Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
A GUANOSINE analog that acts as an antimetabolite. Viruses are especially susceptible. Used especially against herpes.
Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.
An RNA synthesis inhibitor that is used as an antiviral agent in the prophylaxis and treatment of influenza.
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.
An antiviral that is used in the prophylactic or symptomatic treatment of influenza A. It is also used as an antiparkinsonian agent, to treat extrapyramidal reactions, and for postherpetic neuralgia. The mechanisms of its effects in movement disorders are not well understood but probably reflect an increase in synthesis and release of dopamine, with perhaps some inhibition of dopamine uptake.
An antiviral derivative of THYMIDINE used mainly in the treatment of primary keratoconjunctivitis and recurrent epithelial keratitis due to HERPES SIMPLEX virus. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p557)
An acetamido cyclohexene that is a structural homolog of SIALIC ACID and inhibits NEURAMINIDASE.
Method for measuring viral infectivity and multiplication in CULTURED CELLS. Clear lysed areas or plaques develop as the VIRAL PARTICLES are released from the infected cells during incubation. With some VIRUSES, the cells are killed by a cytopathic effect; with others, the infected cells are not killed but can be detected by their hemadsorptive ability. Sometimes the plaque cells contain VIRAL ANTIGENS which can be measured by IMMUNOFLUORESCENCE.
Proteins secreted by vertebrate cells in response to a wide variety of inducers. They confer resistance against many different viruses, inhibit proliferation of normal and malignant cells, impede multiplication of intracellular parasites, enhance macrophage and granulocyte phagocytosis, augment natural killer cell activity, and show several other immunomodulatory functions.
Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
A nucleoside antimetabolite antiviral agent that blocks nucleic acid synthesis and is used against both RNA and DNA viruses.
A guanido-neuraminic acid that is used to inhibit NEURAMINIDASE.
An ACYCLOVIR analog that is a potent inhibitor of the Herpesvirus family including cytomegalovirus. Ganciclovir is used to treat complications from AIDS-associated cytomegalovirus infections.
A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A pyrimidine base that is a fundamental unit of nucleic acids.
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
A general term for diseases produced by viruses.
An antiviral agent used in the treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis. Foscarnet also shows activity against human herpesviruses and HIV.
A compound that, on administration, must undergo chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming the pharmacologically active drug for which it is a prodrug.
One of the type I interferons produced by peripheral blood leukocytes or lymphoblastoid cells. In addition to antiviral activity, it activates NATURAL KILLER CELLS and B-LYMPHOCYTES, and down-regulates VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR expression through PI-3 KINASE and MAPK KINASES signaling pathways.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
An analog of DEOXYURIDINE that inhibits viral DNA synthesis. The drug is used as an antiviral agent.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, infecting the salivary glands, liver, spleen, lungs, eyes, and other organs, in which they produce characteristically enlarged cells with intranuclear inclusions. Infection with Cytomegalovirus is also seen as an opportunistic infection in AIDS.
A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by a hydrogen. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication at low concentrations, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA by binding to reverse transcriptase. Its principal toxic side effect is axonal degeneration resulting in peripheral neuropathy.
Organic compounds that contain phosphorus as an integral part of the molecule. Included under this heading is broad array of synthetic compounds that are used as PESTICIDES and DRUGS.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
Nucleosides in which the purine or pyrimidine base is combined with ribose. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Minute infectious agents whose genomes are composed of DNA or RNA, but not both. They are characterized by a lack of independent metabolism and the inability to replicate outside living host cells.
A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS with the surface proteins hemagglutinin 1 and neuraminidase 1. The H1N1 subtype was responsible for the Spanish flu pandemic of 1918.
A purine that is an isomer of ADENINE (6-aminopurine).
Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.
Species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS B that cause HUMAN INFLUENZA and other diseases primarily in humans. Antigenic variation is less extensive than in type A viruses (INFLUENZA A VIRUS) and consequently there is no basis for distinct subtypes or variants. Epidemics are less likely than with INFLUENZA A VIRUS and there have been no pandemics. Previously only found in humans, Influenza B virus has been isolated from seals which may constitute the animal reservoir from which humans are exposed.
The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.
The prevention of infection or disease following exposure to a pathogen.
A family of RNA viruses causing INFLUENZA and other diseases. There are five recognized genera: INFLUENZAVIRUS A; INFLUENZAVIRUS B; INFLUENZAVIRUS C; ISAVIRUS; and THOGOTOVIRUS.
The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.
A group of acute infections caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 that is characterized by the development of one or more small fluid-filled vesicles with a raised erythematous base on the skin or mucous membrane. It occurs as a primary infection or recurs due to a reactivation of a latent infection. (Dorland, 27th ed.)
A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.
A reverse transcriptase inhibitor and ZALCITABINE analog in which a sulfur atom replaces the 3' carbon of the pentose ring. It is used to treat HIV disease.
Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.
Infection with CYTOMEGALOVIRUS, characterized by enlarged cells bearing intranuclear inclusions. Infection may be in almost any organ, but the salivary glands are the most common site in children, as are the lungs in adults.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS B VIRUS lasting six months or more. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans that is caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS lasting six months or more. Chronic hepatitis C can lead to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.
Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
Nucleotides containing arabinose as their sugar moiety.
An adenosine monophosphate analog in which ribose is replaced by an arabinose moiety. It is the monophosphate ester of VIDARABINE with antiviral and possibly antineoplastic properties.
Interferon secreted by leukocytes, fibroblasts, or lymphoblasts in response to viruses or interferon inducers other than mitogens, antigens, or allo-antigens. They include alpha- and beta-interferons (INTERFERON-ALPHA and INTERFERON-BETA).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A pyrimidine nucleoside formed in the body by the deamination of CYTARABINE.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.
Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.
A nucleoside antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces antibioticus. It has some antineoplastic properties and has broad spectrum activity against DNA viruses in cell cultures and significant antiviral activity against infections caused by a variety of viruses such as the herpes viruses, the VACCINIA VIRUS and varicella zoster virus.
Visible morphologic changes in cells infected with viruses. It includes shutdown of cellular RNA and protein synthesis, cell fusion, release of lysosomal enzymes, changes in cell membrane permeability, diffuse changes in intracellular structures, presence of viral inclusion bodies, and chromosomal aberrations. It excludes malignant transformation, which is CELL TRANSFORMATION, VIRAL. Viral cytopathogenic effects provide a valuable method for identifying and classifying the infecting viruses.
A family of enveloped, linear, double-stranded DNA viruses infecting a wide variety of animals. Subfamilies, based on biological characteristics, include: ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE; BETAHERPESVIRINAE; and GAMMAHERPESVIRINAE.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
A species of SIMPLEXVIRUS associated with genital infections (HERPES GENITALIS). It is transmitted by sexual intercourse and close personal contact.
The molecular designing of drugs for specific purposes (such as DNA-binding, enzyme inhibition, anti-cancer efficacy, etc.) based on knowledge of molecular properties such as activity of functional groups, molecular geometry, and electronic structure, and also on information cataloged on analogous molecules. Drug design is generally computer-assisted molecular modeling and does not include pharmacokinetics, dosage analysis, or drug administration analysis.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 10 serotypes, mostly coxsackieviruses.
Infections of the eye caused by minute intracellular agents. These infections may lead to severe inflammation in various parts of the eye - conjunctiva, iris, eyelids, etc. Several viruses have been identified as the causative agents. Among these are Herpesvirus, Adenovirus, Poxvirus, and Myxovirus.
One of the type I interferons produced by fibroblasts in response to stimulation by live or inactivated virus or by double-stranded RNA. It is a cytokine with antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulating activity.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
Nucleosides that have two hydroxy groups removed from the sugar moiety. The majority of these compounds have broad-spectrum antiretroviral activity due to their action as antimetabolites. The nucleosides are phosphorylated intracellularly to their 5'-triphosphates and act as chain-terminating inhibitors of viral reverse transcription.
Interferon-induced DYNAMIN-like GTP-binding proteins localized in the cytoplasm, nuclear pore complex and nucleus. They play a role in antiviral defense and immunity.
Azoles with an OXYGEN and a NITROGEN next to each other at the 1,2 positions, in contrast to OXAZOLES that have nitrogens at the 1,3 positions.
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 3 and neuraminidase 2. The H3N2 subtype was responsible for the Hong Kong flu pandemic of 1968.
An acute infectious, usually self-limited, disease believed to represent activation of latent varicella-zoster virus (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN) in those who have been rendered partially immune after a previous attack of CHICKENPOX. It involves the SENSORY GANGLIA and their areas of innervation and is characterized by severe neuralgic pain along the distribution of the affected nerve and crops of clustered vesicles over the area. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.
Vaccines used to prevent infection by viruses in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE. It includes both killed and attenuated vaccines. The composition of the vaccines is changed each year in response to antigenic shifts and changes in prevalence of influenza virus strains. The vaccine is usually bivalent or trivalent, containing one or two INFLUENZAVIRUS A strains and one INFLUENZAVIRUS B strain.
Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
The type species of VESICULOVIRUS causing a disease symptomatically similar to FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE in cattle, horses, and pigs. It may be transmitted to other species including humans, where it causes influenza-like symptoms.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The type species of VARICELLOVIRUS causing CHICKENPOX (varicella) and HERPES ZOSTER (shingles) in humans.
The type species of ORTHOPOXVIRUS, related to COWPOX VIRUS, but whose true origin is unknown. It has been used as a live vaccine against SMALLPOX. It is also used as a vector for inserting foreign DNA into animals. Rabbitpox virus is a subspecies of VACCINIA VIRUS.
Virus diseases caused by the HERPESVIRIDAE.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Virus diseases caused by the ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
Ribosome inactivating proteins consisting of only the toxic A subunit, which is a polypeptide of around 30 kDa.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Inhibitors of HIV PROTEASE, an enzyme required for production of proteins needed for viral assembly.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Derivatives of acetamide that are used as solvents, as mild irritants, and in organic synthesis.
A family of iminourea derivatives. The parent compound has been isolated from mushrooms, corn germ, rice hulls, mussels, earthworms, and turnip juice. Derivatives may have antiviral and antifungal properties.
The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP into a series of (2'-5') linked oligoadenylates and pyrophosphate in the presence of double-stranded RNA. These oligonucleotides activate an endoribonuclease (RNase L) which cleaves single-stranded RNA. Interferons can act as inducers of these reactions. EC 2.7.7.-.
The application of drug preparations to the surfaces of the body, especially the skin (ADMINISTRATION, CUTANEOUS) or mucous membranes. This method of treatment is used to avoid systemic side effects when high doses are required at a localized area or as an alternative systemic administration route, to avoid hepatic processing for example.
Enzyme of the human immunodeficiency virus that is required for post-translational cleavage of gag and gag-pol precursor polyproteins into functional products needed for viral assembly. HIV protease is an aspartic protease encoded by the amino terminus of the pol gene.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The type species of CARDIOVIRUS causing encephalomyelitis and myocarditis in rodents, pigs, and monkeys. Infection in man has been reported with CNS involvement but without myocarditis.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
An interferon regulatory factor that is expressed constitutively and undergoes POST-TRANSLATIONAL MODIFICATION following viral infection. PHOSPHORYLATION of IRF-3 causes the protein to be translocated from the CYTOPLASM to CELL NUCLEUS where it binds DNA, and activates transcription.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.21.
A large family of RNA helicases that share a common protein motif with the single letter amino acid sequence D-E-A-D (Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp). In addition to RNA helicase activity, members of the DEAD-box family participate in other aspects of RNA metabolism and regulation of RNA function.
A reverse transcriptase encoded by the POL GENE of HIV. It is a heterodimer of 66 kDa and 51 kDa subunits that are derived from a common precursor protein. The heterodimer also includes an RNAse H activity (RIBONUCLEASE H, HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS) that plays an essential role the viral replication process.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A human or animal whose immunologic mechanism is deficient because of an immunodeficiency disorder or other disease or as the result of the administration of immunosuppressive drugs or radiation.
A species of CORONAVIRUS causing atypical respiratory disease (SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME) in humans. The organism is believed to have first emerged in Guangdong Province, China, in 2002. The natural host is the Chinese horseshoe bat, RHINOLOPHUS sinicus.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
RNA consisting of two strands as opposed to the more prevalent single-stranded RNA. Most of the double-stranded segments are formed from transcription of DNA by intramolecular base-pairing of inverted complementary sequences separated by a single-stranded loop. Some double-stranded segments of RNA are normal in all organisms.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. They also possess exonuclease activity and therefore function in DNA repair.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.
Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
The type species of RESPIROVIRUS in the subfamily PARAMYXOVIRINAE. It is the murine version of HUMAN PARAINFLUENZA VIRUS 1, distinguished by host range.
A genus of the family RHABDOVIRIDAE that infects a wide range of vertebrates and invertebrates. The type species is VESICULAR STOMATITIS INDIANA VIRUS.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Interferon inducer consisting of a synthetic, mismatched double-stranded RNA. The polymer is made of one strand each of polyinosinic acid and polycytidylic acid.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.
The outer protein protective shell of a virus, which protects the viral nucleic acid.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
The type species of ARENAVIRUS, part of the Old World Arenaviruses (ARENAVIRUSES, OLD WORLD), producing a silent infection in house and laboratory mice. In humans, infection with LCMV can be inapparent, or can present with an influenza-like illness, a benign aseptic meningitis, or a severe meningoencephalomyelitis. The virus can also infect monkeys, dogs, field mice, guinea pigs, and hamsters, the latter an epidemiologically important host.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Viruses whose genetic material is RNA.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.
A viral disease caused by at least two distinct species (serotypes) in the VESICULOVIRUS genus: VESICULAR STOMATITIS INDIANA VIRUS and VESICULAR STOMATITIS NEW JERSEY VIRUS. It is characterized by vesicular eruptions on the ORAL MUCOSA in cattle, horses, pigs, and other animals. In humans, vesicular stomatitis causes an acute influenza-like illness.
Agents that promote the production and release of interferons. They include mitogens, lipopolysaccharides, and the synthetic polymers Poly A-U and Poly I-C. Viruses, bacteria, and protozoa have been also known to induce interferons.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A dsRNA-activated cAMP-independent protein serine/threonine kinase that is induced by interferon. In the presence of dsRNA and ATP, the kinase autophosphorylates on several serine and threonine residues. The phosphorylated enzyme catalyzes the phosphorylation of the alpha subunit of EUKARYOTIC INITIATION FACTOR-2, leading to the inhibition of protein synthesis.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
Specific molecular sites or structures on or in cells with which interferons react or to which they bind in order to modify the function of the cells. Interferons exert their pleiotropic effects through two different receptors. alpha- and beta-interferon crossreact with common receptors, while gamma-interferon initiates its biological effects through its own specific receptor system.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.
A strain of ENCEPHALOMYOCARDITIS VIRUS, a species of CARDIOVIRUS, isolated from rodents and lagomorphs and occasionally causing febrile illness in man.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Virus diseases caused by RHABDOVIRIDAE. Important infections include RABIES; EPHEMERAL FEVER; and vesicular stomatitis.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to TYPE I INTERFERONS. Stat2 protein is associated constitutively with INTERFERON REGULATORY FACTOR-9. After PHOSPHORYLATION Stat2 forms the IFN-STIMULATED GENE FACTOR 3 COMPLEX to regulate expression of target GENES.
A form of meningitis caused by LYMPHOCYTIC CHORIOMENINGITIS VIRUS. MICE and other rodents serve as the natural hosts, and infection in humans usually occurs through inhalation or ingestion of infectious particles. Clinical manifestations include an influenza-like syndrome followed by stiff neck, alterations of mentation, ATAXIA, and incontinence. Maternal infections may result in fetal malformations and injury, including neonatal HYDROCEPHALUS, aqueductal stenosis, CHORIORETINITIS, and MICROCEPHALY. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp1-3)
A ubiquitously expressed heterodimeric receptor that is specific for both INTERFERON-ALPHA and INTERFERON-BETA. It is composed of two subunits referred to as IFNAR1 and IFNAR2. The IFNAR2 subunit is believed to serve as the ligand-binding chain; however both chains are required for signal transduction. The interferon alpha-beta receptor signals through the action of JANUS KINASES such as the TYK2 KINASE.
An enzyme that catalyzes the deamination of cytidine, forming uridine. EC 3.5.4.5.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A class of enzymes involved in the hydrolysis of the N-glycosidic bond of nitrogen-linked sugars.
A pattern recognition receptor that binds DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA. It mediates cellular responses to certain viral pathogens.
Virus diseases caused by the ARENAVIRIDAE.
The cutaneous and occasional systemic reactions associated with vaccination using smallpox (variola) vaccine.
A signal transducer and activator of transcription that mediates cellular responses to INTERFERONS. Stat1 interacts with P53 TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN and regulates expression of GENES involved in growth control and APOPTOSIS.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE inhabiting primarily the respiratory tract of mammalian hosts. It includes over 100 human serotypes associated with the COMMON COLD.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A cultured line of C3H mouse FIBROBLASTS that do not adhere to one another and do not express CADHERINS.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.
The presence of viruses in the blood.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily BETAHERPESVIRINAE, causing infection involving several organs in mice and rats. Murid herpesvirus is the type species.
A species of ENTEROVIRUS infecting humans and containing 36 serotypes. It is comprised of all the echoviruses and a few coxsackieviruses, including all of those previously named coxsackievirus B.
An interferon regulatory factor that is induced by INTERFERONS as well as LMP-1 protein from EPSTEIN-BARR VIRUS. IRF-7 undergoes PHOSPHORYLATION prior to nuclear translocation and it activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of multiple interferon GENES.
The type species of ALPHAVIRUS normally transmitted to birds by CULEX mosquitoes in Egypt, South Africa, India, Malaya, the Philippines, and Australia. It may be associated with fever in humans. Serotypes (differing by less than 17% in nucleotide sequence) include Babanki, Kyzylagach, and Ockelbo viruses.
A phenomenon in which infection by a first virus results in resistance of cells or tissues to infection by a second, unrelated virus.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Proteins encoded by the VIF GENES of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.

