An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.
The family of true toads belonging to the order Anura. The genera include Bufo, Ansonia, Nectophrynoides, and Atelopus.
Polyploidy with three sets of chromosomes. Triploidy in humans are 69XXX, 69XXY, and 69XYY. It is associated with HOLOPROSENCEPHALY; ABNORMALITIES, MULTIPLE; PARTIAL HYDATIDIFORM MOLE; and MISCARRAGES.
The family of true frogs of the order Anura. The family occurs worldwide except in Antarctica.
The outer covering of the body composed of the SKIN and the skin appendages, which are the HAIR, the NAILS; and the SEBACEOUS GLANDS and the SWEAT GLANDS and their ducts.
Profound physical changes during maturation of living organisms from the immature forms to the adult forms, such as from TADPOLES to frogs; caterpillars to BUTTERFLIES.
A species of the true toads, Bufonidae, widely distributed in the United States and Europe.
VERTEBRATES belonging to the class amphibia such as frogs, toads, newts and salamanders that live in a semiaquatic environment.
Infestation of animals with parasitic worms of the helminth class. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.
A phylum of fungi that was formerly considered a subdivision of Phycomycetes. They are the only fungi that produce motile spores (zoospores) at some stage in their life cycle. Most are saprobes but they also include examples of plant, animal, and fungal pathogens.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
The contents included in all or any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
The chromosome region which is active in nucleolus formation and which functions in the synthesis of ribosomal RNA.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Argentina" is not a medical concept or condition that has a defined meaning within the medical field. Argentina is actually the second largest country in South America, and is known for its rich cultural history, diverse landscapes, and significant contributions to fields such as science, arts, and sports. If you have any questions related to healthcare, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Brazil" is not a medical term or concept, it is a country located in South America, known officially as the Federative Republic of Brazil. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or science, I'd be happy to help answer those!
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
Mapping of the KARYOTYPE of a cell.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.

Morphology and mechanics of tongue movement in the African pig-nosed frog Hemisus marmoratum: a muscular hydrostatic model. (1/2244)

The goal of this study was to investigate morphological adaptations associated with hydrostatic elongation of the tongue during feeding in the African pig-nosed frog Hemisus marmoratum. Whereas previous studies had suggested that the tongue of H. marmoratum elongates hydraulically, the anatomical observations reported here favour a muscular hydrostatic mechanism of tongue elongation. H. marmoratum possesses a previously undescribed compartment of the m. genioglossus (m. genioglossus dorsoventralis), which is intrinsic to the tongue and whose muscle fibres are oriented perpendicular to the long axis of the tongue. On the basis of the arrangement and orientation of muscle fibres in the m. genioglossus and m. hyoglossus, we propose a muscular hydrostatic model of tongue movement in which contraction of the m. genioglossus dorsoventralis, together with unfolding of the intrinsic musculature of the tongue, results in a doubling in tongue length. Electron micrographs of sarcomeres from resting and elongated tongues show that no special adaptations of the sarcomeres are necessary to accommodate the observed doubling in tongue length during feeding. Rather, the sarcomeres of the m. genioglossus longitudinalis are strikingly similar to those of anuran limb muscles. The ability to elongate the tongue hydrostatically, conferred by the presence of the m. genioglossus dorsoventralis, is associated with the appearance of several novel aspects of feeding behaviour in H. marmoratum. These include the ability to protract the tongue slowly, thereby increasing capture success, and the ability to aim the tongue in azimuth and elevation relative to the head. Compared with other frogs, the muscular hydrostatic system of H. marmoratum allows more precise, localized and diverse tongue movements. This may explain why the m. genioglossus of H. marmoratum is composed of a larger number of motor units than that of other frogs.  (+info)

Structural and phylogenetic characterization of human SLURP-1, the first secreted mammalian member of the Ly-6/uPAR protein superfamily. (2/2244)

Members of the Ly-6/uPAR protein family share one or several repeat units of the Ly-6/uPAR domain that is defined by a distinct disulfide bonding pattern between 8 or 10 cysteine residues. The Ly-6/uPAR protein family can be divided into two subfamilies. One comprises GPI-anchored glycoprotein receptors with 10 cysteine residues. The other subfamily includes the secreted single-domain snake and frog cytotoxins, and differs significantly in that its members generally possess only eight cysteines and no GPI-anchoring signal sequence. We report the purification and structural characterization of human SLURP-1 (secreted mammalian Ly-6/uPAR related protein 1) from blood and urine peptide libraries. SLURP-1 is encoded by the ARS (component B)-81/s locus, and appears to be the first mammalian member of the Ly-6/uPAR family lacking a GPI-anchoring signal sequence. A phylogenetic analysis based on the SLURP-1 primary protein structure revealed a closer relationship to the subfamily of cytotoxins. Since the SLURP-1 gene maps to the same chromosomal region as several members of the Ly-6/uPAR subfamily of glycoprotein receptors, it is suggested that both biologically distinct subfamilies might have co-evolved from local chromosomal duplication events.  (+info)

Morphological clues from multilegged frogs: are retinoids to blame? (3/2244)

Morphological analysis was performed on multilegged deformed frogs representing five species from 12 different localities in California, Oregon, Arizona, and New York. The pattern of duplicated limbs was consistent with mechanical perturbation by trematode infestation but not with the effects of retinoids.  (+info)

The effect of trematode infection on amphibian limb development and survivorship. (4/2244)

The causes of amphibian deformities and their role in widespread amphibian declines remain conjectural. Severe limb abnormalities were induced at high frequencies in Pacific treefrogs (Hyla regilla) exposed to cercariae of a trematode parasite (Ribeiroia sp.). The abnormalities closely matched those observed at field sites, and an increase in parasite density caused an increase in abnormality frequency and a decline in tadpole survivorship. These findings call for further investigation of parasite infection as a cause of amphibian deformities in other sites and species.  (+info)

Chloride dependence of active sodium transport in frog skin: the role of intercellular spaces. (5/2244)

