions about the data and are therefore more flexible in their application. Nonparametric tests are often used when the data do not meet the assumptions required for parametric tests, such as normality or equal variances.

Nonparametric statistical methods include tests such as the Wilcoxon rank-sum test (also known as the Mann-Whitney U test) for comparing two independent groups, the Wilcoxon signed-rank test for comparing two related groups, and the Kruskal-Wallis test for comparing more than two independent groups. These tests use the ranks of the data rather than the actual values to make comparisons, which allows them to be used with ordinal or continuous data that do not meet the assumptions of parametric tests.

Overall, nonparametric statistics provide a useful set of tools for analyzing data in situations where the assumptions of parametric methods are not met, and can help researchers draw valid conclusions from their data even when the data are not normally distributed or have other characteristics that violate the assumptions of parametric tests.

The brachiocephalic trunk, also known as the brachiocephalic artery or innominate artery, is a large vessel that branches off the aorta and divides into the right common carotid artery and the right subclavian artery. It supplies blood to the head, neck, and arms on the right side of the body.

Cerebral revascularization is a surgical procedure aimed at restoring blood flow to the brain. This is often performed in cases where there is narrowing or blockage of the cerebral arteries, a condition known as cerebrovascular disease. The most common type of cerebral revascularization is called carotid endarterectomy, which involves removing plaque buildup from the carotid artery in the neck to improve blood flow to the brain. Another type is extracranial-intracranial bypass, where a new connection is created between an external carotid artery and an intracranial artery to bypass a blockage.

Drainage, in medical terms, refers to the removal of excess fluid or accumulated collections of fluids from various body parts or spaces. This is typically accomplished through the use of medical devices such as catheters, tubes, or drains. The purpose of drainage can be to prevent the buildup of fluids that may cause discomfort, infection, or other complications, or to treat existing collections of fluid such as abscesses, hematomas, or pleural effusions. Drainage may also be used as a diagnostic tool to analyze the type and composition of the fluid being removed.

Matrix metalloproteinase 12 (MMP-12) is a type of enzyme that belongs to the matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) family. MMPs are involved in the breakdown and remodeling of extracellular matrices, which are the structures that provide support and organization to cells in tissues and organs.

MMP-12 is also known as macrophage elastase because it is primarily produced by macrophages, a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the immune system. MMP-12 is capable of degrading various components of the extracellular matrix, including elastin, a protein that provides elasticity to tissues such as lungs, arteries, and skin.

MMP-12 has been implicated in several physiological and pathological processes, including tissue remodeling, wound healing, inflammation, and cancer. Dysregulation of MMP-12 activity has been associated with various diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), atherosclerosis, and tumor metastasis.

Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome is also known as Kawasaki Disease. It is a type of vasculitis that primarily affects young children, usually those under the age of 5. The disease is named after Dr. Tomisaku Kawasaki, who first described it in Japan in 1967.

The condition is characterized by inflammation of the mucous membranes (mucosa), skin (cutaneous), and lymph nodes. The symptoms typically include fever, rash, red eyes, swollen lips and tongue, strawberry tongue, and swollen lymph nodes in the neck. In addition, children with Kawasaki disease may also experience joint pain, diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.

In severe cases, Kawasaki disease can lead to complications such as coronary artery aneurysms, which can increase the risk of heart attacks and other cardiovascular problems. The exact cause of Kawasaki disease is unknown, but it is thought to be triggered by an infection or other environmental factor in genetically susceptible children. Treatment typically involves administering high doses of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and aspirin to reduce inflammation and prevent complications.

The aortic valve is the valve located between the left ventricle (the lower left chamber of the heart) and the aorta (the largest artery in the body, which carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body). It is made up of three thin flaps or leaflets that open and close to regulate blood flow. During a heartbeat, the aortic valve opens to allow blood to be pumped out of the left ventricle into the aorta, and then closes to prevent blood from flowing back into the ventricle when it relaxes. Any abnormality or damage to this valve can lead to various cardiovascular conditions such as aortic stenosis, aortic regurgitation, or infective endocarditis.

Thoracotomy is a surgical procedure that involves making an incision on the chest wall to gain access to the thoracic cavity, which contains the lungs, heart, esophagus, trachea, and other vital organs. The incision can be made on the side (lateral thoracotomy), back (posterolateral thoracotomy), or front (median sternotomy) of the chest wall, depending on the specific surgical indication.

Thoracotomy is performed for various indications, including lung biopsy, lung resection, esophagectomy, heart surgery, and mediastinal mass removal. The procedure allows the surgeon to directly visualize and access the organs within the thoracic cavity, perform necessary procedures, and control bleeding if needed.

After the procedure, the incision is typically closed with sutures or staples, and a chest tube may be placed to drain any accumulated fluid or air from the pleural space around the lungs. The patient will require postoperative care and monitoring in a hospital setting until their condition stabilizes.

Prosthesis-related infections, also known as prosthetic joint infections (PJIs), are infections that occur around or within a prosthetic device, such as an artificial joint. These infections can be caused by bacteria, fungi, or other microorganisms and can lead to serious complications if not treated promptly and effectively.

Prosthesis-related infections can occur soon after the implantation of the prosthetic device (early infection) or months or even years later (late infection). Early infections are often caused by bacteria that enter the surgical site during the procedure, while late infections may be caused by hematogenous seeding (i.e., when bacteria from another source spread through the bloodstream and settle in the prosthetic device) or by contamination during a subsequent medical procedure.

Symptoms of prosthesis-related infections can include pain, swelling, redness, warmth, and drainage around the affected area. In some cases, patients may also experience fever, chills, or fatigue. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, laboratory tests (such as blood cultures, joint fluid analysis, and tissue biopsy), and imaging studies (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI).

Treatment of prosthesis-related infections usually involves a combination of antibiotics and surgical intervention. The specific treatment approach will depend on the type and severity of the infection, as well as the patient's overall health status. In some cases, it may be necessary to remove or replace the affected prosthetic device.

Comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional health conditions or diseases alongside a primary illness or condition. These co-occurring health issues can have an impact on the treatment plan, prognosis, and overall healthcare management of an individual. Comorbidities often interact with each other and the primary condition, leading to more complex clinical situations and increased healthcare needs. It is essential for healthcare professionals to consider and address comorbidities to provide comprehensive care and improve patient outcomes.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

Reproducibility of results in a medical context refers to the ability to obtain consistent and comparable findings when a particular experiment or study is repeated, either by the same researcher or by different researchers, following the same experimental protocol. It is an essential principle in scientific research that helps to ensure the validity and reliability of research findings.

In medical research, reproducibility of results is crucial for establishing the effectiveness and safety of new treatments, interventions, or diagnostic tools. It involves conducting well-designed studies with adequate sample sizes, appropriate statistical analyses, and transparent reporting of methods and findings to allow other researchers to replicate the study and confirm or refute the results.

The lack of reproducibility in medical research has become a significant concern in recent years, as several high-profile studies have failed to produce consistent findings when replicated by other researchers. This has led to increased scrutiny of research practices and a call for greater transparency, rigor, and standardization in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

Aortic valve insufficiency, also known as aortic regurgitation or aortic incompetence, is a cardiac condition in which the aortic valve does not close properly during the contraction phase of the heart cycle. This allows blood to flow back into the left ventricle from the aorta, instead of being pumped out to the rest of the body. As a result, the left ventricle must work harder to maintain adequate cardiac output, which can lead to left ventricular enlargement and heart failure over time if left untreated.

The aortic valve is a trileaflet valve that lies between the left ventricle and the aorta. During systole (the contraction phase of the heart cycle), the aortic valve opens to allow blood to be pumped out of the left ventricle into the aorta and then distributed to the rest of the body. During diastole (the relaxation phase of the heart cycle), the aortic valve closes to prevent blood from flowing back into the left ventricle.

Aortic valve insufficiency can be caused by various conditions, including congenital heart defects, infective endocarditis, rheumatic heart disease, Marfan syndrome, and trauma. Symptoms of aortic valve insufficiency may include shortness of breath, fatigue, chest pain, palpitations, and edema (swelling). Diagnosis is typically made through physical examination, echocardiography, and other imaging studies. Treatment options depend on the severity of the condition and may include medication, surgery to repair or replace the aortic valve, or a combination of both.

Ischemic colitis is a condition characterized by inflammation of the large intestine (colon) due to reduced blood flow to the area. This reduction in blood flow, also known as ischemia, can be caused by various factors such as narrowing or blockage of the blood vessels that supply the colon, low blood pressure, or certain medications.

Symptoms of ischemic colitis may include sudden abdominal pain, bloody diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and fever. In severe cases, it can lead to tissue death, perforation of the colon, and sepsis. Treatment typically involves supportive care such as fluid replacement, bowel rest, and antibiotics. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove damaged tissue or restore blood flow to the area.

Anatomic models are three-dimensional representations of body structures used for educational, training, or demonstration purposes. They can be made from various materials such as plastic, wax, or rubber and may depict the entire body or specific regions, organs, or systems. These models can be used to provide a visual aid for understanding anatomy, physiology, and pathology, and can be particularly useful in situations where actual human specimens are not available or practical to use. They may also be used for surgical planning and rehearsal, as well as in medical research and product development.

Endoscopy is a medical procedure that involves the use of an endoscope, which is a flexible tube with a light and camera at the end, to examine the interior of a body cavity or organ. The endoscope is inserted through a natural opening in the body, such as the mouth or anus, or through a small incision. The images captured by the camera are transmitted to a monitor, allowing the physician to visualize the internal structures and detect any abnormalities, such as inflammation, ulcers, or tumors. Endoscopy can also be used for diagnostic purposes, such as taking tissue samples for biopsy, or for therapeutic purposes, such as removing polyps or performing minimally invasive surgeries.

Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) is not a specific disease, but rather a systemic response to various insults or injuries within the body. It is defined as a combination of clinical signs that indicate a widespread inflammatory response in the body. According to the American College of Chest Physicians/Society of Critical Care Medicine (ACCP/SCCM) consensus criteria, SIRS is characterized by the presence of at least two of the following conditions:

1. Body temperature >38°C (100.4°F) or 90 beats per minute
3. Respiratory rate >20 breaths per minute or arterial carbon dioxide tension (PaCO2) 12,000 cells/mm3, 10% bands (immature white blood cells)

SIRS can be caused by various factors, including infections (sepsis), trauma, burns, pancreatitis, and immune-mediated reactions. Prolonged SIRS may lead to organ dysfunction and failure, which can progress to severe sepsis or septic shock if not treated promptly and effectively.

Vertebral artery dissection is a medical condition that involves a tear in the inner lining (the tunica intima) of the vertebral artery, one of the major blood vessels supplying oxygenated blood to the brain. This tear allows blood to enter the vessel wall, creating a false lumen and leading to narrowing or blockage of the true lumen. The dissection can occur spontaneously or following trauma to the neck, and it can result in decreased blood flow to the brainstem and cerebellum, potentially causing symptoms such as headache, neck pain, dizziness, vertigo, double vision, difficulty swallowing, slurred speech, and weakness or numbness on one side of the body. Vertebral artery dissection is a serious condition that requires prompt medical attention and management to prevent potential complications such as stroke.

The postoperative period is the time following a surgical procedure during which the patient's response to the surgery and anesthesia is monitored, and any complications or adverse effects are managed. This period can vary in length depending on the type of surgery and the individual patient's needs, but it typically includes the immediate recovery phase in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) or recovery room, as well as any additional time spent in the hospital for monitoring and management of pain, wound healing, and other aspects of postoperative care.

The goals of postoperative care are to ensure the patient's safety and comfort, promote optimal healing and rehabilitation, and minimize the risk of complications such as infection, bleeding, or other postoperative issues. The specific interventions and treatments provided during this period will depend on a variety of factors, including the type and extent of surgery performed, the patient's overall health and medical history, and any individualized care plans developed in consultation with the patient and their healthcare team.

Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is a medical procedure that temporarily takes over the functions of the heart and lungs during major heart surgery. It allows the surgeon to operate on a still, bloodless heart.

During CPB, the patient's blood is circulated outside the body with the help of a heart-lung machine. The machine pumps the blood through a oxygenator, where it is oxygenated and then returned to the body. This bypasses the heart and lungs, hence the name "cardiopulmonary bypass."

CPB involves several components, including a pump, oxygenator, heat exchanger, and tubing. The patient's blood is drained from the heart through cannulas (tubes) and passed through the oxygenator, where it is oxygenated and carbon dioxide is removed. The oxygenated blood is then warmed to body temperature in a heat exchanger before being pumped back into the body.

While on CPB, the patient's heart is stopped with the help of cardioplegia solution, which is infused directly into the coronary arteries. This helps to protect the heart muscle during surgery. The surgeon can then operate on a still and bloodless heart, allowing for more precise surgical repair.

After the surgery is complete, the patient is gradually weaned off CPB, and the heart is restarted with the help of electrical stimulation or medication. The patient's condition is closely monitored during this time to ensure that their heart and lungs are functioning properly.

While CPB has revolutionized heart surgery and allowed for more complex procedures to be performed, it is not without risks. These include bleeding, infection, stroke, kidney damage, and inflammation. However, with advances in technology and technique, the risks associated with CPB have been significantly reduced over time.

A carotid artery, internal, dissection is a medical condition that affects the internal carotid artery, which is a major blood vessel in the neck that supplies oxygenated blood to the brain. In this condition, there is a separation (dissection) of the layers of the artery wall, causing blood to accumulate in the space between the layers. This can lead to narrowing or blockage of the artery, reducing blood flow to the brain and increasing the risk of stroke. Internal carotid artery dissection can be caused by trauma, high blood pressure, connective tissue disorders, or spontaneously. Symptoms may include neck pain, headache, facial pain, visual disturbances, weakness or numbness in the arms or legs, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, and dizziness or loss of balance.

A registry in the context of medicine is a collection or database of standardized information about individuals who share a certain condition or attribute, such as a disease, treatment, exposure, or demographic group. These registries are used for various purposes, including:

* Monitoring and tracking the natural history of diseases and conditions
* Evaluating the safety and effectiveness of medical treatments and interventions
* Conducting research and generating hypotheses for further study
* Providing information to patients, clinicians, and researchers
* Informing public health policy and decision-making

Registries can be established for a wide range of purposes, including disease-specific registries (such as cancer or diabetes registries), procedure-specific registries (such as joint replacement or cardiac surgery registries), and population-based registries (such as birth defects or cancer registries). Data collected in registries may include demographic information, clinical data, laboratory results, treatment details, and outcomes.

Registries can be maintained by a variety of organizations, including hospitals, clinics, academic medical centers, professional societies, government agencies, and industry. Participation in registries is often voluntary, although some registries may require informed consent from participants. Data collected in registries are typically de-identified to protect the privacy of individuals.

"Sex factors" is a term used in medicine and epidemiology to refer to the differences in disease incidence, prevalence, or response to treatment that are observed between males and females. These differences can be attributed to biological differences such as genetics, hormones, and anatomy, as well as social and cultural factors related to gender.

For example, some conditions such as autoimmune diseases, depression, and osteoporosis are more common in women, while others such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer are more prevalent in men. Additionally, sex differences have been observed in the effectiveness and side effects of various medications and treatments.

It is important to consider sex factors in medical research and clinical practice to ensure that patients receive appropriate and effective care.

The common carotid artery is a major blood vessel in the neck that supplies oxygenated blood to the head and neck. It originates from the brachiocephalic trunk or the aortic arch and divides into the internal and external carotid arteries at the level of the upper border of the thyroid cartilage. The common carotid artery is an important structure in the circulatory system, and any damage or blockage to it can have serious consequences, including stroke.

Postoperative hemorrhage is a medical term that refers to bleeding that occurs after a surgical procedure. This condition can range from minor oozing to severe, life-threatening bleeding. Postoperative hemorrhage can occur soon after surgery or even several days later, as the surgical site begins to heal.

The causes of postoperative hemorrhage can vary, but some common factors include:

1. Inadequate hemostasis during surgery: This means that all bleeding was not properly controlled during the procedure, leading to bleeding after surgery.
2. Blood vessel injury: During surgery, blood vessels may be accidentally cut or damaged, causing bleeding after the procedure.
3. Coagulopathy: This is a condition in which the body has difficulty forming blood clots, increasing the risk of postoperative hemorrhage.
4. Use of anticoagulant medications: Medications that prevent blood clots can increase the risk of bleeding after surgery.
5. Infection: An infection at the surgical site can cause inflammation and bleeding.

Symptoms of postoperative hemorrhage may include swelling, pain, warmth, or discoloration around the surgical site, as well as signs of shock such as rapid heartbeat, low blood pressure, and confusion. Treatment for postoperative hemorrhage depends on the severity of the bleeding and may include medications to control bleeding, transfusions of blood products, or additional surgery to stop the bleeding.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

Mechanical thrombolysis is a procedure used to remove blood clots (thrombi) from the blood vessels by mechanical means, as opposed to pharmacological thrombolysis which uses drugs to dissolve the clots. In mechanical thrombolysis, specialized medical devices are used to physically disrupt, extract or break down the clot, thereby restoring blood flow and preventing further complications such as tissue damage or organ dysfunction.

The procedure is often performed under imaging guidance, such as fluoroscopy or ultrasound, to ensure accurate placement of the device and effective removal of the thrombus. Mechanical thrombolysis may be used in various clinical settings, including deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), and arterial thromboembolism, such as stroke or peripheral artery disease.

Some of the commonly used mechanical thrombectomy devices include:

1. Catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT): A catheter is inserted into the affected blood vessel and a clot-dissolving drug is administered directly to the thrombus.
2. AngioJet Rheolytic Thrombectomy System: This device uses high-pressure saline jets to break up and remove the clot.
3. Rotational or ultrasonic thrombectomy devices: These use rotating or vibrating components to macerate and extract the clot.
4. Aspiration thrombectomy: A catheter with a large lumen is used to aspirate (suction) the clot out of the blood vessel.
5. Stent retriever thrombectomy: A stent-like device is deployed in the affected vessel and then retrieved, taking the clot with it.

The choice of mechanical thrombolysis technique depends on various factors, including the location, size, and composition of the thrombus, as well as the patient's overall clinical condition.

Peripheral Vascular Diseases (PVD) refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the blood vessels outside of the heart and brain. These diseases are characterized by a narrowing or blockage of the peripheral arteries, which can lead to reduced blood flow to the limbs, particularly the legs.

The primary cause of PVD is atherosclerosis, a buildup of fats, cholesterol, and other substances in and on the walls of the arteries, forming plaques that restrict blood flow. Other risk factors include smoking, diabetes, hypertension, high cholesterol levels, and a family history of vascular disease.

Symptoms of PVD can vary depending on the severity of the condition but may include leg pain or cramping during exercise (claudication), numbness or tingling in the legs, coldness or discoloration of the feet, sores or wounds that heal slowly or not at all, and in severe cases, gangrene.

PVD can increase the risk of heart attack and stroke, so it is essential to diagnose and treat the condition as early as possible. Treatment options include lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking, exercising regularly, and maintaining a healthy diet, medications to control symptoms and reduce the risk of complications, and surgical procedures such as angioplasty or bypass surgery to restore blood flow.

A biological marker, often referred to as a biomarker, is a measurable indicator that reflects the presence or severity of a disease state, or a response to a therapeutic intervention. Biomarkers can be found in various materials such as blood, tissues, or bodily fluids, and they can take many forms, including molecular, histologic, radiographic, or physiological measurements.

In the context of medical research and clinical practice, biomarkers are used for a variety of purposes, such as:

1. Diagnosis: Biomarkers can help diagnose a disease by indicating the presence or absence of a particular condition. For example, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a biomarker used to detect prostate cancer.
2. Monitoring: Biomarkers can be used to monitor the progression or regression of a disease over time. For instance, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels are monitored in diabetes patients to assess long-term blood glucose control.
3. Predicting: Biomarkers can help predict the likelihood of developing a particular disease or the risk of a negative outcome. For example, the presence of certain genetic mutations can indicate an increased risk for breast cancer.
4. Response to treatment: Biomarkers can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a specific treatment by measuring changes in the biomarker levels before and after the intervention. This is particularly useful in personalized medicine, where treatments are tailored to individual patients based on their unique biomarker profiles.

It's important to note that for a biomarker to be considered clinically valid and useful, it must undergo rigorous validation through well-designed studies, including demonstrating sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, and clinical relevance.

Equipment Failure Analysis is a process of identifying the cause of failure in medical equipment or devices. This involves a systematic examination and evaluation of the equipment, its components, and operational history to determine why it failed. The analysis may include physical inspection, chemical testing, and review of maintenance records, as well as assessment of design, manufacturing, and usage factors that may have contributed to the failure.

The goal of Equipment Failure Analysis is to identify the root cause of the failure, so that corrective actions can be taken to prevent similar failures in the future. This is important in medical settings to ensure patient safety and maintain the reliability and effectiveness of medical equipment.