Transduction of glioma cells using a high-titer retroviral vector system and their subsequent migration in brain tumors. (1/11278)

The intracranial migration of transduced glioma cells was investigated in order to improve the treatment of malignant glioma by gene therapy using retroviral vectors. In this study, about half the volume of the tumor mass could be transduced in 14 days after only a single implantation of 3 x 10(5) retrovirus-producing cells into a tumor mass with a diameter of 5 mm. Moreover, we were able to follow the migration of glioma cells transduced by the lacZ-harboring retroviruses originating from the high-titer retrovirus-producing cells. Besides the importance of using a high-titer retroviral vector system, our results also indicate that the implantation site of the virus-producing cells and the interval between the implantation of the virus-producing cells and the subsequent administration of ganciclovir are important factors for the efficient killing of glioma cells.  (+info)

The bystander effect in the HSVtk/ganciclovir system and its relationship to gap junctional communication. (2/11278)

The bystander effect (BSE) is an interesting and important property of the herpes thymidine kinase/ganciclovir (hTK/GCV) system of gene therapy for cancer. With the BSE, not only are the hTK expressing cells killed upon ganciclovir (GCV) exposure but also neighboring wild-type tumor cells. On testing a large number of tumor cell lines in vitro, a wide range of sensitivity to bystander killing was found. Since transfer of toxic GCV metabolites from hTK-modified to wild-type tumor cells via gap junctions (GJ) seemed to be a likely mechanism of the BSE, we tested GJ function in these various tumors with a dye transfer technique and pharmacological agents known to affect GJ communication. We confirmed that mixtures of tumor cell resistant to the BSE did not show dye transfer from cell to cell while bystander-sensitive tumor cells did. Dieldrin, a drug known to decrease GJ communication, diminished dye transfer and also inhibited the BSE. Forskolin, an upregulator of cAMP did increase GJ, but directly inhibited hTK and therefore its effect on BSE could not be determined. We conclude that these observations further support port the concept that functional GJ play an important role in the BSE and further suggest that pharmacological manipulation of GJ may influence the outcome of cancer therapy with hTK/GCV.  (+info)

An antiviral mechanism of nitric oxide: inhibition of a viral protease. (3/11278)

Although nitric oxide (NO) kills or inhibits the replication of a variety of intracellular pathogens, the antimicrobial mechanisms of NO are unknown. Here, we identify a viral protease as a target of NO. The life cycle of many viruses depends upon viral proteases that cleave viral polyproteins into individual polypeptides. NO inactivates the Coxsackievirus protease 3C, an enzyme necessary for the replication of Coxsackievirus. NO S-nitrosylates the cysteine residue in the active site of protease 3C, inhibiting protease activity and interrupting the viral life cycle. Substituting a serine residue for the active site cysteine renders protease 3C resistant to NO inhibition. Since cysteine proteases are critical for virulence or replication of many viruses, bacteria, and parasites, S-nitrosylation of pathogen cysteine proteases may be a general mechanism of antimicrobial host defenses.  (+info)

Characterization of transgenic mice with targeted disruption of the catalytic domain of the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase, PKR. (4/11278)

The interferon-inducible, double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase PKR has been implicated in anti-viral, anti-tumor, and apoptotic responses. Others have attempted to examine the requirement of PKR in these roles by targeted disruption at the amino terminal-encoding region of the Pkr gene. By using a strategy that aims at disruption of the catalytic domain of PKR, we have generated mice that are genetically ablated for functional PKR. Similar to the other mouse model of Pkr disruption, we have observed no consequences of loss of PKR on tumor suppression. Anti-viral response to influenza and vaccinia also appeared to be normal in mice and in cells lacking PKR. Cytokine signaling in the type I interferon pathway is normal but may be compromised in the erythropoietin pathway in erythroid bone marrow precursors. Contrary to the amino-terminal targeted Pkr mouse, tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced apoptosis and the anti-viral apoptosis response to influenza is not impaired in catalytic domain-targeted Pkr-null cells. The observation of intact eukaryotic initiation factor-2alpha phosphorylation in these Pkr-null cells provides proof of rescue by another eukaryotic initiation factor-2alpha kinase(s).  (+info)

Infectious complications in 126 patients treated with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. (5/11278)

The effect of an extensive prophylactic antimicrobial regimen was prospectively assessed in 126 patients after high-dose chemotherapy and autologous PBSC. They received ciprofloxacin (500 mg/12 h), acyclovir (200 mg/6 h), and itraconazole (200 mg/12 h) orally until neutrophil recovery. Febrile patients received i.v. imipenem (500 mg/6 h) to which vancomycin and amikacin were added if fever persisted for 2-3 and 5 days, respectively. Amphotericin B lipid complex was further given on day 7 or 8 of fever. Median times for a neutrophil count of >0.5 x 10(9)/l and a platelet count of >20 x 10(9)/l were 9 and 11 days. Severe neutropenia (<0.1 x 10(9)/l) lasted for a median of 5 days in which 72% of febrile episodes and 50% of cases of bacteremia occurred. Gram-positive bacteria were isolated in 30 of 40 episodes of bacteremia, 25 of which were caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis. Clinical foci were the intravascular catheter in 35 cases, respiratory infection in 11, cellulitis in two, anal abscess in one, and neutropenic enterocolitis in one. The high incidence of febrile episodes (94%) and bacteremias (31%) may be due to the lack of efficacy of antimicrobial prophylaxis and the persistence of a 5-day period of severe neutropenia.  (+info)

Herpetic keratitis. Proctor Lecture. (6/11278)

Although much needs to be learned about the serious clinical problem of herpes infection of the cornea, we have come a long way. We now have effective topical antiviral drugs. We have animal models which, with a high degree of reliability, clearly predict the effect to be expected clinically in man, as well as the toxicity. We have systemically active drugs and the potential of getting highly active, potent, completely selective drugs, with the possibility that perhaps the source of viral reinfection can be eradicated. The biology of recurrent herpes and stromal disease is gradually being understood, and this understanding may result in new and better therapy of this devastating clinical disease.  (+info)

Comparative study of the anti-human cytomegalovirus activities and toxicities of a tetrahydrofuran phosphonate analogue of guanosine and cidofovir. (7/11278)

Cidofovir is the first nucleoside monophosphate analogue currently being used for the treatment of human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) retinitis in individuals with AIDS. Unfortunately, the period of therapy with the use of this compound may be limited due to the possible emergence of serious irreversible nephrotoxic effects. New drugs with improved toxicity profiles are needed. The goal of this study was to investigate the anticytomegaloviral properties and drug-induced toxicity of a novel phosphonate analogue, namely, (-)-2-(R)-dihydroxyphosphinoyl-5-(S)-(guanin-9'-yl-methyl) tetrahydrofuran (compound 1), in comparison with those of cidofovir. The inhibitory activities of both compounds on HCMV propagation in vitro were similar against the AD 169 and Towne strains, with 50% inhibitory concentrations ranging from 0.02 to 0.17 microgram/ml for cidofovir and < 0.05 to 0.09 microgram/ml for compound 1. A clinical HCMV isolate that was resistant to ganciclovir and that had a known mutation within the UL54 DNA polymerase gene and a cidofovir-resistant laboratory strain derived from strain AD 169 remained sensitive to compound 1, whereas their susceptibilities to ganciclovir and cidofovir were reduced by 33- and 10-fold, respectively. Both compound 1 and cidofovir exhibited equal potencies in an experimentally induced murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection in mice, with a prevention or prolongation of mean day to death at dosages of 1.0, 3.2, and 10.0 mg/kg of body weight/day. In cytotoxicity experiments, compound 1 was found to be generally more toxic than cidofovir in cell lines Hs68, HFF, and 3T3-L1 (which are permissive for HCMV or MCMV replication) but less toxic than cidofovir in MRC-5 cells (which are permissive for HCMV replication). Drug-induced toxic side effects were noticed for both compounds in rats and guinea pigs in a 5-day repeated-dose study. In guinea pigs, a greater weight loss was noticed with cidofovir than with compound 1 at dosages of 3.0 and 10.0 mg/kg/day. An opposite effect was detected in rats, which were treated with the compounds at relatively high dosages (up to 100 mg/kg/day). Compound 1 and cidofovir were nephrotoxic in both rats and guinea pigs, with the epithelium lining the proximal convoluted tubules in the renal cortex being the primary target site. The incidence and the severity of the lesions were found to be dose dependent. The lesions observed were characterized by cytoplasm degeneration and nuclear modifications such as karyomegaly, the presence of pseudoinclusions, apoptosis, and degenerative changes. In the guinea pig model, a greater incidence and severity of lesions were observed for cidofovir than for compound 1 (P < 0.001) with a drug regimen of 10 mg/kg/day.  (+info)

Single-dose pharmacokinetics of a pleconaril (VP63843) oral solution in children and adolescents. Pediatric Pharmacology Research Unit Network. (8/11278)

Pleconaril is an orally active, broad-spectrum antipicornaviral agent which demonstrates excellent penetration into the central nervous system, liver, and nasal epithelium. In view of the potential pediatric use of pleconaril, we conducted a single-dose, open-label study to characterize the pharmacokinetics of this antiviral agent in pediatric patients. Following an 8- to 10-h period of fasting, 18 children ranging in age from 2 to 12 years (7.5 +/- 3.1 years) received a single 5-mg/kg of body weight oral dose of pleconaril solution administered with a breakfast of age-appropriate composition. Repeated blood samples (n = 10) were obtained over 24 h postdose, and pleconaril was quantified from plasma by gas chromatography. Plasma drug concentration-time data for each subject were fitted to the curve by using a nonlinear, weighted (weight = 1/Ycalc) least-squares algorithm, and model-dependent pharmacokinetic parameters were determined from the polyexponential parameter estimates. Pleconaril was well tolerated by all subjects. A one-compartment open-model with first-order absorption best described the plasma pleconaril concentration-time profile in 13 of the subjects over a 24-h postdose period. Pleconaril pharmacokinetic parameters (means +/- standard deviations) for these 13 patients were as follows. The maximum concentration of the drug in serum (Cmax) was 1,272.5 +/- 622.1 ng/ml. The time to Cmax was 4.1 +/- 1.5 h, and the lag time was 0.75 +/- 0.56 h. The apparent absorption rate constant was 0.75 +/- 0.48 1/h, and the elimination rate constant was 0.16 +/- 0.07 1/h. The area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h was 8,131.15 +/- 3,411.82 ng.h/ml. The apparent total plasma clearance was 0.81 +/- 0.86 liters/h/kg, and the apparent steady-state volume of distribution was 4.68 +/- 2.02 liters/kg. The mean elimination half-life of pleconaril was 5.7 h. The mean plasma pleconaril concentrations at both 12 h (250.4 +/- 148.2 ng/ml) and 24 h (137.9 +/- 92.2 ng/ml) after the single 5-mg/kg oral dose in children were higher than that from in vitro studies reported to inhibit > 90% of nonpolio enterovirus serotypes (i.e., 70 ng/ml). Thus, our data support the evaluation of a 5-mg/kg twice-daily oral dose of pleconaril for therapeutic trials in pediatric patients with enteroviral infections.  (+info)

