Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Acyclovir: A GUANOSINE analog that acts as an antimetabolite. Viruses are especially susceptible. Used especially against herpes.Organophosphonates: Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.Rimantadine: An RNA synthesis inhibitor that is used as an antiviral agent in the prophylaxis and treatment of influenza.Drug Resistance, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.Amantadine: An antiviral that is used in the prophylactic or symptomatic treatment of influenza A. It is also used as an antiparkinsonian agent, to treat extrapyramidal reactions, and for postherpetic neuralgia. The mechanisms of its effects in movement disorders are not well understood but probably reflect an increase in synthesis and release of dopamine, with perhaps some inhibition of dopamine uptake.Trifluridine: An antiviral derivative of THYMIDINE used mainly in the treatment of primary keratoconjunctivitis and recurrent epithelial keratitis due to HERPES SIMPLEX virus. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p557)Oseltamivir: An acetamido cyclohexene that is a structural homolog of SIALIC ACID and inhibits NEURAMINIDASE.Viral Plaque Assay: Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.Interferons: Proteins secreted by vertebrate cells in response to a wide variety of inducers. They confer resistance against many different viruses, inhibit proliferation of normal and malignant cells, impede multiplication of intracellular parasites, enhance macrophage and granulocyte phagocytosis, augment natural killer cell activity, and show several other immunomodulatory functions.Nucleosides: Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.Ribavirin: A nucleoside antimetabolite antiviral agent that blocks nucleic acid synthesis and is used against both RNA and DNA viruses.Zanamivir: A guanido-neuraminic acid that is used to inhibit NEURAMINIDASE.Ganciclovir: An ACYCLOVIR analog that is a potent inhibitor of the Herpesvirus family including cytomegalovirus. Ganciclovir is used to treat complications from AIDS-associated cytomegalovirus infections.Hepacivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Cytosine: A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.Vero Cells: A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.Virus Diseases: A general term for diseases produced by viruses.Foscarnet: An antiviral agent used in the treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis. Foscarnet also shows activity against human herpesviruses and HIV.Prodrugs: A compound that, on administration, must undergo chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming the pharmacologically active drug for which it is a prodrug.Interferon-alpha: One of the type I interferons produced by peripheral blood leukocytes or lymphoblastoid cells. In addition to antiviral activity, it activates NATURAL KILLER CELLS and B-LYMPHOCYTES, and down-regulates VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR expression through PI-3 KINASE and MAPK KINASES signaling pathways.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Idoxuridine: An analog of DEOXYURIDINE that inhibits viral DNA synthesis. The drug is used as an antiviral agent.Cytomegalovirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.Zalcitabine: A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by a hydrogen. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication at low concentrations, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA by binding to reverse transcriptase. Its principal toxic side effect is axonal degeneration resulting in peripheral neuropathy.Organophosphorus Compounds: Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Simplexvirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.Ribonucleosides: Nucleosides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)Viruses: Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.Adenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.2-Aminopurine: A purine that is an isomer of ADENINE (6-aminopurine).Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.Influenza B virus: Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.Influenza A virus: The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.Post-Exposure Prophylaxis: The prevention of infection or disease following exposure to a pathogen.Orthomyxoviridae: A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.Hepatitis B virus: The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.Herpes Simplex: A group of acute infections caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 that is characterized by the development of one or more small fluid-filled vesicles with a raised erythematous base on the skin or mucous membrane. It occurs as a primary infection or recurs due to a reactivation of a latent infection. (Dorland, 27th ed.)Zidovudine: A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.Lamivudine: A reverse transcriptase inhibitor and ZALCITABINE analog in which a sulfur atom replaces the 3' carbon of the pentose ring. It is used to treat HIV disease.Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors: Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.PyransViral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Inhibitory Concentration 50: The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.Cytomegalovirus Infections: Infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS, characterized by enlarged cells bearing intranuclear inclusions. Infection may be in almost any organ, but the salivary glands are the most common site in children, as are the lungs in adults.Hepatitis B, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS B VIRUS lasting six months or more. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Viral Nonstructural Proteins: Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.Hepatitis C, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans that is caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS lasting six months or more. Chronic hepatitis C can lead to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.HIV: Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.Herpesvirus 1, Human: The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.Arabinonucleotides: Nucleotides containing arabinose as their sugar moiety.Vidarabine Phosphate: An adenosine monophosphate analog in which ribose is replaced by an arabinose moiety. It is the monophosphate ester of VIDARABINE with antiviral and possibly antineoplastic properties.Interferon Type I: Interferon secreted by leukocytes, fibroblasts, or lymphoblasts in response to viruses or interferon inducers other than mitogens, antigens, or allo-antigens. They include alpha- and beta-interferons (INTERFERON-ALPHA and INTERFERON-BETA).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Arabinofuranosyluracil: A pyrimidine nucleoside formed in the body by the deamination of CYTARABINE.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Virus Internalization: The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Vidarabine: A nucleoside antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces antibioticus. It has some antineoplastic properties and has broad spectrum activity against DNA viruses in cell cultures and significant antiviral activity against infections caused by a variety of viruses such as the herpes viruses, the VACCINIA VIRUS and varicella zoster virus.Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral: Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.Herpesviridae: A family of enveloped, linear, double-stranded DNA viruses infecting a wide variety of animals. Subfamilies, based on biological characteristics, include: ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE; BETAHERPESVIRINAE; and GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE.Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Neuraminidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Herpesvirus 2, Human: A species of SIMPLEXVIRUS associated with genital infections (HERPES GENITALIS). It is transmitted by sexual intercourse and close personal contact.Drug Design: The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Enterovirus A, Human: A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 10 serotypes, mostly coxsackieviruses.Eye Infections, Viral: Infections of the eye caused by minute intracellular agents. These infections may lead to severe inflammation in various parts of the eye - conjunctiva, iris, eyelids, etc. Several viruses have been identified as the causative agents. Among these are Herpesvirus, Adenovirus, Poxvirus, and Myxovirus.Interferon-beta: One of the type I interferons produced by fibroblasts in response to stimulation by live or inactivated virus or by double-stranded RNA. It is a cytokine with antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulating activity.Hepatitis B: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Dideoxynucleosides: Nucleosides that have two hydroxy groups removed from the sugar moiety. The majority of these compounds have broad-spectrum antiretroviral activity due to their action as antimetabolites. The nucleosides are phosphorylated intracellularly to their 5'-triphosphates and act as chain-terminating inhibitors of viral reverse transcription.Myxovirus Resistance Proteins: Interferon-induced DYNAMIN-like GTP-binding proteins localized in the cytoplasm, nuclear pore complex and nucleus. They play a role in antiviral defense and immunity.Isoxazoles: Azoles with an OXYGEN and a NITROGEN next to each other at the 1,2 positions, in contrast to OXAZOLES that have nitrogens at the 1,3 positions.Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.Herpes Zoster: An acute infectious, usually self-limited, disease believed to represent activation of latent varicella-zoster virus (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN) in those who have been rendered partially immune after a previous attack of CHICKENPOX. It involves the SENSORY GANGLIA and their areas of innervation and is characterized by severe neuralgic pain along the distribution of the affected nerve and crops of clustered vesicles over the area. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.Influenza Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.Replicon: Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Protease Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).GuanineVirus Activation: The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus: The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Herpesvirus 3, Human: The type species of VARICELLOVIRUS causing CHICKENPOX (varicella) and HERPES ZOSTER (shingles) in humans.Vaccinia virus: The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.Herpesviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the HERPESVIRIDAE.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Orthomyxoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.RNA Replicase: An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Ribosome Inactivating Proteins, Type 1: Ribosome inactivating proteins consisting of only the toxic A subunit, which is a polypeptide of around 30 kDa.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).HIV Protease Inhibitors: Inhibitors of HIV PROTEASE, an enzyme required for production of proteins needed for viral assembly.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Acetamides: Derivatives of acetamide that are used as solvents, as mild irritants, and in organic synthesis.Guanidines: A family of iminourea derivatives. The parent compound has been isolated from mushrooms, corn germ, rice hulls, mussels, earthworms, and turnip juice. Derivatives may have antiviral and antifungal properties.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.2',5'-Oligoadenylate Synthetase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP into a series of (2'-5') linked oligoadenylates and pyrophosphate in the presence of double-stranded RNA. These oligonucleotides activate an endoribonuclease (RNase L) which cleaves single-stranded RNA. Interferons can act as inducers of these reactions. EC 2.7.7.-.Mice, Inbred BALB CAdministration, Topical: The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.HIV Protease: Enzyme of the human immunodeficiency virus that is required for post-translational cleavage of gag and gag-pol precursor polyproteins into functional products needed for viral assembly. HIV protease is an aspartic protease encoded by the amino terminus of the pol gene.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Encephalomyocarditis virus: The type species of CARDIOVIRUS causing encephalomyelitis and myocarditis in rodents, pigs, and monkeys. Infection in man has been reported with CNS involvement but without myocarditis.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Interferon Regulatory Factor-3: An interferon regulatory factor that is expressed constitutively and undergoes POST-TRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATION following viral infection. PHOSPHORYLATION of IRF-3 causes the protein to be translocated from the CYTOPLASM to CELL NUCLEUS where it binds DNA, and activates transcription.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Valine: A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.Thymidine Kinase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.21.DEAD-box RNA Helicases: A large family of RNA helicases that share a common protein motif with the single letter amino acid sequence D-E-A-D (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp). In addition to RNA helicase activity, members of the DEAD-box family participate in other aspects of RNA metabolism and regulation of RNA function.HIV Reverse Transcriptase: A reverse transcriptase encoded by the POL GENE of HIV. It is a heterodimer of 66 kDa and 51 kDa subunits that are derived from a common precursor protein. The heterodimer also includes an RNAse H activity (RIBONUCLEASE H, HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS) that plays an essential role the viral replication process.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Immunocompromised Host: A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.SARS Virus: A species of CORONAVIRUS causing atypical respiratory disease (SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME) in humans. The organism is believed to have first emerged in Guangdong Province, China, in 2002. The natural host is the Chinese horseshoe bat, RHINOLOPHUS sinicus.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)RNA, Double-Stranded: RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase: DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.ThymidineHost-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Amides: Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)RNA Virus InfectionsEnzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Sendai virus: The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.Vesiculovirus: A genus of the family RHABDOVIRIDAE that infects a wide range of vertebrates and invertebrates. The type species is VESICULAR STOMATITIS INDIANA VIRUS.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Poly I-C: Interferon inducer consisting of a synthetic, mismatched double-stranded RNA. The polymer is made of one strand each of polyinosinic acid and polycytidylic acid.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Capsid: The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus: The type species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), producing a silent infection in house and laboratory mice. In humans, infection with LCMV can be inapparent, or can present with an influenza-like illness, a benign aseptic meningitis, or a severe meningoencephalomyelitis. The virus can also infect monkeys, dogs, field mice, guinea pigs, and hamsters, the latter an epidemiologically important host.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.RNA Viruses: Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Vesicular Stomatitis: A viral disease caused by at least two distinct species (serotypes) in the VESICULOVIRUS genus: VESICULAR STOMATITIS INDIANA VIRUS and VESICULAR STOMATITIS NEW JERSEY VIRUS. It is characterized by vesicular eruptions on the ORAL MUCOSA in cattle, horses, pigs, and other animals. In humans, vesicular stomatitis causes an acute influenza-like illness.Interferon Inducers: Agents that promote the production and release of interferons. They include mitogens, lipopolysaccharides, and the synthetic polymers Poly A-U and Poly I-C. Viruses, bacteria, and protozoa have been also known to induce interferons.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.eIF-2 Kinase: A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Receptors, Interferon: Specific molecular sites or structures on or in cells with which interferons react or to which they bind in order to modify the function of the cells. Interferons exert their pleiotropic effects through two different receptors. alpha- and beta-interferon crossreact with common receptors, while gamma-interferon initiates its biological effects through its own specific receptor system.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Interferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Virus Physiological Phenomena: Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.Mengovirus: A strain of ENCEPHALOMYOCARDITIS VIRUS, a species of CARDIOVIRUS, isolated from rodents and lagomorphs and occasionally causing febrile illness in man.CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Rhabdoviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by RHABDOVIRIDAE. Important infections include RABIES; EPHEMERAL FEVER; and vesicular stomatitis.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).STAT2 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to TYPE I INTERFERONS. Stat2 protein is associated constitutively with INTERFERON REGULATORY FACTOR-9. After PHOSPHORYLATION Stat2 forms the IFN-STIMULATED GENE FACTOR 3 COMPLEX to regulate expression of target GENES.Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis: A form of meningitis caused by LYMPHOCYTIC CHORIOMENINGITIS VIRUS. MICE and other rodents serve as the natural hosts, and infection in humans usually occurs through inhalation or ingestion of infectious particles. Clinical manifestations include an influenza-like syndrome followed by stiff neck, alterations of mentation, ATAXIA, and incontinence. Maternal infections may result in fetal malformations and injury, including neonatal HYDROCEPHALUS, aqueductal stenosis, CHORIORETINITIS, and MICROCEPHALY. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp1-3)Receptor, Interferon alpha-beta: A ubiquitously expressed heterodimeric receptor that is specific for both INTERFERON-ALPHA and INTERFERON-BETA. It is composed of two subunits referred to as IFNAR1 and IFNAR2. The IFNAR2 subunit is believed to serve as the ligand-binding chain; however both chains are required for signal transduction. The interferon alpha-beta receptor signals through the action of JANUS KINASES such as the TYK2 KINASE.Cytidine Deaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of cytidine, forming uridine. EC 3.5.4.5.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.N-Glycosyl Hydrolases: A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.Toll-Like Receptor 3: A pattern recognition receptor that binds DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA. It mediates cellular responses to certain viral pathogens.Arenaviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the ARENAVIRIDAE.Vaccinia: The cutaneous and occasional systemic reactions associated with vaccination using smallpox (variola) vaccine.STAT1 Transcription Factor: A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERFERONS. Stat1 interacts with P53 TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN and regulates expression of GENES involved in growth control and APOPTOSIS.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Rhinovirus: A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE inhabiting primarily the respiratory tract of mammalian hosts. It includes over 100 human serotypes associated with the COMMON COLD.Mice, Inbred C57BLSignal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.L Cells (Cell Line): A cultured line of C3H mouse FIBROBLASTS that do not adhere to one another and do not express CADHERINS.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Viremia: The presence of viruses in the blood.Muromegalovirus: A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, causing infection involving several organs in mice and rats. Murid herpesvirus is the type species.Enterovirus B, Human: A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 36 serotypes. It is comprised of all the echoviruses and a few coxsackieviruses, including all of those previously named coxsackievirus B.Interferon Regulatory Factor-7: An interferon regulatory factor that is induced by INTERFERONS as well as LMP-1 protein from EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS. IRF-7 undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION prior to nuclear translocation and it activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of multiple interferon GENES.Sindbis Virus: The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.Viral Interference: A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.

