Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.
Persistent and disabling ANXIETY.
Abnormal fear or dread of visiting the dentist for preventive care or therapy and unwarranted anxiety over dental procedures.
True-false questionnaire made up of items believed to indicate anxiety, in which the subject answers verbally the statement that describes him.
Anxiety experienced by an individual upon separation from a person or object of particular significance to the individual.
Anxiety disorders in which the essential feature is persistent and irrational fear of a specific object, activity, or situation that the individual feels compelled to avoid. The individual recognizes the fear as excessive or unreasonable.
A self-reporting test consisting of items concerning fear and worry about taking tests and physiological activity, such as heart rate, sweating, etc., before, during, and after tests.
Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.
Agents that alleviate ANXIETY, tension, and ANXIETY DISORDERS, promote sedation, and have a calming effect without affecting clarity of consciousness or neurologic conditions. ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS are commonly used in the symptomatic treatment of anxiety but are not included here.
Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.
A type of anxiety disorder characterized by unexpected panic attacks that last minutes or, rarely, hours. Panic attacks begin with intense apprehension, fear or terror and, often, a feeling of impending doom. Symptoms experienced during a panic attack include dyspnea or sensations of being smothered; dizziness, loss of balance or faintness; choking sensations; palpitations or accelerated heart rate; shakiness; sweating; nausea or other form of abdominal distress; depersonalization or derealization; paresthesias; hot flashes or chills; chest discomfort or pain; fear of dying and fear of not being in control of oneself or going crazy. Agoraphobia may also develop. Similar to other anxiety disorders, it may be inherited as an autosomal dominant trait.
An affective disorder manifested by either a dysphoric mood or loss of interest or pleasure in usual activities. The mood disturbance is prominent and relatively persistent.
Anxiety related to the execution of a task. (Campbell's Psychiatric Dictionary, 9th ed.)
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Check list, usually to be filled out by a person about himself, consisting of many statements about personal characteristics which the subject checks.
Those disorders that have a disturbance in mood as their predominant feature.
A direct form of psychotherapy based on the interpretation of situations (cognitive structure of experiences) that determine how an individual feels and behaves. It is based on the premise that cognition, the process of acquiring knowledge and forming beliefs, is a primary determinant of mood and behavior. The therapy uses behavioral and verbal techniques to identify and correct negative thinking that is at the root of the aberrant behavior.
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
Obsessive, persistent, intense fear of open places.
A state of harmony between internal needs and external demands and the processes used in achieving this condition. (From APA Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
Assessment of psychological variables by the application of mathematical procedures.
Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.
A state of extreme acute, intense anxiety and unreasoning fear accompanied by disorganization of personality function.
Categorical classification of MENTAL DISORDERS based on criteria sets with defining features. It is produced by the American Psychiatric Association. (DSM-IV, page xxii)
Preoccupation with the fear of having, or the idea that one has, a serious disease based on the person's misinterpretation of bodily symptoms. (APA, DSM-IV)
Almond-shaped group of basal nuclei anterior to the INFERIOR HORN OF THE LATERAL VENTRICLE of the TEMPORAL LOBE. The amygdala is part of the limbic system.
Marked depression appearing in the involution period and characterized by hallucinations, delusions, paranoia, and agitation.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
The feeling-tone accompaniment of an idea or mental representation. It is the most direct psychic derivative of instinct and the psychic representative of the various bodily changes by means of which instincts manifest themselves.
Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.
Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)
The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Standardized tests designed to measure abilities, as in intelligence, aptitude, and achievement tests, or to evaluate personality traits.
A directed conversation aimed at eliciting information for psychiatric diagnosis, evaluation, treatment planning, etc. The interview may be conducted by a social worker or psychologist.
Disorders having the presence of physical symptoms that suggest a general medical condition but that are not fully explained by a another medical condition, by the direct effects of a substance, or by another mental disorder. The symptoms must cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning. In contrast to FACTITIOUS DISORDERS and MALINGERING, the physical symptoms are not under voluntary control. (APA, DSM-V)
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Discomfort and partial inhibition of the usual forms of behavior when in the presence of others.
Predisposition to react to one's environment in a certain way; usually refers to mood changes.
A class of traumatic stress disorders with symptoms that last more than one month. There are various forms of post-traumatic stress disorder, depending on the time of onset and the duration of these stress symptoms. In the acute form, the duration of the symptoms is between 1 to 3 months. In the chronic form, symptoms last more than 3 months. With delayed onset, symptoms develop more than 6 months after the traumatic event.
A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.
Any behavior caused by or affecting another individual, usually of the same species.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
The determination and evaluation of personality attributes by interviews, observations, tests, or scales. Articles concerning personality measurement are considered to be within scope of this term.
A generic term for the treatment of mental illness or emotional disturbances primarily by verbal or nonverbal communication.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Cortical vigilance or readiness of tone, presumed to be in response to sensory stimulation via the reticular activating system.
A person's view of himself.
A benzodiazepine with anticonvulsant, anxiolytic, sedative, muscle relaxant, and amnesic properties and a long duration of action. Its actions are mediated by enhancement of GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID activity.
Behavior-response patterns that characterize the individual.
An anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent, persistent obsessions or compulsions. Obsessions are the intrusive ideas, thoughts, or images that are experienced as senseless or repugnant. Compulsions are repetitive and seemingly purposeful behavior which the individual generally recognizes as senseless and from which the individual does not derive pleasure although it may provide a release from tension.
Mood-stimulating drugs used primarily in the treatment of affective disorders and related conditions. Several MONOAMINE OXIDASE INHIBITORS are useful as antidepressants apparently as a long-term consequence of their modulation of catecholamine levels. The tricyclic compounds useful as antidepressive agents (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, TRICYCLIC) also appear to act through brain catecholamine systems. A third group (ANTIDEPRESSIVE AGENTS, SECOND-GENERATION) is a diverse group of drugs including some that act specifically on serotonergic systems.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Female parents, human or animal.
A strong emotional feeling of displeasure aroused by being interfered with, injured or threatened.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
The reciprocal interaction of two or more persons.
Compounds that specifically inhibit the reuptake of serotonin in the brain.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Those occurrences, including social, psychological, and environmental, which require an adjustment or effect a change in an individual's pattern of living.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
Disorders in which the symptoms are distressing to the individual and recognized by him or her as being unacceptable. Social relationships may be greatly affected but usually remain within acceptable limits. The disturbance is relatively enduring or recurrent without treatment.
Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Observable changes of expression in the face in response to emotional stimuli.
A change in electrical resistance of the skin, occurring in emotion and in certain other conditions.
Computer systems utilized as adjuncts in the treatment of disease.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The state wherein the person is well adjusted.
A behavior therapy technique in which deep muscle relaxation is used to inhibit the effects of graded anxiety-evoking stimuli.
Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Physiological and psychological symptoms associated with withdrawal from the use of a drug after prolonged administration or habituation. The concept includes withdrawal from smoking or drinking, as well as withdrawal from an administered drug.
The study of significant causes and processes in the development of mental illness.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Interaction between a mother and child.
Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)
Mood or emotional responses dissonant with or inappropriate to the behavior and/or stimulus.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.
Personality construct referring to an individual's perception of the locus of events as determined internally by his or her own behavior versus fate, luck, or external forces. (ERIC Thesaurus, 1996).
Depression in POSTPARTUM WOMEN, usually within four weeks after giving birth (PARTURITION). The degree of depression ranges from mild transient depression to neurotic or psychotic depressive disorders. (From DSM-IV, p386)
A form of therapy in which two or more patients participate under the guidance of one or more psychotherapists for the purpose of treating emotional disturbances, social maladjustments, and psychotic states.
Standardized objective tests designed to facilitate the evaluation of personality.
A loosely defined grouping of drugs that have effects on psychological function. Here the psychotropic agents include the antidepressive agents, hallucinogens, and tranquilizing agents (including the antipsychotics and anti-anxiety agents).
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.
Appraisal of one's own personal qualities or traits.
A set of statistical methods for analyzing the correlations among several variables in order to estimate the number of fundamental dimensions that underlie the observed data and to describe and measure those dimensions. It is used frequently in the development of scoring systems for rating scales and questionnaires.
Disorders related to substance abuse.
A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.
A group of two-ring heterocyclic compounds consisting of a benzene ring fused to a diazepine ring.
A primary, chronic disease with genetic, psychosocial, and environmental factors influencing its development and manifestations. The disease is often progressive and fatal. It is characterized by impaired control over drinking, preoccupation with the drug alcohol, use of alcohol despite adverse consequences, and distortions in thinking, most notably denial. Each of these symptoms may be continuous or periodic. (Morse & Flavin for the Joint Commission of the National Council on Alcoholism and Drug Dependence and the American Society of Addiction Medicine to Study the Definition and Criteria for the Diagnosis of Alcoholism: in JAMA 1992;268:1012-4)

The impact of genetic counselling about breast cancer risk on women's risk perceptions and levels of distress. (1/5901)

Women referred to a familial breast cancer clinic completed questionnaires before and after counselling and at annual follow-up to assess their risk estimate and psychological characteristics. The aims were to determine whether those who attended the clinic overestimated their risk or were highly anxious and whether counselling influenced risk estimates and levels of distress. Women (n = 450) at this clinic were more likely to underestimate (39%) than overestimate (14%) their risk. Mean trait anxiety scores were higher than general population data (t = 4.9, n = 1059, P<0.001) but not significantly different from published data from other screening samples. Overestimators (z = 5.69, P<0.0001) and underestimators (z = -8.01, P<0.0001) reported significantly different risk estimates (i.e. increased accuracy) after counselling, but significant inaccuracies persisted. Over- (n = 12) and underestimators (n = 60) were still inaccurate in their risk estimates by a factor of 2 after counselling. Thirty per cent of the sample scored above the cut-off (5/6) for case identification on a screening measure for psychological distress, the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). GHQ scores were significantly lower after counselling (t = 3.6, d.f. = 384, P = 0.0004) with no evidence of increasing risk estimate causing increased distress. The risk of distress after counselling was greater for younger women and those who were more distressed at first presentation. The counselling offered was effective in increasing the accuracy of risk perceptions without causing distress to those who initially underestimated their risk. It is worrying that inaccuracies persisted, particularly as the demand for service has since reduced the consultation time offered in this clinic. Further work is needed to evaluate alternative models of service delivery using more sophisticated methods of assessing understanding of risk.  (+info)

The impact of genetic counselling on risk perception and mental health in women with a family history of breast cancer. (2/5901)

The present study investigated: (1) perception of genetic risk and, (2) the psychological effects of genetic counselling in women with a family history of breast cancer. Using a prospective design, with assessment pre- and post-genetic counselling at clinics and by postal follow-up at 1, 6 and 12 months, attenders at four South London genetic clinics were assessed. Participants included 282 women with a family history of breast cancer. Outcome was measured in terms of mental health, cancer-specific distress and risk perception. High levels of cancer-specific distress were found pre-genetic counselling, with 28% of participants reporting that they worried about breast cancer 'frequently or constantly' and 18% that worry about breast cancer was 'a severe or definite problem'. Following genetic counselling, levels of cancer-specific distress were unchanged. General mental health remained unchanged over time (33% psychiatric cases detected pre-genetic counselling, 27% at 12 months after genetic counselling). Prior to their genetics consultation, participants showed poor knowledge of their lifetime risk of breast cancer since there was no association between their perceived lifetime risk (when they were asked to express this as a 1 in x odds ratio) and their actual risk, when the latter was calculated by the geneticist at the clinic using the CASH model. In contrast, women were more accurate about their risk of breast cancer pre-genetic counselling when this was assessed in broad categorical terms (i.e. very much lower/very much higher than the average woman) with a significant association between this rating and the subsequently calculated CASH risk figure (P = 0.001). Genetic counselling produced a modest shift in the accuracy of perceived lifetime risk, expressed as an odds ratio, which was maintained at 12 months' follow-up. A significant minority failed to benefit from genetic counselling; 77 women continued to over-estimate their risk and maintain high levels of cancer-related worry. Most clinic attenders were inaccurate in their estimates of the population risk of breast cancer with only 24% able to give the correct figure prior to genetic counselling and 36% over-estimating this risk. There was some improvement following genetic counselling with 62% able to give the correct figure, but this information was poorly retained and this figure had dropped to 34% by the 1-year follow-up. The study showed that women attending for genetic counselling are worried about breast cancer, with 34% indicating that they had initiated the referral to the genetic clinic themselves. This anxiety is not alleviated by genetic counselling, although women reported that it was less of a problem at follow-up. Women who continue to over-estimate their risk and worry about breast cancer are likely to go on seeking unnecessary screening if they are not reassured.  (+info)

Mildly dyskaryotic smear results: does it matter what women know? (3/5901)

BACKGROUND: As of 1992, all women in the UK who have a first mildly dyskaryotic cervical smear are placed under surveillance for 6 months rather than being referred for immediate colposcopy. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to explore the relationship between anxiety and understanding about mild dyskaryotic, and to propose and discuss a method of analysing free text comments written by participants in studies based on structured questionnaires. METHODS: The freely scripted text of 236 women who had completed a questionnaire as part of a randomized controlled trial to assess the impact of an educational package was analysed. Randomization group status was concealed. Texts expressing similar views were grouped together and categorized. A matrix was drawn up to encompass the categories, and the comments were reallocated accordingly. RESULTS: Examination of the free text revealed two dimensions, concern and knowledge. There were no differences with respect to the apparent level of concern between the two randomization groups. However, comments from the intervention group were significantly more likely to have been classified as expressing good or vague knowledge than those from women in the control group. CONCLUSION: Although the educational intervention improved women's knowledge about the meaning of an abnormal smear result, this better knowledge was not correlated with less anxiety about the result. The free text analysis was a useful supplement to the main trial questionnaires. It demonstrated the existence of a range of understanding about cervical dyskaryosis, of anxieties relating to the receipt of such a result and the degree of interest women showed in acquiring further information.  (+info)

The Montefiore community children's project: a controlled study of cognitive and emotional problems of homeless mothers and children. (4/5901)

OBJECTIVES: This study compares the prevalence of emotional, academic, and cognitive impairment in children and mothers living in the community with those living in shelters for the homeless. METHOD: In New York City, 82 homeless mothers and their 102 children, aged 6 to 11, recruited from family shelters were compared to 115 nonhomeless mothers with 176 children recruited from classmates of the homeless children. Assessments included standardized tests and interviews. RESULTS: Mothers in shelters for the homeless showed higher rates of depression and anxiety than did nonhomeless mothers. Boys in homeless shelters showed higher rates of serious emotional and behavioral problems. Both boys and girls in homeless shelters showed more academic problems than did nonhomeless children. CONCLUSION: Study findings suggest a need among homeless children for special attention to academic problems that are not attributable to intellectual deficits in either children or their mothers. Although high rates of emotional and behavioral problems characterized poor children living in both settings, boys in shelters for the homeless may be particularly in need of professional attention.  (+info)

Quality of life four years after acute myocardial infarction: short form 36 scores compared with a normal population. (5/5901)

OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of myocardial infarction on quality of life in four year survivors compared to data from "community norms", and to determine factors associated with a poor quality of life. DESIGN: Cohort study based on the Nottingham heart attack register. SETTING: Two district general hospitals serving a defined urban/rural population. SUBJECTS: All patients admitted with acute myocardial infarction during 1992 and alive at a median of four years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Short form 36 (SF 36) domain and overall scores. RESULTS: Of 900 patients with an acute myocardial infarction in 1992, there were 476 patients alive and capable of responding to a questionnaire in 1997. The response rate was 424 (89. 1%). Compared to age and sex adjusted normative data, patients aged under 65 years exhibited impairment in all eight domains, the largest differences being in physical functioning (mean difference 20 points), role physical (mean difference 23 points), and general health (mean difference 19 points). In patients over 65 years mean domain scores were similar to community norms. Multiple regression analysis revealed that impaired quality of life was closely associated with inability to return to work through ill health, a need for coronary revascularisation, the use of anxiolytics, hypnotics or inhalers, the need for two or more angina drugs, a frequency of chest pain one or more times per week, and a Rose dyspnoea score of >/= 2. CONCLUSIONS: The SF 36 provides valuable additional information for the practising clinician. Compared to community norms the greatest impact on quality of life is seen in patients of working age. Impaired quality of life was reported by patients unfit for work, those with angina and dyspnoea, patients with coexistent lung disease, and those with anxiety and sleep disturbances. Improving quality of life after myocardial infarction remains a challenge for physicians.  (+info)

Can we create a therapeutic relationship with nursing home residents in the later stages of Alzheimer's disease? (6/5901)

1. Despite their entrance into advanced illness, the majority (83%) of participants in the study displayed evidence of having begun a therapeutic relationship with their assigned advanced practice nurse. 2. With one exception, those participants who did not evidence development of the relationship had severely limited speech, perseverative speech, or did not speak at all. 3. It is time to challenge the assumption that individuals in the middle and later stages of Alzheimer's disease are not good candidates for developing a therapeutic relationship.  (+info)

Multicentre randomised controlled trial of nursing intervention for breathlessness in patients with lung cancer. (7/5901)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of nursing intervention for breathlessness in patients with lung cancer. DESIGN: Patients diagnosed with lung cancer participated in a multicentre randomised controlled trial where they either attended a nursing clinic offering intervention for their breathlessness or received best supportive care. The intervention consisted of a range of strategies combining breathing control, activity pacing, relaxation techniques, and psychosocial support. Best supportive care involved receiving standard management and treatment available for breathlessness, and breathing assessments. Participants completed a range of self assessment questionnaires at baseline, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks. SETTING: Nursing clinics within 6 hospital settings in the United Kingdom. PARTICIPANTS: 119 patients diagnosed with small cell or non-small cell lung cancer or with mesothelioma who had completed first line treatment for their disease and reported breathlessness. OUTCOME MEASURES: Visual analogue scales measuring distress due to breathlessness, breathlessness at best and worst, WHO performance status scale, hospital anxiety and depression scale, and Rotterdam symptom checklist. RESULTS: The intervention group improved significantly at 8 weeks in 5 of the 11 items assessed: breathlessness at best, WHO performance status, levels of depression, and two Rotterdam symptom checklist measures (physical symptom distress and breathlessness) and showed slight improvement in 3 of the remaining 6 items. CONCLUSION: Most patients who completed the study had a poor prognosis, and breathlessness was typically a symptom of their deteriorating condition. Patients who attended nursing clinics and received the breathlessness intervention experienced improvements in breathlessness, performance status, and physical and emotional states relative to control patients.  (+info)

Preliminary assessment of patients' opinions of queuing for coronary bypass graft surgery at one Canadian centre. (8/5901)

OBJECTIVES: To explore psychological and socioeconomic concerns of patients who queued for coronary artery bypass surgery and the effectiveness of support existing in one Canadian cardiovascular surgical center. DESIGN: Standardised questionnaire and structured interview. SETTING: Victoria General Hospital, Halifax, Nova Scotia. SUBJECTS: 100 consecutive patients awaiting non-emergency bypass surgery. RESULTS: Most patients (96%) found the explanation of findings at cardiac catheterisation and the justification given for surgery satisfactory. However, 84 patients complained that waiting for surgery was stressful and 64 registered at least moderate anxiety. Anger over delays was expressed by 16%, but only 4% thought that queuing according to medical need was unfair. Economic hardship, attributed to delayed surgery, was declared by 15 patients. This primarily affected those still working--namely, blue collar workers and younger age groups. Only 41% of patients were satisfied with existing institutional supports. Problems related mainly to poor communication. CONCLUSIONS: Considerable anxiety seems to be experienced by most patients awaiting bypass surgery. Better communication and education might alleviate some of this anxiety. Economic hardship affects certain patient subgroups more than others and may need to be weighed in the selection process. A more definitive examination of these issues is warranted.  (+info)

Anxiety: A feeling of worry, nervousness, or unease, typically about an imminent event or something with an uncertain outcome. In a medical context, anxiety refers to a mental health disorder characterized by feelings of excessive and persistent worry, fear, or panic that interfere with daily activities. It can also be a symptom of other medical conditions, such as heart disease, diabetes, or substance abuse disorders. Anxiety disorders include generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, and phobias.