A psoas abscess is a localized collection of pus (infectious material) in the iliopsoas muscle compartment, which consists of the psoas major and iliacus muscles. These muscles are located in the lower back and pelvis, responsible for flexing the hip joint.

Psoas abscesses can be classified as primary or secondary:

1. Primary psoas abscess: This type is caused by hematogenous spread (dissemination through the blood) of a bacterial infection from a distant site, often involving the gastrointestinal tract, genitourinary system, or skin. It is less common and typically seen in individuals with compromised immune systems.
2. Secondary psoas abscess: This type is caused by direct extension of an infection from a nearby anatomical structure, such as the spine, vertebral column, or retroperitoneal space (the area behind the peritoneum, the lining of the abdominal cavity). Common causes include spinal osteomyelitis (spinal bone infection), discitis (infection of the intervertebral disc), or a perforated viscus (a hole in an organ like the bowel).

Symptoms of a psoas abscess may include lower back pain, hip pain, fever, chills, and difficulty walking. Diagnosis typically involves imaging studies such as CT scans or MRIs, which can confirm the presence and extent of the abscess. Treatment usually consists of antibiotic therapy and drainage of the abscess, often through a percutaneous (through the skin) approach guided by imaging. In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary for adequate drainage and management.

Smooth muscle myocytes are specialized cells that make up the contractile portion of non-striated, or smooth, muscles. These muscles are found in various organs and structures throughout the body, including the walls of blood vessels, the digestive system, the respiratory system, and the reproductive system.

Smooth muscle myocytes are smaller than their striated counterparts (skeletal and cardiac muscle cells) and have a single nucleus. They lack the distinctive banding pattern seen in striated muscles and instead have a uniform appearance of actin and myosin filaments. Smooth muscle myocytes are controlled by the autonomic nervous system, which allows them to contract and relax involuntarily.

These cells play an essential role in many physiological processes, such as regulating blood flow, moving food through the digestive tract, and facilitating childbirth. They can also contribute to various pathological conditions, including hypertension, atherosclerosis, and gastrointestinal disorders.

A hematoma is defined as a localized accumulation of blood in a tissue, organ, or body space caused by a break in the wall of a blood vessel. This can result from various causes such as trauma, surgery, or certain medical conditions that affect coagulation. The severity and size of a hematoma may vary depending on the location and extent of the bleeding. Symptoms can include swelling, pain, bruising, and decreased mobility in the affected area. Treatment options depend on the size and location of the hematoma but may include observation, compression, ice, elevation, or in some cases, surgical intervention.

The adventitia is the outermost layer of a blood vessel or other organs, consisting of connective tissue. It provides support and protection to the underlying structures. In blood vessels, the adventitia helps to regulate their diameter and maintain structural integrity. It also contains nerves, blood vessels, and lymphatic vessels that supply the vessel wall with nutrients and remove waste products. The adventitia is continuous with the surrounding tissue and helps to anchor the vessel or organ in place.

Multivariate analysis is a statistical method used to examine the relationship between multiple independent variables and a dependent variable. It allows for the simultaneous examination of the effects of two or more independent variables on an outcome, while controlling for the effects of other variables in the model. This technique can be used to identify patterns, associations, and interactions among multiple variables, and is commonly used in medical research to understand complex health outcomes and disease processes. Examples of multivariate analysis methods include multiple regression, factor analysis, cluster analysis, and discriminant analysis.

Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is a type of echocardiogram, which is a medical test that uses sound waves to create detailed images of the heart. In TEE, a special probe containing a transducer is passed down the esophagus (the tube that connects the mouth to the stomach) to obtain views of the heart from behind. This allows for more detailed images of the heart structures and function compared to a standard echocardiogram, which uses a probe placed on the chest. TEE is often used in patients with poor image quality from a standard echocardiogram or when more detailed images are needed to diagnose or monitor certain heart conditions. It is typically performed by a trained cardiologist or sonographer under the direction of a cardiologist.

Takayasu arteritis is a rare inflammatory disease that affects the large blood vessels in the body, most commonly the aorta and its main branches. It's also known as pulseless disease or aortic arch syndrome. The condition primarily affects young to middle-aged women, although it can occur in anyone at any age.

The inflammation caused by Takayasu arteritis can lead to narrowing, thickening, and weakening of the affected blood vessels' walls, which can result in reduced blood flow to various organs and tissues. This can cause a variety of symptoms depending on the severity and location of the vessel involvement.

Common symptoms include:

* Weak or absent pulses in the arms and/or legs
* High blood pressure (hypertension)
* Dizziness, lightheadedness, or fainting spells due to reduced blood flow to the brain
* Headaches
* Visual disturbances
* Fatigue
* Weight loss
* Night sweats
* Fever

Diagnosis of Takayasu arteritis typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment usually includes corticosteroids or other immunosuppressive medications to control inflammation and maintain remission. Regular follow-up with a healthcare provider is essential to monitor disease activity and adjust treatment as necessary.

The Thoracic Arteries are branches of the aorta that supply oxygenated blood to the thoracic region of the body. The pair of arteries originate from the descending aorta and divide into several smaller branches, including intercostal arteries that supply blood to the muscles between the ribs, and posterior intercostal arteries that supply blood to the back and chest wall. Other branches of the thoracic arteries include the superior phrenic arteries, which supply blood to the diaphragm, and the bronchial arteries, which supply blood to the lungs. These arteries play a crucial role in maintaining the health and function of the chest and respiratory system.

Spontaneous rupture in medical terms refers to the sudden breaking or tearing of an organ, tissue, or structure within the body without any identifiable trauma or injury. This event can occur due to various reasons such as weakening of the tissue over time because of disease or degeneration, or excessive pressure on the tissue.

For instance, a spontaneous rupture of the appendix is called an "appendiceal rupture," which can lead to peritonitis, a serious inflammation of the abdominal cavity. Similarly, a spontaneous rupture of a blood vessel, like an aortic aneurysm, can result in life-threatening internal bleeding.

Spontaneous ruptures are often medical emergencies and require immediate medical attention for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Renal artery obstruction is a medical condition that refers to the blockage or restriction of blood flow in the renal artery, which is the main vessel that supplies oxygenated and nutrient-rich blood to the kidneys. This obstruction can be caused by various factors, such as blood clots, atherosclerosis (the buildup of fats, cholesterol, and other substances in and on the artery walls), emboli (tiny particles or air bubbles that travel through the bloodstream and lodge in smaller vessels), or compressive masses like tumors.

The obstruction can lead to reduced kidney function, hypertension, and even kidney failure in severe cases. Symptoms may include high blood pressure, proteinuria (the presence of protein in the urine), hematuria (blood in the urine), and a decrease in kidney function as measured by serum creatinine levels. Diagnosis typically involves imaging studies like Doppler ultrasound, CT angiography, or magnetic resonance angiography to visualize the renal artery and assess the extent of the obstruction. Treatment options may include medications to control blood pressure and reduce kidney damage, as well as invasive procedures like angioplasty and stenting or surgical intervention to remove the obstruction and restore normal blood flow to the kidneys.

An embolism is a medical condition that occurs when a substance, such as a blood clot or an air bubble, blocks a blood vessel. This can happen in any part of the body, but it is particularly dangerous when it affects the brain (causing a stroke) or the lungs (causing a pulmonary embolism). Embolisms can cause serious harm by preventing oxygen and nutrients from reaching the tissues and organs that need them. They are often the result of underlying medical conditions, such as heart disease or deep vein thrombosis, and may require immediate medical attention to prevent further complications.

Life tables are statistical tools used in actuarial science, demography, and public health to estimate the mortality rate and survival rates of a population. They provide a data-driven representation of the probability that individuals of a certain age will die before their next birthday (the death rate) or live to a particular age (the survival rate).

Life tables are constructed using data on the number of deaths and the size of the population in specific age groups over a given period. These tables typically include several columns representing different variables, such as:

1. Age group or interval: The age range for which the data is being presented (e.g., 0-1 year, 1-5 years, 5-10 years, etc.).
2. Number of people in the population: The size of the population within each age group.
3. Number of deaths: The number of individuals who died during the study period within each age group.
4. Death rate: The probability that an individual in a given age group will die before their next birthday. It is calculated as the number of deaths divided by the size of the population for that age group.
5. Survival rate: The probability that an individual in a given age group will survive to a specific age or older. It is calculated using the death rates from earlier age groups.
6. Life expectancy: The average number of years a person is expected to live, based on their current age and mortality rates for each subsequent age group.

Life tables are essential in various fields, including insurance, pension planning, social security administration, and healthcare policy development. They help researchers and policymakers understand the health status and demographic trends of populations, allowing them to make informed decisions about resource allocation, program development, and public health interventions.

Compartment syndromes refer to a group of conditions characterized by increased pressure within a confined anatomical space (compartment), leading to impaired circulation and nerve function. These compartments are composed of bones, muscles, tendons, blood vessels, and nerves, surrounded by a tough fibrous fascial covering that does not expand easily.

There are two main types of compartment syndromes: acute and chronic.

1. Acute Compartment Syndrome (ACS): This is a medical emergency that typically occurs after trauma, fractures, or prolonged compression of the affected limb. The increased pressure within the compartment reduces blood flow to the muscles and nerves, causing ischemia, pain, and potential muscle and nerve damage if not promptly treated with fasciotomy (surgical release of the fascial covering). Symptoms include severe pain disproportionate to the injury, pallor, paresthesia (abnormal sensation), pulselessness, and paralysis.
2. Chronic Compartment Syndrome (CCS) or Exertional Compartment Syndrome: This condition is caused by repetitive physical activities that lead to increased compartment pressure over time. The symptoms are usually reversible with rest and may include aching, cramping, tightness, or swelling in the affected limb during exercise. CCS rarely leads to permanent muscle or nerve damage if managed appropriately with activity modification, physical therapy, and occasionally surgical intervention (fasciotomy or fasciectomy).

Early recognition and appropriate management of compartment syndromes are crucial for preventing long-term complications such as muscle necrosis, contractures, and nerve damage.

The Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) is a widely used clinical measurement for assessing the outcome and recovery of patients who have suffered a traumatic brain injury (TBI) or other neurological disorders. It was first introduced in 1975 by Graham Jennett and colleagues at the University of Glasgow.

The GOS classifies the overall functional ability and independence of a patient into one of the following five hierarchical categories:

1. **Death:** The patient has died due to the injury or its complications.
2. **Vegetative State (VS):** The patient is unaware of their surroundings, shows no meaningful response to stimuli, and has minimal or absent brainstem reflexes. They may have sleep-wake cycles but lack higher cognitive functions.
3. **Severe Disability (SD):** The patient demonstrates considerable disability in their daily life, requiring assistance with personal care and activities. They might have cognitive impairments, communication difficulties, or physical disabilities that limit their independence.
4. **Moderate Disability (MD):** The patient has some disability but can live independently, manage their own affairs, and return to work in a sheltered environment. They may exhibit minor neurological or psychological deficits.
5. **Good Recovery (GR):** The patient has resumed normal life with minimal or no residual neurological or psychological deficits. They might have some minor problems with memory, concentration, or organizational skills but can perform their daily activities without assistance.

The Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended (GOS-E) is an updated and more detailed version of the GOS, which further breaks down the original five categories into eight subcategories for a more nuanced assessment of patient outcomes.

Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC) is a complex medical condition characterized by the abnormal activation of the coagulation cascade, leading to the formation of blood clots in small blood vessels throughout the body. This process can result in the consumption of clotting factors and platelets, which can then lead to bleeding complications. DIC can be caused by a variety of underlying conditions, including sepsis, trauma, cancer, and obstetric emergencies.

The term "disseminated" refers to the widespread nature of the clotting activation, while "intravascular" indicates that the clotting is occurring within the blood vessels. The condition can manifest as both bleeding and clotting complications, which can make it challenging to diagnose and manage.

The diagnosis of DIC typically involves laboratory tests that evaluate coagulation factors, platelet count, fibrin degradation products, and other markers of coagulation activation. Treatment is focused on addressing the underlying cause of the condition while also managing any bleeding or clotting complications that may arise.

Blood pressure is the force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of the blood vessels. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and is given as two figures:

1. Systolic pressure: This is the pressure when the heart pushes blood out into the arteries.
2. Diastolic pressure: This is the pressure when the heart rests between beats, allowing it to fill with blood.

Normal blood pressure for adults is typically around 120/80 mmHg, although this can vary slightly depending on age, sex, and other factors. High blood pressure (hypertension) is generally considered to be a reading of 130/80 mmHg or higher, while low blood pressure (hypotension) is usually defined as a reading below 90/60 mmHg. It's important to note that blood pressure can fluctuate throughout the day and may be affected by factors such as stress, physical activity, and medication use.

Observer variation, also known as inter-observer variability or measurement agreement, refers to the difference in observations or measurements made by different observers or raters when evaluating the same subject or phenomenon. It is a common issue in various fields such as medicine, research, and quality control, where subjective assessments are involved.

In medical terms, observer variation can occur in various contexts, including:

1. Diagnostic tests: Different radiologists may interpret the same X-ray or MRI scan differently, leading to variations in diagnosis.
2. Clinical trials: Different researchers may have different interpretations of clinical outcomes or adverse events, affecting the consistency and reliability of trial results.
3. Medical records: Different healthcare providers may document medical histories, physical examinations, or treatment plans differently, leading to inconsistencies in patient care.
4. Pathology: Different pathologists may have varying interpretations of tissue samples or laboratory tests, affecting diagnostic accuracy.

Observer variation can be minimized through various methods, such as standardized assessment tools, training and calibration of observers, and statistical analysis of inter-rater reliability.

Intracranial thrombosis refers to the formation of a blood clot (thrombus) within the intracranial vessels, which supply blood to the brain. This condition can occur in any of the cerebral arteries or veins and can lead to serious complications such as ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), or venous sinus thrombosis.

The formation of an intracranial thrombus can be caused by various factors, including atherosclerosis, cardiac embolism, vasculitis, sickle cell disease, hypercoagulable states, and head trauma. Symptoms may vary depending on the location and extent of the thrombosis but often include sudden onset of headache, weakness or numbness in the face or limbs, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, vision changes, and loss of balance or coordination.

Diagnosis of intracranial thrombosis typically involves imaging studies such as computed tomography (CT) angiography, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), or digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Treatment options may include anticoagulation therapy, thrombolysis, endovascular intervention, or surgical intervention, depending on the underlying cause and severity of the condition.

Intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are abnormal, tangled connections between the arteries and veins in the brain. These connections bypass the capillary system, which can lead to high-flow shunting and potential complications such as hemorrhage, stroke, or neurological deficits. AVMs are congenital conditions, meaning they are present at birth, although symptoms may not appear until later in life. They are relatively rare, affecting approximately 0.1% of the population. Treatment options for AVMs include surgery, radiation therapy, and endovascular embolization, depending on the size, location, and specific characteristics of the malformation.

Infarction is the term used in medicine to describe the death of tissue (also known as an "area of necrosis") due to the lack of blood supply. This can occur when a blood vessel that supplies oxygen and nutrients to a particular area of the body becomes blocked or obstructed, leading to the deprivation of oxygen and nutrients necessary for the survival of cells in that region.

The blockage in the blood vessel is usually caused by a clot (thrombus) or an embolus, which is a small particle that travels through the bloodstream and lodges in a smaller vessel. The severity and extent of infarction depend on several factors, including the size and location of the affected blood vessel, the duration of the obstruction, and the presence of collateral circulation (alternative blood vessels that can compensate for the blocked one).

Common examples of infarctions include myocardial infarction (heart attack), cerebral infarction (stroke), and pulmonary infarction (lung tissue death due to obstruction in the lung's blood vessels). Infarctions can lead to various symptoms, depending on the affected organ or tissue, and may require medical intervention to manage complications and prevent further damage.

Aminopropionitrile is a chemical compound with the formula NPN(H2)CH2CH2CN. It is an irritant that can cause damage to the eyes, skin, and respiratory system. It is used in the manufacture of certain plastics and resins, and has also been studied for its potential effects on the human body. Some research suggests that aminopropionitrile may interfere with the normal functioning of collagen, a protein that helps to provide structure and support to tissues and organs in the body. This has led to interest in the use of aminopropionitrile as a potential treatment for certain conditions related to collagen, such as scleroderma. However, more research is needed to determine the safety and effectiveness of this use.

A bronchial fistula is an abnormal connection or passage between the bronchial tree (the airways in the lungs) and the surrounding tissues, such as the pleural space (the space between the lungs and the chest wall), blood vessels, or other organs. This condition can result from various causes, including lung injury, infection, surgery, or certain diseases such as cancer or tuberculosis.

Bronchial fistulas can lead to symptoms like coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and chest pain. They may also cause air leaks, pneumothorax (collapsed lung), or chronic infections. Treatment for bronchial fistulas depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition but often involves surgical repair or closure of the abnormal connection.

The pelvis is the lower part of the trunk, located between the abdomen and the lower limbs. It is formed by the fusion of several bones: the ilium, ischium, and pubis (which together form the hip bone on each side), and the sacrum and coccyx in the back. The pelvis has several functions including supporting the weight of the upper body when sitting, protecting the lower abdominal organs, and providing attachment for muscles that enable movement of the lower limbs. In addition, it serves as a bony canal through which the reproductive and digestive tracts pass. The pelvic cavity contains several vital organs such as the bladder, parts of the large intestine, and in females, the uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes.

Duodenal obstruction is a medical condition characterized by the blockage or impediment of the normal flow of contents through the duodenum, which is the first part of the small intestine. This blockage can be partial or complete and can be caused by various factors such as:

1. Congenital abnormalities: Duodenal atresia or stenosis, where there is a congenital absence or narrowing of a portion of the duodenum.
2. Inflammatory conditions: Duodenitis, Crohn's disease, or tumors that cause swelling and inflammation in the duodenum.
3. Mechanical obstructions: Gallstones, tumors, strictures, or adhesions (scar tissue) from previous surgeries can physically block the duodenum.
4. Neuromuscular disorders: Conditions like progressive systemic sclerosis or amyloidosis that affect the neuromuscular function of the intestines can lead to duodenal obstruction.

Symptoms of duodenal obstruction may include nausea, vomiting (often with bilious or fecal matter), abdominal pain, distention, and decreased bowel movements. Diagnosis typically involves imaging studies such as X-rays, CT scans, or upper gastrointestinal series to visualize the blockage. Treatment depends on the underlying cause but may involve surgery, endoscopic procedures, or medications to manage symptoms and address the obstruction.

Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is a systematic process used to compare the costs and benefits of different options to determine which one provides the greatest net benefit. In a medical context, CBA can be used to evaluate the value of medical interventions, treatments, or policies by estimating and monetizing all the relevant costs and benefits associated with each option.

The costs included in a CBA may include direct costs such as the cost of the intervention or treatment itself, as well as indirect costs such as lost productivity or time away from work. Benefits may include improved health outcomes, reduced morbidity or mortality, and increased quality of life.

Once all the relevant costs and benefits have been identified and quantified, they are typically expressed in monetary terms to allow for a direct comparison. The option with the highest net benefit (i.e., the difference between total benefits and total costs) is considered the most cost-effective.

It's important to note that CBA has some limitations and can be subject to various biases and assumptions, so it should be used in conjunction with other evaluation methods to ensure a comprehensive understanding of the value of medical interventions or policies.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

Surgical hemostasis refers to the methods and techniques used during surgical procedures to stop bleeding or prevent hemorrhage. This can be achieved through various means, including the use of surgical instruments such as clamps, ligatures, or staples to physically compress blood vessels and stop the flow of blood. Electrosurgical tools like cautery may also be used to coagulate and seal off bleeding vessels using heat. Additionally, topical hemostatic agents can be applied to promote clotting and control bleeding in wounded tissues. Effective surgical hemostasis is crucial for ensuring a successful surgical outcome and minimizing the risk of complications such as excessive blood loss, infection, or delayed healing.

The inferior vena cava (IVC) is the largest vein in the human body that carries deoxygenated blood from the lower extremities, pelvis, and abdomen to the right atrium of the heart. It is formed by the union of the left and right common iliac veins at the level of the fifth lumbar vertebra. The inferior vena cava is a retroperitoneal structure, meaning it lies behind the peritoneum, the lining that covers the abdominal cavity. It ascends through the posterior abdominal wall and passes through the central tendon of the diaphragm to enter the thoracic cavity.

The inferior vena cava is composed of three parts:

1. The infrarenal portion, which lies below the renal veins
2. The renal portion, which receives blood from the renal veins
3. The suprahepatic portion, which lies above the liver and receives blood from the hepatic veins before draining into the right atrium of the heart.

The inferior vena cava plays a crucial role in maintaining venous return to the heart and contributing to cardiovascular function.

