Carcinoma, Squamous Cell
Townes-Brocks syndrome. (1/113)Townes-Brocks syndrome (TBS) is an autosomal dominant disorder with multiple malformations and variable expression. Major findings include external ear anomalies, hearing loss, preaxial polydactyly and triphalangeal thumbs, imperforate anus, and renal malformations. Most patients with Townes-Brocks syndrome have normal intelligence, although mental retardation has been noted in a few. (+info)
Microdeletion 22q11 and oesophageal atresia. (2/113)Oesophageal atresia (OA) is a congenital defect associated with additional malformations in 30-70% of the cases. In particular, OA is a component of the VACTERL association. Since some major features of the VACTERL association, including conotruncal heart defect, radial aplasia, and anal atresia, have been found in patients with microdeletion 22q11.2 (del(22q11.2)), we have screened for del(22q11.2) by fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) in 15 syndromic patients with OA. Del(22q11.2) was detected in one of them, presenting with OA, tetralogy of Fallot, anal atresia, neonatal hypocalcaemia, and subtle facial anomalies resembling those of velocardiofacial syndrome. The occurrence of del(22q11.2) in our series of patients with OA is low (1/15), but this chromosomal anomaly should be included among causative factors of malformation complexes with OA. In addition, clinical variability of del(22q11.2) syndrome is further corroborated with inclusion of OA in the list of the findings associated with the deletion. (+info)
A genetic study of the human T gene and its exclusion as a major candidate gene for sacral agenesis with anorectal atresia. (3/113)Sacral agenesis is a heterogeneous group of congenital anomalies in which most cases are sporadic but rare familial forms also occur. Although one gene has been mapped to chromosome 7q36 in families with hemisacrum, associated with anorectal atresia and presacral mass, it is clear that the genetic aetiology of these disorders is complex and other genes remain to be discovered. Some years ago, the idea of T (Brachyury) as a candidate gene for sacral agenesis was raised, because tail abnormalities associated with T and the t complex, on mouse chromosome 17, resemble spinal defects seen in man. The recent cloning and mapping of the human T gene prompted us to re-evaluate this idea. T is a transcription factor essential for the normal development of posterior mesodermal structures. Although the sequence and function of T are highly conserved in evolution, our genetic study shows that the coding region of the human gene is highly polymorphic. Three common variable amino acid sites in known functional domains have been identified: Gly356Ser, Asn369Ser, and Gly177Asp. For the latter variant, functional studies have shown that the presence of Asp at residue 177 reduces the stability of T dimer formation. A search for rare mutation of T in 28 selected patients with sacral agenesis/anorectal atresia identified a novel, rare variant in one patient and her mother. This mutation leads to an amino acid change within a conserved activation domain. While the functional significance of this single mutation requires further investigation, we can conclude from our studies that if T has a role in the aetiology of sacral agenesis, its contribution is small in this particular set of patients. However, we cannot exclude a more major role in other forms of sacral defect. (+info)
Johanson-Blizzard syndrome: a prenatal ultrasonographic diagnosis. (4/113)Johanson-Blizzard syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by aplasia of alae nasi, pancreatic insufficiency, aplasia cutis, anorectal anomalies and postnatal growth restriction. In this case report, we describe the prenatal sonographic findings of Johanson-Blizzard syndrome in a 21-week pregnancy of a consanguineous couple. Sonographic findings of aplastic alae nasi (beak-like nose) and dilated sigmoid colon led to the prenatal diagnosis. This is the first report of the prenatal sonographic diagnosis of Johanson-Blizzard syndrome. (+info)
Rectal duplication. (5/113)Duplications of the alimentary tract are of a great rarity, particularly so in the rectum. Because of its rarity, the difficulty of making a correct diagnosis and of selection of proper approach for treatment, this entity bears a special significance. The present case report deals with a female newborn who presented with imperforate anus and a rectovestibular fistula and a mass prolapsing at the introitus. Complete excision of the mass was carried out through the perineal approach and the child then underwent, a PSARP for the correction of the rectal anomaly. Histology confirmed the mass to be a rectal duplication. (+info)