VX-787 Showed Significant Antiviral Activity and Reduced the Severity and Duration of Influenza Symptoms in Phase 2 Challenge Study - Treatment with highest dosing regimen of VX-787 reduced viral...
A variety of different methods for the evaluation of antiviral agents in cell culture systems are briefly reviewed. It has been repeatedly noted that many test conditions such as the cell culture system, virus strain, virus challenge dose, virus input multiplicity of infection, and time of harvesting, etc., can substantially affect or even alter the test results, thus making comparative studies and unambiguous evaluations very difficult. Attempts are made to discuss previous test methods together with our recent studies with the aim to simplify test procedures and assay methods. Suggestions are proposed for in vitro evaluation of new antiviral agents. It is hoped that this review will alarm investigators to the problems of assaying new antiviral agents. If the suggestions made in this review can be followed, the screening of the enormous number of promising antiviral compounds may be made more efficiently in the near future.
Hepatitis C virus, which infects the liver and certain immune cells, leads to serious liver diseases such as cirrhosis and liver cancer more frequently than any other form of hepatitis. HCV is an RNA virus known to undergo a high rate of mutation that may help it both to avoid control by the immune system and to develop resistance to direct antiviral medications. According to the World Health Organization, HCV infects approximately 170 million people worldwide, including at least 2.7 million in the United States, and 10-20 percent of those chronically infected with HCV will ultimately develop liver cirrhosis, making HCV the leading cause of liver transplants in the United States. The Hepatitis Foundation International estimates that between 8,000 and 10,000 people die annually from HCV-related cirrhosis or liver cancer. Coley believes, there is an unmet need for therapies with better side effect profiles and equivalent or superior efficacy, especially in the difficult-to-treat population of ...
Until 2011, the combination of pegylated interferon (pINF) and ribavirin (RBV) for 24 or 48 weeks was the approved treatment for chronic hepatitis C (CHC). Telaprevir and boceprevir, licensed in 2011 for use in patients infected with HCV genotype 1, were the first direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs). With combinations including these agents, higher sustained viral response (SVR) rates were achieved compared with pINF+RBV, but also higher side effects. In 2013, sofosbuvir (SOF) was approved for use in HCV-infected patients with genotypes 2 and 3 in combination with RBV, and in those with genotypes 1 and 4, in combination with pINF and RBV with SVR rates ,90%.1 ,2 With approval of other oral DAAs such as simeprevir and daclatasvir, now highly efficacious interferon-free regimens are also prescribed, particularly in genotypes 1 and 4.3 ,4 Moreover, last week, the European Commission granted marketing authorisation for the SOF-ledipasvir combination (Harvoni), the first single-tablet ...
Stable integration of HIV proviral DNA into host cell chromosomes, a hallmark and essential feature of the retroviral life cycle, establishes the infection permanently. Current antiretroviral combination drug therapy cannot cure HIV infection. However, expressing an engineered HIV-1 long terminal repeat (LTR) site-specific recombinase (Tre), shown to excise integrated proviral DNA in vitro, may provide a novel and highly promising antiviral strategy. We report here the conditional expression of Tre-recombinase from an advanced lentiviral self-inactivation (SIN) vector in HIV-infected cells. We demonstrate faithful transgene expression, resulting in accurate provirus excision in the absence of cytopathic effects. Moreover, pronounced Tre-mediated antiviral effects are demonstrated in vivo, particularly in humanized Rag2−/−γc−/− mice engrafted with either Tre-transduced primary CD4+ T cells, or Tre-transduced CD34+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSC). Taken together, our data ...
Volume 34, Issue Supplement s1, pages 38-45, February 2014. Review Article. You have free access to this content. Vincenzo Boccaccio, Savino Bruno*. Article first published online: 23 DEC 2013. DOI: 10.1111/liv.12391. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Keywords: boceprevir; direct acting antivirals; faldaprevir; HCV-related cirrhosis; hepatitis C virus; simeprevir; sofosbuvir; sustained virological response; telaprevir. Abstract. In recent years, several studies have clearly shown that sustained virological response (SVR) achieved by interferon-based therapies may delay or reduce the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma, liver decompensation and all-causes of mortality in all categories of patients with HCV-related cirrhosis, a condition characterized by a wide heterogeneity of clinical features, especially in patients with compensated disease. Unfortunately, the advanced fibrosis stage has been shown to be associated with poor SVR rates and poor tolerance with ...
Vertex Pharmaceuticals Incorporated (Nasdaq: VRTX) today announced that treatment with VX-787 in a Phase 2 influenza challenge study resulted in statistically significant improvements in viral and clinical measurements......VRTX
Objectives Development of direct acting antivirals (DAA) offers new benefits for patients with chronic hepatitis C. The combination of these drugs with antiretroviral treatment (cART) is a real challenge in HIV/HCV coinfected patients. The aim of this study was to describe potential drug-drug interactions between DAAs and antiretroviral drugs in a cohort of HIV/HCV coinfected patients. Methods Cross-sectional study of all HIV/HCV coinfected patients attending at least one visit in 2012 in the multicenter French DatAIDS cohort. A simulation of drug-drug interactions between antiretroviral treatment and DAAs available in 2015 was performed. Results Of 16,634 HIV-infected patients, 2,511 had detectable anti-HCV antibodies, of whom 1,196 had a detectable HCV-RNA and were not receiving HCV treatment at the time of analysis. 97.1% of these patients were receiving cART and 81.2% had a plasma HIV RNA |50 copies/mL. cART included combinations of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors with a boosted
For many patients with the hepatitis C virus (HCV), direct antiviral agents (DAA) offer a potential cure for the disease. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recently approved two [...]
Currently there are relatively few antiviral therapeutics, and most which do exist are highly pathogen-specific or have other disadvantages. We have developed a new broad-spectrum antiviral approach, dubbed Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) Activated Caspase Oligomerizer (DRACO) that selectively induces apoptosis in cells containing viral dsRNA, rapidly killing infected cells without harming uninfected cells. We have created DRACOs and shown that they are nontoxic in 11 mammalian cell types and effective against 15 different viruses, including dengue flavivirus, Amapari and Tacaribe arenaviruses, Guama bunyavirus, and H1N1 influenza. We have also demonstrated that DRACOs can rescue mice challenged with H1N1 influenza. DRACOs have the potential to be effective therapeutics or prophylactics for numerous clinical and priority viruses, due to the broad-spectrum sensitivity of the dsRNA detection domain, the potent activity of the apoptosis induction domain, and the novel direct linkage between the two which
An unexpected increased HCC recurrence and occurrence rate among HCV patients treated with direct acting antivirals combination has been reported. Aim of the study was the evaluation of early HCC occurrence rate and its risk factors in a HCV infected population, treated with direct-acting-antivirals. According to the Italian ministerial guidelines for direct-acting-antivirals treatment, 1022 consecutive HCV patients treated with direct-acting-antivirals were enrolled. Patients either with active HCC at imaging or history of previous treated HCC, HBV or HIV co-infection, or liver transplant recipients were excluded. The SVR, defined as the persistent absence of detectable serum HCV-RNA 12 weeks after the end of treatment (SVR12), was assessed for all enrolled patients. Abdominal ultrasound was performed before starting antiviral therapy, and repeated every 6 months. HCC was diagnosed according to the international guidelines. Patients showing either nodular patterns suggestive of HCC or with uncertain
An unexpected increased HCC recurrence and occurrence rate among HCV patients treated with direct acting antivirals combination has been reported. Aim of the study was the evaluation of early HCC occurrence rate and its risk factors in a HCV infected population, treated with direct-acting-antivirals. According to the Italian ministerial guidelines for direct-acting-antivirals treatment, 1022 consecutive HCV patients treated with direct-acting-antivirals were enrolled. Patients either with active HCC at imaging or history of previous treated HCC, HBV or HIV co-infection, or liver transplant recipients were excluded. The SVR, defined as the persistent absence of detectable serum HCV-RNA 12 weeks after the end of treatment (SVR12), was assessed for all enrolled patients. Abdominal ultrasound was performed before starting antiviral therapy, and repeated every 6 months. HCC was diagnosed according to the international guidelines. Patients showing either nodular patterns suggestive of HCC or with uncertain
The approval of directly acting antivirals (DAA) for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection will represent a major breakthrough for the 180 million persons infected worldwide. Paradoxically, hepatitis C is the only human chronic v
Aseptic loosening (AL) because of osteolysis may be the primary reason behind joint prosthesis failure. the next factors were noticed: Interleukins 6 and 1 (IL16 and ), Tumor Necrosis Element (TNF), nuclear element kappa-light-chain-enhancer of triggered B cells (NFB), Nuclear element of triggered T-cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATC1), Cathepsin K (CATK) and Tartrate-resistant acidity phosphatase (Capture). Titanium (Ti) and Polyethylene (PE) had been the most researched contaminants, displaying that Ti up-regulated osteoclastogenesis and swelling related genes, while PE up-regulated osteoclastogenesis related genes mainly. in ZrO2 than Ti[54]0.05, 0.5, 1 mg/mL Ti alloy contaminants (? 0.52 m)SFs from OA pzProtein amounts (IRE1-, CHOP, RANKL, OPG, sRANKL) Gene expression ((at the best concentration)[45]0.1 mg/mL Ti particles (? 3.6 m)Mice BMMOCs number Bone resorption assay Gene expression ( cell viability, ALP, COLL I, OCN, mineralization, CMKBR7 membrane damage viability OBs, BMMs: (at 7 days), (at ...
Treatment strategies aimed to achieve sustained virologic response (SVR) are of highest priority in patients with chronic hepatitis C and HIV coinfection, since SVR leads to a dramatic reduction in the incidence of hepatic decompensations and mortality in this setting. Until recently, therapy against hepatitis C virus (HCV) was based on pegylated interferon (peg-IFN) plus ribavirin (RBV). This combination prompt SVR only in approximately 50% of the HCV genotype 1 (HCV-1)-infected patients. Furthermore, it is costly and associated with multiple and sometimes serious side effects. In the setting of HIV/HCV-1-coinfection, rates of SVR are even lower and do not exceed 25% in the clinical practice.. Considerable increases of SVR have been achieved recently with the arrival of direct acting antivirals (DAA) against HCV. Among the first of these new agents are the protease inhibitors telaprevir (TVR) and boceprevir (BOC), which are approved for HCV-1 infection. Data obtained from clinical trials have ...
Brent Westra is a Marketing Segment Manager at Mayo Clinic Laboratories. He leads marketing strategies for product management and specialty testing along with new media innovations. Brent has worked at Mayo Clinic since 2011 ...
The study by Carrat and colleagues has some limitations, none of which would be expected to materially affect the overall findings and most likely biased the findings away from clinical benefit with direct-acting antivirals. First, only a few patients underwent liver biopsy to confirm cirrhosis, and either a platelet cutoff less than 150 000 per μL or prothrombin time less than 70% was used to classify cirrhosis in approximately half the patients with cirrhosis (1326 [44%] of 3045). However, in a validation substudy using other non-invasive markers of fibrosis, this method correctly classified cirrhosis in all patients. Second, patients who received more than one course of direct-acting antivirals were considered to have continuous exposure to direct-acting antivirals from the first course through to the last course, even though the first course of direct-acting antivirals might not have been associated with sustained virological response and there could have been a lag time between courses of ...
Title:The Role of Organic Transporters in Pharmacokinetics and Nephrotoxicity of Newer Antiviral Therapies for HIV and Hepatitis C. VOLUME: 16 ISSUE: 4. Author(s):Donald Mitema and Mohamed G. Atta. Affiliation:Johns Hopkins - Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, United States.. Keywords:Antiviral therapy, HCV, HIV, renal.. Abstract:Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and direct acting antiviral agents (DAAs) are key elements in the effective pharmacotherapy of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Hepatitis C virus (HCV) respectively. These two chronic illnesses affect millions of persons at any given time, though only a select proportion has been eligible for successful treatment. With the development of newer, safer and more effective antiviral therapies it is expected that a greater proportion of those infected will have access to these life-saving therapies. However, it is also important to appreciate that this very population will also be subject to increased toxicities from these ...
Current Antiviral therapies News and Events, Antiviral therapies news articles. The latest Antiviral therapies stories, articles, research, discoveries, current news and events from Brightsurf.
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is the leading cause of chronic liver disease. Current therapy using pegylated interferon-α with ribavirin is poorly tolerated and confers an overall sustained virological response around 56%. Compounds exhibiting an improved safety profile with similar or enhanced antiviral properties may represent future treatment options. Several drug discovery programmes are ongoing to directly target the viral enzymes involved in HCV replication. Recent clinical success using a peptidomimetic inhibitor of the viral serine protease has demonstrated proof-of-concept for the use of direct antiviral agents in reducing viral load. The RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of HCV is also required for viral RNA replication and thus represents an attractive drug discovery target. Preclinical characterization of several non-nucleoside inhibitors (NNIs) of the HCV RdRp have been described, including a promising series of benzothiadiazine derivatives which have been shown to ...
Antiviral medications can be prescribed for both treatment as well as prevention of flu. The currently developed antiviral meds are able to cure 3 major virus groups: hepatitis, herpes, as well as influenza. All anti-herpes drugs function via inhibition of viral replications, acting as substrates for viral DNA polymerase (except for antisense molecule fomivirsen). Influenza treatment drugs tend to generate inhibition of the enzyme neuraminidase or the ion channel M2 protein. When it comes to treatment of chronic hepatitis C, then the most effective treatment is the combination therapy with ribavirin and Interferon-α. Patients suffering from hepatitis C virus genotype 1 are usually prescribed with similar therapy, but with addition of serine protease inhibitors. Chronic hepatitis B patients are generally treated with interferon or alternatively with a combination of nucleoside analogues.. When it comes to flu antiviral meds, it is crucial that the treatment begins as soon as possible. This ...
Hepatitis B and C in Kidney Transplantation. By Smaragdi Marinaki, Konstantinos Drouzas, Chrysanthi Skalioti and John N. Boletis. The prevalence of chronic hepatitis B and C virus infection has declined among the dialysis population during the past decades. However, it still comprises a major health problem with high morbidity and mortality. Renal transplantation is the optimal treatment for patients with end‐stage renal disease and hepatitis B or C, although it is associated to lower patient and allograft survival compared to seronegative kidney recipients. Novel therapeutic strategies with the use of new antiviral agents, especially direct‐acting antiviral agents in hepatitis C, have significantly changed the natural history of both hepatitis B and C not only in the general population but also in renal‐transplant recipients. We believe that future research should focus on the impact of new antiviral medications in this specific subset of patients.. Part of the book: Advances in Treatment ...
Hepatitis C is a major global health burden with an estimated 160 million infected individuals worldwide. This long-term disease evolves slowly, often leading to chronicity and potentially to liver failure. There is no anti-HCV vaccine, and, until recently, the only treatment available, based on pegylated interferon and ribavirin, was partially effective, and had considerable side effects. With recent advances in the understanding of the HCV life cycle, the development of promising direct acting antivirals (DAAs) has been achieved. Their use in combination with the current treatment has led to encouraging results for HCV genotype 1 patients. However, this therapy is quite expensive and will probably not be accessible for all patients worldwide. For this reason, constant efforts are being made to identify new antiviral molecules. Recent reports about natural compounds highlight their antiviral activity against HCV. Here, we aim to review the natural molecules that interfere with the HCV life cycle and
10. Valtrex works best when the levels in your body are constant. During childbirth it can be transmitted to the baby as it passes through the birth canal, which can cause eye problems (conjunctivitis) if left untreated. It stated that 48 of Black women in the USA have Herpes Type 2; yes, 48this means, half of the Black women in the United States of America. Hi, I have a really painful cold sore up my nose! If you recall, an ex-lover accused him of giving her herpes and sued him because of it. And then theres Derek Jeter whos basically PATIENT ZERO for celebrity herpes.. PS-yes, I understand you have a MASSIVELY powerful team behind you such as JAY-Z and all those guys so you feel safe & keep cascading around town knowing that everything wrong you do, will be covered up. The proanthocyanidins in witch hazel have been shown to exert significant antiviral activity against herpes simplex 1 in the test tube. Her name is marbles. Fluorescent Tricyclic Analogues of Acyclovir and Ganciclovir. I read ...
Two groups of antiviral drugs are available for the treatment and prophylaxis of influenza. Antiviral drugs used to treat or prevent influenza are critically important antimicrobials. Acyclovir 400mg capsules and oral solution are indicated for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C in patients 18 years of age and older with compensated liver disease previously untreated with alpha interferon and alpha interferon therapy. Another serious problem with the morden anti-viral medication is that giving antiviral drugs to poultry may leave many countries without low-cost options for treating important emerging viruses in humans. Misuse and overuse of antiviral therapy however increase the risk of resistance. ...
U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved VoseviTM (sofosbuvir 400 mg/velpatasvir 100 mg/voxilaprevir 100 mg) tablets, a single-tablet regimen for the re-treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in adults with genotype 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6 previously treated with an NS5A inhibitor-containing regimen, or with genotype 1a or 3 previously treated with a sofosbuvir-containing regimen without an NS5A inhibitor. The approval is based on data from the Phase 3 POLARIS-1 and POLARIS-4 studies, which evaluated 12 weeks of Vosevi in direct-acting antiviral-experienced chronic HCV-infected patients without cirrhosis or with compensated cirrhosis ...
When a virus infects a person, it hijacks the bodys natural processes in order to fuel its rampage.. A pair of Stanford scientists aims to turn this strength into a weakness and develop what could become a broad-spectrum antiviral drug.. Most antiviral drugs are concocted to act against a specific viral protein. As such, they usually provide a one drug/one bug approach.. Penicillin can kill many types of bacteria, but most antiviral drugs work only against one virus, and sometimes a single subtype of a virus, said Shirit Einav, an assistant professor of medicine and of microbiology and immunology at Stanford School of Medicine.. Additionally, targeting viral proteins is problematic; viruses can mutate quickly, and a single change in the viral sequence can render it fully resistant to the drug.. With the exception of HIV, we still have very few antiviral drugs to offer patients with viral infections, and even those are often quite limited, Einav said. No approved antiviral drugs or ...