Cineradiography is a medical imaging technique that combines fluoroscopy and cinematography to record moving images of the internal structures of a patient's body. It uses a special X-ray machine with a high-speed image intensifier and a movie camera or video recorder to capture real-time, dynamic visualizations of bodily functions such as swallowing, digestion, or muscle movements.

During cineradiography, a continuous X-ray beam is passed through the patient's body while the image intensifier converts the X-rays into visible light, which is then captured by the camera or video recorder. The resulting film or digital recordings can be played back in slow motion or frame by frame to analyze the movement and function of internal organs and structures.

Cineradiography has largely been replaced by newer imaging technologies such as CT and MRI, which offer higher resolution and more detailed images without the use of radiation. However, it is still used in some specialized applications where real-time, dynamic visualization is essential for diagnosis or treatment planning.

Inflammation is a complex biological response of tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. It is characterized by the following signs: rubor (redness), tumor (swelling), calor (heat), dolor (pain), and functio laesa (loss of function). The process involves the activation of the immune system, recruitment of white blood cells, and release of inflammatory mediators, which contribute to the elimination of the injurious stimuli and initiation of the healing process. However, uncontrolled or chronic inflammation can also lead to tissue damage and diseases.

The renal veins are a pair of large veins that carry oxygen-depleted blood and waste products from the kidneys to the inferior vena cava, which is the largest vein in the body that returns blood to the heart. The renal veins are formed by the union of several smaller veins that drain blood from different parts of the kidney.

In humans, the right renal vein is shorter and passes directly into the inferior vena cava, while the left renal vein is longer and passes in front of the aorta before entering the inferior vena cava. The left renal vein also receives blood from the gonadal (testicular or ovarian) veins, suprarenal (adrenal) veins, and the lumbar veins.

It is important to note that the renal veins are vulnerable to compression by surrounding structures, such as the overlying artery or a tumor, which can lead to renal vein thrombosis, a serious condition that requires prompt medical attention.

Hemoptysis is the medical term for coughing up blood that originates from the lungs or lower respiratory tract. It can range in severity from streaks of blood mixed with mucus to large amounts of pure blood. Hemoptysis may be a sign of various underlying conditions, such as bronchitis, pneumonia, tuberculosis, cancer, or blood disorders. Immediate medical attention is required when hemoptysis occurs, especially if it's in significant quantities, to determine the cause and provide appropriate treatment.

Arteries are blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the rest of the body. They have thick, muscular walls that can withstand the high pressure of blood being pumped out of the heart. Arteries branch off into smaller vessels called arterioles, which further divide into a vast network of tiny capillaries where the exchange of oxygen, nutrients, and waste occurs between the blood and the body's cells. After passing through the capillary network, deoxygenated blood collects in venules, then merges into veins, which return the blood back to the heart.

Desmosine is a unique amino acid that is not found in proteins, but instead is formed through the cross-linking of lysine residues in collagen and elastin fibers. These fibers are important components of the extracellular matrix, providing strength and elasticity to tissues such as skin, lungs, and blood vessels.

Desmosine is formed through a series of chemical reactions involving the oxidation of lysine residues and their subsequent condensation with other amino acids. This process creates cross-links between collagen and elastin fibers, which helps to stabilize their structure and enhance their mechanical properties.

Abnormalities in desmosine levels have been associated with various diseases, including emphysema, Marfan syndrome, and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Measuring desmosine levels in urine or tissue samples can provide valuable insights into the health of collagen and elastin fibers and help diagnose and monitor these conditions.

Biomedical engineering is a field that combines engineering principles and design concepts with medical and biological sciences to develop solutions to healthcare challenges. It involves the application of engineering methods to analyze, understand, and solve problems in biology and medicine, with the goal of improving human health and well-being. Biomedical engineers may work on a wide range of projects, including developing new medical devices, designing artificial organs, creating diagnostic tools, simulating biological systems, and optimizing healthcare delivery systems. They often collaborate with other professionals such as doctors, nurses, and scientists to develop innovative solutions that meet the needs of patients and healthcare providers.

A smooth muscle within the vascular system refers to the involuntary, innervated muscle that is found in the walls of blood vessels. These muscles are responsible for controlling the diameter of the blood vessels, which in turn regulates blood flow and blood pressure. They are called "smooth" muscles because their individual muscle cells do not have the striations, or cross-striped patterns, that are observed in skeletal and cardiac muscle cells. Smooth muscle in the vascular system is controlled by the autonomic nervous system and by hormones, and can contract or relax slowly over a period of time.

Prevalence, in medical terms, refers to the total number of people in a given population who have a particular disease or condition at a specific point in time, or over a specified period. It is typically expressed as a percentage or a ratio of the number of cases to the size of the population. Prevalence differs from incidence, which measures the number of new cases that develop during a certain period.

A seroma is an accumulation of sterile clear fluid, specifically serous fluid, that forms in a closed surgical space or dead space within the body after trauma, injury, or surgery. It is a common post-surgical complication and can occur following various types of surgeries, including but not limited to breast augmentation, mastectomy, lumpectomy, gynecologic procedures, and orthopedic surgeries.

Seromas form due to the disruption of lymphatic vessels during surgery, which results in the leakage of fluid into the surgical site. The body's natural response is to produce more fluid to fill the space, leading to the formation of a seroma. In some cases, seromas may resolve independently as the body reabsorbs the fluid over time. However, larger or persistent seromas might require medical intervention, such as aspiration (drainage) with a needle or surgical drain placement to facilitate healing and prevent complications like infection or delayed recovery.

Computer-assisted image processing is a medical term that refers to the use of computer systems and specialized software to improve, analyze, and interpret medical images obtained through various imaging techniques such as X-ray, CT (computed tomography), MRI (magnetic resonance imaging), ultrasound, and others.

The process typically involves several steps, including image acquisition, enhancement, segmentation, restoration, and analysis. Image processing algorithms can be used to enhance the quality of medical images by adjusting contrast, brightness, and sharpness, as well as removing noise and artifacts that may interfere with accurate diagnosis. Segmentation techniques can be used to isolate specific regions or structures of interest within an image, allowing for more detailed analysis.

Computer-assisted image processing has numerous applications in medical imaging, including detection and characterization of lesions, tumors, and other abnormalities; assessment of organ function and morphology; and guidance of interventional procedures such as biopsies and surgeries. By automating and standardizing image analysis tasks, computer-assisted image processing can help to improve diagnostic accuracy, efficiency, and consistency, while reducing the potential for human error.

Pulsatile flow is a type of fluid flow that occurs in a rhythmic, wave-like pattern, typically seen in the cardiovascular system. It refers to the periodic variation in the volume or velocity of a fluid (such as blood) that is caused by the regular beating of the heart. In pulsatile flow, there are periods of high flow followed by periods of low or no flow, which creates a distinct pattern on a graph or tracing. This type of flow is important for maintaining proper function and health in organs and tissues throughout the body.

Tensile strength is a material property that measures the maximum amount of tensile (pulling) stress that a material can withstand before failure, such as breaking or fracturing. It is usually measured in units of force per unit area, such as pounds per square inch (psi) or pascals (Pa). In the context of medical devices or biomaterials, tensile strength may be used to describe the mechanical properties of materials used in implants, surgical tools, or other medical equipment. High tensile strength is often desirable in these applications to ensure that the material can withstand the stresses and forces it will encounter during use.

A "knockout" mouse is a genetically engineered mouse in which one or more genes have been deleted or "knocked out" using molecular biology techniques. This allows researchers to study the function of specific genes and their role in various biological processes, as well as potential associations with human diseases. The mice are generated by introducing targeted DNA modifications into embryonic stem cells, which are then used to create a live animal. Knockout mice have been widely used in biomedical research to investigate gene function, disease mechanisms, and potential therapeutic targets.

A cerebral hemorrhage, also known as an intracranial hemorrhage or intracerebral hemorrhage, is a type of stroke that results from bleeding within the brain tissue. It occurs when a weakened blood vessel bursts and causes localized bleeding in the brain. This bleeding can increase pressure in the skull, damage nearby brain cells, and release toxic substances that further harm brain tissues.

Cerebral hemorrhages are often caused by chronic conditions like hypertension (high blood pressure) or cerebral amyloid angiopathy, which weakens the walls of blood vessels over time. Other potential causes include trauma, aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, illicit drug use, and brain tumors. Symptoms may include sudden headache, weakness, numbness, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, vision problems, loss of balance, and altered level of consciousness. Immediate medical attention is required to diagnose and manage cerebral hemorrhage through imaging techniques, supportive care, and possible surgical interventions.

Multiple Organ Failure (MOF) is a severe condition characterized by the dysfunction or failure of more than one organ system in the body. It often occurs as a result of serious illness, trauma, or infection, such as sepsis. The organs that commonly fail include the lungs, kidneys, liver, and heart. This condition can lead to significant morbidity and mortality if not promptly diagnosed and treated.

The definition of MOF has evolved over time, but a widely accepted one is the "Sequential Organ Failure Assessment" (SOFA) score, which evaluates six organ systems: respiratory, coagulation, liver, cardiovascular, renal, and neurologic. A SOFA score of 10 or more indicates MOF, and a higher score is associated with worse outcomes.

MOF can be classified as primary or secondary. Primary MOF occurs when the initial insult directly causes organ dysfunction, such as in severe trauma or septic shock. Secondary MOF occurs when the initial injury or illness has been controlled, but organ dysfunction develops later due to ongoing inflammation and other factors.

Early recognition and aggressive management of MOF are crucial for improving outcomes. Treatment typically involves supportive care, such as mechanical ventilation, dialysis, and medication to support cardiovascular function. In some cases, surgery or other interventions may be necessary to address the underlying cause of organ dysfunction.

Ultrasonography, Doppler, color is a type of diagnostic ultrasound technique that uses the Doppler effect to produce visual images of blood flow in vessels and the heart. The Doppler effect is the change in frequency or wavelength of a wave in relation to an observer who is moving relative to the source of the wave. In this context, it refers to the change in frequency of the ultrasound waves as they reflect off moving red blood cells.

In color Doppler ultrasonography, different colors are used to represent the direction and speed of blood flow. Red typically represents blood flowing toward the transducer (the device that sends and receives sound waves), while blue represents blood flowing away from the transducer. The intensity or brightness of the color is proportional to the velocity of blood flow.

Color Doppler ultrasonography is often used in conjunction with grayscale ultrasound imaging, which provides information about the structure and composition of tissues. Together, these techniques can help diagnose a wide range of conditions, including heart disease, blood clots, and abnormalities in blood flow.

A sternotomy is a surgical procedure that involves making an incision through the sternum, also known as the breastbone. This type of incision allows surgeons to access the thoracic cavity, which contains the heart and lungs. Sternotomies are often performed during open-heart surgery or other procedures that require access to the heart or major blood vessels. After the procedure, the sternum is typically wired or stapled back together to allow for proper healing.

Postoperative care refers to the comprehensive medical treatment and nursing attention provided to a patient following a surgical procedure. The goal of postoperative care is to facilitate the patient's recovery, prevent complications, manage pain, ensure proper healing of the incision site, and maintain overall health and well-being until the patient can resume their normal activities.

This type of care includes monitoring vital signs, managing pain through medication or other techniques, ensuring adequate hydration and nutrition, helping the patient with breathing exercises to prevent lung complications, encouraging mobility to prevent blood clots, monitoring for signs of infection or other complications, administering prescribed medications, providing wound care, and educating the patient about postoperative care instructions.

The duration of postoperative care can vary depending on the type and complexity of the surgical procedure, as well as the individual patient's needs and overall health status. It may be provided in a hospital setting, an outpatient surgery center, or in the patient's home, depending on the level of care required.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

The term "lower extremity" is used in the medical field to refer to the portion of the human body that includes the structures below the hip joint. This includes the thigh, lower leg, ankle, and foot. The lower extremities are responsible for weight-bearing and locomotion, allowing individuals to stand, walk, run, and jump. They contain many important structures such as bones, muscles, tendons, ligaments, nerves, and blood vessels.

Morbidity, in medical terms, refers to the state or condition of being diseased or unhealthy. It is used to describe the incidence or prevalence of a particular disease or health condition within a population, or the presence of multiple diseases or health conditions in an individual. Morbidity can also refer to the complications or symptoms associated with a disease or injury. In clinical settings, morbidity may be used to assess a patient's overall health status and their response to treatment.

Entomophthorales is a order of fungi that are known for their ability to infect and kill insects and other small arthropods. The name "Entomophthorales" comes from the Greek words "entomon," meaning insect, and "phthora," meaning destruction.

The fungi in this order typically infect their hosts by producing structures called appressoria, which help the fungus penetrate the host's cuticle. Once inside the host, the fungus grows and multiplies, eventually killing the host and releasing spores that can infect other insects or arthropods.

Entomophthorales includes several families of fungi, including Entomophthoraceae, Ancylistaceae, and Completoriaceae. Some species in this order are being studied for their potential as biological control agents for pest insects. However, it is important to note that some species in this order can also infect humans, although such infections are rare and usually only occur in people with weakened immune systems.

Prognosis is a medical term that refers to the prediction of the likely outcome or course of a disease, including the chances of recovery or recurrence, based on the patient's symptoms, medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests. It is an important aspect of clinical decision-making and patient communication, as it helps doctors and patients make informed decisions about treatment options, set realistic expectations, and plan for future care.

Prognosis can be expressed in various ways, such as percentages, categories (e.g., good, fair, poor), or survival rates, depending on the nature of the disease and the available evidence. However, it is important to note that prognosis is not an exact science and may vary depending on individual factors, such as age, overall health status, and response to treatment. Therefore, it should be used as a guide rather than a definitive forecast.

Matrix metalloproteinase inhibitors (MMPIs) are a class of pharmaceutical compounds that work by inhibiting the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which are a family of enzymes involved in the breakdown and remodeling of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. MMPs play important roles in various physiological processes, including tissue repair, wound healing, and angiogenesis, but they can also contribute to the pathogenesis of several diseases, such as cancer, arthritis, and cardiovascular disease.

MMPIs are designed to block the activity of MMPs by binding to their active site or zinc-binding domain, thereby preventing them from degrading ECM proteins. These inhibitors can be broad-spectrum, targeting multiple MMPs, or selective, targeting specific MMP isoforms.

MMPIs have been studied as potential therapeutic agents for various diseases, including cancer, where they have shown promise in reducing tumor growth, invasion, and metastasis by inhibiting the activity of MMPs that promote these processes. However, clinical trials with MMPIs have yielded mixed results, and some studies have suggested that broad-spectrum MMPIs may have off-target effects that can lead to adverse side effects. Therefore, there is ongoing research into developing more selective MMPIs that target specific MMP isoforms involved in disease pathogenesis while minimizing off-target effects.

Cardiac surgical procedures are operations that are performed on the heart or great vessels (the aorta and vena cava) by cardiothoracic surgeons. These surgeries are often complex and require a high level of skill and expertise. Some common reasons for cardiac surgical procedures include:

1. Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG): This is a surgery to improve blood flow to the heart in patients with coronary artery disease. During the procedure, a healthy blood vessel from another part of the body is used to create a detour around the blocked or narrowed portion of the coronary artery.
2. Valve repair or replacement: The heart has four valves that control blood flow through and out of the heart. If one or more of these valves become damaged or diseased, they may need to be repaired or replaced. This can be done using artificial valves or valves from animal or human donors.
3. Aneurysm repair: An aneurysm is a weakened area in the wall of an artery that can bulge out and potentially rupture. If an aneurysm occurs in the aorta, it may require surgical repair to prevent rupture.
4. Heart transplantation: In some cases, heart failure may be so severe that a heart transplant is necessary. This involves removing the diseased heart and replacing it with a healthy donor heart.
5. Arrhythmia surgery: Certain types of abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias) may require surgical treatment. One such procedure is called the Maze procedure, which involves creating a pattern of scar tissue in the heart to disrupt the abnormal electrical signals that cause the arrhythmia.
6. Congenital heart defect repair: Some people are born with structural problems in their hearts that require surgical correction. These may include holes between the chambers of the heart or abnormal blood vessels.

Cardiac surgical procedures carry risks, including bleeding, infection, stroke, and death. However, for many patients, these surgeries can significantly improve their quality of life and longevity.

Hemodynamics is the study of how blood flows through the cardiovascular system, including the heart and the vascular network. It examines various factors that affect blood flow, such as blood volume, viscosity, vessel length and diameter, and pressure differences between different parts of the circulatory system. Hemodynamics also considers the impact of various physiological and pathological conditions on these variables, and how they in turn influence the function of vital organs and systems in the body. It is a critical area of study in fields such as cardiology, anesthesiology, and critical care medicine.

Atherosclerosis is a medical condition characterized by the buildup of plaques, made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances found in the blood, on the inner walls of the arteries. This process gradually narrows and hardens the arteries, reducing the flow of oxygen-rich blood to various parts of the body. Atherosclerosis can affect any artery in the body, including those that supply blood to the heart (coronary arteries), brain, limbs, and other organs. The progressive narrowing and hardening of the arteries can lead to serious complications such as coronary artery disease, carotid artery disease, peripheral artery disease, and aneurysms, which can result in heart attacks, strokes, or even death if left untreated.

The exact cause of atherosclerosis is not fully understood, but it is believed to be associated with several risk factors, including high blood pressure, high cholesterol levels, smoking, diabetes, obesity, physical inactivity, and a family history of the condition. Atherosclerosis can often progress without any symptoms for many years, but as the disease advances, it can lead to various signs and symptoms depending on which arteries are affected. Treatment typically involves lifestyle changes, medications, and, in some cases, surgical procedures to restore blood flow.

In the context of medicine and healthcare, 'probability' does not have a specific medical definition. However, in general terms, probability is a branch of mathematics that deals with the study of numerical quantities called probabilities, which are assigned to events or sets of events. Probability is a measure of the likelihood that an event will occur. It is usually expressed as a number between 0 and 1, where 0 indicates that the event is impossible and 1 indicates that the event is certain to occur.

In medical research and statistics, probability is often used to quantify the uncertainty associated with statistical estimates or hypotheses. For example, a p-value is a probability that measures the strength of evidence against a hypothesis. A small p-value (typically less than 0.05) suggests that the observed data are unlikely under the assumption of the null hypothesis, and therefore provides evidence in favor of an alternative hypothesis.

Probability theory is also used to model complex systems and processes in medicine, such as disease transmission dynamics or the effectiveness of medical interventions. By quantifying the uncertainty associated with these models, researchers can make more informed decisions about healthcare policies and practices.

The "cause of death" is a medical determination of the disease, injury, or event that directly results in a person's death. This information is typically documented on a death certificate and may be used for public health surveillance, research, and legal purposes. The cause of death is usually determined by a physician based on their clinical judgment and any available medical evidence, such as laboratory test results, autopsy findings, or eyewitness accounts. In some cases, the cause of death may be uncertain or unknown, and the death may be classified as "natural," "accidental," "homicide," or "suicide" based on the available information.

A hernia is a protrusion of an organ or tissue through a weakened area in the abdominal wall, often appearing as a bulge beneath the skin. This condition can occur in various parts of the body such as the groin (inguinal hernia), navel (umbilical hernia), or site of a previous surgical incision (incisional hernia). Hernias may cause discomfort or pain, especially when straining, lifting heavy objects, or during bowel movements. In some cases, they may lead to serious complications like intestinal obstruction or strangulation, requiring immediate medical attention.

Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) is a non-invasive medical imaging technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to create detailed images of the blood vessels or arteries within the body. It is a type of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) that focuses specifically on the circulatory system.

MRA can be used to diagnose and evaluate various conditions related to the blood vessels, such as aneurysms, stenosis (narrowing of the vessel), or the presence of plaques or tumors. It can also be used to plan for surgeries or other treatments related to the vascular system. The procedure does not use radiation and is generally considered safe, although people with certain implants like pacemakers may not be able to have an MRA due to safety concerns.

Tissue adhesives, also known as surgical glues or tissue sealants, are medical devices used to approximate and hold together tissues or wounds in place of traditional sutures or staples. They work by creating a bond between the tissue surfaces, helping to promote healing and reduce the risk of infection. Tissue adhesives can be synthetic or biologically derived and are often used in various surgical procedures, including ophthalmic, dermatological, and pediatric surgeries. Some common types of tissue adhesives include cyanoacrylate-based glues, fibrin sealants, and collagen-based sealants.

The sternum, also known as the breastbone, is a long, flat bone located in the central part of the chest. It serves as the attachment point for several muscles and tendons, including those involved in breathing. The sternum has three main parts: the manubrium at the top, the body in the middle, and the xiphoid process at the bottom. The upper seven pairs of ribs connect to the sternum via costal cartilages.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Enbucrilate" is not a medical term or a medication that I am aware of. It's possible that there might be some misunderstanding or misspelling in the term. If you have more context or information about where this term came from, I may be able to provide a more accurate and helpful response.

