The horn of an animal of the deer family, typically present only in the male. It differs from the HORNS of other animals in being a solid, generally branched bony outgrowth that is shed and renewed annually. The word antler comes from the Latin anteocularis, ante (before) + oculus (eye). (From Webster, 3d ed)
The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)
'Horns' is not a term used in medical terminology; however, in a general context, it may refer to abnormal bony growths arising from the skull, which can be caused by various conditions such as tumors, cysts, or genetic disorders.
A genus of deer, Rangifer, that inhabits the northern parts of Europe, Asia, and America. Caribou is the North American name; reindeer, the European. They are often domesticated and used, especially in Lapland, for drawing sleds and as a source of food. Rangifer is the only genus of the deer family in which both sexes are antlered. Most caribou inhabit arctic tundra and surrounding arboreal coniferous forests and most have seasonal shifts in migration. They are hunted extensively for their meat, skin, antlers, and other parts. (From Webster, 3d ed; Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1397)
A thioxanthene with therapeutic actions similar to the phenothiazine antipsychotics. It is an antagonist at D1 and D2 dopamine receptors.
Thin outer membrane that surrounds a bone. It contains CONNECTIVE TISSUE, CAPILLARIES, nerves, and a number of cell types.
Profound stupor produced by passing an electric current through the brain.
An agent with anti-androgen and progestational properties. It shows competitive binding with dihydrotestosterone at androgen receptor sites.

Hard fallow deer antler: a living bone till antler casting? (1/92)

Deer antlers are the only mammalian bone structures which regenerate completely every year. Once developed, antlers are cleaned of the velvet-like skin. Presently it is believed that due to velvet shedding the blood supply is interrupted in the solidifying antler bone. Histological examinations were made on different parts of fallow deer antlers investigated from the time of velvet shedding till the antler casting. The present study on hard (polished) antlers revealed living bone with regions presenting living osteocytes, active osteoblasts, osteoid seams and even early stages of trabecular microcallus formation, thus indicating to a continuous bone remodeling. A well developed vascular system was found despite the presence of hard antler bone. The pedicle bone exhibits a rich supply of capillaries and vessels connected to the spongy core of the main branch and the compact bone as well. There is evidence that hard fallow deer antlers possess a functioning vascular system that "keeps the antler moist" resulting in a high impact resistance when fights are most frequent. As late as 3 weeks prior to antler casting a large number of living cells were discovered within the antler core. As we have no doubt that parts of the polished fallow deer antler represent a living bone, we have concluded that a sufficient blood supply of the antler core is maintained almost till the time of antler casting by vessels passing through the antler base.  (+info)

Role of oestradiol in the regulation of the seasonal antler cycle in female reindeer, Rangifer tarandus. (2/92)

Reindeer (or caribou), Rangifer tarandus, is the only extant species of deer in which females as well as males normally develop antlers that are cast and regrown each year. This study investigated the role of ovarian oestradiol in the regulation of the seasonal antler cycle in female reindeer. Ovariectomized Norwegian reindeer living outdoors in northern Norway (69 degrees N) were treated with continuous-release subcutaneous Silastic implants containing oestradiol, which maintained the blood concentrations of oestradiol within the physiological range for the mating season from June to October-November. The treatment with oestradiol induced the synchronized maturation of the antlers and rapid cleaning of the velvet-like skin in August-September in the ovariectomized reindeer, a pattern very similar to that observed in ovary-intact controls living under the same conditions. The removal of the steroid implant in October-November caused the premature casting of the antlers in early winter in two of five animals, while the remainder cast at the normal time in spring; this response was seen whether the animals had received one or two oestradiol implants in autumn. The antlers developed by the ovariectomized, oestradiol-treated females were significantly heavier and carried more branches than the ovariectomized animals without oestradiol replacement, and were marginally heavier than the antlers of intact controls. These results support the view that oestradiol is the biologically active steroid secreted by the ovary in intact female reindeers that induces the normal development of the antlers. Oestradiol stimulates the growth and mineralization of the antler bone, the cleaning of the velvet, and suppresses the casting of the hard antlers. This endocrine control ensures that the hard antlers, which function as weapons, are retained throughout the autumn and winter when the females are normally pregnant and when competition between females over food in the snow is most intense; hence there is a reproductive advantage to explain the evolution of antlers in females.  (+info)