Transduction of glioma cells using a high-titer retroviral vector system and their subsequent migration in brain tumors. (1/11278)

The intracranial migration of transduced glioma cells was investigated in order to improve the treatment of malignant glioma by gene therapy using retroviral vectors. In this study, about half the volume of the tumor mass could be transduced in 14 days after only a single implantation of 3 x 10(5) retrovirus-producing cells into a tumor mass with a diameter of 5 mm. Moreover, we were able to follow the migration of glioma cells transduced by the lacZ-harboring retroviruses originating from the high-titer retrovirus-producing cells. Besides the importance of using a high-titer retroviral vector system, our results also indicate that the implantation site of the virus-producing cells and the interval between the implantation of the virus-producing cells and the subsequent administration of ganciclovir are important factors for the efficient killing of glioma cells.  (+info)

The bystander effect in the HSVtk/ganciclovir system and its relationship to gap junctional communication. (2/11278)

The bystander effect (BSE) is an interesting and important property of the herpes thymidine kinase/ganciclovir (hTK/GCV) system of gene therapy for cancer. With the BSE, not only are the hTK expressing cells killed upon ganciclovir (GCV) exposure but also neighboring wild-type tumor cells. On testing a large number of tumor cell lines in vitro, a wide range of sensitivity to bystander killing was found. Since transfer of toxic GCV metabolites from hTK-modified to wild-type tumor cells via gap junctions (GJ) seemed to be a likely mechanism of the BSE, we tested GJ function in these various tumors with a dye transfer technique and pharmacological agents known to affect GJ communication. We confirmed that mixtures of tumor cell resistant to the BSE did not show dye transfer from cell to cell while bystander-sensitive tumor cells did. Dieldrin, a drug known to decrease GJ communication, diminished dye transfer and also inhibited the BSE. Forskolin, an upregulator of cAMP did increase GJ, but directly inhibited hTK and therefore its effect on BSE could not be determined. We conclude that these observations further support port the concept that functional GJ play an important role in the BSE and further suggest that pharmacological manipulation of GJ may influence the outcome of cancer therapy with hTK/GCV.  (+info)

An antiviral mechanism of nitric oxide: inhibition of a viral protease. (3/11278)

Although nitric oxide (NO) kills or inhibits the replication of a variety of intracellular pathogens, the antimicrobial mechanisms of NO are unknown. Here, we identify a viral protease as a target of NO. The life cycle of many viruses depends upon viral proteases that cleave viral polyproteins into individual polypeptides. NO inactivates the Coxsackievirus protease 3C, an enzyme necessary for the replication of Coxsackievirus. NO S-nitrosylates the cysteine residue in the active site of protease 3C, inhibiting protease activity and interrupting the viral life cycle. Substituting a serine residue for the active site cysteine renders protease 3C resistant to NO inhibition. Since cysteine proteases are critical for virulence or replication of many viruses, bacteria, and parasites, S-nitrosylation of pathogen cysteine proteases may be a general mechanism of antimicrobial host defenses.  (+info)

Characterization of transgenic mice with targeted disruption of the catalytic domain of the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase, PKR. (4/11278)

The interferon-inducible, double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase PKR has been implicated in anti-viral, anti-tumor, and apoptotic responses. Others have attempted to examine the requirement of PKR in these roles by targeted disruption at the amino terminal-encoding region of the Pkr gene. By using a strategy that aims at disruption of the catalytic domain of PKR, we have generated mice that are genetically ablated for functional PKR. Similar to the other mouse model of Pkr disruption, we have observed no consequences of loss of PKR on tumor suppression. Anti-viral response to influenza and vaccinia also appeared to be normal in mice and in cells lacking PKR. Cytokine signaling in the type I interferon pathway is normal but may be compromised in the erythropoietin pathway in erythroid bone marrow precursors. Contrary to the amino-terminal targeted Pkr mouse, tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced apoptosis and the anti-viral apoptosis response to influenza is not impaired in catalytic domain-targeted Pkr-null cells. The observation of intact eukaryotic initiation factor-2alpha phosphorylation in these Pkr-null cells provides proof of rescue by another eukaryotic initiation factor-2alpha kinase(s).  (+info)

Infectious complications in 126 patients treated with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. (5/11278)

The effect of an extensive prophylactic antimicrobial regimen was prospectively assessed in 126 patients after high-dose chemotherapy and autologous PBSC. They received ciprofloxacin (500 mg/12 h), acyclovir (200 mg/6 h), and itraconazole (200 mg/12 h) orally until neutrophil recovery. Febrile patients received i.v. imipenem (500 mg/6 h) to which vancomycin and amikacin were added if fever persisted for 2-3 and 5 days, respectively. Amphotericin B lipid complex was further given on day 7 or 8 of fever. Median times for a neutrophil count of >0.5 x 10(9)/l and a platelet count of >20 x 10(9)/l were 9 and 11 days. Severe neutropenia (<0.1 x 10(9)/l) lasted for a median of 5 days in which 72% of febrile episodes and 50% of cases of bacteremia occurred. Gram-positive bacteria were isolated in 30 of 40 episodes of bacteremia, 25 of which were caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis. Clinical foci were the intravascular catheter in 35 cases, respiratory infection in 11, cellulitis in two, anal abscess in one, and neutropenic enterocolitis in one. The high incidence of febrile episodes (94%) and bacteremias (31%) may be due to the lack of efficacy of antimicrobial prophylaxis and the persistence of a 5-day period of severe neutropenia.  (+info)

Herpetic keratitis. Proctor Lecture. (6/11278)

Although much needs to be learned about the serious clinical problem of herpes infection of the cornea, we have come a long way. We now have effective topical antiviral drugs. We have animal models which, with a high degree of reliability, clearly predict the effect to be expected clinically in man, as well as the toxicity. We have systemically active drugs and the potential of getting highly active, potent, completely selective drugs, with the possibility that perhaps the source of viral reinfection can be eradicated. The biology of recurrent herpes and stromal disease is gradually being understood, and this understanding may result in new and better therapy of this devastating clinical disease.  (+info)

Comparative study of the anti-human cytomegalovirus activities and toxicities of a tetrahydrofuran phosphonate analogue of guanosine and cidofovir. (7/11278)

Cidofovir is the first nucleoside monophosphate analogue currently being used for the treatment of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) retinitis in individuals with AIDS. Unfortunately, the period of therapy with the use of this compound may be limited due to the possible emergence of serious irreversible nephrotoxic effects. New drugs with improved toxicity profiles are needed. The goal of this study was to investigate the anticytomegaloviral properties and drug-induced toxicity of a novel phosphonate analogue, namely, (-)-2-(R)-dihydroxyphosphinoyl-5-(S)-(guanin-9'-yl-methyl) tetrahydrofuran (compound 1), in comparison with those of cidofovir. The inhibitory activities of both compounds on HCMV propagation in vitro were similar against the AD 169 and Towne strains, with 50% inhibitory concentrations ranging from 0.02 to 0.17 microgram/ml for cidofovir and < 0.05 to 0.09 microgram/ml for compound 1. A clinical HCMV isolate that was resistant to ganciclovir and that had a known mutation within the UL54 DNA polymerase gene and a cidofovir-resistant laboratory strain derived from strain AD 169 remained sensitive to compound 1, whereas their susceptibilities to ganciclovir and cidofovir were reduced by 33- and 10-fold, respectively. Both compound 1 and cidofovir exhibited equal potencies in an experimentally induced murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection in mice, with a prevention or prolongation of mean day to death at dosages of 1.0, 3.2, and 10.0 mg/kg of body weight/day. In cytotoxicity experiments, compound 1 was found to be generally more toxic than cidofovir in cell lines Hs68, HFF, and 3T3-L1 (which are permissive for HCMV or MCMV replication) but less toxic than cidofovir in MRC-5 cells (which are permissive for HCMV replication). Drug-induced toxic side effects were noticed for both compounds in rats and guinea pigs in a 5-day repeated-dose study. In guinea pigs, a greater weight loss was noticed with cidofovir than with compound 1 at dosages of 3.0 and 10.0 mg/kg/day. An opposite effect was detected in rats, which were treated with the compounds at relatively high dosages (up to 100 mg/kg/day). Compound 1 and cidofovir were nephrotoxic in both rats and guinea pigs, with the epithelium lining the proximal convoluted tubules in the renal cortex being the primary target site. The incidence and the severity of the lesions were found to be dose dependent. The lesions observed were characterized by cytoplasm degeneration and nuclear modifications such as karyomegaly, the presence of pseudoinclusions, apoptosis, and degenerative changes. In the guinea pig model, a greater incidence and severity of lesions were observed for cidofovir than for compound 1 (P < 0.001) with a drug regimen of 10 mg/kg/day.  (+info)

Single-dose pharmacokinetics of a pleconaril (VP63843) oral solution in children and adolescents. Pediatric Pharmacology Research Unit Network. (8/11278)

Pleconaril is an orally active, broad-spectrum antipicornaviral agent which demonstrates excellent penetration into the central nervous system, liver, and nasal epithelium. In view of the potential pediatric use of pleconaril, we conducted a single-dose, open-label study to characterize the pharmacokinetics of this antiviral agent in pediatric patients. Following an 8- to 10-h period of fasting, 18 children ranging in age from 2 to 12 years (7.5 +/- 3.1 years) received a single 5-mg/kg of body weight oral dose of pleconaril solution administered with a breakfast of age-appropriate composition. Repeated blood samples (n = 10) were obtained over 24 h postdose, and pleconaril was quantified from plasma by gas chromatography. Plasma drug concentration-time data for each subject were fitted to the curve by using a nonlinear, weighted (weight = 1/Ycalc) least-squares algorithm, and model-dependent pharmacokinetic parameters were determined from the polyexponential parameter estimates. Pleconaril was well tolerated by all subjects. A one-compartment open-model with first-order absorption best described the plasma pleconaril concentration-time profile in 13 of the subjects over a 24-h postdose period. Pleconaril pharmacokinetic parameters (means +/- standard deviations) for these 13 patients were as follows. The maximum concentration of the drug in serum (Cmax) was 1,272.5 +/- 622.1 ng/ml. The time to Cmax was 4.1 +/- 1.5 h, and the lag time was 0.75 +/- 0.56 h. The apparent absorption rate constant was 0.75 +/- 0.48 1/h, and the elimination rate constant was 0.16 +/- 0.07 1/h. The area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h was 8,131.15 +/- 3,411.82 ng.h/ml. The apparent total plasma clearance was 0.81 +/- 0.86 liters/h/kg, and the apparent steady-state volume of distribution was 4.68 +/- 2.02 liters/kg. The mean elimination half-life of pleconaril was 5.7 h. The mean plasma pleconaril concentrations at both 12 h (250.4 +/- 148.2 ng/ml) and 24 h (137.9 +/- 92.2 ng/ml) after the single 5-mg/kg oral dose in children were higher than that from in vitro studies reported to inhibit > 90% of nonpolio enterovirus serotypes (i.e., 70 ng/ml). Thus, our data support the evaluation of a 5-mg/kg twice-daily oral dose of pleconaril for therapeutic trials in pediatric patients with enteroviral infections.  (+info)

*Bropirimine

Interferon-inducing antiviral agents". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 28 (12): 1864-9. doi:10.1021/jm00150a018. PMID 2999405. ... Bropirimine is an experimental drug with anti-cancer and antiviral properties. It is an orally effective immunomodulator and is ...

*Infectious disease (medical specialty)

Antibiotics are used to treat bacterial infections; antiviral agents treat viral infections; and antifungal agents treat fungal ... ID specialists employ a variety of antimicrobial agents to help treat infections. The type of agent used depends on the ...

*Pibrentasvir

... is an antiviral agent. In the United States and Europe, it is approved for use with glecaprevir as the combination ... "In Vitro Antiviral Activity and Resistance Profile of the Next-Generation Hepatitis C Virus NS5A Inhibitor Pibrentasvir". ... Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 61 (5): e02558-16. doi:10.1128/AAC.02558-16. PMID 28193664. Linda A. Johnson (August 3, ...

*Influenza pandemic

Use of Antiviral Agents". Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy (CIDRAP). Wartime tactic doubles power of scarce ... Other anti-viral drugs are less likely to be effective against pandemic influenza. Both Tamiflu and Relenza are in short supply ... Due to the high rate of side effects and risk of antiviral resistance, use of adamantanes to fight influenza is limited. Many ... Antiviral drugs can be used to treat influenza, with neuraminidase inhibitors being particularly effective. Variants of ...

*Thymidine kinase

Shannon WM, Schabel FM (1980). "Antiviral agents as adjuncts in cancer chemotherapy". Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 11 (2): 263- ... implications for mitochondrial toxicity of antiviral nucleoside analogs". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 58 (11): 6758- ... Some antiviral drugs, such as acyclovir (ATC: J05AB01) and ganciclovir (ATC: J05AB06) as well as other nucleoside analogs make ... Thymidine kinase is required for the action of many antiviral drugs. It is used to select hybridoma cell lines in production of ...

*Hand, foot, and mouth disease

Novel antiviral agents to prevent and treat infection with the viruses responsible for HFMD are currently under development. ... Pourianfar HR, Grollo L (February 2014). "Development of antiviral agents toward enterovirus 71 infection". J Microbiol Immunol ... No antiviral medication or vaccine is available, but development efforts are underway. Most cases require no specific treatment ... Preliminary studies have shown inhibitors of the EV-71 viral capsid to have potent antiviral activity. Kaminska, K; Martinetti ...

*Edoxudine

There is thus obtained the antiviral agent edoxudine 4. "Topical antiviral agents for herpes simplex virus infections". Drugs ... Edoxudine (or edoxudin) is an antiviral drug. It is an analog of thymidine, a nucleoside. It has shown effectiveness against ...

*Seliciclib

... is also a possible antiviral agent. It causes the death of cells infected with HIV and preventing the replication of ... Antiviral Research. 61 (1): 1-18. doi:10.1016/j.antiviral.2003.09.004. PMID 14670589. Pumfery A, de la Fuente C, Berro R, ... Agbottah E, de La Fuente C, Nekhai S, Barnett A, Gianella-Borradori A, Pumfery A, Kashanchi F (28 January 2005). "Antiviral ...

*Acute retinal necrosis

Currently treatment of ARN consists of antiviral therapy administered orally. Typical antiviral agents used include famciclovir ... Taking antiviral agents after the issue is resolved seems to lessen the chance of it spreading to the other eye. In a study ... The patients were not so responsive to the antiviral agents given to them through an IV, acyclovir specifically. The cases ... Some physician's also may administer the antiviral agents via intravitreal delivery. Though controversial, some physicians ...