Definition of antiviral agent in the Fine Dictionary. Meaning of antiviral agent with illustrations and photos. Pronunciation of antiviral agent and its etymology. Related words - antiviral agent synonyms, antonyms, hypernyms and hyponyms. Example sentences containing antiviral agent
TY - JOUR. T1 - Synthesis and antiviral evaluation of polyhalogenated imidazole nucleosides. T2 - Dimensional analogues of 2,5,6-trichloro-1-(β-D-ribofuranosyl) benzimidazole. AU - Chien, Tun Cheng. AU - Saluja, Sunita S.. AU - Drach, John C.. AU - Townsend, Leroy B.. PY - 2004/11/4. Y1 - 2004/11/4. N2 - A series of polyhalogenated imidazole nucleosides were designed and synthesized as ring-contracted analogues of 2,5,6-trichloro-1-(β-D- ribofuranosyl)benzimidazole (TCRB) and its 2-bromo analogue (BDCRB) in an effort to explore the spatial limitation of the active pocket(s) in the target protein(s). 2,4,5-Trichloro-, 2-bromo-4,5-dichloro-, and 2,4,5-tribromoimidazole nucleosides were prepared by a condensation of the preformed heterocycles with the appropriate sugar precursors. The ribofuranosyl and xylofuranosyl analogues were prepared by a direct glycosylation using the Vorbruggens silylation method and provided exclusively the β-anomers. The arabinofuranosyl analogues were prepared by the ...
The April seminar of the Center for Quantitative Methods and Data Science (QM&DS), in partnership with the Biostatistics, Epidemiology and Research Design (BERD) Center at Tufts CTSI and the Data-Intensive Studies Center (DISC) at Tufts University, is Wednesday, April 21, 2:00-3:00PM via Zoom. The topic of this months webinar is What is the Long-term Effect of Direct Antiviral Agents for Hepatitis C? A Causal Inference Approach Using Big Data, presented by Sara Lodi, PhD.. The advent of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) in 2011 revolutionized hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment: based on clinical trials and real world data, approximately 95% of patients treated with DAA achieved a sustained virological response equivalent to cure. However, even after cure is achieved, the risk of hepatic and extra-hepatic disease remains. Our understanding of post-DAA clinical outcomes is based on clinical trials with relatively short follow-up and selected participants. However, the extent to which DAA ...
Read more about New Zika virus inhibitor identified on Business Standard. A new research has brought a drug to treat Zika infections closer to reality.The team led by Alexey Terskikh and Alex Strongin from Sanford Burnham Prebys Medical Discovery Institute (SBP) discovered a compound that prevents the virus from
Novel broadly neutralizing antibodies targeting HIV-1 hold promise for their use in the prevention and treatment of HIV-1 infection. Pre-clinical results have encouraged the evaluation of these antibodies in healthy and HIV-1-infected humans. In first clinical trials, highly potent broadly neutralizing antibodies have demonstrated their safety and significant antiviral activity by reducing viremia and delaying the time to viral rebound in individuals interrupting antiretroviral therapy. While emerging antibody-resistant viral variants have indicated limitations of antibody monotherapy, strategies to enhance the efficacy of broadly neutralizing antibodies in humans are under investigation. These include the use of antibody combinations to prevent viral escape, antibody modifications to increase the half-life and the co-administration of latency-reversing agents to target the cellular reservoir of HIV-1. We provide an overview of the results of pre-clinical and clinical studies of broadly HIV-1 ...
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This invention provides a method for determining susceptibility for an anti-viral drug comprising: (a) introducing a resistance test vector comprising a patient-derived segment and an indicator gene into a host cell; (b) culturing the host cell from (a); (c) measuring expression of the indicator gene in a target host cell; and (d) comparing the expression of the indicator gene from (c) with the expression of the indicator gene measured when steps (a)-(c) are carried out in the absence of the anti-viral drug, wherein a test concentration of the anti-viral drug is present at steps (a)-(c); at steps (b)-(c); or at step (c). This invention also provides a method for determining anti-viral drug resistance in a patient comprising: (a) determining anti-viral drug susceptibility in the patient at a first time using the susceptibility test described above, wherein the patient-derived segment is obtained from the patient at about said time; (b) determining anti-viral drug susceptibility of the same ...
A trial of an interferon-free regimen of 3 direct-acting antiviral drugs for treatment of hepatitis C virus produced high sustained virologic responses in treatment-naive patients and null responders.
Understanding the mechanisms of viral drug resistance is critical to the clinical management of individuals receiving antiviral therapy, the development of new antiviral drugs, and the surveillance of drug resistance. This chapter reviews the mechanisms of resistance to antiviral agents used to treat seven common viral infections, i.e., infections with herpes simplex virus (HSV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), varicella-zoster virus (VZV), human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2 (HIV-1 and HIV-2), influenza A and B viruses, hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Antiviral drug resistance is usually mediated by mutations in the molecular targets of drug therapy, and the development of drug resistance is the most compelling evidence that an antiviral drug acts by specifically inhibiting a virus rather than its cellular host. Drug-resistant viruses are identified by in vitro passage experiments with increasing concentrations of an inhibitory drug and by ex vivo analysis of virus isolates obtained
Country Office - South Africa: 479 Sappers Contour, Lynnwood, Pretoria,0081, South Africa. , Tel: +27 12 361-0889 , Fax: +27 12 361-0899 , Contact Us or [email protected] ...
The mucus lining the stomachs of pigs may well be a much awaited, copious source of mucins being regarded for use as wide-ranging anti-viral agents for various purpose report scientists.
Background: Achievement of early viral suppression is important in patients with chronic HCV infection treated with telaprevir (TLV) or boceprevir (BOC) to avoid selection of drug resistance and attain cure. No head-to-head studies comparing TLV and BOC have been performed so far.. Methods: All consecutive individuals who initiated triple HCV therapy with TLV or BOC outside clinical trials at three European clinics were evaluated. Rapid virological response (RVR) was defined as unquantifiable HCV RNA (,25 IU/ml) at week 4 for TLV and at week 8 for BOC (4 weeks after lead-in).. Results: A total of 106 patients were evaluated, 33 treated with BOC and 73 with TLV. Median age, gender, body mass index, baseline HCV RNA, HCV subtype 1a (45% versus 42%) and IL28B-CC alleles (29% versus 23%) did not differ significantly in BOC and TLV groups, respectively. HIV coinfection was more prevalent in patients on TLV than BOC (24% versus 44%). Conversely, more patients on BOC than TLV had previously failed ...
High priced anti-viral drugs do NOTHING to prevent hepatitis C, study finds Friday, June 16, 2017 by: Tracey Watson Tags: DAAs, direct-acting antiviral, hepat
Since the onset of antiviral therapy, viral resistance has compromised the clinical value of small-molecule drugs targeting pathogen components. As intracellular parasites, viruses complete their life cycle by hijacking a multitude of host-factors. Aiming at the latter rather than the pathogen directly, host-directed antiviral therapy has emerged as a concept to counteract evolution of viral resistance and develop broad-spectrum drug classes. This approach is propelled by bioinformatics analysis of genome-wide screens that greatly enhance insights into the complex network of host-pathogen interactions and generate a shortlist of potential gene targets from a multitude of candidates, thus setting the stage for a new era of rational identification of drug targets for host-directed antiviral therapies. With particular emphasis on human immunodeficiency virus and influenza virus, two major human pathogens, we review screens employed to elucidate host-pathogen interactions and discuss the state of database
The occurrence or recurrence risk for hepatocellular carcinoma is unclear after direct-acting antiviral agents and interferon based therapy.
The journal focuses on all topics related to hepatoma.Articles in the following areas are especially welcome: Pathogenesis, clinical examination and diagnosis of hepatoma; Complications of hepatoma, and their preventions and treatments etc.
My names Hazel Heal, Im 55 years old. I knew Id had Hep C for many years. I was pregnant and I was very worried about my unborn daughter and we didnt know what it meant and at that time it was considered a bit of a death sentence. It was certainly suggested to me in the hospital when I had my daughter that we wouldnt last long. I hoped that the cures would show up in time and I lived my life. I tried the old treatments and they make you very sick but they didnt cure me. I got the bad news that I was out of time late 2015 and just as I was about to sit my first year law exams. I learned at that time that there were wonderful new drugs, the direct acting antivirals, were available but they werent available in New Zealand at that time and I had to seek them off shore. Ive got to say for myself being cured with direct acting antivirals it was just a complete before and after, my life before, my life after is completely different. What people dont realise is that the price that was being ...
Zheltkova V, Argilaguet J, Peligero C, Bocharov G, Meyerhans A. Prediction of PD-L1 inhibition effects for HIV-infected individuals. PLOS Computational Biology (2019).. Prochnow H, Rox K, Birudukota NVS, Weichert L, Hotop SK, Klahn P, Mohr K, Franz S, Banda DH, Blockus S, Schreiber J, Haid S, Oeyen M, Martinez JP, Süssmuth RD, Wink J, Meyerhans A, Goffinet C, Messerle M, Schulz TF, Kröger A, Schols D, Pietschmann T, Brönstrup M. Labyrinthopeptins exert broad-spectrum antiviral activity through lipid-binding-mediated virolysis. J Virol. (2019). Grebennikov D, Bouchnita A, Volpert V, Bessonov N, Meyerhans A, Bocharov G. Spatial Lymphocite Dynamics in Lymph Nodes Predicts the Cytotoxic T Cell Frequency Needed for HIV Infection Control. Front Immunol. Jun 11;10:1213 (2019).. Gonzalez-Cao M, Martinez-Picado J, Karachaliou N, Rosell R, Meyerhans A. Cancer immunotherapy of patients with HIV infection. Clin Transl Oncol. Jun;21(6):713-720 (2019).. Argilaguet J, Pedragosa M, Esteve-Codina A, Riera G, ...
Sofosbuvir is a direct-acting antiviral agent used to treat specific hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in combination with other antiviral agents.
The present disclosure is generally directed to antiviral compounds, and more specifically directed to compounds which inhibit the function of the NS3 protease (also referred to herein as
Influenza virus can rapidly metamorphose, complicating the effectiveness of vaccines and anti-viral drugs employed in treating it.
Companies developing direct-acting antiviral hepatitis C drugs should factor in interferon treatment when designing clinical trials, the FDA said. Revised draft guidance from the agency on direct-acting antiviral (DAA) development introduced new recommendations for how to design clinical trials around interferon-free drug regimens as well as the impact of combination regimens on patients suffering from a combination of . . .
Applied Organomerallir Chrmisr? (1989) 3 431-436 9 Longman Group UK Ltd 1989 Assessment of the in vitro broad-spectrum antiviral activity of some selected antitumor organotin complexes Sarah G Ward,* R Craig Taylor,*? Alan J Crowe,$ Jan Balzarinis and Erik De Clercq* * Department of Chemistry, Oakland University, Rochester, Michigan, 48309-4401 USA, $ International Tin Research Institute, Kingston Lane, Uxbridge, Middlesex UB8 3PJ, UK, and 9 Rega Institute for Medical Research, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, B-3000 Leuven, Belgium Received 8 March I989 Accepted 15 June I989 Eleven antitumor-active octahedral organotin complexes of the type R2SnX2L2, where R = methyl, ethyl or phenyl, X = chloride or bromide, and L2 = o-phenantholine (phen), 2-)2-pyridyl)benzimidazole (PBI) or two dimethylsulfoxides (2DMSO), were examined for their broad-spectrum in vitro antiviral activity against a number of DNA and RNA viruses. The DNA viruses included in this study were herpes simplex virus type 1and type 2, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Interferon-free, direct-acting antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C. AU - Gutierrez, Julio A.. AU - Lawitz, E. J.. AU - Poordad, F.. PY - 2015/11. Y1 - 2015/11. N2 - The treatment environment for chronic hepatitis C has undergone a revolution, particularly in genotype 1. Gone are interferon-based therapy and its associated tolerability challenges, inadequate response rates and numerous baseline factors that affect response to therapy. New and emerging treatment regimens employ all-oral combinations of direct-acting antiviral agents, and results of clinical trials suggest that these regimens routinely achieve cure rates ,90%, even in patients who failed prior interferon-based triple therapy. In 2015, three all-oral FDA-approved regiments will be available for genotype 1 (sofosbuvir /ledipasvir, sofosbuvir/simeprevir, and paritaprevir/r/ombitasvir/dasabuvir). Furthermore, new treatment combinations appear to be more tolerable and require shorter duration of therapy. We provide ...
Background Hepatitis C virus is mainly transmitted by contact to infected blood. Chronic hepatitis C infection affects around 3% of the world population and progresses slowly. Most patients present without symptoms, or with symptoms like fatigue or liver-related morbidity. Frequently, the disease is discovered by coincidence because of abnormal laboratory results. Around 5% to 40% of all infected patients will develop severe liver damage which can cause severe liver-related morbidities and eventually death. Current treatment consists of pegylated interferon-alpha plus ribavirin and in some subgroups of patients these agents are combined with telaprevir or boceprevir, or other direct acting antivirals. In about 70% of patients with chronic hepatitis C, it is possible to eradicate the virus from the blood, but the clinical effects are not known. Aminoadamantanes (another group of antiviral drugs), mostly amantadine, have been tested in several clinical trials. The authors have previously ...
Gilead Sciences, Inc. (Nasdaq: GILD) today announced results from several Phase 2 and Phase 3 studies evaluating investigational uses of Harvoni(R) (ledipasvir 90 mg/sofosbuvir 400 mg) for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in patients with limited or no treatment options, including patients with decompensated cirrhosis, patients with HCV recurrence following a liver transplant and patients who failed previous treatment with other direct acting antivirals. These data will be presented this week at the 65th Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (The Liver Meeting 2014) in Boston. Chronic hepatitis C patients with advanced liver disease are among the most difficult to cure and traditionally have had limited or no treatment options, said Norbert Bischofberger, PhD, Executive Vice President of Research and Development and Chief Scientific Officer, Gilead Sciences. The data presented this week demonstrate that Harvoni provides high cure ...
All-oral, direct-acting antivirals have significantly improved the efficacy and safety of chronic hepatitis C treatment but their effectiveness and safety among patients with chronic kidney disease remains poorly understood.. Open Article!. ...
Direct Acting Antivirals in Hepatitis C-Infected Kidney Transplant Recipients: Associations with Long-term Graft Failure and Patient Mortality
Tamiflu® (oseltamivir phosphate) is an antiviral medicine for treatment of flu in people 2 weeks of age and older and for prevention of flu in people 1 year of age and older. See full safety for more information.
This is a real-world evidence study that aims to analyze the efficacy, tolerability and safety profile of paritaprevir/ombitasvir/ritonavir and dasabuvir, in patients with renal impairment. We conducted an observational prospective study, on 232 patients with chronic kidney disease, undergoing treatment with paritaprevir/ombitasvir/ritonavir and dasabuvir, for chronic hepatitis C infection - genotype 1b. Renal and liver function were assessed at the beginning of therapy, monthly during treatment and three months after therapy completion. All patients achieved sustained virologic response. Common side effects were nausea, fatigue and headache. Close monitoring of tacrolimus blood levels and dose reduction was required in kidney transplant recipients. HCV therapy in the setting of renal dysfunction has always been a challenging topic. Direct-acting antivirals have shown promising effects, demonstrating good tolerance and efficacy in patients with HCV infection and renal impairment. Sustained virologic
Open in another window calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 (mouse style of malaria. PPARG from the parasite lifestyle cycle. calcium-dependent proteins kinase 1 (parasite in vitro demonstrated solid inhibition of parasite development in several cases. However, regardless of the appealing potency of the early substances, they JAK Inhibitor I IC50 typically demonstrated high log?beliefs and low balance in microsomes. Furthermore, they exhibited poor selectivity for development inhibitiona (%)parasite.15 It had been rapidly discovered that the pyridyl group on the R1 position from the molecule was less important in adding to the binding affinity compared to the core and R2 groups, which means this R1 could possibly be changed with a far more basic amine group with the purpose of reducing the log?and improving the ADME and physical properties from the substances. Exploration of a variety of different simple amine side stores at R1 uncovered that parasite (Desk 2, illustrations 6C8). C-linked phenyl ...
When you get the more infections it is due to multiplying of viruses inside the body. Favipiravir prevents the virus from making copies when it gets inside the cell. By targeting a key protein enzyme that the virus uses to multiply RNA inside the body the process is done. It clear the virus quickly compared to the other anti-drugs. The drug is very effective, and many showed better results after the treatment. It led to a quicker reduction in viral load compared to the other drugs.. A viral infection is still emerging to which there is no effective drug is not available. Many of the anti-viral drugs cause serious problems. Influenza is one of the most prevalent infections caused by the influenza virus. To treat the influenza virus, favipiravir was discovered. Favipiravir treats all the subtypes of the influenza virus and demonstrated activities against the other RNA virus. It clearly says that favipiravir not only treats influenza virus but also other various types of RNA viruses.. Also, it ...
The availability of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAA) regimens has expanded the pool of patients eligible for treatment. However, data on the virologic response and tolerability of DAAs in elderly patients are lacking. We evaluated the efficacy and safety of DAAs in patients with advanced fibrosis/cirrhosis in real-life practice with the focus on those aged ≥65 years. Between January and December 2015, all consecutive patients with HCV-related advanced fibrosis/cirrhosis treated with DAA at eleven tertiary referral centres in Emilia Romagna (Italy) were enrolled. Regimen choice was based on viral genotype and stage of disease, according to guidelines. The primary end point was sustained virologic response 12 weeks after the end of treatment (SVR12). Overall, 282 of 556 (50.7%) patients evaluated were elderly, most of them with cirrhosis. Antiviral therapy was stopped prematurely in four (1.4%) patients. Two patients, both with cirrhosis, died during treatment due to worsening of liver/renal ...
Background: Treating hepatitis C with interferon/ribavirin results in a varied response in terms of decrease in viral titer and ultimate outcome. Marked responders have a sharp decline in viral titer within a few days of treatment initiation, whereas in other patients there is no effect on the virus (poor responders). Previous studies have shown that combination therapy modifies expression of hundreds of genes in vitro and in vivo. However, identifying which, if any, of these genes have a role in viral clearance remains challenging. Aims: The goal of this paper is to link viral levels with gene expression and thereby identify genes that may be responsible for early decrease in viral titer. Methods: Microarrays were performed on RNA isolated from PBMC of patients undergoing interferon/ribavirin therapy. Samples were collected at pre-treatment (day 0), and 1, 2, 7, 14 and 28 days after initiating treatment. A novel method was applied to identify genes that are linked to a decrease in viral titer ...