However, if you are referring to "bucrilate" which is a type of polymer used in some medical applications such as wound dressings, then it is a substance that can absorb large amounts of water and create a gel-like barrier between the wound and the outside environment, helping to keep the wound moist and promote healing.

If you have any further questions or concerns, please don't hesitate to ask.

Radiographic image enhancement refers to the process of improving the quality and clarity of radiographic images, such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI images, through various digital techniques. These techniques may include adjusting contrast, brightness, and sharpness, as well as removing noise and artifacts that can interfere with image interpretation.

The goal of radiographic image enhancement is to provide medical professionals with clearer and more detailed images, which can help in the diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions. This process may be performed using specialized software or hardware tools, and it requires a strong understanding of imaging techniques and the specific needs of medical professionals.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

'Chlamydophila pneumoniae' is a type of bacteria that can cause respiratory infections in humans. It is the causative agent of a form of pneumonia known as "atypical pneumonia," which is characterized by milder symptoms and a slower onset than other types of pneumonia.

The bacteria are transmitted through respiratory droplets, such as those produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes. 'Chlamydophila pneumoniae' infections can occur throughout the year, but they are more common in the fall and winter months.

Symptoms of a 'Chlamydophila pneumoniae' infection may include cough, chest pain, fever, fatigue, and difficulty breathing. The infection can also cause other respiratory symptoms, such as sore throat, headache, and muscle aches. In some cases, the infection may spread to other parts of the body, causing complications such as ear infections or inflammation of the heart or brain.

Diagnosis of 'Chlamydophila pneumoniae' infection typically involves testing a sample of respiratory secretions, such as sputum or nasal swabs, for the presence of the bacteria. Treatment usually involves antibiotics, such as azithromycin or doxycycline, which are effective against 'Chlamydophila pneumoniae'.

It's important to note that while 'Chlamydophila pneumoniae' infections can cause serious respiratory illness, they are generally not as severe as other types of bacterial pneumonia. However, if left untreated, the infection can lead to complications and worsening symptoms.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Netherlands" is not a medical term. It is a country located in Western Europe, known for its artistic heritage, elaborate canal system, and legalized marijuana and prostitution. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

Biomechanics is the application of mechanical laws to living structures and systems, particularly in the field of medicine and healthcare. A biomechanical phenomenon refers to a observable event or occurrence that involves the interaction of biological tissues or systems with mechanical forces. These phenomena can be studied at various levels, from the molecular and cellular level to the tissue, organ, and whole-body level.

Examples of biomechanical phenomena include:

1. The way that bones and muscles work together to produce movement (known as joint kinematics).
2. The mechanical behavior of biological tissues such as bone, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments under various loads and stresses.
3. The response of cells and tissues to mechanical stimuli, such as the way that bone tissue adapts to changes in loading conditions (known as Wolff's law).
4. The biomechanics of injury and disease processes, such as the mechanisms of joint injury or the development of osteoarthritis.
5. The use of mechanical devices and interventions to treat medical conditions, such as orthopedic implants or assistive devices for mobility impairments.

Understanding biomechanical phenomena is essential for developing effective treatments and prevention strategies for a wide range of medical conditions, from musculoskeletal injuries to neurological disorders.

The intraoperative period is the phase of surgical treatment that refers to the time during which the surgery is being performed. It begins when the anesthesia is administered and the patient is prepared for the operation, and it ends when the surgery is completed, the anesthesia is discontinued, and the patient is transferred to the recovery room or intensive care unit (ICU).

During the intraoperative period, the surgical team, including surgeons, anesthesiologists, nurses, and other healthcare professionals, work together to carry out the surgical procedure safely and effectively. The anesthesiologist monitors the patient's vital signs, such as heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, and body temperature, throughout the surgery to ensure that the patient remains stable and does not experience any complications.

The surgeon performs the operation, using various surgical techniques and instruments to achieve the desired outcome. The surgical team also takes measures to prevent infection, control bleeding, and manage pain during and after the surgery.

Overall, the intraoperative period is a critical phase of surgical treatment that requires close collaboration and communication among members of the healthcare team to ensure the best possible outcomes for the patient.

Induced heart arrest, also known as controlled cardiac arrest or planned cardiac arrest, is a deliberate medical intervention where cardiac activity is temporarily stopped through the use of medications or electrical disruption. This procedure is typically carried out during a surgical procedure, such as open-heart surgery, where the heart needs to be stilled to allow surgeons to work on it safely.

The most common method used to induce heart arrest is by administering a medication called potassium chloride, which stops the heart's electrical activity. Alternatively, an electrical shock may be delivered to the heart to achieve the same effect. Once the procedure is complete, the heart can be restarted using various resuscitation techniques, such as defibrillation or medication administration.

It's important to note that induced heart arrest is a carefully monitored and controlled medical procedure carried out by trained healthcare professionals in a hospital setting. It should not be confused with sudden cardiac arrest, which is an unexpected and often unpredictable event that occurs outside of a medical setting.

Ultrasonography, also known as sonography, is a diagnostic medical procedure that uses high-frequency sound waves (ultrasound) to produce dynamic images of organs, tissues, or blood flow inside the body. These images are captured in real-time and can be used to assess the size, shape, and structure of various internal structures, as well as detect any abnormalities such as tumors, cysts, or inflammation.

During an ultrasonography procedure, a small handheld device called a transducer is placed on the patient's skin, which emits and receives sound waves. The transducer sends high-frequency sound waves into the body, and these waves bounce back off internal structures and are recorded by the transducer. The recorded data is then processed and transformed into visual images that can be interpreted by a medical professional.

Ultrasonography is a non-invasive, painless, and safe procedure that does not use radiation like other imaging techniques such as CT scans or X-rays. It is commonly used to diagnose and monitor conditions in various parts of the body, including the abdomen, pelvis, heart, blood vessels, and musculoskeletal system.

Cardiovascular abnormalities refer to structural or functional anomalies in the heart or blood vessels. These abnormalities can be present at birth (congenital) or acquired later in life. They can affect the heart's chambers, valves, walls, or blood vessels, leading to various complications such as heart failure, stroke, or even death if left untreated.

Examples of congenital cardiovascular abnormalities include:

1. Septal defects - holes in the walls separating the heart's chambers (atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect)
2. Valvular stenosis or insufficiency - narrowing or leakage of the heart valves
3. Patent ductus arteriosus - a persistent opening between the aorta and pulmonary artery
4. Coarctation of the aorta - narrowing of the aorta
5. Tetralogy of Fallot - a combination of four heart defects, including ventricular septal defect, overriding aorta, pulmonary stenosis, and right ventricular hypertrophy

Examples of acquired cardiovascular abnormalities include:

1. Atherosclerosis - the buildup of plaque in the arteries, leading to narrowing or blockage
2. Cardiomyopathy - disease of the heart muscle, causing it to become enlarged, thickened, or stiffened
3. Hypertension - high blood pressure, which can damage the heart and blood vessels over time
4. Myocardial infarction (heart attack) - damage to the heart muscle due to blocked blood supply
5. Infective endocarditis - infection of the inner lining of the heart chambers and valves

These abnormalities can be diagnosed through various tests, such as echocardiography, electrocardiogram (ECG), stress testing, cardiac catheterization, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Treatment options depend on the type and severity of the abnormality and may include medications, medical procedures, or surgery.

Angioplasty, balloon refers to a medical procedure used to widen narrowed or obstructed blood vessels, particularly the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle. This procedure is typically performed using a catheter-based technique, where a thin, flexible tube called a catheter is inserted into an artery, usually through the groin or wrist, and guided to the site of the narrowing or obstruction in the coronary artery.

Once the catheter reaches the affected area, a small balloon attached to the tip of the catheter is inflated, which compresses the plaque against the artery wall and stretches the artery, thereby restoring blood flow. The balloon is then deflated and removed, along with the catheter.

Balloon angioplasty is often combined with the placement of a stent, a small metal mesh tube that helps to keep the artery open and prevent it from narrowing again. This procedure is known as percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or coronary angioplasty and stenting.

Overall, balloon angioplasty is a relatively safe and effective treatment for coronary artery disease, although complications such as bleeding, infection, or re-narrowing of the artery can occur in some cases.

Giant Cell Arteritis (GCA), also known as Temporal Arteritis, is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting large and medium-sized arteries, most commonly the temporal artery. It primarily occurs in people over 50 years old. The condition is characterized by the infiltration of the artery walls with immune cells, leading to inflammation, swelling, and damage. This can restrict blood flow, causing various symptoms.

The key feature of GCA is the presence of multinucleated giant cells, which are large collections of fused immune cells, in the affected artery walls. These cells are a hallmark of this condition when viewed under a microscope.

Common symptoms include new onset of severe headaches, scalp tenderness, jaw pain while chewing (called jaw claudication), vision problems, and systemic symptoms such as fever, fatigue, and weight loss. If left untreated, GCA can lead to serious complications like blindness or stroke. Treatment typically involves high-dose corticosteroids to reduce inflammation and prevent further damage.

The saphenous vein is a term used in anatomical description to refer to the great or small saphenous veins, which are superficial veins located in the lower extremities of the human body.

The great saphenous vein (GSV) is the longest vein in the body and originates from the medial aspect of the foot, ascending along the medial side of the leg and thigh, and drains into the femoral vein at the saphenofemoral junction, located in the upper third of the thigh.

The small saphenous vein (SSV) is a shorter vein that originates from the lateral aspect of the foot, ascends along the posterior calf, and drains into the popliteal vein at the saphenopopliteal junction, located in the popliteal fossa.

These veins are often used as conduits for coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery due to their consistent anatomy and length.

Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS) is a group of inherited disorders that affect connective tissues, which are the proteins and chemicals in the body that provide structure and support for skin, bones, blood vessels, and other organs. People with EDS have stretching (elastic) skin and joints that are too loose (hypermobile). There are several types of EDS, each with its own set of symptoms and level of severity. Some of the more common types include:

* Classical EDS: This type is characterized by skin that can be stretched far beyond normal and bruises easily. Affected individuals may also have joints that dislocate easily.
* Hypermobile EDS: This type is marked by joint hypermobility, which can lead to frequent dislocations and subluxations (partial dislocations). Some people with this type of EDS also have Marfan syndrome-like features, such as long fingers and a curved spine.
* Vascular EDS: This type is caused by changes in the COL3A1 gene and is characterized by thin, fragile skin that tears or bruises easily. People with vascular EDS are at risk of serious complications, such as arterial rupture and organ perforation.
* Kyphoscoliosis EDS: This type is marked by severe kyphoscoliosis (a forward curvature of the spine) and joint laxity. Affected individuals may also have fragile skin that tears or bruises easily.

EDS is typically inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, meaning that a person only needs to inherit one copy of the altered gene from either parent to develop the condition. However, some types of EDS are inherited in an autosomal recessive manner, which means that a person must inherit two copies of the altered gene (one from each parent) to develop the condition.

There is no cure for EDS, and treatment is focused on managing symptoms and preventing complications. This may include physical therapy to strengthen muscles and improve joint stability, bracing to support joints, and surgery to repair damaged tissues or organs.

Intraoperative monitoring (IOM) is the practice of using specialized techniques to monitor physiological functions or neural structures in real-time during surgical procedures. The primary goal of IOM is to provide continuous information about the patient's status and the effects of surgery on neurological function, allowing surgeons to make informed decisions and minimize potential risks.

IOM can involve various methods such as:

1. Electrophysiological monitoring: This includes techniques like somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP), motor evoked potentials (MEP), and electroencephalography (EEG) to assess the integrity of neural pathways and brain function during surgery.
2. Neuromonitoring: Direct electrical stimulation of nerves or spinal cord structures can help identify critical neuroanatomical structures, evaluate their functional status, and guide surgical interventions.
3. Hemodynamic monitoring: Measuring blood pressure, heart rate, cardiac output, and oxygen saturation helps assess the patient's overall physiological status during surgery.
4. Imaging modalities: Intraoperative imaging techniques like ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide real-time visualization of anatomical structures and surgical progress.

The specific IOM methods employed depend on the type of surgery, patient characteristics, and potential risks involved. Intraoperative monitoring is particularly crucial in procedures where there is a risk of neurological injury, such as spinal cord or brain surgeries, vascular interventions, or tumor resections near critical neural structures.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Linear Models" is actually a term from the field of statistics and machine learning, rather than medicine. A linear model is a type of statistical model that is used to analyze the relationship between two or more variables. In a linear model, the relationship between the dependent variable (the outcome or result) and the independent variable(s) (the factors being studied) is assumed to be linear, meaning that it can be described by a straight line on a graph.

The equation for a simple linear model with one independent variable (x) and one dependent variable (y) looks like this:

y = β0 + β1*x + ε

In this equation, β0 is the y-intercept or the value of y when x equals zero, β1 is the slope or the change in y for each unit increase in x, and ε is the error term or the difference between the actual values of y and the predicted values of y based on the linear model.

Linear models are widely used in medical research to study the relationship between various factors (such as exposure to a risk factor or treatment) and health outcomes (such as disease incidence or mortality). They can also be used to adjust for confounding variables, which are factors that may influence both the independent variable and the dependent variable, and thus affect the observed relationship between them.

The tunica media is the middle layer of the wall of a blood vessel or hollow organ in the body. It is primarily composed of smooth muscle cells and elastic fibers, which allow the vessel or organ to expand and contract. This layer helps regulate the diameter of the lumen (the inner space) of the vessel or organ, thereby controlling the flow of fluids such as blood or lymph through it. The tunica media plays a crucial role in maintaining proper organ function and blood pressure regulation.

Perioperative care is a multidisciplinary approach to the management of patients before, during, and after surgery with the goal of optimizing outcomes and minimizing complications. It encompasses various aspects such as preoperative evaluation and preparation, intraoperative monitoring and management, and postoperative recovery and rehabilitation. The perioperative period begins when a decision is made to pursue surgical intervention and ends when the patient has fully recovered from the procedure. This care is typically provided by a team of healthcare professionals including anesthesiologists, surgeons, nurses, physical therapists, and other specialists as needed.

Cross-sectional anatomy refers to the study and visualization of the internal structures of the body as if they were cut along a plane, creating a two-dimensional image. This method allows for a detailed examination of the relationships between various organs, tissues, and structures that may not be as easily appreciated through traditional observation or examination.

In cross-sectional anatomy, different imaging techniques such as computed tomography (CT) scans, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and ultrasound are used to create detailed images of the body's internal structures at various depths and planes. These images can help medical professionals diagnose conditions, plan treatments, and assess the effectiveness of interventions.

Cross-sectional anatomy is an important tool in modern medicine, as it provides a more comprehensive understanding of the human body than traditional gross anatomy alone. By allowing for a detailed examination of the internal structures of the body, cross-sectional anatomy can help medical professionals make more informed decisions about patient care.

In medical terms, shock is a life-threatening condition that occurs when the body is not getting enough blood flow or when the circulatory system is not functioning properly to distribute oxygen and nutrients to the tissues and organs. This results in a state of hypoxia (lack of oxygen) and cellular dysfunction, which can lead to multiple organ failure and death if left untreated.

Shock can be caused by various factors such as severe blood loss, infection, trauma, heart failure, allergic reactions, and severe burns. The symptoms of shock include low blood pressure, rapid pulse, cool and clammy skin, rapid and shallow breathing, confusion, weakness, and a bluish color to the lips and nails. Immediate medical attention is required for proper diagnosis and treatment of shock.

Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) is a protein that inhibits the activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which are enzymes responsible for breaking down extracellular matrix proteins. TIMP-1 plays a crucial role in regulating the balance between the synthesis and degradation of the extracellular matrix, thereby maintaining tissue homeostasis. It is involved in various biological processes, including cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). An imbalance between MMPs and TIMPs has been implicated in several pathological conditions, such as cancer, fibrosis, and inflammatory diseases.

Hospital charges refer to the total amount that a hospital charges for providing medical and healthcare services, including room and board, surgery, laboratory tests, medications, and other related expenses. These charges are typically listed on a patient's bill or invoice and can vary widely depending on the type of care provided, the complexity of the treatment, and the specific hospital or healthcare facility. It is important to note that hospital charges may not reflect the actual cost of care, as many hospitals negotiate discounted rates with insurance companies and government payers. Additionally, patients may be responsible for paying a portion of these charges out-of-pocket, depending on their insurance coverage and other factors.

Interventional radiology (IR) is a subspecialty of radiology that uses minimally invasive image-guided procedures to diagnose and treat various medical conditions. The main goal of interventional radiology is to offer patients less invasive options for treatment, which can result in smaller incisions, reduced recovery time, and fewer complications compared to traditional open surgeries.

Interventional radiologists use a variety of imaging techniques, such as X-rays, fluoroscopy, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and ultrasound, to guide catheters, wires, needles, and other small instruments through the body to target specific areas. These targeted interventions can be used for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, including:

1. Biopsies: Obtaining tissue samples from organs or tumors to determine a diagnosis.
2. Drainage procedures: Removing fluid from abscesses, cysts, or blocked areas to alleviate symptoms and promote healing.
3. Stent placements: Opening narrowed or obstructed blood vessels, bile ducts, or airways using small mesh tubes called stents.
4. Embolization: Blocking abnormal blood vessels or reducing blood flow to tumors, aneurysms, or other problematic areas.
5. Tumor ablation: Destroying tumors using heat (radiofrequency ablation, microwave ablation), cold (cryoablation), or other energy sources.
6. Pain management: Treating chronic pain by targeting specific nerves and blocking their transmission of pain signals.
7. Vascular access: Creating secure pathways to blood vessels for dialysis, chemotherapy, or other long-term treatments.
8. Aneurysm repair: Reinforcing weakened or bulging blood vessel walls using coils, stents, or flow diverters.
9. Vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty: Stabilizing fractured vertebrae in the spine to alleviate pain and improve mobility.
10. Uterine fibroid embolization: Reducing the size and symptoms of uterine fibroids by blocking their blood supply.

These are just a few examples of interventional radiology procedures. The field is constantly evolving, with new techniques and technologies being developed to improve patient care and outcomes. Interventional radiologists work closely with other medical specialists to provide minimally invasive treatment options for a wide range of conditions.

Exsanguination is a medical term that refers to the state of complete loss of blood from the circulatory system. It can be caused by severe bleeding due to trauma, surgery, or medical conditions such as ruptured aneurysms or hemorrhagic shock. Exsanguination can lead to hypovolemia, which is a critical decrease in blood volume that can result in organ failure and death if not promptly treated with fluid replacement and blood transfusions.

Treatment failure is a term used in medicine to describe the situation when a prescribed treatment or intervention is not achieving the desired therapeutic goals or objectives. This may occur due to various reasons, such as:

1. Development of drug resistance by the pathogen or disease being treated.
2. Inadequate dosage or frequency of the medication.
3. Poor adherence or compliance to the treatment regimen by the patient.
4. The presence of underlying conditions or comorbidities that may affect the efficacy of the treatment.
5. The severity or progression of the disease despite appropriate treatment.

When treatment failure occurs, healthcare providers may need to reassess the patient's condition and modify the treatment plan accordingly, which may include adjusting the dosage, changing the medication, adding new medications, or considering alternative treatments.

Prosthesis fitting is the process of selecting, designing, fabricating, and fitting a prosthetic device to replace a part of an individual's body that is missing due to congenital absence, illness, injury, or amputation. The primary goal of prosthesis fitting is to restore the person's physical function, mobility, and independence, as well as improve their overall quality of life.

The process typically involves several steps:

1. Assessment: A thorough evaluation of the patient's medical history, physical condition, and functional needs is conducted to determine the most appropriate type of prosthesis. This may include measurements, castings, or digital scans of the residual limb.

2. Design: Based on the assessment, a customized design plan is created for the prosthetic device, taking into account factors such as the patient's lifestyle, occupation, and personal preferences.

3. Fabrication: The prosthesis is manufactured using various materials, components, and techniques to meet the specific requirements of the patient. This may involve the use of 3D printing, computer-aided design (CAD), or traditional handcrafting methods.

4. Fitting: Once the prosthesis is fabricated, it is carefully fitted to the patient's residual limb, ensuring optimal comfort, alignment, and stability. Adjustments may be made as needed to achieve the best fit and function.

5. Training: The patient receives training on how to use and care for their new prosthetic device, including exercises to strengthen the residual limb and improve overall mobility. Follow-up appointments are scheduled to monitor progress, make any necessary adjustments, and provide ongoing support.

Connective tissue is a type of biological tissue that provides support, strength, and protection to various structures in the body. It is composed of cells called fibroblasts, which produce extracellular matrix components such as collagen, elastin, and proteoglycans. These components give connective tissue its unique properties, including tensile strength, elasticity, and resistance to compression.