Anxiety disorders are a category of mental health disorders characterized by feelings of excessive and persistent worry, fear, or anxiety that interfere with daily activities. They include several different types of disorders, such as:

1. Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD): This is characterized by chronic and exaggerated worry and tension, even when there is little or nothing to provoke it.
2. Panic Disorder: This is characterized by recurring unexpected panic attacks and fear of experiencing more panic attacks.
3. Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD): Also known as social phobia, this is characterized by excessive fear, anxiety, or avoidance of social situations due to feelings of embarrassment, self-consciousness, and concern about being judged or viewed negatively by others.
4. Phobias: These are intense, irrational fears of certain objects, places, or situations. When a person with a phobia encounters the object or situation they fear, they may experience panic attacks or other severe anxiety responses.
5. Agoraphobia: This is a fear of being in places where it may be difficult to escape or get help if one has a panic attack or other embarrassing or incapacitating symptoms.
6. Separation Anxiety Disorder (SAD): This is characterized by excessive anxiety about separation from home or from people to whom the individual has a strong emotional attachment (such as a parent, sibling, or partner).
7. Selective Mutism: This is a disorder where a child becomes mute in certain situations, such as at school, but can speak normally at home or with close family members.

These disorders are treatable with a combination of medication and psychotherapy (cognitive-behavioral therapy, exposure therapy). It's important to seek professional help if you suspect that you or someone you know may have an anxiety disorder.

Dental anxiety is a common feeling of fear or apprehension associated with dental appointments, treatments, or procedures. It can range from mild feelings of unease to severe phobias that cause people to avoid dental care altogether. Dental anxiety may stem from various factors such as negative past experiences, fear of pain, needles, or loss of control. In some cases, dental anxiety may lead to physical symptoms like sweating, rapid heartbeat, and difficulty breathing. It is important for individuals with dental anxiety to communicate their feelings with their dentist so that they can receive appropriate care and support.

The Manifest Anxiety Scale (MAS) is a psychological self-reporting measurement tool used to assess the level of anxiety in individuals. It was developed by psychologist Charles D. Spielberger and his colleagues in the 1950s as part of their research on anxiety and stress. The MAS measures the subjective experience of anxiety or feelings of tension, worry, and nervousness that an individual may be experiencing.

The MAS consists of a series of statements or items that describe various symptoms or manifestations of anxiety. Respondents are asked to rate how well each statement describes their own experiences on a scale, typically ranging from "not at all" to "very much." The total score is calculated by summing up the ratings for all the items, with higher scores indicating greater levels of anxiety.

It's important to note that while the MAS can provide useful information about an individual's subjective experience of anxiety, it should not be used as a standalone diagnostic tool. A comprehensive assessment by a qualified mental health professional is necessary for a proper diagnosis and treatment plan.

Separation anxiety is a condition in which an individual experiences excessive and disproportionate fear or distress when separated from a person or place that they are attached to. This condition is commonly diagnosed in children, but it can also affect adults. The anxiety experienced during separation may manifest as excessive worrying, crying, clinginess, panic attacks, or physical symptoms such as nausea, headaches, or rapid heartbeat. In order for a diagnosis of separation anxiety disorder to be made, the symptoms must cause significant distress and impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning.

A phobic disorder is a type of anxiety disorder characterized by an excessive and irrational fear or avoidance of specific objects, situations, or activities. This fear can cause significant distress and interfere with a person's daily life. Phobic disorders are typically classified into three main categories: specific phobias (such as fear of heights, spiders, or needles), social phobia (or social anxiety disorder), and agoraphobia (fear of open spaces or situations where escape might be difficult).

People with phobic disorders often recognize that their fear is excessive or unreasonable, but they are unable to control it. When exposed to the feared object or situation, they may experience symptoms such as rapid heartbeat, sweating, trembling, and difficulty breathing. These symptoms can be so distressing that individuals with phobic disorders go to great lengths to avoid the feared situation, which can have a significant impact on their quality of life.

Treatment for phobic disorders typically involves cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), which helps individuals identify and challenge their irrational thoughts and fears, as well as exposure therapy, which gradually exposes them to the feared object or situation in a safe and controlled environment. In some cases, medication may also be recommended to help manage symptoms of anxiety.

I cannot specifically provide a medical definition for "Test Anxiety Scale," as it is not a widely recognized or established medical term. However, I can give you some information about the concept of test anxiety and its measurement.

Test anxiety is a type of performance anxiety that occurs when an individual experiences excessive fear, worry, or stress before, during, or after taking tests or exams. It can negatively impact their cognitive functioning, memory recall, and overall academic performance. Test anxiety may manifest as physical symptoms (e.g., headaches, rapid heartbeat, sweating) and/or psychological symptoms (e.g., racing thoughts, feelings of panic, low self-esteem).

A Test Anxiety Scale is a standardized psychometric instrument designed to measure the severity of test anxiety experienced by an individual. These scales typically consist of a series of questions or statements that assess various aspects of test anxiety, such as cognitive worry, physical symptoms, and affective reactions. Respondents are asked to rate their agreement with each item on a Likert-type scale (e.g., 1 = strongly disagree, 5 = strongly agree). The total score provides an indication of the individual's overall test anxiety level.

Examples of Test Anxiety Scales include:

1. Sarason's Test Anxiety Scale (STAS)
2. The Test Anxiety Inventory (TAI)
3. The Cognitive and Somatic Anxiety Questionnaire (CSAQ)
4. The Westside Test Anxiety Scale (WTAS)
5. The Reactions to Tests Scale (RTS)

These scales are often used in research and clinical settings to assess the effectiveness of interventions aimed at reducing test anxiety or to identify individuals who may benefit from such interventions.

Depression is a mood disorder that is characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and loss of interest in activities. It can also cause significant changes in sleep, appetite, energy level, concentration, and behavior. Depression can interfere with daily life and normal functioning, and it can increase the risk of suicide and other mental health disorders. The exact cause of depression is not known, but it is believed to be related to a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. There are several types of depression, including major depressive disorder, persistent depressive disorder, postpartum depression, and seasonal affective disorder. Treatment for depression typically involves a combination of medication and psychotherapy.

Anti-anxiety agents, also known as anxiolytics, are a class of medications used to manage symptoms of anxiety disorders. These drugs work by reducing the abnormal excitement in the brain and promoting relaxation and calmness. They include several types of medications such as benzodiazepines, azapirone, antihistamines, and beta-blockers.

Benzodiazepines are the most commonly prescribed anti-anxiety agents. They work by enhancing the inhibitory effects of a neurotransmitter called gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain, which results in sedative, hypnotic, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, and muscle relaxant properties. Examples of benzodiazepines include diazepam (Valium), alprazolam (Xanax), lorazepam (Ativan), and clonazepam (Klonopin).

Azapirones are a newer class of anti-anxiety agents that act on serotonin receptors in the brain. Buspirone (Buspar) is an example of this type of medication, which has fewer side effects and less potential for abuse compared to benzodiazepines.

Antihistamines are medications that are primarily used to treat allergies but can also have anti-anxiety effects due to their sedative properties. Examples include hydroxyzine (Vistaril, Atarax) and diphenhydramine (Benadryl).

Beta-blockers are mainly used to treat high blood pressure and heart conditions but can also help manage symptoms of anxiety such as rapid heartbeat, tremors, and sweating. Propranolol (Inderal) is an example of a beta-blocker used for this purpose.

It's important to note that anti-anxiety agents should be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as they can have side effects and potential for dependence or addiction. Additionally, these medications are often used in combination with psychotherapy and lifestyle modifications to manage anxiety disorders effectively.

Psychiatric Status Rating Scales are standardized assessment tools used by mental health professionals to evaluate and rate the severity of a person's psychiatric symptoms and functioning. These scales provide a systematic and structured approach to measuring various aspects of an individual's mental health, such as mood, anxiety, psychosis, behavior, and cognitive abilities.

The purpose of using Psychiatric Status Rating Scales is to:

1. Assess the severity and improvement of psychiatric symptoms over time.
2. Aid in diagnostic decision-making and treatment planning.
3. Monitor treatment response and adjust interventions accordingly.
4. Facilitate communication among mental health professionals about a patient's status.
5. Provide an objective basis for research and epidemiological studies.

Examples of Psychiatric Status Rating Scales include:

1. Clinical Global Impression (CGI): A brief, subjective rating scale that measures overall illness severity, treatment response, and improvement.
2. Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS): A comprehensive scale used to assess the symptoms of psychosis, including positive, negative, and general psychopathology domains.
3. Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) or Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS): Scales used to evaluate the severity of depressive symptoms.
4. Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS): A scale used to assess the severity of manic or hypomanic symptoms.
5. Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) or Symptom Checklist-90 Revised (SCL-90-R): Scales that measure a broad range of psychiatric symptoms and psychopathology.
6. Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF): A scale used to rate an individual's overall psychological, social, and occupational functioning on a hypothetical continuum of mental health-illness.

It is important to note that Psychiatric Status Rating Scales should be administered by trained mental health professionals to ensure accurate and reliable results.

Panic Disorder is a type of anxiety disorder characterized by recurrent, unexpected panic attacks and significant worry about the implications of these attacks or fear of their occurrence. A panic attack is a sudden surge of intense fear or discomfort that reaches a peak within minutes, and includes physical symptoms such as accelerated heart rate, sweating, trembling, shortness of breath, and feelings of impending doom or danger. In Panic Disorder, these attacks are not triggered by specific situations or stimuli, but can occur spontaneously and without warning. The individual may also develop avoidance behaviors to prevent future panic attacks, which can interfere with daily functioning and quality of life.

A depressive disorder is a mental health condition characterized by persistent feelings of sadness, hopelessness, and loss of interest or pleasure in activities. It can also include changes in sleep, appetite, energy levels, concentration, and self-esteem, as well as thoughts of death or suicide. Depressive disorders can vary in severity and duration, with some people experiencing mild and occasional symptoms, while others may have severe and chronic symptoms that interfere with their ability to function in daily life.

There are several types of depressive disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD), persistent depressive disorder (PDD), and postpartum depression. MDD is characterized by symptoms that interfere significantly with a person's ability to function and last for at least two weeks, while PDD involves chronic low-grade depression that lasts for two years or more. Postpartum depression occurs in women after childbirth and can range from mild to severe.

Depressive disorders are thought to be caused by a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. Treatment typically involves a combination of medication, psychotherapy (talk therapy), and lifestyle changes.

Performance anxiety is not a formal medical diagnosis, but it is a common term used to describe the experience of feeling anxious or stressed in situations where one's performance is being evaluated, such as public speaking, musical performances, or athletic competitions. It can lead to physical symptoms like increased heart rate, sweating, and trembling, as well as cognitive symptoms like difficulty concentrating and racing thoughts. In some cases, performance anxiety can interfere with a person's ability to function in these situations, leading to avoidance behaviors or poor performance. While it is normal to feel some level of nervousness or apprehension in high-pressure situations, performance anxiety becomes problematic when it causes significant distress or impairment in daily life.

Psychological stress is the response of an individual's mind and body to challenging or demanding situations. It can be defined as a state of emotional and physical tension resulting from adversity, demand, or change. This response can involve a variety of symptoms, including emotional, cognitive, behavioral, and physiological components.

Emotional responses may include feelings of anxiety, fear, anger, sadness, or frustration. Cognitive responses might involve difficulty concentrating, racing thoughts, or negative thinking patterns. Behaviorally, psychological stress can lead to changes in appetite, sleep patterns, social interactions, and substance use. Physiologically, the body's "fight-or-flight" response is activated, leading to increased heart rate, blood pressure, muscle tension, and other symptoms.

Psychological stress can be caused by a wide range of factors, including work or school demands, financial problems, relationship issues, traumatic events, chronic illness, and major life changes. It's important to note that what causes stress in one person may not cause stress in another, as individual perceptions and coping mechanisms play a significant role.

Chronic psychological stress can have negative effects on both mental and physical health, increasing the risk of conditions such as anxiety disorders, depression, heart disease, diabetes, and autoimmune diseases. Therefore, it's essential to identify sources of stress and develop effective coping strategies to manage and reduce its impact.

Fear is a basic human emotion that is typically characterized by a strong feeling of anxiety, apprehension, or distress in response to a perceived threat or danger. It is a natural and adaptive response that helps individuals identify and respond to potential dangers in their environment, and it can manifest as physical, emotional, and cognitive symptoms.

Physical symptoms of fear may include increased heart rate, rapid breathing, sweating, trembling, and muscle tension. Emotional symptoms may include feelings of anxiety, worry, or panic, while cognitive symptoms may include difficulty concentrating, racing thoughts, and intrusive thoughts about the perceived threat.

Fear can be a normal and adaptive response to real dangers, but it can also become excessive or irrational in some cases, leading to phobias, anxiety disorders, and other mental health conditions. In these cases, professional help may be necessary to manage and overcome the fear.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

A Personality Inventory is a standardized test used in psychology to assess an individual's personality traits and characteristics. It typically consists of a series of multiple-choice questions or statements that the respondent must rate according to their level of agreement or disagreement. The inventory measures various aspects of an individual's behavior, attitudes, and temperament, providing a quantifiable score that can be compared to normative data to help diagnose personality disorders, assess personal strengths and weaknesses, or provide insights into an individual's likely responses to different situations. Examples of well-known personality inventories include the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and the California Psychological Inventory (CPI).

Mood disorders are a category of mental health disorders characterized by significant and persistent changes in mood, affect, and emotional state. These disorders can cause disturbances in normal functioning and significantly impair an individual's ability to carry out their daily activities. The two primary types of mood disorders are depressive disorders (such as major depressive disorder or persistent depressive disorder) and bipolar disorders (which include bipolar I disorder, bipolar II disorder, and cyclothymic disorder).

Depressive disorders involve prolonged periods of low mood, sadness, hopelessness, and a lack of interest in activities. Individuals with these disorders may also experience changes in sleep patterns, appetite, energy levels, concentration, and self-esteem. In severe cases, they might have thoughts of death or suicide.

Bipolar disorders involve alternating episodes of mania (or hypomania) and depression. During a manic episode, individuals may feel extremely elated, energetic, or irritable, with racing thoughts, rapid speech, and impulsive behavior. They might engage in risky activities, have decreased sleep needs, and display poor judgment. In contrast, depressive episodes involve the same symptoms as depressive disorders.

Mood disorders can be caused by a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. Proper diagnosis and treatment, which may include psychotherapy, medication, or a combination of both, are essential for managing these conditions and improving quality of life.

Cognitive Therapy (CT) is a type of psychotherapeutic treatment that helps patients understand the thoughts and feelings that influence behaviors. It is a form of talk therapy where the therapist and the patient work together to identify and change negative or distorted thinking patterns and beliefs, with the goal of improving emotional response and behavior.

Cognitive Therapy is based on the idea that our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are all interconnected, and that negative or inaccurate thoughts can contribute to problems like anxiety and depression. By identifying and challenging these thoughts, patients can learn to think more realistically and positively, which can lead to improvements in their mood and behavior.

In cognitive therapy sessions, the therapist will help the patient identify negative thought patterns and replace them with healthier, more accurate ways of thinking. The therapist may also assign homework or exercises for the patient to practice between sessions, such as keeping a thought record or challenging negative thoughts.