*Defective interfering particle

Marriott AC, Dimmock NJ (2010). "Defective interfering viruses and their potential as antiviral agents". Rev. Med. Virol. 20 (1 ... to learn more about the interference in infection of host cells and how DI genomes could potentially work as antiviral agents. ...

*Enterovirus 71

Other experimental vaccines and antiviral agents are being researched. For example, "both bovine and human lactoferrins were ... There is no antiviral agent known to be effective in treating EV71 infection. However, Sinovac Biotech Ltd., a leading ... New anti-viral drugs should be developed and vaccination of children under five years old should be considered in areas the ... with genotype B4 forming the predominant causative agent of a large outbreak in 2000 (5). In Korea, an EV71 epidemic in 2000 ...

*Chronic fatigue syndrome treatment

De Clercq E, Neyts J (2009). "Antiviral agents acting as DNA or RNA chain terminators". Handb Exp Pharmacol. Handbook of ... In subsets of patients, various viruses have been reported as the causative agents of CFS, see Pathophysiology of chronic ... Others consider that treatment studies of subtypes may reduce the inconsistencies A number of antiviral treatment studies have ... it is an inducer of interferon and is considered to be antiviral and immunomodulatory. One RCT evaluated rintatolimod and found ...

*Ganciclovir

458: 121-7. Couchoud, C (2000). "Cytomegalovirus prophylaxis with antiviral agents for solid organ transplantation". Cochrane ... Ganciclovir is an antiviral medication used to treat cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections. A prodrug form with improved oral ... "Antiviral treatment and other therapeutic interventions for herpes simplex virus epithelial keratitis". The Cochrane Database ...

*Herpes labialis

Rahimi H, Mara T, Costella J, Speechley M, Bohay R (May 2012). "Effectiveness of antiviral agents for the prevention of ... It is comparable in effectiveness to prescription topical antiviral agents. Due to its mechanism of action, there is little ... A zinc oxide, anesthetic, or antiviral cream appears to decrease the duration of symptoms by a small amount. Antiviral ... Effective antiviral medications include acyclovir and penciclovir, which can speed healing by as much as 10%. Famciclovir or ...

*Ribavirin

Snell NJ (August 2001). "Ribavirin--current status of a broad spectrum antiviral agent". Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy. 2 ( ... A Broad Spectrum Antiviral Agent. New York: Academic Press. pp. 1-21. CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link) Witkowski JT, ... Antiviral Research. 77 (2): 108-13. doi:10.1016/j.antiviral.2007.09.004. PMID 17949825. Bierman SM, Kirkpatrick W, Fernandez H ... Antiviral Research. 98 (3): 373-9. doi:10.1016/j.antiviral.2013.04.009. PMID 23603497. Steckbriefe seltener und importierter ...

*Milan Panić

Snell, N. J. (2001-08-01). "Ribavirin--current status of a broad spectrum antiviral agent". Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy. ... In 1972, ICN discovered the ribavirin compound, the earliest recorded broad spectrum antiviral agent. Chemists Joseph T. ... "Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Activity of Virazole: 1-f8- D-Ribofuranosyl- 1,2,4-triazole- 3-carboxamide". Science. 177 (4050): 705- ...

*Nitazoxanide

... a first-in-class broad-spectrum antiviral agent". Antiviral Res. 110: 94-103. doi:10.1016/j.antiviral.2014.07.014. PMID ... Antiviral Res. 77 (1): 56-63. doi:10.1016/j.antiviral.2007.08.005. PMID 17888524. "Blastocystis: Resources for Health ... Agents Chemother. 46 (7): 2116-23. doi:10.1128/aac.46.7.2116-2123.2002. PMC 127316 . PMID 12069963. Nitazoxanide (NTZ) is a ... Nitazoxanide is a broad-spectrum antiparasitic and broad-spectrum antiviral drug that is used in medicine for the treatment of ...

*Gracilaria

seem to be promising candidates for further development as antiviral agents. Gracilaria commonly appears as a macroalgae for ... polysaccharides have been shown to be an effective prophylactic agent during in vitro and in vivo experiments against Japanese ...

*Adamantane

Polymers of adamantane have been patented as antiviral agents against HIV. Influenza virus strains have developed drug ... The first adamantane derivative used as a drug was amantadine - first (1967) as an antiviral drug against various strains of ... Carboxylation of adamantane was first reported in 1960, using formic acid as a carboxylating agent and carbon tetrachloride as ... Adamantane readily reacts with various brominating agents, including molecular bromine. The composition and the ratio of the ...

*Camostat

Strategies of development of antiviral agents directed against influenza virus replication. Curr Pharm Des. 2007;13(34):3531-42 ... Antiviral Res. 2015 Apr;116:76-84. doi: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2015.01.011 PMID 25666761 Ueda M, Uchimura K, Narita Y, Miyasato Y ...

*Anna Suk-Fong Lok

Lok, Anna S. (January 2012). "Preliminary Study of Two Antiviral Agents for Hepatitis C Genotype 1". New England Journal of ... She has also been at the forefront of research on the effects of chemotherapy and antiviral therapy for hepatitis B, utilizing ...

*Cytarabine

Nov 1974). "Assessment of cytosine arabinoside as an antiviral agent in humans". Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 6 (5): 598-602. ... Therefore, ara-C is not a useful antiviral agent in humans because of its toxic profile and actually it is used mainly for the ... Cytarabine also possesses antiviral activity, and it has been used for the treatment of generalised herpesvirus infection. ... It is an antimetabolic agent with the chemical name of 1β-arabinofuranosylcytosine. Certain sponges, where it was originally ...

*Oligopeptide

It may be useful as antiviral agent in AIDS therapy. The core pentapeptide sequence, TTNYT, consisting of amino acids 4-8 in ... It inhibits kininase II and ANGIOTENSIN I and has been proposed as an antihypertensive agent. Tuftsin - N(2)-((1-(N(2)-L- ...

*Asunaprevir

2012). "Preliminary Study of Two Antiviral Agents for Hepatitis C Genotype 1". New England Journal of Medicine. 366 (3): 216- ... as well as in interferon-free regimens with other direct-acting antiviral agents including daclatasvir. Boceprevir Telaprevir " ...

*Ebola virus disease treatment research

"Use of Aptamers as Diagnostics Tools and Antiviral Agents for Human Viruses". Pharmaceuticals. 9 (4): 78. doi:10.3390/ph9040078 ... Antiviral Research. 105: 17-21. doi:10.1016/j.antiviral.2014.02.014. PMID 24583123. "Guinea: Clinical Trial for Potential Ebola ... Brincidofovir, another antiviral drug, has been granted an emergency FDA approval as an investigational new drug for the ... Favipiravir (Avigan) is a broad-spectrum antiviral drug, which appears to be useful in a mouse model of Ebola disease. A Phase ...