Velvet antler polypeptides promoted proliferation of chondrocytes and osteoblast precursors and fracture healing. (3/92)

AIM: To study the effects of velvet antler (VA) total polypeptides (VATP) and VA polypeptides, VAP-A, VAP-B, and VAP-C on proliferation of chondrocytes and osteoblast precusors. METHODS: Chondrocytes (rabbit and human fetus) and osteoblast precusors (chick embryo) were incubated in the culture medium containing VATP or VAP-A, VAP-B, and VAP-C. [3H]TdR incorporation into DNA was measured. Fracture healing-promoting action of VATP was determined in rats. RESULTS: VATP 50-200 mg.L-1 and VAP-B 12.5, 25, and 50 mg.L-1 showed most marked proliferation-promoting activity for rabbit costed chondrocytes and increased incorporation of [3H]TdR from (73 +/- 9) Bq (control group) to (272 +/- 55), (327 +/- 38), and (415 +/- 32) Bq, respectively (P < 0.01). The activity of VAP-A was weaker than that of VAP-B, and VAP-C had no activity. VATP 10 and 20 mg.kg-1 by local injection into the cross-section fracture area accelerated healing of radial fracture. The healing rate of VATP-treated group was higher (75%) than that of control group (25%) (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: VATP accelerated fracture healing by stimulating proliferation of chondrocytes and osteoblast precursors.  (+info)

Bone turnover associated with antler growth in red deer (Cervus elaphus). (4/92)

Although it is known that skeletal bone depletion occurs during antler growth in deer, it is not clear whether repletion of the skeleton takes place before or after completion of antler development. This study attempted to correlate repeated scanning electron microscopic measures of ilium and rib bone porosity from six approximately 2-monthly biopsy samples (using back-scattered imaging) and biochemical markers of bone turnover (serum hydroxyproline and osteocalcin concentrations) taken for 11 months with antler growth in six red deer stags. No changes were detected in ilium samples but changes in porosity of rib bones and an elevation of the biochemical markers indicated that skeletal depletion occurred during the antler growth period. However, the decrease in rib bone porosity and decline in markers of bone turnover took place before completion of antler growth, indicating that a considerable amount of skeletal repletion could have occurred whilst antlers were also undergoing bone accretion. This latter finding extends the current view of antler growth being accompanied by a form of reversible osteoporosis in the skeleton by showing that there is a period when the antlers and skeleton are both undergoing net bone formation.  (+info)

Cyproterone acetate reduced antler growth in surgically castrated fallow deer. (5/92)

We studied the role of androgens in antler growth. In particular, we investigated whether the onset of antler regrowth is triggered by a short-term pulse of testosterone and if low levels of androgens are required for antler growth. The study was conducted on 12 surgically castrated fallow deer bucks (Dama dama) aged approximately 27 months. Six animals (CA group) were given the antiandrogen, cyproterone acetate (CA, 1000 mg/treatment); the others were given vehicle solution only (control). Before each CA treatment, blood was sampled and analysed for testosterone, androstenedione, IGF-1, cortisol, FSH, and LH. CA treatment and blood sampling were performed 2 days before castration, on the day of castration and afterwards at 2-day intervals until day 22. Subsequently, CA treatment and blood sampling continued at weekly intervals until day 270. All animals cast their antlers, followed by antler regrowth in all control bucks, but in only four of the six CA-treated castrates. Plasma testosterone concentrations were low in all animals (between 0.01 and 0.20 ng/ml), but were significantly (P<0001) greater in the controls. In both groups, a temporary increase in testosterone values was recorded around the time of antler regrowth, the peak being significantly (P<0.01) higher in the controls. Androstenedione showed a similar pattern as testosterone. Plasma IGF-1 concentrations increased sharply during the antler growth spurt and did not differ significantly between the two groups throughout the study period. Cortisol concentrations were greater in controls than in the CA group. However, no link with the antler cycle was apparent. FSH and LH concentrations were higher in the controls for most of the study. Antlers produced by the control bucks were significantly larger than those in the CA group (P<0.03). For antler length, testosterone, androstenedione and IGF-1, areas under the curve (AUC) were calculated over the period of antler growth. For the pooled deer (n=12) significant correlations existed between AUCs of antler length and testosterone, but not for antler length and IGF-1. Also, a trend for a positive correlation between AUCs of antler length and androstenedione was noted. It is concluded that a plasma androgen concentration at least above a minimal threshold level is a necessary prerequisite for normal antler regrowth in fallow deer, and that this androgen effect is not mediated via circulating IGF-1. The biological role of low levels of androgens may be to sensitize antler cells to the stimulating effect of IGF.  (+info)