Until recently, the treatment standard for chronic hepatitis C infection has been alpha intereron monotherapy. Approximately 40% of interferon-treated patients show biochemical and virological response at the end of therapy; however, more than one-half of these responders relapse after treatment cessation. Attempts to improve these response rates have included modifying the dose or regimen of interferon and combining interferon with other antiviral agents (e.g. ribavirin). Results obtained with pegylated alpha interferon, which has a longer duration of activity than standard interferon, are also encouraging.. Despite our improved understanding of the disease, a number of controversies surrounding the treatment of chronic hepatitis C still exist. The role of this symposium is to address some of these controversies and unanswered questions. Today you will hear a discussion of the use of surrogate markers in treatment and management of hepatitis C, about difficult-to-treat patient populations and ...
BACKGROUND: Widely access to interferon-free direct-acting antiviral regimens (IFN-free DAA) is poised to dramatically change the impact of the HCV epidemic among people who inject drugs (PWID). We evaluated the long-term effect of increasing HCV testing, treatment and engagement into harm-reduction activities, focused on active PWID, on the HCV epidemic in British Columbia (BC), Canada.. METHODS: We built a compartmental model of HCV disease transmission stratified by disease progression, transmission risk, and fibrosis level. We explored the effect of: (1) Increasing treatment rates from 8 to 20, 40 and 80 per 1000 infected PWID/year; (2) Increasing treatment eligibility based on fibrosis level; (3) Maximizing the effect of testing by performing it immediately upon ending the acute phase; (4) Increasing access to harm-reduction activities to reduce the risk of re-infection; (5) Different HCV antiviral regimens on the Control Reproduction Number Rc. We assessed the impact of these interventions ...
Direct-acting Antivirals in Kidney Transplant Patients: Successful Hepatitis C Treatment and Short Term Reduction in Urinary Protein/Creatinine Ratios
Via Scoop.it - Virology NewsInvestments in the development of new drugs for orthopoxvirus infections have fostered new avenues of research, provided an improved understanding of orthopoxvirus biology and yielded new therapies that are currently progressing through clinical trials. These broad-based efforts have also resulted in the identification of new inhibitors of orthopoxvirus replication that target…
Bicyclol, the most commonly-used liver hepatoprotective drug in China, is often selected to control disease progression in CHB patients who refuse anti-viral treatment. However, data on histological changes after bicyclol treatment in these patients are scarce. Therefore, this study has been conducted to find out whether bicyclol has good benefits of histological improvement in CHB patients who refuse anti-viral agents. The demographic, clinical and pathological data were collected from CHB patients who received bicyclol from January 2010 to June 2016. Improvement in liver inflammation or fibrosis is defined as at least one-grade or one-stage decrease as measured by the Scheuer scoring system. Thirty patients treated with ETV for 48 weeks were chosen as a control group to compare the histological improvement between bicyclol and entecavir (ETV) after 48-week treatment. A total of 123 patients with CHB treated with bicyclol were included in this study. Paired liver biopsies were performed in 70 patients.
Audience: Pediatricians, Primary Care Providers, and other Healthcare professionals. Roche Laboratories and FDA notified healthcare professionals of new preclinical safety data that have implications for the use of Tamiflu in very young children. Preclinical findings in juvenile rats have raised concerns regarding the use of Tamiflu in infants less than 1 year of age. A single dose of 1000 mg/kg oseltamivir phosphate (about 250 times the recommended dose in children) in 7-day-old rats resulted in deaths associated with levels of oseltamivir phosphate in the brain approximately 1500 times those seen in adult animals. It is likely that these high exposures are related to an immature blood-brain barrier. The clinical significance of these preclinical data to human infants is uncertain. Given the uncertainty in predicting the exposures in infants with immature blood-brain barriers, it is recommended that Tamiflu not be administered to children younger than 1 year ...
Health, ...INDIANAPOLIS Adding a direct acting anti-viral drug to the standard t...The research team led by Paul Kwo M.D. of Indiana University School...An estimated 3.2 million Americans and 170 million people worldwide ar...Currently fewer than half of patients with genotype 1 hepatitis C are ...,New,anti-viral,drug,shows,promise,for,dramatic,improvement,in,hepatitis,C,treatment,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection rate in China is about 3%, which means about 30 million patients. Combination therapy of ribavirin and interferons (IFN) is the standard clinical treatment of HCV chronical infections. However, overall rate of sustained virological response (SVR) still do not exceed 60% even with ribavirin and peg-IFN. Due to several virus- and patient-related factors, treatment is even less successful in certain populations, especially in HCV genotype 1 infection. Thus the standard therapy duration is optimized according to the virus genotype in the clinical practice. Nowadays, two direct antiviral agents (DAAs) have been approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of USA this year, which increases the SVR rate. However, high price, side effects and long duration render people to hesitate about the addition of the third drug in the traditional prescription.. Predicting the outcome of traditional therapy is the cornerstone of the personalized therapy for HCV infected ...
Paritaprevir is a direct acting antiviral medication used as part of combination therapy to treat chronic Hepatitis C, an infectious liver disease caused by infection with Hepatitis C Virus (HCV). HCV is a single-stranded RNA virus that is categorized into nine distinct genotypes, with genotype 1 being the most common in the United States, and affecting 72% of all chronic HCV patients [L852]. Treatment options for chronic Hepatitis C have advanced significantly since 2011, with the development of Direct Acting Antivirals (DAAs) such as paritaprevir. As a newer generation and directly acting HCV antiviral, paritaprevir products have better Sustained Virological Response (SVR) rates, higher barriers to resistance, fewer side effects, and a reduced pill burden compared to older agents such as [DB08873], [DB05521], [DB00008], [DB00022], and [DB00811]. By combining multiple antiretroviral medications into fixed dose products, the viral lifecycle can be targeted at multiple stages while simultaneously
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Dasabuvir is a direct acting antiviral medication used as part of combination therapy to treat chronic Hepatitis C, an infectious liver disease caused by infection with Hepatitis C Virus (HCV). HCV is a single-stranded RNA virus that is categorized into nine distinct genotypes, with genotype 1 being the most common in the United States, and affecting 72% of all chronic HCV patients [L852]. Treatment options for chronic Hepatitis C have advanced significantly since 2011, with the development of Direct Acting Antivirals (DAAs) such as Dasabuvir. Dasabuvir is a non-nucleoside NS5B inhibitor which binds to the palm domain of NS5B and induces a conformational change which renders the polymerase unable to elongate viral RNA [FDA Label]. The binding sites for non-nucleoside NS5B inhibitors are poorly conserved across HCV genotypes leading to the restriction of Dasabuvirs use to genotype 1 only. In a joint recommendation published in 2016, the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases (AASLD) and
Studies have suggested marked increases in transplant delisting due to clinical improvement for patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) associated cirrhosis in the era of direct acting antivirals (DAAs). This study provides a real world assessment of waitlist dynamics for HCV transplant candidates in the current era.This was a retrospective cohort study of adults waitlisted for liver transplant (LT) alone between 1/1/2005-12/31/2018 using national US data. The post-DAA era included all listings occurring after 1/1/2013. Temporal trends in waitlisting, patient characteristics and outcomes with decompensated cirrhosis were evaluated. Adjusted competing risks models assessed the interaction of DAA-era and HCV history on (i) waitlist mortality, and (ii) delisting due to clinical improvement.Overall listing rates for HCV patients have decreased in the DAA era and particularly with Model for End-stage Liver Disease score ≥15 and ≥30. Rates of refractory ascites and severe encephalopathy at listing ...
Summary The antiviral activity of phenyl-6-chloro-6-deoxy-β-d-glucopyranoside (PCG) was studied. PCG specifically inhibited the growth of paramyxoviruses including Sendai, measles and Newcastle disease viruses in LLCMK2 cells at a concentration of 0.5 to 1.0 mm, but did not restrict the multiplication of other RNA viruses (influenza, vesicular stomatitis and polio viruses) at these concentrations. PCG might act in the late stage during virus replication of Sendai virus as it did not inhibit virus RNA and protein synthesis in the infected cells. Comparative studies on the biological properties of virus particles grown in the presence and absence of PCG demonstrated that treatment with it caused the formation of non-haemagglutinating particles.
available TLR-7 agonist that was selected because its antiviral response dominated its proinflammatory response.33 In preclinical studies of woodchucks and chimpanzees, this agent reduced surface antigen and viral DNA, and some animals lost surface antigen and seroconverted to surface antibody.34 This agent also decreased HBeAg and induced IFN-α and IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) as well as natural killer cells. However, the agent did not decrease HBsAg in humans in short-term studies, although it did induce ISG-15 production.35 When studied in the clinic in a group of 26 HBeAg-negative CHB patients who were suppressed on TDF for at least 3 years, the addition of 12 weeks of GS-9620 at 1, 2, or 4 mg orally each week did not alter HBsAg levels in serum.36 There were improvements in natural killer cell and specific T-cell responses observed with GS-9620 (eg, IFN-γ and interleukin-2 production).37. Host Cellular Targets. Second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases mimetics are targeted agents ...
Merck & Co Inc: Merck Announces Findings for Investigational Triple-Combination Chronic Hepatitis C Therapy Showing High Rates of Sustained Virologic Response in People with Genotypes 1, 2 or 3 Infection (Businesswire ...
The first NS3/4A hepatitis C virus (HCV) protease inhibitors telaprevir and boceprevir were approved in 2011,and both NS5A and NS5B polymerase inhibitors were launched. Recently, direct-acting antivirals (DAAs) have had a major impact on patients infected with Hepatitis C virus (HCV). HCV DAAs are highly effective antivirals with fewer side effects. DAAs have been developed for treatment of HCV infection in combination with PEG-IFNα/RBV as well as in IFN-free regimens. However, some drug resistance mutations occur when a single oral DAA is used for treatment, which indicates that there is a low-frequency drug resistance mutation in HCV patients before the application of antiviral drugsOur research showed that natural resistance to HCV DAAs was found in treatment-naïve CHC patients and that the drug resistance mutation rates differ in various HCV genotypes ...
A sustained virologic response (SVR) was achieved by 2,140 patients (total = 95.2%; 95.9% with Child Pugh class A and 88.3% with Child Pugh class B; P , .001). Seventy-eight patients (3.5%) developed HCC during a mean follow-up of 14 months (range = 6-24 months). At 1 year after exposure to DAAs, HCC developed in 2.1% of patients with Child-Pugh class A with an SVR and 6.6% of patients with no SVR and in 7.8% of patients with Child-Pugh class B with an SVR and 12.4% of patients with no SVR (P , .001 by log-rank test). Albumin level below 3.5 g/dL (hazard ratio = 1.77, 95% confidence interval = 1.12-2.82, P = .015), platelet count below 120 × 109/L (hazard ratio = 3.89, 95% confidence interval = 2.11-7.15, P , .001), and absence of an SVR (hazard ratio = 3.40, 95% confidence interval = 1.89-6.12, P , .001) were independently associated increased risk for HCC. The mean interval from exposure to DAAs to an HCC diagnosis was 9.8 months (range = 2-22 months) and did not differ significantly between ...
Chronic hepatitis C: future treatment Astrid Wendt, Xavier Adhoute, Paul Castellani, Valerie Oules, Christelle Ansaldi, Souad Benali, Marc BourlièreDepartment of Hepato-Gastroenterology, Hôpital Saint-Joseph, Marseille, FranceAbstract: The launch of first-generation protease inhibitors (PIs) is a major step forward in HCV treatment. However, the major advance is up to now restricted to genotype 1 (GT-1) patients. The development of second-wave and second-generation PIs yields higher antiviral potency through plurigenotypic activity, more convenient daily administration, fewer side effects and, for the second-generation PIs, potential activity against resistance-associated variants. NS5B inhibitors include nucleoside/nucleotide inhibitors (NIs) and non-nucleotide inhibitors (NNIs). NIs have high efficacy across all genotypes. Sofosbuvir has highly potent antiviral activity across all genotypes in association with pegylated interferon and ribavirin (PR), thus allowing shortened treatment duration. NS5A
Viruses are one of the main hazards for both humans and animals. They enter in the living body and redirect body s metabolism to produce large copies of their genome and proteins. Diseases caused by these viruses are difficult to tackle with the help of currently available antiviral drugs. So the aim of this study was to explore the plants with reported antiviral activity, to get understanding for better control of these viruses. Herpes virus, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), influenza and hepatitis virus were at top among all studied viruses. Prominent modes of action against these viruses were inhibition of viral entry and its replication in host cell. Against RNA viruses plants mainly targeted their Reverse Transcriptase (RT) enzyme (like HIV) or protease (mostly found against hepatitis C virus). A range of active compounds have been identified which could be the potential antiviral agents for future drug development. Some plants like Allium sativum, Daucus maritimus, Helichrysum ...
The European Medicines Agency is to review the safety of direct-acting antivirals used to treat patients with chronic hepatitis C infection.
... ... ... ... ...,ANA773,Demonstrates,Significant,Antiviral,Response,in,Early,Clinical,Trial,in,Hepatitis,C,Patients,medicine,advanced medical technology,medical laboratory technology,medical device technology,latest medical technology,Health
Anti-viral drugs for the treatment of H1N1 Influenza which has killed four students of the Kumasi Academy Senior High School(KUMACA) are expected in the country today.. The World Health Organization(WHO) is supplying the anti-viral agents (Tamiflu) following a request from government as it struggles to deal with the situation at KUMACA.. Some students and staff of the Kumasi Academy, the epicentre of the dreaded H1N1 Influenza outbreak have already been vaccinated.. Parents who withdrew their wards from the Kumasi Academy following the outbreak of the deadly atypical bacterial infection disease were also vaccinated.. It was feared that the parents were at risk of contracting the disease after coming into contact with their wards.. Four students of KUMACA died within a week a fortnight ago after they fell ill to a strange disease which was later found to be H1N1 Influnza while over 40 others were admitted at the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital and the Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and ...
Merck presented the final results of its investigational chronic hepatitis C therapy clinical trial concerning grazoprevir and elbasvir combinations at the International Liver Congress 2015 in Vienna, Austria, last week.
A chara, - Whatever the merits or not of opening pubs and restaurants on June 29th under the new guidelines issued by the National Public Health Emergency Team (NPHET), can I appeal to everyone concerned to note that vinegar-based solutions, which are wonderful for so many purposes, are not an anti-viral agent. I say this because your photograph on June 18th shows a barman disinfecting a table surface in preparation for the opening of a pub with a bottle marked vinegar. The same caution should be observed when sanitising your hands from the many products labelled as anti-bacterial agents. They do not offer protection against corona viruses. While soap and water are still cheap and effective surface cleaners, perhaps its also time for a health campaign to advise the public on the choice and usage of appropriate sanitising agents? - Is mise, Dr VINCENT KENNY,. Knocklyon,. Dublin 16.. ...
Oseltamivir anti-viral drug. Box containing capsules of oseltamivir, marketed under the name Tamiflu. Oseltamivir used to slow down the spread of the influenza (flu) virus. - Stock Image C015/5296
The U.S. is investing $3.2 billion to advance the development of antiviral pills to treat Covid-19 and other viruses that have pandemic potential.
"Pandemic Influenza: Use of Antiviral Agents". Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy (CIDRAP).. ... Anti-viral drugs[edit]. There are two groups of antiviral drugs available for the treatment and prophylaxis of influenza ... Due to the high rate of side effects and risk of antiviral resistance, use of adamantanes to fight influenza is limited.[81] ... Measured resistance to the standard antiviral drugs amantadine and rimantadine in H3N2 has increased from 1% in 1994 to 12% in ...
Novel antiviral agents to prevent and treat infection with the viruses responsible for HFMD are currently under development. ... Pourianfar HR, Grollo L (February 2014). "Development of antiviral agents toward enterovirus 71 infection". J Microbiol Immunol ... No antiviral medication or vaccine is available, but development efforts are underway. Most cases require no specific treatment ... Preliminary studies have shown inhibitors of the EV-71 viral capsid to have potent antiviral activity. Kaminska, K; Martinetti ...
Interferon-inducing antiviral agents". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 28 (12): 1864-9. doi:10.1021/jm00150a018. PMID 2999405. ... Bropirimine is an experimental drug with anti-cancer and antiviral properties.[citation needed] It is an orally effective ... Akaza H, Kotake T, Machida T (August 1998). "Bropirimine, an orally active anticancer agent for superficial bladder cancer". ... Chemistry of the immunomodulatory agent bropirimine". Anti-Cancer Drug Design. 10 (3): 215-26. PMID 7748456. v t e. ...
... a first-in-class broad-spectrum antiviral agent". Antiviral Res. 110: 94-103. doi:10.1016/j.antiviral.2014.07.014. PMID ... Antiviral Res. 77 (1): 56-63. doi:10.1016/j.antiviral.2007.08.005. PMID 17888524. "Blastocystis: Resources for Health ... Agents Chemother. 46 (7): 2116-23. doi:10.1128/aac.46.7.2116-2123.2002. PMC 127316 . PMID 12069963. Nitazoxanide (NTZ) is a ... Nitazoxanide is a broad-spectrum antiparasitic and broad-spectrum antiviral drug that is used in medicine for the treatment of ...
Antibiotics are used to treat bacterial infections; antiviral agents treat viral infections; and antifungal agents treat fungal ... Infectious diseases specialists employ a variety of antimicrobial agents to help treat infections. The type of antimicrobial ...
"Pathogenic Molluscum Contagiosum Virus Sequenced". Antiviral Agents Bulletin: 196-7. August 1996. Retrieved 2006-07-16. Wibbelt ...
Rahimi H, Mara T, Costella J, Speechley M, Bohay R (May 2012). "Effectiveness of antiviral agents for the prevention of ... Avoiding exposure, antiviral medication[3][8]. Treatment. Zinc oxide, anesthetic, or antiviral cream,[1] antivirals by mouth[3] ... It is comparable in effectiveness to prescription topical antiviral agents. Due to its mechanism of action, there is little ... or antiviral cream appears to decrease the duration of symptoms by a small amount.[1] Antiviral medications may also decrease ...
"Pandemic Influenza: Use of Antiviral Agents". Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy (CIDRAP). Butler D (2005). " ... Other anti-viral drugs are less likely to be effective against pandemic influenza. Both Tamiflu and Relenza are in short supply ... Due to the high rate of side effects and risk of antiviral resistance, use of adamantanes to fight influenza is limited. Many ... Antiviral drugs can be used to treat influenza, with neuraminidase inhibitors being particularly effective. Variants of ...
Anti-viral agent. Saquinavir. HIV protease is needed to cleave Gag-Pol polyprotein into 3 individual proteins so they can ... Anti-fungi agent. Azole. Ergosterol is a sterol that forms the cell surface membrane of the fungi. Azole can inhibit its ... Anti-bacterial agent. Penicillin. The bacterial cell wall is composed of peptidoglycan. During bacterial growth the present ...