Cognitive Therapy has been shown to be effective in treating a wide range of mental health conditions, including depression, anxiety disorders, eating disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It is often used in combination with other forms of treatment, such as medication, and can be delivered individually or in group settings.

Comorbidity is the presence of one or more additional health conditions or diseases alongside a primary illness or condition. These co-occurring health issues can have an impact on the treatment plan, prognosis, and overall healthcare management of an individual. Comorbidities often interact with each other and the primary condition, leading to more complex clinical situations and increased healthcare needs. It is essential for healthcare professionals to consider and address comorbidities to provide comprehensive care and improve patient outcomes.

Agoraphobia is an anxiety disorder characterized by fear and avoidance of places, situations, or events that may trigger feelings of panic, fear, or embarrassment. People with agoraphobia may feel anxious about being in crowded places, standing in line, using public transportation, or being outside their home alone. They may also have a fear of leaving their "safe" place or experience severe anxiety when they are in a situation where escape might be difficult or help unavailable. In severe cases, agoraphobia can lead to avoidance of many activities and significant impairment in social, occupational, and other areas of functioning.

Psychological adaptation refers to the process by which individuals adjust and cope with stressors, challenges, or changes in their environment or circumstances. It involves modifying thoughts, feelings, behaviors, and copabilities to reduce the negative impact of these stressors and promote well-being. Psychological adaptation can occur at different levels, including intrapersonal (within the individual), interpersonal (between individuals), and cultural (within a group or society).

Examples of psychological adaptation include:

* Cognitive restructuring: changing negative thoughts and beliefs to more positive or adaptive ones
* Emotion regulation: managing and reducing intense or distressing emotions
* Problem-solving: finding solutions to practical challenges or obstacles
* Seeking social support: reaching out to others for help, advice, or comfort
* Developing coping strategies: using effective ways to deal with stressors or difficulties
* Cultivating resilience: bouncing back from adversity and learning from negative experiences.

Psychological adaptation is an important aspect of mental health and well-being, as it helps individuals adapt to new situations, overcome challenges, and maintain a sense of control and optimism in the face of stressors or changes.

Psychometrics is a branch of psychology that deals with the theory and technique of psychological measurement, such as the development and standardization of tests used to measure intelligence, aptitude, personality, attitudes, and other mental abilities or traits. It involves the construction and validation of measurement instruments, including the determination of their reliability and validity, and the application of statistical methods to analyze test data and interpret results. The ultimate goal of psychometrics is to provide accurate, objective, and meaningful measurements that can be used to understand individual differences and make informed decisions in educational, clinical, and organizational settings.

Emotions are complex psychological states that involve three distinct components: a subjective experience, a physiological response, and a behavioral or expressive response. Emotions can be short-lived, such as a flash of anger, or more long-lasting, such as enduring sadness. They can also vary in intensity, from mild irritation to intense joy or fear.

Emotions are often distinguished from other psychological states, such as moods and temperament, which may be less specific and more enduring. Emotions are typically thought to have a clear cause or object, such as feeling happy when you receive good news or feeling anxious before a job interview.

There are many different emotions that people can experience, including happiness, sadness, anger, fear, surprise, disgust, and shame. These emotions are often thought to serve important adaptive functions, helping individuals respond to challenges and opportunities in their environment.

In medical contexts, emotions may be relevant to the diagnosis and treatment of various mental health conditions, such as depression, anxiety disorders, and bipolar disorder. Abnormalities in emotional processing and regulation have been implicated in many psychiatric illnesses, and therapies that target these processes may be effective in treating these conditions.

Panic, in a medical context, refers to an intense and sudden episode of fear or discomfort that reaches a peak within minutes, accompanied by physical reactions such as increased heart rate, rapid breathing (hyperventilation), trembling, shaking, and potentially causing a feeling of losing control or going crazy. It's often a symptom of panic disorder or another anxiety disorder. A single panic attack doesn't necessarily mean a person has a panic disorder, but repeated attacks may indicate this condition.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is a publication of the American Psychiatric Association (APA) that provides diagnostic criteria for mental disorders. It is widely used by mental health professionals in the United States and around the world to diagnose and classify mental health conditions.

The DSM includes detailed descriptions of symptoms, clinical examples, and specific criteria for each disorder, which are intended to facilitate accurate diagnosis and improve communication among mental health professionals. The manual is regularly updated to reflect current research and clinical practice, with the most recent edition being the DSM-5, published in 2013.

It's important to note that while the DSM is a valuable tool for mental health professionals, it is not without controversy. Some critics argue that the manual medicalizes normal human experiences and that its categories may be too broad or overlapping. Nonetheless, it remains an essential resource for clinicians, researchers, and policymakers in the field of mental health.

Hypochondriasis is a psychological disorder where an individual has an unrealistic and persistent fear or belief that they have one or more serious medical conditions, based on the interpretation of bodily symptoms. These fears or beliefs are not alleviated by appropriate medical evaluation and reassurance. The person may be extremely anxious about their health, repeatedly check their body for signs of illness, and seek medical help frequently. However, it's important to note that this term is no longer used in the current diagnostic manuals like DSM-5 or ICD-10. Instead, similar symptoms are often encompassed under Illness Anxiety Disorder.

The amygdala is an almond-shaped group of nuclei located deep within the temporal lobe of the brain, specifically in the anterior portion of the temporal lobes and near the hippocampus. It forms a key component of the limbic system and plays a crucial role in processing emotions, particularly fear and anxiety. The amygdala is involved in the integration of sensory information with emotional responses, memory formation, and decision-making processes.

In response to emotionally charged stimuli, the amygdala can modulate various physiological functions, such as heart rate, blood pressure, and stress hormone release, via its connections to the hypothalamus and brainstem. Additionally, it contributes to social behaviors, including recognizing emotional facial expressions and responding appropriately to social cues. Dysfunctions in amygdala function have been implicated in several psychiatric and neurological conditions, such as anxiety disorders, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and autism spectrum disorder (ASD).

Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), also simply referred to as depression, is a serious mental health condition characterized by the presence of one or more major depressive episodes. A major depressive episode is a period of at least two weeks during which an individual experiences a severely depressed mood and/or loss of interest or pleasure in nearly all activities, accompanied by at least four additional symptoms such as significant changes in appetite or weight, sleep disturbances, psychomotor agitation or retardation, fatigue or loss of energy, feelings of worthlessness or excessive guilt, difficulty thinking, concentrating, or making decisions, and recurrent thoughts of death or suicide.

MDD can significantly impair an individual's ability to function in daily life, and it is associated with increased risks of suicide, substance abuse, and other mental health disorders. The exact cause of MDD is not fully understood, but it is believed to result from a complex interplay of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. Treatment typically involves a combination of psychotherapy (such as cognitive-behavioral therapy) and medication (such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or tricyclic antidepressants).

Quality of Life (QOL) is a broad, multidimensional concept that usually includes an individual's physical health, psychological state, level of independence, social relationships, personal beliefs, and their relationship to salient features of their environment. It reflects the impact of disease and treatment on a patient's overall well-being and ability to function in daily life.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines QOL as "an individual's perception of their position in life in the context of the culture and value systems in which they live and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards and concerns." It is a subjective concept, meaning it can vary greatly from person to person.

In healthcare, QOL is often used as an outcome measure in clinical trials and other research studies to assess the impact of interventions or treatments on overall patient well-being.

In medical and psychological terms, "affect" refers to a person's emotional or expressive state, mood, or dispositions that are outwardly manifested in their behavior, facial expressions, demeanor, or speech. Affect can be described as being congruent or incongruent with an individual's thoughts and experiences.

There are different types of affect, including:

1. Neutral affect: When a person shows no apparent emotion or displays minimal emotional expressiveness.
2. Positive affect: When a person exhibits positive emotions such as happiness, excitement, or enthusiasm.
3. Negative affect: When a person experiences and displays negative emotions like sadness, anger, or fear.
4. Blunted affect: When a person's emotional response is noticeably reduced or diminished, often observed in individuals with certain mental health conditions, such as schizophrenia.
5. Flat affect: When a person has an almost complete absence of emotional expressiveness, which can be indicative of severe depression or other mental health disorders.
6. Labile affect: When a person's emotional state fluctuates rapidly and frequently between positive and negative emotions, often observed in individuals with certain neurological conditions or mood disorders.

Clinicians may assess a patient's affect during an interview or examination to help diagnose mental health conditions, evaluate treatment progress, or monitor overall well-being.

A mental disorder is a syndrome characterized by clinically significant disturbance in an individual's cognition, emotion regulation, or behavior. It's associated with distress and/or impaired functioning in social, occupational, or other important areas of life, often leading to a decrease in quality of life. These disorders are typically persistent and can be severe and disabling. They may be related to factors such as genetics, early childhood experiences, or trauma. Examples include depression, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and personality disorders. It's important to note that a diagnosis should be made by a qualified mental health professional.

Maze learning is not a medical term per se, but it is a concept that is often used in the field of neuroscience and psychology. It refers to the process by which an animal or human learns to navigate through a complex environment, such as a maze, in order to find its way to a goal or target.

Maze learning involves several cognitive processes, including spatial memory, learning, and problem-solving. As animals or humans navigate through the maze, they encode information about the location of the goal and the various landmarks within the environment. This information is then used to form a cognitive map that allows them to navigate more efficiently in subsequent trials.

Maze learning has been widely used as a tool for studying learning and memory processes in both animals and humans. For example, researchers may use maze learning tasks to investigate the effects of brain damage or disease on cognitive function, or to evaluate the efficacy of various drugs or interventions for improving cognitive performance.

Exploratory behavior refers to the actions taken by an individual to investigate and gather information about their environment. This type of behavior is often driven by curiosity and a desire to understand new or unfamiliar situations, objects, or concepts. In a medical context, exploratory behavior may refer to a patient's willingness to learn more about their health condition, try new treatments, or engage in self-care activities. It can also refer to the behaviors exhibited by young children as they explore their world and develop their cognitive and motor skills. Exploratory behavior is an important aspect of learning and development, and it can have a positive impact on overall health and well-being.

A Severity of Illness Index is a measurement tool used in healthcare to assess the severity of a patient's condition and the risk of mortality or other adverse outcomes. These indices typically take into account various physiological and clinical variables, such as vital signs, laboratory values, and co-morbidities, to generate a score that reflects the patient's overall illness severity.

Examples of Severity of Illness Indices include the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) system, the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS), and the Mortality Probability Model (MPM). These indices are often used in critical care settings to guide clinical decision-making, inform prognosis, and compare outcomes across different patient populations.

It is important to note that while these indices can provide valuable information about a patient's condition, they should not be used as the sole basis for clinical decision-making. Rather, they should be considered in conjunction with other factors, such as the patient's overall clinical presentation, treatment preferences, and goals of care.

Psychological tests are standardized procedures or measures used to assess various aspects of an individual's cognitive functioning, personality traits, emotional status, and behavior. These tests are designed to be reliable and valid tools for evaluating specific psychological constructs such as intelligence, memory, attention, achievement, aptitude, interests, and values. They can be in the form of questionnaires, interviews, observational scales, or performance-based tasks. The results obtained from these tests help mental health professionals make informed decisions about diagnosis, treatment planning, and educational or vocational guidance for their clients. It is important to note that psychological tests should only be administered, scored, and interpreted by trained and qualified professionals to ensure accurate and meaningful results.

A psychological interview is a clinical assessment tool used by mental health professionals to gather information about a person's cognitive, emotional, and behavioral status. It is a structured or unstructured conversation between the clinician and the client aimed at understanding the client's symptoms, concerns, personal history, current life situation, and any other relevant factors that contribute to their psychological state.

The interview may cover various topics such as the individual's mental health history, family background, social relationships, education, occupation, coping mechanisms, and substance use. The clinician will also assess the person's cognitive abilities, emotional expression, thought processes, and behavior during the interview to help form a diagnosis or treatment plan.

The psychological interview is an essential component of a comprehensive mental health evaluation, as it provides valuable insights into the individual's subjective experiences and helps establish a therapeutic relationship between the clinician and the client. It can be conducted in various settings, including hospitals, clinics, private practices, or community centers.

Somatoform disorders are a group of psychological disorders characterized by the presence of physical symptoms that cannot be fully explained by a medical condition or substance abuse. These symptoms cause significant distress and impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning. The individual's belief about the symptoms is not consistent with the medical evaluation and often leads to excessive or repeated medical evaluations.

Examples of somatoform disorders include:

1. Somatization disorder: characterized by multiple physical symptoms that cannot be explained medically, affecting several parts of the body.
2. Conversion disorder: characterized by the presence of one or more neurological symptoms (such as blindness, paralysis, or difficulty swallowing) that cannot be explained medically and appear to have a psychological origin.
3. Pain disorder: characterized by chronic pain that is not fully explained by a medical condition.
4. Hypochondriasis: characterized by an excessive preoccupation with having a serious illness, despite reassurance from medical professionals.
5. Body dysmorphic disorder: characterized by the obsessive idea that some aspect of one's own body part or appearance is severely flawed and warrants exceptional measures to hide or fix it.

It's important to note that these disorders are not caused by intentional deceit or malingering, but rather reflect a genuine belief in the presence of physical symptoms and distress related to them.

'Animal behavior' refers to the actions or responses of animals to various stimuli, including their interactions with the environment and other individuals. It is the study of the actions of animals, whether they are instinctual, learned, or a combination of both. Animal behavior includes communication, mating, foraging, predator avoidance, and social organization, among other things. The scientific study of animal behavior is called ethology. This field seeks to understand the evolutionary basis for behaviors as well as their physiological and psychological mechanisms.

Shyness is not typically defined in medical terms, but it can be considered as a social anxiety or fear of social judgment and negative evaluation. It's characterized by feelings of discomfort, self-consciousness, and apprehension in social situations, which can lead to avoidance behaviors. While shyness itself is not a mental health disorder, extreme shyness can sometimes be a symptom of Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD), which is a recognized medical condition. It's always recommended to seek professional help if shyness is causing significant distress or interfering with daily life.

In the context of medicine and psychology, "temperament" refers to a person's natural disposition or character, which is often thought to be inherited and relatively stable throughout their life. It is the foundation on which personality develops, and it influences how individuals react to their environment, handle emotions, and approach various situations.

Temperament is composed of several traits, including:

1. Activity level: The degree of physical and mental energy a person exhibits.
2. Emotional intensity: The depth or strength of emotional responses.
3. Regularity: The consistency in biological functions like sleep, hunger, and elimination.
4. Approach/withdrawal: The tendency to approach or avoid new situations or people.
5. Adaptability: The ease with which a person adapts to changes in their environment.
6. Mood: The general emotional tone or baseline mood of an individual.
7. Persistence: The ability to maintain focus and effort on a task despite challenges or distractions.
8. Distractibility: The susceptibility to being diverted from a task by external stimuli.
9. Sensitivity: The degree of responsiveness to sensory input, such as touch, taste, sound, and light.
10. Attention span: The length of time a person can concentrate on a single task or activity.

These traits combine to create an individual's unique temperamental profile, which can influence their mental and physical health, social relationships, and overall well-being. Understanding temperament can help healthcare professionals tailor interventions and treatments to meet the specific needs of each patient.

Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric condition that can occur in people who have experienced or witnessed a traumatic event such as a natural disaster, serious accident, war combat, rape, or violent personal assault. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5), PTSD is characterized by the following symptoms, which must last for more than one month:

1. Intrusion symptoms: These include distressing memories, nightmares, flashbacks, or intense psychological distress or reactivity to internal or external cues that symbolize or resemble an aspect of the traumatic event.
2. Avoidance symptoms: Persistent avoidance of stimuli associated with the traumatic event, including thoughts, feelings, conversations, activities, places, or people.
3. Negative alterations in cognitions and mood: This includes negative beliefs about oneself, others, or the world; distorted blame of self or others for causing the trauma; persistent negative emotional state; decreased interest in significant activities; and feelings of detachment or estrangement from others.
4. Alterations in arousal and reactivity: This includes irritable behavior and angry outbursts, reckless or self-destructive behavior, hypervigilance, exaggerated startle response, problems with concentration, and sleep disturbance.
5. Duration of symptoms: The symptoms must last for more than one month.
6. Functional significance: The symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

It is essential to note that PTSD can occur at any age and can be accompanied by various physical and mental health problems, such as depression, substance abuse, memory problems, and other difficulties in cognition. Appropriate treatment, which may include psychotherapy, medication, or a combination of both, can significantly improve the symptoms and overall quality of life for individuals with PTSD.

A startle reaction is a natural, defensive response to an unexpected stimulus that is characterized by a sudden contraction of muscles, typically in the face, neck, and arms. It's a reflexive action that occurs involuntarily and is mediated by the brainstem. The startle reaction can be observed in many different species, including humans, and is thought to have evolved as a protective mechanism to help organisms respond quickly to potential threats. In addition to the muscle contraction, the startle response may also include other physiological changes such as an increase in heart rate and blood pressure.

Social behavior, in the context of medicine and psychology, refers to the ways in which individuals interact and engage with others within their social environment. It involves various actions, communications, and responses that are influenced by cultural norms, personal values, emotional states, and cognitive processes. These behaviors can include but are not limited to communication, cooperation, competition, empathy, altruism, aggression, and conformity.

Abnormalities in social behavior may indicate underlying mental health conditions such as autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, or personality disorders. Therefore, understanding and analyzing social behavior is an essential aspect of diagnosing and treating various psychological and psychiatric conditions.

Prevalence, in medical terms, refers to the total number of people in a given population who have a particular disease or condition at a specific point in time, or over a specified period. It is typically expressed as a percentage or a ratio of the number of cases to the size of the population. Prevalence differs from incidence, which measures the number of new cases that develop during a certain period.