Structure and mineralisation density of antler and pedicle bone in red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) exposed to different levels of environmental fluoride: a quantitative backscattered electron imaging study. (6/92)

The structure and relative degree of mineralisation of antler and pedicle bone of yearling red deer stags exposed either to low or high levels of environmental fluoride were determined by digital quantitative backscattered electron (BSE) imaging. Bone fluoride content (BFC) in antlers (845 +/- 86 mg F-/kg ash, arithmetic mean +/- S.E.M.) and pedicles (1448 +/- 154 mg F-/kg ash) of deer from a highly fluoride polluted area in North Bohemia (Czech Republic) were significantly higher (P < 0.001) than those of controls from uncontaminated regions in West Germany (antlers: 206 +/- 41, pedicles: 322 +/- 52 mg F-/kg ash). Mean (56.5 +/- 4.5%) and maximum (84.9 +/- 2.1%) mineralised bone area of the control antlers significantly (P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively) exceeded the corresponding values for the N. Bohemian deer (43.3 +/- 1.3 and 73.3 +/- 1.9%, respectively), while the pedicles from the 2 groups did not differ significantly. In the pooled antler samples (n = 18), negative correlations existed between BFC and mean (r(s) = -0.62, P < 0.01) as well as maximum (r(s) = -0.69, P < 0.01) mineralised bone area. Morphological imaging revealed a decreased width and an increased porosity of the antler cortex in the N. Bohemian specimens. Mean (148.5 +/- 1.7) and maximum (154.2 +/- 1.7) BSE-signal intensities (= grey levels; range between a monobrominated (grey level 0) and a monoiodinated (grey level 255) dimethacrylate resin standard) of the antlers from the controls were significantly higher than those of the N. Bohemian deer (140.7 +/- 2.1 and 145.7 +/- 2.2, respectively; P < 0.05 for both comparisons). In the pooled antler samples, negative correlations between BFC and mean (r(s) = -0.51, P < 0.05) as well as maximum (r(s) = -0.52, P < 0.05) BSE-signal intensities were observed. No significant differences in mineralisation density parameters were found for the 2 pedicle samples, and BFC and mineralisation density of the pooled pedicles were uncorrelated. Morphological imaging revealed bone mottling (denoting increased remodelling activity) and frequent occurrence of apparently increased osteocyte lacunae in some of the pedicles from the N. Bohemian deer. It is concluded that the reduced amount of mineralised bone in, and the lower mineralisation density of, the N. Bohemian antlers resulted from a fluoride induced disturbance of bone mineralisation. The rapid growth of antlers leads both to a high mineral demand and a high rate of fluoride uptake during antlerogenesis. This, and the limited lifespan of antlers, which does not allow for a compensation of a delay in the onset or progression of the mineralisation process, renders antler bone particularly susceptible to fluoride. Antlers are therefore considered a useful model for studying fluoride effects on bone formation. Furthermore, analysis of cast antlers enables a noninvasive monitoring of environmental pollution by fluorides.  (+info)