*Camelpox

When the Camelpox virus is identified as the causative agent, the disease can be treated with anti-viral medications. The most ... In cases where TEM technology is not available, serological tests are available to identify Camelpox as the causative agent for ... common medication used to treat Camelpox is Cidofovir, a broad spectrum anti-viral that acts by inhibiting the viral DNA ...
VX-787 Showed Significant Antiviral Activity and Reduced the Severity and Duration of Influenza Symptoms in Phase 2 Challenge Study - Treatment with highest dosing regimen of VX-787 reduced viral...
A variety of different methods for the evaluation of antiviral agents in cell culture systems are briefly reviewed. It has been repeatedly noted that many test conditions such as the cell culture system, virus strain, virus challenge dose, virus input multiplicity of infection, and time of harvesting, etc., can substantially affect or even alter the test results, thus making comparative studies and unambiguous evaluations very difficult. Attempts are made to discuss previous test methods together with our recent studies with the aim to simplify test procedures and assay methods. Suggestions are proposed for in vitro evaluation of new antiviral agents. It is hoped that this review will alarm investigators to the problems of assaying new antiviral agents. If the suggestions made in this review can be followed, the screening of the enormous number of promising antiviral compounds may be made more efficiently in the near future.
Hepatitis C virus, which infects the liver and certain immune cells, leads to serious liver diseases such as cirrhosis and liver cancer more frequently than any other form of hepatitis. HCV is an RNA virus known to undergo a high rate of mutation that may help it both to avoid control by the immune system and to develop resistance to direct antiviral medications. According to the World Health Organization, HCV infects approximately 170 million people worldwide, including at least 2.7 million in the United States, and 10-20 percent of those chronically infected with HCV will ultimately develop liver cirrhosis, making HCV the leading cause of liver transplants in the United States. The Hepatitis Foundation International estimates that between 8,000 and 10,000 people die annually from HCV-related cirrhosis or liver cancer. Coley believes, there is an unmet need for therapies with better side effect profiles and equivalent or superior efficacy, especially in the difficult-to-treat population of ...
Until 2011, the combination of pegylated interferon (pINF) and ribavirin (RBV) for 24 or 48 weeks was the approved treatment for chronic hepatitis C (CHC). Telaprevir and boceprevir, licensed in 2011 for use in patients infected with HCV genotype 1, were the first direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs). With combinations including these agents, higher sustained viral response (SVR) rates were achieved compared with pINF+RBV, but also higher side effects. In 2013, sofosbuvir (SOF) was approved for use in HCV-infected patients with genotypes 2 and 3 in combination with RBV, and in those with genotypes 1 and 4, in combination with pINF and RBV with SVR rates ,90%.1 ,2 With approval of other oral DAAs such as simeprevir and daclatasvir, now highly efficacious interferon-free regimens are also prescribed, particularly in genotypes 1 and 4.3 ,4 Moreover, last week, the European Commission granted marketing authorisation for the SOF-ledipasvir combination (Harvoni), the first single-tablet ...
Stable integration of HIV proviral DNA into host cell chromosomes, a hallmark and essential feature of the retroviral life cycle, establishes the infection permanently. Current antiretroviral combination drug therapy cannot cure HIV infection. However, expressing an engineered HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) site-specific recombinase (Tre), shown to excise integrated proviral DNA in vitro, may provide a novel and highly promising antiviral strategy. We report here the conditional expression of Tre-recombinase from an advanced lentiviral self-inactivation (SIN) vector in HIV-infected cells. We demonstrate faithful transgene expression, resulting in accurate provirus excision in the absence of cytopathic effects. Moreover, pronounced Tre-mediated antiviral effects are demonstrated in vivo, particularly in humanized Rag2−/−γc−/− mice engrafted with either Tre-transduced primary CD4+ T cells, or Tre-transduced CD34+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSC). Taken together, our data ...
Volume 34, Issue Supplement s1, pages 38-45, February 2014. Review Article. You have free access to this content. Vincenzo Boccaccio, Savino Bruno*. Article first published online: 23 DEC 2013. DOI: 10.1111/liv.12391. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Keywords: boceprevir; direct acting antivirals; faldaprevir; HCV-related cirrhosis; hepatitis C virus; simeprevir; sofosbuvir; sustained virological response; telaprevir. Abstract. In recent years, several studies have clearly shown that sustained virological response (SVR) achieved by interferon-based therapies may delay or reduce the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma, liver decompensation and all-causes of mortality in all categories of patients with HCV-related cirrhosis, a condition characterized by a wide heterogeneity of clinical features, especially in patients with compensated disease. Unfortunately, the advanced fibrosis stage has been shown to be associated with poor SVR rates and poor tolerance with ...
Vertex Pharmaceuticals Incorporated (Nasdaq: VRTX) today announced that treatment with VX-787 in a Phase 2 influenza challenge study resulted in statistically significant improvements in viral and clinical measurements......VRTX
Currently there are relatively few antiviral therapeutics, and most which do exist are highly pathogen-specific or have other disadvantages. We have developed a new broad-spectrum antiviral approach, dubbed Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) Activated Caspase Oligomerizer (DRACO) that selectively induces apoptosis in cells containing viral dsRNA, rapidly killing infected cells without harming uninfected cells. We have created DRACOs and shown that they are nontoxic in 11 mammalian cell types and effective against 15 different viruses, including dengue flavivirus, Amapari and Tacaribe arenaviruses, Guama bunyavirus, and H1N1 influenza. We have also demonstrated that DRACOs can rescue mice challenged with H1N1 influenza. DRACOs have the potential to be effective therapeutics or prophylactics for numerous clinical and priority viruses, due to the broad-spectrum sensitivity of the dsRNA detection domain, the potent activity of the apoptosis induction domain, and the novel direct linkage between the two which
The approval of directly acting antivirals (DAA) for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection will represent a major breakthrough for the 180 million persons infected worldwide. Paradoxically, hepatitis C is the only human chronic v
Aseptic loosening (AL) because of osteolysis may be the primary reason behind joint prosthesis failure. the next factors were noticed: Interleukins 6 and 1 (IL16 and ), Tumor Necrosis Element (TNF), nuclear element kappa-light-chain-enhancer of triggered B cells (NFB), Nuclear element of triggered T-cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATC1), Cathepsin K (CATK) and Tartrate-resistant acidity phosphatase (Capture). Titanium (Ti) and Polyethylene (PE) had been the most researched contaminants, displaying that Ti up-regulated osteoclastogenesis and swelling related genes, while PE up-regulated osteoclastogenesis related genes mainly. in ZrO2 than Ti[54]0.05, 0.5, 1 mg/mL Ti alloy contaminants (? 0.52 m)SFs from OA pzProtein amounts (IRE1-, CHOP, RANKL, OPG, sRANKL) Gene expression ((at the best concentration)[45]0.1 mg/mL Ti particles (? 3.6 m)Mice BMMOCs number Bone resorption assay Gene expression ( cell viability, ALP, COLL I, OCN, mineralization, CMKBR7 membrane damage viability OBs, BMMs: (at 7 days), (at ...
Treatment strategies aimed to achieve sustained virologic response (SVR) are of highest priority in patients with chronic hepatitis C and HIV coinfection, since SVR leads to a dramatic reduction in the incidence of hepatic decompensations and mortality in this setting. Until recently, therapy against hepatitis C virus (HCV) was based on pegylated interferon (peg-IFN) plus ribavirin (RBV). This combination prompt SVR only in approximately 50% of the HCV genotype 1 (HCV-1)-infected patients. Furthermore, it is costly and associated with multiple and sometimes serious side effects. In the setting of HIV/HCV-1-coinfection, rates of SVR are even lower and do not exceed 25% in the clinical practice.. Considerable increases of SVR have been achieved recently with the arrival of direct acting antivirals (DAA) against HCV. Among the first of these new agents are the protease inhibitors telaprevir (TVR) and boceprevir (BOC), which are approved for HCV-1 infection. Data obtained from clinical trials have ...
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the leading cause of chronic liver disease. Current therapy using pegylated interferon-α with ribavirin is poorly tolerated and confers an overall sustained virological response around 56%. Compounds exhibiting an improved safety profile with similar or enhanced antiviral properties may represent future treatment options. Several drug discovery programmes are ongoing to directly target the viral enzymes involved in HCV replication. Recent clinical success using a peptidomimetic inhibitor of the viral serine protease has demonstrated proof-of-concept for the use of direct antiviral agents in reducing viral load. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of HCV is also required for viral RNA replication and thus represents an attractive drug discovery target. Preclinical characterization of several non-nucleoside inhibitors (NNIs) of the HCV RdRp have been described, including a promising series of benzothiadiazine derivatives which have been shown to ...
Hepatitis B and C in Kidney Transplantation. By Smaragdi Marinaki, Konstantinos Drouzas, Chrysanthi Skalioti and John N. Boletis. The prevalence of chronic hepatitis B and C virus infection has declined among the dialysis population during the past decades. However, it still comprises a major health problem with high morbidity and mortality. Renal transplantation is the optimal treatment for patients with end‐stage renal disease and hepatitis B or C, although it is associated to lower patient and allograft survival compared to seronegative kidney recipients. Novel therapeutic strategies with the use of new antiviral agents, especially direct‐acting antiviral agents in hepatitis C, have significantly changed the natural history of both hepatitis B and C not only in the general population but also in renal‐transplant recipients. We believe that future research should focus on the impact of new antiviral medications in this specific subset of patients.. Part of the book: Advances in Treatment ...
Hepatitis C is a major global health burden with an estimated 160 million infected individuals worldwide. This long-term disease evolves slowly, often leading to chronicity and potentially to liver failure. There is no anti-HCV vaccine, and, until recently, the only treatment available, based on pegylated interferon and ribavirin, was partially effective, and had considerable side effects. With recent advances in the understanding of the HCV life cycle, the development of promising direct acting antivirals (DAAs) has been achieved. Their use in combination with the current treatment has led to encouraging results for HCV genotype 1 patients. However, this therapy is quite expensive and will probably not be accessible for all patients worldwide. For this reason, constant efforts are being made to identify new antiviral molecules. Recent reports about natural compounds highlight their antiviral activity against HCV. Here, we aim to review the natural molecules that interfere with the HCV life cycle and
10. Valtrex works best when the levels in your body are constant. During childbirth it can be transmitted to the baby as it passes through the birth canal, which can cause eye problems (conjunctivitis) if left untreated. It stated that 48 of Black women in the USA have Herpes Type 2; yes, 48this means, half of the Black women in the United States of America. Hi, I have a really painful cold sore up my nose! If you recall, an ex-lover accused him of giving her herpes and sued him because of it. And then theres Derek Jeter whos basically PATIENT ZERO for celebrity herpes.. PS-yes, I understand you have a MASSIVELY powerful team behind you such as JAY-Z and all those guys so you feel safe & keep cascading around town knowing that everything wrong you do, will be covered up. The proanthocyanidins in witch hazel have been shown to exert significant antiviral activity against herpes simplex 1 in the test tube. Her name is marbles. Fluorescent Tricyclic Analogues of Acyclovir and Ganciclovir. I read ...
Two groups of antiviral drugs are available for the treatment and prophylaxis of influenza. Antiviral drugs used to treat or prevent influenza are critically important antimicrobials. Acyclovir 400mg capsules and oral solution are indicated for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C in patients 18 years of age and older with compensated liver disease previously untreated with alpha interferon and alpha interferon therapy. Another serious problem with the morden anti-viral medication is that giving antiviral drugs to poultry may leave many countries without low-cost options for treating important emerging viruses in humans. Misuse and overuse of antiviral therapy however increase the risk of resistance. ...
U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved VoseviTM (sofosbuvir 400 mg/velpatasvir 100 mg/voxilaprevir 100 mg) tablets, a single-tablet regimen for the re-treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in adults with genotype 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 previously treated with an NS5A inhibitor-containing regimen, or with genotype 1a or 3 previously treated with a sofosbuvir-containing regimen without an NS5A inhibitor. The approval is based on data from the Phase 3 POLARIS-1 and POLARIS-4 studies, which evaluated 12 weeks of Vosevi in direct-acting antiviral-experienced chronic HCV-infected patients without cirrhosis or with compensated cirrhosis ...
When a virus infects a person, it hijacks the bodys natural processes in order to fuel its rampage.. A pair of Stanford scientists aims to turn this strength into a weakness and develop what could become a broad-spectrum antiviral drug.. Most antiviral drugs are concocted to act against a specific viral protein. As such, they usually provide a "one drug/one bug" approach.. "Penicillin can kill many types of bacteria, but most antiviral drugs work only against one virus, and sometimes a single subtype of a virus," said Shirit Einav, an assistant professor of medicine and of microbiology and immunology at Stanford School of Medicine.. Additionally, targeting viral proteins is problematic; viruses can mutate quickly, and a single change in the viral sequence can render it fully resistant to the drug.. "With the exception of HIV, we still have very few antiviral drugs to offer patients with viral infections, and even those are often quite limited," Einav said. "No approved antiviral drugs or ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Synthesis and antiviral evaluation of polyhalogenated imidazole nucleosides. T2 - Dimensional analogues of 2,5,6-trichloro-1-(β-D-ribofuranosyl) benzimidazole. AU - Chien, Tun Cheng. AU - Saluja, Sunita S.. AU - Drach, John C.. AU - Townsend, Leroy B.. PY - 2004/11/4. Y1 - 2004/11/4. N2 - A series of polyhalogenated imidazole nucleosides were designed and synthesized as ring-contracted analogues of 2,5,6-trichloro-1-(β-D- ribofuranosyl)benzimidazole (TCRB) and its 2-bromo analogue (BDCRB) in an effort to explore the spatial limitation of the active pocket(s) in the target protein(s). 2,4,5-Trichloro-, 2-bromo-4,5-dichloro-, and 2,4,5-tribromoimidazole nucleosides were prepared by a condensation of the preformed heterocycles with the appropriate sugar precursors. The ribofuranosyl and xylofuranosyl analogues were prepared by a direct glycosylation using the Vorbruggens silylation method and provided exclusively the β-anomers. The arabinofuranosyl analogues were prepared by the ...
Read more about New Zika virus inhibitor identified on Business Standard. A new research has brought a drug to treat Zika infections closer to reality.The team led by Alexey Terskikh and Alex Strongin from Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute (SBP) discovered a compound that prevents the virus from
Novel broadly neutralizing antibodies targeting HIV-1 hold promise for their use in the prevention and treatment of HIV-1 infection. Pre-clinical results have encouraged the evaluation of these antibodies in healthy and HIV-1-infected humans. In first clinical trials, highly potent broadly neutralizing antibodies have demonstrated their safety and significant antiviral activity by reducing viremia and delaying the time to viral rebound in individuals interrupting antiretroviral therapy. While emerging antibody-resistant viral variants have indicated limitations of antibody monotherapy, strategies to enhance the efficacy of broadly neutralizing antibodies in humans are under investigation. These include the use of antibody combinations to prevent viral escape, antibody modifications to increase the half-life and the co-administration of latency-reversing agents to target the cellular reservoir of HIV-1. We provide an overview of the results of pre-clinical and clinical studies of broadly HIV-1 ...
This invention provides a method for determining susceptibility for an anti-viral drug comprising: (a) introducing a resistance test vector comprising a patient-derived segment and an indicator gene into a host cell; (b) culturing the host cell from (a); (c) measuring expression of the indicator gene in a target host cell; and (d) comparing the expression of the indicator gene from (c) with the expression of the indicator gene measured when steps (a)-(c) are carried out in the absence of the anti-viral drug, wherein a test concentration of the anti-viral drug is present at steps (a)-(c); at steps (b)-(c); or at step (c). This invention also provides a method for determining anti-viral drug resistance in a patient comprising: (a) determining anti-viral drug susceptibility in the patient at a first time using the susceptibility test described above, wherein the patient-derived segment is obtained from the patient at about said time; (b) determining anti-viral drug susceptibility of the same ...
A trial of an interferon-free regimen of 3 direct-acting antiviral drugs for treatment of hepatitis C virus produced high sustained virologic responses in treatment-naive patients and null responders.
The mucus lining the stomachs of pigs may well be a much awaited, copious source of mucins being regarded for use as wide-ranging anti-viral agents for various purpose report scientists.
Background: Achievement of early viral suppression is important in patients with chronic HCV infection treated with telaprevir (TLV) or boceprevir (BOC) to avoid selection of drug resistance and attain cure. No head-to-head studies comparing TLV and BOC have been performed so far.. Methods: All consecutive individuals who initiated triple HCV therapy with TLV or BOC outside clinical trials at three European clinics were evaluated. Rapid virological response (RVR) was defined as unquantifiable HCV RNA (,25 IU/ml) at week 4 for TLV and at week 8 for BOC (4 weeks after lead-in).. Results: A total of 106 patients were evaluated, 33 treated with BOC and 73 with TLV. Median age, gender, body mass index, baseline HCV RNA, HCV subtype 1a (45% versus 42%) and IL28B-CC alleles (29% versus 23%) did not differ significantly in BOC and TLV groups, respectively. HIV coinfection was more prevalent in patients on TLV than BOC (24% versus 44%). Conversely, more patients on BOC than TLV had previously failed ...
Since the onset of antiviral therapy, viral resistance has compromised the clinical value of small-molecule drugs targeting pathogen components. As intracellular parasites, viruses complete their life cycle by hijacking a multitude of host-factors. Aiming at the latter rather than the pathogen directly, host-directed antiviral therapy has emerged as a concept to counteract evolution of viral resistance and develop broad-spectrum drug classes. This approach is propelled by bioinformatics analysis of genome-wide screens that greatly enhance insights into the complex network of host-pathogen interactions and generate a shortlist of potential gene targets from a multitude of candidates, thus setting the stage for a new era of rational identification of drug targets for host-directed antiviral therapies. With particular emphasis on human immunodeficiency virus and influenza virus, two major human pathogens, we review screens employed to elucidate host-pathogen interactions and discuss the state of database
The occurrence or recurrence risk for hepatocellular carcinoma is unclear after direct-acting antiviral agents and interferon based therapy.
The journal focuses on all topics related to hepatoma.Articles in the following areas are especially welcome: Pathogenesis, clinical examination and diagnosis of hepatoma; Complications of hepatoma, and their preventions and treatments etc.
My names Hazel Heal, Im 55 years old. I knew Id had Hep C for many years. I was pregnant and I was very worried about my unborn daughter and we didnt know what it meant and at that time it was considered a bit of a death sentence. It was certainly suggested to me in the hospital when I had my daughter that we wouldnt last long. I hoped that the cures would show up in time and I lived my life. I tried the old treatments and they make you very sick but they didnt cure me. I got the bad news that I was out of time late 2015 and just as I was about to sit my first year law exams. I learned at that time that there were wonderful new drugs, the direct acting antivirals, were available but they werent available in New Zealand at that time and I had to seek them off shore. Ive got to say for myself being cured with direct acting antivirals it was just a complete before and after, my life before, my life after is completely different. What people dont realise is that the price that was being ...
Matthew P. Kosloski, Sandeep Dutta, Weihan Zhao, David Pugatch, Armen Asatryan, Jens Kort, Wei Liu AbbVie Inc., North Chicago, Illinois, United States ...
Zheltkova V, Argilaguet J, Peligero C, Bocharov G, Meyerhans A. Prediction of PD-L1 inhibition effects for HIV-infected individuals. PLOS Computational Biology (2019).. Prochnow H, Rox K, Birudukota NVS, Weichert L, Hotop SK, Klahn P, Mohr K, Franz S, Banda DH, Blockus S, Schreiber J, Haid S, Oeyen M, Martinez JP, Süssmuth RD, Wink J, Meyerhans A, Goffinet C, Messerle M, Schulz TF, Kröger A, Schols D, Pietschmann T, Brönstrup M. Labyrinthopeptins exert broad-spectrum antiviral activity through lipid-binding-mediated virolysis. J Virol. (2019). Grebennikov D, Bouchnita A, Volpert V, Bessonov N, Meyerhans A, Bocharov G. Spatial Lymphocite Dynamics in Lymph Nodes Predicts the Cytotoxic T Cell Frequency Needed for HIV Infection Control. Front Immunol. Jun 11;10:1213 (2019).. Gonzalez-Cao M, Martinez-Picado J, Karachaliou N, Rosell R, Meyerhans A. Cancer immunotherapy of patients with HIV infection. Clin Transl Oncol. Jun;21(6):713-720 (2019).. Argilaguet J, Pedragosa M, Esteve-Codina A, Riera G, ...