Transperineal ultrasonography in imperforate anus: identification of the internal fistula. (6/113)The purpose of this study was to assess the usefulness of transperineal ultrasonography in identifying the internal fistula in cases of imperforate anus. Transperineal ultrasonography was performed in 19 infants (13 neonates and 6 older infants; 13 were male and 6 were female) with imperforate anus to identify the internal fistula. Sagittal plane images were obtained through the anal dimple, and the internal connection of the rectal fistula was traced. The ultrasonographically traced internal fistula was compared with that observed on distal loopography after colostomy or with surgical findings. The internal fistula was identified as a hypoechoic linear tract, containing linear echogenicity in some cases. Of 19 patients, internal fistulas were correctly identified in 16 patients; these were rectourethral (n = 12), rectovaginal (n = 1), rectovestibular (n = 1), rectovesical (n = 1), and rectocloacal (n = 1). In three patients, internal fistulas were incorrectly defined; these cases consisted of rectovestibular (n = 2) and rectovaginal (n = 1) fistulas. Internal fistulas were correctly identified in all of the 13 male patients and in 3 of 6 female patients. Transperineal ultrasonography is an excellent diagnostic modality to define the type of the internal fistula in imperforate anus. (+info)
Urorectal septum malformation sequence: prenatal sonographic diagnosis in two sets of discordant twins. (7/113)Urorectal septum malformation sequence (URSMS) is a rare congenital malformation, which includes ambiguous genitalia, a phallus-like structure, imperforate anus, bladder, vaginal and rectal fistulas and Mullerian duct defects. We report two cases of prenatally diagnosed URSMS, both occurring in two sets of discordant twins. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first antenatal description of such an anomaly. The first fetus, one of a set of monochorionic, monoamniotic twins was detected sonographically at 21 weeks of gestation due to an enlarged phallus-like formation. The second fetus, one of dichorionic, diamniotic twins, was suspected of having an abnormally enlarged rectum at 13 weeks of gestation. The diagnosis of URSMS was established at 29 weeks of gestation by showing abnormal female external genitalia, with a dilated bowel that contained echogenic foci due to enterolithiasis. The diagnosis of both cases was confirmed postnatally. Sonographic findings and differential diagnosis are presented. (+info)
A case of del(13)(q22) with multiple major congenital anomalies, imperforate anus and penoscrotal transposition. (8/113)"13q-"syndrome is known to have widely variable manifestations, including retinoblastoma, mental & growth retardation, malformation of brain & heart, anal atresia, and anomalies of the face and limbs. Here we report a case of del(13)(q22) with multiple major congenital anomalies for the first time in Korea. The patient was born at 36(+4) weeks of pregnancy by caesarian section. Birth weight was 1490g. On examination the following features were noted: - imperforate anus, ambiguous genitalia (bifid scrotum, penoscrotal transposition, hypospadia), syndactyly of toes, absence of thumbs, abnormal facies (dolichocephaly, telecanthus, large low set ears, saddle nose, high arched palate, micrognathia). Neurocranial ultrasonography showed atrophy of the corpus callosum and multiple calcifications. He died at 14 days. Post-mortem autopsy findings showed cholestasis and fatty metamorphosis of liver, abnormal lobulation (Rt:2, Lt:1) and lymphangiectasis of the lung, VSD, ASD, PDA of heart, and acute tubular necrosis of kidney. Cytogenetic studies was confirmed to 46,XY,del(13) (q22) by Giemsa banded chromosomes from peripheral blood lymphocytes. (+info)
Imperforate anus is a congenital anomaly in which the opening of the rectum is not present at the anus. This means that the stool cannot pass through the anus and instead collects in the rectum, causing constipation and other complications. Imperforate anus can occur as a complete or partial absence of the anus, and it may be associated with other birth defects such as a missing rectum or a shortened colon. Treatment typically involves surgery to create an opening in the rectum and connect it to the anus.