Histological studies of pedicle skin formation and its transformation to antler velvet in red deer (Cervus elaphus). (7/92)

Deer antlers and their antecedent pedicles are made up of two components, interior osseocartilage and exterior integument. In a previous study, we described that histogenesis of the interior osseocartilage proceeds through four ossification stages. These are intramembranous (IMO), transition (OPC), pedicle endochondral (pECO), and antler endochondral (aECO). In the present study, we used histological techniques to examine pedicle skin formation and its transformation to antler velvet. The results showed that pedicle skin initiated from the apex of a frontal lateral crest and was formed through three distinctive stages. These stages are 1) compression of the subcutaneous loose connective tissue at the OPC stage, 2) stretching of the undulated epidermis at the early pECO stage, and 3) neogenesis of the skin and its associated appendages at the mid pECO stage. Transformation into antler velvet, which occurs at the late pECO stage, is mainly associated with alteration in the skin appendages. This alteration includes the loss of arrector pili muscle and sweat glands, and the gain of the large bi- or multi-lobed sebaceous glands. These results suggest that pedicle skin expansion occurs to release the mechanical tension created by underlying forming antlerogenic tissue, initially in response to it by mechanical stretch, and then by neogenesis of skin. In turn, the stretched pedicle skin may exert mechanical pressure on the underlying antlerogenic tissue causing it to change in ossification type. Antler velvet generation may be accomplished by both mechanical stimulation and chemical induction from the underlying pECO stage antlerogenic tissue. If this hypothesis is correct it is likely that mechanical stimulation would drive skin formation and chemical induction then determine skin type. Furthermore, asynchronous transformation of the interior and exterior components during pedicle formation and antler generation may result from the delayed chemical induction and the way antler velvet initially generates. The results from both mitotic cell labelling of the basal layer and ultrastructure of the basement membrane of the apical skin in the study support these hypotheses.  (+info)

Cells in regenerating deer antler cartilage provide a microenvironment that supports osteoclast differentiation. (8/92)

Deer antlers are a rare example of mammalian epimorphic regeneration. Each year, the antlers re-grow by a modified endochondral ossification process that involves extensive remodelling of cartilage by osteoclasts. This study identified regenerating antler cartilage as a site of osteoclastogenesis in vivo. An in vitro model was then developed to study antler osteoclast differentiation. Cultured as a high-density micromass, cells from non-mineralised cartilage supported the differentiation of large numbers of osteoclast-like multinucleated cells (MNCs) in the absence of factors normally required for osteoclastogenesis. After 48 h of culture, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive mononuclear cells (osteoclast precursors) were visible, and by day 14 a large number of TRAP-positive MNCs had formed (783+/-200 per well, mean +/- s.e.m., N=4). Reverse transcriptase/polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) showed that receptor activator of NF &kgr; B ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) mRNAs were expressed in micromass cultures. Antler MNCs have the phenotype of osteoclasts from mammalian bone; they expressed TRAP, vitronectin and calcitonin receptors and, when cultured on dentine, formed F-actin rings and large resorption pits. When cultured on glass, antler MNCs appeared to digest the matrix of the micromass and endocytose type I collagen. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) may play a role in the resorption of this non-mineralised matrix since it is highly expressed in 100 % of MNCs. In contrast, cathepsin K, another enzyme expressed in osteoclasts from bone, is only highly expressed in resorbing MNCs cultured on dentine. This study identifies the deer antler as a valuable model that can be used to study the differentiation and function of osteoclasts in adult regenerating mineralised tissues.  (+info)

Antlers are defined in medical terminology as the continuously growing, branched bony appendages that arise from the skull of members of the Cervidae family, which includes deer, elk, and moose. Antler growth and development are unique to this group of animals and are under the control of hormones and genetics. They serve as a means of defense, dominance display, and sexual selection.