There are several types of connective tissue in the body, each with its own specific functions and characteristics. Some examples include:

1. Loose or Areolar Connective Tissue: This type of connective tissue is found throughout the body and provides cushioning and support to organs and other structures. It contains a large amount of ground substance, which allows for the movement and gliding of adjacent tissues.
2. Dense Connective Tissue: This type of connective tissue has a higher concentration of collagen fibers than loose connective tissue, making it stronger and less flexible. Dense connective tissue can be further divided into two categories: regular (or parallel) and irregular. Regular dense connective tissue, such as tendons and ligaments, has collagen fibers that run parallel to each other, providing great tensile strength. Irregular dense connective tissue, such as the dermis of the skin, has collagen fibers arranged in a more haphazard pattern, providing support and flexibility.
3. Adipose Tissue: This type of connective tissue is primarily composed of fat cells called adipocytes. Adipose tissue serves as an energy storage reservoir and provides insulation and cushioning to the body.
4. Cartilage: A firm, flexible type of connective tissue that contains chondrocytes within a matrix of collagen and proteoglycans. Cartilage is found in various parts of the body, including the joints, nose, ears, and trachea.
5. Bone: A specialized form of connective tissue that consists of an organic matrix (mainly collagen) and an inorganic mineral component (hydroxyapatite). Bone provides structural support to the body and serves as a reservoir for calcium and phosphate ions.
6. Blood: Although not traditionally considered connective tissue, blood does contain elements of connective tissue, such as plasma proteins and leukocytes (white blood cells). Blood transports nutrients, oxygen, hormones, and waste products throughout the body.

Silicone elastomers are a type of synthetic rubber made from silicone, which is a polymer composed primarily of silicon-oxygen bonds. They are known for their durability, flexibility, and resistance to heat, cold, and moisture. Silicone elastomers can be manufactured in various forms, including liquids, gels, and solids, and they are used in a wide range of medical applications such as:

1. Breast implants: Silicone elastomer shells filled with silicone gel are commonly used for breast augmentation and reconstruction.
2. Contact lenses: Some contact lenses are made from silicone elastomers due to their high oxygen permeability, which allows for better eye health.
3. Catheters: Silicone elastomer catheters are flexible and resistant to kinking, making them suitable for long-term use in various medical procedures.
4. Implantable drug delivery systems: Silicone elastomers can be used as a matrix for controlled release of drugs, allowing for sustained and targeted medication administration.
5. Medical adhesives: Silicone elastomer adhesives are biocompatible and can be used to attach medical devices to the skin or other tissues.
6. Sealants and coatings: Silicone elastomers can be used as sealants and coatings in medical devices to prevent leakage, improve durability, and reduce infection risk.

It is important to note that while silicone elastomers are generally considered safe for medical use, there have been concerns about the potential health risks associated with breast implants, such as capsular contracture, breast pain, and immune system reactions. However, these risks vary depending on the individual's health status and the specific type of silicone elastomer used.

The ophthalmic artery is the first branch of the internal carotid artery, which supplies blood to the eye and its adnexa. It divides into several branches that provide oxygenated blood to various structures within the eye, including the retina, optic nerve, choroid, iris, ciliary body, and cornea. Any blockage or damage to the ophthalmic artery can lead to serious vision problems or even blindness.

Shear strength is a property of a material that describes its ability to withstand forces that cause internal friction and sliding of one portion of the material relative to another. In the context of human tissues, shear strength is an important factor in understanding how tissues respond to various stresses and strains, such as those experienced during physical activities or injuries.

For example, in the case of bones, shear strength is a critical factor in determining their ability to resist fractures under different types of loading conditions. Similarly, in soft tissues like ligaments and tendons, shear strength plays a crucial role in maintaining the integrity of these structures during movement and preventing excessive deformation or injury.

It's worth noting that measuring the shear strength of human tissues can be challenging due to their complex structure and anisotropic properties. As such, researchers often use specialized techniques and equipment to quantify these properties under controlled conditions in the lab.

The Surgery Department in a hospital is a specialized unit where surgical procedures are performed. It is typically staffed by surgeons, anesthesiologists, nurse anesthetists, registered nurses, surgical technologists, and other healthcare professionals who work together to provide surgical care for patients. The department may include various sub-specialties such as cardiovascular surgery, neurosurgery, orthopedic surgery, pediatric surgery, plastic surgery, and trauma surgery, among others.

The Surgery Department is responsible for the preoperative evaluation and preparation of patients, the performance of surgical procedures, and the postoperative care and management of patients. This includes ordering and interpreting diagnostic tests, developing treatment plans, obtaining informed consent from patients, performing surgeries, managing complications, providing postoperative pain control and wound care, and coordinating with other healthcare providers to ensure continuity of care.

The Surgery Department is equipped with operating rooms that contain specialized equipment and instruments necessary for performing surgical procedures. These may include microscopes, endoscopes, imaging equipment, and other technology used to assist in the performance of surgeries. The department may also have dedicated recovery areas, such as post-anesthesia care units (PACUs) or intensive care units (ICUs), where patients can be monitored and cared for immediately after surgery.

Overall, the Surgery Department plays a critical role in the delivery of healthcare services in a hospital setting, providing specialized surgical care to patients with a wide range of medical conditions and injuries.

Heart valve prosthesis implantation is a surgical procedure where an artificial heart valve is inserted to replace a damaged or malfunctioning native heart valve. This can be necessary for patients with valvular heart disease, including stenosis (narrowing) or regurgitation (leaking), who do not respond to medical management and are at risk of heart failure or other complications.

There are two main types of artificial heart valves used in prosthesis implantation: mechanical valves and biological valves. Mechanical valves are made of synthetic materials, such as carbon and metal, and can last a long time but require lifelong anticoagulation therapy to prevent blood clots from forming. Biological valves, on the other hand, are made from animal or human tissue and typically do not require anticoagulation therapy but may have a limited lifespan and may need to be replaced in the future.

The decision to undergo heart valve prosthesis implantation is based on several factors, including the patient's age, overall health, type and severity of valvular disease, and personal preferences. The procedure can be performed through traditional open-heart surgery or minimally invasive techniques, such as robotic-assisted surgery or transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Recovery time varies depending on the approach used and individual patient factors.

Abdominal pain is defined as discomfort or painful sensation in the abdomen. The abdomen is the region of the body between the chest and the pelvis, and contains many important organs such as the stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and spleen. Abdominal pain can vary in intensity from mild to severe, and can be acute or chronic depending on the underlying cause.

Abdominal pain can have many different causes, ranging from benign conditions such as gastritis, indigestion, or constipation, to more serious conditions such as appendicitis, inflammatory bowel disease, or abdominal aortic aneurysm. The location, quality, and duration of the pain can provide important clues about its cause. For example, sharp, localized pain in the lower right quadrant of the abdomen may indicate appendicitis, while crampy, diffuse pain in the lower abdomen may suggest irritable bowel syndrome.

It is important to seek medical attention if you experience severe or persistent abdominal pain, especially if it is accompanied by other symptoms such as fever, vomiting, or bloody stools. A thorough physical examination, including a careful history and a focused abdominal exam, can help diagnose the underlying cause of the pain and guide appropriate treatment.

Proportional hazards models are a type of statistical analysis used in medical research to investigate the relationship between covariates (predictor variables) and survival times. The most common application of proportional hazards models is in the Cox regression model, which is named after its developer, Sir David Cox.

In a proportional hazards model, the hazard rate or risk of an event occurring at a given time is assumed to be proportional to the hazard rate of a reference group, after adjusting for the covariates. This means that the ratio of the hazard rates between any two individuals remains constant over time, regardless of their survival times.

Mathematically, the hazard function h(t) at time t for an individual with a set of covariates X can be expressed as:

h(t|X) = h0(t) \* exp(β1X1 + β2X2 + ... + βpXp)

where h0(t) is the baseline hazard function, X1, X2, ..., Xp are the covariates, and β1, β2, ..., βp are the regression coefficients that represent the effect of each covariate on the hazard rate.

The assumption of proportionality is crucial in the interpretation of the results from a Cox regression model. If the assumption is violated, then the estimated regression coefficients may be biased and misleading. Therefore, it is important to test for the proportional hazards assumption before interpreting the results of a Cox regression analysis.

Fibrin(ogen) degradation products (FDPs) are a group of proteins that result from the breakdown of fibrinogen and fibrin, which are key components of blood clots. This process occurs during the normal physiological process of fibrinolysis, where clots are dissolved to maintain blood flow.

FDPs can be measured in the blood as a marker for the activation of the coagulation and fibrinolytic systems. Elevated levels of FDPs may indicate the presence of a disorder that causes abnormal clotting or bleeding, such as disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC), deep vein thrombosis (DVT), pulmonary embolism (PE), or certain types of cancer.

It is important to note that FDPs are not specific to any particular disorder and their measurement should be interpreted in conjunction with other clinical and laboratory findings.

"High-volume hospitals" is a term used to describe healthcare facilities that treat a large number of patients or perform a high volume of specific procedures on an annual basis. While there isn't a universally accepted threshold for what constitutes a "high volume," some studies and organizations define it as the top 10-25% of hospitals based on the number of procedures performed.

Research has shown that high-volume hospitals often have better patient outcomes, such as lower mortality rates and fewer complications, for certain complex surgical procedures compared to low-volume hospitals. This is attributed to factors like greater expertise, specialized resources, and standardized processes that come with handling a higher volume of similar cases. Examples of high-volume procedures include cardiac bypass surgery, hip replacement, and major cancer surgeries.

However, it's important to note that being a high-volume hospital doesn't automatically guarantee better outcomes for all types of treatments or conditions. The relationship between volume and quality varies depending on the specific procedure or medical specialty.

Coronary artery bypass surgery, also known as coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), is a surgical procedure used to improve blood flow to the heart in patients with severe coronary artery disease. This condition occurs when the coronary arteries, which supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle, become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of fatty deposits, called plaques.

During CABG surgery, a healthy blood vessel from another part of the body is grafted, or attached, to the coronary artery, creating a new pathway for oxygen-rich blood to flow around the blocked or narrowed portion of the artery and reach the heart muscle. This bypass helps to restore normal blood flow and reduce the risk of angina (chest pain), shortness of breath, and other symptoms associated with coronary artery disease.

There are different types of CABG surgery, including traditional on-pump CABG, off-pump CABG, and minimally invasive CABG. The choice of procedure depends on various factors, such as the patient's overall health, the number and location of blocked arteries, and the presence of other medical conditions.

It is important to note that while CABG surgery can significantly improve symptoms and quality of life in patients with severe coronary artery disease, it does not cure the underlying condition. Lifestyle modifications, such as regular exercise, a healthy diet, smoking cessation, and medication therapy, are essential for long-term management and prevention of further progression of the disease.

A rupture, in medical terms, refers to the breaking or tearing of an organ, tissue, or structure in the body. This can occur due to various reasons such as trauma, injury, increased pressure, or degeneration. A ruptured organ or structure can lead to serious complications, including internal bleeding, infection, and even death, if not treated promptly and appropriately. Examples of ruptures include a ruptured appendix, ruptured eardrum, or a ruptured disc in the spine.

Collagen is the most abundant protein in the human body, and it is a major component of connective tissues such as tendons, ligaments, skin, and bones. Collagen provides structure and strength to these tissues and helps them to withstand stretching and tension. It is made up of long chains of amino acids, primarily glycine, proline, and hydroxyproline, which are arranged in a triple helix structure. There are at least 16 different types of collagen found in the body, each with slightly different structures and functions. Collagen is important for maintaining the integrity and health of tissues throughout the body, and it has been studied for its potential therapeutic uses in various medical conditions.

In medicine, elasticity refers to the ability of a tissue or organ to return to its original shape after being stretched or deformed. This property is due to the presence of elastic fibers in the extracellular matrix of the tissue, which can stretch and recoil like rubber bands.

Elasticity is an important characteristic of many tissues, particularly those that are subjected to repeated stretching or compression, such as blood vessels, lungs, and skin. For example, the elasticity of the lungs allows them to expand and contract during breathing, while the elasticity of blood vessels helps maintain normal blood pressure by allowing them to expand and constrict in response to changes in blood flow.

In addition to its role in normal physiology, elasticity is also an important factor in the diagnosis and treatment of various medical conditions. For example, decreased elasticity in the lungs can be a sign of lung disease, while increased elasticity in the skin can be a sign of aging or certain genetic disorders. Medical professionals may use techniques such as pulmonary function tests or skin biopsies to assess elasticity and help diagnose these conditions.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "New England" is not a medical term. It's a geographical region in the northeastern United States, consisting of six states: Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I'd be happy to help with those!

Vascular diseases are medical conditions that affect the circulatory system, specifically the blood vessels (arteries, veins, and capillaries). These diseases can include conditions such as:

1. Atherosclerosis: The buildup of fats, cholesterol, and other substances in and on the walls of the arteries, which can restrict blood flow.
2. Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD): A condition caused by atherosclerosis where there is narrowing or blockage of the peripheral arteries, most commonly in the legs. This can lead to pain, numbness, and cramping.
3. Coronary Artery Disease (CAD): Atherosclerosis of the coronary arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle. This can lead to chest pain, shortness of breath, or a heart attack.
4. Carotid Artery Disease: Atherosclerosis of the carotid arteries in the neck that supply blood to the brain. This can increase the risk of stroke.
5. Cerebrovascular Disease: Conditions that affect blood flow to the brain, including stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA or "mini-stroke").
6. Aneurysm: A weakened area in the wall of a blood vessel that causes it to bulge outward and potentially rupture.
7. Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT): A blood clot that forms in the deep veins, usually in the legs, which can cause pain, swelling, and increased risk of pulmonary embolism if the clot travels to the lungs.
8. Varicose Veins: Swollen, twisted, and often painful veins that have filled with an abnormal collection of blood, usually appearing in the legs.
9. Vasculitis: Inflammation of the blood vessels, which can cause damage and narrowing, leading to reduced blood flow.
10. Raynaud's Phenomenon: A condition where the small arteries that supply blood to the skin become narrowed, causing decreased blood flow, typically in response to cold temperatures or stress.

These are just a few examples of vascular conditions that fall under the umbrella term "cerebrovascular disease." Early diagnosis and treatment can significantly improve outcomes for many of these conditions.

A puncture, in medical terms, refers to a small hole or wound that is caused by a sharp object penetrating the skin or other body tissues. This can result in damage to underlying structures such as blood vessels, nerves, or organs, and may lead to complications such as bleeding, infection, or inflammation.

Punctures can occur accidentally, such as from stepping on a nail or getting pricked by a needle, or they can be inflicted intentionally, such as during medical procedures like injections or blood draws. In some cases, puncture wounds may require medical attention to clean and close the wound, prevent infection, and promote healing.

Intermittent claudication is a medical condition characterized by pain or cramping in the legs, usually in the calf muscles, that occurs during exercise or walking and is relieved by rest. This symptom is caused by insufficient blood flow to the working muscles due to peripheral artery disease (PAD), a narrowing or blockage of the arteries in the limbs. As the individual walks, the muscle demands for oxygen and nutrients increase, but the restricted blood supply cannot meet these demands, leading to ischemia (lack of oxygen) and pain. The pain typically subsides after a few minutes of rest, as the muscle's demand for oxygen decreases, allowing the limited blood flow to compensate. Regular exercise and medications may help improve symptoms and reduce the risk of complications associated with PAD.

Cranial nerve diseases refer to conditions that affect the cranial nerves, which are a set of 12 pairs of nerves that originate from the brainstem and control various functions in the head and neck. These functions include vision, hearing, taste, smell, movement of the eyes and face, and sensation in the face.

Diseases of the cranial nerves can result from a variety of causes, including injury, infection, inflammation, tumors, or degenerative conditions. The specific symptoms that a person experiences will depend on which cranial nerve is affected and how severely it is damaged.

For example, damage to the optic nerve (cranial nerve II) can cause vision loss or visual disturbances, while damage to the facial nerve (cranial nerve VII) can result in weakness or paralysis of the face. Other common symptoms of cranial nerve diseases include pain, numbness, tingling, and hearing loss.

Treatment for cranial nerve diseases varies depending on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. In some cases, medication or surgery may be necessary to treat the underlying cause and relieve symptoms. Physical therapy or rehabilitation may also be recommended to help individuals regain function and improve their quality of life.

Arachnodactyly is a medical term that describes an abnormal condition where an individual has unusually long and slender fingers or toes, often described as being "spider-like" in appearance. This condition can be present at birth (congenital) or develop later in life due to various underlying causes such as Marfan syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, or other connective tissue disorders.

In a person with arachnodactyly, the fingers or toes may be so long that they curve and overlap each other, and the skin around the nails may appear thin and stretched. In some cases, arachnodactyly can also affect the length and slenderness of the bones in the arms, legs, and spine.

It is important to note that while arachnodactyly itself is not a disease, it can be a sign of an underlying medical condition that requires further evaluation and treatment.

Prostheses: Artificial substitutes or replacements for missing body parts, such as limbs, eyes, or teeth. They are designed to restore the function, appearance, or mobility of the lost part. Prosthetic devices can be categorized into several types, including:

1. External prostheses: Devices that are attached to the outside of the body, like artificial arms, legs, hands, and feet. These may be further classified into:
a. Cosmetic or aesthetic prostheses: Primarily designed to improve the appearance of the affected area.
b. Functional prostheses: Designed to help restore the functionality and mobility of the lost limb.
2. Internal prostheses: Implanted artificial parts that replace missing internal organs, bones, or tissues, such as heart valves, hip joints, or intraocular lenses.

Implants: Medical devices or substances that are intentionally placed inside the body to replace or support a missing or damaged biological structure, deliver medication, monitor physiological functions, or enhance bodily functions. Examples of implants include:

1. Orthopedic implants: Devices used to replace or reinforce damaged bones, joints, or cartilage, such as knee or hip replacements.
2. Cardiovascular implants: Devices that help support or regulate heart function, like pacemakers, defibrillators, and artificial heart valves.
3. Dental implants: Artificial tooth roots that are placed into the jawbone to support dental prostheses, such as crowns, bridges, or dentures.
4. Neurological implants: Devices used to stimulate nerves, brain structures, or spinal cord tissues to treat various neurological conditions, like deep brain stimulators for Parkinson's disease or cochlear implants for hearing loss.
5. Ophthalmic implants: Artificial lenses that are placed inside the eye to replace a damaged or removed natural lens, such as intraocular lenses used in cataract surgery.

Contrast media are substances that are administered to a patient in order to improve the visibility of internal body structures or processes in medical imaging techniques such as X-rays, CT scans, MRI scans, and ultrasounds. These media can be introduced into the body through various routes, including oral, rectal, or intravenous administration.

Contrast media work by altering the appearance of bodily structures in imaging studies. For example, when a patient undergoes an X-ray examination, contrast media can be used to highlight specific organs, tissues, or blood vessels, making them more visible on the resulting images. In CT and MRI scans, contrast media can help to enhance the differences between normal and abnormal tissues, allowing for more accurate diagnosis and treatment planning.

There are several types of contrast media available, each with its own specific properties and uses. Some common examples include barium sulfate, which is used as a contrast medium in X-ray studies of the gastrointestinal tract, and iodinated contrast media, which are commonly used in CT scans to highlight blood vessels and other structures.

While contrast media are generally considered safe, they can sometimes cause adverse reactions, ranging from mild symptoms such as nausea or hives to more serious complications such as anaphylaxis or kidney damage. As a result, it is important for healthcare providers to carefully evaluate each patient's medical history and individual risk factors before administering contrast media.

Deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) is a medical procedure in which the body temperature is lowered to around 15-20°C (59-68°F), and the circulation of blood is temporarily stopped. This technique is often used during complex cardiac surgeries, such as aortic arch reconstruction or repair of congenital heart defects, to reduce the body's metabolic demand for oxygen and allow surgeons to operate in a still and bloodless field.

During DHCA, the patient is connected to a heart-lung machine that takes over the function of pumping blood and oxygenating it. The blood is then cooled down using a cooling device before being returned to the body. Once the body temperature reaches the desired level, the circulation is stopped for a short period, usually no more than 30 minutes, during which time the surgeon can work on the heart or great vessels.

After the surgical procedure is complete, the patient is gradually rewarmed, and the circulation is restarted. DHCA carries some risks, including neurological complications such as stroke, cognitive impairment, or delirium, but it remains an important tool in complex cardiac surgery.

Aortic arch syndromes are a group of conditions that affect the aortic arch, which is the curved portion of the aorta that arises from the left ventricle of the heart and gives rise to the major branches of the arterial system. These syndromes are typically caused by congenital abnormalities or degenerative changes in the aorta and can result in various complications, such as obstruction of blood flow, aneurysm formation, and dissection.