A personality assessment is a systematic process used by healthcare professionals to evaluate and understand an individual's characteristic patterns of thought, emotion, and behavior. It typically involves the use of standardized measures, such as self-report questionnaires, interviews, and observational techniques, to gather information about an individual's personality traits, attitudes, values, and behaviors.

The goal of a personality assessment is to provide a comprehensive and integrated understanding of an individual's unique personality style, including their strengths, weaknesses, and potential vulnerabilities. This information can be useful in a variety of contexts, including clinical treatment planning, vocational counseling, and forensic evaluation.

It is important to note that personality assessments should always be conducted by qualified professionals with appropriate training and expertise in the use of these measures. Additionally, while personality assessments can provide valuable insights into an individual's personality style, they are not infallible and should always be considered alongside other sources of information when making important decisions about treatment or management.

Psychotherapy is a type of treatment used primarily to treat mental health disorders and other emotional or behavioral issues. It involves a therapeutic relationship between a trained psychotherapist and a patient, where they work together to understand the patient's thoughts, feelings, and behaviors, identify patterns that may be causing distress, and develop strategies to manage symptoms and improve overall well-being.

There are many different approaches to psychotherapy, including cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), psychodynamic therapy, interpersonal therapy, and others. The specific approach used will depend on the individual patient's needs and preferences, as well as the training and expertise of the therapist.

Psychotherapy can be conducted in individual, group, or family sessions, and may be provided in a variety of settings, such as hospitals, clinics, private practices, or online platforms. The goal of psychotherapy is to help patients understand themselves better, develop coping skills, improve their relationships, and enhance their overall quality of life.

A cross-sectional study is a type of observational research design that examines the relationship between variables at one point in time. It provides a snapshot or a "cross-section" of the population at a particular moment, allowing researchers to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition and identify potential risk factors or associations.

In a cross-sectional study, data is collected from a sample of participants at a single time point, and the variables of interest are measured simultaneously. This design can be used to investigate the association between exposure and outcome, but it cannot establish causality because it does not follow changes over time.

Cross-sectional studies can be conducted using various data collection methods, such as surveys, interviews, or medical examinations. They are often used in epidemiology to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition in a population and to identify potential risk factors that may contribute to its development. However, because cross-sectional studies only provide a snapshot of the population at one point in time, they cannot account for changes over time or determine whether exposure preceded the outcome.

Therefore, while cross-sectional studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying potential associations between variables, further research using other study designs, such as cohort or case-control studies, is necessary to establish causality and confirm any findings.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical technique used to compare the means of two or more groups and determine whether there are any significant differences between them. It is a way to analyze the variance in a dataset to determine whether the variability between groups is greater than the variability within groups, which can indicate that the groups are significantly different from one another.

ANOVA is based on the concept of partitioning the total variance in a dataset into two components: variance due to differences between group means (also known as "between-group variance") and variance due to differences within each group (also known as "within-group variance"). By comparing these two sources of variance, ANOVA can help researchers determine whether any observed differences between groups are statistically significant, or whether they could have occurred by chance.

ANOVA is a widely used technique in many areas of research, including biology, psychology, engineering, and business. It is often used to compare the means of two or more experimental groups, such as a treatment group and a control group, to determine whether the treatment had a significant effect. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different populations or subgroups within a population, to identify any differences that may exist between them.

In a medical or physiological context, "arousal" refers to the state of being awake and responsive to stimuli. It involves the activation of the nervous system, particularly the autonomic nervous system, which prepares the body for action. Arousal levels can vary from low (such as during sleep) to high (such as during states of excitement or stress). In clinical settings, changes in arousal may be assessed to help diagnose conditions such as coma, brain injury, or sleep disorders. It is also used in the context of sexual response, where it refers to the level of physical and mental awareness and readiness for sexual activity.

I am not a medical doctor, but I can provide you with some information on this topic. Self-concept is more commonly discussed in psychology than in medicine, but it still has relevance to understanding individual experiences and behaviors in health and illness.

Self-concept refers to an individual's perception, beliefs, and attitudes about themselves, encompassing various dimensions such as:

1. Physical self (how one perceives their physical appearance, abilities, and health)
2. Social self (how one perceives their relationships with others, social roles, and status)
3. Psychological or personal self (how one perceives their personality traits, values, and beliefs)

Self-concept can influence how people view their own health, cope with illness, and engage in health behaviors. For example, a positive self-concept may contribute to better adherence to treatment plans and healthier lifestyle choices, while negative self-concepts might lead to poorer health outcomes due to decreased motivation or self-efficacy.

Understanding an individual's self-concept can help healthcare professionals tailor their communication style, recommendations, and interventions to better meet the patient's needs and preferences.

Diazepam is a medication from the benzodiazepine class, which typically has calming, sedative, muscle relaxant, and anticonvulsant properties. Its medical uses include the treatment of anxiety disorders, alcohol withdrawal syndrome, end-of-life sedation, seizures, muscle spasms, and as a premedication for medical procedures. Diazepam is available in various forms, such as tablets, oral solution, rectal gel, and injectable solutions. It works by enhancing the effects of a neurotransmitter called gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the brain, which results in the modulation of nerve impulses in the brain, producing a sedative effect.

It is important to note that diazepam can be habit-forming and has several potential side effects, including drowsiness, dizziness, weakness, and impaired coordination. It should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional and according to the prescribed dosage to minimize the risk of adverse effects and dependence.

In the context of medicine and psychology, personality is a complex concept that refers to the unique patterns of thoughts, behaviors, and emotions that define an individual and differentiate them from others. It is the set of characteristics that influence how we perceive the world, how we relate to other people, and how we cope with stress and challenges.

Personality is thought to be relatively stable over time, although it can also evolve and change in response to life experiences and maturation. It is shaped by a combination of genetic factors, environmental influences, and developmental experiences.

There are many different theories and models of personality, including the Five Factor Model (FFM), which identifies five broad domains of personality: openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism. Other approaches to understanding personality include psychoanalytic theory, humanistic psychology, and trait theory.

It's important to note that while the term "personality" is often used in everyday language to describe someone's behavior or demeanor, in medical and psychological contexts it refers to a more complex and multifaceted construct.

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD) is a mental health disorder characterized by the presence of obsessions and compulsions. Obsessions are recurrent and persistent thoughts, urges, or images that are intrusive, unwanted, and often distressing. Compulsions are repetitive behaviors or mental acts that an individual feels driven to perform in response to an obsession or according to rigid rules, and which are aimed at preventing or reducing anxiety or distress, or preventing some dreaded event or situation. These obsessions and/or compulsions cause significant distress, take up a lot of time (an hour or more a day), and interfere with the individual's daily life, including social activities, relationships, and work or school performance. OCD is considered a type of anxiety disorder and can also co-occur with other mental health conditions.

Antidepressive agents are a class of medications used to treat various forms of depression and anxiety disorders. They act on neurotransmitters, the chemical messengers in the brain, to restore the balance that has been disrupted by mental illness. The most commonly prescribed types of antidepressants include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), and monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs). These medications can help alleviate symptoms such as low mood, loss of interest in activities, changes in appetite and sleep patterns, fatigue, difficulty concentrating, and thoughts of death or suicide. It is important to note that antidepressants may take several weeks to reach their full effectiveness and may cause side effects, so it is essential to work closely with a healthcare provider to find the right medication and dosage.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

I believe there may be a misunderstanding in your question. "Mothers" is a term that refers to individuals who have given birth to and raised children. It is not a medical term with a specific definition. If you are referring to a different word or term, please clarify so I can provide a more accurate response.

Anger is a normal and adaptive human emotion, which can be defined as a negative emotional state that involves feelings of annoyance, irritation, hostility, and aggression towards someone or something that has caused harm, injury, or unfair treatment. It is a complex emotional response that can have physical, mental, and behavioral components.

Physiologically, anger triggers the release of stress hormones such as adrenaline, which prepares the body for a fight-or-flight response. This can result in symptoms such as increased heart rate, rapid breathing, and heightened sensory perception.

In terms of mental and behavioral components, anger can manifest as thoughts of revenge, verbal or physical aggression, or passive-aggressive behaviors. Chronic or uncontrolled anger can have negative impacts on one's health, relationships, and overall quality of life.

It is important to note that while anger is a normal emotion, it becomes a problem when it leads to harmful behaviors or interferes with daily functioning. In such cases, seeking professional help from a mental health provider may be necessary to learn healthy coping mechanisms and manage anger effectively.

Longitudinal studies are a type of research design where data is collected from the same subjects repeatedly over a period of time, often years or even decades. These studies are used to establish patterns of changes and events over time, and can help researchers identify causal relationships between variables. They are particularly useful in fields such as epidemiology, psychology, and sociology, where the focus is on understanding developmental trends and the long-term effects of various factors on health and behavior.

In medical research, longitudinal studies can be used to track the progression of diseases over time, identify risk factors for certain conditions, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments or interventions. For example, a longitudinal study might follow a group of individuals over several decades to assess their exposure to certain environmental factors and their subsequent development of chronic diseases such as cancer or heart disease. By comparing data collected at multiple time points, researchers can identify trends and correlations that may not be apparent in shorter-term studies.

Longitudinal studies have several advantages over other research designs, including their ability to establish temporal relationships between variables, track changes over time, and reduce the impact of confounding factors. However, they also have some limitations, such as the potential for attrition (loss of participants over time), which can introduce bias and affect the validity of the results. Additionally, longitudinal studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, requiring significant resources and a long-term commitment from both researchers and study participants.

Interpersonal relations, in the context of medicine and healthcare, refer to the interactions and relationships between patients and healthcare professionals, as well as among healthcare professionals themselves. These relationships are crucial in the delivery of care and can significantly impact patient outcomes. Positive interpersonal relations can lead to improved communication, increased trust, greater patient satisfaction, and better adherence to treatment plans. On the other hand, negative or strained interpersonal relations can result in poor communication, mistrust, dissatisfaction, and non-adherence.

Healthcare professionals are trained to develop effective interpersonal skills, including active listening, empathy, respect, and cultural sensitivity, to build positive relationships with their patients. Effective interpersonal relations also involve clear and concise communication, setting appropriate boundaries, and managing conflicts in a constructive manner. In addition, positive interpersonal relations among healthcare professionals can promote collaboration, teamwork, and knowledge sharing, leading to improved patient care and safety.

Serotonin uptake inhibitors (also known as Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors or SSRIs) are a class of medications primarily used to treat depression and anxiety disorders. They work by increasing the levels of serotonin, a neurotransmitter in the brain that helps regulate mood, appetite, and sleep, among other functions.

SSRIs block the reuptake of serotonin into the presynaptic neuron, allowing more serotonin to be available in the synapse (the space between two neurons) for binding to postsynaptic receptors. This results in increased serotonergic neurotransmission and improved mood regulation.

Examples of SSRIs include fluoxetine (Prozac), sertraline (Zoloft), paroxetine (Paxil), citalopram (Celexa), and escitalopram (Lexapro). These medications are generally well-tolerated, with side effects that may include nausea, headache, insomnia, sexual dysfunction, and increased anxiety or agitation. However, they can have serious interactions with other medications, so it is important to inform your healthcare provider of all medications you are taking before starting an SSRI.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

"Sex factors" is a term used in medicine and epidemiology to refer to the differences in disease incidence, prevalence, or response to treatment that are observed between males and females. These differences can be attributed to biological differences such as genetics, hormones, and anatomy, as well as social and cultural factors related to gender.

For example, some conditions such as autoimmune diseases, depression, and osteoporosis are more common in women, while others such as cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer are more prevalent in men. Additionally, sex differences have been observed in the effectiveness and side effects of various medications and treatments.

It is important to consider sex factors in medical research and clinical practice to ensure that patients receive appropriate and effective care.

Life change events refer to significant changes or transitions in an individual's personal circumstances that may have an impact on their health and well-being. These events can include things like:

* Marriage or divorce
* Birth of a child or loss of a loved one
* Job loss or retirement
* Moving to a new home or city
* Changes in financial status
* Health diagnoses or serious illnesses
* Starting or ending of a significant relationship

Research has shown that life change events can have a profound effect on an individual's stress levels, mental health, and physical health. Some life change events may be positive and exciting, while others may be challenging and difficult to cope with. In either case, it is important for individuals to take care of themselves during times of transition and seek support as needed.

Pain is an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage, or described in terms of such damage. It is a complex phenomenon that can result from various stimuli, such as thermal, mechanical, or chemical irritation, and it can be acute or chronic. The perception of pain involves the activation of specialized nerve cells called nociceptors, which transmit signals to the brain via the spinal cord. These signals are then processed in different regions of the brain, leading to the conscious experience of pain. It's important to note that pain is a highly individual and subjective experience, and its perception can vary widely among individuals.

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), neurotic disorders are not a recognized category. However, the term "neurosis" has been used historically in psychiatry and psychology to refer to a group of mental disorders characterized by anxiety, obsessions, depressive moods, phobias, or hypochondriacal fears. These symptoms are often considered to be the result of internal conflicts, typically related to stress, frustration, or interpersonal difficulties.

The DSM-5 has replaced the category of neurotic disorders with several specific mental disorders that were previously classified under this heading. These include:

1. Anxiety Disorders (e.g., panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder)
2. Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders (e.g., obsessive-compulsive disorder, body dysmorphic disorder, hoarding disorder)
3. Trauma- and Stressor-Related Disorders (e.g., post-traumatic stress disorder, acute stress disorder, adjustment disorders)
4. Mood Disorders (e.g., major depressive disorder, persistent depressive disorder)
5. Somatic Symptom and Related Disorders (e.g., illness anxiety disorder, conversion disorder)

These specific disorders are defined by their own unique diagnostic criteria and should be evaluated based on those guidelines.

Psychological models are theoretical frameworks used in psychology to explain and predict mental processes and behaviors. They are simplified representations of complex phenomena, consisting of interrelated concepts, assumptions, and hypotheses that describe how various factors interact to produce specific outcomes. These models can be quantitative (e.g., mathematical equations) or qualitative (e.g., conceptual diagrams) in nature and may draw upon empirical data, theoretical insights, or both.

Psychological models serve several purposes:

1. They provide a systematic and organized way to understand and describe psychological phenomena.
2. They generate hypotheses and predictions that can be tested through empirical research.
3. They integrate findings from different studies and help synthesize knowledge across various domains of psychology.
4. They inform the development of interventions and treatments for mental health disorders.

Examples of psychological models include:

1. The Five Factor Model (FFM) of personality, which posits that individual differences in personality can be described along five broad dimensions: Openness, Conscientiousness, Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Neuroticism.
2. The Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT) model, which suggests that maladaptive thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are interconnected and can be changed through targeted interventions.
3. The Dual Process Theory of Attitudes, which proposes that attitudes are formed and influenced by two distinct processes: a rapid, intuitive process (heuristic) and a slower, deliberative process (systematic).
4. The Social Cognitive Theory, which emphasizes the role of observational learning, self-efficacy, and outcome expectations in shaping behavior.
5. The Attachment Theory, which describes the dynamics of long-term relationships between humans, particularly the parent-child relationship.

It is important to note that psychological models are provisional and subject to revision or replacement as new evidence emerges. They should be considered as useful tools for understanding and explaining psychological phenomena rather than definitive truths.

A facial expression is a result of the contraction or relaxation of muscles in the face that change the physical appearance of an individual's face to convey various emotions, intentions, or physical sensations. Facial expressions can be voluntary or involuntary and are a form of non-verbal communication that plays a crucial role in social interaction and conveying a person's state of mind.

The seven basic facial expressions of emotion, as proposed by Paul Ekman, include happiness, sadness, fear, disgust, surprise, anger, and contempt. These facial expressions are universally recognized across cultures and can be detected through the interpretation of specific muscle movements in the face, known as action units, which are measured and analyzed in fields such as psychology, neurology, and computer vision.

Galvanic Skin Response (GSR), also known as Electrodermal Activity (EDA), is a physiological response that reflects the activation of the sympathetic nervous system. It measures changes in the electrical properties of the skin, which are influenced by the sweat gland activity. GSR is often used as an indicator of emotional arousal or psychological stress in various research and clinical settings.

Computer-assisted therapy, also known as computerized cognitive behavioral therapy (CCBT), refers to the use of computer programs or digital platforms to deliver therapeutic interventions that are typically guided by a trained professional. This approach often involves interactive activities and exercises designed to help individuals develop skills and strategies for managing various psychological, emotional, or behavioral issues.

The goal of computer-assisted therapy is to increase accessibility, affordability, and convenience of mental health services while maintaining the effectiveness of traditional face-to-face therapy. It can be used as a standalone treatment or as an adjunct to traditional therapy, depending on the individual's needs and preferences. Common applications of computer-assisted therapy include treating anxiety disorders, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), insomnia, and substance use disorders.

Pain measurement, in a medical context, refers to the quantification or evaluation of the intensity and/or unpleasantness of a patient's subjective pain experience. This is typically accomplished through the use of standardized self-report measures such as numerical rating scales (NRS), visual analog scales (VAS), or categorical scales (mild, moderate, severe). In some cases, physiological measures like heart rate, blood pressure, and facial expressions may also be used to supplement self-reported pain ratings. The goal of pain measurement is to help healthcare providers better understand the nature and severity of a patient's pain in order to develop an effective treatment plan.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

A "self-report" in a medical context refers to the information or data provided by an individual about their own symptoms, experiences, behaviors, or health status. This can be collected through various methods such as questionnaires, surveys, interviews, or diaries. Self-reports are commonly used in research and clinical settings to assess various aspects of health, including physical and mental health symptoms, quality of life, treatment adherence, and substance use.