Antiviral agents act by inhibiting viral DNA replication. There is little evidence to support the use of antivirals such as ... Antivirals are expensive, risk causing resistance to antiviral agents, and (in 1% to 10% of cases) can cause unpleasant side ... De Paor, M; O'Brien, K; Fahey, T; Smith, SM (8 December 2016). "Antiviral agents for infectious mononucleosis (glandular fever ... De Paor M, O'Brien K, Smith SM (2016). "Antiviral agents for infectious mononucleosis (glandular fever)". The Cochrane Database ...
... is an NS5A inhibitor antiviral agent. In the United States and Europe, it is approved for use with glecaprevir as ... May 2017). "In Vitro Antiviral Activity and Resistance Profile of the Next-Generation Hepatitis C Virus NS5A Inhibitor ... Pibrentasvir". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 61 (5): e02558-16. doi:10.1128/AAC.02558-16. PMC 5404558. PMID 28193664. ...
Antiviral agents act by inhibiting viral DNA replication, but as of 2016 there was little evidence that they are effective ... they risk causing resistance to antiviral agents, and (in 1% to 10% of cases) can cause unpleasant side effects. Several ... "Antiviral agents for infectious mononucleosis (glandular fever)". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 12 (12): ...
... is also a possible antiviral agent. It causes the death of cells infected with HIV and preventing the replication of ... Antiviral Research. 61 (1): 1-18. doi:10.1016/j.antiviral.2003.09.004. PMID 14670589. Pumfery A, de la Fuente C, Berro R, ... Agbottah E, de La Fuente C, Nekhai S, Barnett A, Gianella-Borradori A, Pumfery A, Kashanchi F (28 January 2005). "Antiviral ...
... and Antiviral drugs against multiple viral agents. Some vaccines also have applicability for diseases of domestic animals (e.g ... In 1997, United States law formally defined weaponizable bio-agents as "Biological Select Agents or Toxins" (BSATs) - or simply ... Biological agents have been used in warfare for centuries to produce death or disease in humans, animals, or plants. The United ... A "Select Agent Program" (SAP) was established to satisfy requirements of the USA PATRIOT Act of 2001 and the Public Health ...
Antiviral agents act by inhibiting viral DNA replication, but there is little evidence that they are effective against Epstein- ... Moreover, they are expensive, risk causing resistance to antiviral agents, and (in 1% to 10% of cases) can cause unpleasant ... De Paor M, O'Brien K, Smith SM (2016). "Antiviral agents for infectious mononucleosis (glandular fever)". The Cochrane Database ... 2014). "The role of EBV in the pathogenesis of Burkitt's Lymphoma: an Italian hospital based survey". Infectious Agents and ...
"Mucin biopolymers as broad-spectrum antiviral agents". Biomacromolecules. 13 (6): 1724-1732. doi:10.1021/bm3001292. ISSN 1526- ... and suggested that they could be used to supplement the anti-viral activity of native mucins. She has also shown that mucins ...
Shannon WM, Schabel FM (1980). "Antiviral agents as adjuncts in cancer chemotherapy". Pharmacology & Therapeutics. 11 (2): 263- ... implications for mitochondrial toxicity of antiviral nucleoside analogs". Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 58 (11): 6758- ... Some antiviral drugs, such as acyclovir (ATC: J05AB01) and ganciclovir (ATC: J05AB06) as well as other nucleoside analogs make ... Thymidine kinase is required for the action of many antiviral drugs. It is used to select hybridoma cell lines in production of ...
"Vaccines and Antiviral Agents". Current Issues in Molecular Virology - Viral Genetics and Biotechnological Applications. doi: ... The agent stimulates the body's immune system to recognize the agent as a threat, destroy it, and to further recognize and ... neutralizing the target agent before it can enter cells, and (2) recognizing and destroying infected cells before that agent ... When the virulent version of an agent is encountered, the body recognizes the protein coat on the virus, and thus is prepared ...
It is also used as an antiviral agent. It is currently marketed, by United Phosphorus Ltd - UPL, as "Asulox" which contains 400 ...
August 2020). "Repurposing old drugs as antiviral agents for coronaviruses". Biomedical Journal. 43 (4): 368-374. doi:10.1016/j ...
There is thus obtained the antiviral agent edoxudine 4. Hamuy R, Berman B (December 1998). "Topical antiviral agents for herpes ... Edoxudine (or edoxudin) is an antiviral drug. It is an analog of thymidine, a nucleoside. It has shown effectiveness against ...
Moghadamtousi, Soheil; Nikzad, Sonia; Kadir, Habsah; Abubakar, Sazaly; Zandi, Keivan (2015-07-22). "Potential Antiviral Agents ... The antiviral properties of marine fungi were realized in 1988 after their compounds were used to successfully treat the H1N1 ... Marine fungi produce antiviral and antibacterial compounds as metabolites with upwards of 1,000 having realized and potential ... In addition to H1N1, antiviral compounds isolated from marine fungi have been shown to have virucidal effects on HIV, herpes ...
De Clercq E (April 2002). "Highlights in the development of new antiviral agents". Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry. 2 (2): ... Mozenavir (DMP-450) is an antiviral drug which was developed as a treatment for HIV/AIDS. It acts as an HIV protease inhibitor ...
Finally lactoperoxidase may find application as anti-tumor and anti viral agents. Lactoperoxidase has been used with ... Lactoperoxidase is an effective antimicrobial and antiviral agent. Consequently, applications of lactoperoxidase are being ... Lactoperoxidase is an effective antimicrobial agent and is used as an antibacterial agent in reducing bacterial microflora in ... Agents Chemother. 23 (2): 267-72. doi:10.1128/aac.23.2.267. PMC 186035. PMID 6340603. Sipe HJ, Jordan SJ, Hanna PM, Mason RP ( ...
De Clercq E (2002). "Highlights in the development of new antiviral agents". Mini Rev Med Chem. 2 (2): 163-75. doi:10.2174/ ... Agents Chemother. 37 (2): 153-8. doi:10.1128/aac.37.2.153. PMC 187630. PMID 8452343. Skett P, Gibson GG (2001). "Chapter 3: ...
... an innate antiviral agent suppressing hepatitis C virus in human hepatocytes". Hepatology. 54 (5): 1570-9. doi:10.1002/hep. ... doi:10.1016/j.antiviral.2010.08.014. PMID 20813137.. *^ Biswal BK, Cherney MM, Wang M, et al. (May 2005). "Crystal structures ... Two agents-boceprevir by Merck[65] and telaprevir by Vertex Pharmaceuticals-both inhibitors of NS3 protease were approved for ... Parts of this article (those related to direct-acting antiviral medications) need to be updated. Please update this article to ...
Snell, N. J. (1 August 2001). "Ribavirin--current status of a broad spectrum antiviral agent". Expert Opinion on ... In 1972, ICN discovered the ribavirin compound, the earliest recorded broad spectrum antiviral agent. Chemists Joseph T. ... "Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Activity of Virazole: 1-f8- D-Ribofuranosyl- 1,2,4-triazole- 3-carboxamide". Science. 177 (4050): 705- ...
Currently treatment of ARN consists of antiviral therapy administered orally. Typical antiviral agents used include famciclovir ... Taking antiviral agents after the issue is resolved seems to lessen the chance of it spreading to the other eye. ... While there is no prevention for ARN, exposing a patient to antiviral agents in the earlier phases of the outbreak tend to ... The patients were not so responsive to the antiviral agents given to them through an IV, acyclovir specifically. The cases ...
Marriott AC, Dimmock NJ (2010). "Defective interfering viruses and their potential as antiviral agents". Rev. Med. Virol. 20 (1 ... to learn more about the interference in infection of host cells and how DI genomes could potentially work as antiviral agents. ... Time to reevaluate their clinical potential as broad-spectrum antivirals?". Journal of Virology. 88 (10): 5217-27. doi:10.1128/ ... "Immunostimulatory Defective Viral Genomes from Respiratory Syncytial Virus Promote a Strong Innate Antiviral Response during ...
97 patients were randomly assigned to one of the three groups: indinavir monotherapy, AZT and lamivudine, or all three agents. ... It is soluble white powder administered orally in combination with other antiviral drugs. The drug prevents protease from ... The study's goal was to show the different effects of different antiviral treatments. ...
... virus is classified as a biosafety level 4 agent, as well as a Category A bioterrorism agent by the Centers for Disease ... which code for proteins with antiviral properties.[51] EBOV's V24 protein blocks the production of these antiviral proteins by ... Zubray G (2013). Agents of Bioterrorism: Pathogens and Their Weaponization. New York, NY, USA: Columbia University Press. pp. ...
However, antiviral medications, such as acyclovir and valacyclovir, are quite effective in prevention of HSCT-related outbreak ... while requiring high doses of immunosuppressive agents in the early stages of treatment, these doses are less than for ... "in the absence of chronic treatment with disease-modifying agents".[66] ... of herpetic infection in seropositive patients.[33] The immunosuppressive agents employed in allogeneic transplants for the ...
"Antiviral Research. 81 (1): 6-15. doi:10.1016/j.antiviral.2008.08.004. PMC 2647018. PMID 18796313.. ... A local doctor concluded that some unspecified infectious agent had arrived in a package from New Orleans.[74][75] 650 ... Monath TP (April 2008). "Treatment of yellow fever". Antiviral Res. 78 (1): 116-24. doi:10.1016/j.antiviral.2007.10.009. PMID ... Ribavirin and other antiviral drugs, as well as treatment with interferons, do not have a positive effect in patients.[18] ...
Antiviral drugs: antiretroviral drugs used against HIV (primarily J05). Entry/fusion inhibitors (Discovery and development). * ...
Dithianes - Removed by metal salts or oxidizing agents.. Carboxylic acid protecting groups[edit]. Protection of carboxylic ... Oseltamivir (Tamiflu, an antiviral drug) synthesis by Roche. *Sucralose (sweetener). References[edit]. *^ Kamaya, Yasushi; T ... Tosyl (Ts) group - Removed by concentrated acid (HBr, H2SO4) & strong reducing agents (sodium in liquid ammonia or sodium ... Pivaloyl (Piv) - Removed by acid, base or reductant agents. It is substantially more stable than other acyl protecting groups. ...
These infectious agents produce proteases and collagenases which break down the corneal stroma. Complete loss of the stroma can ... Viral corneal ulceration caused by herpes virus may respond to antivirals like topical acyclovir ointment instilled at least ... Fungal corneal ulcers require intensive application of topical anti-fungal agents. ...
However, intravenous solutions of antiviral foscarnet and antifungal fluconazole are incompatible with pentamidine.[9] To avoid ... Antiprotozoal agents. *Amidines. *DNA-binding substances. *NMDA receptor antagonists. *Phenol ethers. *World Health ...
... helps remove infectious agents.[2] Also, mucus traps infectious agents.[2] The gut flora can prevent the colonization of ... play a central role in antiviral host defense and a cell's antiviral state.[23] Viral components are recognized by different ... This leads to antiviral protein production, such as protein kinase R, which inhibits viral protein synthesis, or the 2′,5′- ... Acting as a physical and chemical barrier to infectious agents; via physical measures like skin or tree bark and chemical ...
De Clercq E (2002). "Highlights in the development of new antiviral agents". 》Mini Rev Med Chem》 2 (2): 163-75. doi:10.2174/ ... Agents Chemother.》 37 (2): 153-8. doi:10.1128/aac.37.2.153. PMC 187630. PMID 8452343.. ...
53.0 53.1 Coovadia H (2004). "Antiretroviral agents-how best to protect infants from HIV and save their mothers from AIDS". N. ... Yarchoan R, Tosatom G, Littlem RF (2005). "Therapy insight: AIDS-related malignancies - the influence of antiviral therapy on ... 2002). "Guidelines for using antiretroviral agents among HIV-infected adults and adolescents". Ann. Intern. Med. 137 (5 Pt 2): ... "Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in HIV-1-Infected Adults and Adolescents" (PDF). Department of Health and Human ...
... leading to induction of interferon and other antiviral cytokines. A subset of viruses and bacteria subvert the autophagic ... cannabisin B possesses considerable antiproliferative activity and that it may be utilised as a promising chemopreventive agent ...
It is an oxidizing agent that, by virtue of its accepting electrons, is itself reduced in the process. Contrast electron donor. ... In a typical scenario, a virus-infected cell will release interferons causing nearby cells to heighten their antiviral defenses ... It is a reducing agent that, by virtue of its giving up its electrons, is itself oxidized in the process. Contrast electron ... or another microbial agent which causes disease for a host organism by invading the host's tissues.. pathology. A medical ...
Baptista, M; =Ramalho-Santos, J (2009-11-01). "Spermicides, microbicides and antiviral agents: recent advances in the ... "Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in Pediatric HIV Infection" (PDF). The Panel on Antiretroviral Therapy and ... Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents (2009-12-01). Guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents in ... Coovadia H (2004). "Antiretroviral agents-how best to protect infants from HIV and save their mothers from AIDS". N. Engl. J. ...
He thought that the causal agent was the bacteria. However, after larger inoculation with a large number of bacteria, he failed ... Ding, S. W.; Voinnet, O. (2007). "Antiviral Immunity Directed by Small RNAs". Cell. 130 (3): 413-426. doi:10.1016/j.cell. ...
Antibiotics and antivirals[change , change source]. Antibiotics have no effect against viral infections and thus have no effect ... Isolation of the actual viral agent involved is rarely performed.[30] It is generally not possible to identify the specific ... A number of antivirals have been tested for effectiveness in the common cold. As of 2009, none have been both found effective ... There are no effective antiviral drugs for the common cold, even though some preliminary research has shown benefit.[36][46] ...
The antigen (usually a protein or carbohydrate made by an infectious agent) is bound by the antibody, allowing this type of ... whereas fungal and viral infections are treated with antifungals and antivirals respectively. A broad class of drugs known as ... Identification of an infectious agent for a minor illness can be as simple as clinical presentation; such as gastrointestinal ... Fast and relatively simple biochemical tests can be used to identify infectious agents. For bacterial identification, the use ...
... viruses and interim guidelines for use of antiviral agents-United States, 2005-06 influenza season" (PDF). MMWR. Morbidity and ... "Antiviral Research. 78 (1): 91-102. doi:10.1016/j.antiviral.2008.01.003. PMC 2346583. PMID 18328578.. ... Antivirals. The two classes of antiviral drugs used against influenza are neuraminidase inhibitors (oseltamivir, zanamivir, ... "Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 38 (8): 1864-67. doi:10.1128/aac.38.8.1864. PMC 284652. PMID 7986023.. ...
antifungal, alkalinizing agents, quinolones, antibiotics, cholinergics, anticholinergics, antispasmodics, 5-alpha reductase ... antibiotics, antifungals, antileprotics, antituberculous drugs, antimalarials, anthelmintics, amoebicides, antivirals, ... In the inter-war period, the first anti-bacterial agents such as the sulpha antibiotics were developed. The Second World War ... These were drugs that worked chiefly as anti-anxiety agents and muscle relaxants. The first benzodiazepine was Librium. Three ...
Cannabinoids are used in patients with cachexia, cytotoxic nausea, and vomiting, or who are unresponsive to other agents. These ...
"Antiviral Research. 99 (3): 345-70. doi:10.1016/j.antiviral.2013.06.009. PMID 23811281.. ... Chikungunya is one of more than a dozen agents researched as a potential biological weapon.[85] ... No antiviral treatment for Chikungunya virus is currently available, though testing has shown several medications to be ... insecticides or biological control agents can be added.[12] Methods of protection against contact with mosquitos include using ...
2005 Nov;26(5):343-56 (PMID 16323269); Erratum. In: Int J Antimicrob Agents. Feb 2006, Bd. 27, Nr. 2, S. 181. ... Antiviral chemistry & chemotherapy. Band 19, Nr. 1, 2008, S. 7-13. PMID 18610553. ... Cushnie TPT, Lamb AJ (2005). „Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids". International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents 26 (5), 343- ... T. P. Cushnie und A. J. Lamb: Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids Int J Antimicrob Agents. ...
Doctors recommend antiviral drugs, steroids, antidepressants, anticonvulsants, and topical agents to treat shingles. The ... antiviral drugs acyclovir, valacyclovir, and famcyclovir can reduce the severity of shingles. ...
Antiviral Res. 1995 Mar;26(2):161-71 Childers M, Eckel G, Himmel A, Caldwell J (2007). "A new model of cystic fibrosis ... Agents Chemother. 23 (2): 267-72. doi:10.1128/aac.23.2.267. PMC 186035 . PMID 6340603. Gattas MV, Forteza R, Fragoso MA, ... OSCN− has also been identified as an antimicrobial agent in milk, saliva, tears, and mucus. OSCN− is considered as safe product ... Thomas EL, Bates KP, Jefferson MM (September 1980). "Hypothiocyanite ion: detection of the antimicrobial agent in human saliva ...
These vaccines contained HBV-infected human serum as a stabilizing agent. HBV was identified as a new DNA virus in the 1960s, ... "Australia agent" by Blumberg and colleagues in the blood of an Aboriginal transfusion patient. This work earned Blumberg the ... the first known hepatitis with a viral etiological agent was Hepatitis A, in the picornaviridae family. Hepatis B Virus (HBV) ...
... not all triglyceride lowering agents are PPAR agonists, and not all drugs that are used to treat atherosclerosis are ...
Talalay, P; Talalay, P (2001). "The importance of using scientific principles in the development of medicinal agents from ... Because these phytochemicals often have antiviral, antibacterial, antifungal, and antihelminthic properties, a plausible case ... "Which botanicals or other unconventional anticancer agents should we take to clinical trial?". J Soc Integr Oncol. 5 (3): 125- ... and pseudoscientific practices of using unrefined plant or animal extracts as supposed medicines or health-promoting agents.[1] ...
Moorer WR (August 2003). "Antiviral activity of alcohol for surface disinfection". International Journal of Dental Hygiene. 1 ( ... "Evaluation of antifungal activity of carbonate and bicarbonate salts alone or in combination with biocontrol agents in control ...
Antiviral ilaçlar[değiştir , kaynağı değiştir]. Çeşitli antiviral ilaçlar COVID-19'u tedavi etmesi için araştırılmakta, ... Agents. s. 105944. doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2020.105944.. *^ Cao B, Wang Y, Wen D, Liu W, Wang J, Fan G, Ruan L, Song B, Cai Y ... doi:10.1016/j.antiviral.2020.104762. PMID 32147496 ,pmid=. değerini kontrol edin (yardım).. ... Touret F, de Lamballerie X (Mart 2020). "Of chloroquine and COVID-19". Antiviral Research. Cilt 177. s. 104762. ...
Antiviral Agents for Influenza. Four licensed prescription influenza antiviral agents are available in the United States: ... Antiviral Agents for the Treatment and Chemoprophylaxis of Influenza: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization ... Influenza-testing and antiviral-agent prescribing practices---Connecticut, Minnesota, New Mexico, and New York, 2006--07 ... Oseltamivir or zanamivir are the primary antiviral agents recommended for the prevention and treatment of influenza (28,51,105 ...
Currently, probiotics are chosen as the best alternatives to these antimicrobial agents and they act as natural immune ... Probiotics besides being beneficial bacteria also possess antiviral activity. Exploitation of these probiotics in treatment and ... which resulted in the excessive use of antimicrobial agents, which is finally responsible for many adverse effects. ... Probiotics as Antiviral Agents in Shrimp Aquaculture. Bestha Lakshmi. ,1 Buddolla Viswanath. ,1 and D. V. R. Sai Gopal. 1. 1 ...
W. E. G. Müller, Mechanisms of action and pharmacology: chemical agents, in: "Antiviral Agents and Viral Diseases of Man," G. J ... W. H. Prusoff and B. Goz, Potential mechanisms of action of antiviral agents, Fed. Proc. 32: 1679 (1973).Google Scholar ... In: De Clercq E., Walker R.T. (eds) Targets for the Design of Antiviral Agents. NATO ASI Series (Series A: Life Sciences), vol ... Targets for the Design of Antiviral Agents pp 29-60 , Cite as ... A new broad spectrum antiviral agent, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. ...
... antiviral agent pronunciation, antiviral agent translation, English dictionary definition of antiviral agent. Noun 1. antiviral ... agent - any drug that destroys viruses antiviral, antiviral drug DDC, dideoxycytosine, zalcitabine - an antiviral drug used to ... antiviral agent - any drug that destroys viruses antiviral, antiviral drug. DDC, dideoxycytosine, zalcitabine - an antiviral ... antiviral agent. Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia.. Related to antiviral agent: Antiviral drugs ...
The present new therapeutic lysosomal lipase A antagonist Lalistat is a convenient and reliable pharmaceutical agent to prevent ...