There are several types of aortic arch syndromes, including:

1. Coarctation of the Aorta: This is a narrowing of the aorta at the point where it leaves the heart, just distal to the origin of the left subclavian artery. It can cause hypertension in the upper extremities and reduced blood flow to the lower extremities.
2. Aortic Arch Aneurysm: This is a localized dilation or bulging of the aorta in the region of the aortic arch. It can lead to dissection, rupture, or embolism.
3. Aortic Arch Dissection: This is a separation of the layers of the aortic wall, which can result from hypertension, trauma, or genetic disorders such as Marfan syndrome. It can cause severe chest pain, shortness of breath, and shock.
4. Kommerell's Diverticulum: This is an outpouching or bulge in the aorta at the origin of the ligamentum arteriosum, which is a remnant of the ductus arteriosus. It can cause compression of the airways or esophagus and increase the risk of dissection or rupture.
5. Abernethy Malformation: This is a rare congenital anomaly in which there is an abnormal connection between the portal vein and systemic venous circulation, leading to the bypass of the liver. It can cause various complications such as hepatic encephalopathy, pulmonary hypertension, and liver tumors.

The diagnosis and management of aortic arch syndromes require a multidisciplinary approach involving cardiologists, radiologists, surgeons, and other specialists. Treatment options may include medications, endovascular procedures, or surgical interventions depending on the severity and location of the lesion.

Induced hypothermia is a medically controlled lowering of the core body temperature to around 89.6-93.2°F (32-34°C) for therapeutic purposes. It is intentionally induced to reduce the metabolic rate and oxygen demand of organs, thereby offering protection during periods of low blood flow or inadequate oxygenation, such as during cardiac bypass surgery, severe trauma, or after a cardiac arrest. The deliberate induction and maintenance of hypothermia can help minimize tissue damage and improve outcomes in specific clinical scenarios. Once the risk has passed, the body temperature is gradually rewarmed to normal levels under controlled conditions.

Debridement is a medical procedure that involves the removal of dead, damaged, or infected tissue to improve the healing process or prevent further infection. This can be done through various methods such as surgical debridement (removal of tissue using scalpel or scissors), mechanical debridement (use of wound irrigation or high-pressure water jet), autolytic debridement (using the body's own enzymes to break down and reabsorb dead tissue), and enzymatic debridement (application of topical enzymes to dissolve necrotic tissue). The goal of debridement is to promote healthy tissue growth, reduce the risk of infection, and improve overall wound healing.

The carotid arteries are a pair of vital blood vessels in the human body that supply oxygenated blood to the head and neck. Each person has two common carotid arteries, one on each side of the neck, which branch off from the aorta, the largest artery in the body.

The right common carotid artery originates from the brachiocephalic trunk, while the left common carotid artery arises directly from the aortic arch. As they ascend through the neck, they split into two main branches: the internal and external carotid arteries.

The internal carotid artery supplies oxygenated blood to the brain, eyes, and other structures within the skull, while the external carotid artery provides blood to the face, scalp, and various regions of the neck.

Maintaining healthy carotid arteries is crucial for overall cardiovascular health and preventing serious conditions like stroke, which can occur when the arteries become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of plaque or fatty deposits (atherosclerosis). Regular check-ups with healthcare professionals may include monitoring carotid artery health through ultrasound or other imaging techniques.

In medical terms, sutures are specialized surgical threads made from various materials such as absorbable synthetic or natural fibers, or non-absorbable materials like nylon or silk. They are used to approximate and hold together the edges of a wound or incision in the skin or other tissues during the healing process. Sutures come in different sizes, types, and shapes, each designed for specific uses and techniques depending on the location and type of tissue being sutured. Properly placed sutures help to promote optimal healing, minimize scarring, and reduce the risk of infection or other complications.

The oculomotor nerve, also known as the third cranial nerve (CN III), is responsible for controlling several important eye movements and functions. Oculomotor nerve diseases refer to conditions that affect this nerve and can lead to various symptoms related to eye movement and function. Here's a medical definition of oculomotor nerve diseases:

Oculomotor nerve diseases are a group of medical disorders characterized by the dysfunction or damage to the oculomotor nerve (CN III), resulting in impaired eye movements, abnormalities in pupillary response, and potential effects on eyelid position. These conditions can be congenital, acquired, or traumatic in nature and may lead to partial or complete paralysis of the nerve. Common oculomotor nerve diseases include oculomotor nerve palsy, third nerve ganglionopathies, and compressive oculomotor neuropathies caused by various pathologies such as aneurysms, tumors, or infections.

Fluoroscopy is a type of medical imaging that uses X-rays to obtain real-time moving images of the internal structures of the body. A continuous X-ray beam is passed through the body part being examined, and the resulting fluoroscopic images are transmitted to a monitor, allowing the medical professional to view the structure and movement of the internal organs and bones in real time.

Fluoroscopy is often used to guide minimally invasive procedures such as catheterization, stent placement, or joint injections. It can also be used to diagnose and monitor a variety of medical conditions, including gastrointestinal disorders, musculoskeletal injuries, and cardiovascular diseases.

It is important to note that fluoroscopy involves exposure to ionizing radiation, and the risks associated with this exposure should be carefully weighed against the benefits of the procedure. Medical professionals are trained to use the lowest possible dose of radiation necessary to obtain the desired diagnostic information.

Smoking is not a medical condition, but it's a significant health risk behavior. Here is the definition from a public health perspective:

Smoking is the act of inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning tobacco that is commonly consumed through cigarettes, pipes, and cigars. The smoke contains over 7,000 chemicals, including nicotine, tar, carbon monoxide, and numerous toxic and carcinogenic substances. These toxins contribute to a wide range of diseases and health conditions, such as lung cancer, heart disease, stroke, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and various other cancers, as well as adverse reproductive outcomes and negative impacts on the developing fetus during pregnancy. Smoking is highly addictive due to the nicotine content, which makes quitting smoking a significant challenge for many individuals.

Equipment failure is a term used in the medical field to describe the malfunction or breakdown of medical equipment, devices, or systems that are essential for patient care. This can include simple devices like syringes and thermometers, as well as complex machines such as ventilators, infusion pumps, and imaging equipment.

Equipment failure can have serious consequences for patients, including delayed or inappropriate treatment, injury, or even death. It is therefore essential that medical equipment is properly maintained, tested, and repaired to ensure its safe and effective operation.

There are many potential causes of equipment failure, including:

* Wear and tear from frequent use
* Inadequate cleaning or disinfection
* Improper handling or storage
* Power supply issues
* Software glitches or bugs
* Mechanical failures or defects
* Human error or misuse

To prevent equipment failure, healthcare facilities should have established policies and procedures for the acquisition, maintenance, and disposal of medical equipment. Staff should be trained in the proper use and handling of equipment, and regular inspections and testing should be performed to identify and address any potential issues before they lead to failure.

Tantalum is not a medical term, but a chemical element with the symbol Ta and atomic number 73. It is a rare, hard, blue-gray, lustrous transition metal that is highly corrosion-resistant. In the field of medicine, tantalum is often used in the production of medical implants such as surgical pins, screws, plates, and stents due to its biocompatibility and resistance to corrosion. For example, tantalum mesh is used in hernia repair and tantalum rods are used in spinal fusion surgery.