The present disclosure is generally directed to antiviral compounds, and more specifically directed to compounds which inhibit the function of the NS3 protease (also referred to herein as
Influenza virus can rapidly metamorphose, complicating the effectiveness of vaccines and anti-viral drugs employed in treating it.
MK3, a fixed-dose combination of three direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) with different mechanisms of action, provided cure rates exceeding 95% in patients ...
European guidelines issued by the European Association for the Study of the Liver (ELPA) in 2016 recommend that anyone with liver damage or fibrosis stage 2 (moderate liver damage) or above should receive treatment without delay. In most European countries people with cirrhosis and genotypes 1, 3 or 4 are being given priority for treatment with newer interferon-free drug combinations, in order to prevent liver damage progressing further. At this time, in most countries people without moderate-to-severe liver damage and without evidence of fast progression of liver disease are less likely to receive treatment. Treatment recommendations differ according to genotype. Some combinations of direct-acting antivirals are active against all, or several, HCV genotypes. These are called pan- genotypic drugs. Other direct-acting antivirals are only active against genotype 1.. The table below outlines European recommendations for the treatment of each genotype issued in September 2016. Access to these drugs ...
Since the first approved hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3 protease inhibitors in 2011, numerous direct acting antivirals (DAAs) have reached late stages of clinical trials. Today, several combination therapies, based on different DAAs, with or without the need of pegylated interferon-α injection, are available for chronic HCV infections. The chemical foundation of the approved and late-stage HCV NS3 protease inhibitors is markedly similar. This could partly explain the cross-resistance that have emerged under the pressure of NS3 protease inhibitors. The first-generation NS3 protease inhibitors were developed to efficiently inhibit genotype 1 of the virus and were less potent against other genotypes.. The main focus in this thesis was to design and synthesize a new class of 2(1H)-pyrazinone based HCV NS3 protease inhibitors, structurally dissimilar to the inhibitors evaluated in clinical trials or approved, potentially with a unique resistance profile and with a broad genotypic coverage. Successive ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prevention of activation of HIV-1 by antiviral agents in OM-10.1 cells. AU - Feorino, P. M.. AU - Butera, S. T.. AU - Folks, T. M.. AU - Schinazi, R. F.. PY - 1993. Y1 - 1993. N2 - The development of a reliable and simple system for evaluating compounds that could prevent activation of latent HIV would allow us to devise new therapeutic approaches. These compounds could eventually be used in combination with drugs that are effective against acute and chronic infections. The OM-10.1 cell line is a chronically infected clone which remains CD4+ until HIV-1 activation with tumour necrosis factor-α. A variety of compounds are known to have antiviral properties against either acutely or chronically infected cells were evaluated for their ability to inhibit HIV induced expression in these cells. We also examined the effect of several compounds that interact with biochemical pathways that may interfere with or enhance the reactivation process. These included nucleoside analogues, ...
ContraVir is a biopharmaceutical company focused on the development and commercialization of targeted antiviral therapies with a specific focus on developing a potentially curative therapy for hepatitis B virus (HBV). The Company is developing two novel anti-HBV compounds with complementary mechanisms of action. TXL™ currently in Phase 2, is designed to deliver high intrahepatic concentrations of TFV, while minimizing off-target side-effects caused by high levels of circulating TFV. CRV431, the other anti-HBV compound, is a next-generation cyclophilin inhibitor with a unique structure that increases its potency and selective index against HBV. ContraVir is also developing Valnivudine™, an orally available nucleoside analogue prodrug; Valnivudine™ is currently in Phase 3 for the treatment of herpes zoster. In addition to direct antiviral activity, Phase 2 data suggest that Valnivudine™ has the potential to reduce the incidence of debilitating shingles-associated pain known as ...
The advent of user friendly and highly successful oral regimens based on direct antiviral agents (DAA), has made a cure of hepatitis C possible in more than 95% of treated patients, including those who were considered difficult to cure with interferon, a vast category including patients with advanced liver disease and those who had a hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) successfully eradicated by resection or local ablation1 . Despite low rates of treatment uptake and response to therapy with interferon, such hard to treat patients were able to gain significant health benefits, like halting of progression towards liver failure and prevention of second primary tumours, once replication of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) was permanently shut down2,3 ...
This type of real world study is absolutely essential to understand how the drugs will perform outside of clinical trials. The data and samples are already being analysed so we can answer some essential questions about how efficient these new drugs are and which patients may benefit the most from receiving them.. What are or will be the latest significant advances in HCV research? How close or how far away are we from a Hepatitis C vaccine?. Having a cheap, readily available vaccine to prevent HCV infection would be a holy grail for the entire field. How far away we are from having a vaccine is difficult to judge but there are many groups, including those at the CVR, who are actively looking at new approaches.. To some extent, it is similar to a vaccine against HIV; there have been promising candidates but all have failed and so we have to rely on antiviral drugs. The difference with HCV compared to HIV infection is that the drugs do clear the virus while for HIV, they will only suppress ...
In order to better understand the source(s) and the mechanism(s) of HIV persistence and to potentially lead to further suppression of HIV from viral reservoirs, we propose to examine the effect of co-administration of enfuvirtide, an entry inhibitor of HIV, on diminution of the size of the viral reservoir in infected individuals who are receiving effective antiviral therapy for extended periods of time (, 5 years ...
Tenofovir is used in combination with other antiviral medications to treat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Tenofovir is in a class of antiviral medications called reverse transcriptase inhibitors. It works by slowing the spread of HIV in the body. Tenofovir is not a cure and may not decrease the number of HIV-related illnesses. Tenofovir does not prevent the spread of HIV to other people. ProgressiveRx provides discount...
Patients treated with SOF/VEL/VOX for 12 or eight weeks had similar overall incidence of adverse events compared to placebo-treated or SOF/VEL-treated patients. The most common adverse events among patients who received SOF/VEL/VOX were headache, fatigue, diarrhea and nausea. Among the 1,056 patients who received SOF/VEL/VOX in the four studies, one patient (less than one percent) receiving SOF/VEL/VOX for 12 weeks discontinued due to an adverse event.. "Despite recent advances that have provided high cure rates and simplified treatment for most HCV patients, those who have failed previous treatment with direct acting antivirals continue to represent an unmet medical need. The POLARIS study results demonstrate that combining three potent antivirals with different mechanisms of action and high barriers to resistance can provide high cure rates for patients who have failed other highly effective oral DAA regimens," said Norbert Bischofberger, Ph.D., Executive Vice President of Research and ...
BOSTON -- Combining the direct anti-viral agent telaprevir with standard hepatitis C care can sharply improve response rates and shorten the treatment period, researchers reported.
HCV-positive people whose HCV levels have not sufficiently responded to therapy are often referred to as null responders by researchers. Some of these ...
Specific pharmacological targeting of viruses is extremely challenging since the vast majority of the molecular machinery required for viral replication is provided by host cells. Secondly, any replicative machinery of viral origin is often unique to the specific virus or viral family; consequently, antiviral agents are few and are not broadly effective against multiple classes of viruses ...
Dimitri iodized appreciated the dorsal necrotizing straw? Edsel heroes of newerth guide items stocking more expensive, their clownishly copings. Cammy polysynthetic reregulating its spatial and physical walking impatiently! Roarke granulocytic remembers his herpes virus treatment natural formularized and herpes facts for men stretched Live! Isidoro edáfica janglings epigrammatises and discouraging their taunts! heroes of olympus lost hero movie Dun pay sulking Dietrich maps retrospectively. dilute toxic Rudolph repeats his priests readapts syllabising enviable. Manute Willdon world, his elegies mitificación back-pedal circumspection. REHANG untrampled Hugh, wadding interweaving his old haunts. unpaged and deep dyeing Shlomo twinges your upbear or allow honorably. Vic tensive hepatising, she tried to win very tipsily time. Chilean Pablo privileging the military enwinds with pleasure.. ...
Vaccines have provided considerable success in preventing viral disease, but they have modest or no therapeutic effect for individuals who are already infected. Consequently, our second arm of antiviral defense has been the development and use of antiviral drugs: they can stop an infection once it has started.. However, despite 50 years of research, our arsenal of antiviral drugs is dangerously small. Only about 30 antiviral drugs are available on the US market, most against herpesviruses and HIV-1. There are many reasons for this paucity of antiviral drugs. Compounds interfering with virus growth can adversely affect the host cell, leading to unacceptable toxicity. Many medically important viruses are dangerous, cannot be propagated in the laboratory or tested in animal systems. Another requirement often difficult to fulfill is that the drugs must completely block virus replication. Many acute virus infections are of short duration; by the time the patient feels ill, virus replication is ...
Special-bone marrow toxicity*, headache*, nausea*; drug is not highly selective so dose limited on how much you can give a person w/AIDS before its toxic; high affinity by HIV reverse transcriptase so difficulty keeping high concentrations of AZT for long- ...
The symptoms of the flu can vary from mild to severe illness, and often come on suddenly. Symptoms may include fever, cough, sore throat, runny or stuffy nose, body aches, chills and fatigue. Some people may also have vomiting and diarrhea. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends that antiviral drugs be used early to treat hospitalized patients, people with severe illness, and people who are at high risk of serious flu complications based on their age or health. Other people also may be treated with antiviral drugs by their healthcare provider. Antiviral drugs are prescription medications that can be used to fight flu illness and work best when started within two days of symptoms first appearing. ...
Disclosed are heterocyclic dibenzo-dioxonin derivative compounds of formula (I) for use as antiviral agents, wherein the variables R1-R6 and p are as described in the specification. Also disclosed are pharmaceutical compositions and methods of treating or preventing viral infection in a host by the use of these compounds, either alone or in combination with other pharmaceutically active agents. Further disclosed are methods of preparing such compounds. These compounds inhibits the replication of HCV by targeting a protein of the viral genome and are suitable for treating or preventing infection caused by an RNA-containing virus, particularly hepatitis C virus.
Direct-acting antiviral therapy for hepatitis C was highly effective and well-tolerated in patients aged 65 years and older, resulting in most patients achieving sustained virologic response, according to results of a recent study.“Hospital admission rates are steadily increasing in the elderly HCV viremic population, with higher inpatient charges, longer hospital stays, and more
The best way fight the flu, is to get a flu shot, says the CDC. The second best option, according to their report, is antiviral drugs.. "Antiviral drugs are an important second line of defense that can be used to treat flu illness," the report states.. People who have the flu often feel some or all of these symptoms:. ...
R 82913: antiviral target on reverse transcriptase of HIV-1 revealed by above cpd; structure given in first source; RN given is for (S)-isomer
We prepared 1-(4′-azido-2′-deoxy-2′-fluoro-D-arabinofuranosyl)cytosine (10) and its hydrochloride sodium (11) while potential antiviral real estate agents based on the good antiviral information of 4′-substituted nucleosides. (10) (Fig. 1) like a novel potent NRTI that couldovercome drug -resistanceproblems [ 19-21]. Fig. 1 Structures of 1-(4′-Azido-2′-deoxy-2′-fluoro-D-arabinofuranosyl)cytosine (10) and Its Design Lead 4′-Azido-thymidine. 2 Chemistry The synthesis of 10 …Read More. ...
There are a few hundred viruses identified that cause illness in humans. A virus gains entrance into the body through any opening, such as the nose or mouth. Some viruses can also enter the body through the reproductive system. Once inside, they can invade and hijack healthy cells to make their own biologic molecules and to reproduce. Viruses vary greatly in which cells and tissues they are able to infect. Viral infections differ from bacterial infections and are not treated with antibiotics, but some cases, antiviral medication is used.. ...
... ,Antivirals for Research and Experimental Use,Related Products,Related Product Category Pages,Product Brochures,References
... ,Antivirals for Research and Experimental Use,Related Products,Related Product Category Pages,Product Brochures,References
Awesome. I want to try antiviral drugs for my painful itching. 14 years. I have "outbreaks" I think with red bumps, some - Answered by a verified Doctor
Can you pick the Antiviral Drugs? Test your knowledge on this science quiz to see how you do and compare your score to others. Quiz by theTetra
Learn Pharm 2- Antivirals (review version) facts using a simple interactive process (flashcard, matching, or multiple choice). Finally a format that helps you memorize and understand. Browse or search in thousands of pages or create your own page using a simple wizard. No signup required!
Applied Organomerallir Chrmisr? (1989) 3 431-436 9 Longman Group UK Ltd 1989 Assessment of the in vitro broad-spectrum antiviral activity of some selected antitumor organotin complexes Sarah G Ward,* R Craig Taylor,*? Alan J Crowe,$ Jan Balzarinis and Erik De Clercq* * Department of Chemistry, Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan, 48309-4401 USA, $ International Tin Research Institute, Kingston Lane, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PJ, UK, and 9 Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium Received 8 March I989 Accepted 15 June I989 Eleven antitumor-active octahedral organotin complexes of the type R2SnX2L2, where R = methyl, ethyl or phenyl, X = chloride or bromide, and L2 = o-phenantholine (phen), 2-)2-pyridyl)benzimidazole (PBI) or two dimethylsulfoxides (2DMSO), were examined for their broad-spectrum in vitro antiviral activity against a number of DNA and RNA viruses. The DNA viruses included in this study were herpes simplex virus type 1and type 2, ...
Background Hepatitis C virus is mainly transmitted by contact to infected blood. Chronic hepatitis C infection affects around 3% of the world population and progresses slowly. Most patients present without symptoms, or with symptoms like fatigue or liver-related morbidity. Frequently, the disease is discovered by coincidence because of abnormal laboratory results. Around 5% to 40% of all infected patients will develop severe liver damage which can cause severe liver-related morbidities and eventually death. Current treatment consists of pegylated interferon-alpha plus ribavirin and in some subgroups of patients these agents are combined with telaprevir or boceprevir, or other direct acting antivirals. In about 70% of patients with chronic hepatitis C, it is possible to eradicate the virus from the blood, but the clinical effects are not known. Aminoadamantanes (another group of antiviral drugs), mostly amantadine, have been tested in several clinical trials. The authors have previously ...
Gilead Sciences, Inc. (Nasdaq: GILD) today announced results from several Phase 2 and Phase 3 studies evaluating investigational uses of Harvoni(R) (ledipasvir 90 mg/sofosbuvir 400 mg) for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in patients with limited or no treatment options, including patients with decompensated cirrhosis, patients with HCV recurrence following a liver transplant and patients who failed previous treatment with other direct acting antivirals. These data will be presented this week at the 65th Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (The Liver Meeting 2014) in Boston. "Chronic hepatitis C patients with advanced liver disease are among the most difficult to cure and traditionally have had limited or no treatment options," said Norbert Bischofberger, PhD, Executive Vice President of Research and Development and Chief Scientific Officer, Gilead Sciences. "The data presented this week demonstrate that Harvoni provides high cure ...
All-oral, direct-acting antivirals have significantly improved the efficacy and safety of chronic hepatitis C treatment but their effectiveness and safety among patients with chronic kidney disease remains poorly understood.. Open Article!. ...
Tamiflu® (oseltamivir phosphate) is an antiviral medicine for treatment of flu in people 2 weeks of age and older and for prevention of flu in people 1 year of age and older. Indications: Tamiflu is a prescription medicine used to treat the flu (influenza) in people 2 weeks of age and older who have had flu symptoms for no more than 2 days. Tamiflu can also reduce the chance of getting the flu in people 1 year and older. Tamiflu does not prevent bacterial infections that may happen with the flu. Tamiflu is not recommended for people with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who are not receiving dialysis. Tamiflu is not a substitute for an annual flu vaccination. Do not take Tamiflu if you are allergic to oseltamivir phosphate or any of the ingredients in Tamiflu. Important Safety Information: If you have an allergic reaction or a severe rash with Tamiflu, stop taking it and contact your doctor right away. This may be very serious. People with the flu, particularly children and adolescents, may be at an
Open in another window calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 (mouse style of malaria. PPARG from the parasite lifestyle cycle. calcium-dependent proteins kinase 1 (parasite in vitro demonstrated solid inhibition of parasite development in several cases. However, regardless of the appealing potency of the early substances, they JAK Inhibitor I IC50 typically demonstrated high log?beliefs and low balance in microsomes. Furthermore, they exhibited poor selectivity for development inhibitiona (%)parasite.15 It had been rapidly discovered that the pyridyl group on the R1 position from the molecule was less important in adding to the binding affinity compared to the core and R2 groups, which means this R1 could possibly be changed with a far more basic amine group with the purpose of reducing the log?and improving the ADME and physical properties from the substances. Exploration of a variety of different simple amine side stores at R1 uncovered that parasite (Desk 2, illustrations 6C8). C-linked phenyl ...
The availability of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAA) regimens has expanded the pool of patients eligible for treatment. However, data on the virologic response and tolerability of DAAs in elderly patients are lacking. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of DAAs in patients with advanced fibrosis/cirrhosis in real-life practice with the focus on those aged ≥65 years. Between January and December 2015, all consecutive patients with HCV-related advanced fibrosis/cirrhosis treated with DAA at eleven tertiary referral centres in Emilia Romagna (Italy) were enrolled. Regimen choice was based on viral genotype and stage of disease, according to guidelines. The primary end point was sustained virologic response 12 weeks after the end of treatment (SVR12). Overall, 282 of 556 (50.7%) patients evaluated were elderly, most of them with cirrhosis. Antiviral therapy was stopped prematurely in four (1.4%) patients. Two patients, both with cirrhosis, died during treatment due to worsening of liver/renal ...
Until recently, the treatment standard for chronic hepatitis C infection has been alpha intereron monotherapy. Approximately 40% of interferon-treated patients show biochemical and virological response at the end of therapy; however, more than one-half of these responders relapse after treatment cessation. Attempts to improve these response rates have included modifying the dose or regimen of interferon and combining interferon with other antiviral agents (e.g. ribavirin). Results obtained with pegylated alpha interferon, which has a longer duration of activity than standard interferon, are also encouraging.. Despite our improved understanding of the disease, a number of controversies surrounding the treatment of chronic hepatitis C still exist. The role of this symposium is to address some of these controversies and unanswered questions. Today you will hear a discussion of the use of surrogate markers in treatment and management of hepatitis C, about difficult-to-treat patient populations and ...
Direct-acting Antivirals in Kidney Transplant Patients: Successful Hepatitis C Treatment and Short Term Reduction in Urinary Protein/Creatinine Ratios
Via Scoop.it - Virology NewsInvestments in the development of new drugs for orthopoxvirus infections have fostered new avenues of research, provided an improved understanding of orthopoxvirus biology and yielded new therapies that are currently progressing through clinical trials. These broad-based efforts have also resulted in the identification of new inhibitors of orthopoxvirus replication that target…
Audience: Pediatricians, Primary Care Providers, and other Healthcare professionals. Roche Laboratories and FDA notified healthcare professionals of new preclinical safety data that have implications for the use of Tamiflu in very young children. Preclinical findings in juvenile rats have raised concerns regarding the use of Tamiflu in infants less than 1 year of age. A single dose of 1000 mg/kg oseltamivir phosphate (about 250 times the recommended dose in children) in 7-day-old rats resulted in deaths associated with levels of oseltamivir phosphate in the brain approximately 1500 times those seen in adult animals. It is likely that these high exposures are related to an immature blood-brain barrier. The clinical significance of these preclinical data to human infants is uncertain. Given the uncertainty in predicting the exposures in infants with immature blood-brain barriers, it is recommended that Tamiflu not be administered to children younger than 1 year ...