During the growth phase, antlers are covered with highly vascular skin called "velvet," which provides nutrients for the rapid growth of bone. Once growth is complete, typically in late summer, the velvet is shed, revealing the hard, bony antler structure. The antlers are then used by males during the mating season as a tool to compete for females and establish dominance hierarchies.

In some species, only males grow antlers, while in others, both males and females develop them. After the mating season, the animals shed their antlers, which regenerate the following year. The study of antlers is known as palynology.

I apologize for any confusion, but "deer" is not a medical term. It is a common name used to refer to various species of hooved mammals belonging to the family Cervidae. If you have any questions about medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help answer them.

I am not aware of a medical condition called "horns." The term "horns" is commonly used to refer to a hard, pointed projection on the head of certain animals, such as cattle or antelopes. In humans, abnormal growths that resemble horns are usually referred to as "cutaneous horns," which are benign or malignant skin tumors that protrude from the skin in a conical shape. They typically occur on sun-exposed areas of the body, such as the face and scalp. However, it's important to note that medical conditions can vary widely, and it's always best to consult with a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and treatment options.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "reindeer" is not a medical term. It is a large species of deer that is native to the Arctic and Subarctic regions of Europe, Siberia, and Greenland. They are known for their impressive antlers and their ability to survive in harsh, cold climates. If you have any questions about medical terminology or health-related topics, I'd be happy to try to help!

Clopenthixol is a type of antipsychotic medication that is primarily used to manage and treat symptoms associated with various mental health disorders, such as schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. It belongs to a class of drugs known as "typical" or "first-generation" antipsychotics, which work by blocking dopamine receptors in the brain.

Clopenthixol has potent activity at both dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT2 receptors, which contributes to its efficacy in treating positive symptoms of schizophrenia, such as hallucinations and delusions, as well as negative symptoms, like apathy and social withdrawal. It is also used off-label for the treatment of agitation and aggression in individuals with dementia or intellectual disabilities.

The medication is available in two forms: immediate-release tablets (Clopenthixol decanoate) and a long-acting injectable form (Clopenthixol decanoate). The long-acting injection is typically administered every 2-4 weeks, while the oral tablet is taken daily.

Like all medications, clopenthixol can have side effects, which may include extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), such as Parkinsonism, akathisia, and dystonia; weight gain; metabolic changes; sexual dysfunction; and cardiovascular issues. It is essential to monitor patients taking clopenthixol for these potential adverse effects and adjust the treatment plan accordingly.

It's important to note that clopenthixol should only be prescribed and administered under the supervision of a qualified healthcare professional, and patients should follow their instructions carefully to ensure safe and effective use.

The periosteum is a highly vascularized and innervated tissue that surrounds the outer surface of bones, except at the articular surfaces. It consists of two layers: an outer fibrous layer containing blood vessels, nerves, and fibroblasts; and an inner cellular layer called the cambium or osteogenic layer, which contains progenitor cells capable of bone formation and repair.

The periosteum plays a crucial role in bone growth, remodeling, and healing by providing a source of osteoprogenitor cells and blood supply. It also contributes to the sensation of pain in response to injury or inflammation of the bone. Additionally, the periosteum can respond to mechanical stress by activating bone formation, making it an essential component in orthopedic treatments such as distraction osteogenesis.

Electronarcosis is a term that refers to the use of high-frequency electric currents to induce a state of unconsciousness or narcosis. It was an experimental medical procedure that was studied in the early 20th century as a possible method for surgical anesthesia. However, it is no longer in use today due to the development of safer and more effective anesthetic drugs.

During electronarcosis, electrodes were placed on the patient's skin, and a high-frequency alternating current was passed through the body. The current would cause a loss of consciousness by interfering with the electrical activity of the brain. However, this method of anesthesia had several drawbacks, including the risk of burns, muscle contractions, and other injuries caused by the electric current.

While electronarcosis is not used in modern medicine, high-frequency electrical stimulation is still used in some medical treatments, such as transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) for pain relief and electromagnetic brain stimulation for the treatment of depression and other mental health disorders.