1. In agreement with previous observations the replacement of Cl by a nonpenetrating anion in the solution bathing either the outside or both sides of the frog skin causes a fall in the short-circuit current. 2. When Cl is replaced by a non-penetrating anion in the solution bathing the outside of the frog skin the Isc is still a correct measure of the net Na transport. 3. Under the same conditions both active and shunt paths seem to be affected since there is a decrease in Isc, Na influx, amiloride-dependent conductance, and initial Na uptake across the external barrier, together with a decrease in Cl-backfluxes and amiloride-independent conductance. There is also a decrease in water permeability and a reduction in size of the intercellular spaces. 4. The removal of Cl does not appear to affect the entry step of Na but may have an effect on the shunt path. This in turn may change the active Na transport.  (+info)

Purification from black widow spider venom of a protein factor causing the depletion of synaptic vesicles at neuromuscular junctions. (6/2244)

The aqueous extract of the venom glands of black widow spiders was fractionated on a column of Sephadex G-200 and then on a column of DEAE-Sephadex A-50 pH 8.2. A protein fraction was obtained that caused a great increase in the frequency of occurrence of miniature end plate potentials at the frog neuromuscular junction, and caused swelling of the nerve terminals and depleted them of their vesicles. The fraction consists of a least four protein components that are similar in their molecular weights (about 130,000) and isoelectric points (ranging from pH 5.2 to 5.5) and are immunologically indistinguishable. It contains no sugar residues and has little or no lipolytic or proteolytic activity. The fraction is toxic to mice and is different from the fractions that act on houseflies, the crayfish stretch receptor and the cockroach heart. It seems pure enough to warrant a detailed study of its site and mode of action.  (+info)

Molecular modeling of single polypeptide chain of calcium-binding protein p26olf from dimeric S100B(betabeta). (7/2244)

P26olf from olfactory tissue of frog, which may be involved in olfactory transduction or adaptation, is a Ca2+-binding protein with 217 amino acids. The p26olf molecule contains two homologous parts consisting of the N-terminal half with amino acids 1-109 and the C-terminal half with amino acids 110-217. Each half resembles S100 protein with about 100 amino acids and contains two helix-loop-helix Ca2+-binding structural motifs known as EF-hands: a normal EF-hand at the C-terminus and a pseudo EF-hand at the N-terminus. Multiple alignment of the two S100-like domains of p26olf with 18 S100 proteins indicated that the C-terminal putative EF-hand of each domain contains a four-residue insertion when compared with the typical EF-hand motifs in the S100 protein, while the N-terminal EF-hand is homologous to its pseudo EF-hand. We constructed a three-dimensional model of the p26olf molecule based on results of the multiple alignment and NMR structures of dimeric S100B(betabeta) in the Ca2+-free state. The predicted structure of the p26olf single polypeptide chain satisfactorily adopts a folding pattern remarkably similar to dimeric S100B(betabeta). Each domain of p26olf consists of a unicornate-type four-helix bundle and they interact with each other in an antiparallel manner forming an X-type four-helix bundle between the two domains. The two S100-like domains of p26olf are linked by a loop with no steric hindrance, suggesting that this loop might play an important role in the function of p26olf. The circular dichroism spectral data support the predicted structure of p26olf and indicate that Ca2+-dependent conformational changes occur. Since the C-terminal putative EF-hand of each domain fully keeps the helix-loop-helix motif having a longer Ca2+-binding loop, regardless of the four-residue insertion, we propose that it is a new, novel EF-hand, although it is unclear whether this EF-hand binds Ca2+. P26olf is a new member of the S100 protein family.  (+info)

Chlamydia pneumoniae in a free-ranging giant barred frog (Mixophyes iteratus) from Australia. (8/2244)

The koala biovar of Chlamydia pneumoniae was identified in lung tissue from a sick, free-ranging giant barred frog (Mixophyes iteratus) by using electron microscopy, C. pneumoniae-specific fluorescent-antibody staining, cell culture, and sequencing of the ompA, ompB and 16S rRNA genes. This is the first report of a chlamydial strain infecting both a homeotherm and a poikilotherm and only the fourth host (in addition to humans, koalas, and horses) to be naturally infected with this species of Chlamydia. The frog had severe, chronic, mononuclear pneumonia and nonregenerative anemia and pancytopenia.  (+info)

"Anura" is a term used in the field of zoology, particularly in the study of amphibians. It refers to a order that includes frogs and toads. The name "Anura" comes from the Greek language, with "an-" meaning "without," and "oura" meaning "tail." This is a reference to the fact that members of this order lack tails in their adult form.

The Anura order is characterized by several distinct features:

1. They have short, powerful legs that are well adapted for jumping or leaping.
2. Their forelimbs are smaller and less specialized than their hind limbs.
3. Most anurans have a moist, glandular skin, which helps them to breathe and absorb water.
4. Anura includes both aquatic and terrestrial species, with varying degrees of adaptations for each environment.
5. They lay their eggs in water, and their larvae (tadpoles) are aquatic, undergoing a process called metamorphosis to transform into the adult form.

Anura contains approximately 7,000 known species, making it one of the largest orders of vertebrates. They have a cosmopolitan distribution and can be found on every continent except Antarctica. Anurans play essential roles in many ecosystems as both predators and prey, contributing to the regulation of insect populations and serving as indicators of environmental health.

Bufonidae is a family of toads, characterized by the presence of parotoid glands that produce bufotoxins, a group of toxic secretions. These toads are found worldwide, except for Australia, New Zealand, Madagascar, and some isolated islands. They vary in size, shape, and coloration, depending on the species. Some notable members of this family include the common toad (Bufo bufo) and the Colorado River toad (Incilius alvarius). It is important to note that while these toads have toxic secretions, they are not typically harmful to humans unless ingested or if their secretions come into contact with mucous membranes or broken skin.

Triploidy is a genetic condition characterized by the presence of three sets of chromosomes in a cell instead of the typical two sets (two sets from each parent), resulting in a total of 69 chromosomes rather than the usual 46. This extra set of chromosomes can arise due to errors during fertilization, such as when an egg or sperm with an extra set of chromosomes is involved, or during early embryonic development.

