National Library of Medicine (U.S.)
Peripheral Vascular Diseases
Risk factors for abnormal anal cytology in young heterosexual women. (1/213)Although anal cancers are up to four times more common in women than men, little is known about the natural history of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infections and HPV-related anal lesions in women. This study reports on the prevalence of and risks for anal cytological abnormalities over a 1-year period in a cohort of young women participating in a study of the natural history of cervical HPV infection. In addition to their regularly scheduled sexual behavior interviews and cervical testing, consenting women received anal HPV DNA and cytological testing. Anal cytology smears were obtained from 410 women whose mean age was 22.5 +/- 2.5 years at the onset of the study. Sixteen women (3.9%) were found to have abnormal anal cytology: 4 women had low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (SILs) or condyloma; and 12 women had atypical cells of undetermined significance. Factors found to be significantly associated with abnormal anal cytology were a history of anal sex [odds ratio (OR), 6.90; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.7-47.2], a history of cervical SILs (OR, 4.13; 95% CI, 1.3-14.9), and a current anal HPV infection (OR, 12.28; 95% CI, 3.9-43.5). The strong association between anal intercourse and the development of HPV-induced SILs supports the role of sexual transmission of HPV in anal SILs. Young women who had engaged in anal intercourse or had a history of cervical SILs were found to be at highest risk. (+info)
Tissue specific HPV expression and downregulation of local immune responses in condylomas from HIV seropositive individuals. (2/213)OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of tissue specific human papillomavirus (HPV) expression and its effect on local immunity in condylomas from HIV positive individuals. METHODS: Biopsy specimens of eight penile and eight perianal condylomas from HIV seropositive individuals were analysed. Expression of viral genes (HIV-tat and HPV E7 and L1) was determined by RT-PCR. The status of local immunity also was determined by RT-PCR by measuring CD4, CD8, CD16, CD1a, HLA-DR, and HLA-B7 mRNA levels in the tissues. Differentiation was determined by measuring involucrin, keratinocyte transglutaminase, as well as cytokeratins 10, 16, and 17. Proliferation markers such as PCNA and c-myc were also determined. RESULTS: The transcription pattern of HPV in perianal condylomas, which preferentially expressed the early (E7) gene, was different from that of penile condylomas, which primarily expressed the late (L1) gene. This transcription pattern is in good correlation with the keratinisation and differentiation patterns of the two epithelia: perianal biopsies preferentially expressed K16 and K17 while penile warts mainly expressed K10, markers of parakeratotic and orthokeratotic epithelia, respectively. Perianal biopsies also showed a higher degree of proliferation (PCNA and c-myc). Interestingly, transcription of HIV-tat was also higher in perianal than in penile biopsies. A high degree of local immunodeficiency was observed in perianal biopsies--that is, levels of CD4, CD16, and CD1a mRNAs were significantly lower. A negative correlation between CD1a (Langerhans cells) levels and HPV E7 levels was established. HPV E7 levels positively correlated with HIV-tat levels. Perianal tissues demonstrated more CD1a depression and tat associated HPV upregulation. CONCLUSION: HIV influences the expression of HPV genes resulting in local immunosuppression that might lead to an inappropriate immune surveillance of viral infection. Also, tissue type is an important factor in controlling viral transcription in a differentiation dependent manner. These findings may explain the higher rate of dysplasia and neoplasia in the perianal area. (+info)
Susceptibility of gonococci isolated in London to therapeutic antibiotics: establishment of a London surveillance programme. London Gonococcal Working Group. (3/213)OBJECTIVES: To establish the in vitro susceptibility of gonococci isolated in the London area to antibiotics in current therapeutic use and to establish a sentinel surveillance system for monitoring trends in antibiotic resistant gonorrhoea in London. METHODS: Isolates of Neisseria gonorrhoeae from consecutive patients attending genitourinary medicine clinics at 10 hospitals in the London area were collected over a 3 month period, May to July 1997. The susceptibility to penicillin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, and spectinomycin was determined for each isolate. Isolates exhibiting either plasmid or chromosomally mediated resistance were additionally tested for susceptibility to agents used as alternative treatments including azithromycin, ceftriazone, and ofloxacin. The resistant isolates were also tested for plasmid profiles (penicillinase producing N gonorrhoeae, PPNG), type of tetM determinant (tetracycline resistant N gonorrhoeae, TRNG), and presence of gyrA and parC mutations (quinolone resistant N gonorrhoeae, QRNG). RESULTS: A total of 1133 isolates were collected which represents > 95% of the total gonococci isolated in the 3 months. Plasmid mediated resistance was exhibited by 48 (4.2%) isolates; six (0.5%) were PPNG, 15 (1.3%) were PP/TRNG, and 27 (2.4%) were TRNG. The majority of PPNG (18 of 20 tested) carried the 3.2 MDa penicillinase plasmid whereas the two types of tetM determinant were more evenly distributed. High level resistance to ciprofloxacin was detected in four (0.4%) isolates and double mutations were found in the quinolone resistance determining region (QRDR) of the gyrA gene in three QRNG with MICs of 16 mg/l and a single mutation in one isolate with a MIC of 1 mg/l to ciprofloxacin. No parC mutations were found. Of the remaining 1081 isolates, 86 (8.0%) were chromosomally mediated resistant N gonorrhoeae (CMRNG). CONCLUSIONS: A unique collection of gonococcal isolates has been established which can be used as a baseline for surveillance of susceptibility to antibiotics and for epidemiological purposes. (+info)