Cyproterone acetate is a synthetic steroid hormone with anti-androgen and progestogenic properties. It works by blocking the action of androgens (male sex hormones) in the body, which helps to reduce symptoms associated with excessive androgen production such as severe acne or hirsutism (excessive hair growth).

Cyproterone acetate is used in the treatment of conditions such as prostate cancer, where it can help to slow the growth of cancer cells by reducing the levels of androgens in the body. It is also used in the treatment of sexual deviations, such as pedophilia or exhibitionism, as it can reduce sexual desire.

In addition, cyproterone acetate is sometimes used in combination with estrogen in hormone replacement therapy for transgender women to suppress the production of testosterone and promote feminization.

It's important to note that cyproterone acetate can have significant side effects and its use should be under the close supervision of a healthcare professional.

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Antlers is an unincorporated community in Garfield County, in the U.S. state of Colorado. A post office called Antlers was in ... The community derives its name from the Antlers Hotel (Colorado). U.S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System: ... Antlers, Colorado "Post offices". Jim Forte Postal History. Archived from the original on March 6, 2016. Retrieved June 22, ...
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  • Growth of antlers is very rapid and some deer are capable of growing nearly 1 inch of antler per day. (bowhunting.net)
  • A family trip to Alaska, a lot of time in a van and unexpected lessons on deer antler aka Lu Rong. (pacherbs.com)
  • Admittedly, I had an ulterior motive, I wanted to learn about Lu Rong, deer antlers, from a true source, and this was a golden opportunity I couldn't miss. (pacherbs.com)
  • In Chinese Medicine , the deer antler also known as Lu Rong is a prized and highly sought after commodity. (pacherbs.com)
  • Deer antler has been used for hundreds of years for health and longevity and is considered a yang tonic in Chinese Herbal Medicine . (pacherbs.com)
  • Reindeer antlers our one source of antlers however much more commonly used is the smaller breed of Red Deer. (pacherbs.com)
  • Today the most expensive deer antler is harvested in New Zealand but Alaska is also a source and prices range anywhere from $100.00 for a 100 gram bottle of granules to $500.00, quality can vary widely. (pacherbs.com)
  • There is a tremendous amount of blood flow to the antlers which supports this growth and there is a correlation between the head being the most Yang part of the body, the antlers growing from the top of the head and deer antlers categorized as a yang tonic. (pacherbs.com)
  • Eskimos have used deer antler soup for it's internal warming (yang) properties for as long as anyone can document. (pacherbs.com)
  • We could pet the deer anywhere else exception being, the antlers. (pacherbs.com)
  • deer antlers, whether reindeer or red deer are not so easy to harvest. (pacherbs.com)
  • The antlers die naturally every year and either fall off or are broken when the deer fight. (pacherbs.com)
  • But, deer antlers are harvested when there is still blood flow to them, best when the tips are still rounded which means they are still growing. (pacherbs.com)
  • If just touching an antler can make the deer skittish what do you thinking cutting off an antler would do to the deer? (pacherbs.com)
  • This was the moment I decided no matter how much can be earned from deer antlers I could never be part of that industry. (pacherbs.com)
  • To be fair, I am told that many people who raise deer exclusively for their antlers as a Chinese medicinal , use a veterinarian to perform the sawing off operation. (pacherbs.com)
  • If you have ever seen slices of deer antler the highest grade are red in the middle, from the blood flow. (pacherbs.com)
  • Bioassays in Tg mice expressing deer prion protein (PrP) ( 4 ) and newly created Tg mice expressing elk PrP, demonstrated low levels of CWD prions in antler velvet. (cdc.gov)
  • The magnificent antlers of the deer family Cervidae represent one of the classic examples of evolution of an exaggerated character through sexual selection. (lu.se)
  • Empirical evidence widely suggests that deer antlers are evolved and maintained through fitness benefit of males wearing large antlers for access to better resources and mating opportunities. (lu.se)
