Agents that suppress cough. They act centrally on the medullary cough center. EXPECTORANTS, also used in the treatment of cough, act locally.
Dibenzoquinolines derived in plants from (S)-reticuline (BENZYLISOQUINOLINES).
Methyl analog of DEXTRORPHAN that shows high affinity binding to several regions of the brain, including the medullary cough center. This compound is an NMDA receptor antagonist (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and acts as a non-competitive channel blocker. It is one of the widely used ANTITUSSIVES, and is also used to study the involvement of glutamate receptors in neurotoxicity.
A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.
Pathological processes of the ENDOCRINE GLANDS, and diseases resulting from abnormal level of available HORMONES.
Hard or soft soluble containers used for the oral administration of medicine.
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
A chronic lung disease developed after OXYGEN INHALATION THERAPY or mechanical ventilation (VENTILATION, MECHANICAL) usually occurring in certain premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE) or newborn infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME, NEWBORN). Histologically, it is characterized by the unusual abnormalities of the bronchioles, such as METAPLASIA, decrease in alveolar number, and formation of CYSTS.
Persistent abnormal dilatation of the bronchi.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
The interactions between physician and patient.
Those individuals engaged in research.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
A histamine H1 antagonist used as an antiemetic, antitussive, for dermatoses and pruritus, for hypersensitivity reactions, as a hypnotic, an antiparkinson, and as an ingredient in common cold preparations. It has some undesired antimuscarinic and sedative effects.
A readily reversible suspension of sensorimotor interaction with the environment, usually associated with recumbency and immobility.
A colloidal system of semisolid hydrocarbons obtained from PETROLEUM. It is used as an ointment base, topical protectant, and lubricant.
Medicines that can be sold legally without a DRUG PRESCRIPTION.
Conditions characterized by disturbances of usual sleep patterns or behaviors. Sleep disorders may be divided into three major categories: DYSSOMNIAS (i.e. disorders characterized by insomnia or hypersomnia), PARASOMNIAS (abnormal sleep behaviors), and sleep disorders secondary to medical or psychiatric disorders. (From Thorpy, Sleep Disorders Medicine, 1994, p187)
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
Stable gallium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element gallium, but differ in atomic weight. Ga-71 is a stable gallium isotope.
Histamine H1 antagonist used in treatment of allergies, rhinitis, and urticaria.
Spectrophotometric techniques by which the absorption or emmision spectra of radiation from atoms are produced and analyzed.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A sympathomimetic drug used primarily as an appetite depressant. Its actions and mechanisms are similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.
Sweet food products combining cane or beet sugars with other carbohydrates and chocolate, milk, eggs, and various flavorings. In the United States, candy refers to both sugar- and cocoa-based confections and is differentiated from sweetened baked goods; elsewhere the terms sugar confectionary, chocolate confectionary, and flour confectionary (meaning goods such as cakes and pastries) are used.
Subjectively experienced sensations in the absence of an appropriate stimulus, but which are regarded by the individual as real. They may be of organic origin or associated with MENTAL DISORDERS.
A general state of sluggishness, listless, or uninterested, with being tired, and having difficulty concentrating and doing simple tasks. It may be related to DEPRESSION or DRUG ADDICTION.
Drugs designed and synthesized, often for illegal street use, by modification of existing drug structures (e.g., amphetamines). Of special interest are MPTP (a reverse ester of meperidine), MDA (3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine), and MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine). Many drugs act on the aminergic system, the physiologically active biogenic amines.
A DNA-binding protein that interacts with methylated CPG ISLANDS. It plays a role in repressing GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and is frequently mutated in RETT SYNDROME.
An inherited neurological developmental disorder that is associated with X-LINKED INHERITANCE and may be lethal in utero to hemizygous males. The affected female is normal until the age of 6-25 months when progressive loss of voluntary control of hand movements and communication skills; ATAXIA; SEIZURES; autistic behavior; intermittent HYPERVENTILATION; and HYPERAMMONEMIA appear. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p199)
Areas of increased density of the dinucleotide sequence cytosine--phosphate diester--guanine. They form stretches of DNA several hundred to several thousand base pairs long. In humans there are about 45,000 CpG islands, mostly found at the 5' ends of genes. They are unmethylated except for those on the inactive X chromosome and some associated with imprinted genes.
Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.
Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.
Drugs designed to treat inflammation of the nasal passages, generally the result of an infection (more often than not the common cold) or an allergy related condition, e.g., hay fever. The inflammation involves swelling of the mucous membrane that lines the nasal passages and results in inordinate mucus production. The primary class of nasal decongestants are vasoconstrictor agents. (From PharmAssist, The Family Guide to Health and Medicine, 1993)
A class of non-sedating drugs that bind to but do not activate histamine receptors (DRUG INVERSE AGONISM), thereby blocking the actions of histamine or histamine agonists. These antihistamines represent a heterogenous group of compounds with differing chemical structures, adverse effects, distribution, and metabolism. Compared to the early (first generation) antihistamines, these non-sedating antihistamines have greater receptor specificity, lower penetration of BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER, and are less likely to cause drowsiness or psychomotor impairment.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose similar to that found in hay fever except that symptoms persist throughout the year. The causes are usually air-borne allergens, particularly dusts, feathers, molds, animal fur, etc.
Ratio of output to effort, or the ratio of effort produced to energy expended.
The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.
Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA, the mucous membrane lining the NASAL CAVITIES.