Functional disorders of the anus and rectum. (4/213)In this report the functional anorectal disorders, the etiology of which is currently unknown or related to the abnormal functioning of normally innervated and structurally intact muscles, are discussed. These disorders include functional fecal incontinence, functional anorectal pain, including levator ani syndrome and proctalgia fugax, and pelvic floor dyssynergia. The epidemiology of each disorder is defined and discussed, their pathophysiology is summarized and diagnostic approaches and treatment are suggested. Some suggestions for the direction of future research on these disorders are also given. (+info)
Ileoanal anastomosis with reservoirs: complications and long-term results. (5/213)OBJECTIVE: To determine the rate of complications of ileoanal pouch anastomosis, their treatment and their influence on a successful outcome. DESIGN: A computerized database and chart review. SETTING: Three academic tertiary care health centres. PATIENTS: All 239 patients admitted for surgery between 1981 and 1994 with a diagnosis of ulcerative colitis and familial adenomatosis coli. INTERVENTIONS: Sphincter-saving total proctocolectomy and construction of either S-type of J-type ileoanal reservoir. OUTCOME MEASURES: Indications, early and late complications, incidence of pouch excision. RESULTS: Of the 239 patients, 228 (95.4%) were operated on for ulcerative colitis and 11 (4.6%) for familial polyposis coli. One patient in each group was found to have a carcinoma not previously diagnosed. Twenty-eight patients had poor results: in 17 (7.1%) the ileostomy was never closed or was re-established because of pelvic sepsis or complex fistulas, sclerosing cholangitis or severe diarrhea; 11 (4.6%) patients required excision of the pouch because of anal stenosis, perirectal abscess-fistula or rectovaginal fistula. Three patients died--of suicide, and complications of liver transplantation and HIV infection. Thus, 208 patients maintained a functioning pouch. The early complication rate (within 30 days of operation) was 57.7% (138 patients) and the late complication rate was 52.3% (125 patients). Pouchitis alone did not lead to failure or pouch excision. Emptying difficulties in 25 patients with anal stenosis were helped in 2 by resorting to intermittent catheterization. Patients with indeterminate colitis had a higher rate of anorectal septic complications, and all patients having Crohn's disease after pouch construction had complicated courses. CONCLUSIONS: The complication rate associated with ileoanal pouch anastomosis continues to be relatively high despite increasing experience with this technique. Overall, however, a satisfactory outcome was obtained in 87% of patients. (+info)
The clinical spectrum of Clostridium sordellii bacteraemia: two case reports and a review of the literature. (6/213)Clostridium sordellii is rarely associated with disease in humans. Since its first report in 1922 only a few cases of bacteraemia have been reported. This report describes two cases of C sordellii bacteraemia; the oldest and youngest patients reported to date. The first, is a previously well 81 year old woman presented with perianal infection, which was later complicated by thrombosis of the aorta, and the second is a 12 year old boy with epilepsy who presented with an ear infection. These cases are also highlighted to demonstrate the wide spectrum of presentation of sordellii bacteraemia. (+info)
Prevalence and risk factors for anal human papillomavirus infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and high-risk HIV-negative women. (7/213)Little is known about the epidemiology of anal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in women. We studied 251 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive and 68 HIV-negative women for the presence of anal HPV by use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and hybrid capture. Medical and behavioral risk factors were evaluated; 76% of HIV-positive and 42% of HIV-negative women were found to have anal HPV DNA via analysis by PCR (relative risk [RR], 1.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.3-2.5). Among 200 women for whom there were concurrent anal and cervical HPV data, anal HPV was more common than cervical HPV in both HIV-positive (79% vs. 53%) and HIV-negative women (43% vs. 24%). By multivariate analysis of HIV-positive women, CD4(+) cell counts 500 cells/mm(3) (RR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1-1.5), and cervical HPV infection (RR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.4) were associated with anal HPV infection. Women >45 years old had reduced risk, compared with women <36 years old (RR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.50-0.99), as did African American women (RR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.72-1.0), compared with white women. Anal HPV infection is underrecognized in HIV-positive and high-risk HIV-negative women. (+info)