  • It remains unexplained, however, why different species of deer have different kinds of antlers. (lu.se)
  • The Red Deer wears pointy and elongated antlers while the antler of Fallow Deer and Moose is palmated. (lu.se)
  • Our main idea is to revisit the ecological hypothesis of deer antler evolution, which posits that the shape of antler reflects its function. (lu.se)
  • This project will include (1) visits to museums to obtain additional antler images, (2) rendering of 3D photogrammetric objects from images obtained at museums, (3) acquition of ecological and life-history data through literature survey, (4) analyses of phenotypic data with phylogenetic comparative analyses in R statistical environment, and (5) evaluation of obtained results with respect to existing literature on deer antler evolution. (lu.se)
  • Deer velvet covers the growing bone and cartilage that becomes deer antlers. (medlineplus.gov)
  • aminobutyric acid and sialic acid in fermented deer antler velvet and immune promoting effects. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Deer Velvet Antler Extracts Exert Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Arthritic Effects on Human Rheumatoid Arthritis Fibroblast-Like Synoviocytes and Distinct Mouse Arthritis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Zhang P, Guo Z, Ma L, Wang G, Zhao Y. Investigation of anti-fatigue effect and simultaneous determination of eight nucleosides in different parts of velvet antler in red deer and sika deer. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Brett Petersen] The main purpose of most deer farms is to raise deer for hunting preserves, and so these deer are often bred to have large antlers to make them appealing to hunters. (cdc.gov)
  • But there are also many other products that can be made from deer, such as venison meat, deer skins or hides, deer urine, which can be used as an attractant for hunting, and even velvet antlers which are used in traditional Chinese medicine. (cdc.gov)
  • I've always been fascinated by antler regeneration in deer, moose, and elk. (lu.se)
  • They look a bit like serrated rabbit ears or moose antlers too, depending upon how much you have had to drink. (rustyzipper.com)
  • During this time, the soft growing antler is covered with velvet. (bowhunting.net)
  • When antlers are in the velvet stage they are full of thousands of blood vessels, cartilage and nervous tissue. (bowhunting.net)
  • Velvet antlers are high in water and low in dry matter. (bowhunting.net)
  • In fact, males who commonly fight each other will not touch one another while their antlers are in velvet, a growth stage named for the velvet like fur on the antlers. (pacherbs.com)
  • Our guides explained they would never harvest antlers while in velvet because it would be like cutting off one of your fingers. (pacherbs.com)
  • To explore the means by which prions are transmitted with high efficiency among cervids, we examined prion infectivity in the apical skin layer covering the growing antler (antler velvet) by using CWD-susceptible transgenic mice and protein misfolding cyclic amplification. (cdc.gov)
  • Our finding of prions in antler velvet of CWD-affected elk suggests that this tissue may play a role in disease transmission among cervids. (cdc.gov)
  • Humans who consume antler velvet as a nutritional supplement are at risk for exposure to prions. (cdc.gov)
  • Growing antlers of male cervids are covered by a highly innervated and vascularized apical skin layer, referred to as velvet, which is shed after an increase in testosterone and ossification of antlers. (cdc.gov)
  • We used CWD-susceptible transgenic (Tg) mice as a sensitive means to detect prions in antler velvet. (cdc.gov)
  • Efficacy of Chinese herbal prescriptions containing Ejiao or Velvet antler for management of uterine fibroids: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Once the antlers are cut the deer's head is wrapped in bandages and something is given to reduce the bleeding at the site. (pacherbs.com)
  • A large, so-called staghorn (because of its many projections that resemble a deer's antlers) stone may fill almost the entire renal pelvis (the central collecting chamber of the kidney) and the tubes that drain into it (calyces). (msdmanuals.com)
  • Renowned for its friendly atmosphere and responsive concierge staff, the Antlers at Vail is located just 150 yards away from the Vail gondola and Ski School. (ski.com)