While self-reports can be a valuable source of information, they may also be subject to biases such as recall bias, social desirability bias, or response distortion. Therefore, it is important to consider the potential limitations and validity of self-reported data in interpreting the results. In some cases, self-reports may be supplemented with other sources of information, such as medical records, physiological measures, or observer ratings.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Mental health is a state of well-being in which an individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community. It involves the emotional, psychological, and social aspects of an individual's health. Mental health is not just the absence of mental illness, it also includes positive characteristics such as resilience, happiness, and having a sense of purpose in life.

It is important to note that mental health can change over time, and it is possible for an individual to experience periods of good mental health as well as periods of poor mental health. Factors such as genetics, trauma, stress, and physical illness can all contribute to the development of mental health problems. Additionally, cultural and societal factors, such as discrimination and poverty, can also impact an individual's mental health.

Mental Health professionals like psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers and other mental health counselors use different tools and techniques to evaluate, diagnose and treat mental health conditions. These include therapy or counseling, medication, and self-help strategies.

Desensitization, psychologic, also known as psychological desensitization or systematic desensitization, is a therapeutic technique used in behavioral therapy to reduce or eliminate fear, anxiety, or other negative emotional responses associated with specific stimuli or situations. This process involves gradually and systematically exposing the individual to the feared stimulus or situation, beginning with less threatening versions and progressively increasing the level of exposure until the anxiety response is significantly reduced or eliminated. The technique is often used in conjunction with relaxation training and cognitive restructuring to help the person develop more adaptive responses to the previously distressing stimuli.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "parents" is not a term that has a medical definition. In general usage, parents are the two people (typically) who bring up and care for a child, or who have given birth to or adopted a child. They are responsible for the child's housing, food, clothing, education, and medical care. Is there a specific medical or healthcare-related context you had in mind? I would be happy to help further if I can.

"Motor activity" is a general term used in the field of medicine and neuroscience to refer to any kind of physical movement or action that is generated by the body's motor system. The motor system includes the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and muscles that work together to produce movements such as walking, talking, reaching for an object, or even subtle actions like moving your eyes.

Motor activity can be voluntary, meaning it is initiated intentionally by the individual, or involuntary, meaning it is triggered automatically by the nervous system without conscious control. Examples of voluntary motor activity include deliberately lifting your arm or kicking a ball, while examples of involuntary motor activity include heartbeat, digestion, and reflex actions like jerking your hand away from a hot stove.

Abnormalities in motor activity can be a sign of neurological or muscular disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, cerebral palsy, or multiple sclerosis. Assessment of motor activity is often used in the diagnosis and treatment of these conditions.

Substance Withdrawal Syndrome is a medically recognized condition that occurs when an individual who has been using certain substances, such as alcohol, opioids, or benzodiazepines, suddenly stops or significantly reduces their use. The syndrome is characterized by a specific set of symptoms that can be physical, cognitive, and emotional in nature. These symptoms can vary widely depending on the substance that was being used, the length and intensity of the addiction, and individual factors such as genetics, age, and overall health.

The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), published by the American Psychiatric Association, provides the following diagnostic criteria for Substance Withdrawal Syndrome:

A. The development of objective evidence of withdrawal, referring to the specific physiological changes associated with the particular substance, or subjective evidence of withdrawal, characterized by the individual's report of symptoms that correspond to the typical withdrawal syndrome for the substance.

B. The symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

C. The symptoms are not better explained by co-occurring mental, medical, or other substance use disorders.

D. The withdrawal syndrome is not attributable to another medical condition and is not better accounted for by another mental disorder.

The DSM-5 also specifies that the diagnosis of Substance Withdrawal Syndrome should be substance-specific, meaning that it should specify the particular class of substances (e.g., alcohol, opioids, benzodiazepines) responsible for the withdrawal symptoms. This is important because different substances have distinct withdrawal syndromes and require different approaches to management and treatment.

In general, Substance Withdrawal Syndrome can be a challenging and potentially dangerous condition that requires professional medical supervision and support during the detoxification process. The specific symptoms and their severity will vary depending on the substance involved, but they may include:

* For alcohol: tremors, seizures, hallucinations, agitation, anxiety, nausea, vomiting, and insomnia.
* For opioids: muscle aches, restlessness, lacrimation (tearing), rhinorrhea (runny nose), yawning, perspiration, chills, mydriasis (dilated pupils), piloerection (goosebumps), nausea or vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps.
* For benzodiazepines: anxiety, irritability, insomnia, restlessness, confusion, hallucinations, seizures, and increased heart rate and blood pressure.

It is essential to consult with a healthcare professional if you or someone you know is experiencing symptoms of Substance Withdrawal Syndrome. They can provide appropriate medical care, support, and referrals for further treatment as needed.

Psychopathology is a branch of psychology and medicine that involves the study and classification of mental disorders, including their causes, symptoms, and treatment. It is an interdisciplinary field that draws on various methods and perspectives from psychology, neuroscience, genetics, sociology, and other related disciplines to understand and explain abnormal behavior and mental processes.

The term "psychopathology" can also refer specifically to the presence of a mental disorder or to the symptoms and features of a particular mental disorder. For example, one might say that someone has a psychopathology or that they exhibit certain psychopathological symptoms.

Psychopathology is often contrasted with normal psychology, which focuses on understanding and explaining typical behavior and mental processes. However, it is important to note that the boundary between normal and abnormal behavior is not always clear-cut, and many psychological phenomena exist on a continuum rather than falling neatly into one category or the other.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

I could not find a specific medical definition for "Mother-Child Relations," as it is more commonly studied in fields such as psychology, sociology, and social work. However, I can provide you with some related medical or psychological terms that might help you understand the concept better:

1. Attachment Theory: Developed by John Bowlby and Mary Ainsworth, attachment theory describes the emotional bond between an infant and their primary caregiver (usually the mother). Secure attachment is crucial for healthy emotional and social development in children.
2. Mother-Infant Interaction: This refers to the reciprocal communication and interaction between a mother and her infant, which includes verbal and non-verbal cues, such as facial expressions, gestures, touch, and vocalizations. Positive and responsive interactions contribute to healthy emotional development and secure attachment.
3. Parent-Child Relationship: A broader term that encompasses the emotional bond, communication patterns, and behaviors between a parent (in this case, the mother) and their child. This relationship significantly influences a child's cognitive, social, and emotional development.
4. Maternal Depression: A mental health condition in which a mother experiences depressive symptoms, such as sadness, hopelessness, or loss of interest in activities, after giving birth (postpartum depression) or at any point during the first year after childbirth (major depressive disorder with peripartum onset). Maternal depression can negatively impact mother-child relations and a child's development.
5. Parenting Styles: Different approaches to raising children, characterized by the degree of demandingness and responsiveness. Four main parenting styles include authoritative (high demandingness, high responsiveness), authoritarian (high demandingness, low responsiveness), permissive (low demandingness, high responsiveness), and neglectful/uninvolved (low demandingness, low responsiveness). These styles can influence mother-child relations and child development.

While not a direct medical definition, these terms highlight the significance of mother-child relations in various aspects of child development and mental health.

Primary health care is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as:

"Essential health care that is based on practical, scientifically sound and socially acceptable methods and technology made universally accessible to individuals and families in the community through their full participation and at a cost that the community and country can afford. It forms an integral part both of the country's health system, of which it is the central function and main focus, and of the overall social and economic development of the community. It is the first level of contact of individuals, the family and community with the national health system bringing health care as close as possible to where people live and work, and constitutes the first element of a continuing health care process."

Primary health care includes a range of services such as preventive care, health promotion, curative care, rehabilitation, and palliative care. It is typically provided by a team of health professionals including doctors, nurses, midwives, pharmacists, and other community health workers. The goal of primary health care is to provide comprehensive, continuous, and coordinated care to individuals and families in a way that is accessible, affordable, and culturally sensitive.

Affective symptoms refer to emotional or mood-related disturbances that can occur in various medical and psychological conditions. These symptoms may include:

1. Depression: feelings of sadness, hopelessness, loss of interest or pleasure in activities, changes in appetite and sleep patterns, fatigue, difficulty concentrating, and thoughts of death or suicide.
2. Anxiety: excessive worry, fear, or nervousness, often accompanied by physical symptoms such as a rapid heartbeat, sweating, and trembling.
3. Irritability: easily annoyed or agitated, often leading to outbursts of anger or frustration.
4. Mania or hypomania: abnormally elevated mood, increased energy, decreased need for sleep, racing thoughts, and impulsive or risky behavior.
5. Apathy: lack of interest, motivation, or emotion, often leading to social withdrawal and decreased activity levels.
6. Mood lability: rapid and unpredictable shifts in mood, ranging from extreme happiness to sadness, anger, or anxiety.

Affective symptoms can significantly impact a person's quality of life and ability to function in daily activities. They may be caused by a variety of factors, including genetics, brain chemistry imbalances, stress, trauma, and medical conditions. Proper diagnosis and treatment are essential for managing affective symptoms and improving overall well-being.

"Age factors" refer to the effects, changes, or differences that age can have on various aspects of health, disease, and medical care. These factors can encompass a wide range of issues, including:

1. Physiological changes: As people age, their bodies undergo numerous physical changes that can affect how they respond to medications, illnesses, and medical procedures. For example, older adults may be more sensitive to certain drugs or have weaker immune systems, making them more susceptible to infections.
2. Chronic conditions: Age is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and arthritis. As a result, age-related medical issues are common and can impact treatment decisions and outcomes.
3. Cognitive decline: Aging can also lead to cognitive changes, including memory loss and decreased decision-making abilities. These changes can affect a person's ability to understand and comply with medical instructions, leading to potential complications in their care.
4. Functional limitations: Older adults may experience physical limitations that impact their mobility, strength, and balance, increasing the risk of falls and other injuries. These limitations can also make it more challenging for them to perform daily activities, such as bathing, dressing, or cooking.
5. Social determinants: Age-related factors, such as social isolation, poverty, and lack of access to transportation, can impact a person's ability to obtain necessary medical care and affect their overall health outcomes.

Understanding age factors is critical for healthcare providers to deliver high-quality, patient-centered care that addresses the unique needs and challenges of older adults. By taking these factors into account, healthcare providers can develop personalized treatment plans that consider a person's age, physical condition, cognitive abilities, and social circumstances.

Regression analysis is a statistical technique used in medicine, as well as in other fields, to examine the relationship between one or more independent variables (predictors) and a dependent variable (outcome). It allows for the estimation of the average change in the outcome variable associated with a one-unit change in an independent variable, while controlling for the effects of other independent variables. This technique is often used to identify risk factors for diseases or to evaluate the effectiveness of medical interventions. In medical research, regression analysis can be used to adjust for potential confounding variables and to quantify the relationship between exposures and health outcomes. It can also be used in predictive modeling to estimate the probability of a particular outcome based on multiple predictors.

Social support in a medical context refers to the resources and assistance provided by an individual's social network, including family, friends, peers, and community groups. These resources can include emotional, informational, and instrumental support, which help individuals cope with stress, manage health conditions, and maintain their overall well-being.

Emotional support involves providing empathy, care, and encouragement to help an individual feel valued, understood, and cared for. Informational support refers to the provision of advice, guidance, and knowledge that can help an individual make informed decisions about their health or other aspects of their life. Instrumental support includes practical assistance such as help with daily tasks, financial aid, or access to resources.

Social support has been shown to have a positive impact on physical and mental health outcomes, including reduced stress levels, improved immune function, better coping skills, and increased resilience. It can also play a critical role in promoting healthy behaviors, such as adherence to medical treatments and lifestyle changes.

I am not aware of a medical definition for "Internal-External Control." However, the term "locus of control" is commonly used in psychology and medicine to describe an individual's belief about the degree to which they have control over events and outcomes in their life.

Locus of control can be categorized as either internal or external:

* Internal locus of control refers to the belief that one has control over their own life outcomes, and that these outcomes are determined by their own efforts, abilities, and choices.
* External locus of control, on the other hand, refers to the belief that events and outcomes in one's life are controlled by external factors such as luck, chance, or powerful others.

Both internal and external locus of control can have implications for health behaviors and medical outcomes. For example, individuals with an internal locus of control may be more likely to engage in healthy behaviors such as exercise and healthy eating, while those with an external locus of control may be more likely to engage in risky behaviors such as smoking or substance abuse. Similarly, a strong internal locus of control has been associated with better medical outcomes, including improved mental health and reduced symptoms of chronic illness.

Postpartum depression is a type of depressive disorder that occurs in a woman after giving birth (the postpartum period). The symptoms are similar to those of other forms of depression, such as low mood, loss of interest or pleasure in activities, changes in appetite and sleep patterns, feelings of guilt or worthlessness, difficulty thinking, concentrating or making decisions, and thoughts of death or suicide. However, in postpartum depression, these symptoms are more severe and last longer than those typically experienced after childbirth. Postpartum depression can make it difficult for a woman to care for herself or her baby and can affect the bonding between mother and child. It is important to seek medical help if you think you may be experiencing postpartum depression. Treatment may include counseling, medication, or a combination of both.

Group psychotherapy is a form of psychotherapy in which a trained therapist treats a small group of individuals together as a group. The therapy focuses on interpersonal relationships and social interactions among the members of the group. The group becomes a social microcosm for each individual, allowing them to understand and work through their issues in relation to others.

The size of the group typically ranges from 5-12 members, and meetings can be held in various settings such as hospitals, community mental health centers, or private practice offices. The duration of the therapy can vary, ranging from brief, time-limited groups that meet for several weeks to longer-term groups that meet for several months or even years.

Group psychotherapy can be used to treat a wide range of psychological issues, including depression, anxiety, personality disorders, trauma, and relational difficulties. The therapist facilitates the group process by creating a safe and supportive environment where members can share their thoughts, feelings, and experiences with one another. Through this process, members can gain insights into their own behavior, develop new social skills, and improve their relationships with others.

Personality tests are psychological assessments used to measure an individual's personality traits, characteristics, and behaviors. These tests are designed to evaluate various aspects of an individual's personality, such as their temperament, interpersonal style, emotional stability, motivation, values, and preferences. The results of these tests can help healthcare professionals, researchers, and organizations better understand a person's behavior, predict their performance in different settings, and identify potential strengths and weaknesses.

There are several types of personality tests, including self-report measures, projective tests, and objective tests. Self-report measures, such as the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) or the NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI), ask individuals to rate themselves on a series of statements or questions about their thoughts, feelings, and behaviors. Projective tests, like the Rorschach Inkblot Test or the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT), present ambiguous stimuli that respondents must interpret, revealing unconscious thoughts, feelings, and motivations. Objective tests, such as the California Psychological Inventory (CPI) or the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF), use a standardized set of questions to assess specific personality traits and characteristics.

It is important to note that while personality tests can provide valuable insights into an individual's behavior, they should not be used as the sole basis for making important decisions about a person's life, such as employment or mental health treatment. Instead, these tests should be considered one piece of a comprehensive assessment that includes other sources of information, such as interviews, observations, and collateral reports.

Psychotropic drugs, also known as psychoactive drugs, are a class of medications that affect the function of the central nervous system, leading to changes in consciousness, perception, mood, cognition, or behavior. These drugs work by altering the chemical neurotransmitters in the brain, such as dopamine, serotonin, and norepinephrine, which are involved in regulating mood, thought, and behavior.

Psychotropic drugs can be classified into several categories based on their primary therapeutic effects, including:

1. Antipsychotic drugs: These medications are used to treat psychosis, schizophrenia, and other related disorders. They work by blocking dopamine receptors in the brain, which helps reduce hallucinations, delusions, and disordered thinking.
2. Antidepressant drugs: These medications are used to treat depression, anxiety disorders, and some chronic pain conditions. They work by increasing the availability of neurotransmitters such as serotonin, norepinephrine, or dopamine in the brain, which helps improve mood and reduce anxiety.
3. Mood stabilizers: These medications are used to treat bipolar disorder and other mood disorders. They help regulate the ups and downs of mood swings and can also be used as adjunctive treatment for depression and anxiety.
4. Anxiolytic drugs: Also known as anti-anxiety medications, these drugs are used to treat anxiety disorders, panic attacks, and insomnia. They work by reducing the activity of neurotransmitters such as GABA, which can help reduce anxiety and promote relaxation.
5. Stimulant drugs: These medications are used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy. They work by increasing the availability of dopamine and norepinephrine in the brain, which helps improve focus, concentration, and alertness.

It is important to note that psychotropic drugs can have significant side effects and should only be used under the close supervision of a qualified healthcare provider.

Health surveys are research studies that collect data from a sample population to describe the current health status, health behaviors, and healthcare utilization of a particular group or community. These surveys may include questions about various aspects of health such as physical health, mental health, chronic conditions, lifestyle habits, access to healthcare services, and demographic information. The data collected from health surveys can be used to monitor trends in health over time, identify disparities in health outcomes, develop and evaluate public health programs and policies, and inform resource allocation decisions. Examples of national health surveys include the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS).

Maternal behavior refers to the nurturing and protective behaviors exhibited by a female animal towards its offspring. In humans, this term is often used to describe the natural instincts and actions of a woman during pregnancy, childbirth, and early child-rearing. It encompasses a broad range of activities such as feeding, grooming, protecting, and teaching the young.

In the context of medical and psychological research, maternal behavior is often studied to understand the factors that influence its development, expression, and outcomes for both the mother and offspring. Factors that can affect maternal behavior include hormonal changes during pregnancy and childbirth, as well as social, cultural, and environmental influences.

Abnormal or atypical maternal behavior may indicate underlying mental health issues, such as postpartum depression or anxiety, and can have negative consequences for both the mother and the child's development and well-being. Therefore, it is important to monitor and support healthy maternal behaviors in new mothers to promote positive outcomes for both parties.