Anus Neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in or around the anus. These growths can be either benign or malignant, and they can occur in various parts of the anal canal, including the rectum, anal verge, and anal sphincter. Benign anal neoplasms are non-cancerous growths that do not spread to other parts of the body. Examples of benign anal neoplasms include hemorrhoids, anal polyps, and skin tags. Malignant anal neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancerous growths that can spread to other parts of the body if left untreated. The most common type of malignant anal neoplasm is anal cancer, which is usually caused by the human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Symptoms of anal neoplasms may include rectal bleeding, pain or discomfort during bowel movements, itching or discharge from the anus, and a lump or mass in the anal area. Diagnosis of anal neoplasms typically involves a physical examination, biopsy, and imaging tests such as colonoscopy or MRI. Treatment for anal neoplasms depends on the type, size, and location of the growth, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches. Early detection and treatment of anal neoplasms are crucial for improving the chances of a successful outcome.
Anus diseases refer to medical conditions that affect the anus, which is the opening at the end of the rectum through which solid and liquid waste is eliminated from the body. Some common examples of anus diseases include: 1. Hemorrhoids: Swollen veins in the anus or rectum that can cause pain, itching, and bleeding. 2. Anal fissures: Tears in the lining of the anus that can cause pain, bleeding, and difficulty passing stool. 3. Anal cancer: A rare but serious cancer that can develop in the cells lining the anus. 4. Fistulas: Abnormal connections between the anus and other organs, such as the bladder or vagina. 5. Anal abscess: A collection of pus that forms in the skin or tissue around the anus. 6. Perianal warts: Small, raised growths on the skin around the anus that are caused by a sexually transmitted infection. 7. Anal itching: A persistent or severe itching sensation around the anus that can be caused by a variety of factors, including skin conditions, infections, and allergies. These conditions can be treated with a variety of methods, including medications, lifestyle changes, and surgery, depending on the severity and underlying cause of the condition. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any symptoms related to anus diseases, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.
The anal canal is the final segment of the large intestine, located at the lower end of the rectum. It is a muscular tube that connects the rectum to the anus and is responsible for the elimination of solid waste from the body. The anal canal is about 2-3 inches long and is lined with mucus-secreting glands that help to lubricate and protect the lining of the canal during defecation. The anal canal is also surrounded by a ring of muscles called the anal sphincter, which helps to control the flow of feces out of the body. In the medical field, the anal canal is often referred to as the rectum or the lower gastrointestinal tract.
Rectovaginal fistula is a abnormal connection between the rectum and the vagina. This connection can be caused by a variety of factors, including surgery, infection, radiation therapy, or trauma. Symptoms of rectovaginal fistula may include discharge from the vagina, difficulty with bowel movements, and pain or discomfort in the pelvic area. Treatment options for rectovaginal fistula may include surgery, medications, or other therapies, depending on the underlying cause and severity of the condition.
A rectal fistula is a abnormal connection between the rectum and another body cavity or surface, such as the skin, vagina, or bladder. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including infection, trauma, or surgery. Symptoms of a rectal fistula may include discharge from the anus, pain or discomfort in the rectal area, and difficulty passing stool. Treatment options for rectal fistulas may include surgery, medications, or other therapies, depending on the cause and severity of the condition.
"Abortion, Eugenic" is not a commonly used term in the medical field. However, it could potentially refer to the use of abortion as a means of eugenics, which is the practice of selectively breeding individuals to improve the genetic qualities of a population. In the past, eugenics was used to justify the forced sterilization of individuals deemed "unfit" or "undesirable" by society, such as those with disabilities, mental illness, or criminal records. Some proponents of eugenics also advocated for the selective termination of pregnancies based on the genetic characteristics of the fetus, with the goal of improving the overall genetic quality of the population. However, the use of eugenics is widely considered unethical and has been largely abandoned in modern medicine. Abortion is a legal medical procedure that is typically performed to terminate a pregnancy for a variety of reasons, including the health of the mother or the fetus, or as a means of family planning. It is not used as a means of eugenics.