Pharmacological studies on root bark of mulberry tree (Morus alba L.) (1/196)

Pharmacological studies were done on the root bark of mulberry tree and pharmacological effects were compared with the clinical effects of "Sohakuhi" in Chinese medicine. n-Butanol- and water-soluble fractions of mulberry root had similar effects except for those on the cadiovascular system. Both fractions showed cathartic, analgesic, diuretic, antitussive, antiedema, sedative, anticonvulsant, and hypotensive actions in mice, rats, guinea pigs and dogs. There appears to be a correlation between the experimental pharmacological results and the clinical applications of mulberry root found in the literature on Chinese medicine.  (+info)

Influence of central antitussive drugs on the cough motor pattern. (2/196)

The present study was conducted to determine the effects of administration of centrally active antitussive drugs on the cough motor pattern. Electromyograms of diaphragm and rectus abdominis muscles were recorded in anesthetized, spontaneously breathing cats. Cough was produced by mechanical stimulation of the intrathoracic trachea. Centrally acting drugs administered included codeine, morphine, dextromethorphan, baclofen, CP-99,994, and SR-48,968. Intravertebral artery administration of all drugs reduced cough number (number of coughs per stimulus trial) and rectus abdominis burst amplitude in a dose-dependent manner. Codeine, dextromethorphan, CP-99,994, SR-48,968, and baclofen had no effect on cough cycle timing (CTtot) or diaphragm amplitude during cough, even at doses that inhibited cough number by 80-90%. Morphine lengthened CTtot and inhibited diaphragm amplitude during cough, but these effects were not dose dependent. Only CP-99,994 altered the eupneic respiratory pattern. Central antitussive drugs primarily suppress cough by inhibition of expiratory motor drive and cough number. CTtot and inspiratory motor drive are relatively insensitive to the effects of these drugs. CTtot can be controlled independently from cough number.  (+info)

Sigmoidal kinetics of CYP3A substrates: an approach for scaling dextromethorphan metabolism in hepatic microsomes and isolated hepatocytes to predict in vivo clearance in rat. (3/196)

The metabolism of a number of compounds by the cytochrome P-450 subfamily CYP3A does not exhibit classic Michaelis-Menten kinetics but displays a sigmoidal rate-substrate concentration relationship. Intrinsic clearance (CLint) cannot be calculated for these drugs due to the lack of a first order region in their kinetic profiles, and a suitable parameter has yet to be identified to allow such data to be scaled to predict in vivo clearance. As sigmoidal kinetics have only been observed with microsomal systems, we have investigated whether this behavior is demonstrable in freshly isolated hepatocytes. We have also evaluated the term maximum clearance (CLmax), which refers to the in vitro clearance when the enzyme is fully activated, to predict in vivo clearance. To these ends we have studied the metabolism of dextromethorphan to methoxymorphinan and dextrorphan; methoxymorphinan production is best described by sigmoidal kinetics in both hepatocytes and microsomes, dextrorphan production is best described by a two site Michaelis-Menten model in microsomes but is sigmoidal in hepatocytes. Total clearance, estimated from the CLmax and CLint terms, was scaled to give mean predictions of 127 to 319 ml/min/standard rat weight of 250 g. In vivo CLint, determined after infusion via the hepatic portal vein to steady state and correcting for plasma protein binding and blood-to-plasma concentration ratio, was 259 +/- 59.2 ml/min/standard rat weight of 250 g. These investigations show that sigmoidal kinetics is not unique to microsomes and that CLmax is a useful parameter for scaling to the in vivo situation.  (+info)

Characterization of cytochrome P-450 2D1 activity in rat brain: high-affinity kinetics for dextromethorphan. (4/196)