Triploidy can lead to various developmental abnormalities and growth delays, and it is often incompatible with life. Many pregnancies with triploidy result in miscarriage, stillbirth, or early neonatal death. In some cases, infants with triploidy may be born alive but have severe medical issues, including developmental delays, physical abnormalities, and organ dysfunction.

Triploidy is not typically inherited from parents and is usually a random event during conception or early embryonic development. It can also occur in some forms of cancer, where cells may acquire extra sets of chromosomes due to genetic instability.

"Ranidae" is not a medical term. It is a biological term that refers to a family of frogs and toads, commonly known as "true frogs." These amphibians are characterized by their long legs, webbed feet, and the ability to live both in water and on land. Some examples of ranids include the American bullfrog and the green frog.

The integumentary system is the largest organ system in the human body, encompassing the skin, hair, nails, and various glands. Its primary function is to act as a barrier, protecting the body from external damage, radiation, and pathogens while also helping regulate body temperature, prevent water loss, and maintain fluid balance. The integumentary system plays crucial roles in sensory perception through nerve endings in the skin, synthesizing vitamin D via sunlight exposure, and excreting waste products through sweat. Overall, it serves as a vital organ system that ensures the body's integrity and homeostasis.

Biological metamorphosis is a complex process of transformation that certain organisms undergo during their development from embryo to adult. This process involves profound changes in form, function, and structure of the organism, often including modifications of various body parts, reorganization of internal organs, and changes in physiology.

In metamorphosis, a larval or juvenile form of an animal is significantly different from its adult form, both morphologically and behaviorally. This phenomenon is particularly common in insects, amphibians, and some fish and crustaceans. The most well-known examples include the transformation of a caterpillar into a butterfly or a tadpole into a frog.

The mechanisms that drive metamorphosis are regulated by hormonal signals and genetic programs. In many cases, metamorphosis is triggered by environmental factors such as temperature, moisture, or food availability, which interact with the organism's internal developmental cues to initiate the transformation. The process of metamorphosis allows these organisms to exploit different ecological niches at different stages of their lives and contributes to their evolutionary success.

'Bufo bufo' is the scientific name for a species of toad commonly known as the common toad or European toad. It belongs to the family Bufonidae and is native to many parts of Europe and western Asia. The toad is typically characterized by its warty skin, large parotoid glands behind its eyes, and a dull yellow or brownish color.

The parotoid glands of Bufo bufo contain a toxic secretion that can be harmful if ingested or comes into contact with mucous membranes, making the toad unpalatable to many predators. The toxin can cause irritation and may lead to respiratory and cardiac problems in some animals, including pets and humans.

While Bufo bufo is not typically aggressive, it will defend itself if threatened by inflating its body, lifting its hind legs, and releasing the toxic secretion from its glands. The common toad is primarily a terrestrial animal but requires access to water for breeding, and it feeds on a variety of small invertebrates such as insects, worms, and slugs.

Amphibians are a class of cold-blooded vertebrates that include frogs, toads, salamanders, newts, and caecilians. They are characterized by their four-limbed body structure, moist skin, and double circulation system with three-chambered hearts. Amphibians are unique because they have a life cycle that involves two distinct stages: an aquatic larval stage (usually as a tadpole or larva) and a terrestrial adult stage. They typically start their lives in water, undergoing metamorphosis to develop lungs and legs for a land-dwelling existence. Many amphibians are also known for their complex reproductive behaviors and vocalizations.

Helminthiasis, in general, refers to the infection or infestation of humans and animals by helminths, which are parasitic worms. When referring to "Animal Helminthiasis," it specifically pertains to the condition where animals, including domestic pets and livestock, are infected by various helminth species. These parasitic worms can reside in different organs of the animal's body, leading to a wide range of clinical signs depending on the worm species and the location of the infestation.

Animal Helminthiasis can be caused by different types of helminths:

1. Nematodes (roundworms): These include species like Ascaris suum in pigs, Toxocara cati and Toxascaris leonina in cats, and Toxocara canis in dogs. They can cause gastrointestinal issues such as diarrhea, vomiting, and weight loss.
2. Cestodes (tapeworms): Examples include Taenia saginata in cattle, Echinococcus granulosus in sheep and goats, and Dipylidium caninum in dogs and cats. Tapeworm infestations may lead to gastrointestinal symptoms like diarrhea or constipation and may also cause vitamin deficiencies due to the worm's ability to absorb nutrients from the host animal's digestive system.
3. Trematodes (flukes): These include liver flukes such as Fasciola hepatica in sheep, goats, and cattle, and schistosomes that can affect various animals, including birds and mammals. Liver fluke infestations may cause liver damage, leading to symptoms like weight loss, decreased appetite, and jaundice. Schistosome infestations can lead to issues in multiple organs depending on the species involved.

Preventing and controlling Helminthiasis in animals is crucial for maintaining animal health and welfare, as well as ensuring food safety for humans who consume products from these animals. Regular deworming programs, good hygiene practices, proper pasture management, and monitoring for clinical signs are essential components of a comprehensive parasite control strategy.

Chytridiomycota is a phylum that includes various species of fungi known as chytrids. These fungi are characterized by having a unique life cycle that involves a motile, flagellated stage in their reproductive process. Chytridiomycota fungi can be found in a wide range of environments, including freshwater and terrestrial habitats. Some species of chytrids are parasites that infect various organisms, such as algae, plants, and animals, while others are saprophytes that obtain nutrients by decomposing organic matter.

One notable species of Chytridiomycota is Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd), which is a pathogenic fungus that infects the skin of amphibians. This fungus has been implicated in declines and extinctions of amphibian populations worldwide, making it a significant concern for global biodiversity conservation efforts.

A larva is a distinct stage in the life cycle of various insects, mites, and other arthropods during which they undergo significant metamorphosis before becoming adults. In a medical context, larvae are known for their role in certain parasitic infections. Specifically, some helminth (parasitic worm) species use larval forms to infect human hosts. These invasions may lead to conditions such as cutaneous larva migrans, visceral larva migrans, or gnathostomiasis, depending on the specific parasite involved and the location of the infection within the body.