Urogenital abnormalities refer to any structural or functional disorders that affect the urinary and genital systems in the human body. These abnormalities can occur in either the male or female reproductive systems and can range from minor to severe. Examples of urogenital abnormalities in males include hypospadias (where the opening of the urethra is not at the tip of the penis), undescended testicles, and congenital adrenal hyperplasia (a genetic disorder that affects the adrenal glands and can cause ambiguous genitalia in males). Examples of urogenital abnormalities in females include vaginal atresia (where the vaginal opening is absent or incomplete), Mayer-Rokitansky-Kuster-Hauser syndrome (a genetic disorder that affects the development of the uterus and fallopian tubes), and congenital adrenal hyperplasia (which can also cause ambiguous genitalia in females). Urogenital abnormalities can be diagnosed through physical examination, imaging studies, and genetic testing. Treatment options depend on the specific abnormality and may include surgery, hormone therapy, or other medical interventions.
Rectal prolapse is a medical condition in which the rectum, the lower part of the large intestine, descends or protrudes through the anus. This can cause a bulge or lump in the anus, which may be visible externally or felt internally. Rectal prolapse can be classified as either complete or incomplete, depending on whether the entire rectum or just part of it is involved. It can also be classified as primary or secondary, depending on whether it is caused by a weakness in the rectal muscles or by an underlying medical condition such as constipation, childbirth, or chronic straining. Treatment for rectal prolapse may include lifestyle changes, medications, or surgery.
Multiple abnormalities in the medical field refer to the presence of two or more abnormal conditions or findings in a person's body or health status. These abnormalities can be related to various organs or systems in the body and can be caused by a variety of factors, including genetic disorders, infections, injuries, or chronic diseases. Examples of multiple abnormalities that may be seen in a medical setting include multiple birth defects, multiple tumors, multiple infections, or multiple chronic conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease. The presence of multiple abnormalities can complicate diagnosis and treatment, as it may require a more comprehensive approach to identify the underlying causes and develop effective management plans.
In the medical field, a cloaca is a common opening through which the digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems of certain animals, such as birds and reptiles, empty their waste. In humans, the term "cloaca" is not typically used to describe the human digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems, which are separate and distinct. Instead, the term "cloaca" is used more generally to refer to any type of common opening or canal that serves as a point of exit for waste products from multiple organ systems.
Rectal diseases refer to medical conditions that affect the rectum, which is the final part of the large intestine. The rectum is responsible for storing feces until they are eliminated from the body through the anus. Rectal diseases can be acute or chronic and can range from minor to severe. Some common rectal diseases include: 1. Hemorrhoids: Swollen veins in the rectum or anus that can cause pain, itching, and bleeding. 2. Anal fissures: Tears in the lining of the anus that can cause pain and bleeding during bowel movements. 3. Fistulas: Abnormal connections between the rectum and other organs or tissues, such as the skin or vagina. 4. Polyps: Non-cancerous growths in the rectum that can cause bleeding or blockage. 5. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD): Chronic conditions that cause inflammation in the rectum and other parts of the digestive tract, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. 6. Rectal cancer: A type of cancer that starts in the rectum and can spread to other parts of the body. Rectal diseases can be diagnosed through a physical examination, medical imaging tests, and other diagnostic procedures. Treatment options depend on the specific disease and may include medications, surgery, or other therapies.
Hemorrhoids are swollen veins in the rectum and anus. They are a common condition that affects many people at some point in their lives. Hemorrhoids can be either internal or external, and they can cause a range of symptoms, including pain, itching, bleeding, and discomfort during bowel movements. Internal hemorrhoids are located inside the rectum and are not visible from the outside. They may cause bleeding during bowel movements or discomfort when passing stool. External hemorrhoids are located under the skin around the anus and are visible. They may cause itching, pain, and discomfort, especially when sitting for long periods or during bowel movements. Hemorrhoids can be caused by a variety of factors, including straining during bowel movements, pregnancy, obesity, and chronic constipation. Treatment options for hemorrhoids include lifestyle changes, such as increasing fiber intake and staying hydrated, as well as medical treatments, such as medications, rubber band ligation, and surgery.
Propanidid is a barbiturate medication that was once commonly used as an anesthetic and sedative. It works by slowing down the activity of the central nervous system, which can result in a loss of consciousness and a decrease in pain perception. Propanidid is no longer used as a first-line anesthetic due to its potential for serious side effects, including respiratory depression, hypotension, and cardiac arrhythmias. It is also highly addictive and can cause physical dependence if used for an extended period of time.