Topical phenylephrine increases anal canal resting pressure in patients with faecal incontinence. (8/213)INTRODUCTION: The internal anal sphincter receives a stimulatory alpha(1) adrenergic innervation. Use of an adrenergic agonist may therefore have a role in treating patients with faecal incontinence. METHODS: Ten patients (seven females, median age 66 years) with passive faecal incontinence related to weak internal anal sphincter were studied. All patients had intact anal sphincters as assessed by endoanal ultrasound. Phenylephrine gel was applied in a double blind manner in concentrations of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% (Slaco Pharma (UK) Ltd, Watford, UK) on separate days. Maximum resting anal pressure (MRP), anodermal blood flow, blood pressure, and pulse rate were measured before, and one and two hours after application. RESULTS: All concentrations of phenylephrine gel increased median MRP (43, 48, 54, 65, and 70 cm H(2)O, for placebo, 10% (p=0.122), 20% (p=0.170), 30% (p=0.002), and 40% (p=0.004), respectively at one hour; comparisons with placebo). This was sustained at two hours. There was a clear dose-response relationship at one hour. Higher concentrations raised median MRP to within the normal range (> 60 cm H(2)O). At two hours, all concentrations greater than 20% increased the pressure to a similar degree, suggesting that the exact concentration may be important for the initial effect but given a certain threshold is less important after a period of time. Toxicity was rare. Two patients experienced transient perianal burning which settled within a few minutes. There was no significant effect on anodermal blood flow, blood pressure, or pulse rate. CONCLUSION: This study has demonstrated the feasibility of using topical phenylephrine to raise resting anal tone in patients with faecal incontinence. Randomised controlled trials are required to assess the efficacy of this agent. (+info)
Treatment options for anus diseases depend on the specific condition but may include dietary changes, medication, and surgery. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time to receive a proper diagnosis and appropriate treatment.
1. Cleveland Clinic. (n.d.). Imperforation Anus. Retrieved from
2. Healthline. (n.d.). Imperforate Anus. Retrieved from
3. Mayo Clinic. (n.d.). Imperforate anus. Retrieved from
The most common symptoms of anus neoplasms are bleeding from the anus, pain or discomfort in the anal area, itching or burning sensation in the anus, and a lump or swelling near the anus. These symptoms can be caused by various conditions, including hemorrhoids, anal fissures, and infections. However, if these symptoms persist or worsen over time, they may indicate the presence of an anus neoplasm.
The diagnosis of anus neoplasms is typically made through a combination of physical examination, endoscopy, and imaging tests such as CT scans or MRI scans. A biopsy may also be performed to confirm the presence of cancer cells.
Treatment for anus neoplasms depends on the stage and location of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Surgery is often the primary treatment option, and may involve removing the tumor, a portion of the anus, or the entire anus. Radiation therapy and chemotherapy may also be used to shrink the tumor before surgery or to kill any remaining cancer cells after surgery.
Prevention of anus neoplasms is not always possible, but certain measures can reduce the risk of developing these types of cancers. These include maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle, avoiding exposure to carcinogens such as tobacco smoke, and practicing safe sex to prevent human papillomavirus (HPV) infections, which can increase the risk of anus neoplasms. Early detection and treatment of precancerous changes in the anus, such as anal intraepithelial neoplasia, can also help prevent the development of invasive anus neoplasms.
Symptoms of a rectovaginal fistula may include:
* Incontinence of stool or gas into the vagina
* Pain in the rectal or vaginal area
* Discharge of stool or gas from the vagina
* Perineal pain during sexual activity
* Difficulty with bowel movements
Diagnosis is typically made through a physical examination, and may also include imaging tests such as an MRI or CT scan.
Treatment for a rectovaginal fistula usually involves surgery to repair the defect. The type of surgery used will depend on the location and size of the fistula, as well as the patient's overall health. In some cases, multiple procedures may be necessary to achieve complete resolution of symptoms.
In addition to surgical treatment, other therapies such as bowel training, stool softeners, and antibiotics may be used to manage symptoms and prevent complications. Patients with rectovaginal fistulas should work closely with their healthcare provider to develop a personalized treatment plan that addresses their individual needs and goals.
Please note that this definition is a summary and may not be comprehensive or up-to-date. For accurate and current information, I recommend consulting a medical professional or a reputable online source.
Examples of Urogenital Abnormalities:
1. Congenital Anomalies: Conditions that are present at birth and affect the urinary tract or genitalia, such as hypospadias (a condition where the urethra opens on the underside of the penis instead of the tip), undescended testes (testes that fail to descend into the scrotum), or interrupted or absent vas deferens (tubes that carry sperm from the epididymis to the penis).
2. Infections: Bacterial or viral infections that can cause urogenital abnormalities, such as pyelonephritis (a kidney infection) or prostatitis (an inflammation of the prostate gland).
3. Trauma: Injuries to the urinary tract or genitalia, such as those caused by sexual assault or accidents, can lead to urogenital abnormalities.
4. Neurological Conditions: Certain neurological conditions, such as spina bifida (a birth defect that affects the spine and spinal cord), can cause urogenital abnormalities.