The larval stage is characterized by its markedly different morphology and behavior compared to the adult form. Larvae often have a distinct appearance, featuring unsegmented bodies, simple sense organs, and undeveloped digestive systems. They are typically adapted for a specific mode of life, such as free-living or parasitic existence, and rely on external sources of nutrition for their development.

In the context of helminth infections, larvae may be transmitted to humans through various routes, including ingestion of contaminated food or water, direct skin contact with infective stages, or transmission via an intermediate host (such as a vector). Once inside the human body, these parasitic larvae can cause tissue damage and provoke immune responses, leading to the clinical manifestations of disease.

It is essential to distinguish between the medical definition of 'larva' and its broader usage in biology and zoology. In those fields, 'larva' refers to any juvenile form that undergoes metamorphosis before reaching adulthood, regardless of whether it is parasitic or not.

Gastrointestinal (GI) contents refer to the physical substances within the gastrointestinal tract, which includes the stomach, small intestine, and large intestine. These contents can vary depending on the time since the last meal and the digestive process that is underway. Generally, GI contents include food, fluids, digestive enzymes, secretions, bacteria, and other waste products.

In a more specific context, GI contents may also refer to the stomach contents, which are often analyzed during autopsies or in cases of suspected poisoning or overdose. Stomach contents can provide valuable information about the type and amount of substances that have been ingested within a few hours prior to the analysis.

It is important to note that GI contents should not be confused with gastrointestinal fluids, which specifically refer to the secretions produced by the gastrointestinal tract, such as gastric juice in the stomach or bile in the small intestine.

The Nucleolus Organizer Region (NOR) is a specific region within the chromosomes, primarily in the short arm of the acrocentric chromosomes (chromosomes 13, 14, 15, 21, and 22). It consists of clusters of repetitive DNA sequences that encode ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. During interphase, these regions form the nucleolus, a distinct structure within the nucleus where rRNA transcription, processing, and ribosome assembly occur. The number of NORs in an individual can vary, which has implications in certain genetic conditions and aging processes.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Argentina" is a country in South America and not a medical term or concept. The term "argyria" may be what you're looking for, which is a rare condition resulting from the accumulation of silver compounds in the body, causing the skin to turn blue-gray. However, Argentina and argyria are two distinct terms with different meanings.

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history and relationship among biological entities, such as species or genes, based on their shared characteristics. In other words, it refers to the branching pattern of evolution that shows how various organisms have descended from a common ancestor over time. Phylogenetic analysis involves constructing a tree-like diagram called a phylogenetic tree, which depicts the inferred evolutionary relationships among organisms or genes based on molecular sequence data or other types of characters. This information is crucial for understanding the diversity and distribution of life on Earth, as well as for studying the emergence and spread of diseases.

I apologize, but "Brazil" is not a medical term or condition. It is the largest country in both South America and Latin America by land area and population. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health concerns, please provide more information and I will do my best to help.

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the genetic material present in the mitochondria, which are specialized structures within cells that generate energy. Unlike nuclear DNA, which is present in the cell nucleus and inherited from both parents, mtDNA is inherited solely from the mother.

MtDNA is a circular molecule that contains 37 genes, including 13 genes that encode for proteins involved in oxidative phosphorylation, a process that generates energy in the form of ATP. The remaining genes encode for rRNAs and tRNAs, which are necessary for protein synthesis within the mitochondria.

Mutations in mtDNA can lead to a variety of genetic disorders, including mitochondrial diseases, which can affect any organ system in the body. These mutations can also be used in forensic science to identify individuals and establish biological relationships.

Karyotyping is a medical laboratory test used to study the chromosomes in a cell. It involves obtaining a sample of cells from a patient, usually from blood or bone marrow, and then staining the chromosomes so they can be easily seen under a microscope. The chromosomes are then arranged in pairs based on their size, shape, and other features to create a karyotype. This visual representation allows for the identification and analysis of any chromosomal abnormalities, such as extra or missing chromosomes, or structural changes like translocations or inversions. These abnormalities can provide important information about genetic disorders, diseases, and developmental problems.

Biological evolution is the change in the genetic composition of populations of organisms over time, from one generation to the next. It is a process that results in descendants differing genetically from their ancestors. Biological evolution can be driven by several mechanisms, including natural selection, genetic drift, gene flow, and mutation. These processes can lead to changes in the frequency of alleles (variants of a gene) within populations, resulting in the development of new species and the extinction of others over long periods of time. Biological evolution provides a unifying explanation for the diversity of life on Earth and is supported by extensive evidence from many different fields of science, including genetics, paleontology, comparative anatomy, and biogeography.

Bayes' theorem, also known as Bayes' rule or Bayes' formula, is a fundamental principle in the field of statistics and probability theory. It describes how to update the probability of a hypothesis based on new evidence or data. The theorem is named after Reverend Thomas Bayes, who first formulated it in the 18th century.

In mathematical terms, Bayes' theorem states that the posterior probability of a hypothesis (H) given some observed evidence (E) is proportional to the product of the prior probability of the hypothesis (P(H)) and the likelihood of observing the evidence given the hypothesis (P(E|H)):

Posterior Probability = P(H|E) = [P(E|H) x P(H)] / P(E)


* P(H|E): The posterior probability of the hypothesis H after observing evidence E. This is the probability we want to calculate.
* P(E|H): The likelihood of observing evidence E given that the hypothesis H is true.
* P(H): The prior probability of the hypothesis H before observing any evidence.
* P(E): The marginal likelihood or probability of observing evidence E, regardless of whether the hypothesis H is true or not. This value can be calculated as the sum of the products of the likelihood and prior probability for all possible hypotheses: P(E) = Σ[P(E|Hi) x P(Hi)]

Bayes' theorem has many applications in various fields, including medicine, where it can be used to update the probability of a disease diagnosis based on test results or other clinical findings. It is also widely used in machine learning and artificial intelligence algorithms for probabilistic reasoning and decision making under uncertainty.