Digestive System Abnormalities refer to any medical conditions that affect the organs and structures of the digestive system, including the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, anus, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, and accessory organs such as the salivary glands, thyroid gland, and parathyroid gland. These abnormalities can range from minor conditions such as acid reflux or constipation to more serious conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, cancer, or digestive system infections. Symptoms of digestive system abnormalities can include abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, constipation, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and changes in bowel habits. Diagnosis of digestive system abnormalities typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, imaging studies, and endoscopy. Treatment options depend on the specific condition and may include medications, dietary changes, lifestyle modifications, surgery, or other interventions.
A urinary fistula is a abnormal connection between the urinary tract and another body cavity or surface, such as the vagina, rectum, or skin. This connection allows urine to leak out of the body through the abnormal opening, causing urinary incontinence or difficulty controlling the flow of urine. There are several types of urinary fistulas, including: 1. Vesicovaginal fistula: A connection between the bladder and the vagina, which can occur after childbirth or as a complication of pelvic surgery. 2. Vesico-rectal fistula: A connection between the bladder and the rectum, which can occur after pelvic surgery or as a complication of radiation therapy for cancer. 3. Ureterovaginal fistula: A connection between the ureter (the tube that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder) and the vagina, which can occur after pelvic surgery or as a complication of radiation therapy for cancer. 4. Ureterocutaneous fistula: A connection between the ureter and the skin, which can occur after kidney surgery or as a complication of a kidney stone. Treatment for urinary fistulas typically involves surgery to repair the abnormal connection and restore normal urinary function. In some cases, additional treatments such as antibiotics or bladder training may be necessary to manage symptoms and prevent complications.
Bladder exstrophy is a rare congenital birth defect that affects the development of the urinary tract. It occurs when the bladder does not properly form and instead remains open on the abdomen, exposing the urinary tract to the outside environment. This can lead to a variety of complications, including urinary tract infections, kidney damage, and difficulty controlling urination. Treatment typically involves surgery to repair the defect and create a new opening for the bladder to empty.
A colostomy is a surgical procedure in which a section of the colon (large intestine) is brought through the abdominal wall and connected to an opening on the surface of the abdomen, called a stoma. The purpose of a colostomy is to divert the flow of stool from the colon to an external pouch, which can be emptied by the patient or a caregiver. This is typically done when the colon is damaged or diseased, such as in cases of cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, or diverticulitis. Colostomies can be temporary or permanent, depending on the underlying condition and the patient's needs.
Neoplasms, fibroepithelial, also known as fibroadenomas, are benign (non-cancerous) tumors that develop in the breast tissue. They are the most common type of benign breast tumor, accounting for about 80-90% of all breast lumps. Fibroadenomas are typically round or oval, smooth, and firm to the touch. They are usually painless and move easily under the skin. They are usually found in women between the ages of 15 and 30, but can occur at any age. The exact cause of fibroadenomas is not known, but they are thought to be related to hormonal changes in the body, such as those that occur during pregnancy or puberty. Fibroadenomas are usually diagnosed through a physical examination and imaging tests such as mammography or ultrasound. Treatment for fibroadenomas is usually not necessary, as they are not cancerous and do not cause any symptoms. However, if a fibroadenoma is causing discomfort or if it is large, a doctor may recommend surgical removal. In rare cases, fibroadenomas may undergo a change in their appearance or size, which can be a sign of cancer, so it is important to have them monitored by a doctor.
In the medical field, a fistula is an abnormal connection or passage between two organs or between an organ and the skin. Fistulas can occur in various parts of the body, including the digestive tract, urinary tract, reproductive system, and skin. For example, a colovesical fistula is a connection between the colon and the bladder, while a vesicovaginal fistula is a connection between the bladder and the vagina. Fistulas can be congenital, meaning present at birth, or acquired, meaning developed later in life due to injury, infection, or surgery. Fistulas can cause a variety of symptoms, depending on the location and severity of the abnormal connection. Some common symptoms include pain, discharge, difficulty urinating or defecating, and recurrent infections. Treatment for fistulas depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition, and may include surgery, medications, or other interventions.