"Self-assessment" in the context of medicine and healthcare generally refers to the process by which an individual evaluates their own health status, symptoms, or healthcare needs. This can involve various aspects such as:

1. Recognizing and acknowledging one's own signs and symptoms of a potential health issue.
2. Assessing the severity and impact of these symptoms on daily life.
3. Determining whether medical attention is needed and, if so, deciding the urgency of such care.
4. Monitoring the effectiveness of treatment plans and making adjustments as necessary.

Self-assessment tools in healthcare can include questionnaires, surveys, or other structured methods to guide patients in evaluating their health status. These tools can be particularly useful in managing chronic conditions, promoting preventive care, and supporting patient autonomy and engagement in their own healthcare. However, self-assessment should not replace regular check-ups and consultations with healthcare professionals, who can provide more comprehensive assessments, diagnoses, and treatment recommendations based on their clinical expertise and access to additional information and resources.

Factor analysis is a statistical technique used to identify patterns or structures in a dataset by explaining the correlations between variables. It is a method of simplifying complex data by reducing it to a smaller set of underlying factors that can explain most of the variation in the data. In other words, factor analysis is a way to uncover hidden relationships between multiple variables and group them into meaningful categories or factors.

In factor analysis, each variable is represented as a linear combination of underlying factors, where the factors are unobserved variables that cannot be directly measured but can only be inferred from the observed data. The goal is to identify these underlying factors and determine their relationships with the observed variables. This technique is commonly used in various fields such as psychology, social sciences, marketing, and biomedical research to explore complex datasets and gain insights into the underlying structure of the data.

There are two main types of factor analysis: exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). EFA is used when there is no prior knowledge about the underlying factors, and the goal is to discover the potential structure in the data. CFA, on the other hand, is used when there is a theoretical framework or hypothesis about the underlying factors, and the goal is to test whether the observed data support this framework or hypothesis.

In summary, factor analysis is a statistical method for reducing complex datasets into simpler components called factors, which can help researchers identify patterns, structures, and relationships in the data.

Substance-related disorders, as defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), refer to a group of conditions caused by the use of substances such as alcohol, drugs, or medicines. These disorders are characterized by a problematic pattern of using a substance that leads to clinically significant impairment or distress. They can be divided into two main categories: substance use disorders and substance-induced disorders. Substance use disorders involve a pattern of compulsive use despite negative consequences, while substance-induced disorders include conditions such as intoxication, withdrawal, and substance/medication-induced mental disorders. The specific diagnosis depends on the type of substance involved, the patterns of use, and the presence or absence of physiological dependence.

Avoidance learning is a type of conditioning in which an individual learns to act in a certain way to avoid experiencing an unpleasant or aversive stimulus. It is a form of learning that occurs when an organism changes its behavior to avoid a negative outcome or situation. This can be seen in both animals and humans, and it is often studied in the field of psychology and neuroscience.

In avoidance learning, the individual learns to associate a particular cue or stimulus with the unpleasant experience. Over time, they learn to perform an action to escape or avoid the cue, thereby preventing the negative outcome from occurring. For example, if a rat receives an electric shock every time it hears a certain tone, it may eventually learn to press a lever to turn off the tone and avoid the shock.

Avoidance learning can be adaptive in some situations, as it allows individuals to avoid dangerous or harmful stimuli. However, it can also become maladaptive if it leads to excessive fear or anxiety, or if it interferes with an individual's ability to function in daily life. For example, a person who has been attacked may develop a phobia of public places and avoid them altogether, even though this limits their ability to engage in social activities and live a normal life.

In summary, avoidance learning is a type of conditioning in which an individual learns to act in a certain way to avoid experiencing an unpleasant or aversive stimulus. It can be adaptive in some situations but can also become maladaptive if it leads to excessive fear or anxiety or interferes with daily functioning.

Benzodiazepines are a class of psychoactive drugs that have been widely used for their sedative, hypnotic, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, and muscle relaxant properties. They act by enhancing the inhibitory effects of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.

Benzodiazepines are commonly prescribed for the treatment of anxiety disorders, insomnia, seizures, and muscle spasms. They can also be used as premedication before medical procedures to produce sedation, amnesia, and anxiolysis. Some examples of benzodiazepines include diazepam (Valium), alprazolam (Xanax), clonazepam (Klonopin), lorazepam (Ativan), and temazepam (Restoril).

While benzodiazepines are effective in treating various medical conditions, they can also cause physical dependence and withdrawal symptoms. Long-term use of benzodiazepines can lead to tolerance, meaning that higher doses are needed to achieve the same effect. Abrupt discontinuation of benzodiazepines can result in severe withdrawal symptoms, including seizures, hallucinations, and anxiety. Therefore, it is important to taper off benzodiazepines gradually under medical supervision.

Benzodiazepines are classified as Schedule IV controlled substances in the United States due to their potential for abuse and dependence. It is essential to use them only as directed by a healthcare provider and to be aware of their potential risks and benefits.

Alcoholism is a chronic and often relapsing brain disorder characterized by the excessive and compulsive consumption of alcohol despite negative consequences to one's health, relationships, and daily life. It is also commonly referred to as alcohol use disorder (AUD) or alcohol dependence.

The diagnostic criteria for AUD include a pattern of alcohol use that includes problems controlling intake, continued use despite problems resulting from drinking, development of a tolerance, drinking that leads to risky behaviors or situations, and withdrawal symptoms when not drinking.

Alcoholism can cause a wide range of physical and psychological health problems, including liver disease, heart disease, neurological damage, mental health disorders, and increased risk of accidents and injuries. Treatment for alcoholism typically involves a combination of behavioral therapies, medications, and support groups to help individuals achieve and maintain sobriety.