We investigated the enzymatic function, stability, and regional distribution of rat brain cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 2D1 activity. CYP2D1 is the homolog of human CYP2D6, a genetically variable enzyme that activates or inactivates many clinical drugs acting on the central nervous system (e.g., antidepressants, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, serotonin uptake inhibitors, and neuroleptics), drugs of abuse (e.g., amphetamine and codeine), neurotoxins (e.g., 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, 1,2,3, 4-tetrahydroquinoline), and endogenous neurochemicals (e.g., tryptamine). The CYP2D family has been identified in rodent, canine, and primate brain. Conversion of dextromethorphan to dextrorphan by rat brain membranes was assayed by HPLC and was dependent on NADPH, protein concentration, and incubation time. Significant loss of activity was observed in some homogenizing buffers and after freezing of whole tissues or membrane preparations. Dextromethorphan (0.5-640 microM) metabolism was mediated by high- and low-affinity enzyme systems; K(m1) was 2.7 +/- 2.6 and K(m2) was 757 +/- 156 microM (n = 3 rats, mean +/- S.E.). The enzyme activity was significantly (p <.01) and stereoselectively inhibited by CYP2D1 inhibitors quinine and quinidine (not by CYP2C or CYP3A inhibitors), and by anti-CYP2D6 peptide antiserum (not by anti-CYP2C, -CYP2B, or -CYP3A antibodies). The enzymatic activity demonstrated significant brain regional variation (n = 10 regions, p <.001). These data characterize CYP2D1-mediated dextromethorphan metabolism in rat brain and suggest that localized metabolism of other CYP2D1 substrates (drugs, neurotoxins, and possibly endogenous compounds) within the brain will occur. In humans, CYP2D6 is genetically polymorphic; the variable expression of brain CYP2D6 may result in interindividual differences in central drug and neurotoxin metabolism, possibly contributing to interindividual differences in drug effects and neurotoxicity.  (+info)

The role of codeine phosphate premedication in fibre-optic bronchoscopy under insufficient local anaesthesia and midazolam sedation. (5/196)

Midazolam is widely used as a sedative agent to produce amnesia in patients undergoing fibre-optic bronchoscopy. However, if a patient does not receive sufficient local anaesthesia, continuous severe cough and physical movement may interrupt the procedure and reduce its safety. We therefore examined whether codeine phosphate is a useful premedication for bronchoscopy. The study design was a randomized comparison between codeine phosphate and a placebo in patients undergoing light local anaesthesia and midazolam sedation. We used low dose local anaesthesia (5 ml of nebulized 2% xylocaine) on the assumption of insufficient local anaesthesia. Patients were allocated to receive codeine phosphate 0.4 mg kg-1 or a saline placebo 60 min before they were sedated with i.v. midazolam. If the patients exhibited severe cough during bronchoscopy, intrabronchial supplemental local anaesthesia (2% xylocaine solution in 1 ml increments) was instilled via a bronchoscope to the trachea and segmental bronchi to suppress the cough. The dose of supplemental xylocaine was assessed and the requirements were significantly lower in the codeine group compared to the placebo group: 36.4 +/- 10.2 mg vs. 95.1 +/- 24.6 mg, respectively. After bronchoscopy, patients were interviewed by a doctor to assess their willingness to undergo a repeat procedure if one was clinically indicated, but no significant difference was observed between the two groups. If local anaesthesia is insufficient, midazolam together with codeine phosphate premedication is useful for both the patient and the bronchoscopist.  (+info)

The antitussive effect of dextromethorphan in relation to CYP2D6 activity. (6/196)

AIMS: To test the hypothesis that inhibition of cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) by quinidine increases the antitussive effect of dextromethorphan (DEX) in an induced cough model. METHODS: Twenty-two healthy extensive metaboliser phenotypes for CYP2D6 were studied according to a double-blind, randomised cross-over design after administration of: (1) Placebo antitussive preceded at 1 h by placebo inhibitor; (2) 30 mg oral DEX preceded at 1 h by placebo inhibitor (DEX30); (3) 60 mg oral DEX preceded at 1 h by placebo inhibitor (DEX60); (4) 30 mg oral DEX preceded at 1 h by 50 mg oral quinidine sulphate (QDEX30). Cough frequency following inhalation of 10% citric acid was measured at baseline and at intervals up to 12 h. Plasma concentrations of DEX and its metabolites were measured up to 96 h by h.p.l.c. RESULTS: Inhibition of CYP2D6 by quinidine caused a significant increase in the mean ratio of DEX to dextrorphan (DEX:DOR) plasma AUC(96) (0.04 vs 1.81, P<0.001). The mean (+/-s.d.) decrements in cough frequency below baseline over 12 h (AUEC) were: 8% (11), 17% (14.5), 25% (16.2) and 25% (16.9) for placebo, DEX30, DEX60 and QDEX30 treatments, respectively. Statistically significant differences in antitussive effect were detected for the contrasts between DEX60/placebo (P<0.001; 95% CI of difference +80, +327) and QDEX30/placebo (P<0.001, +88, +336), but not for DEX30/placebo, DEX30/DEX60 or DEX30/QDEX30 (P=0.071, -7, +241; P=0.254, -37, +211; P=0.187, -29, +219, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: A significant antitussive effect was demonstrated after 60 mg dextromethorphan and 30 mg dextromethorphan preceded by 50 mg quinidine using an induced cough model. However, although the study was powered to detect a 10% difference in cough response, the observed differences for other contrasts were less than 10%, such that it was possible only to imply a dose effect (30 vs 60 mg) in the antitussive activity of DEX and enhancement of this effect by CYP2D6 inhibition.  (+info)