Rectal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop in the rectum, which is the final section of the large intestine. These neoplasms can be either benign or malignant, and they can range in size and location within the rectum. Benign rectal neoplasms, also known as polyps, are non-cancerous growths that typically do not spread to other parts of the body. They can be either pedunculated, meaning they have a stalk that attaches them to the rectal wall, or sessile, meaning they are attached directly to the rectal wall. Malignant rectal neoplasms, also known as rectal cancers, are cancerous tumors that can invade nearby tissues and spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. Rectal cancers can be either adenocarcinomas, which are the most common type, or squamous cell carcinomas, which are less common. Rectal neoplasms can cause a variety of symptoms, including rectal bleeding, changes in bowel habits, pain or discomfort in the rectum, and a feeling of incomplete bowel movements. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of physical examination, imaging studies, and biopsy. Treatment options for rectal neoplasms depend on the type, size, and location of the tumor, as well as the overall health of the patient.
Fecal incontinence is a medical condition characterized by the involuntary loss of feces or stool. It can occur in people of all ages and can be caused by a variety of factors, including weakened pelvic floor muscles, damage to the nerves that control bowel movements, and certain medical conditions such as diabetes, multiple sclerosis, or Parkinson's disease. Fecal incontinence can be classified into two main types: urge incontinence and stress incontinence. Urgent incontinence is characterized by the sudden and urgent need to have a bowel movement, followed by the involuntary loss of feces. Stress incontinence, on the other hand, occurs when physical activities such as coughing, sneezing, or lifting weights put pressure on the rectum and cause feces to leak out. Fecal incontinence can be a distressing and embarrassing condition that can affect a person's quality of life. Treatment options may include lifestyle changes, such as dietary modifications and exercise, as well as medical interventions such as medications, biofeedback therapy, and surgery.
Penile neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors that develop on the penis. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign penile neoplasms include conditions such as fibromas, papillomas, and granulomas, while malignant neoplasms include penile cancer. Penile cancer is a relatively rare type of cancer, but it can be aggressive and difficult to treat if not detected early. Treatment options for penile neoplasms depend on the type, size, and location of the growth, as well as the overall health of the patient.
Colonic diseases refer to a group of medical conditions that affect the colon, which is the final part of the large intestine. The colon is responsible for absorbing water and electrolytes from the remaining food matter in the digestive tract, and it also plays a role in the formation of feces. Colonic diseases can be broadly classified into two categories: inflammatory and non-inflammatory. Inflammatory colonic diseases include inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. Non-inflammatory colonic diseases include diverticulitis, polyps, and colon cancer. Inflammatory colonic diseases are characterized by chronic inflammation of the colon, which can lead to symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, and rectal bleeding. Non-inflammatory colonic diseases, on the other hand, are not associated with inflammation and can have a variety of symptoms depending on the specific condition. Colonic diseases can be diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests such as colonoscopy, sigmoidoscopy, and barium enema. Treatment for colonic diseases depends on the specific condition and may include medications, dietary changes, and in some cases, surgery.
In the medical field, defecation refers to the process of eliminating solid waste, also known as feces, from the body through the anus. This process involves the movement of feces through the large intestine, where water is absorbed, and the rectum, where the feces are stored until they are eliminated from the body. Defecation is a normal and essential function of the digestive system, and any problems with this process can lead to a range of medical conditions, including constipation, diarrhea, and fecal incontinence. Medical professionals may use various diagnostic tools and techniques to evaluate the function of the digestive system and diagnose any underlying conditions that may be affecting defecation. Treatment options may include changes in diet and lifestyle, medications, and in some cases, surgical procedures.