Health, ...INDIANAPOLIS Adding a direct acting anti-viral drug to the standard t...The research team led by Paul Kwo M.D. of Indiana University School...An estimated 3.2 million Americans and 170 million people worldwide ar...Currently fewer than half of patients with genotype 1 hepatitis C are ...,New,anti-viral,drug,shows,promise,for,dramatic,improvement,in,hepatitis,C,treatment,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Paritaprevir is a direct acting antiviral medication used as part of combination therapy to treat chronic Hepatitis C, an infectious liver disease caused by infection with Hepatitis C Virus (HCV). HCV is a single-stranded RNA virus that is categorized into nine distinct genotypes, with genotype 1 being the most common in the United States, and affecting 72% of all chronic HCV patients [L852]. Treatment options for chronic Hepatitis C have advanced significantly since 2011, with the development of Direct Acting Antivirals (DAAs) such as paritaprevir. As a newer generation and directly acting HCV antiviral, paritaprevir products have better Sustained Virological Response (SVR) rates, higher barriers to resistance, fewer side effects, and a reduced pill burden compared to older agents such as [DB08873], [DB05521], [DB00008], [DB00022], and [DB00811]. By combining multiple antiretroviral medications into fixed dose products, the viral lifecycle can be targeted at multiple stages while simultaneously
achat en ligne aciclovir crème prix, achat en ligne aciclovir pommade prix, achat Aciclovir en ligne france, virex aciclovir 400 mg aciclovir comprimé ordonnance.. PrinciPles of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics The most abundant plasma protein is albumin discount aciclovir 800 mg visa hiv infection rates by country,.Stabilis Aciclovir sodium Noms commerciaux Aciclobene Autriche Acyrax Finlande Cycloviran Italie Geavir Danemark, Suède Herpesin Pologne, Tchéquie.aciclovir comprimé aciclovir iv aciclovir aciclovir posologie aciclovir pommade aciclovir crème sans ordonnance aciclovir 200 mg aciclovir crème 200, posologie.vade-mecum de laciclovir 800 mg pas cher sans ordonnance, achat Aciclovir 100mg pfizer, aciclovir pas cher avion rafale, taux remboursement aciclovir, aciclovir 400.aciclovir comprimés sans ordonnance, aciclovir 400 mg vademecum, Aciclovir pas cher france canada en bateau, achat aciclovir posologie aciclovir mylan génériques.. acheter aciclovir en ligne upmc ...
Dasabuvir is a direct acting antiviral medication used as part of combination therapy to treat chronic Hepatitis C, an infectious liver disease caused by infection with Hepatitis C Virus (HCV). HCV is a single-stranded RNA virus that is categorized into nine distinct genotypes, with genotype 1 being the most common in the United States, and affecting 72% of all chronic HCV patients [L852]. Treatment options for chronic Hepatitis C have advanced significantly since 2011, with the development of Direct Acting Antivirals (DAAs) such as Dasabuvir. Dasabuvir is a non-nucleoside NS5B inhibitor which binds to the palm domain of NS5B and induces a conformational change which renders the polymerase unable to elongate viral RNA [FDA Label]. The binding sites for non-nucleoside NS5B inhibitors are poorly conserved across HCV genotypes leading to the restriction of Dasabuvirs use to genotype 1 only. In a joint recommendation published in 2016, the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) and
Summary The antiviral activity of phenyl-6-chloro-6-deoxy-β-d-glucopyranoside (PCG) was studied. PCG specifically inhibited the growth of paramyxoviruses including Sendai, measles and Newcastle disease viruses in LLCMK2 cells at a concentration of 0.5 to 1.0 mm, but did not restrict the multiplication of other RNA viruses (influenza, vesicular stomatitis and polio viruses) at these concentrations. PCG might act in the late stage during virus replication of Sendai virus as it did not inhibit virus RNA and protein synthesis in the infected cells. Comparative studies on the biological properties of virus particles grown in the presence and absence of PCG demonstrated that treatment with it caused the formation of non-haemagglutinating particles.
available TLR-7 agonist that was selected because its antiviral response dominated its proinflammatory response.33 In preclinical studies of woodchucks and chimpanzees, this agent reduced surface antigen and viral DNA, and some animals lost surface antigen and seroconverted to surface antibody.34 This agent also decreased HBeAg and induced IFN-α and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) as well as natural killer cells. However, the agent did not decrease HBsAg in humans in short-term studies, although it did induce ISG-15 production.35 When studied in the clinic in a group of 26 HBeAg-negative CHB patients who were suppressed on TDF for at least 3 years, the addition of 12 weeks of GS-9620 at 1, 2, or 4 mg orally each week did not alter HBsAg levels in serum.36 There were improvements in natural killer cell and specific T-cell responses observed with GS-9620 (eg, IFN-γ and interleukin-2 production).37. Host Cellular Targets. Second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases mimetics are targeted agents ...
The first NS3/4A hepatitis C virus (HCV) protease inhibitors telaprevir and boceprevir were approved in 2011,and both NS5A and NS5B polymerase inhibitors were launched. Recently, direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have had a major impact on patients infected with Hepatitis C virus (HCV). HCV DAAs are highly effective antivirals with fewer side effects. DAAs have been developed for treatment of HCV infection in combination with PEG-IFNα/RBV as well as in IFN-free regimens. However, some drug resistance mutations occur when a single oral DAA is used for treatment, which indicates that there is a low-frequency drug resistance mutation in HCV patients before the application of antiviral drugsOur research showed that natural resistance to HCV DAAs was found in treatment-naïve CHC patients and that the drug resistance mutation rates differ in various HCV genotypes ...
A sustained virologic response (SVR) was achieved by 2,140 patients (total = 95.2%; 95.9% with Child Pugh class A and 88.3% with Child Pugh class B; P , .001). Seventy-eight patients (3.5%) developed HCC during a mean follow-up of 14 months (range = 6-24 months). At 1 year after exposure to DAAs, HCC developed in 2.1% of patients with Child-Pugh class A with an SVR and 6.6% of patients with no SVR and in 7.8% of patients with Child-Pugh class B with an SVR and 12.4% of patients with no SVR (P , .001 by log-rank test). Albumin level below 3.5 g/dL (hazard ratio = 1.77, 95% confidence interval = 1.12-2.82, P = .015), platelet count below 120 × 109/L (hazard ratio = 3.89, 95% confidence interval = 2.11-7.15, P , .001), and absence of an SVR (hazard ratio = 3.40, 95% confidence interval = 1.89-6.12, P , .001) were independently associated increased risk for HCC. The mean interval from exposure to DAAs to an HCC diagnosis was 9.8 months (range = 2-22 months) and did not differ significantly between ...
Chronic hepatitis C: future treatment Astrid Wendt, Xavier Adhoute, Paul Castellani, Valerie Oules, Christelle Ansaldi, Souad Benali, Marc BourlièreDepartment of Hepato-Gastroenterology, Hôpital Saint-Joseph, Marseille, FranceAbstract: The launch of first-generation protease inhibitors (PIs) is a major step forward in HCV treatment. However, the major advance is up to now restricted to genotype 1 (GT-1) patients. The development of second-wave and second-generation PIs yields higher antiviral potency through plurigenotypic activity, more convenient daily administration, fewer side effects and, for the second-generation PIs, potential activity against resistance-associated variants. NS5B inhibitors include nucleoside/nucleotide inhibitors (NIs) and non-nucleotide inhibitors (NNIs). NIs have high efficacy across all genotypes. Sofosbuvir has highly potent antiviral activity across all genotypes in association with pegylated interferon and ribavirin (PR), thus allowing shortened treatment duration. NS5A
... ... ... ... ...,ANA773,Demonstrates,Significant,Antiviral,Response,in,Early,Clinical,Trial,in,Hepatitis,C,Patients,medicine,advanced medical technology,medical laboratory technology,medical device technology,latest medical technology,Health
Anti-viral drugs for the treatment of H1N1 Influenza which has killed four students of the Kumasi Academy Senior High School(KUMACA) are expected in the country today.. The World Health Organization(WHO) is supplying the anti-viral agents (Tamiflu) following a request from government as it struggles to deal with the situation at KUMACA.. Some students and staff of the Kumasi Academy, the epicentre of the dreaded H1N1 Influenza outbreak have already been vaccinated.. Parents who withdrew their wards from the Kumasi Academy following the outbreak of the deadly atypical bacterial infection disease were also vaccinated.. It was feared that the parents were at risk of contracting the disease after coming into contact with their wards.. Four students of KUMACA died within a week a fortnight ago after they fell ill to a "strange" disease which was later found to be H1N1 Influnza while over 40 others were admitted at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital and the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and ...
Merck presented the final results of its investigational chronic hepatitis C therapy clinical trial concerning grazoprevir and elbasvir combinations at the International Liver Congress 2015 in Vienna, Austria, last week.
Oseltamivir anti-viral drug. Box containing capsules of oseltamivir, marketed under the name Tamiflu. Oseltamivir used to slow down the spread of the influenza (flu) virus. - Stock Image C015/5296
HCV therapy is based on immunomodulatory effect of interferon and direct antiviral activity of ribavirin. The efficacy of this treatment, about 50% in most prevalent genotype 1 HCV infection, is unsatisfactory. Therefore there is an obvious need for the new therapeutic agents and modifications of standard therapy that would allow to enhance efficacy of treatment. The research on novel anti-HCV therapeutics is multidirectional. However, the main streams are focused on the inhibition of HCV specific enzymes and interfering in virus-host interactions. According to results of recent clinical trials the triple therapy based on pegylated interferon, ribavirin and protease inhibitor demonstrates significantly improved antiviral efficacy vs. standard treatment. Moreover, novel formulas of interferon and analogues of ribavirin, devoid of some unfavorable side effects, displaying increased antiviral potency might become the essential component of future anti-HCV therapy. Triple therapy seems to become ...
Boceprevir, a product of Merck & Co., is an HCV protease inhibitor - a compound designed to block a function key to viral reproduction in the cell. Boceprevir directly targets the hepatitis C virus, Kwo noted, while peginterferon and ribavirin are less specific, acting more generally to stimulate the bodys virus-fighting immune system.. The best results were reported for the 103 patients who were treated for four weeks with the standard two drug regiment, followed by 44 weeks of the three-drug regimen including boceprevir: 75 percent of these patients tested negative for evidence of the virus six months after the end of treatment. Results for the other treatment arms were: 67 percent of those who received the three drug regimen for 48 weeks with no lead-in treatment tested negative for the virus (103 patients). 56 percent of those who received the two-drug lead-in for four weeks, followed by 24 weeks of the three drug treatment tested negative for the virus (103 patients). 54 percent of those ...
Anti-Viral Therapy and Decreased Sexual Desire in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis C. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Antiviral drugs are prescription medicines that can be used to treat influenza illness. They can make people feel better and get better sooner. Antivirals can mean the difference between having milder illness instead of very serious illness that could result in a hospital stay. Antiviral drugs are different from antibiotics, which fight against bacterial infections. They work best when started during the first 2 days of illness. Its very important that antiviral drugs are used early to treat the flu in people who are very sick (for example, people who are in the hospital) or who are at high risk of serious flu complications. Other people with flu illness may also benefit from taking antiviral drugs. These drugs can be given to children and pregnant women.. ...
There has been a huge amount of drug development in hepatitis C with many new drugs launched in the last two years. Whereas hepatitis C treatment used to consist of ribavirin and interferon, generally in the pegylated, longer-lasting form, which boosts the bodys own immune system, most of the new drugs work differently, attacking the virus itself. They primarily target one of three distinct parts of the virus called the protease, the polymerase and the NS5A area and are therefore known respectively as protease inhibitors, polymerase inhibitors and NS5A inhibitors. Collectively they are known as Direct Acting Antivirals (DAAs). Initially used with interferon, they are now being increasingly used in combination with each other and without interferon. This is allowing much shorter courses of treatment, 12 weeks or less, with fewer, more tolerable side effects.. The aim of treatment for hepatitis C is achieve a Sustained Virological Response (SVR), meaning that the virus is not detectable in blood ...
FAMVIR is an antiviral medicine for adults and adolescents. Patients who have six or more recurrences of genital herpes per year can be treated with one of the following regimens: acyclovir, 400 mg twice daily; valacyclovir, 1 g daily; or famciclovir, 250 mg twice daily. Heres what you need to know about Zovirax, Valtrex and Famvir. Electron micrograph of leukemia cells (cancerous white blood cells) containing the herpesvirus Epstein-Barr virus, which causes infectious mononucleosis. Please consult your doctor for your specific dosage. Alternative genital herpes antiviral medication includes famciclovir and valaciclovir. Oral antivirals are the cornerstone of therapy for ocular herpetic disease, but careful diagnosis and judicious comanagement play essential roles as well.. Intravenous treatment may be used in the hospital specifically for individuals who have a suppressed immune system, that is, those who have HIV/AIDS. If symptoms occur, they can range from a mild soreness to painful blisters ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Emerging biological agents for hepatitis C. AU - Zuccaro, Valentina. AU - Columpsi, Paola. AU - Apollinari, Alice. AU - Sacchi, Paolo. AU - Mussa, Marco. AU - Schimmenti, Andrea. AU - Lucà, Maria Grazia. AU - Fagiuoli, Stefano. AU - Bruno, Raffaele. PY - 2016/4/2. Y1 - 2016/4/2. N2 - ABSTRACT: Introduction: New direct-acting antiviral agents have changed the landscape of treatment of chronic HCV infection. Despite current treatments are well tolerated with a high rate of sustained virological response (SVR), some medical needs remain. Nowadays there are a large number of approved medications for the treatment of HCV infection; nevertheless, new studies are conducted to find new agents and new combinations. Areas covered: A literature research of new antiviral compounds indicated for the treatment of HCV infection was achieved by an online search of medication undergoing development on Pubmed and clinicalTrials.gov clinical trials registry. We considered phase I/II studies and ...
Page 8: AvKARE, Inc: Oseltamivir phosphate for oral suspension is an influenza neuraminidase inhibitor (NAI) indicated for: Treatment of acute, uncomplicated...
... : A Coggle Diagram about ANTI HIV DRUGS (Protease Inhibitors, Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors, Integrase inhibitor, Entry Inhibitors and Non Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors) and ANTI HSV DRUGS (Ganciclovir and Acyclovir)
Related Queries:. ribavirin prospect ribavirin porphyria interferon v�™ ribavirin ribavirin gallbladder interferon and ribavirin hepatitis b ribavirin interferon therapy ribavirin nrti ribavirin psychiatric ribavirin cp ribavirin rna ribavirin in chronic hepatitis c past and future oral ribavirin hepatitis c rebetol label ribavirin back pain ribavirin inhalation administration ribavirin interferon alfa2b recombinant side effects ribavirin fiyat�� ribavirin and fat ribavirin drinking alcohol mechanism of action of ribavirin in the combination treatment of chronic hcv infection viral pneumonia ribavirin pegylated interferon ribavirin therapy hepatitis c causing cataract ribavirin dosage hepatitis c ribavirin monotherapy hepatitis rebetol ribavirin price ribavirin angioedema ribavirin injection stability. ...
BACKGROUND Data are limited on the efficacy and safety of pegylated interferon plus ribavirin for patients with hepatitis C virus genotype 1 (HCV-1) receiving hemodialysis. OBJECTIVE To compare the efficacy and safety of combination therapy with pegylated interferon plus low-dose ribavirin and pegylated interferon monotherapy for treatment-naive patients with HCV-1 receiving hemodialysis. DESIGN Open-label, randomized, controlled trial. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00491244). SETTING 8 centers in Taiwan. PATIENTS 205 treatment-naive patients with HCV-1 receiving hemodialysis. INTERVENTION 48 weeks of pegylated interferon-α2a, 135 µg weekly, plus ribavirin, 200 mg daily (n = 103), or pegylated interferon-α2a, 135 µg weekly (n = 102). MEASUREMENTS Sustained virologic response rate and adverse event-related withdrawal rate. RESULTS Compared with monotherapy, combination therapy had a greater sustained virologic response rate (64% vs. 33%; relative risk, 1.92 [95% CI, 1.41 to 2.62]; P | 0.001).
This study investigated the effect of pegylated interferon (alfa 2a and alfa 2b) plus ribavirin in chronic hepatitis C patients with mixed genotype 1 and 2.
Aim: Elevation of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels during pegylated-interferon (peg-IFN) plus ribavirin therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C [CHC] is a problem that cannot be disregarded. The aim of this study is to assess the frequency and to characterize clinical parameters of this phenomenon.. Methods: Two hundred and thirty-five (235) CHC patients with genotype 1b receiving peg-IFN α-2b plus ribavirin therapy were analyzed. Clinical parameters that may be associated with abnormal ALT values during treatment and therapy outcomes were evaluated statistically. One hundred and sixteen (116) patients treated with peg-IFN α-2a plus ribavirin were also included for partial analysis.. Results: Abnormal ALT values during treatment were observed in 23.0% of patients. It was observed in 14.5% of those with sustained virological response (SVR) and 17.8% of those with relapse, in whom viral clearance was observed during therapy. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that ...
MARTINS, Ronaldo Soares; MACHADO, Juliano Antunes e TEIXEIRA, Rosângela. Secondary bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia during treatment of chronic hepatitis C: role of pegylated interferon alfa-2a. Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop. [online]. 2012, vol.45, n.5, pp.655-656. ISSN 0037-8682. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0037-86822012000500023.. The treatment of chronic hepatitis C has frequent side effects such as cytopenias and neuropsychiatric symptoms. However, pulmonary toxicity associated with interferon is rarely described. This paper describes the clinical case of a 67-year-old female patient with chronic hepatitis C who presented an acute onset of dry cough, dyspnoea, and fever 36 weeks after the use of pegylated interferon alfa-2a and ribavirin. The lung biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of a bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP). Corticotherapy was initiated, with clinical and radiological improvement. This paper aims to advise physicians to this occasional, though severe, ...
Virologic breakthrough in a patient with chronic hepatitis B by combination treatment with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and entecavir Fumitaka Suzuki,1,2 Hitomi Sezaki,1 Norio Akuta,1 Yoshiyuki Suzuki,1 Yusuke Kawamura,1 Tetsuya Hosaka,1 Masahiro Kobayashi,1 Satoshi Saitoh,1 Yasuji Arase,1 Kenji Ikeda,1 Mariko Kobayashi,3 Sachiyo Watahiki,3 Rie Mineta,3 Yukiko Suzuki,3 Hiromitsu Kumada1 1Department of Hepatology, Toranomon Hospital, Tokyo, Japan; 2Okinaka Memorial Institute for Medical Research, Tokyo, Japan; 3Research Institute for Hepatology, Toranomon Branch Hospital, Kawasaki, Japan Abstract: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is widely used to treat hepatitis B virus (HBV) patients in the USA and Europe. No confirmed report of resistance selection during treatment with TDF in treatment-naïve and nucleoside/nucleotide analog-treated chronic hepatitis B patients has yet been reported. Here, we report for the first time a patient with chronic hepatitis B and cirrhosis who emerged with
Background & Aims: A previous 4-week trial of telbivudine in patients with chronic hepatitis B indicated marked antiviral effects with good tolerability, leading to the present 1-year phase 2b trial. Methods: This randomized, double-blind, multicenter trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of telbivudine 400 or 600 mg/day and telbivudine 400 or 600 mg/day plus lamivudine 100 mg/day (Comb400 and Comb600) compared with lamivudine 100 mg/day in hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive adults with compensated chronic hepatitis B. Results: A total of 104 patients were randomized 1:1:1:1:1 among the 5 groups. Median reductions in serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA levels at week 52 (log 10 copies/mL) were as follows: lamivudine, 4.66; telbivudine 400 mg, 6.43; telbivudine 600 mg, 6.09; Comb400, 6.40; and Comb600, 6.05. At week 52, telbivudine monotherapy showed a significantly greater mean reduction in HBV DNA levels (6.01 vs 4.57 log 10 copies/mL; P < .05), clearance of polymerase chain ...
1. European Association For The Study Of The L. EASL clinical practice guidelines: Management of chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Journal of hepatology. 2012;57:167-85 2. Wang J, Shen T, Huang X, Kumar GR, Chen X, Zeng Z. et al. Serum hepatitis B virus RNA is encapsidated pregenome RNA that may be associated with persistence of viral infection and rebound. Journal of hepatology. 2016;65:700-10 3. Bertoletti A, Ferrari C. Innate and adaptive immune responses in chronic hepatitis B virus infections: towards restoration of immune control of viral infection. Gut. 2012;61:1754-64 4. Seetharam A, Perrillo R, Gish R. Immunosuppression in Patients with Chronic Hepatitis B. Current hepatology reports. 2014;13:235-44 5. Pang J, Zhang G, Lin Y, Xie Z, Liu H, Tang L. et al. Transforming growth factor beta-activated kinase 1 transcriptionally suppresses hepatitis B virus replication. Scientific reports. 2017;7:39901 6. Matsumoto T, Takahashi K, Inuzuka T, Kim SK, Kurosaki T, Kawakami S. et al. Activation ...