  • Should you like personal recommendations, your Antlers reservations agent also doubles as your concierge and is happy to assist you in planning most details of your Vail vacation. (antlersvail.com)
  • Our Elk Antlers are naturally shed from roaming elks. (vitacost.com)
  • If the antlers were used once they are naturally shed by the animals, that would be different. (pacherbs.com)
  • The antler is truly an limb extension of the animal. (pacherbs.com)
  • After doing a PhD in Immunology, I felt I needed to jump headfirst into the field of regeneration and that limb regeneration was almost as interesting as antler regeneration, but I could have a lab was manipulating the system experimentally. (lu.se)
  • Antlers of species inhabiting Asian Rainforests ( Muitiacus ) and the Andes of Latin America ( Pudu ) are puny. (lu.se)
  • As the baseline, we have data of antler volume, mass, and surface area obtained from 3D surface images for over 70 species/subspecies of extant species and 3 species of extinct species including the magnificent Irish Elk ( Megaloceros giganteus ). (lu.se)
  • In this response antlers begin to grow with the aid of high protein diets found on your property. (bowhunting.net)
  • Antlers are composed of 80% crude protein, and 20% ash, 22% calcium, 11% phosphorus. (bowhunting.net)
  • Antler Physiology is a big break though to understanding growth. (bowhunting.net)
  • Antlers are always harvested when they are at the height of the growth stage. (pacherbs.com)
  • Antler abnormalities are Pedicle injuries, Main beam injuries, and Body Injuries. (bowhunting.net)
  • Let's talk a bit on antler development. (bowhunting.net)
  • For more information on the development of Operation Black Antler, read both a blog by Matt Adams (one of the Blast Theory artists) and Jem Wall's (Artistic Director of Hydrocracker) post on the reasons for making the piece. (brightonfestival.org)
  • There is no better way for your horse to show some holiday spirit than with these festive antlers! (equestriancollections.com)
  • After that you can cover the antler with clay one more time and sand it when clay dries. (shelterness.com)
  • But by the time the antlers are naturally falling off they are dead, no blood flow no nerve endings. (pacherbs.com)
  • The community derives its name from the Antlers Hotel (Colorado). (wikipedia.org)
  • The idea is to sand the branch, sharp its tips, cover its entire surface with clay and shape the antler using foil paper. (shelterness.com)
  • You can make plenty of cool things of such branches including faux antlers. (shelterness.com)
  • I now hear guys talking in terms of the bucks age rather than his antler points. (huntingnet.com)
  • Made with felt and accented with a white fleece border, these antlers slip through most headstalls or halters to fit over two ears. (equestriancollections.com)
  • It's also been pretty well proven by extensive research that young bucks with smaller antlers are not inferior genetically but it's more likely that they were born later in their first year than the better racked young bucks. (huntingnet.com)
  • Antlers Public Schools is a public school district in Oklahoma. (donorschoose.org)
  • Antlers Public Schools has received support from 70 individuals from Oklahoma and 32 individuals out-of-state . (donorschoose.org)
  • Bugs getting under the hairy like membrane from a scratch found on the antler causing holes or other obstructions. (bowhunting.net)
  • Wow, I had no idea the antlers were so sensitive. (pacherbs.com)
  • The antlers are extremely sensitive when they are growing and just touching the velvety soft exterior, especially at the tips, could freak out the animal and be dangerous for us. (pacherbs.com)
  • Antlers is an unincorporated community in Garfield County, in the U.S. state of Colorado. (wikipedia.org)
  • Operation Black Antler is an immersive theatre piece by four-times BAFTA nominated artists' group Blast Theory and critically-acclaimed immersive theatre company Hydrocracker that invites you to enter the murky world of undercover surveillance and question the morality of state-sanctioned spying. (brightonfestival.org)
  • Weve been killing nice bucks in NY for years and years without antler restrictions. (huntingnet.com)
  • Such antlers are perfect decorations for fall and winter so don't hesitate to try this project out. (shelterness.com)
  • Soft Touch Reindeer Antlers- Unisex Brown fake fur antler christmas headband hat. (rustyzipper.com)