Species specificity is a term used in the field of biology, including medicine, to refer to the characteristic of a biological entity (such as a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism) that allows it to interact exclusively or preferentially with a particular species. This means that the biological entity has a strong affinity for, or is only able to infect, a specific host species.

For example, HIV is specifically adapted to infect human cells and does not typically infect other animal species. Similarly, some bacterial toxins are species-specific and can only affect certain types of animals or humans. This concept is important in understanding the transmission dynamics and host range of various pathogens, as well as in developing targeted therapies and vaccines.

DNA Sequence Analysis is the systematic determination of the order of nucleotides in a DNA molecule. It is a critical component of modern molecular biology, genetics, and genetic engineering. The process involves determining the exact order of the four nucleotide bases - adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T) - in a DNA molecule or fragment. This information is used in various applications such as identifying gene mutations, studying evolutionary relationships, developing molecular markers for breeding, and diagnosing genetic diseases.

The process of DNA Sequence Analysis typically involves several steps, including DNA extraction, PCR amplification (if necessary), purification, sequencing reaction, and electrophoresis. The resulting data is then analyzed using specialized software to determine the exact sequence of nucleotides.

In recent years, high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of genomics, enabling the rapid and cost-effective sequencing of entire genomes. This has led to an explosion of genomic data and new insights into the genetic basis of many diseases and traits.

Molecular evolution is the process of change in the DNA sequence or protein structure over time, driven by mechanisms such as mutation, genetic drift, gene flow, and natural selection. It refers to the evolutionary study of changes in DNA, RNA, and proteins, and how these changes accumulate and lead to new species and diversity of life. Molecular evolution can be used to understand the history and relationships among different organisms, as well as the functional consequences of genetic changes.