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Existential death anxiety is known to be the most powerful form of death anxiety. It is said that language has created the ... Death anxiety is anxiety caused by thoughts of one's own death, and is also referred to as thanatophobia (fear of death). ... May believed that this dichotomy could lead to negative anxiety that hindered life, or a positive anxiety that would lead to a ... A 2009 study on death anxiety in the context of religion showed that Christians scored lower for death anxiety than non- ...
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... can also refer to being castrated symbolically. In the metaphorical sense, castration anxiety refers to the ... A link has been found between castration anxiety and fear of death. Although differing degrees of anxiety are common, young men ... The measurement of castration anxiety and anxiety over loss of love. Journal of Personality, 24 204-219. Feiner, K. (1988) A ... might experience long-lasting anxiety. The researchers claimed that this anxiety is from the repressed desires for sexual ...
Psychology portal Separation anxiety disorder Social phobia Social anxiety Stranger anxiety Deterding, Robin R.; William Winn ... Stranger anxiety is a form of distress that children experience when exposed to strangers. Stranger anxiety and stranger fear ... The fear of the unknown elicits the anxiety. Although anxiety can go away in few minutes, it could also last a long time. As ... Stranger anxiety at American Academy of Pediatrics Stranger anxiety at Arkansas Center for Effective Parenting Separation ...
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... is the largest national user-led charity dealing with anxiety in the UK. Anxiety UK works to relieve and support ... Anxiety UK. Retrieved 26 January 2018. Anxiety UK (Webarchive template wayback links, Use dmy dates from April 2022, Articles ... Anxiety UK. Retrieved 26 January 2018. Frequently Asked Questions Archived 14 June 2020 at the Wayback Machine. Anxiety UK. ... It also campaigns to raise awareness of anxiety disorders. Anxiety UK offers the following paid for therapies: counselling, ...
... and/or anxiety symptoms. There are several types of anxiety disorders, including generalized anxiety disorder, illness anxiety ... ISBN 978-1-58391-834-0. "Generalized Anxiety Disorder in Children". Anxiety Canada. Merrill, Anna. "Anxiety and Autism Spectrum ... Generalized anxiety disorder is the most common anxiety disorder to affect older adults. Anxiety can be a symptom of a medical ... the Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7 (GAD-7), the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, and the ...
... , also known as somatization, is the physical manifestation of anxiety. It is commonly contrasted with cognitive ... The Multi-dimensional Theory of Anxiety (Martens, 1990) is based on the distinction between somatic and cognitive anxiety. The ... These different components of anxiety are especially studied in sports psychology, specifically relating to how the anxiety ... anxiety, which is the mental manifestation of anxiety, or the specific thought processes that occur during anxiety, such as ...
... is the debut album by the Norwegian death metal band Cadaver. It was released in 1990 through Necrosis, a ... ". "Tuba (Intro) / Ignominious Eczema" - 5:09 "Corrosive Delirium" - 2:56 "Erosive Fester" - 2:42 "Hallucinating Anxiety" - 3: ...
... at Allmusic Anxiety Always at Official ADULT. Site (Webarchive template wayback links, Use mdy dates from July ... "Anxiety Always by Adult. Reviews and Tracks". Metacritic. Retrieved February 11, 2019. Kellman, Andy. Anxiety Always at ... Anxiety Always was released independently by Miller and Kurperus on their Ersatz Audio record label. All songs by Miller and ... Anxiety Always is an album released by the Detroit, Michigan electronic duo ADULT. in September 2003. Although the band had ...
Anxiety (Norwegian: Angst) is an oil-on-canvas painting created by the expressionist artist Edvard Munch in 1894. It is now in ... Many art critics[who?] feel that Anxiety is closely related to Munch's more famous piece, The Scream (1893). The faces show ... List of paintings by Edvard Munch 1894 in art Anxiety (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, ...
Horney's definition of basic anxiety explains that basic hostility may lead to basic anxiety, and vice versa. Horney shared ... She would eventually pursue research on basic anxiety. Basic anxiety is the feeling of being helpless, small, and insignificant ... autonomy) To Horney, then, basic anxiety arises from the parent-child relationship. When this socially produced anxiety becomes ... Basic anxiety is a term used by psychoanalytic theorist Karen Horney. She developed one of the best known theories of neurosis ...
Trait social anxiety, the stable tendency to experience this anxiety, can be distinguished from state anxiety, the momentary ... Other related anxiety disorders include social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder ( ... Common adult forms of social anxiety include performance anxiety, public speaking anxiety, stage fright, and timidness. All of ... social anxiety disorder) and specific social phobia. Social anxiety disorder (SAD), also known as social phobia, is an anxiety ...
Therefore, the gender gap in math anxiety may result from the type of anxiety. Tests triggers greater anxiety in girls compared ... According to the American Psychological Association, mathematical anxiety is often linked to testing anxiety. This anxiety can ... Mathematical anxiety, also known as math phobia, is a feeling of tension and anxiety that interferes with the manipulation of ... "Gender, general anxiety, math anxiety and math achievement in early school-age children". Issues in Educational Research. 30 (3 ...
While writing anxiety is often used interchangeably with writer's block, writing anxiety refers to the various feelings of ... Others may feel fine writing a lab report, but writing a letter to loved one triggers the anxiety. Writing anxiety is therefore ... "Writing Anxiety". academics.utep.edu. Retrieved 2018-04-13. "Breaking Through Writing Anxiety: How To". Emotive Brand. 2016-05- ... "Writer's Anxiety". Psychology Today. Retrieved 2018-04-13. "How to Deal with Writer's Anxiety and Writer's Block". ...
The S-Anxiety Scale evaluates the current state of anxiety, while the T-Anxiety Scale evaluates aspects of "anxiety proneness ... State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety (HADS-A ... An anxiety threshold is the level of anxiety that, when reached, can affect a person's performance. Anxiety is an emotion, ... Anxiety sensitivity is a characteristic that can be described as the fear of anxiety. Anxiety sensitivity is an integral factor ...
It may also mean: High Anxiety, a 1977 film by Mel Brooks High Anxiety (Therapy? album), 2003 High Anxiety (Thom Sonny Green ... "High Anxiety", a song from Sugar Ray's album Floored "High Anxiety" (Part 2), an episode of King of the Hill "High Anxiety", an ... "High Anxiety", an episode of 7th Heaven "High Anxiety", an episode of A Different World "High Anxiety", an episode of Full ... Anxiety (mood) Anxiety disorder Panic attack Fight-or-flight response This disambiguation page lists articles associated with ...
"Latent Anxiety Official Website". Latent Anxiety. "Latent Anxiety - NME". IPC Media. Archived from the original on 2011-11-15. ... Wikiquote has quotations related to Latent Anxiety. Official Website Latent Anxiety on Youtube Latent Anxiety on Twitter (CS1: ... "Latent Anxiety - Last FM". Last.fm. "Ilja Rosendahl on the IMDb". IMDb.com, Inc. Schwarz, Jan. "Latent Anxiety - Reaktionen am ... "Latent Anxiety - Reaction / Review". Music Street magazine.[permanent dead link] "Latent Anxiety - Sensation / Review". Music ...
... , also known as nucleomituphobia, refers to anxiety or even a phobia in the face of a potential future nuclear ... Some nuclear anxiety workshops have found success at reducing nuclear anxiety and finding a meaning to life in the nuclear age ... Fear of mutually assured destruction stoked nuclear anxiety. Nuclear anxiety took a greater importance in the political ... key to reducing anxiety. Discussing fears with peers, family and teachers has also been useful to alleviate anxiety and ...
"Anxiety's Kiss - Coliseum". AllMusic. All Media Network. Retrieved May 3, 2015. Anxiety's Kiss on Bandcamp (Articles with short ... Anxiety's Kiss is the fifth studio album by the American rock band Coliseum. The album was released on May 5, 2015 through ... The band's first tour directly in support of Anxiety's Kiss will be a June 2015 US tour with United Nations and Child Bite. ... Sonically, Anxiety's Kiss sees the band incorporating more post-punk, industrial music and synthesizers into their post- ...
... (short for ecological anxiety and also known as eco-distress or climate-anxiety) has been defined as "a chronic ... ISBN 978-0-19-762267-4. Pihkala Panu (2020). "Anxiety and the Ecological Crisis: An Analysis of Eco-Anxiety and Climate Anxiety ... One way to combat eco-anxiety is through beliefs about the effectiveness of personal actions. Eco-anxiety can be fueled in part ... Terrified of Climate Change? You Might Have Eco-Anxiety, Time, 21 November 2019 Cossman, Brenda (2013). "Anxiety Governance". ...
... can also be labeled as anticipatory anxiety, situational anxiety or evaluation anxiety. Some anxiety is normal and ... People who experience test anxiety often have parents or siblings who have test anxiety or other types of anxiety. Anxiety does ... Effects of stress on memory Fear of negative evaluation Mathematical anxiety Anxiety disorder Social anxiety Social anxiety ... "Test Anxiety Symptoms". About.com. Retrieved 24 April 2012. ADAA. "Test Anxiety". Anxiety Disorder Association of America. ...
To measure economic anxiety, surveys measure not only financial anxiety, which relates to a person's anxiety about finances on ... Surveys of Americans using the Economic Anxiety Index over time have shown there are strong divisions in economic anxiety ... Van Dam, Andrew (March 21, 2019). "White economic anxiety evaporated after the 2016 election. Now black economic anxiety is on ... Researchers have also found that economic anxiety causes people to gain weight, and that economic anxiety self-reinforces ...
... may reach the level of a persecutory anxiety state (a form of panic attack), including various levels of ... Noboru in The Sailor Who Fell from Grace with the Sea by Yukio Mishima is shown to have persecutory anxiety Depressive anxiety ... See headings: defenses against paranoid anxiety and defenses against depressive anxiety. (All articles with specifically marked ... Donald Meltzer saw paranoid anxiety as linked not only to a loss of trust in the goodness of objects, but also to a confusion ...
The effects of status anxiety can be impulse buying, status consumption etc. Meritocracy is a primary cause of status anxiety. ... Guardian Staff (8 March 2004). "The digested read: Status Anxiety by Alain de Botton". the Guardian. Status Anxiety - Alain de ... Status anxiety can be defined as the constant tension or fear of being perceived as "unsuccessful" by the society in ... Status Anxiety is a nonfiction book by Alain de Botton. It was first published in 2004 by Hamish Hamilton; subsequent ...
The Anxiety Sensitivity Index attempts to assess anxiety sensitivity. Anxiety sensitivity (fear of anxiety-related sensations) ... health anxiety, and anxiety disorder symptoms in youth". Journal of Anxiety Disorders. Elsevier BV. 41: 35-42. doi:10.1016/j. ... "Treating anxiety sensitivity in adults with anxiety and related disorders". The Clinician's Guide to Anxiety Sensitivity ... Anxiety sensitivity (AS) refers to the fear of behaviours or sensations associated with the experience of anxiety, and a ...
People who have anxiety disorders struggle with intense and uncontrollable feelings of anxiety, fear, worry, and/or panic.1 ... No matter the cause‚ smoking is not a treatment for depression or anxiety. Getting help for your depression and anxiety and ... Many people who experience depression also have other mental health conditions.1,5 Anxiety disorders often go hand in hand with ... Smoking is much more common among adults with mental health conditions, such as depression and anxiety, than in the general ...
And the Anxiety Disorders Association of America (ADAA) 2006 Stress & Anxiety Disorders Survey backs that up. A certain amount ... and irrational anxiety that interferes with everyday functioning is often an indication of an anxiety disorder. Read on for how ... of stress and anxiety is normal at work as well as at home. However, persistent, excessive, ... It comes as no surprise that most working Americans experience stress or anxiety in their daily lives. ...
It may be time to get help if anxiety attack is severe or when anxiety doesnt stop. Learn about anxiety disorders. ... What are anxiety disorders?. Anxiety disorders are conditions in which you have anxiety that does not go away and can get worse ... What are the types of anxiety disorders?. There are several types of anxiety disorders, including: *Generalized anxiety ... Test Anxiety (Nemours Foundation) Also in Spanish * Your Adolescent: Anxiety and Avoidant Disorders (American Academy of Child ...
... and guidelines for anxiety disorder and related social anxiety disorders. Review anxiety disorder symptoms, including anxiety ... Anxiety Disorders : Review in-depth clinical information, latest medical news, ... attacks, as well as the latest recommendations on anxiety disorder treatments. ...
Assessing Anxiety in Youth with the Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2013 Jul 11. [ ... Normal separation anxiety. Separation anxiety is developmentally normal in infants and toddlers until approximately age 3-4 ... Separation anxiety disorder consists of persistent and excessive anxiety beyond that expected for the childs developmental ... Separation anxiety disorder consists of persistent and excessive anxiety beyond that expected for the childs developmental ...
... anxiety - Sharing our stories on preparing for and responding to public health events ... Tags anxiety, Asthma, Asthma Action Plan, Asthma Triggers, Center for Preparedness and Response (CPR), COVID-19, Disinfect, ... Tags alcohol, anxiety, binge drinking, college, depression, exercise, healthy choices, healthy lifestyle, mental health, ...
It could be exam anxiety, speech anxiety, social anxiety, or a panic disorder. It might feel awful, but it is not dangerous. ... You can find information here about common symptoms and what you can do to manage your worry and anxiety. ... Anxiety can be characterised and expressed in various ways. ... It could be exam anxiety, speech anxiety, social anxiety, or a ... What is anxiety?. Anxiety can be characterised as having the same effect as fear but is based on something that you imagine can ...
... that controls anxiety by stimulatinga nerve in your neck that leads to your brain. Can thisapproach -- called vagus nerve ... 24, 2001 -- Gray Scott, of Florence, S.C., has been treated for anxiety for nine years, from the time she was diagnosed with an ... George says he believes there is even more reason to believe that VNS will be successful in treating anxiety because of the ... On May 18, Scott became one of the first anxiety patients to receive the experimental treatment. On that day, surgeons at the ...
Across the city, publicists and party promoters are nervously debating how to plan non-9/11 events around September 11.
Anxiety Research - Download as a PDF or view online for free ... Maternal Anxiety and Child Development. Maternal Anxiety and ... These factors result to a type of anxiety called Social Anxiety. Social anxiety is the fear of interaction with other people ... But anxiety can also change the way you act on a day to day basis, both when you have anxiety and when you dont. In this ... However those with anxiety disorders may find that alcohol or other substances can make their anxiety symptoms worse. And they ...
"Anxiety Disorders Association of America" (PDF). Retrieved 22 March 2013.. *^ "NewsRx". Anxiety Disorders-The Anxiety Disorders ... "Social Anxiety Disorder In Callers To The Anxiety Disorders Association Of America". Depression and Anxiety. 20 (3): 101-106. ... Phobia Society of America, Anxiety Disorders Association. The Anxiety and Depression Association of America (ADAA) is a U.S. ... a b "Anxiety and Depression Association of America[permanent dead link]". District of Columbia Department of Consumer and ...
Learn about the best essential oils for anxiety, as well as how to use them, here. ... Some research has suggested that aromatherapy with essential oils may help promote relaxation and relieve anxiety. ... What causes anxiety?. A wide variety of factors can cause anxiety. These may range from fear of social situations or ... However, chronic anxiety can have a detrimental effect to both a persons mental and physical health. If anxiety is causing ...
The four ways that exercise can help reduce anxiety ... Does exercise help anxiety?. Does exercise help anxiety? Work ... Related: What are the best supplements for anxiety?. Does exercise help anxiety: how to stick to a fitness routine. When we ... Does exercise help anxiety? The four ways that exercise can help reduce anxiety ... which tends to be prevalent in those that experience anxiety. So does exercise help anxiety in this way? Rumination, the ...
Teary and tantrum-filled goodbyes are common with separation anxiety, which is a perfectly normal part of childhood development ... Separation anxiety that affects an older childs normal activities can be a sign of a deeper anxiety disorder. If separation ... About Separation Anxiety. Babies adapt pretty well to other caregivers. Parents probably feel more anxiety about being ... Separation anxiety might have you feeling a variety of emotions. It can be nice to feel that your child is finally as attached ...
Social phobia and anxiety certainly are going to make you more prone to blushing. CBT therapy can really help work through the ... You are reading content posted in the Anxiety Community Ask a question ... I seem to get anxiety after eating. Is there any medical reason this could happen ... I seem to get anxiety after eating. Is there any medical reason this could happen ...
Heres why it happens and what to do about the anxiety you or your loved one feels when you two are apart. ... Relationship anxiety among spouses is common in people with adult separation anxiety disorder. You may become very fearful and ... There are various causes of separation anxiety. Research from 2015 suggests that separation anxiety has been associated with: * ... For more information on separation anxiety, you may consider visiting Anxiety Canada for personal accounts and resources. ...
Sudden and repeated panic attacks of overwhelming anxiety and fear. *A feeling of being out of control, or a fear of death or ...
These 10 natural remedies can help you manage anxiety symptoms and find relief. ... Exercise for stress and anxiety. (2021).. https://www.adaa.org/living-with-anxiety/managing-anxiety/exercise-stress-and-anxiety ... Anxiety, Age 39. October 31, 2023. I am a bipolar type 2 patient. Get anxiety attack in both depression and mania. I try as ... Anxiety, Age 61. September 8, 2023. Thank you for these tips for easing symptoms of anxiety. When I become anxious I tend to ...
People can also face mathematical anxiety, somatic anxiety, stage fright, or test anxiety. Social anxiety refers to a fear of ... Performance anxiety and competitive anxiety (competitive trait anxiety, competitive state anxiety) happen when an individuals ... Because test anxiety hinges on fear of negative evaluation, debate exists as to whether test anxiety is itself a unique anxiety ... People facing anxiety may withdraw from situations which have provoked anxiety in the past. The emotion of anxiety can persist ...
... and findings related to potential treatments resulted in anxiety becoming this weeks top trending clinical topic. ... Having anxiety may also increase the risk for long COVID, according to new research. In an analysis of almost 55,000 adult ... With anxiety reportedly on the rise globally, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) has posted for public comment new ... For anxiety, the pooled prevalence was 25%. North America had a higher prevalence rate, at 43%, compared with 22.1% in Europe, ...
A new study found that depression and anxiety improve significantly after epilepsy surgery. The study, which is published in ... found that the rate of depression and anxiety disorders decreased by more than 50 percent up to two years after the surgery. ... Depression and anxiety are common problems for people whose epilepsy cannot be controlled by medication. ... Depression And Anxiety Improve After Epilepsy Surgery. Date:. December 12, 2005. Source:. New York University Medical Center ...
But, for some, it can mean worse anxiety. Heres everything you need to know about summer anxiety. ... Summer can be anxiety inducing. Dzhulbee / Shutterstock Psychotherapist Ellen Yom told HelloGiggles, "Summer can be especially ... It turns out that the weather can not only trigger depression but can also exacerbate the symptoms of anxiety, according to ... Hot summer weather can cause your anxiety to spike - heres why. Arielle Tschinkel ...
... BJOG. 2023 Mar;130(4):429-430. doi: 10.1111/1471-0528.17357. ...
One source describes the attacks as "extreme" and said the cycle of hospital trips ratcheted up her anxiety, prompting those ... Singer-actress Selena Gomez reportedly receiving treatment for anxiety at mental health facility. ...
What is climate anxiety?. Climate anxiety, also known as eco-anxiety, is defined as "distress relating to the climate and ... Could climate anxiety be a good thing?. Some experts say climate anxiety can actually prove beneficial (and be mitigated) if it ... "Higher climate change anxiety is correlated with higher clinical symptoms of depression and anxiety," Sarah Schwartz, a ... Much of the anxiety stems from the uncertainty regarding the future. "We see that a lot of young people are saying, I think my ...
Classification (Separation anxiety disorder) View the most recent version. Archived Content. Information identified as archived ... Classification (Separation anxiety disorder) Table summary This table displays the results of Classification (Separation ... Anxiety, Speech, Hearing, Vision, and Use of hands and feet appearing as column headers. Core attributes. Supplementary ... anxiety disorder) . The information is grouped by Core attributes and Supplementary attributes, Pain or discomfort, Physical ...
Anxiety UK. Anxiety UK was established in 1970 and is run by and for those with anxiety, offering an extensive range of support ... Uncertain times: Anxiety in the UK and how to tackle it. Read our in-depth look at anxiety in the UK. Based on a survey of ... What can we do to cope with feelings of anxiety?. There are lots of things which we can do to help manage feelings of anxiety, ... But anxiety can be made easier to manage.. Focusing on anxiety for Mental Health Awareness Week helped increase peoples ...
It is not anxiety that we feel, its grief. Collectively all of us Israelis experienced a loss and suffered profound sadness, ... Even during moments when I am free from anxiety when Im actively engaged and brimming with the energy and strength to perform ... and even mental health professionals like myself are not immune to bouts of anxiety; they occasionally wash over me. This is a ... distractions and staying busy are some of the effective ways to alleviate anxiety - Still, I found myself overwhelmed, burdened ...
Anxiety is prevalent in our world. It occurs at home, work, social situations, playing sports and test-taking. ... the ways to combat anxiety are similar to those of academic testing-taking anxiety. The PFT anxiety-removing techniques are as ... Academic testing anxiety is very similar to physical test-taking anxiety. I know before taking a chemistry test at the Naval ... Anxiety is prevalent in our world. It occurs at home, work, social situations, playing sports and test-taking. ...
Anxiety and stress affect virtually all systems of the brain and body, Price confirmed. Some of the most well-known symptoms ... It was pretty obvious to me that I fit the bill for some of the mental symptoms of anxiety which, according to the Mayo Clinic ... Because of this journey, I have the tools to manage my anxiety and be the mom, friend and person I want to be, even through ... If anxiety becomes persistent - occurring most days for several weeks or longer - or becomes disruptive to ones goals in work ...
  • Only 9 percent have been diagnosed with an anxiety disorder. (adaa.org)
  • Yet many fewer reported suffering from an anxiety disorder - a telling inconsistency. (adaa.org)
  • Employees whose anxiety interferes with their everyday functioning may be suffering from an anxiety disorder, the most common mental illness in the U.S. (adaa.org)
  • Only one-fourth of those with an anxiety disorder have told their employers. (adaa.org)
  • Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Separation anxiety disorder ICD code F93.0 occurs in youth younger than 18 years (persistent and lasting for at least 4 weeks) and in adults (typically requiring a duration of 6 mo or more). (medscape.com)
  • Separation anxiety disorder can also be associated with panic attacks that can occur with comorbid panic disorder. (medscape.com)
  • Separation anxiety is often the precursor to school refusal, which occurs in approximately three fourths of children who present with separation anxiety disorder. (medscape.com)
  • According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition ( DSM-5 ), separation anxiety disorder (code 309.21/F93.0) is a fairly common anxiety disorder, occurring in youth younger than 18 years (persistent and lasting for at least 4 weeks) and in adults (typically requiring a duration of 6 mo or more). (medscape.com)
  • The emotion of anxiety can persist beyond the developmentally appropriate time-periods in response to specific events, and thus turning into one of the multiple anxiety disorders (e.g. generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder). (wikipedia.org)
  • The difference between anxiety disorder (as mental disorder) and anxiety (as normal emotion), is that people with an anxiety disorder experience anxiety most of the days during approximately 6 months, or even during shorter time-periods in children. (wikipedia.org)
  • Besides, strong percepts of anxiety exist within other mental disorders, e.g. obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • People who have persistent anxiety or an anxiety disorder are more likely to have long-term heightened levels of CRF hormones in their system. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This recommendation includes pregnant and postpartum women, in addition to any adult aged 19-64 years who does not have a diagnosed mental health disorder or who are not showing clearly visible signs and symptoms of anxiety. (medscape.com)
  • In particular, the research team looked at the proportions of people who met the diagnostic criteria for anxiety, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, psychological distress, insomnia, substance abuse, loneliness, and suicidal ideation, comparing the differences between the baseline in 2020 and the last follow-up in 2021. (medscape.com)
  • I am a 42-year-old man who took 20 mg of escitalopram daily from 2018 to 2021 due to a generalized anxiety disorder. (medhelp.org)
  • Dr. Koenigsberg provides a research-based overview of major themes that underlie these treatment models, then analyzes the symptoms and causes of specific anxiety disorders such as panic disorder, social anxiety disorder, and phobias, as well as obsessive-compulsive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder. (routledge.com)
  • Against this backdrop, in a separate chapter for each anxiety disorder, Koenigsberg synthesizes a multiplicity of vital information. (routledge.com)
  • Thus, she succinctly describes symptoms, diagnosis, prevalence, comorbidity, and heritability, followed by a theoretically and empirically based integrative account of the neurobiological, psychological, and social/interpersonal factors and processes involved in the etiological development and perpetuation of the specific anxiety disorder at hand. (routledge.com)
  • One of the horrible hallmarks of any type of anxiety disorder is the tendency to overthink everything. (healthyplace.com)
  • 2-4 More women than men suffer from generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and specific phobias. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • Generalized anxiety disorder is a distressing condition associated with excessive worry, which can considerably impact a person's personal life, family, and work. (lundbeck.com)