... Tue, Jun 23, 2020, 00:03. ... are not an anti-viral agent. I say this because your photograph on June 18th shows a barman disinfecting a table surface in ... The same caution should be observed when "sanitising" your hands from the many products labelled as "anti-bacterial" agents. ... perhaps its also time for a health campaign to advise the public on the choice and usage of appropriate sanitising agents? - ...
Antiviral agents. Class Summary. Interferons (IFNs) are synthetically derived from a class of proteins that is produced and ... Direct-acting antiviral drugs. Class Summary. Direct-acting antiviral (DAA) drugs interfere with specific steps in the HCV ... Its mechanism of antiviral activity is not clearly understood. However, modulation of host immune responses enhances cytolytic ... Its direct antiviral activity activates viral ribonucleases, inhibits viral entry to cells, and inhibits viral replication. A ...
Antiviral Monoclonal Antibodies: Can They Be More Than Simple Neutralizing Agents?. Pelegrin M1, Naranjo-Gomez M2, Piechaczyk M ... Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are increasingly being considered as agents to fight severe viral diseases. So far, they have ... There is, however, accumulating evidence that they can also induce long-lasting protective antiviral immunity by recruiting the ... Fc receptors; antiviral therapy; immune complexes; immunotherapy; monoclonal antibodies; vaccine-like effects ...
Antiviral Chemistry & Chemotherapys current antiviral agents FactFile (2nd edition): DNA viruses.. Field HJ1, De Clercq E. ... Although most of the recent attempts to develop new antiviral agents have been focussed on RNA viruses (in particular, HIV and ... old compounds ready to rotate off and new compounds eagerly awaiting to appear on the continuously evolving scene of antiviral ...
Antiviral agents. Class Summary. Acute lower respiratory tract infection from viral etiologies can be treated with antiviral ... Few specific antiviral agents exist. Acyclovir (for varicella and herpes simplex pneumonia) is efficacious. Ganciclovir and ... These agents inhibit DNA synthesis and viral replication by competing with deoxyguanosine triphosphate for viral DNA polymerase ... Peramivir elicits antiviral activity by inhibiting influenza virus neuraminidase, an enzyme that releases viral particles from ...
Ampligen nucleic acid antiviral agent data. By WIR Staff , Oct 21, 1996 , 7:00 AM GMT ...
The antisense antiviral compounds are substantially uncharged oligomers having a targeting base sequence that is substantially ... The invention provides antisense antiviral compounds and methods of their use in inhibition of growth of viruses of the ... Antisense antiviral agent and method for treating ssRNA viral infection. US20080187993 *. Nov 15, 2007. Aug 7, 2008. Avi ... Antisense antiviral agent and method for treating ssRNA viral infection. US8906872. Dec 22, 2011. Dec 9, 2014. Sarepta ...
Host-Directed Antiviral Therapy Antiviral drugs have traditionally been developed by directly targeting essential viral ... Clinical Laboratory Testing in the Era of Directly Acting Antiviral Therapies for Hepatitis C Eleanor M. Wilson, Elana S. ... Herpes Simplex Virus Resistance to Acyclovir and Penciclovir after Two Decades of Antiviral Therapy Teresa H. Bacon, Myron J. ...
... Review objective: To assess the effectiveness of antiviral therapy in improving ... there is great interest in developing regimens for treating IM with antiviral agents. To our knowledge, there are no ...
Removal of the protecting groups from the compound of formula XIV yields the antiviral agent [1R-(1α, 2β, 3α)]-2-amino-9-[2,3- ... 5,064,961, disclose preparing the antiviral agent [1R-(1α, 2β, 3α)]-2-amino-9-[2,3-bis(hydroxymethyl)cyclobutyl]-1,9-dihydro-6H ... in European Patent Application 366,059 describe the preparation of this and related purinyl and pyrimidinyl antiviral agents by ... is an antiviral agent with activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2, varicella zoster virus, human cytomegalovirus, ...
Antiviral agents for hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis. To compare the benefits and harms of different antiviral regimens in ... Atallah E, Eslami L, Isazadefar K. Antiviral agents for hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis. Cochrane Database of Systematic ...
... antiviral agents explanation free. What is antiviral agents? Meaning of antiviral agents medical term. What does antiviral ... Looking for online definition of antiviral agents in the Medical Dictionary? ... Related to antiviral agents: Antiviral drugs, Antifungal agents. antiviral agents Substances which inhibit the growth of a ... Vacation Antiviral Agents For The Implementation Of The RF Government Decree Of 07.. Vacation Antiviral Agents For The ...
A broad-spectrum antiviral targeting entry of enveloped viruses. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 2010, 107, 3157-3162. ... A Potent, Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Agent that Targets Viral Membranes. Jason A. Wojcechowskyj * and Robert W. Doms. ... Wojcechowskyj, J.A.; Doms, R.W. A Potent, Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Agent that Targets Viral Membranes. Viruses 2010, 2, 1106- ... "A Potent, Broad-Spectrum Antiviral Agent that Targets Viral Membranes." Viruses 2, no. 5: 1106-1109. ...
Colloidal Silver - Master Antimicrobial, Antifungal and Antiviral Agent. by David E Marsh(more info) ... The history of silver as a healing agent is well catalogued in books, scientific papers, articles, essays, lectures, on the ... http://www.positivehealth.com/article/infections/colloidal-silver-antimicrobial-antifungal-and-antiviral-mechanisms-with- ...
Antiviral Agents. Antiviral Activity and Resistance Analysis of NS3/4A Protease Inhibitor Grazoprevir and NS5A Inhibitor ... Antiviral Agents. The PA Endonuclease Inhibitor RO-7 Protects Mice from Lethal Challenge with Influenza A or B Viruses Jeremy C ... Antiviral Agents. Efficacy of Tilorone Dihydrochloride against Ebola Virus Infection Sean Ekins, Mary A. Lingerfelt, Jason E. ... Antiviral Agents. Obatoclax Inhibits Alphavirus Membrane Fusion by Neutralizing the Acidic Environment of Endocytic ...
... an anti-viral agent against SARS-COV-2. Metadichol®, a nano lipid formulation of long chain alcohols, has been shown in vitro ... NanoRX Publishes New Research Paper: Metadichol® an anti-viral agent against SARS-COV-2. By: NanoRX Inc. ... An anti-viral assay against the virus using CACO2 cells showed that it had an EC90 of 0.16 µg/ml, which means it effectively ... has been shown in vitro studies to be an anti-viral for SARS-COV-2 (the COVID-19 virus) and it does so by blocking the cell ...
HIGH RESOLUTION STRUCTURE OF RECOMBINANT DIANTHIN ANTIVIRAL PROTEIN-POTENT ANTI-HIV AGENT. *DOI: 10.2210/pdb1LP8/pdb ... Dianthin antiviral protein (DAP) is a naturally occurring antiviral protein from the leaves of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus ... Dianthin antiviral protein (DAP) is a naturally occurring antiviral protein from the leaves of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus ... High resolution X-ray structure and potent anti-HIV activity of recombinant dianthin antiviral protein.. Kurinov, I.V., ...
... which calls for effective anti-IAV agents. The glycoprotein hemagglutinin of influenza virus plays a crucial role in the ... Quercetin as an Antiviral Agent Inhibits Influenza A Virus (IAV) Entry by Wenjiao Wu 1, Richan Li 1, Xianglian Li 1, Jian He 1 ... Wu W, Li R, Li X, He J, Jiang S, Liu S, Yang J. Quercetin as an Antiviral Agent Inhibits Influenza A Virus (IAV) Entry. Viruses ... Wu, W.; Li, R.; Li, X.; He, J.; Jiang, S.; Liu, S.; Yang, J. Quercetin as an Antiviral Agent Inhibits Influenza A Virus (IAV) ...
... mandating an urgent need of most promising antivirals. Some of the viral diseases can be cured by approved antiviral drugs, but ... Phytochemicals as Antiviral Agents: Recent Updates getmixapp The epidemic of viral diseases is a global concern, mandating an ... Some of the viral diseases can be cured by approved antiviral drugs, but for others still do not have any vaccines or drugs ... Some of the viral diseases can be cured by approved antiviral drugs, but for others still do not have any vaccines or drugs ...
These antiviral agents have the structural formula (I) ##STR1## wherein R and R.sup.1 are as defined herein, and may be in free ... Pharmaceutical compositions are provided containing the antiviral agents, as are methods of treating herpes-infected ... Thus, for example, reference to "an antiviral agent"includes mixtures of antiviral agents, reference to "a pharmaceutical ... By the term "effective amount" of an antiviral agent is meant a nontoxic but sufficient amount of the agent to provide the ...
... copious source of mucins being regarded for use as wide-ranging anti-viral agents for various purpose report scientists. ... That has led to consideration of mucin, the main component of mucus, for use as an anti-viral agent in a variety of products. ... Mucins of Pig Stomach Are Valued as Anti-Viral Agents for Consumer Goods. ... being regarded for use as wide-ranging anti-viral agents to supplement baby formula and for use in personal hygiene and other ...
... Sourabh Sharma, ... M. Fernández-Ruiz, N. Polanco, A. García-Santiago et al., "Impact of anti-HCV direct antiviral agents on graft function and ... Since the introduction of direct antiviral agents (DAAs), morbidity of HCV has considerably decreased but still no guidelines ... like direct antiviral agents (DAAs), because of their greater efficacy, reduced toxicity, and minimal interaction with immune- ...
Ribavirin is a very broad-spectrum virustatic antiviral agent, first synthesised in 1972. It is characterised by low toxicity ... Ribavirin--current Status of a Broad Spectrum Antiviral Agent Expert Opin Pharmacother. 2001 Aug;2(8):1317-24. doi: 10.1517/ ... Ribavirin is a very broad-spectrum virustatic antiviral agent, first synthesised in 1972. It is characterised by low toxicity ...
Boivin G., Drew W.L. (2008) Resistance of Herpesviruses to Antiviral Agents. In: Fong I.W., Drlica K. (eds) Antimicrobial ... Gilbert, C. and Boivin, G., (2005b), Human cytomegalovirus resistance to antiviral drugs. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 49, 873- ... Sequencing of cytomegalovirus UL97 gene for genotypic antiviral resistance testing. Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 45, 2775-2780. ... a novel oral anti-human cytomegalovirus agent, in healthy and human immunodeficiency virus-infected subjects. Antimicrob Agents ...
... and antiviral agent containing the same as the active agent; and an antibacterial, antifungal, and antiviral composition ... The agent has a wide antibacterial and antifungal spectrum and an antiviral activity, is well compatible with various vehicles ... containing the above agent and a vehicle or a carrier. ... and antiviral agent containing the same as the active agent; ... and antiviral activities, may be directly used as an antibacterial agent, antifungal agent, or an antiviral agent. However, if ...
  • Here, we review the current 'state of the art' with old compounds ready to rotate off and new compounds eagerly awaiting to appear on the continuously evolving scene of antiviral drug development. (nih.gov)
  • The invention provides antisense antiviral compounds and methods of their use in inhibition of growth of viruses of the picornavirus, calicivirus, togavirus and flavivirus families, as in treatment of a viral infection. (google.com)
  • The antisense antiviral compounds are substantially uncharged oligomers having a targeting base sequence that is substantially complementary to a viral target sequence which spans the AUG start site of the first open reading frame of the viral genome. (google.com)
  • X-Ray diffraction data have been obtained for nine related antiviral agents ("WIN compounds") while bound to human rhinovirus 14 (HRV14). (rcsb.org)
  • The present invention discloses compounds of Formula (I), or pharmaceutically acceptable salts, esters, or prodrugs thereof: ##STR00001## which inhibit the protein(s) encoded by hepatitis B virus (HBV) or interfere with the function of the HBV life cycle of the hepatitis B virus and are also useful as antiviral agents. (patents.com)
  • Here, we reviewed all approved, investigational and experimental antiviral agents, which are safe in man, and identified 59 compounds that target at least three viral diseases. (helsinki.fi)
  • Coconut oil and its derivatives have been shown to be safe and effective antiviral compounds in both humans and animals. (ateneo.edu)
  • Progress in antiviral chemotherapy began in the early 1950s, when the search for anti-cancer drugs generated several new compounds capable of inhibiting viral DNA synthesis. (mhmedical.com)
  • We screened potential antiviral compounds in vitro utilizing a mouse macrophage cell line. (usu.edu)
  • The compounds of Formula (I) are useful as anti-viral agents and/or as anti-cancer agents. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Reliable sourcing of antiviral compounds remains crucial to support the effective research and development of new preventive and therapeutic cures and regimens to treat infectious diseases. (vulcanchem.com)
  • List of antiviral compounds for research use currently provided by VulcanChem. (vulcanchem.com)
  • The book's focus is upon antiviral agents and most of the content is taken up with studies of the pharmacokinetics and clinical efficacy of the few antiviral agents in use. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • We studied efficacy and tolerability of direct antiviral agents in RTRs. (hindawi.com)
  • IFN-free treatment regimens, like direct antiviral agents (DAAs), because of their greater efficacy, reduced toxicity, and minimal interaction with immune-suppressants currently represent promising and attractive therapeutic options. (hindawi.com)
  • The efficacy of these oral agents used with Ribavirin or in combination with one another yields a sustained virological response at 12 weeks of greater than 90% among patients who are treatment naïve [ 19 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • This review was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of pre-emptive treatment with antiviral medications in preventing symptomatic CMV disease. (cochrane.org)
  • No head-to-head trials have compared the effectiveness of these agents, and no direct evidence exists regarding their relative efficacy. (umsystem.edu)
  • It has demonstrated the new materials' high efficacy both in vitro and as a novel crop protection agent in plants. (innoget.com)
  • This showed that increasing the efficacy of antiviral therapy and the number of patients treated could avert the expected increase in deaths from HCV-related liver disease and in the number of patients with end stage HCV-related liver disease. (hepatitisaustralia.com)
  • Hepatitis C viral dynamics in vivo and the antiviral efficacy of interferon-alpha therapy. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Washington, Sept 20 (ANI): Scientists have found that a compound initially isolated from sharks could be used as a unique broad-spectrum human antiviral agent against human viruses ranging from dengue and yellow fever to hepatitis B, C, and D. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Antiviral Chemistry & Chemotherapy's current antiviral agents FactFile (2nd edition): DNA viruses. (nih.gov)
  • A broad-spectrum antiviral targeting entry of enveloped viruses. (mdpi.com)
  • Influenza A viruses (IAVs) cause seasonal pandemics and epidemics with high morbidity and mortality, which calls for effective anti-IAV agents. (mdpi.com)
  • Several sulfated seaweed polysaccharides show high antiviral activity against enveloped viruses, including important human patogens such as human immunodeficiency virus, herpes simplex virus, human citomegalovirus, dengue virus and respiratory syncytial virus. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The antiviral activity of the sulfated seaweed polysaccharides is based on the formation of formally similar complexes that block the interaction of the viruses with the cells. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The two antiviral agents with specific activity against influenza A viruses are amantadine hydrochloride and rimantadine hydrochloride. (cdc.gov)
  • Because antiviral agents taken prophylactically may prevent illness but not subclinical infection, some persons who take these drugs may still develop immune responses that will protect them when they are exposed to antigenically related viruses in later years. (cdc.gov)
  • Dr Zania Stamataki , of the University of Birmingham's Institute of Immunology and Immunotherapy and also co-lead author, said: "The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has stressed the pressing need for the development on new antiviral treatments, particularly for RNA viruses. (birmingham.ac.uk)
  • Although lauric acid accounts for much of the reported antiviral activity of coconut oil, capric acid (C10) and monocaprin have also shown promising activity against other viruses, such as HIV-1 (Kristmundsdóttir et al . (ateneo.edu)
  • This affinity for high-mannose oligosaccharides may explain the broad antiviral activity of CV-N against human and primate immunodeficiency retroviruses as well as certain other viruses that carry these oligosaccharides. (aspetjournals.org)
  • This agent exhibits an antiviral activity either by inhibiting antagonistically the combination of various viruses with GSL molecules present on the surface of a host cell or by inhibiting or controlling expression of GSL, and thus can be used for preventing or treating various viral infections. (wipo.int)
  • We summarize here what is known about the mechanism of RSV inhibition by these peptides and give our opinion regarding the potential implications of this work with regards to RSV biology, and to the development of antiviral agents targeting RSV and other enveloped viruses. (oup.com)
  • Most of the antiviral drugs currently available are used to treat infections caused by HIV , herpes viruses , hepatitis B and C viruses , and influenza A and B viruses . (amboss.com)
  • We have shown that binase exerts an antiviral effect on both viruses at the same concentration, which does not alter the spectrum of A549 cellular proteins and expression of housekeeping genes. (nature.com)
  • Since the viral mRNA is a possible target for binase this agent could be potentially applied in the antiviral therapy against both negative- and positive-sense RNA viruses. (nature.com)
  • Preparation of a new antiviral treatment, particularly against HIV viruses, and a treatment against inflammation associated diseases. (cnrsinnovation.com)
  • Antiviral drugs are medications used to prevent the replication of viruses in the cells of the human body during infection. (wroc.pl)
  • Antiviral agents are drugs that inhibit the spread of viruses, for example by preventing replication of the genome, blocking entry to host cells, or inhibiting viral protein synthesis or viral assembly. (vulcanchem.com)
  • The currently available antiviral drugs target 4 main groups of viruses: herpes, hepatitis, HIV and influenza viruses. (medchemexpress.com)
  • Several drug classes continue to be investigated mainly because of their in vitro antiviral activities. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • 1986) "In vitro and in vivo activities of phosphate derivatives of 9-(1,3-dihydroxy-2-propoxymethyl guanine against cytomegaloviruses" Antiviral Research 6:299-308. (patentgenius.com)
  • The oral antiviral clinical candidate PF-07321332, a SARS-CoV2-3CL protease inhibitor , has demonstrated potent in vitro anti-viral activity against SARS-CoV-2, as well as activity against other coronaviruses, suggesting potential for use in the treatment of COVID-19 as well as potential use to address future coronavirus threats. (pharmiweb.com)
  • rupintrivir, favipiravir, carbodine, and anicomycin were all observed to have antiviral effects in vitro . (usu.edu)
  • In vitro and in vivo antiviral activity and resistance profile of the hepatitis C virus NS3/4A protease inhibitor ABT-450. (semanticscholar.org)
  • To determine whether N -chlorotaurine (NCT) demonstrates antiviral activity against adenovirus (Ad) in vitro and in the Ad5/NZW rabbit ocular model. (arvojournals.org)
  • NCT demonstrated antiviral activity against adenovirus in vitro and in vivo. (arvojournals.org)
  • 18. A pharmaceutical composition for treating herpes viral infection, comprising a tablet of a pharmaceutically acceptable excipient suited to oral drug administration, an effective antiviral amount of3-[.alpha. (patentgenius.com)
  • 19. A topical pharmaceutical composition for treating herpes viral infection, comprising an effective antiviral concentration of 3-[.alpha. (patentgenius.com)
  • 21. The topical pharmaceutical composition of claim 20, wherein the effective antiviral concentration is in the range of approximately 0.1 wt. (patentgenius.com)
  • These studies suggest that drugs that bind to the active site of the enzyme (the part involved in cleaving proteins), the cofactor binding site, or the DNA binding site should block the enzyme's action and serve as effective antiviral agents," Mangel said. (brightsurf.com)
  • Therefore, to be effective, antiviral agents must either block viral entry into or exit from the cell or be active inside the host cell. (mhmedical.com)