... may refer to: Anura (frog), the order for frogs Anura (plant), a genus of flowering plants in the daisy family Anura is a ... Sri Lankan cricketer Anura Rohana, Sri Lankan golfer Anura Tennekoon (born 1946), Sri Lankan cricketer Anura Wegodapola (born ... Sri Lankan politician Anura Kumara Dissanayaka (born 1968), Sri Lankan politician Anura Horatious, Sri Lankan novelist Anura C ... 1981), cricketer for Sri Lanka Navy Anura Priyadharshana Yapa (born 1959), Sri Lankan politician Anura, Varanasi, a village in ...
... (born 29 October 1946) is a former Sri Lankan cricketer and captain of the Sri Lanka national cricket team. He ... Anura Tennekoon at ESPNcricinfo (Use Sri Lankan English from December 2022, Use dmy dates from October 2013, 1946 births, ... Wijesinghe, Rohan (22 November 2009). "Anura Tennekoon - spirit of cricket". Sunday Observer. Archived from the original on 29 ... Anura Punchi Banda Tennekoon was born in Anuradhapura to a Family from Nikaweratiya. At the age of six, he moved to Colombo, ...
... (born 30 July 1950) is a Sri Lankan politician. He was a former Deputy Minister of Defence and Member of ... Bastian, Anura, M.P." Parliament of Sri Lanka. Retrieved 17 September 2019. de Mel, Kithsiri. "Ranil should ...
Anura is a village in Pindra Tehsil of Varanasi district in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. Anura is within the Karoma gram ... Anura has a total population of 1,178 people amongst 171 families. Sex ratio of Anura is 894 and child sex ratio is 926. Uttar ... Anura can be accessed by road and does not have a railway station of its own. Nearest operational airports are Varanasi airport ...
Professor Anura Rambukkana is head of the Anura Rambukkana Research Group at the University of Edinburgh's Centre for ... Anura Rambukkana - ICTD2020". Retrieved 2022-11-16. " ... "Anura Rambukkana Research Group , The University of Edinburgh". Retrieved 2022-11-16. "New lead on leprosy". scidev. ...
... (Sinhala: අනුර හොරේෂස්) is a popular Sri Lankan author of crime fiction, best known for the bestselling novel ...
"Andre Anura lebur rekod kebangsaan berusia 12 tahun". Astro Awani. Retrieved 2022-08-05. "Andre Anura wins triple jump gold". ... "Andre Anura". Kuala Lumpur 2019. 25 September 2020. Retrieved 5 August 2022. "Profile Anura". World Athletics. Retrieved 2022- ... Andre Anura Anuar (born 12 June 1999) is a Malaysian ahlete. Andre was born on 12 Jun 1999 in Tenom, Sabah, Malaysia. He ... He won the gold medal in the triple jump event . "Kejayaan Andre Anura Raih Perak Di Sukan SEA Satu Kebanggaan Buat Sabah". ...
... at ESPNcricinfo Cricket stars pay homage to Anura Ranasinghe. An article written by SA'ADI Thawfeeq to ... Limited Over Encounter and it is named after Anura Ranasinghe. "Anura Ranasinghe dies in his sleep". ESPNcricinfo. Retrieved 9 ... Anura Nandana Ranasinghe (13 October 1956 - 9 November 1998) was a Sri Lankan cricketer, who represented Sri Lanka at ...
"Former Senior DIG Anura Senanayake Re-remanded". Gold FM News. Retrieved 26 February 2021. "Ex-DIG Anura Senanayake indicted ... "BUSINESS TODAY -SENIOR SUPERINTENDENT OF POLICE - ANURA SENANAYAKE". Retrieved 26 February 2021. "Anura ... Anura joined Sri Lanka Police as a sub-inspector in 1973. He was also promoted as an inspector in 1981. He became a chief ... Anura Senanayake (died 26 February 2021) was a Sri Lankan police officer and singer. He served as a deputy inspector general. ...
"Anura: Boycott Burmese products". BBC News. 30 September 2007. "Anura Bandaranaike dies". Outlook India. 16 March 2008 - via ... Anura Bandaranaike, returned to the opposition from 1994 to 2000 as a National List member of parliament, he contested under ... With this backdrop, Anura Bandaranaike became the leader of the opposition in November 1983, when the incumbent Amirthalingam ... Anura Priyadarshi Solomon Dias Bandaranaike (15 February 1949 - 16 March 2008) was a Sri Lankan politician, served as Speaker ...
"Anura Wegodapola". Cricinfo. ESPN. Retrieved 10 May 2016. Anura Wegodapola at Cricket Archive v t e (Articles with short ... Anura Wegodapola (born Senevirathne Panditha Abeykoon Bandaranayaka Wasala Mudiyense Ralahamilage Anura Bandara Wegodapola on ...
... , the slate awl, is a species of hesperid butterfly found in Asia. In India it is found in Sikkim and the Khasi ... anura; the latter also is a smaller insect; the female differs in having the three large discal yellow spots of the forewing ...
Anura's father, M.S Perera, hoped his son would become a Doctor, and though Anura would study in Biology stream for Advanced ... Anura Srinath (born September 6, 1957) is a Sri Lankan Artist, Painter, Illustrator and a Cartoonist Anura was born in Sri ... "Anura, Sri Lankan Art Gallery". Sri Lankan Art Gallery. "අනුරගේ 'අනුරාලෝකය' දකුණු ලකට යයි". "සිත්තරු අඳි රූ ... Participant of the annual open air art fair from 1995 - 2019 "Anura Srinath". Srilankan Art Gallery. "Brilliant brushstrokes of ...
Rear Admiral Anura Ekanayake RSP, USP, psc, MMaritimePol, is a retired Sri Lankan admiral. He served as Deputy chief of staff ...
... at the Asian Tour official site (archived) Anura Rohana at the Official World Golf Ranking official site v t e v t ... Anura Rohana (born 11 September 1973) is a Sri Lankan professional golfer. He plays primarily on the Professional Golf Tour of ... Anura Rohana". Professional Golf Tour of India. Retrieved 6 November 2015. "Rohana wins Surya Nepal Masters". The Hindu. 26 ...
... is a species of millipede in the family Hirudisomatidae. It is found in North America. "Octoglena anura Report ... "Octoglena anura Species Information". Retrieved 2018-05-04. Shelley, R.M. "The myriapods, the world's leggiest ...
... a professor of mechanical engineering and the director of the Post Graduate Institute of the Faculty of ... "Profile of Professor Rahula Anura Attalage,Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Moratuwa". Archived from the ...
Yapa Appuhamilage Anura Priyadharshana (known as Anura Priyadharshana Yapa born 18 January 1959) MP for Kurunegala former ... Anura Priyadharshana Yapa is also the General Secretary of the Sri Lanka Freedom Party. He was also Sri Lanka's former Cabinet ...
Anura Kumara Dissanayake is new JVP leader & National People's Power Part. Daily Mirror, Retrieved on 3 February 2014. " ... "Agriculture Minister Anura Kumara Dissanayake will launch tomorrow Tank renovation scheme at Yapahuwa". "NPPM Declares JVP ... Dissanayake Mudiyanselage Anura Kumara Dissanayake (Sinhala: අනුර කුමාර දිසානායක, Tamil: அநுர குமார திசாநாயக்க; born 24 ... Parliament profile Srinivasan, Meera (21 November 2018). "We think what happened on October 26 is a conspiracy, says Anura ...
... (born 18 June 1947) is a Sri Lankan science writer and astronomer. He resides in the United States. Perera was ... "Anura C. Perera launches book on Venus on the day of Venus transit" New age traffic solution: Think vertical! "මාව වෙනස් කළේ ... "Science writer and Astronomer Anura C Perera has made arrangements" Archived September 11, 2014, at the Wayback Machine ...
Foufopoulos, Johannes & Brown, Rafe M. (2004). "New frog of the genus Platymantis (Amphibia; Anura; Ranidae) from New Britain ...