A thoracic aortic aneurysm is an aortic aneurysm that presents primarily in the thorax. A thoracic aortic aneurysm is the " ... However, a syphilitic aneurysm is more likely to be a thoracic aortic aneurysm than an abdominal aortic aneurysm. This ... Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm at eMedicine Aneurysms: Aneurysms and Aortic Dissection at Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy Home ... Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Archived 2012-05-02 at the Wayback Machine Bret P Nelson (2015-10-01). "Thoracic Aneurysm". Medscape. ...
GeneReview/NCBI/NIH/UW entry on Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms and Aortic Dissections v t e (Articles with short description, Short ... Familial thoracic aortic aneurysm is an autosomal dominant disorder of large arteries. There is an association between familial ... thoracic aortic aneurysm and Marfan syndrome as well as other hereditary connective tissue disorders. A degenerative breakdown ... In the aorta, this can result in the formation of a fusiform aneurysm. There is also increased risk of aortic dissection.[ ...
"Familial thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection: MedlinePlus Genetics". "Familial thoracic aortic aneurysm and aortic ... Familial thoracic aortic aneurysm and aortic dissection is a very rare vascular genetic disorder, it's characterized by ... "Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm & Aortic Dissection". Guo, Dong-Chuan; Regalado, Ellen S.; Minn, Charles; Tran-Fadulu, Van; Coney, ... "Orphanet: Familial thoracic aortic aneurysm and aortic dissection". Omar, Sabry; Moore, Tyler; Payne, Drew; Momeni, Parastoo; ...
... a bicuspid aortic valve; and previous heart surgery. Major trauma, smoking, cocaine use, pregnancy, a thoracic aortic aneurysm ... "Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms". The Lecturio Medical Concept Library. 16 October 2020. Retrieved 30 June 2021. "Aortic Aneurysm, ... Olsson C, Thelin S, Ståhle E, Ekbom A, Granath F (2006). "Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm and Dissection. Increasing Prevalence and ... aortic dissection Type A aortic dissection Dissection of both the thoracic and abdominal aorta Dissection of both the thoracic ...
SLC6A4 Aortic aneurysm, familial thoracic 4; 132900; MYH11 Aortic aneurysm, familial thoracic 6; 611788; ACTA2 Aortic valve ... AGA Asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy 2; 611263; IFT80 Asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy 3; 613091; DYNC2H1 Asthma and nasal polyps ... aneurysms, and muscle cramps; 611773; COL4A1 Aniridia; 106210; PAX6 Anonychia congenita; 206800; RSPO4 Anterior segment ... MAPT Supravalvar aortic stenosis; 185500; ELN Surfactant metabolism dysfunction, pulmonary, 1; 265120; SFTPB Surfactant ...
"Natural History of Ascending Aortic Aneurysms in the Setting of an Unreplaced Bicuspid Aortic Valve". The Annals of Thoracic ... Bicuspid aortic valve disease andascending aortic aneurysms: gaps in knowledge. Hindawi 2012; 2012:145202 - 145218. Bissell MM ... The patient-specific risk of developing complications such as aortic aneurysms is dependent on the particular aortic leaflet ... flow patterns in ascending aortic aneurysms". European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. 34 (1): 11-6. doi:10.1016/j.ejcts. ...
An aortic root aneurysm, or aneurysm of the sinus of Valsalva. Thoracic aortic aneurysms are found within the chest; these are ... Thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms involve both the thoracic and abdominal aorta. Thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms comprise ... associated with aortic aneurysms, both thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysms demonstrate a strong genetic component in their ... or descending aneurysms. Abdominal aortic aneurysms, "AAA" or "Triple A", the most common form of aortic aneurysm, involve that ...
2007). "Thoracic aortic aneurysm: direct sign of rupture". Cardiovasc J Afr. 18 (3): 180-1. PMID 17612751. Nishigami K, ... The condition can be mimicked by a ruptured cyst of the pericardium, ruptured aortic aneurysm and acute coronary syndrome. ... These include aortic dissection, intramural thrombus, and penetrating atherosclerotic aortic ulcer. AAS can be caused by a ... Macura, KJ; Corl FM; Fishman EK; Bluemke DA (1 August 2003). "Pathogenesis in acute aortic syndromes: aortic dissection, ...
"Treatment of Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms." Presented St. John's Cardiovascular Institute Annual Symposium. Loughridge, B.P. 2000 ... American College of Cardiology Society of Thoracic Surgeons Southern Thoracic Surgical Association Fellow, International ... In 1971-72 Loughridge moved to Syracuse, New York where he served as a Senior Resident in Thoracic Surgery at the State ... Loughridge was the Chief of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery at two of Tulsa's main hospitals, St. John Hospital and at St. ...
He died of a thoracic aortic aneurysm in 1993. Private Investment in Latin America: Renegotiating the Bargain (1975) "Joseph J ...
"Early Recognition of Acute Thoracic Aortic Dissection and Aneurysm". World Journal of Emergency Surgery. 8 (1): 47. doi:10.1186 ...
11 November 2007). "Mutations in Smooth Muscle Alpha-actin (ACTA2) Lead to Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms and Dissections". Nature ... aortic disease and became recognized as a standardized surgical technique for surgeons performing open thoracic aortic aneurysm ... using distal aortic perfusion and cerebrospinal fluid drainage for thoracoabdominal and descending thoracic aortic aneurysm ... "Improved Prognosis of Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms". JAMA. American Medical Association. 280 (22): 1926-1929. doi:10.1001/jama. ...
"Successful surgical treatment for thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm with leriche syndrome". The Korean Journal of Thoracic and ... Aortic thrombosis does occasionally occur in dogs, but here the thrombi arise directly at the aortic branch; as a ... Aortic thrombus can often be visualized directly by sonography, and angiography or electromyography may also be performed if ... Gardiner, K. (2020). "Aortic thromboembolism in a basset hound-beagle crossbred dog with protein-losing nephropathy". The ...
OAS is used to treat aneurysms of the abdominal and thoracic aorta, aortic dissection, acute aortic syndrome, and aortic ... an open aortic operation may be called an Infrarenal aortic repair, a Thoracic aortic repair, or a Thoracoabdominal aortic ... October 2005). "Descending thoracic aortic aneurysm repair: 12-year experience using distal aortic perfusion and cerebrospinal ... October 2005). "Descending thoracic aortic aneurysm repair: 12-year experience using distal aortic perfusion and cerebrospinal ...
It may cause aortic regurgitation, thoracic aortic dissection, aneurysm and rupture. It is often associated with connective ... In tertiary syphilis the aortic root becomes so dilated that the aortic valve becomes incompetent and cor bovinum results. The ... "Orphanet: Familial aortic dissection". Orpha.net. Retrieved 29 May 2019. Elgendy, Azza. "Annuloaortic ectasia , Radiology ... Annuloaortic ectasia is a dilation of the proximal ascending aorta and aortic annulus. ...
Aortic disease: Aortic atherosclerosis, thoracic aortic aneurysm, and abdominal aortic aneurysm. An individual's risk for ... Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) Diabetes mellitus Chronic kidney disease The Framingham/ATP III criteria were used to estimate ...
"Effect of extended cross-clamp time during thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm repair". The Annals of Thoracic Surgery. The ... Certain surgeries for cerebral aneurysms or aortic arch defects require that blood circulation be stopped while repairs are ... European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. Elsevier Science. 4 (7): 390-93. doi:10.1016/1010-7940(90)90048-5. PMID 2397132. " ... Society of Thoracic Surgeons. 66 (4): 1204-08. doi:10.1016/S0003-4975(98)00781-4. PMID 9800807. Archived from the original on ...
Thoracic aortic aneurysms occur on the aorta as it passes through the chest cavity. These are less common than abdominal ... Inflammatory aortic aneurysm (IAA), also known as Inflammatory abdominal aortic aneurysm (IAAA), is a type of abdominal aortic ... The rupture of an aortic aneurysm is a catastrophic, life-threatening event. Aortic aneurysms are often encountered during an X ... "Infected aortic aneurysm and inflammatory aortic aneurysm-In search of an optimal differential diagnosis". Journal of ...
Forsch died suddenly from a thoracic aortic aneurysm on November 3, 2011. Less than a week before his death, he threw out the ... Deaths from aortic aneurysm, Sacramento City Panthers baseball players, Silver Slugger Award winners). ...
Motor evoked potentials have also been used in surgery for thoracic aortic aneurysm. Intraoperative monitoring is used to : to ... For example, during any surgery on the thoracic or cervical spinal column, there is some risk to the spinal cord. Since the ... EEG electroencephalography is used for monitoring of cerebral function in neurovascular cases (cerebral aneurysms, carotid ...
... thoracic aortic aneurysms, an enlarged pulmonary artery and aberrant subclavian artery syndrome have been reported compressing ... "Ortner's Syndrome and Endoluminal Treatment of a Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm: A Case Report". Vascular and Endovascular Surgery. ... Aortic dissection More commonly affects the right recurrent laryngeal nerve as the most common type of aortic dissection is ... Al Kindi AH, Al Kindi FA, Al Abri QS, Al Kemyani NA (October 2016). "Ortner's syndrome: Cardiovocal syndrome caused by aortic ...
January 2006). "Ortner's Syndrome and Endoluminal Treatment of a Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm: A Case Report". Vascular and ... the definition has expanded to include aneurysms of the aortic arch, pulmonary hypertension due to mixed connective tissue ... October 2016). "Ortner's syndrome: Cardiovocal syndrome caused by aortic arch pseudoaneurysm". Journal of the Saudi Heart ...
"Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms". The Lecturio Medical Concept Library. 28 September 2020. Retrieved 30 June 2021. Chapter 1: ... Aortic stenosis due to calcification of tricuspid aortic valve with age comprises >50% of the disease. Aortic stenosis due to ... A bicuspid aortic valve is an aortic valve with only 2 cusps as opposed to the normal 3. It is present in about 0.5% to 2% of ... The Bicuspid Aortic Valve and Associated Aortic Disease. In: Valvular Heart Disease, 4th, Otto CM, Bonow RO. (Eds), Saunders/ ...
Aortic dissection Thoracic aortic aneurysm Transverse section of thorax, showing relations of pulmonary artery. The arch of the ... The thoracic aorta is a part of the aorta located in the thorax. It is a continuation of the aortic arch. It is located within ... The descending thoracic aorta begins at the lower border of the fourth thoracic vertebra and ends in front of the lower border ... To the right is the azygos veins and thoracic duct, and to the left is the left pleura and lung. In front of the thoracic aorta ...
Einstein is the real Israel himself." On 26 November 2013, Einstein died age 74 after a ruptured thoracic aortic aneurysm. He ... Deaths from aortic aneurysm, Burials at Trumpeldor Cemetery). ...
Common types of aneurysm include abdominal aortic aneurysm, thoracic aortic aneurysm and intracranial aneurysm. Most types of ... An aneurysm is a localized enlargement of arteries, characterized by a balloon-like bulge. It results from the abnormal ... D. (2014). "Aneurysm". AccessScience. doi:10.1036/1097-8542.034100. Cooke, John P; Marshall, Janice M (3 September 2016). " ... Mironov, A (20 July 2009). "026 Pathogenetic factors and management of distal dissecting brain aneurysms". Journal of ...
"Selective cerebral perfusion during operation for aneurysms of the aortic arch: a reassessment". The Annals of Thoracic Surgery ... "Selective cerebral perfusion during operation for aneurysms of the aortic arch: a reassessment". The Annals of Thoracic Surgery ...
"Selective cerebral perfusion during operation for aneurysms of the aortic arch: a reassessment". The Annals of Thoracic Surgery ...
"Selective cerebral perfusion during operation for aneurysms of the aortic arch: a reassessment". The Annals of Thoracic Surgery ...
Journal of the American College of Cardiology Endovascular Versus Open Repair of Intact Descending Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms J ... "Endovascular vs Open Repair of Intact Descending Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms". PracticeUpdate. Retrieved 2021-04-09.{{cite web ... aortic arch, and complex abdominal aortic aneurysms. Oderich is also specialized and involved in the sponsored device trials ... The center developed research in endovascular repair of dissections and aortic aneurysms using such devices, with a significant ...
A thoracic aortic aneurysm is an aortic aneurysm that presents primarily in the thorax. A thoracic aortic aneurysm is the " ... However, a syphilitic aneurysm is more likely to be a thoracic aortic aneurysm than an abdominal aortic aneurysm. This ... Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm at eMedicine Aneurysms: Aneurysms and Aortic Dissection at Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy Home ... Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Archived 2012-05-02 at the Wayback Machine Bret P Nelson (2015-10-01). "Thoracic Aneurysm". Medscape. ...
An aneurysm is an abnormal widening or ballooning of a portion of an artery due to weakness in the wall of the blood vessel. ... A thoracic aortic aneurysm occurs in the part of the bodys largest artery (the aorta) that passes through the chest. ... Most thoracic aortic aneurysms are detected on imaging tests performed for other reasons. These tests include chest x-ray, ... The most common cause of a thoracic aortic aneurysm is hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis). This condition is more ...
By definition, an aneurysm is a localized or diffuse dilation of an artery with a diameter at least 50% greater than the normal ... encoded search term (Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm) and Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm What to Read Next on Medscape ... Aneurysmal degeneration that occurs in the thoracic aorta is termed a thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA). Aneurysms that coexist in ... Endovascular treatment of thoracic aortic aneurysms: results of the phase II multicenter trial of the GORE TAG thoracic ...
... or aneurysm, because the artery wall has become weakened. Left untreated, the aneurysm can tear or burst, causing death. ... A thoracic aortic aneurysm occurs when the aorta, the main artery that brings blood to the body, has an outpouching, ... A thoracic aortic aneurysm occurs when the aorta, the main artery that brings blood to the body, has an outpouching, or ... To repair aneurysms farther away from the heart, an aortic endograft can often be used. A graft is inserted through a small ...
Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm (TAA). Thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAA) can develop in the upper part of the aorta that runs through ... thoracic aortic aneurysms or aneurysms that are rapidly growing or leaking will require surgical repair. Depending on the shape ... Untreated thoracic aortic aneurysms could lead to congestive heart failure or a fatal rupture. If you suddenly experience these ... The size and location of your thoracic aortic aneurysm as well as your age and overall health will indicate the best treatment ...
Cerebrospinal fluid drainage for thoracic and thoracic abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery. An aneurysm is a local bulging of a ... To determine the effect of CSFD during thoracic and thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA) surgery on the risk of developing ... Khan SN, Stansby G. Cerebrospinal fluid drainage for thoracic and thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm surgery. Cochrane Database ... Surgery for an aortic aneurysm requires clamping the aorta, the biggest artery in the body. This reduces the supply of blood ...
... underwent descending thoracic aortic aneurysm repair. Of these, 142 patients (71.71%) had symptoms. In most patients (n = 123 [ ... Results of contemporary surgical treatment of descending thoracic aortic aneurysms: experience in 198 patients Ann Vasc Surg. ... underwent descending thoracic aortic aneurysm repair. Of these, 142 patients (71.71%) had symptoms. In most patients (n = 123 [ ... the simple clamp procedure remains the technique of choice in the majority of patients with descending aortic aneurysms. ...
Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms. What is a thoracic aortic aneurysm?. The aorta is the largest blood vessel in the body. It delivers ... What causes a thoracic aortic aneurysm to form?. Different disease processes can cause thoracic aortic aneurysms including:. * ... "Thoracic" refers to the part of the aorta that runs through the chest (thoracic aortic aneurysm). Aneurysms occur more often in ... Treatment for a thoracic aneurysm may include surgical repair or removal of the aneurysm, or inserting a metal mesh coil (stent ...
Types of Aortic Aneurysms. Location. An aortic aneurysm (AA) may only affect the thoracic aorta (TA), abdominal aorta (AAA) or ... Aortic Aneurysm (AA) - Thoracic, Abdominal Types of Aneurysms. Posted by Dr. Chris ... Most aortic aneurysms develop in the abdominal aorta and are known as abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). ... aortic aneurysm. This may involve the thoracic aorta, the part of the aorta which arises from the heart, curves and run ...
... ... that frequently presents with ascending aortic aneurysm (AscAA). BAV/AscAA shows autosomal dominant inheritance with incomplete ... Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is a common congenital heart defect (population incidence, 1-2%) ...
Distal landing zone outcomes in thoracic endovascular aortic aneurysm repair with challenging morphology : a propensity-matched ... Distal landing zone outcomes in thoracic endovascular aortic aneurysm repair with challenging morphology : a propensity-matched ... BACKGROUND: To evaluate the distal landing zone (LZ) outcomes in adverse morphology after thoracic endovascular repair (TEVAR) ... BACKGROUND: To evaluate the distal landing zone (LZ) outcomes in adverse morphology after thoracic endovascular repair (TEVAR) ...
Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms - Learn about the causes, symptoms, diagnosis & treatment from the MSD Manuals - Medical Consumer ... What is a thoracic aortic aneurysm? Thoracic has to do with the chest (thorax). The aorta is the main blood vessel (artery) ... An aneurysm is a bulge in an artery wall. A thoracic aortic aneurysm is a bulge in the part of your aorta that passes through ... How do doctors treat a thoracic aortic aneurysm? Doctors will check on the size of your aneurysm every 6 to 12 months with a CT ...
Outcomes of Open Versus Endovascular Repair of Descending Thoracic and Thoracoabdominal Aortic Aneurysms. Annals of Thoracic ... Outcomes of Open Versus Endovascular Repair of Descending Thoracic and Thoracoabdominal Aortic Aneurysms. Annals of Thoracic ... Outcomes of Open Versus Endovascular Repair of Descending Thoracic and Thoracoabdominal Aortic Aneurysms, Annals of Thoracic ... Outcomes of Open Versus Endovascular Repair of Descending Thoracic and Thoracoabdominal Aortic Aneurysms. In: Annals of ...
By definition, an aneurysm is a localized or diffuse dilation of an artery with a diameter at least 50% greater than the normal ... encoded search term (Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm) and Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm What to Read Next on Medscape ... Aneurysmal degeneration that occurs in the thoracic aorta is termed a thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA). Aneurysms that coexist in ... Endovascular treatment of thoracic aortic aneurysms: results of the phase II multicenter trial of the GORE TAG thoracic ...
... the classic cause of thoracic aortic aneurysms, is thankfully uncommon today.. The most frequent cause of Aortic Aneurysms is ... Advanced syphilis, the classic cause of thoracic aortic aneurysms, is thankfully uncommon today. ... Advanced syphilis, the classic cause of thoracic aortic aneurysms, is thankfully uncommon today. ... You can see the aneurysm here as a bulge in the thoracic aorta. Atherosclerosis is usually more severe distally in the aorta, ...
... thoracic aortic aneurysm surgery mortality , aortic aneurysm surgery mortality rate , thoracic aortic aneurysm surv ... thoracic aortic aneurysm surgery success rate. 1.14. 0.1. 8279. 77. survival rate of aortic aneurysm surgery. 0.65. 0.2. 847. ... thoracic aortic aneurysm repair survival rate. 1.13. 0.3. 2266. 66. thoracic aneurysm surgery survival rate. 0.94. 0.7. 7685. 3 ... aortic heart aneurysm surgery survival rate. 1.55. 0.3. 7365. 37. thoracic aortic aneurysm rupture survival. 1.53. 0.7. 4485. ...
A person can develop a thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) if the upper part of their aorta is weak. An aneurysm can lead to tearing ... aneurysmaortic arteryEndovascular TreatmentTAATEVARThoracic Aortic Aneurysmvascular surgery ... A person can develop a thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA) if the upper part of their aorta is weak. An aneurysm can lead to tearing ... Most of the cases the aneurysms are identified when the patient is being tested for other reasons. A thoracic aortic aneurysm ...
Consider to have your surgery at a major medical center and a surgeon with extensive experience with thoracic aortic surgery. ... On 2-12-13 I found I have an aorta aneurysm located on the ascending aorta measuring 3.9cm at the level of the pulmonary ... While general recommendations are indeed to advice aortic root replacement when the ascending aorta reaches a size of 5cm ... except that my mother died for a ruptured aneurysm which was too small for treatment. There were extenuating circumstances with ...
Mr Maziar Mireskandari at Chelsea Vascular Clinic in London offers treatment for thoracic aortic aneurysm. He also offers ...
An aneurysm is a serious, life-threatening condition and often does not show symptoms. Learn more about this condition and when ... Abdominal and Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms An aneurysm is a severe and life-threatening condition and often does not show symptoms ... What Causes Aneurysms in the Aorta? The exact cause of thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysms remains unknown, but the ... What Is Aortic Aneurysm? An aortic aneurysm is the bulging and ballooning in the aorta, the large artery that carries blood ...
Aortic Aneurysm. (AAA; Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm; Aneurysm, Abdominal Aortic; Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm; Aneurysm, Thoracic ... Thoracic aortic aneurysm. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/condition/thoracic-aortic-aneurysm. ... Abdominal aortic aneurysms. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2018;4(1):34.. Screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm: recommendation ... In some thoracic aneurysms-the aortic valve or other nearby vessels are replaced or repaired. ...
... aortic aneurysms and aortic dissection. Aortic dissections most commonly originate in the ascending aorta above the aortic ... GeneTests). An intense sharp pain in the chest is the most common symptom of aortic dissection. Familial TAAD is diagnosed ... Ann Thorac Surg 82:1400-5, 2006). Aortic imaging is recommended in first degree relatives of individuals with TAAD (Milewicz et ... Thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection (TAAD) is a life-threatening disease affecting the aorta and is the 15th leading cause ...
Learn about aortic aneurysms, a balloon-like bulge in the aorta that can dissect or rupture. ... Thoracic Aortic Aneurysms A thoracic aortic aneurysm happens in the chest. Men and women are equally likely to get thoracic ... Abdominal aortic aneurysms happen more often than thoracic aortic aneurysms.. Abdominal aortic aneurysms are more common in men ... A thoracic aortic aneurysm happens in the chest. An abdominal aortic aneurysm, which is more common, happens below the chest. ...
Concomitant or previous abdominal aortic aneurysm repair and long segment thoracic aortic exclusion appear to be important risk ... Concomitant or previous abdominal aortic aneurysm repair and long segment thoracic aortic exclusion appear to be important risk ... Concomitant or previous abdominal aortic aneurysm repair and long segment thoracic aortic exclusion appear to be important risk ... Concomitant or previous abdominal aortic aneurysm repair and long segment thoracic aortic exclusion appear to be important risk ...
3D geometric reconstruction of thoracic aortic aneurysms. , BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING ONLINE, Vol: 5, ISSN: 1475-925X *Author Web ... BackgroundAbdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a dilatation of the aortic wall, which can rupture, if left untreated. Previous ... Fluid-structure interaction in patient specific models of the abdominal aortic aneurysm. , Proceedings of the 2005 Summer ... Fluid structure interaction of patient specific abdominal aortic aneurysms: a comparison with solid stress models. , Biomedical ...
Loss-of-function mutations in TGFB2 cause a syndromic presentation of thoracic aortic aneurysm Bart Loeys and colleagues ... Two new studies show that haploinsufficiency for TGFB2 causes a familial syndrome of thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections ... TGFB2 mutations cause familial thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections associated with mild systemic features of Marfan ... identification of loss-of-function mutations in TGFB2 in individuals with familial thoracic aortic aneurysm and acute aortic ...
Information sent through the contact form should not be a substitute for seeking medical care for an urgent or emergency situations. Emergency or urgent situations requiring immediate medical attention should be directed to 911 or the number for the local emergency ambulance service.. Please access our Secure Patient Portal. 1) To obtain information regarding your bill ...
Aneurysm location. Thoracic aorta. 1. 1. 0. Thoracoabdominal aorta. 1. 0. 1. ... Determining Infected Aortic Aneurysm Treatment Using Focused Detection of Helicobacter cinaedi Saito Jien. , Rimbara Emiko, ... Demographic and clinical variables of 10 patients with infected aortic aneurysms with or without Helicobacter cinaedi, Aichi, ... Determining Infected Aortic Aneurysm Treatment Using Focused Detection of Helicobacter cinaedi. ...
Machine learning may help identify people at risk of thoracic aortic aneurysm The results could also lead to new strategies to ...
An aortic aneurysm is a bulging, weakened area in the wall of the aorta. ... Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm and Aortic Dissection. What is a thoracic aortic aneurysm?. The aorta is the largest blood vessel in ... What causes a thoracic aortic aneurysm?. Different diseases that can cause thoracic aortic aneurysms include: * Degenerative ... What are the possible complications of a thoracic aneurysm? A serious complication of a thoracic aortic aneurysm is an aortic ...
  • Untreated or unrecognized they can be fatal due to dissection or "popping" of the aneurysm leading to nearly instant death. (wikipedia.org)
  • The principal causes of death due to thoracic aneurysmal disease are dissection and rupture. (wikipedia.org)
  • Younger patients may develop aortic aneurysms of the thoracoabdominal aorta after an aortic dissection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Atherosclerosis is the principal cause of descending aortic aneurysms, while aneurysms of the aortic arch may be due to dissection, atherosclerosis, or inflammation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among the recommendations: First-degree relatives of people with thoracic aortic aneurysm or dissection should have aortic imaging to identify asymptomatic disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • People with symptoms suggestive of thoracic aortic dissection should be routinely evaluated "to establish a pretest risk of disease that can then be used to guide diagnostic decisions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm at eMedicine Aneurysms: Aneurysms and Aortic Dissection at Merck Manual of Diagnosis and Therapy Home Edition Golledge, J. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blood leaks along the wall of the aorta (aortic dissection). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Dissection is another condition that may affect the thoracic aorta. (medscape.com)
  • The dissection can also progress proximally, to involve the aortic sinus, aortic valve, and coronary arteries. (medscape.com)
  • Dissection should not be termed dissecting aneurysm, because it can occur with or without aneurysmal enlargement of the aorta. (medscape.com)
  • Patients who have suffered an aortic dissection (a tear in the aorta) can also develop TAA. (enh.org)
  • Thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection (TAAD) is a life-threatening disease affecting the aorta and is the 15th leading cause of death in the United States (Hoyert et al. (preventiongenetics.com)
  • The major manifestations of TAAD include dilatation of the aorta, aortic aneurysms and aortic dissection. (preventiongenetics.com)
  • An intense sharp pain in the chest is the most common symptom of aortic dissection. (preventiongenetics.com)
  • Familial TAAD is diagnosed based on the presence of dilatation and/or dissection of the thoracic aorta using imaging studies (MRI, echocardiography, CT), the absence of syndromic conditions that have clinical features the overlap with familial TAAD, such as Marfan syndrome, Loeys-Dietz syndrome and vascular Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, and a positive family history. (preventiongenetics.com)
  • In 2019, about 59% of deaths due to aortic aneurysm or aortic dissection happen among men. (cdc.gov)
  • Ascending thoracic aortic aneurysm (ATAA) is caused by the progressive weakening and dilatation of the aortic wall and can lead to aortic dissection, rupture, and other life-threatening complications. (nih.gov)
  • Non-syndromal thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection (ns-TAAD) is a genetic aortopathy, with uncertain incidence. (bairdinstitute.org.au)
  • There were 270 ns-TAAD probands (74% males), including 116 (43%) presenting with aortic dissection. (bairdinstitute.org.au)
  • Up to 1 in 6 patients undergoing aortic surgery have features of ns-TAAD, frequently presenting as aortic dissection but at later age than other genetic aortopathies. (bairdinstitute.org.au)