5. Cancer: Cancer of the urinary tract or genitalia, such as bladder cancer or prostate cancer, can cause urogenital abnormalities.
Symptoms of Urogenital Abnormalities:
Depending on the specific condition, symptoms of urogenital abnormalities may include:
1. Difficulty urinating or painful urination
2. Blood in the urine or semen
3. Frequent urination or incontinence
4. Pain during sexual activity
5. Abnormalities in the shape or size of the genitalia
6. Testicular atrophy or swelling
7. Discharge from the vagina or penis
8. Foul-smelling urine
Diagnosis and Treatment of Urogenital Abnormalities:
Diagnosis of urogenital abnormalities typically involves a combination of physical examination, medical history, and diagnostic tests such as urinalysis, blood tests, and imaging studies (such as X-rays or ultrasound). Treatment depends on the specific condition causing the abnormality. Some common treatments include:
1. Medications to treat infections or inflammation
2. Surgery to repair or remove damaged tissue
3. Lifestyle changes, such as diet and exercise modifications
4. Pelvic floor exercises to strengthen the muscles that control urination and bowel movements
5. Assistive devices, such as catheters or prosthetic limbs
6. Hormone therapy to treat hormonal imbalances or gender identity issues.
Symptoms of rectal prolapse may include:
* A bulge or lump near the anus
* Pain or discomfort in the rectal area
* Difficulty controlling bowel movements
* Leaking of stool or gas
* Difficulty sitting or passing stool
If left untreated, rectal prolapse can lead to complications such as:
* Increased risk of anal fissures and skin irritation
* Infection of the rectal area
* Impaired urinary continence
* Increased risk of recurrent prolapse
Treatment options for rectal prolapse depend on the severity of the condition and may include:
* Dietary changes and bowel training to improve bowel habits
* Exercise and physical therapy to strengthen the pelvic floor muscles
* Use of rectal inserts or devices to support the rectum
* Surgery to repair or remove the prolapsed rectum
It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms of rectal prolapse are present, as early treatment can help prevent complications and improve quality of life.
Some examples of multiple abnormalities include:
1. Multiple chronic conditions: An individual may have multiple chronic conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, arthritis, and heart disease, which can affect their quality of life and increase their risk of complications.
2. Congenital anomalies: Some individuals may be born with multiple physical abnormalities or birth defects, such as heart defects, limb abnormalities, or facial deformities.
3. Mental health disorders: Individuals may experience multiple mental health disorders, such as depression, anxiety, and bipolar disorder, which can impact their cognitive functioning and daily life.
4. Neurological conditions: Some individuals may have multiple neurological conditions, such as epilepsy, Parkinson's disease, and stroke, which can affect their cognitive and physical functioning.
5. Genetic disorders: Individuals with genetic disorders, such as Down syndrome or Turner syndrome, may experience a range of physical and developmental abnormalities.
The term "multiple abnormalities" is often used in medical research and clinical practice to describe individuals who have complex health needs and require comprehensive care. It is important for healthcare providers to recognize and address the multiple needs of these individuals to improve their overall health outcomes.
1) The patient was diagnosed with a rectal disease and was advised to make dietary changes to manage their symptoms.
2) The doctor performed a rectal examination to rule out any underlying rectal diseases that may be causing the patient's bleeding.
3) The patient underwent surgery to remove a rectal polyp and treat their rectal disease.
Hemorrhoids are caused by increased pressure on the veins in the rectum and anus, which can be due to a variety of factors such as constipation, pregnancy, childbirth, obesity, and aging. The pressure causes the veins to swell and become irritated, leading to symptoms such as:
* Painless bleeding during bowel movements
* Pain or discomfort during bowel movements
* Itching or irritation in the anal area
* A lump near the anus
* Difficulty passing stool
There are several methods for treating hemorrhoids, including:
* Dietary changes: Eating a high-fiber diet can help soften stools and reduce pressure on the veins in the rectum and anus.
* Medications: Over-the-counter medications such as hydrocortisone creams and suppositories can help reduce itching and inflammation.
* Internal hemorrhoids: Self-care measures, such as increasing fiber intake and drinking plenty of fluids, may be sufficient to treat internal hemorrhoids. However, if symptoms persist or worsen, medical treatment may be necessary.
* External hemorrhoids: Treatment for external hemorrhoids may include warm compresses, elevation of the affected area, and pain management with medication. In severe cases, surgery may be required.
It is important to note that while hemorrhoids are not dangerous, they can be uncomfortable and disrupt daily life. If symptoms persist or worsen, it is important to seek medical attention to rule out other conditions and receive proper treatment.
Some common digestive system abnormalities include:
1. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS): This is a chronic condition characterized by recurring episodes of diarrhea, constipation, or both. The exact cause of IBS is not known, but it may be related to changes in gut motility, hypersensitivity to food or stress, and inflammation.
2. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD): This is a group of chronic conditions that cause inflammation in the digestive tract, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. The exact cause of IBD is not known, but it may be related to an abnormal immune response.
3. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD): This is a condition in which stomach acid flows back into the esophagus, causing symptoms such as heartburn and regurgitation. GERD can be caused by a weak or relaxed lower esophageal sphincter, obesity, pregnancy, and other factors.
4. Peptic ulcer: This is a sore on the lining of the stomach or duodenum (the first part of the small intestine). Peptic ulcers can be caused by infection with Helicobacter pylori bacteria, excessive use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and other factors.
5. Diverticulosis: This is a condition in which small pouches form in the wall of the colon. Diverticulosis can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, fever, and changes in bowel habits.
6. Diverticulitis: This is a more serious condition in which the diverticula become inflamed. Diverticulitis can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, fever, nausea, and vomiting.
7. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS): This is a chronic condition characterized by recurring abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel habits. The exact cause of IBS is not known, but it may be related to stress, hormonal changes, and other factors.
8. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD): This is a chronic condition characterized by inflammation in the digestive tract. IBD includes Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
9. Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs): These are conditions that affect the function of the GI system, but do not cause any visible damage to the tissues. FGIDs include IBS, functional dyspepsia, and other conditions.
10. Gastrointestinal infections: These are infections caused by bacteria, viruses, or parasites that can affect the GI system. Examples include food poisoning, salmonella infection, and giardiasis.
11. Radiologic pneumatosis intestinalis: This is a condition in which gas accumulates in the intestines, causing them to become inflated like a balloon. This can be caused by a variety of factors, including infections, inflammatory conditions, and blockages.
12. Postoperative ileus: This is a condition that occurs after surgery on the GI system, characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel habits.
These are just a few examples of the many different conditions that can affect the gastrointestinal system. If you are experiencing symptoms that concern you, it is important to seek medical attention to determine the cause and receive appropriate treatment.
The symptoms of urinary fistula can vary depending on the location and severity of the condition, but may include:
* Incontinence or leakage of urine
* Pain or discomfort in the abdomen or pelvis
* Frequent urination or difficulty starting a stream of urine
* Blood in the urine
* Cloudy or strong-smelling urine
* Recurring urinary tract infections
Treatment for urinary fistula typically involves surgery to repair the abnormal connection and restore normal urinary function. In some cases, this may involve creating a new opening for urine to pass through or repairing damaged tissue.
Preventive measures for urinary fistula are not well established, but good hygiene practices and proper care after surgery can help reduce the risk of developing the condition. Early detection and treatment are important to prevent complications and improve outcomes.
The symptoms of Bladder Exstrophy can vary depending on the severity of the condition. Common symptoms include:
1. Visible protrusion of the bladder through the abdominal wall
2. Difficulty controlling urination
3. Increased urinary tract infections (UTIs)
4. Increased risk of kidney damage
5. Delayed sexual development in children
6. Difficulty with sitting or standing for long periods of time
7. Increased risk of bowel problems
Bladder Exstrophy is usually diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical imaging (such as ultrasound or MRI), and urinalysis. Treatment options vary depending on the severity of the condition, but may include:
1. Clean intermittent catheterization (CIC) to help manage urinary retention and prevent UTIs
2. Bladder neck reconstruction to improve bladder function and reduce the risk of UTIs
3. Bladder augmentation to increase the capacity of the bladder
4. Urinary diversion to reroute urine flow away from the bladder and prevent complications
5. Surgery to repair or remove any affected tissue or organs
6. Management of associated symptoms such as bowel problems or sexual dysfunction
The prognosis for Bladder Exstrophy varies depending on the severity of the condition and the effectiveness of treatment. With appropriate management, many individuals with Bladder Exstrophy can lead active and fulfilling lives. However, they may require ongoing medical care and monitoring throughout their lives to manage associated symptoms and prevent complications.
There are several types of abscesses, including:
1. Skin abscesses: These occur when a bacterial infection causes pus to accumulate under the skin. They may appear as red, swollen bumps on the surface of the skin.
2. Internal abscesses: These occur when an infection causes pus to accumulate within an internal organ or tissue. Examples include abscesses that form in the liver, lungs, or brain.
3. Perianal abscesses: These occur when an infection causes pus to accumulate near the anus. They may be caused by a variety of factors, including poor hygiene, anal sex, or underlying conditions such as Crohn's disease.
4. Dental abscesses: These occur when an infection causes pus to accumulate within a tooth or the surrounding tissue. They are often caused by poor oral hygiene or dental trauma.
The symptoms of an abscess can vary depending on its location and severity. Common symptoms include:
* Redness, swelling, and warmth around the affected area
* Pain or discomfort in the affected area
* Fever or chills
* Discharge of pus from the affected area
* Bad breath (if the abscess is located in the mouth)
If an abscess is not treated, it can lead to serious complications, including:
* Further spread of the infection to other parts of the body
* Inflammation of surrounding tissues and organs
* Formation of a pocket of pus that can become infected and lead to further complications
* Sepsis, a life-threatening condition caused by the spread of infection through the bloodstream.