  • People with generalized anxiety disorder feel extremely worried about typically everyday things. (lundbeck.com)
  • 1 Generalized anxiety disorder is different from normal worries in that the anxiety is greater, lasts longer, and is often not caused by one specific worry. (lundbeck.com)
  • People with generalized anxiety disorder experience feelings of worry most of the time which seem out of proportion when compared with the actual likelihood of something bad happening. (lundbeck.com)
  • People with generalized anxiety disorder experience feelings of worry most of the time. (lundbeck.com)
  • In addition to excessive worry, people with generalized anxiety disorder may have symptoms such as difficulty concentrating, feeling on edge, becoming tired more easily, and feeling irritable. (lundbeck.com)
  • Symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder can come and go across a person's lifetime, but it is considered a long-term (chronic) disorder, and very few people will completely overcome their symptoms. (lundbeck.com)
  • of people suffer from generalized anxiety disorder worldwide. (lundbeck.com)
  • of people with generalized anxiety disorder are severely disabled in some aspect of their home, work, relationship or social life. (lundbeck.com)
  • 2 Most people diagnosed with generalized anxiety disorder are middle aged, but symptoms occur across a range of ages. (lundbeck.com)
  • 1,2 Generalized anxiety disorder is twice as common in women than in men. (lundbeck.com)
  • A global survey by the World Health Organization (WHO) found that 51% of people with generalized anxiety disorder are severely disabled in some aspect of their home, work, relationship or social life. (lundbeck.com)
  • 3 People with generalized anxiety disorder are also more likely to report poor overall well-being and quality of life than people without the disorder. (lundbeck.com)
  • People with generalized anxiety disorder miss an average of 8 days of work or activities per year because of their disorder. (lundbeck.com)
  • People who are concerned that they - or their loved ones - are experiencing symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder should see their doctor for help and advice. (lundbeck.com)
  • Generalized anxiety disorder is diagnosed based on an interview with the doctor, who will ask a person about their symptoms and experiences. (lundbeck.com)
  • 5 The high rate of misdiagnosis is thought to be due to a large overlap of symptoms with other anxiety and mood disorders, and the fact that many people with generalized anxiety disorder also suffer from other conditions,most commonly social phobia. (lundbeck.com)
  • Research has shown that women are much more likely than men to be diagnosed with an anxiety disorder over their lifetime and that anxiety, as common as it is, appears to be vastly underdiagnosed and undertreated. (npr.org)
  • Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety frequently coexist, especially in children. (healthline.com)
  • A 2022 study suggests that roughly half of people with ADHD also have an anxiety disorder. (healthline.com)
  • A 2017 research review suggests that 31.6% of the likelihood of generalized anxiety disorder is linked to genetic factors. (healthline.com)
  • Performance anxiety may be severe enough to be diagnosed as a mental health disorder. (psychcentral.com)
  • For example, if you experience it during most or all social situations, you could receive a social anxiety disorder diagnosis. (psychcentral.com)
  • It can be a symptom of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) , but you don't need to live with GAD to experience it. (psychcentral.com)
  • Generalized anxiety disorder, on the other hand, may mean you experience symptoms during different situations, not only performance-related, and sometimes without any apparent cause. (psychcentral.com)
  • According to the National Institute of Mental Health, "more than 23 million Americans suffer from anxiety disorders, which include panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, phobias and generalized anxiety disorder. (disabilityresources.org)
  • One of the American Psychiatric Association's "Let's Talk About…" pamphlets, this page provides an overview of generalized anxiety disorder, phobias, panic disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorders, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), theories about causes, and treatments. (disabilityresources.org)
  • Agoraphobia is an anxiety disorder characterized by intense fear of places or situations from which escape might be difficult in the event of a panic attack. (everydayhealth.com)
  • I had my CBT through Anxiety UK and it has been a really positive experience treating my generalised anxiety disorder. (anxietyuk.org.uk)
  • Separation anxiety disorder involves persistent, intense anxiety about being away from home or being separated from people to whom a child is attached, usually a parent. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Children with separation anxiety disorder often cry and plead with the person who is leaving and, after the person leaves, think only about being reunited. (msdmanuals.com)
  • In separation anxiety disorder, the anxiety is much more intense and goes beyond that expected for the child's age and developmental level. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Separation anxiety disorder commonly occurs in younger children and is rare after puberty. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Some life stress, such as the death of a relative, friend, or pet or a geographic move or a change in schools, may trigger separation anxiety disorder. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Children with separation anxiety disorder experience great distress when separated from home or from people to whom they are attached. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Children with separation anxiety disorder may insist that a parent or caregiver stay in the room until they fall asleep. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Doctors diagnose separation anxiety disorder based on a description of the child's past behavior and sometimes on observation of goodbye scenes. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Obsessive-compulsive disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder are no longer considered anxiety disorders as they were in the previous version of the DSM . (medscape.com)
  • Symptoms vary depending on the specific anxiety disorder. (medscape.com)
  • Substance-induced anxiety disorder (over-the-counter medications, herbal medications, substances of abuse) is a diagnosis that often is missed. (medscape.com)
  • [ 13 ] Some individuals appear resilient to stress, while others are vulnerable to stress, which precipitates an anxiety disorder. (medscape.com)
  • People with social anxiety disorder ( SAD ) fear social interactions, so for them, social exposure as part of a cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) program conducted in virtual reality could be an answer. (medscape.com)
  • Cite this: Virtual Therapy for Social Anxiety Disorder - Medscape - Jun 28, 2017. (medscape.com)
  • The best way to help children with an anxiety disorder may be to help their parents first, a new NIH-funded. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Jan. 10, 2023 People suffering from symptoms of depression or anxiety may help heal themselves by doing good deeds for others, new research shows. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Why was anxiety chosen as the theme for 2023? (mentalhealth.org.uk)
  • Göransson, K 2023, Ambivalences, Anxieties and Parents' Educational Labor in Singapore . (lu.se)
  • Dec. 1, 2022 A link has been found between joint hypermobility and the emergence of depression and anxiety in adolescence, according to a new study. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Practitioners must determine if anxiety is a symptom of other psychiatric disorders, including psychosis or substance abuse withdrawal. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • This is a core symptom of ADHD, while anxiety can cause racing thoughts and distractibility. (healthline.com)
  • In this article, the author intends to research the characteristics of inhibition: its intersection with anxiety and with the symptom, its connections to wishing. (bvsalud.org)
  • Neuropsychiatric assessments included the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Apathy Evaluation Scale. (lu.se)
  • Methods: This was an epidemiological, descriptive, transversal and quantitative study conducted with 200 patients of the Center for Implantology Alfenas-CIALF and Institute Marcelo Pedreira, the Alfenas - MG. For data collection we used two instruments: characterization of the sample and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression / Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. (bvsalud.org)
  • 40 percent experience persistent stress or excessive anxiety in their daily lives. (adaa.org)
  • Many employees report suffering from anxiety that is persistent and excessive and affects their ability to function. (adaa.org)
  • One in four reports persistent stress or excessive anxiety impairing the ability to function in the past six months. (adaa.org)
  • Four in ten agree that "persistent stress and/or excessive anxiety are a normal part of life," particularly men (44 percent vs. 36 percent for women). (adaa.org)
  • Anxiety disorders are among the most persistent mental problems and often last decades. (wikipedia.org)
  • A study published in the National Library of Medicine has found that exercise can distract you from rumination, which tends to be prevalent in those that experience anxiety. (livescience.com)
  • On the other hand, people who experience anxiety less frequently may be more likely to seek comfort from food and overeat. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • You may experience anxiety every now and then. (psychcentral.com)
  • 1 Anxiety disorders differ from normal situational anxiety by their longer duration and physical and psychological impairment. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • In other instances, it could be a form of situational anxiety . (psychcentral.com)
  • For example, GAD and phobias are more common in women, but social anxiety affects men and women equally. (medlineplus.gov)
  • On the other hand, anxiety is long-acting, future-focused, broadly focused towards a diffuse threat, and promoting excessive caution while approaching a potential threat and interferes with constructive coping. (wikipedia.org)
  • While excessive worry is a hallmark of anxiety disorders, people with ADHD may also experience worry, especially related to tasks or responsibilities they find challenging. (healthline.com)
  • [ 1 ] anxiety disorders include disorders that share features of excessive fear and anxiety and related behavioral disturbances. (medscape.com)
  • A 2020 analysis that looked at social media posts to better understand why people used the plant extract found reasons ranging from mental health issues, including anxiety and depression, to musculoskeletal problems as well as for gut issues, autism, addiction, heart problems, skin problems, eye problems, sleep and sexual health issues. (smh.com.au)
  • An online questionnaire was utilized to collect information about quarantine-related anxiety and related factors from a non-representative sample of Jordanian population in March 2020. (who.int)
  • Pine says separation anxiety is quite common at age 3, 4 or 5, but it can be a sign of anxiety if it strikes at age 8 or 9. (npr.org)
  • Most children feel some separation anxiety but usually grow out of it. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Separation anxiety As infants develop intellectually and emotionally, they quickly learn to recognize and become attached to their parents or primary caregivers. (msdmanuals.com)
  • A 2021 study suggests that some reductions of executive functions seen in ADHD (including emotional regulation and cognitive inhibition) may reduce a child's ability to deal with stress, contributing to worsening anxiety over time. (healthline.com)
  • The same 2021 study suggests that anxiety symptoms can directly interfere with attention, leading to restlessness, and may intensify mild ADHD symptoms to a clinical level. (healthline.com)
  • People who have anxiety disorders struggle with intense and uncontrollable feelings of anxiety, fear, worry, and/or panic. (cdc.gov)
  • Earlier this year, research showed that high-dose vitamin B6 supplements may reduce feelings of anxiety and depression. (medscape.com)
  • Lots of things can lead to feelings of anxiety, including exam pressures, relationships, starting a new job (or losing one) or other big life events. (mentalhealth.org.uk)
  • What can we do to cope with feelings of anxiety? (mentalhealth.org.uk)
  • There are lots of things which we can do to help manage feelings of anxiety, and what works will be different for everyone. (mentalhealth.org.uk)
  • We've got nine evidence-based things you can try to help manage feelings of anxiety. (mentalhealth.org.uk)
  • Need support with feelings of anxiety? (mentalhealth.org.uk)
  • Read stories our supporters have shared about what helps them cope with feelings of anxiety. (mentalhealth.org.uk)
  • Another potential reason as to why exercise helps ease anxiety symptoms is because it has such a strong impact on our cognitive health, as suggested by this study in the Journal of Sport and Health Science . (livescience.com)
  • Anxiety is distinguished from fear, which is an appropriate cognitive and emotional response to a perceived threat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Joseph E. LeDoux and Lisa Feldman Barrett have both sought to separate automatic threat responses from additional associated cognitive activity within anxiety. (wikipedia.org)
  • In regard to nonpharmaceutical interventions, both yoga and cognitive-behavioral therapy were found to provide meaningful improvements in anxiety, worry, and insomnia in older adults. (medscape.com)
  • In this study, we investigated associations between neuropsychiatric symptoms (i.e., apathy, anxiety, and depression) and cerebral atrophy, white matter lesions (WML), beta-amyloid (Aβ) deposition, and cognitive decline in a nondemented sample. (lu.se)
  • Apathy and anxiety were shown related to Aβ deposition and predicted cognitive decline. (lu.se)
  • Anxiety also interacted with amyloid status to predict faster cognitive deterioration. (lu.se)
  • To conclude, the associations between apathy and anxiety with Aβ deposition and cognitive decline point to these symptoms as early clinical manifestations of Alzheimer's disease. (lu.se)
  • Psychological theories range from explaining anxiety as a displacement of an intrapsychic conflict (psychodynamic models) to conditioning (learned) paradigms (cognitive-behavioral models). (medscape.com)
  • Characterized by unbearable anxiety and loss of cognitive, emotional, and behavioral control, with urgent need to end the emotional pain. (cdc.gov)
  • In this study, we aimed to estimate the prevalence of quarantine-related anxiety and its socioeconomic correlates. (who.int)
  • Despite the high prevalence rates of these anxiety disorders, they often are underrecognized and undertreated clinical problems. (medscape.com)
  • Identifying and dealing with anxiety triggers can sometimes help people regain their appetite. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • If this proves challenging, a person may wish to consider working with a therapist who can help them manage anxiety triggers. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • What triggers anxiety? (everydayhealth.com)
  • While anxiety disorders vary based on symptoms and triggers, they can all interfere with daily activities. (medlineplus.gov)
  • For anxiety disorders, 18 percent met the criteria for a diagnosis before the surgery, compared to 10 percent two years after the surgery. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Performance anxiety isn't a formal diagnosis. (psychcentral.com)
  • If that person experiences severe anxiety, however, they may lose their appetite. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • My mental health novels, including one about severe anxiety, are here . (healthyplace.com)
  • This can be seen when athletes who have performance anxiety before a match hear the whistle to begin. (livescience.com)
  • Performance anxiety is that intense apprehension you feel when you're asked to meet expectations - self-imposed or otherwise. (psychcentral.com)
  • You may be dealing with performance anxiety. (psychcentral.com)
  • But as with any other type of anxiety, you can learn to manage performance anxiety and stop its cycle. (psychcentral.com)
  • You could experience performance anxiety whenever you feel you need to meet a certain standard. (psychcentral.com)
  • Performance anxiety is common. (psychcentral.com)
  • Dr. John F. Tholen , a retired clinical psychologist from Seal Beach, California, recommends circular breathing as an easy option to address episodes of performance anxiety. (psychcentral.com)
  • A bundle of factors contributes to a child's likelihood of developing anxiety. (npr.org)
  • That's why it's especially important for grown-ups to pay close attention to a child's behavior and to look for the telltale signs of anxiety in children. (npr.org)
  • This study in the Journal of Neuroscience suggests that one potential reason that anxiety falls after exercise is that the movement creates changes in the hippocampus. (livescience.com)
  • Doctors may one day be able to control alcohol addiction by manipulating the molecular events in the brain that underlie anxiety associated with alcohol withdrawal, researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago College of Medicine and the Jesse Brown VA Medical Center report in the March 5 issue of the Journal of Neuroscience. (eurekalert.org)
  • The behavioral effects of anxiety may include withdrawal from situations which have provoked anxiety or negative feelings in the past. (wikipedia.org)
  • What are the types of anxiety disorders? (medlineplus.gov)
  • The risk factors for the different types of anxiety disorders can vary. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The different types of anxiety disorders can have different symptoms. (medlineplus.gov)
  • What are the symptoms of anxiety disorders? (medlineplus.gov)
  • In the central nervous system (CNS), the major mediators of the symptoms of anxiety disorders appear to be norepinephrine, serotonin, dopamine, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). (medscape.com)
  • We also run a range of courses and groups including our popular Art for Anxiety Relief (AfAR) course, anxiety management courses, and online peer-led anxiety support groups. (mentalhealth.org.uk)
  • The researchers found that a protein within neurons in the amygdala -- the area of the brain associated with emotion and anxiety -- controls the development of alcohol withdrawal symptoms and drinking behaviors in laboratory animals by changing the shape of the neurons. (eurekalert.org)
  • The researchers found that short-term alcohol exposure increased the number of dendritic spines in certain regions of the amygdala, producing anti-anxiety effects. (eurekalert.org)
  • They found that when levels of Arc in the central amygdala were lowered, the spines decreased and anxiety and alcohol consumption increased. (eurekalert.org)
  • In a previous study, researchers found that lowering BDNF in amygdala promoted anxiety and alcohol drinking. (eurekalert.org)
  • The brain amygdala appears key in modulating fear and anxiety. (medscape.com)
  • Patients with anxiety disorders often show heightened amygdala response to anxiety cues. (medscape.com)
  • Medicines to treat anxiety disorders include anti-anxiety medicines and certain antidepressants . (medlineplus.gov)
  • An association of "professionals who conduct research and treat anxiety disorders and individuals who have a personal or general interest in learning more about such disorders," ADAA "promotes the prevention and cure of anxiety disorders and works to improve the lives of all people who suffer from them. (disabilityresources.org)
  • However, most people do not suffer from chronic anxiety. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anxiety is a feeling of fear, dread, and uneasiness. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Anxiety is an emotion which is characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil and includes feelings of dread over anticipated events. (wikipedia.org)
  • anxiety involves the expectation of future threat including dread. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overview of Anxiety Disorders in Children and Adolescents Anxiety disorders are characterized by fear, worry, or dread that greatly impairs the ability to function and is out of proportion to the circumstances. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Anxiety can induce several psychological pains (e.g. depression) or mental disorders, and may lead to self-harm or suicide (for which dedicated hotlines exist). (wikipedia.org)
  • In an analysis of almost 55,000 adult participants in three ongoing studies , having psychological distress (anxiety, depression, worry, perceived stress, or loneliness) prior to SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with increased risk of developing long COVID. (medscape.com)
  • David Barlow defines anxiety as "a future-oriented mood state in which one is not ready or prepared to attempt to cope with upcoming negative events," and that it is a distinction between future and present dangers which divides anxiety and fear. (wikipedia.org)
  • In most instances, the patient is controlled by anxiety and unable to cope. (pharmacytimes.com)
  • According to the Elsevier Public Health and Emergency Collection journal, the rate of anxiety increased in the USA from 2008 to 2018. (livescience.com)
  • Anxiety is a normal emotion in us all, but sometimes it can get out of control and become a mental health problem. (mentalhealth.org.uk)
  • And the Anxiety Disorders Association of America (ADAA) 2006 Stress & Anxiety Disorders Survey backs that up. (adaa.org)
  • The main thing to know about anxiety is that it involves some level of perception about danger," says Pine, and it thrives on unpredictability. (npr.org)
  • Tholen, who is the author of the book "Focused Positivity: The Path to Success and Peace of Mind," also recommends practicing progressive muscle relaxation whenever you feel your anxiety rising. (psychcentral.com)
  • Fear and anxiety can be differentiated into four domains: (1) duration of emotional experience, (2) temporal focus, (3) specificity of the threat, and (4) motivated direction. (wikipedia.org)
  • But for people with anxiety disorders, the fear is not temporary and can be overwhelming. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Some people with anxiety tend to overeat or consume a lot of unhealthful foods. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Some people with anxiety drink alcohol excessively as a means to overcome anxiousness and worry. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Keep reading to learn more about the link between anxiety and a loss of appetite, some potential remedies and treatments for the problem, and some other common causes of appetite loss. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Smoking is much more common among adults with mental health conditions, such as depression and anxiety, than in the general population. (cdc.gov)
  • Depression and anxiety are common problems for people whose epilepsy cannot be controlled by medication. (sciencedaily.com)
  • A new study found that depression and anxiety improve significantly after epilepsy surgery. (sciencedaily.com)
  • The study, which is published in the December 13, 2005, issue of Neurology, the scientific journal of the American Academy of Neurology, found that the rate of depression and anxiety disorders decreased by more than 50 percent up to two years after the surgery. (sciencedaily.com)
  • People who no longer experienced any seizures after surgery were even more likely to be free of depression and anxiety. (sciencedaily.com)
  • These results are important because depression and anxiety can significantly affect the quality of life," said study author Orrin Devinsky, MD, Professor of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry at New York University School of Medicine and Director of the NYU Comprehensive Epilepsy Center. (sciencedaily.com)
  • The participants' mental health and any symptoms of depression and anxiety were evaluated before surgery and at three months, one year, and two years after surgery. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Researchers aren't sure why depression and anxiety improve after epilepsy surgery. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Anxiety is a feeling of uneasiness and worry, usually generalized and unfocused as an overreaction to a situation that is only subjectively seen as menacing. (wikipedia.org)
  • It comes as no surprise that most working Americans experience stress or anxiety in their daily lives. (adaa.org)
  • A certain amount of stress and anxiety is normal at work as well as at home. (adaa.org)
  • 72 percent of people who have daily stress and anxiety say it interferes with their lives at least moderately. (adaa.org)
  • However, everyone reacts differently to anxiety and stress, whether it is chronic or short-term. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Simply realizing that sources of stress can trigger physical sensations can go some way toward reducing anxiety and its symptoms. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • As you already know stress and anxiety can disrupt the normal sleep cycle. (selfgrowth.com)
  • But as your stress and anxiety decrease, your heart rate in the resting mode may go back to normal. (medhelp.org)
  • Exposure to stress, including discord at home, poverty and neighborhood violence, can all lead to anxiety. (npr.org)
  • Certain medications, caffeine, and stress - among other factors - could be making your anxiety worse. (everydayhealth.com)
  • Anxiety UK is a national registered charity formed in 1970, by Katharine and Harold Fisher, for those affected by anxiety, stress and anxiety based depression. (anxietyuk.org.uk)
  • The Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) was used to ascertain the level of stress. (who.int)
  • Anxiety disorders appear to be caused by an interaction of biopsychosocial factors, including genetic vulnerability, which interact with situations, stress, or trauma to produce clinically significant syndromes. (medscape.com)
  • Anxiety is related to the specific behaviors of fight-or-flight responses, defensive behavior or escape. (wikipedia.org)
  • In ADHD, it may be due to difficulties with executive functions, while anxiety can lead to avoidance behaviors. (healthline.com)
  • What behaviors may mean a child has anxiety or ADHD? (healthline.com)
  • Children with anxiety or ADHD may show various behaviors. (healthline.com)
  • Anxiety can be experienced with long, drawn-out daily symptoms that reduce quality of life, known as chronic (or generalized) anxiety, or it can be experienced in short spurts with sporadic, stressful panic attacks, known as acute anxiety. (wikipedia.org)
  • All of these positive habits may not seem like much cures for panic attacks and anxiety but combined they can make a difference. (selfgrowth.com)
  • For anxiety, 8 percent of those who were seizure free had depression, compared to 15 percent of those with ongoing seizures. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Anxiety disorders are conditions in which you have anxiety that does not go away and can get worse over time. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Dr. Paul Greene , a clinical psychologist in New York, cautions that focusing on negative thoughts can make anxiety worse. (psychcentral.com)
  • In fact, the same person may react differently to mild anxiety and high anxiety. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • When alcohol was withheld from animals that had been chronically exposed, they developed high anxiety. (eurekalert.org)
  • Pandey suggested that an initial easing of anxiety may encourage people to begin to use alcohol, while for chronic users, a lack of alcohol provokes high anxiety, creating a need to continue drinking to feel normal. (eurekalert.org)
  • The researchers traced the anti-anxiety effect to the production of a particular protein, Arc, in response to a nerve growth factor called BDNF that is stimulated by alcohol exposure. (eurekalert.org)
  • Chronic anxiety as a way of life? (adaa.org)