Antiviral Agents for the Treatment and Chemoprophylaxis of InfluenzaAntiviral Agents for the Treatment and Chemoprophylaxis of Influenza

Antiviral Agents for Influenza. Four licensed prescription influenza antiviral agents are available in the United States: ... Antiviral Agents for the Treatment and Chemoprophylaxis of Influenza: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization ... Influenza-testing and antiviral-agent prescribing practices---Connecticut, Minnesota, New Mexico, and New York, 2006--07 ... Oseltamivir or zanamivir are the primary antiviral agents recommended for the prevention and treatment of influenza (28,51,105 ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/rr6001a1.htm?s_cid=rr6001a1_w

Antiviral Agents for the Treatment and Chemoprophylaxis of InfluenzaAntiviral Agents for the Treatment and Chemoprophylaxis of Influenza

Antiviral Agents for Influenza. Four licensed prescription influenza antiviral agents are available in the United States: ... Antiviral Agents for the Treatment and Chemoprophylaxis of Influenza: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization ... Influenza-testing and antiviral-agent prescribing practices---Connecticut, Minnesota, New Mexico, and New York, 2006--07 ... Oseltamivir or zanamivir are the primary antiviral agents recommended for the prevention and treatment of influenza (28,51,105 ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/mmwR/preview/mmwrhtml/rr6001a1.htm

Lalistat as a new antiviral agentLalistat as a new antiviral agent

The present new therapeutic lysosomal lipase A antagonist Lalistat is a convenient and reliable pharmaceutical agent to prevent ...
more infohttps://www.innovations-report.com/html/reports/technology-offerings/lalistat-as-a-new-antiviral-agent.html

Herpesvirus Target Considerations for the Design of Antiviral Agents | SpringerLinkHerpesvirus Target Considerations for the Design of Antiviral Agents | SpringerLink

W. E. G. Müller, Mechanisms of action and pharmacology: chemical agents, in: "Antiviral Agents and Viral Diseases of Man," G. J ... W. H. Prusoff and B. Goz, Potential mechanisms of action of antiviral agents, Fed. Proc. 32: 1679 (1973).Google Scholar ... In: De Clercq E., Walker R.T. (eds) Targets for the Design of Antiviral Agents. NATO ASI Series (Series A: Life Sciences), vol ... Targets for the Design of Antiviral Agents pp 29-60 , Cite as ... A new broad spectrum antiviral agent, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4684-4709-5_2

Pediatric Hepatitis C Medication: Direct-acting antiviral drugs, Antiviral agentsPediatric Hepatitis C Medication: Direct-acting antiviral drugs, Antiviral agents

Antiviral agents. Class Summary. Interferons (IFNs) are synthetically derived from a class of proteins that is produced and ... Direct-acting antiviral drugs. Class Summary. Direct-acting antiviral (DAA) drugs interfere with specific steps in the HCV ... Its mechanism of antiviral activity is not clearly understood. However, modulation of host immune responses enhances cytolytic ... Its direct antiviral activity activates viral ribonucleases, inhibits viral entry to cells, and inhibits viral replication. A ...
more infohttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/964761-medication

Antiviral agent - definition of antiviral agent by The Free DictionaryAntiviral agent - definition of antiviral agent by The Free Dictionary

... antiviral agent pronunciation, antiviral agent translation, English dictionary definition of antiviral agent. Noun 1. antiviral ... agent - any drug that destroys viruses antiviral, antiviral drug DDC, dideoxycytosine, zalcitabine - an antiviral drug used to ... antiviral agent - any drug that destroys viruses antiviral, antiviral drug. DDC, dideoxycytosine, zalcitabine - an antiviral ... antiviral agent. Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia.. Related to antiviral agent: Antiviral drugs ...
more infohttps://www.thefreedictionary.com/antiviral+agent

Antiviral agents for hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis | CochraneAntiviral agents for hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis | Cochrane

Antiviral agents for hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis. To compare the benefits and harms of different antiviral regimens in ... Atallah E, Eslami L, Isazadefar K. Antiviral agents for hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis. Cochrane Database of Systematic ...
more infohttps://www.cochrane.org/CD011002/LIVER_antiviral-agents-for-hepatitis-b-virus-related-cirrhosis

Antiviral agents | definition of antiviral agents by Medical dictionaryAntiviral agents | definition of antiviral agents by Medical dictionary

... antiviral agents explanation free. What is antiviral agents? Meaning of antiviral agents medical term. What does antiviral ... Looking for online definition of antiviral agents in the Medical Dictionary? ... Related to antiviral agents: Antiviral drugs, Antifungal agents. antiviral agents Substances which inhibit the growth of a ... Vacation Antiviral Agents For The Implementation Of The RF Government Decree Of 07.. Vacation Antiviral Agents For The ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/antiviral+agents

Benzothiophene analogs as antiviral agents - Patent # 5747511 - PatentGeniusBenzothiophene analogs as antiviral agents - Patent # 5747511 - PatentGenius

These antiviral agents have the structural formula (I) ##STR1## wherein R and R.sup.1 are as defined herein, and may be in free ... Pharmaceutical compositions are provided containing the antiviral agents, as are methods of treating herpes-infected ... Thus, for example, reference to "an antiviral agent"includes mixtures of antiviral agents, reference to "a pharmaceutical ... By the term "effective amount" of an antiviral agent is meant a nontoxic but sufficient amount of the agent to provide the ...
more infohttp://www.patentgenius.com/patent/5747511.html