Treatment of an abscess usually involves drainage of the pus and antibiotics to clear the infection. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove affected tissue or repair damaged structures.
It's important to seek medical attention if you suspect that you have an abscess, as prompt treatment can help prevent serious complications.
There are several types of fistulas, including:
1. Anal fistula: a connection between the anus and the skin around it, usually caused by an abscess or infection.
2. Rectovaginal fistula: a connection between the rectum and the vagina, often seen in women who have had radiation therapy for cancer.
3. Vesicovaginal fistula: a connection between the bladder and the vagina, often caused by obstetric injuries or surgery.
4. Enterocutaneous fistula: a connection between the intestine and the skin, often seen in patients with inflammatory bowel disease or cancer.
5. Fistula-in-ano: a connection between the rectum and the skin around the anus, often caused by chronic constipation or previous surgery.
Symptoms of fistulas can include pain, bleeding, discharge, and difficulty controlling bowel movements. Treatment depends on the type and location of the fistula, but may include antibiotics, surgery, or other interventional procedures.
Symptoms of PVD may include:
* Cramping pain in the legs during exercise or at rest
* Weakness or numbness in the legs
* Coldness in the lower limbs
* Difficulty healing wounds on the feet or legs
* Poor circulation
* Varicose veins
Treatment for PVD depends on the underlying cause and severity of the condition. Some common treatments include:
* Medications to relieve pain, reduce inflammation, or lower cholesterol levels
* Lifestyle changes such as exercise, smoking cessation, and a healthy diet
* Surgical procedures such as angioplasty or bypass surgery to improve blood flow
* Compression stockings to improve circulation
Prevention of PVD includes:
* Maintaining a healthy lifestyle, including regular exercise, a balanced diet, and not smoking
* Managing underlying conditions such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, or diabetes
* Regular check-ups with your healthcare provider to monitor your risk factors and detect any early signs of PVD.
1. Atherosclerosis: A condition in which plaque builds up inside the arteries, causing them to narrow and harden. This can lead to heart disease, heart attack, or stroke.
2. Hypertension: High blood pressure that can damage blood vessels and increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and other conditions.
3. Peripheral artery disease (PAD): A condition in which the blood vessels in the legs and arms become narrowed or blocked, leading to pain, cramping, and weakness in the affected limbs.
4. Raynaud's phenomenon: A condition that causes blood vessels in the hands and feet to constrict in response to cold temperatures or stress, leading to discoloration, numbness, and tissue damage.
5. Deep vein thrombosis (DVT): A condition in which a blood clot forms in the deep veins of the legs, often caused by immobility or injury.
6. Varicose veins: Enlarged, twisted veins that can cause pain, swelling, and cosmetic concerns.
7. Angioplasty: A medical procedure in which a balloon is used to open up narrowed blood vessels, often performed to treat peripheral artery disease or blockages in the legs.
8. Stenting: A medical procedure in which a small mesh tube is placed inside a blood vessel to keep it open and improve blood flow.
9. Carotid endarterectomy: A surgical procedure to remove plaque from the carotid arteries, which supply blood to the brain, to reduce the risk of stroke.
10. Bypass surgery: A surgical procedure in which a healthy blood vessel is used to bypass a blocked or narrowed blood vessel, often performed to treat coronary artery disease or peripheral artery disease.
Overall, vascular diseases can have a significant impact on quality of life and can increase the risk of serious complications such as stroke, heart attack, and amputation. It is important to seek medical attention if symptoms persist or worsen over time, as early diagnosis and treatment can help to prevent long-term damage and improve outcomes.