Authorities disagree as to whether Salientia is a superorder that includes the order Anura, or whether Anura is a sub-order of ... The order Anura (from the Ancient Greek a(n)- meaning "without" and oura meaning "tail") comprises the frogs and toads. They ... Anura is divided into three suborders that are broadly accepted by the scientific community, but the relationships between some ... Duellman, W. E.; Zug, G. R. "Anura: From tadpole to adult". Encyclopædia Britannica. Archived from the original on November 2, ...
p. 8. Frost, Darrel R. (2017). "Anura". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of ...
Foufopoulos, Johannes; Brown, Rafe M. (2004). "New frog of the genus Platymantis (Amphibia; Anura; Ranidae) from New Britain ...
Bossuyt, F; Roelants, K (2009). Hedges, SB; Kumar, S (eds.). Anura. New York, USA: Oxford University Press. pp. 357-364. ...
Brown, Rafe M.; Foufopoulos, Johannes; Richards, Stephen J. (2006). "New Species of Platymantis (Amphibia; Anura; Ranidae) from ...
The Anura include all modern frogs and any fossil species that fit within the anuran definition. The characteristics of anuran ... The split between Anura and Caudata was estimated as taking place 292 million years ago, rather later than most molecular ... Foster, J. (2007). "Anura (Frogs)". Jurassic west: the dinosaurs of the Morrison Formation and their world. Indiana University ... Heinicke M. P.; Duellman, W. E.; Trueb, L.; Means, D. B.; MacCulloch, R. D.; Hedges, S. B. (2009). "A new frog family (Anura: ...
Frost, Darrel R. (2020). "Anura". Amphibian Species of the World: An Online Reference. Version 6.1. American Museum of Natural ... Rolando, Alexis M. Aranciaga; Agnolin, Federico L.; Corsolini, Julián (October 2019). "A new pipoid frog (Anura, Pipimorpha) ... Cannatella, David (11 January 2008). "Anura: Discussion of Phylogenetic Relationships (Pipimorpha)". Tree of Life Project. ... Anura)". Palaeobiodiversity and Palaeoenvironments. 92 (3): 367-395. doi:10.1007/s12549-012-0071-y. ISSN 1867-1594. S2CID ...
"A new species of Hypsiboas (Amphibia; Anura; Hylidae) from the Venezuelan Guayana, with notes on Hypsiboas sibleszi (Rivero ...
"The island of the giant wolf spiders". Anura. Retrieved 2016-02-02. O'Brien, John (2015-06-15). "Going the way of the dinosaurs ...
Anura may refer to: Anura (frog), the order for frogs Anura (plant), a genus of flowering plants in the daisy family Anura is a ... Sri Lankan cricketer Anura Rohana, Sri Lankan golfer Anura Tennekoon (born 1946), Sri Lankan cricketer Anura Wegodapola (born ... Sri Lankan politician Anura Kumara Dissanayaka (born 1968), Sri Lankan politician Anura Horatious, Sri Lankan novelist Anura C ... 1981), cricketer for Sri Lanka Navy Anura Priyadharshana Yapa (born 1959), Sri Lankan politician Anura, Varanasi, a village in ...
Anura, a pocket sized drone for consumers and it can conveniently travels with user whenever, wherever, 24/7. All it requires ... Anura, a pocket sized drone for consumers and it can conveniently travels with user whenever, wherever, 24/7. All it requires ... Anura--Pocket sized Drone Posted by Jason Lam on September 27, 2014 at 3:30pm ... is going to be a very strong market for micro quadcopters with decent FPV and photo capabilities and it looks like your Anura ...
Know Your Vote , Anura Fernando. 14 July 2020 09:00 am - 0 - {{hitsCtrl.values.hits}} ...
Ding G, Chen Z, Tang Y, Lin Z, felipe (2019). The advertisement call of Leptobrachella liui Fei and Ye, 1990 (Anura: ... The advertisement call of Leptobrachella liui Fei and Ye, 1990 (Anura: Megophryidae) Dataset homepage ... Anura: Megophryidae). Zootaxa 4576 (3): 588-590, DOI: Taxonomic Coverages. ...
From Senior Designer, Rachel Bishop, comes Anura, featuring an adventurous tree frog tucked amongst branches and flowers. Tree ...
Anura Ekanayake and Dinesh Weerakkody, as independent directors. Dr. Ekanayake ... Hemas appoints Anura Ekanayake, Dinesh Weerakkody as independent directors View(s): Hemas Holdings PLC this week announced the ... Hemas Holdings PLC this week announced the appointment of two top professionals, Anura Ekanayake and Dinesh Weerakkody, as ... appointment of two top professionals, Anura Ekanayake and Dinesh Weerakkody, as independent directors.. Dr. Ekanayake is a past ...
Anura, a cybersecurity solution, provides fraud detection with definitive results to improve your conversions by eliminating ... Anura. is built with. Anura. utilizes products like. Google, Facebook in their tech stack ... Anura. ?. Anura, a cybersecurity solution, provides fraud detection with definitive results to improve your conversions by ...
Professor of Electrical & Computer Engineering and Computer Science, Colorado State University - Cited by 4,128 - Communication Networks - VLSI Testing
Rediscovery of Atelopus subornatus Werner, 1899 (Anura: Bufonidae), with a redescription of the tadpole ...
Anura De Zoysa, University of Wollongong, AustraliaFollow. Corinne Cortese, University of Wollongong, Australia. ... Zhang, Yuqian; De Zoysa, Anura; and Cortese, Corinne, Uncertainty Expressions in Accounting: Critical Issues and ...
A new Amazonian species of Adenomera (Anura, Leptodactylidae) from the Brazilian state of Pará : a tody-tyrant voice in a frog ... A new Amazonian species of Adenomera (Anura, Leptodactylidae) from the Brazilian state of Pará : a tody-tyrant voice in a frog ...
Anura Confirms Commitment to Customer Protection by Successfully Completing Rigorous SOC 2 Audit ... Anura Solutions, LLC announces its successful completion of its SOC 2 Type 1 audit for 2023. This achievement demonstrates ... Anura Solutions, LLC announces its successful completion of its SOC 2 Type 1 audit for 2023 ... Anuras dedication to maintaining the highest standards of data security, operational excellence, and customer trust. ...
Reproductive notes and larval development of Macrogenioglottus alipioi (Anura: Odontophrynidae) from the northern Atlantic ... Anura: Odontophrynidae) from the northern Atlantic forest. Phyllomedusa: Journal of Herpetology, 21(2), 181-203. https://doi. ...
... Hagman, Mattias Universutyof Sydney. ...
Anura, Bufonidae) is a notorious, exotic amphibian species in Australia. However, our present knowledge of the composition of ... Anura: Microhylidae). Journal of Helminthology 96: . DOI: 10.1017/S0022149X22000517 ...
Bromeliad selection of Phyllodytes luteolus (Anura, Hylidae): the influence of plant structure and water quality factors. ... Bromeliad Selection of Phyllodytes Luteolus (Anura, Hylidae): The Influence of Plant Structure and Water Quality Factors ...
Advertisement calls of Limnonectes macrognathus (Anura: Dicroglossidae) and Leptobrachium smithi (Anura: Megophryidae), native ... Dasi Ong & Shahriza Shahrudin (2022). Advertisement calls of Limnonectes macrognathus (Anura: Dicroglossidae) and Leptobrachium ... smithi (Anura: Megophryidae), native frog species from Langkawi, Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia. Bioacoustics, Volume 31 (1): 81 - ...
... is one of the Popular Sri Lankan musician and singer ...
Anyone can make their own website with Jimdo -- easily and for free! Choose templates, click to customize, add content in just seconds. Its that simple ...
A password will be e-mailed to you ...
Anura Duméril, 1806 主要索引標籤. *概覽(作用中頁籤) ... 首頁 » Classification » Animalia » Amphibia » Anura - Duméril, ...