In the medical field, "Colon" and "Sigmoid" refer to specific parts of the large intestine. The colon is the final part of the large intestine, which is responsible for absorbing water and electrolytes from the remaining indigestible food matter, forming feces, and eliminating it from the body. The colon is divided into several parts, including the ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, and rectum. The sigmoid colon is the final part of the colon, located on the left side of the abdomen, just below the spleen. It is a curved tube that connects the descending colon to the rectum. The sigmoid colon is responsible for storing feces before they are eliminated from the body. In some medical contexts, the term "sigmoid" may also refer to a specific type of sigmoidoscopy, which is a procedure used to examine the lower part of the colon and rectum using a flexible, lighted tube called a sigmoidoscope.
Papillomavirus infections are a group of viral infections caused by human papillomaviruses (HPVs). These viruses are common and can infect both men and women, although they are more commonly associated with cervical cancer in women. There are over 200 different types of HPV, and some types are more likely to cause cancer than others. HPV infections can cause a range of symptoms, including genital warts, respiratory papillomatosis (growth of warts in the throat and airways), and various types of cancer, including cervical, anal, penile, vulvar, and vaginal cancer. In most cases, HPV infections are asymptomatic and clear on their own within a few years, but some infections can persist and lead to long-term health problems. HPV infections are typically spread through sexual contact, although they can also be transmitted through skin-to-skin contact or from mother to child during childbirth. HPV vaccines are available to prevent infection with certain high-risk types of HPV, and regular screening tests, such as Pap smears and HPV tests, can help detect and treat precancerous changes in the cervix before they become cancerous.
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell is a type of cancer that originates in the squamous cells, which are thin, flat cells that line the surface of the body. Squamous cells are found in the skin, mouth, throat, lungs, and other organs. Carcinoma, Squamous Cell can develop in any part of the body where squamous cells are present, but it is most commonly found in the head and neck, lungs, and skin. The exact cause of Squamous Cell Carcinoma is not always clear, but it is often associated with exposure to certain substances, such as tobacco smoke, alcohol, and certain chemicals. It can also develop as a result of chronic inflammation or infection, such as HPV (human papillomavirus) infection in the cervix. Symptoms of Squamous Cell Carcinoma can vary depending on the location of the tumor, but may include a persistent sore or lesion that does not heal, a change in the appearance of the skin or mucous membranes, difficulty swallowing or breathing, and unexplained weight loss. Treatment for Squamous Cell Carcinoma typically involves surgery to remove the tumor, followed by radiation therapy or chemotherapy to kill any remaining cancer cells. In some cases, targeted therapy or immunotherapy may also be used. The prognosis for Squamous Cell Carcinoma depends on the stage of the cancer at the time of diagnosis and the overall health of the patient.
In the medical field, a syndrome is a set of symptoms and signs that occur together and suggest the presence of a particular disease or condition. A syndrome is often defined by a specific pattern of symptoms that are not caused by a single underlying disease, but rather by a combination of factors, such as genetic, environmental, or hormonal. For example, Down syndrome is a genetic disorder that is characterized by a specific set of physical and intellectual characteristics, such as a flattened facial profile, short stature, and intellectual disability. Similarly, the flu syndrome is a set of symptoms that occur together, such as fever, cough, sore throat, and body aches, that suggest the presence of an influenza virus infection. Diagnosing a syndrome involves identifying the specific set of symptoms and signs that are present, as well as ruling out other possible causes of those symptoms. Once a syndrome is diagnosed, it can help guide treatment and management of the underlying condition.