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Rectum and anus5
- The rectum and anus are believed to develop from the dorsal potion of the hindgut or cloacal cavity when lateral ingrowth of the mesenchyme forms the urorectal septum in the midline. (medscape.com)
- To provide opportunities for Medical Students to participate in clinical or laboratory-based research focused on diseases of the colon, rectum and anus. (fascrs.org)
- Dr. Gagliano's expertise includes the diagnosis and surgical treatment of diseases of the small intestine, colon, rectum and anus. (dignityhealth.org)
- The American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons (ASCRS) is dedicated to ensuring high-quality patient care by advancing the science, prevention, and management of disorders and diseases of the colon, rectum, and anus. (lww.com)
- This committee was created to lead international efforts in defining quality care for conditions related to the colon, rectum, and anus and develop clinical practice guidelines based on the best available evidence. (lww.com)
Centers for Diseas2
Inflammatory bowel d5
- Perianal Crohn's disease is a type of inflammatory bowel disease that affects the area around the anus. (scitechdaily.com)
- Fistulizing perianal Crohn's disease can be a really miserable condition," said co-senior author of the study Dermot McGovern, MD, Ph.D., director of Translational Research in the Cedars-Sinai F. Widjaja Foundation Inflammatory Bowel and Immunobiology Research Institute and the Joshua L. and Lisa Z. Greer Chair in Inflammatory Bowel Disease Genetics. (scitechdaily.com)
- The team identified 10 novel genetic loci and 14 known inflammatory bowel disease loci to be associated with the development of perianal complications. (scitechdaily.com)
- Crohn's and another disease, ulcerative colitis , are part of a group of conditions called inflammatory bowel disease . (webmd.com)
- Idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease : Crohn's disease and chronic ulcerative colitis, the past, present, and future prospectives / edited by A. B. R. Thomson for the Canadian Foundation of Ileitis and Colitis. (who.int)
- Many children with these malformations are said to have an imperforate anus because they have no opening where the anus should be. (medscape.com)
- Scientists at Cedars-Sinai have identified a genetic variant that is associated with perianal Crohn's disease. (scitechdaily.com)
- Investigators at Cedars-Sinai have discovered a genetic variant that elevates an individual's likelihood of experiencing perianal Crohn's disease, which is considered to be the most severe form of Crohn's disease. (scitechdaily.com)
- Perianal Crohn's disease is a complication of Crohn's disease, a chronic inflammatory disorder that affects the digestive tract. (scitechdaily.com)
- Perianal Crohn's disease occurs in up to 40% of people with Crohn's disease and has limited treatment responses, resulting in a poor quality of life. (scitechdaily.com)
- We have become much more successful in identifying genetic variants associated with the risk of developing diseases, but what we did here is specifically focus on a very complicated and severe manifestation of Crohn's disease. (scitechdaily.com)
- To discover genetic variants with a direct tie to this severe manifestation, investigators analyzed genetic data from three independent cohorts of patients with Crohn's disease. (scitechdaily.com)
- The three groups totaled 4,000 patients with perianal Crohn's disease and more than 11,000 Crohn's disease patients without this complication. (scitechdaily.com)
- During the functional characterization analysis, the team focused on a single change in a specific gene, called a SNP, that was associated with perianal Crohn's Disease. (scitechdaily.com)
- So, for those patients who have perianal Crohn's disease, there are connections that form from the rectum to the skin area. (scitechdaily.com)
- Michelsen also noted the study demonstrates an important role for the alternative complement pathway and CFB in the development of perianal Crohn's disease. (scitechdaily.com)
- The findings also suggest that targeting the alternative complement pathway may be a novel therapeutic approach for treating this disabling manifestation of Crohn's disease. (scitechdaily.com)
- What Is Crohn's Disease? (webmd.com)
- Crohn's disease causes inflammation in part of your digestive system . (webmd.com)
- People with Crohn's disease can have severe symptoms, followed by periods of no symptoms that may last for weeks or years. (webmd.com)
- Crohn's disease most often affects the ileum, the lower end of your intestine. (webmd.com)
- These small flaps of skin are common in people with Crohn's, especially around the anus. (webmd.com)
- Irritable bowel disease is a chronic inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract which encompasses both Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). (pharmacytimes.com)
- But how do you know if it's Crohn's disease? (rxwiki.com)
- Crohn's disease is much more serious than a stomach bug. (rxwiki.com)
- The repeated inflammation and ulceration of Crohn's disease can create scar tissue on your bowel walls, making normal contents of the digestive tract very painful as they pass through. (rxwiki.com)
- It may seem overwhelming to begin to deal with a life-long disease, but fortunately there are lots of resource to help you make decisions and understand how to deal with Crohn's. (rxwiki.com)
- Internal hemorrhoids - this is one of the most widespread proctological diseases, which is characterized by the expansion of the cavernous (cavernous) venous bodies located in the thickness of the terminal (terminal) rectum. (abchealthonline.com)
- Those bacteria which do colonise our system, generally do so by breaking through the mucus barrier that lines most of our alimentary canal (mouth to anus). (earthlife.net)
- CDC also does not recommend routine testing for diseases from HPV before there are signs or symptoms in men. (cdc.gov)
- Symptoms of the disease are swollen veins around the anus, itching and pain, bleeding and sometimes, when proposals were adopted. (worldwidehealth.com)
- The symptoms depend on where the disease happens and how severe it is. (webmd.com)
- According to medical statistics, approximately 60% of adults have symptoms of the disease. (abchealthonline.com)