Hi Mister, We\re interested by this wonderful picture to illustrate our book on Coleoptera of the Geneva region. Is it possible to buy it? Thank very much for your answer, best regards, Céline Rochet. ...
Every day, Anura DAO and thousands of other voices read, write, and share important stories on Medium. ... Anura Presents: The Roast of…. The latest Anura NFT collection is quickly approaching. With critical Anura protocols set to ... Anura DAO: The Next Big Leap. Anura DAO is a community-focused organization with an ambitious vision of bringing decentralized ... Anura Finance. Developing stable and secure utilities for a better Web3. Anura is a governance-first decentralized autonomous ...
Illustrated evolutionary lineage of Anura Dumeril 1806.
The Greenspeed Anura is lightweight Delta style trike. ... Greenspeed Anura Recumbent Trike is ideal for people looking ... The Anura also offers a higher seat height making the rider more visible in traffic. The Anura is unique being that it has a ... 4. The Anura Quad is a quadricycle rather than a tricycle. While the narrowness of the Anura is very handy for getting through ... The Greenspeed Anura is an ideal tricycle for older people and people with special needs. Delta style tricycles like the Anura ...
Bones and All: a new critically endangered Pantepui species of Stefania (Anura: Hemiphractidae) and a new osteological ... Bones and All: a new critically endangered Pantepui species of Stefania (Anura: Hemiphractidae) and a new osteological ...
Known occurrences, collected specimens and observations of frogs and toads. View this species on GBIF ...
2021 by Anura Energy. All rights reserved.. We serve our clients and customers with the highest level of quality and integrity ... This program covers the main apps that you will use as a technician or member of the office staff at Anura Energy. Everything ... This feature is currently only available for Anura office staff. If you are a technician, please feel free to schedule time ...
At Anura, we do our best to focus on the productive side of things. Doing so can be difficult if were not informed on how to ... 2021 by Anura Energy. All rights reserved.. We serve our clients and customers with the highest level of quality and integrity ... This program covers the main apps that you will use as a technician or member of the office staff at Anura Energy. Everything ... QuickBooks Time is the app that Anura Energy uses to log employee hours. This course will cover the main functions of the app ...
  • This dataset contains the digitized treatments in Plazi based on the original journal article Pimenta, Bruno V. S., Faivovich, Julian, Pombal, José P. (2007): On the identity of Hyla strigilata Spix, 1824 (Anura: Hylidae): redescription and neotype designation for a " ghost " taxon. (
  • Pimenta, Bruno V. S., Faivovich, Julian, Pombal, José P. (2007): On the identity of Hyla strigilata Spix, 1824 (Anura: Hylidae): redescription and neotype designation for a " ghost " taxon. (
  • Bromeliad Selection of Phyllodytes Luteolus (Anura, Hylidae): The Infl" by Marcio M. Mageski, Rodrigo Barbosa Ferreira et al. (
  • Chan, K.O., Abraham, R.K. & Badli-Sham, B.H. (2020) A revision of the Asian tree toad complex Rentapia hosii (Anura: Bufonidae) with the description of a new species from Peninsular Malaysia. (
  • This dataset contains the digitized treatments in Plazi based on the original journal article Ding, Guo-Hua, Chen, Zhi-Qiang, Tang, Yun, Lin, Zhi-Hua (2019): The advertisement call of Leptobrachella liui Fei and Ye, 1990 (Anura: Megophryidae). (
  • A new Amazonian species of Adenomera (Anura, Leptodactylidae) from the Brazilian state of Pará : a tody-tyrant voice in a frog. (
  • From Senior Designer, Rachel Bishop, comes Anura, featuring an adventurous tree frog tucked amongst branches and flowers. (
  • Introducing the Anura Link Necklace, crafted with each individual frog delicately hand soldered into a unique chain. (
  • Anura also offers the most detailed analytics dashboard to provide proof of fraud. (
  • A value for Source will not be submitted, with (undefined) instead being shown in the Anura dashboard interface. (
  • If no value is entered into the Source Value field, (undefined) will instead be shown in the Anura dashboard interface. (
  • Result information will still be available within the Anura dashboard interface. (
  • 2017), 34 as critical endangered (CR), four as endangered (EN), two as vulnerable (VU), one species has data deficient (DD) and another one has not been evaluated. (
  • QuickBooks Time is the app that Anura Energy uses to log employee hours. (
  • Anura, a cybersecurity solution, provides fraud detection with definitive results to improve your conversions by eliminating bots, malware and human fraud. (
  • Anura takes our role in ad fraud detection very seriously. (
  • Anura can initialize a custom JavaScript callback function once a response has been returned. (
  • The Anura solution works to eliminate false positives by only marking visitors as fraudulent when it is 100% confident the visitor isn't real. (
  • Anura is an Ad Fraud solution designed to accurately eliminate fraud to improve conversion rates. (
  • Anura will give you a definitive answer to whether the visitor is real or fake so you can stop paying for what is fraudulent. (
  • With billions of analyzed clicks, client feedback, and a robust rule set, Anura has an extensive history of website generated traffic. (
  • This program covers the main apps that you will use as a technician or member of the office staff at Anura Energy. (
  • Anura Energy will provide a free in home energy assessment, install free energy and water saving devices and evaluate your home for additional energy efficiency and health & safety retrofit opportunities. (
  • Founded by husband-and-wife team, Rich and Beth Kahn, Anura is an ad fraud solution designed to improve campaign performance by accurately exposing bots, malware, and human fraud. (
  • Benchmarked against validated conversion data, Anura can ensure the accuracy and thoroughness of the solution. (
  • Anura was built as a necessity for our own marketing company that was overwhelmed by fraud. (
  • With the Anura for WordPress plugin, you can easily set up a real-time visitor firewall to keep the fraud off of your site. (
  • The Anura iSize car seat will accompany your baby from birth to 12 years of age. (
  • Today, the Business Intelligence Group named, Product of the Year in the 2022 Sales and Marketing Technology Awards program, also known as The Sammys. (
  • We are proud to reward and recognize for their innovation and dedication to helping both the organization using their technology and the ultimate consumer," said Maria Jimenez, Chief Nominations Officer, Business Intelligence Group. (
  • Anura iSize car seat adapts as the child grows, maintaining comfort and safety. (
  • If Anura returns a bad result, the visitor will be automatically redirected to the URL listed in the Redirect URL field. (
  • Enter your assigned Anura Instance ID in the field provided. (
  • Crisp, citrus acidity and well balanced palate, makes the Anura Pinot Gris the ideal aperitif or partner to oriental food and fresh canapes. (
  • Hemas Holdings PLC this week announced the appointment of two top professionals, Anura Ekanayake and Dinesh Weerakkody, as independent directors. (