  • Vaccination or chemoprophylaxis of contacts is infrequently addressed, mainly because the vaccine supply is limited, as are the most effective antiviral drugs , the neuraminidase inhibitors oseltamivir and zanamivir, for the next several years. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • As such, there is great interest in developing regimens for treating IM with antiviral agents. (hrb.ie)
  • To compare the benefits and harms of different antiviral regimens in patients with HBV-related liver cirrhosis. (cochrane.org)
  • This report contains information on treatment and chemoprophylaxis of influenza virus infection and provides a summary of the effectiveness and safety of antiviral treatment medications. (cdc.gov)
  • Two main strategies to prevent CMV disease have been adopted: giving daily low doses of an antiviral agent ( prophylaxis ) to all organ transplant recipients, or prescribing an antiviral agent when an organ transplant recipient develops laboratory-confirmed evidence of infection during routine screening (pre-emptive treatment). (cochrane.org)
  • What Is the Best Antiviral Agent for Influenza Infection? (umsystem.edu)
  • Four antiviral agents have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of influenza infection: amantadine (Symmetrel), oseltamivir (Tamiflu), rimantadine (Flumadine), and zanamivir (Relenza). (umsystem.edu)
  • This interim guidance provides recommendations for antiviral treatment of confirmed cases, probable cases, and cases under investigation of human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus in the United States (updates on the latest information on H7N9 are available at Avian Influenza A (H7N9) Virus ). (flutrackers.com)
  • Mathematical modelling of HCV infection: what can it teach us in the era of direct-acting antiviral agents? (semanticscholar.org)
  • Sustained Virologic Response and Costs Associated with Direct-Acting Antivirals for Chronic Hepatitis C Infection in Oklahoma Medicaid. (ouhsc.edu)
  • Most antiviral agents have been developed in the last 20 to 25 years, many as a result of the major research efforts to develop therapies and means of prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). (vulcanchem.com)
  • An antiviral agent is provided which has an excellent effect on a non-enveloped virus and which is highly safe to the human body, and an antiviral composition which comprises the antiviral agent and which is useful for disinfection of the virus or prevention of infection of the virus. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Since the introduction of direct antiviral agents (DAAs), morbidity of HCV has considerably decreased but still no guidelines have been formulated in renal transplant recipients (RTRs). (hindawi.com)
  • Studies have produced conflicting results of the incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with hepatitis C virus-associated cirrhosis treated with direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). (nih.gov)
  • Now we have stepped into the era of direct acting anti-viral agents (DAAs) against hepatitis C virus. (jefferson.edu)
  • Telaprevir and boceprevir, licensed in 2011 for use in patients infected with HCV genotype 1, were the first direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs). (bmj.com)
  • Whereas the previous standard of care with pegylated interferon and ribavirin had a modest effectiveness, the recent approval of two highly potent protease inhibitors and the ongoing development of dozens of direct-acting antiviral agents (DAAs) constitute a major milestone for HCV therapy. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The development of antiviral agents is not trivial as viral replication is intricately linked with the host cell that any antiviral drug that interferes even to a lesser extent with host cell factors may be toxic to the host depending on the duration and dosage used. (vulcanchem.com)
  • The present new therapeutic lysosomal lipase A antagonist Lalistat is a convenient and reliable pharmaceutical agent to prevent virus infections such as HCV, Influenza Typ A (H5N1) and other virus infections without any risks of reinfections and development of resistance mutations. (innovations-report.com)
  • Antiviral agents for the treatment of herpesvirus infections include acyclovir and derivatives, which inhibit the herpesvirus DNA polymerase (Whitley et al. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The mucus lining the stomachs of pigs may well be a much awaited, copious source of 'mucins' being regarded for use as wide-ranging anti-viral agents to supplement baby formula and for use in personal hygiene and other consumer products to protect against a range of viral infections, report scientists. (medindia.net)
  • McClatchy, John Hyrum, "Evaluation of Antiviral Agents in Two Mouse Models of RNA Virus Infections" (2018). (usu.edu)
  • Antivirals are a class of medications that are used to treat viral infections. (amboss.com)
  • Currently, antiviral therapy is available only for a limited number of infections. (amboss.com)
  • 1 Although many of these infections are self-limiting, patients would benefit greatly from antiviral treatment, because it would reduce the significant morbidity that results in lost time from school and work and would limit the spread of these very contagious infections within households and communities. (arvojournals.org)
  • 1 At present, there is no U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved antiviral agent for the treatment of these infections. (arvojournals.org)
  • The condition needs to be treated with drugs that act against viral infections called antiviral drugs. (news-medical.net)
  • Severe infections need to be treated with intravenous or injected antiviral drugs. (news-medical.net)
  • The antiviral agents are a large and diverse group of agents that are typically classified by the virus infections for which they are used, their chemical structure and their mode of action. (vulcanchem.com)
  • Infectious diseases specialists employ a variety of antimicrobial agents to help treat infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • and antifungal agents treat fungal infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ribavirin is a very broad-spectrum virustatic antiviral agent, first synthesised in 1972. (nih.gov)
  • Some of the viral diseases can be cured by approved antiviral drugs, but for others still do not have any vaccines or drugs available. (redgage.com)
  • W. H. Prusoff and D. C. Ward, Commentary: nucleoside analogs with antiviral potency, Biochem. (springer.com)
  • Perrier M, Desire N, Deback C, Agut H, Boutolleau D, Burrel S. Complementary assays for monitoring susceptibility of varicella-zoster virus resistance to antivirals. (labome.org)
  • The propensity of influenza A virus (IAV) to develop resistance to antivirals, as observed in 2009 with oseltamivir (Tamiflu), a neuraminidase inhibitor, calls for the search of new therapeutics. (asm.org)
  • US company ContraVir Pharmaceuticals Inc has begun the final clinical trial of FV-100, a powerful antiviral agent developed in part by Chris McGuigan, Professor of Medicinal Chemistry at Cardiff. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Antiviral agents shorten the clinical course, prevent complications, prevent development of latency and subsequent recurrences, decrease transmission, and eliminate established latency. (medscape.com)
  • These agents prevent seizure recurrence and terminate clinical and electrical seizure activity. (medscape.com)
  • Clinical benefit is greatest when antiviral treatment is administered early, especially within 48 hours of influenza illness onset [1-16]. (flutrackers.com)
  • Although earlier antiviral treatment results in greater clinical benefit, observational studies support the use of antiviral treatment in hospitalized patients even when started after 48 hours of illness [17, 27-33]. (flutrackers.com)
  • The antiviral agent cidofovir, a nucleoside analogue that inhibits adenovirus DNA polymerase, 2 was successfully tested through phase II clinical trials for this indication. (arvojournals.org)
  • Drug resistance in the clinical utility of antiviral drugs has raised an urgent need for developing new antiviral drugs. (medchemexpress.com)
  • It exerts its antiviral activity by selective inhibition at pyrophosphate-binding sites on virus-specific DNA polymerases at concentrations that do not affect cellular DNA polymerases, inhibiting DNA synthesis. (medscape.com)
  • Substituted 3-benzylcoumarins as allosteric MEK1 inhibitors: design, synthesis and biological evaluation as antiviral agents. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Interferon alpha also induce the synthesis of several key antiviral mediators, including 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase (2'-5' A synthetase) and protein kinase R. (pharmacycode.com)
  • Most antiviral drugs interfere with viral nucleic acid synthesis or regulation. (vulcanchem.com)
  • Kinetics of lymphocyte proliferation during primary immune response in macaques infected with pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac251: preliminary report of the effect of early antiviral therapy. (labome.org)
  • Sodium lauryl sulfate, a common surfactant that is made from lauric acid, has been shown to have potent antiviral properties. (ateneo.edu)
  • These recommendations were developed by experts at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), in consultation with non-CDC influenza antiviral experts, and are based upon expert opinion and all available data on the treatment of seasonal, pandemic, and zoonotic influenza. (flutrackers.com)
  • Elsa B. Damonte, Maria C. Matulewicz and Alberto S. Cerezo, " Sulfated Seaweed Polysaccharides as Antiviral Agents", Current Medicinal Chemistry (2004) 11: 2399. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The usage of these antimicrobial agents has increased enormously and tonnes of antibiotics are distributed in the biosphere during an antibiotic era of only about 60-year duration [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Anti-infectives include antibiotics and antibacterials, antifungals, antivirals and antiprotozoals. (medchemexpress.com)
  • Like antibiotics, antiviral drugs favour the survival of strains that resist the drug. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Initiation of this study is supported by preclinical studies that demonstrated the antiviral activity of this potential first-in-class SARS-CoV-2 therapeutic designed specifically to inhibit replication of the SARS-CoV2 virus. (pharmiweb.com)
  • receive antiviral treatment with a neuraminidase inhibitor as early as possible. (flutrackers.com)
  • STR1## is an antiviral agent with activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2, varicella zoster virus, human cytomegalovirus, vaccina virus, murine leukemia virus, and human immunodeficiency virus. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Pharmaceutical compositions are provided containing the antiviral agents, as are methods of treating herpes-infected individuals. (patentgenius.com)
  • During the last few years of our research, we have investigated a variety of C-1 functionalized substituents at the 5-position of the pyrimidine nucleosides to determine their usefulness as antiviral (herpes) agents. (eurekaselect.com)
  • However, both agents are effective when used topically for the treatment of herpes keratitis. (mhmedical.com)
  • Antiviral therapy is now available for herpes simplex virus (HSV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), varicella zoster virus (VZV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), influenza, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). (mhmedical.com)
  • Antiviral Agents" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (ouhsc.edu)
  • Probiotics besides being beneficial bacteria also possess antiviral activity. (hindawi.com)
  • Molecular modeling studies of the interactions of DAP and the structurally similar pokeweed antiviral protein (PAP) with a single-stranded RNA heptamer predicted a more potent anti-HIV activity for rDAP due to its unique surface topology and more favorable charge distribution in its 20 A-long RNA binding active center cleft. (rcsb.org)
  • Correlations are established between different structural parameters and antiviral activity. (eurekaselect.com)
  • The minimal, ionic and hydrophobic, structures in the seaweed polysaccharides were hypothesized by comparison of the polysaccharides with the known minimal binding structure in HS / heparin, together with a correlation between those structures of the polysaccharides and their antiviral activity. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Knockdown for adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (APRT) or nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase did not change the antiviral activity of T-705 and T-1105. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Phosphoribosylation and antiviral activity of the 2-pyrazinecarboxamide derivatives was shown to require the presence of the 3-hydroxyl but not the 6-fluoro substituent. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Lauric acid (C12) and monolaurin, its derivative, have been known for many years to have significant antiviral activity. (ateneo.edu)
  • However, recent data indicate that the antiviral activity of RhoA-derived peptides is not due to competitive inhibition of an hypothesized F-RhoA interaction, but is rather a function of the peptides' intrinsic biophysical properties. (oup.com)
  • Transient Compound Treatment Induces a Multigenerational Reduction of Oxysterol-Binding Protein (OSBP) Levels and Prophylactic Antiviral Activity. (ouhsc.edu)
  • Researchers at St. Louis' Washington University School of Medicine have recently discovered an antiviral compound produced naturally in the body that, when applied in large enough doses, serve to tighten the blood-brain barrier enough to prevent a particularly small pathogen-the West Nile virus-from slipping through the system to the brain. (labroots.com)
  • Antiviral Research Nov 2010] Resveratrol has drawn particular interest by researchers who claim it is a "useful antiviral compound for new drug design and influenza treatment. (resveratrolnews.com)
  • Our new antiviral drugs are expected not only to inhibit adenovirus, but might also be effective against other organisms that use the same enzyme -- including Chlamydia, one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted diseases, and Yersinia pestis, the organism that causes the black plague," said Walter Mangel, the lead scientist on the studies. (brightsurf.com)
  • Anti-infectives are drugs that can either kill an infectious agent or inhibit it from spreading. (medchemexpress.com)
  • Intensification of shrimp farming had led to the development of a number of diseases, which resulted in the excessive use of antimicrobial agents, which is finally responsible for many adverse effects. (hindawi.com)
  • Currently, probiotics are chosen as the best alternatives to these antimicrobial agents and they act as natural immune enhancers, which provoke the disease resistance in shrimp farm. (hindawi.com)
  • Consequently, wide ranges of chemicals particularly antimicrobial agents are used in shrimp farming to prevent and to treat diseases. (hindawi.com)
  • 36. An antiviral disinfectant composition comprising at least the antiviral agent according to claim 29 and an antimicrobial agent (excluding ethanol, an organic acid, and a salt thereof). (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Atallah E, Eslami L, Isazadefar K. Antiviral agents for hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis. (cochrane.org)
  • In this case study, you will learn about agents approved to treat hepatitis B and different virologic responses to antiviral therapy for hepatitis. (uwcne.org)
  • Describe the different virologic responses to antiviral therapy for hepatitis. (uwcne.org)
  • A chara, - Whatever the merits or not of opening pubs and restaurants on June 29th under the new guidelines issued by the National Public Health Emergency Team (NPHET), can I appeal to everyone concerned to note that vinegar-based solutions, which are wonderful for so many purposes, are not an anti-viral agent. (irishtimes.com)
  • That has led to consideration of mucin, the main component of mucus, for use as an anti-viral agent in a variety of products. (medindia.net)
  • NanoRX Publishes New Research Paper: Metadichol® an anti-viral agent against SARS-COV-2 -- NanoRX Inc. (prlog.org)
  • The antiviral medications may be given safely to pregnant women. (news-medical.net)
  • Since conversion of T-705 by HGPRT appears to be inefficient, T-705-RMP prodrugs may be designed to increase the antiviral potency of this new antiviral agent. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Recent research has focused on identifying agents with greater selectivity, higher potency, in vivo stability, and reduced toxicity. (mhmedical.com)
  • has reported that studies performed in collaboration with the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in Bethesda, MD, show that AusAm's lead antiviral drug candidate, DES6, inhibits the replication and spread of vaccinia virus in tissue culture. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The problem of mitochondrial toxicity is now sufficiently well-recognized that the FDA recently released recommendations that all new antiviral drug candidates should be screened for toxicity to mitochondria. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This review looked at the benefits and harms of pre-emptive treatment with antiviral agents in preventing CMV disease in solid organ transplant recipients. (cochrane.org)
  • Direct-acting antiviral (DAA) drugs interfere with specific steps in the HCV replication cycle through a direct interaction with the HCV genome, polyprotein, or its polyprotein cleavage products. (medscape.com)
  • Dianthin antiviral protein (DAP) is a naturally occurring antiviral protein from the leaves of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus) capable of depurinating HIV-1 RNA and inhibiting HIV-1 replication in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. (rcsb.org)
  • Evaluation of antiviral agents against Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been hampered by the lack of a permissive cell system for the replication of this virus. (springer.com)
  • Superinfection of Raji (a nonvirus-producer line) cells with P3HR-1 virus enhances EBV replication and provides a more efficient system for evaluation of antiviral drugs. (springer.com)
  • Knowledge of the mechanisms of viral replication has provided insights into critical steps in the viral life cycle that can serve as potential targets for antiviral therapy. (mhmedical.com)
  • Unlike other antimicrobials, antiviral drugs do not deactivate or destroy the microbe (in this case, the virus ) but act by inhibiting replication. (amboss.com)
  • Most antiviral agents target key enzymes required for viral replication (see " Viral life cycle " for details). (amboss.com)
  • 2 million more treatment courses of antiviral drug zanamivir (Relenza(R)) from GlaxoSmithKline and 3. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • These recommendations provide information about two antiviral agents: amantadine hydrochloride and rimantadine hydrochloride. (cdc.gov)
  • In the absence of specific contraindications, amantadine and rimantadine are preferred for use in most patients because these two agents cost less than the other two. (umsystem.edu)
  • A study of elderly patients receiving antiviral treatment revealed a lower incidence of adverse effects related to the CNS in patients receiving rimantadine compared with amantadine. (brainkart.com)
  • For this analysis, laboratory workers follow similar preparative steps used for HA1 and then use pyrosequencing to detect SNP that confer resistance to the antiviral drugs amantadine and rimantadine. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Pre-emptive treatment of patients with CMV viraemia using antiviral agents has been suggested as an alternative to routine prophylaxis to prevent CMV disease. (cochrane.org)
  • Of these, six investigated pre-emptive treatment versus placebo or treatment of CMV when disease occurred (standard care), eight looked at pre-emptive treatment versus antiviral prophylaxis , and one reported on oral versus intravenous pre-emptive treatment. (cochrane.org)
  • Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. (ouhsc.edu)
  • W. E. G. Müller, Mechanisms of action and pharmacology: chemical agents, in: "Antiviral Agents and Viral Diseases of Man," G. J. Galasso, T. C. Merigan and R. A., Buchanan, eds. (springer.com)
  • Review objective: To assess the effectiveness of antiviral therapy in improving outcomes for patients with Infectious Mononucleosis (IM). (hrb.ie)
  • In: Kinchington D., Schinazi R.F. (eds) Antiviral Methods and Protocols. (springer.com)
  • Hornung and co-workers (1994) showed that in the presence of lauric acid, the production of infectious vesicular stomatitis virus was inhibited in a dose-dependent and reversible manner: after removal of lauric acid, the antiviral effect disappeared. (ateneo.edu)
  • 33. The antiviral agent according to claim 29, wherein the non-enveloped virus is nervous necrosis virus, infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, red seabream iridovius, Coxsackie virus, adenovirus, feline calicivirus, or rotavirus. (patentsencyclopedia.com)