- One of the first symptoms of this complication is the sudden onset and rapid onset of pain in the anus. (abchealthonline.com)
- This is due to the fact that similar symptoms can be observed in a number of other diseases of the rectum (polyps, malignant tumors) that require a completely different medical tactics. (abchealthonline.com)
- I shall explain later on how I do the work of detecting aluminium and other disease agents, but it should be realized that if a practitioner tests each patient be sees, for aluminium, over many years, he will learn for himself what sort of symptoms he most commonly meets, and which accompany an aluminium reaction. (trinicenter.com)
- Patients with CD may present with a variety of symptoms depending on their disease classification or severity. (pharmacytimes.com)
- ICD-9-CM codes are used in medical billing and coding to describe diseases, injuries, symptoms and conditions. (icd9data.com)
- Symptoms will come and go in periods of flare-ups and remission, when the disease is not active. (rxwiki.com)
- These increased risks were not limited to cancers only but were also observed for neurologic diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and diseases of the urinary system. (cdc.gov)
- Talk to your healthcare provider about anything new or unusual on your penis, scrotum, anus, mouth, or throat. (cdc.gov)
- The system most often affected by aluminium is the abdominal organs from mouth to anus, and so I will discuss this part of the anatomy first. (trinicenter.com)
- The inflammation in CD can spread through as much as the entire GI wall thickness and can extend anywhere along the GI tract from the mouth to the anus. (pharmacytimes.com)
- Some people may develop severe and frequent herpes infections that bring sores in the mouth, genitals, and anus. (festivalofthephotograph.org)
- The anus develops by a fusion of the anal tubercles and an external invagination, known as the proctodeum, which deepens toward the rectum but is separated from it by the anal membrane. (medscape.com)
- S tain pathogens can be extended to other pathogens, eroepidemiology is the practice of measuring the such as for parasitic diseases in Cambodia ( 7 ) and tet- serologic response to infectious diseases in a popu- anus in Kenya, Tanzania, and Mozambique ( 8 ). (cdc.gov)
- certain localized infections - see body system-related chapters infectious and parasitic diseases complicating pregnancy, childbirth and the puerperium [except obstetrical tetanus] (O98. (who.int)
- The complication causes inflammation and ulceration of the skin around the anus, as well as other structures in the perianal area. (scitechdaily.com)
- Usually, the first sign of the disease is the appearance of blood from the anus after a bowel movement. (abchealthonline.com)
- Alternatively the and postoperatively the patient had twice daily sitz disease is thought to originate from follicular oc- baths complemented with additional sitz baths clusion with secondary involvement of the apo- after every bowel movement. (who.int)
- These tests can also search for the presence of certain antibodies, which might hint at what kind of irritable bowel disease (IBD) you have. (rxwiki.com)
- 2 , 3 Although the number of patients with C difficile infection (CDI) in the United States appears relatively stable over the past decade (estimated 476,400 cases in 2011 associated with 29,000 deaths and 462,100 cases in 2017 associated with an estimated 20,500 deaths), the prevalence of the disease remains high. (lww.com)
- severely reduced by urinary infection from the one-way valve disease. (reso-nation.org)
- No mass was however, palpable in the anus on digital examination. (who.int)
- All in all, during the year 2000, bacterial diseases will probably have killed 5 million people - which accounts for only 10% of the 52 million human deaths occurring on average every year. (earthlife.net)
- Skin metastases from prostate cancer (PCa) are rare, cause considerable discomfort, and usually indicate advanced disease and a poor prognosis. (bvsalud.org)
- Examples of wekhedu include disease-state tissue, purulence, mucus, or excrement (via the Journal of Vascular Surgery ). (grunge.com)
- Oligometastatic disease has been described as an intermediate clinical state between localized cancer and systemically metastasized disease. (bvsalud.org)
- Respiratory and Diarrhoeal diseases cause a similar amount - or even more - deaths but only some of these are caused by bacteria (others being caused by viruses, protozoa and fungi). (earthlife.net)
- According to the disease severity, the appropriate treatment strategy was accomplished either by medicinal or surgical interferences. (openveterinaryjournal.com)
- carrier or suspected carrier of infectious disease (Z22. (who.int)
- RÉSUMÉ Cette étude portait sur le taux de malformations congénitales pour 10 000 naissances recensé dans un hôpital de recours à Gorgan (République islamique d'Iran) en 1998-1999. (who.int)
- Apart from these diseases, AIDS, malaria and the various forms of Hepatitis all kill between 1 and 3 million people each year - but none of these are caused by bacteria either so I will say no more about them here. (earthlife.net)
- Smoking lends itself well to dynamic modeling because of the long delay between smoking and the manifestation of disease (eg, lung cancer), consistent data collected over many decades, and the unambiguous effect of smoking on multiple health problems. (cdc.gov)
- Although the reductions in smoking prevalence that occurred over the last several decades have led to a substantial reduction in deaths from coronary heart disease attributed to smoking (10), lung cancer deaths have declined more slowly (7,11). (cdc.gov)
- It contains 842 treatments for illnesses from zoonotic diseases to what was likely diabetes. (grunge.com)
- Coronary heart disease is expected to increase as a share of total deaths. (cdc.gov)
- Nearly all infectious diseases start out as small localized infections and will only spread through the system if the bacteria gain access to the blood stream. (earthlife.net)
- 18 disease terms (MeSH) has been reported with IFNA8 gene. (cdc.gov)
- As scientific research and WHO immunization programs continue, some of these diseases are being brought under control and the toll on human life is decreasing. (earthlife.net)
- The disease affects your ability to digest and absorb food. (rxwiki.com)