  • Predicting the risk of rupture or dissection based upon aortic dimension is possible. (rbht.nhs.uk)
  • Aortic aneurysm and dissection have recently been linked to fluoroquinolone treatment. (medsafe.govt.nz)
  • People at risk of aortic aneurysm and dissection include those with a family history of aneurysm, pre-existing aortic aneurysm and/or dissection, genetic predisposition, atherosclerosis, hypertension and advanced age. (medsafe.govt.nz)
  • Avoid using fluoroquinolones in people at risk of aortic aneurysm and dissection. (medsafe.govt.nz)
  • Fluoroquinolones, including ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and moxifloxacin, are associated with an increased risk of aortic aneurysm and aortic dissection. (medsafe.govt.nz)
  • What is aortic aneurysm and dissection? (medsafe.govt.nz)
  • Aortic aneurysm is a localised or diffuse dilation of the aorta, while aortic dissection occurs when there is separation of the layers within the aortic wall 1 . (medsafe.govt.nz)
  • The Medicines Adverse Reactions Committee (MARC) discussed the risk of aortic aneurysm and dissection associated with fluoroquinolones at the June 2019 meeting 5 . (medsafe.govt.nz)
  • Risk factors include a family history of aneurysm disease, pre-existing aortic aneurysm and/or aortic dissection and atherosclerosis. (medsafe.govt.nz)
  • Up to 31 March 2019, the Centre for Adverse Reactions Monitoring (CARM) had not received any local reports of aortic aneurysm or dissection associated with fluoroquinolone use. (medsafe.govt.nz)
  • Regulators overseas have issued warnings about the risk of aortic aneurysm and dissection associated with fluoroquinolones. (medsafe.govt.nz)
  • if patients have risk factors for aneurysm or dissection, only prescribe fluoroquinolones after careful benefit-risk assessment and after consideration of other therapeutic options. (medsafe.govt.nz)
  • please provide information/advice to the general practitioner if screening shows a patient has the potential for developing an aneurysm or dissection 5 . (medsafe.govt.nz)
  • Fluoroquinolone use and risk of aortic aneurysm and dissection: nationwide cohort study. (medsafe.govt.nz)
  • 2015. Risk of aortic dissection and aortic aneurysm in patients taking oral fluoroquinolone. (medsafe.govt.nz)
  • 2018. Oral fluoroquinolone and the risk of aortic dissection. (medsafe.govt.nz)
  • Another condition, an aortic dissection, occurs when a portion of the aortic lining tears. (imaginis.com)
  • Aortic dissection accompanies aortic aneurysm in some cases. (imaginis.com)
  • The risk of rupture from aortic dissection is more substantial than from aortic aneurysm. (imaginis.com)
  • When the walls of an aortic aneurysm split and allow blood to leak out, it's known as a dissection. (uclahealth.org)
  • Acute aortic dissection (AAD) is one of the "big four" deadly threats in emergency department (ED) patients presenting with chest pain-the other three being acute coronary syndrome , pulmonary embolus , and pericarditis /tamponade. (medscape.com)
  • [ 1 ] Cardiovascular end-organ damage may include myocardial ischemia/infarction, acute left ventricular dysfunction, acute pulmonary edema, and/or aortic dissection. (medscape.com)
  • BP should not only be measured in both the supine position and the standing position (assess volume depletion), but it should also be measured in both arms (a significant difference may suggest aortic dissection). (medscape.com)
  • The aneurysm tears open (called a rupture). (medlineplus.gov)
  • There is a risk that the aneurysm may open up (rupture) if you do not have surgery to repair it. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Untreated thoracic aortic aneurysms could lead to congestive heart failure or a fatal rupture. (enh.org)
  • An aneurysm is a local bulging of a blood vessel that carries a risk of rupture. (cochrane.org)
  • Treatment for a thoracic aneurysm may include surgical repair or removal of the aneurysm, or inserting a metal mesh coil (stent) to support the blood vessel and prevent rupture. (sarahbush.org)
  • The chances of a small and slow-growing TAA rupturing are less compared to large, fast-growing aneurysms which may rupture anytime. (narayanahealth.org)
  • Although most abdominal aortic aneurysms are asymptomatic at the time of diagnosis, the most common complication remains life-threatening rupture with hemorrhage. (medscape.com)
  • Estes' 1950 report revealed that the 3-y survival rate for patients with untreated abdominal aortic aneurysms was only 50%, with two thirds of deaths resulting from aneurysmal rupture. (medscape.com)
  • Both aneurysms may not cause noticeable symptoms until they rupture, leak or become larger. (baptistmedicalnetwork.com)
  • These aneurysms are less likely to rupture or dissect than aortic aneurysms, but they can form blood clots. (cdc.gov)
  • Therefore, fluoroquinolones may degrade the collagen along the aortic wall in a similar way to the collagen in tendons and, as such, contribute to progression or rupture of an aneurysm 1-3 . (medsafe.govt.nz)
  • The risk of rupture is high if the abdominal aneurysm is more than four centimeters or the thoracic aneurysm is less than six centimeters. (imaginis.com)
  • The balloonlike bulge of an aneurysm can also burst, which is known as a rupture. (uclahealth.org)
  • Atherosclerosis and abdominal aortic aneurysm: Cause, response or common risk factors? (wikipedia.org)
  • The most common cause of a thoracic aortic aneurysm is hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis). (medlineplus.gov)
  • The most frequent cause of Aortic Aneurysms is atherosclerosis. (blogspot.com)
  • Abdominal aortic aneurysms are usually caused by atherosclerosis (hardened arteries), but infection or injury can also cause them. (cdc.gov)
  • Aortic aneurysms are believed to be caused by the gradual weakening of the artery due to atherosclerosis, arterial narrowing and hardening from cholesterol plaque build-up. (imaginis.com)
  • Indication for surgery may depend upon the size of the aneurysm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aneurysms in the ascending aorta may require surgery at a smaller size than aneurysms in the descending aorta. (wikipedia.org)
  • Surgery to replace the aorta is recommended if an aneurysm is larger than 5 to 6 centimeters (approximately 2 inches). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Major surgery is done to replace the aorta with a fabric graft if the aneurysm is larger than 6 centimeters (2.3 inches). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Traditional surgery involves opening the chest, especially if the aneurysm is near the heart, has grown large, or is causing symptoms (although most patients will not have symptoms). (bmc.org)
  • Surgery for an aortic aneurysm requires clamping the aorta, the biggest artery in the body. (cochrane.org)
  • There are limited data supporting the role of CSFD in thoracic and thoracoabdominal aneurysm surgery for prevention of neurological injury. (cochrane.org)
  • During aortic aneurysm surgery, cross-clamping can lead to inadequate blood supply to the spinal cord resulting in neurological deficit. (cochrane.org)
  • To determine the effect of CSFD during thoracic and thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA) surgery on the risk of developing spinal cord injury. (cochrane.org)
  • For this update the Cochrane Peripheral Vascular Diseases Group Trials Search Co-ordinator searched the Specialised Register (last searched May 31 2012) and CENTRAL (2012, Issue 5) for publications describing randomised controlled trials of cerebrospinal fluid drainage for thoracic and thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm surgery. (cochrane.org)
  • Randomised trials involving CSFD during thoracic and TAAA surgery. (cochrane.org)
  • If you have a larger aneurysm, you'll need surgery. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Doctors may do surgery to insert a tube (graft) into your aorta to repair the aneurysm. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Which surgery you have depends on your age, health, and where your aneurysm is in your aorta. (msdmanuals.com)
  • If your aneurysm bursts or is about to burst, emergency surgery to fix it may save your life. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Annals of Thoracic Surgery , 113 (4), 1144-1152. (northwestern.edu)
  • Constant monitoring is a standard for smaller aneurysms that do not require surgery. (narayanahealth.org)
  • Thoracic aortic aneurysm repair which is a conventional surgery is done under full anaesthesia. (narayanahealth.org)
  • Thoracic aortic endograft repair (TEVAR) achieves almost the same results as open surgery but with much less damage to the body. (narayanahealth.org)
  • Unfortunately, not all aneurysms are of a suitable shape and some patients will need the traditional open surgery or a more modern method that combines TEVAR with debranching- a hybrid procedure. (narayanahealth.org)
  • Consider to have your surgery at a major medical center and a surgeon with extensive experience with thoracic aortic surgery. (cardiachealth.org)
  • Surgery called (aneurysmectomy) -Part of the aorta (with the aneurysm) is removed. (epnet.com)
  • A ruptured aneurysm requires immediate surgery. (baptistmedicalnetwork.com)
  • A small aneurysm that is not causing any symptoms may not need surgery. (baptistmedicalnetwork.com)
  • Surgery is usually done when the aneurysm is medium-sized (bigger than 5 centimeters across) or growing quickly to prevent complications from developing. (baptistmedicalnetwork.com)
  • The two main treatments for aortic aneurysms are medicines and surgery . (cdc.gov)
  • Treatment for a thoracic aneurysm may include surgery to fix or remove the aneurysm. (baptisthealth.net)
  • Abraha I, Romagnoli C, Montedori A et al (2009) Thoracic stent graft versus surgery for thoracic aneurysm. (springer.com)
  • Consecutive series of 2385 patients with aortic disease in prospective registry (2000 to 2014), including 675 undergoing surgery. (bairdinstitute.org.au)
  • Notably, Ross is also a post-operative recipient of valve-sparing aortic root replacement surgery, provided by Prof. Bannon and his team at Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney. (bairdinstitute.org.au)
  • Large, unstable aneurysms typically require surgery. (uclahealth.org)
  • A thoracic aorta greater than 4.5 cm is generally defined as aneurysmal, while a size greater than 5.5 cm is the distinction for treatment, which can be either endovascular or surgical, with the former reserved for pathology at the descending aorta. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Open surgical repair remains the gold standard for thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm treatment, particularly in patients with connective tissues disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Acher CW, Wynn M. Thoracic and thoracoabdominal aneurysms: open surgical treatment. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Treatment of AAAs, TAAAs, and TAAs involves surgical repair in good-risk patients with aneurysms that have reached a size sufficient to warrant repair. (medscape.com)
  • Minimally Invasive Endovascular Repair (TEVAR procedure) -Medium to large (2 inches or 5.0 centimeters and larger), thoracic aortic aneurysms or aneurysms that are rapidly growing or leaking will require surgical repair. (enh.org)
  • Fenestrated endovascular aortic repair (FEVAR) and thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) are both tried and tested minimally invasive surgical methods for treating thoracic aortic aneurysms respectively. (springer.com)
  • In this study, two cases with giant thoracic aortic aneurysm were reported where massive doses of allogeneic PG were used to spray the thoracic aortic aneurysm wall suture wrapped in artificial blood vessels, tumors blood vessel wall anastomotic site, and incision site of surgical operation. (apjbg.com)
  • citation needed] There are a number of causes, Aneurysms in patients younger than 40 usually involve the ascending aorta due to a weakening of the aortic wall associated with connective tissue disorders like the Marfan and Ehler-Danlos syndromes or congenital bicuspid aortic valve. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is a common congenital heart defect (population incidence, 1-2%) that frequently presents with ascending aortic aneurysm (AscAA). (fondationleducq.org)
  • This is mainly true for people who were born with a bicuspid aortic valve, meaning the aortic valve has only two cusps instead of three. (narayanahealth.org)
  • It is recommended to visit a vascular surgeon once a year or in 6 months, depending on the size of the aneurysm - for a CT scan or MRI to check its status and growth. (narayanahealth.org)
  • The specific approach depends on two things -- the size of the aneurysm and how quickly it is growing. (uclahealth.org)
  • Dissections and ruptures are the cause of most deaths from aortic aneurysms. (cdc.gov)
  • A fusiform (or true) aneurysm has a uniform shape with a symmetrical dilatation that involves the entire circumference of the aortic wall. (medscape.com)
  • An aneurysm is an abnormal dilatation of a blood vessel which is localized to one portion of the vessel. (healthhype.com)
  • The arterial wall thins as result of destruction of the media and a localized dilatation occurs (aneurysm). (blogspot.com)
  • Family screening identifies affected relatives in up to half of ns-TAAD probands, many of whom already have significant aortic dilatation. (bairdinstitute.org.au)
  • An abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of the DESCENDING THORACIC AORTA. (bvsalud.org)
  • Two new studies show that haploinsufficiency for TGFB2 causes a familial syndrome of thoracic aortic aneurysms and dissections with other clinical features that overlap the Marfan, Loeys-Dietz spectrum of syndromes. (nature.com)
  • F Familial thoracic aortic aneurysm (FTAA) is more common than previously recognised and has an indolent growth pattern that is silent but lethal. (rbht.nhs.uk)
  • Boston Medical Center's cardiac and vascular surgeons specialize in the minimally invasive treatment of thoracic aortic aneurysms. (bmc.org)
  • We have decades of experience caring for patients with aneurysms as part of our Aneurysm Program, pioneering minimally invasive treatments and leading research for new treatments to improve patient outcomes. (baptisthealth.net)
  • Aneurysms occur more often in the portion of the aorta that runs through the abdomen (abdominal aortic aneurysm). (sarahbush.org)
  • The part of the descending aorta that runs through the chest (thoracic cavity) is known as the thoracic aorta while the part that runs below the diaphragm, through the abdomen is known as the abdominal aorta. (healthhype.com)
  • This may involve the thoracic aorta , the part of the aorta which arises from the heart, curves and run downwards in the thoracic cavity, or the abdominal aorta , the part of the aorta which runs through the abdomen. (healthhype.com)
  • So most atherosclerotic aneurysms occur in the abdomen, although the pulse pressure is actually higher in the chest. (blogspot.com)
  • Most aneurysms occur in the aorta, the main artery that carries blood away from the heart to the abdomen, pelvis and legs. (baptistmedicalnetwork.com)
  • Aneurysms occur more often in the part of the aorta that runs through the belly or abdomen (abdominal aortic aneurysm). (baptisthealth.net)
  • A thoracic aortic aneurysm occurs in the part of the body's largest artery (the aorta) that passes through the chest. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Aneurysmal degeneration that occurs in the thoracic aorta is termed a thoracic aortic aneurysm (TAA). (medscape.com)
  • A thoracic aortic aneurysm occurs when the aorta, the main artery that brings blood to the body, has an outpouching, or aneurysm, because the artery wall has become weakened. (bmc.org)
  • TAA occurs in the parts of the aorta that runs through the thoracic cavity in the chest area, including the section of the aorta that extends from the heart's upper chambers (atria) to the diaphragm. (baptistmedicalnetwork.com)
  • Diagnosis of an aortic aneurysm often occurs as it did with your dad -- in the course of an examination for another condition. (uclahealth.org)
  • Advanced syphilis, the classic cause of thoracic aortic aneurysms, is thankfully uncommon today. (blogspot.com)
  • Simultaneously, Gross et al successfully used allografts to treat complex thoracic aortic coarctations, including those with aneurysmal involvement. (medscape.com)
  • He also runs the aorto -vascular multidisciplinary clinic along with heart surgeons, managing patients with extensive and complex thoracic aortic pathology. (guysandstthomas.nhs.uk)
  • Arch aneurysms are as the name implies. (medscape.com)
  • Midterm Outcomes of Endovascular Repair of Aortic Arch Aneurysms with the Gore Thoracic Branch Endoprosthesis. (bvsalud.org)
  • Diseases and unhealthy behaviors that damage your heart and blood vessels also increase your risk for aortic aneurysm. (cdc.gov)
  • Other causes include hypertension (high blood pressure), Marfan syndrome (genetic connective tissue disease), infectious diseases such as syphilis or tuberculosis, or possibly a genetic predisposition in the case of abdominal aortic aneurysm. (imaginis.com)
  • Thoracic aortic diseases, including disease of the descending thoracic aorta (DTA), are significant causes of death in the United States. (bvsalud.org)
  • An aneurysm is a balloon or bulge at one area of the artery wall. (healthhype.com)
  • With a false aneurysm, blood collects between the media and adventitia thereby causing the adventitia to bulge. (healthhype.com)
  • An aneurysm is a bulge in an artery wall. (msdmanuals.com)
  • You can see the aneurysm here as a bulge in the thoracic aorta. (blogspot.com)
  • A chest CT scan shows the size of the aorta and the exact location of the aneurysm. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAA) can develop in the upper part of the aorta that runs through the chest cavity. (enh.org)
  • The procedure involves making an incision in your chest to gain access to the damaged area of your thoracic aorta. (enh.org)
  • Thoracic" refers to the part of the aorta that runs through the chest (thoracic aortic aneurysm). (sarahbush.org)
  • Thoracic has to do with the chest (thorax). (msdmanuals.com)
  • Through an incision along the side of the chest, using special tools, the vascular surgeon stops blood flow in the aorta above and below the aneurysm. (narayanahealth.org)
  • An aortic aneurysm is the bulging and ballooning in the aorta, the large artery that carries blood from the heart through the torso and chest. (baptistmedicalnetwork.com)
  • An abdominal aortic aneurysm, which is more common, happens below the chest. (cdc.gov)
  • Patients may also suffer thoracic aneurysms (in the chest cavity). (imaginis.com)
  • A chest x-ray images the heart and surrounding thoracic anatomy, shows heart size and shape, and reveals whether the heart is misshapen or enlarged due to disease. (imaginis.com)
  • Most people have no symptoms until the aneurysm begins to leak or expand. (medlineplus.gov)
  • What are the symptoms of a thoracic aortic aneurysm? (msdmanuals.com)
  • You may not have symptoms, even if your aneurysm is very big. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Many aneurysms do not have symptoms. (epnet.com)
  • Symptoms depend on the size and site of the aneurysm. (epnet.com)
  • An aneurysm is a severe and life-threatening condition and often does not show symptoms. (baptistmedicalnetwork.com)
  • Since aneurysms do not usually cause symptoms, unruptured aneurysms are often diagnosed during tests or exams for other health conditions. (baptistmedicalnetwork.com)
  • The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommends that men 65 to 75 years old who have ever smoked should get an ultrasound screening for abdominal aortic aneurysms, even if they have no symptoms. (cdc.gov)
  • Abdominal aortic aneurysms often don't have any symptoms. (cdc.gov)
  • Thoracic aortic aneurysms may not cause symptoms. (baptisthealth.net)
  • When symptoms do occur, they may be related to the location and size, and how fast the aneurysm is growing. (baptisthealth.net)
  • The symptoms of a thoracic aortic aneurysm may look like other condition. (baptisthealth.net)
  • Aortic dissections most commonly originate in the ascending aorta above the aortic valve (Stanford type A), but also can occur in the descending aorta (Standford type B). Aneurysms in the cerebral and peripheral artery and abdominal aorta have also been observed (Milewicz et al. (preventiongenetics.com)
  • Aortic aneurysms or aortic dissections were the cause of 9,904 deaths in 2019. (cdc.gov)
  • An aortic aneurysm is a bulging, weakened area in the wall of the aorta. (sarahbush.org)
  • Dear Doctor: My dad was having an ultrasound because it seemed like he might have kidney stones, and they found what the doctor thinks might be a small aortic aneurysm. (uclahealth.org)
  • Depending on the shape and location of your TAA, your NorthShore physician may recommend a TEVAR (thoracic endovascular repair) procedure for your aneurysm. (enh.org)
  • BACKGROUND: To evaluate the distal landing zone (LZ) outcomes in adverse morphology after thoracic endovascular repair (TEVAR) with distal active fixation (DAF) stent-grafts compared with standard endografts. (lu.se)
  • To repair aneurysms farther away from the heart, an aortic endograft can often be used. (bmc.org)
  • Complications after aneurysm stenting include damage to the blood vessels supplying the leg, which may require another operation. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This is an X-ray image of the blood vessels that is used to assess conditions such as aneurysm, narrowing of the blood vessel, or blockages. (baptisthealth.net)
  • Aneurysm where there is ballooning of a portion of the artery wall. (healthhype.com)
  • An aneurysm is caused by weakening of the artery wall which may be a result of the following contributing factors or disorders. (healthhype.com)
  • The shape of an aortic aneurysm is either saccular or fusiform. (medscape.com)
  • Saccular aneurysms involve a bulging of only portion of the vessel wall, whereas fusiform aneurysms involve the entire circumference of a vessel wall. (healthhype.com)
  • A saccular aneurysm may vary from 5 to 20 centimeters (cm) while a fusiform aneurysm can reach 20 centimeters in diameter. (healthhype.com)
  • Aortic aneurysms may be further classified as either fusiform (the aneurysm bulges in equal proportions and tapers at the ends, often seen in the lower abnormal aortic section) or saccular (the aneurysm bulges in only a portion of the aortic wall, often seen above the heart). (imaginis.com)
  • An aortic aneurysm (AA) may only affect the thoracic aorta (TA), abdominal aorta (AAA) or coexist in both segments of the aorta (TAA / thoracoabdominal aneurysm). (healthhype.com)
  • The treatment depends on the location of the aneurysm. (medlineplus.gov)
  • But a less invasive approach is also available depending on the location of the aneurysm. (bmc.org)
  • mean age 63.85 years) underwent descending thoracic aortic aneurysm repair. (nih.gov)
  • Background: Open repair is the standard of care for patients with descending thoracic and thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms. (northwestern.edu)
  • Endovascular stent grafts were introduced to treat these aneurysms in patients considered too high risk for open repair. (northwestern.edu)
  • Therefore, we sought to compare short- and intermediate-term outcomes of open vs endovascular repair for these aneurysms. (northwestern.edu)
  • Methods: From 2000 to 2010, 1053 patients underwent open (n = 457) or endovascular (n = 596) repair of descending thoracic and thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysms at Cleveland Clinic. (northwestern.edu)
  • Conclusions: Open repair of descending thoracic and thoracoabdominal aneurysms can achieve acceptable short-term outcomes with better intermediate-term outcomes than endovascular repair. (northwestern.edu)
  • The procedure is known as thoracic aortic aneurysm repair. (narayanahealth.org)
  • The goal of treatment is to repair the aortic aneurysm. (epnet.com)
  • Spinal cord ischemia after endovascular repair of thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAAs) has also been reported. (mssm.edu)
  • Both of these patients had previous abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, and both required long grafts to exclude an extensive area of their thoracic aortas. (mssm.edu)
  • Concomitant or previous abdominal aortic aneurysm repair and long segment thoracic aortic exclusion appear to be important risk factors. (mssm.edu)
  • Avishay DM, Reimon JD (2020) Abdominal aortic repair. (springer.com)
  • Improved prognosis of thoracic aortic aneurysms: a population-based study. (cdc.gov)
  • Mechanical design of measuring devices and development of test protocols for measuring the mechanical properties of materials capable of mimicking aortic tissue. (inegi.pt)
  • most aortic aneurysms (AAs) occur in the abdominal aorta and thus are termed abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). (medscape.com)
  • Most aortic aneurysms develop in the abdominal aorta and are known as abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). (healthhype.com)
  • At NorthShore, our vascular specialists ely on their vast clinical knowledge to accurately screen and diagnose patients with thoracic aortic aneurysms and employ the latest imaging tools when necessary. (enh.org)
  • Please call 847.663.8050 for more information on thoracic aortic aneuryms or to schedule an appointment with one of our vascular specialists. (enh.org)
  • Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) is an aortic aneurysm syndrome characterised by vascular, skeletal, cutaneous, and craniofacial findings. (rbht.nhs.uk)
  • Jay Ramchand, MBBS, PhD, FRACP, FACC, is a staff cardiologist in the Section of Cardiovascular Imaging of the Tomsich Family Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Sydell and Arnold Miller Family Heart, Vascular & Thoracic Institute. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • A saccular aneurysm is a localized outpouching of the aortic wall, and it is the shape of a pseudoaneurysm. (medscape.com)
  • A graft is inserted through a small incision in the groin area and fed up to the aneurysm location. (bmc.org)
  • The aneurysm is repaired by passing a plastic graft into the damaged area of the blood vessel- this is achieved through small cuts or punctures in the upper thigh. (narayanahealth.org)
  • Up to 20% of thoracic aortic aneurysms are inherited, with heterogeneous genetic factors and variable penetrance [13] . (rbht.nhs.uk)
  • Screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm: recommendation statement. (epnet.com)
  • Screening for abdominal aortic aneurism. (cdc.gov)
  • Ashton HA, Scott R, Bridgewater SG (2002) Randomized clinical trial of screening for abdominal aortic aneurysm in women. (springer.com)
  • Sometimes people with inherited connective tissue disorders, such as Marfan syndrome and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, get thoracic aortic aneurysms. (cdc.gov)
  • Some inherited connective tissue disorders, such as Marfan syndrome and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, can also increase your risk for aortic aneurysm. (cdc.gov)
  • Cells extracted from aortic tissue were analyzed and categorized with single-cell RNA sequencing data to perform cluster identification. (nih.gov)
  • Our study provides a comprehensive evaluation of the cellular composition of the ascending aortic wall and reveals how the gene expression landscape is altered in human ATAA tissue. (nih.gov)
  • Diagnosis of ns-TAAD included family history, aortic imaging, tissue pathology and mutation testing. (bairdinstitute.org.au)
  • In some thoracic aneurysms-the aortic valve or other nearby vessels are replaced or repaired. (epnet.com)
  • On 2-12-13 I found I have an aorta aneurysm located on the ascending aorta measuring 3.9cm at the level of the pulmonary arteries. (cardiachealth.org)
  • Aneurysms that involve the ascending aorta may extend as far proximally as the aortic annulus and as far distally as the innominate artery, whereas descending thoracic aneurysms begin beyond the left subclavian artery. (medscape.com)
  • It forms a tight seal with the healthy artery above and below the aneurysm. (bmc.org)
  • The size cut off for aortic aneurysm is crucial to its treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • The size and location of your thoracic aortic aneurysm as well as your age and overall health will indicate the best treatment. (enh.org)
  • At NorthShore, we recommend several treatment options depending on how fast and/or how large your aneurysm is growing. (enh.org)
  • You'll die if your aneurysm bursts and you don't get treatment. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The goal of treatment is to prevent the aneurysm from growing, and intervening before it dissects or ruptures. (narayanahealth.org)
  • The development of treatment modalities for thoracic aneurysms followed successful treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms. (medscape.com)
  • I would not be too worried about this as everything I have read lists 5cm as the size for considering treatment, except that my mother died for a ruptured aneurysm which was too small for treatment. (cardiachealth.org)
  • both abdominal and thoracic aortic aneurysms were selected to create 3D animations and applications to educate medical professionals and patients regarding treatment options. (springer.com)
  • Alsafi A, Bicknell CD, Rudarakanchana N et al (2014) Endovascular treatment of thoracic aortic aneurysms with a short proximal landing zone using scalloped endografts. (springer.com)
  • [ 5 ] Ascending aortic replacement required the development of cardiopulmonary bypass and was first performed in 1956 by Cooley and DeBakey. (medscape.com)
  • Guidelines were issued in March 2010 for early detection of thoracic aortic disease, by the American College of Cardiology, the American Heart Association, and other groups[citation needed]. (wikipedia.org)
  • Peripheral aneurysms-those found in arteries other than the aorta-can happen in the neck, in the groin, or behind the knees. (cdc.gov)
  • What are the risk factors for aortic aneurysm? (cdc.gov)
  • 2015. Age-specific incidence, risk factors and outcome of acute abdominal aortic aneurysms in a defined population. (medsafe.govt.nz)
  • One of the major risk factors for developing an aortic aneurysm is a history of tobacco use, which weakens the arterial walls over time. (uclahealth.org)
  • Additional risk factors include being a male, being over 65, being white, having had a previous aneurysm and a family history of the condition. (uclahealth.org)
  • For patients with any type of aneurysm, it's crucial to mitigate the risk factors that can be managed. (uclahealth.org)