Willis J. Potts
Philip L. Townes
Caudal regression syndrome
13q deletion syndrome
Tuber cinereum hamartoma
Neonatal bowel obstruction
Constipation in children
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Physician Resources - 22 q
- Imperforate anus is a congenital (present at birth) anorectal disorder that prevents a child from having normal bowel movements. (arnoldpalmerhospital.com)
- Congenital defects in the anus and the rectum often involving the urinary and genital tracts. (bvsalud.org)
- Clinically characterized at birth or later by the association of delayed growth and mental development, craniofacial anomalies, musculoskeletal abnormalities, imperforate anus, cryptorchidism, and congenital heart defects. (mhmedical.com)
- The anus is the opening to the rectum through which stools leave the body. (medlineplus.gov)
- Surgical conditions of the anus and rectum. (medlineplus.gov)
- Anorectal malformations are birth defects of a child's anus or rectum that interfere with the normal passage of stool . (nih.gov)
- In rare cases, the anus may be normal while the rectum is blocked or narrowed. (nih.gov)
- Anorectal malformations occur when the anus and rectum don't develop normally before birth. (nih.gov)
- Experts don't know what causes problems with the development of the anus and rectum. (nih.gov)
- Rectum and Anus The rectum is a chamber that begins at the end of the large intestine, immediately following the sigmoid colon, and ends at the anus ( see also Overview of the Anus and Rectum). (msdmanuals.com)
- Overview of Digestive Tract Birth Defects A birth defect can occur anywhere along the digestive tract-in the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, rectum, or anus. (msdmanuals.com)
- Case of operation for imperforate anus, and of subsequent extraction of an alvo-urinary calculus from the rectum. (nih.gov)
- Hemorrhoids are inflamed and swollen veins in the rectum or anus. (osmosis.org)
- Also known as anorectal malformation, this condition causes the opening of the anus to be too small, located in an unusual location or missing. (arnoldpalmerhospital.com)
- We take a team-based approach to care for children with colorectal malformations such as Hirschsprung disease and other anorectal and pelvic floor disorders, such as imperforate anus/anorectal malformation or cloaca). (childrensmercy.org)
Children with anorectal malformations1
- In children with anorectal malformations, the anus may be missing, blocked by a thin or thick layer of tissue, or more narrow than normal. (nih.gov)
- Anal atresia is also known as imperforate anus. (msdmanuals.com)
- In anal atresia, the tissue closing the anus may be several centimeters thick or just a thin membrane of skin. (msdmanuals.com)
- Anal atresia is obvious on routine physical examination of the neonate because the anus is not patent. (msdmanuals.com)
- Most infants with anal atresia develop some type of abnormal connection (fistula) between the anus and either the urethra, the area between the urethra and anus (the perineum), the vagina, or rarely the bladder. (msdmanuals.com)
- A rare genetic disorder characterized by the triad of imperforate anus dysplastic ears often associated with sensorineural and/or conductive hearing impairment and thumb malformations. (globalgenes.org)
- Many forms of imperforate anus occur with other birth defects. (medlineplus.gov)
- In anorectal malformations, skin may be covering the area where the anus should be, and the skin may be several centimeters thick or just a thin membrane. (msdmanuals.com)
- There may be narrowing (stenosis) of the anus or no anus. (medlineplus.gov)
- Townes-Brocks syndrome is a genetic condition characterized by an obstruction of the anal opening (imperforate anus), abnormally shaped ears, and thumb malformations. (nih.gov)
- Soon after her birth Ugandan surgeons successfully created an anus for her and she's been managing since though is still unable to completely control her stool. (fundrazr.com)
- The lack of nerve cells along the bowel in a child with Hirschsprung disease prevents food and waste from moving forward through the colon to the anus, causing problems passing stool. (childrensmercy.org)
- 14. Rupture of the sigmoid colon in a newborn infant with imperforate anus. (nih.gov)
- Vaginal anomalies and atresia associated with imperforate anus: diagnosis and surgical management. (medscape.com)
- imperforate anus), abnormally shaped ears, and hand malformations that most often affect the thumbs. (nih.gov)
- Nearly all cases of imperforate anus are diagnosed during a physical exam completed shortly after a baby is born. (arnoldpalmerhospital.com)
- If you suspect that your child may have an imperforate anus, make an appointment with an Orlando Health pediatrician today so your child can start on the road to improved health. (arnoldpalmerhospital.com)
- No article was found for Anus, Imperforate and Foxf1a[original query] . (cdc.gov)
- Rosenbaum DG, Kasdorf E, Renjen P, Brill P, Kovanlikaya A. Sling left pulmonary artery with patent type IIA tracheobronchial anomaly and imperforate anus. (medscape.com)
- Imperforate anus is corrected with surgery as soon as possible, after the baby is born. (nih.gov)
- An additional rare associated manifestation is imperforate a.u. (nih.gov)
- The opening to the anus may be narrow or may be missing completely. (msdmanuals.com)