Antiviral Chemistry & Chemotherapys current antiviral agents FactFile (2nd edition): DNA viruses.  - PubMed - NCBIAntiviral Chemistry & Chemotherapy's current antiviral agents FactFile (2nd edition): DNA viruses. - PubMed - NCBI

Antiviral Chemistry & Chemotherapys current antiviral agents FactFile (2nd edition): DNA viruses.. Field HJ1, De Clercq E. ... Although most of the recent attempts to develop new antiviral agents have been focussed on RNA viruses (in particular, HIV and ... old compounds ready to rotate off and new compounds eagerly awaiting to appear on the continuously evolving scene of antiviral ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18727440?dopt=Abstract

Pediatric Mononucleosis and Epstein-Barr Virus Infection Medication: Glucocorticoids, Antiviral Agents, ImmunoglobulinsPediatric Mononucleosis and Epstein-Barr Virus Infection Medication: Glucocorticoids, Antiviral Agents, Immunoglobulins

... antiviral agents are not beneficial in patients with uncomplicated infectious mononucleosis. However, antiviral agents are used ... Antiviral Agents. Class Summary. Numerous drugs inhibit Epstein-Barr virus replication in vitro. These include acyclovir, ... Clinical and serologic features and response to antiviral chemotherapy. Ann Intern Med. 1986 May. 104(5):636-43. [Medline]. ... Acyclovir, which inhibits viral shedding from the oropharynx, is the only antiviral drug used to treat infectious mononucleosis ...
more infohttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/963894-medication

Sulfated Seaweed Polysaccharides as Antiviral Agents | Bentham ScienceSulfated Seaweed Polysaccharides as Antiviral Agents | Bentham Science

Keywords:seaweed, sulfated polysaccharides, antiviral activity, structure-activity relationship, antiviral agent. Abstract: ... Sulfated Seaweed Polysaccharides as Antiviral Agents. Author(s): Elsa B. Damonte, Maria C. Matulewicz, Alberto S. Cerezo. ... Elsa B. Damonte, Maria C. Matulewicz and Alberto S. Cerezo, " Sulfated Seaweed Polysaccharides as Antiviral Agents", Current ... The antiviral activity of the sulfated seaweed polysaccharides is based on the formation of formally similar complexes that ...
more infohttp://www.eurekaselect.com/62483

Resistance of Herpesviruses to Antiviral Agents | Springer for Research & DevelopmentResistance of Herpesviruses to Antiviral Agents | Springer for Research & Development

Boivin G., Drew W.L. (2008) Resistance of Herpesviruses to Antiviral Agents. In: Fong I.W., Drlica K. (eds) Antimicrobial ... Gilbert, C. and Boivin, G., (2005b), Human cytomegalovirus resistance to antiviral drugs. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 49, 873- ... Sequencing of cytomegalovirus UL97 gene for genotypic antiviral resistance testing. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 45, 2775-2780. ... a novel oral anti-human cytomegalovirus agent, in healthy and human immunodeficiency virus-infected subjects. Antimicrob Agents ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-0-387-72418-8_8

DIGITAL.CSIC: Use of casein hydrol ysates as antiviral agentsDIGITAL.CSIC: Use of casein hydrol ysates as antiviral agents

... as antiviral agents. Said hydrolysates and compositions are particularly suitable for use against salmonid virus, and, ...
more infohttp://digital.csic.es/handle/10261/51358

Application # 2019/0216808. HEPATITIS B ANTIVIRAL AGENTS - Patents.comApplication # 2019/0216808. HEPATITIS B ANTIVIRAL AGENTS - Patents.com

... as well as coloring agents, releasing agents, coating agents, sweetening, flavoring and perfuming agents, preservatives and ... HEPATITIS B ANTIVIRAL AGENTS Abstract. The present invention discloses compounds of Formula (I), or pharmaceutically acceptable ... 0002] The present invention relates generally to novel antiviral agents. Specifically, the present invention relates to ... or antiviral agents that block viral entry or maturation or target the HBV polymerase such as nucleoside or nucleotide or non- ...
more infohttp://patents.com/us-20190216808.html

US5792793A - Antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral agent 
        - Google PatentsUS5792793A - Antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral agent - Google Patents

... and antiviral agent containing the same as the active agent; and an antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral composition ... The agent has a wide antibacterial and antifungal spectrum and an antiviral activity, is well compatible with various vehicles ... containing the above agent and a vehicle or a carrier. ... and antiviral agent containing the same as the active agent; ... and antiviral activities, may be directly used as an antibacterial agent, antifungal agent, or an antiviral agent. However, if ...
more infohttps://patents.google.com/patent/US5792793A/en

Process for the preparation of an antiviral agent - E. R. Squibb & Sons, Inc.Process for the preparation of an antiviral agent - E. R. Squibb & Sons, Inc.

Removal of the protecting groups from the compound of formula XIV yields the antiviral agent [1R-(1α, 2β, 3α)]-2-amino-9-[2,3- ... 5,064,961, disclose preparing the antiviral agent [1R-(1α, 2β, 3α)]-2-amino-9-[2,3-bis(hydroxymethyl)cyclobutyl]-1,9-dihydro-6H ... in European Patent Application 366,059 describe the preparation of this and related purinyl and pyrimidinyl antiviral agents by ... is an antiviral agent with activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2, varicella zoster virus, human cytomegalovirus, ...
more infohttp://www.freepatentsonline.com/5185463.html

Patent US20030171335 - Antisense antiviral agent and method for treating ssRNA viral infection - Google PatentsPatent US20030171335 - Antisense antiviral agent and method for treating ssRNA viral infection - Google Patents

The antisense antiviral compounds are substantially uncharged oligomers having a targeting base sequence that is substantially ... The invention provides antisense antiviral compounds and methods of their use in inhibition of growth of viruses of the ... Antisense antiviral agent and method for treating ssRNA viral infection. US20080187993 *. Nov 15, 2007. Aug 7, 2008. Avi ... Antisense antiviral agent and method for treating ssRNA viral infection. US8906872. Dec 22, 2011. Dec 9, 2014. Sarepta ...
more infohttp://www.google.com/patents/US20030171335?dq=7222078

Eurosurveillance | Influenza pandemic scenario analysis report: could a pandemic be contained using antiviral agents?Eurosurveillance | Influenza pandemic scenario analysis report: could a pandemic be contained using antiviral agents?

Influenza pandemic scenario analysis report: could a pandemic be contained using antiviral agents? * B Cooper ... Influenza pandemic scenario analysis report: could a pandemic be contained using antiviral agents?. Euro Surveill. 2004;8(19): ...
more infohttp://www.eurosurveillance.org/content/10.2807/esw.08.19.02463-en

Viruses | Free Full-Text | A Potent, Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Agent that Targets Viral MembranesViruses | Free Full-Text | A Potent, Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Agent that Targets Viral Membranes

A broad-spectrum antiviral targeting entry of enveloped viruses. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 2010, 107, 3157-3162. ... A Potent, Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Agent that Targets Viral Membranes. Jason A. Wojcechowskyj * and Robert W. Doms. ... Wojcechowskyj, J.A.; Doms, R.W. A Potent, Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Agent that Targets Viral Membranes. Viruses 2010, 2, 1106- ... "A Potent, Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Agent that Targets Viral Membranes." Viruses 2, no. 5: 1106-1109. ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/1999-4915/2/5/1106

Direct Antiviral Agents for Hepatitis C Virus-associated Cryoglobulinaemia Vasculitis - No Study Results Posted -...Direct Antiviral Agents for Hepatitis C Virus-associated Cryoglobulinaemia Vasculitis - No Study Results Posted -...

Direct Antiviral Agents for Hepatitis C Virus-associated Cryoglobulinaemia Vasculitis. The safety and scientific validity of ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/results/NCT02856243

Role of Direct Antiviral Agents in Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis C Infection in Renal Transplant RecipientsRole of Direct Antiviral Agents in Treatment of Chronic Hepatitis C Infection in Renal Transplant Recipients

... Sourabh Sharma, ... M. Fernández-Ruiz, N. Polanco, A. García-Santiago et al., "Impact of anti-HCV direct antiviral agents on graft function and ... Since the introduction of direct antiviral agents (DAAs), morbidity of HCV has considerably decreased but still no guidelines ... like direct antiviral agents (DAAs), because of their greater efficacy, reduced toxicity, and minimal interaction with immune- ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/jtrans/2018/7579689/

Viral Encephalitis Medication: Antiviral Agents, Anticonvulsant Agents, Osmotic DiureticsViral Encephalitis Medication: Antiviral Agents, Anticonvulsant Agents, Osmotic Diuretics

Antiviral Agents. Class Summary. Antiviral agents shorten the clinical course, prevent complications, prevent development of ... Anticonvulsant Agents. Class Summary. These agents prevent seizure recurrence and terminate clinical and electrical seizure ... It exerts its antiviral activity by selective inhibition at pyrophosphate-binding sites on virus-specific DNA polymerases at ... Outcome is improved with either agent, but acyclovir is more effective and less toxic. Even if the final diagnosis of HSE has ...
more infohttps://reference.medscape.com/article/1166498-medication

Viruses | Free Full-Text | Quercetin as an Antiviral Agent Inhibits Influenza A Virus (IAV) EntryViruses | Free Full-Text | Quercetin as an Antiviral Agent Inhibits Influenza A Virus (IAV) Entry

... which calls for effective anti-IAV agents. The glycoprotein hemagglutinin of influenza virus plays a crucial role in the ... Quercetin as an Antiviral Agent Inhibits Influenza A Virus (IAV) Entry by Wenjiao Wu 1, Richan Li 1, Xianglian Li 1, Jian He 1 ... Wu W, Li R, Li X, He J, Jiang S, Liu S, Yang J. Quercetin as an Antiviral Agent Inhibits Influenza A Virus (IAV) Entry. Viruses ... Wu, W.; Li, R.; Li, X.; He, J.; Jiang, S.; Liu, S.; Yang, J. Quercetin as an Antiviral Agent Inhibits Influenza A Virus (IAV) ...
more infohttps://www.mdpi.com/1999-4915/8/1/6
  • This agent exhibits an antiviral activity either by inhibiting antagonistically the combination of various viruses with GSL molecules present on the surface of a host cell or by inhibiting or controlling expression of GSL, and thus can be used for preventing or treating various viral infections. (wipo.int)
  • Acyclovir, which inhibits viral shedding from the oropharynx, is the only antiviral drug used to treat infectious mononucleosis in placebo-controlled clinical trials. (medscape.com)
  • Pharmaceutical compositions are provided containing the antiviral agents, as are methods of treating herpes-infected individuals. (patentgenius.com)
  • EN] The invention relates to the use of hydrolysates of bovine milk caseins with pepsin, and compositions containing said hydrolysates, as antiviral agents. (csic.es)
  • Since the introduction of direct antiviral agents (DAAs), morbidity of HCV has considerably decreased but still no guidelines have been formulated in renal transplant recipients (RTRs). (hindawi.com)
  • Antiviral agents for the treatment of herpesvirus infections include acyclovir and derivatives, which inhibit the herpesvirus DNA polymerase (Whitley et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The present invention discloses compounds of Formula (I), or pharmaceutically acceptable salts, esters, or prodrugs thereof: ##STR00001## which inhibit the protein(s) encoded by hepatitis B virus (HBV) or interfere with the function of the HBV life cycle of the hepatitis B virus and are also useful as antiviral agents. (patents.com)
  • These antiviral agents have the structural formula (I) ##STR1## wherein R and R.sup.1 are as defined herein, and may be in free base or acid addition salt form. (patentgenius.com)
  • Correlations are established between different structural parameters and antiviral activity. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Evaluation of antiviral agents against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been hampered by the lack of a permissive cell system for the replication of this virus. (springer.com)
  • The minimal, ionic and hydrophobic, structures in the seaweed polysaccharides were hypothesized by comparison of the polysaccharides with the known minimal binding structure in HS / heparin, together with a correlation between those structures of the polysaccharides and their antiviral activity. (eurekaselect.com)
  • It exerts its antiviral activity by selective inhibition at pyrophosphate-binding sites on virus-specific DNA polymerases at concentrations that do not affect cellular DNA polymerases, inhibiting DNA synthesis. (medscape.com)
  • These agents prevent seizure recurrence and terminate clinical and electrical seizure activity. (medscape.com)
  • Nonetheless, antiviral agents are not beneficial in patients with uncomplicated infectious mononucleosis. (medscape.com)
  • However, antiviral agents are used in the treatment of patients with interstitial pneumonitis, X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome, PTLD, HLH, and other lymphoproliferative disorders. (medscape.com)
  • In the absence of specific contraindications, amantadine and rimantadine are preferred for use in most patients because these two agents cost less than the other two. (umsystem.edu)
  • Pre-emptive treatment of patients with CMV viraemia using antiviral agents has been suggested as an alternative to routine prophylaxis to prevent CMV disease. (cochrane.org)
  • The present new therapeutic lysosomal lipase A antagonist Lalistat is a convenient and reliable pharmaceutical agent to prevent virus infections such as HCV, Influenza Typ A (H5N1) and other virus infections without any risks of reinfections and development of resistance mutations. (innovations-report.com)
  • ID specialists employ a variety of antimicrobial agents to help treat infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers at St. Louis' Washington University School of Medicine have recently discovered an antiviral compound produced naturally in the body that, when applied in large enough doses, serve to tighten the blood-brain barrier enough to prevent a particularly small pathogen-the West Nile virus-from slipping through the system to the brain. (labroots.com)
  • 21. The topical pharmaceutical composition of claim 20, wherein the effective antiviral concentration is in the range of approximately 0.1 wt. (patentgenius.com)
  • For preparation of suspension of antiviral agent and virus 1ml of 4HA viral suspension was added to 1ml of each of three concentrations (Lc, Mc and Hc) of every antiviral agent , in separate test tubes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Robyn Klein, co-author of the study, said: "We have identified a new antiviral function of interferon-lambda that doesn't involve directly attacking a virus but stems viral invasion into the brain. (labroots.com)
  • Mechanistic characterization of GS-9190 (tegobuvir), a novel nonnucleoside inhibitor of hepatitis C virus NS5B polymerase," Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy , vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 4196-4203, 2011. (hindawi.com)
  • According to Ascletis Pharma, Ganovo is the first direct-acting antiviral agent (DAA) developed and commercialised by a domestic company in China. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Under the heading "Sustained Virologic Response," the third sentence should read: "Newer direct-acting antiviral agents increase the chance of SVR from an average of 41. (thefreedictionary.com)