Dextromethorphan. Extrapolation of findings from reproductive studies in animals to humans. (7/196)

QUESTION: One of my patients, who is now 8 weeks pregnant, just read in the newspaper that dextromethorphan (DM), an antitussive found in a variety of cough medicines, caused birth defects in chicken embryos. The author of the study stated that even one dose could be dangerous and that he would never allow his wife to use this drug if she were pregnant. My patient was understandably very concerned because last week she was suffering from a nasty cough and had been advised by her pharmacist to use a cough mixture containing DM, which she subsequently took for several days. ANSWER: You may reassure your patient that she did not put her baby at risk by using this substance. Dextromethorphan has been on the market for many years and has never been implicated as a human teratogen. Furthermore, chick embryos are not a good model for predicting teratogenic potential in humans and, consequently, were abandoned as such more than 30 years ago.  (+info)

Effect of oral mexiletine on the cough response to capsaicin and tartaric acid. (8/196)

BACKGROUND: The effect of the orally active local anaesthetic mexiletine on the cough response to two different tussive agents, a C-fibre ending stimulator capsaicin and a chemostimulant tartaric acid, was examined in normal subjects. METHODS: The cough threshold, defined as the lowest concentration of capsaicin (C(5)-CP) or tartaric acid (C(5)-TA) causing five or more coughs, and histamine induced bronchoconstriction were measured three hours after a single oral dose of 300 mg mexiletine or placebo in 14 normal subjects. RESULTS: Mexiletene in a mean (SE) serum concentration of 0.99 (0. 04) microg/ml significantly increased C(5)-TA from a geometric mean (SE) of 32.0 (1.27) mg/ml with placebo to 49.9 (1.34) mg/ml, but C(5)-CP did not differ significantly between treatment with mexiletine (12.2 (1.33) microM) and placebo (14.9 (1.23) microM). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the cough response to capsaicin and tartaric acid may be mediated in part via different neural pathways.  (+info)

Believe it or not, this type of medicine has gained widespread support despite evidence that it really works. The results of a recent study in the British Medical Journal may surprise you. To determine whether over-the-counter cough medicines are effective for treating acute cough, the authors of the review searched all studies in the U.K. involving adults with cough for less than three weeks who were administered cough medicine. All studies included placebo groups or no-medicine groups for comparison to the group taking medicine. Fifteen studies involving 2,000 individuals were assessed. In nine (60%) of the studies, cough medication was deemed no better than placebo for treating a cough. In the remaining six studies, the positive results were of questionable clinical relevance. This was true for multiple forms of medication: antihistamines, antitussives, expectorants, decongestants, and combinations of these types of drugs. Given the amount of over-the-counter cough medicines available, ...
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Cough medicine and cough syrups can help relieve a cough. Information about who can take cough medicine and cough syrups, and who should not take these products (for example, those on SSRI antidepressants, those with high blood pressure or heart disease).
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PHOENIX (AP) - A new state law banning over-the-counter sales of certain cough medicines to minors goes into effect Thursday, adding Arizona to several states that have passed similar measures. Dextromethorphan is a cough suppressant used in more than 100 medications and is safe at normal doses, but it can cause hallucinations and effects similar to illicit drugs in larger amounts. Ingredients like acetaminophen are also used in cough medicine and could cause liver failure and lead to death if abused, said Steven Pray, a professor at Southwestern Oklahoma State University.
By Anonymous Authorities in the United Kingdom have removed six cough medicines from their pharmacies and moved about 100 other products to behind the counter until their labeling is changed to state they are not for children under two years of age. The alert concerns 12 active ingrethents: brompheniramine, chlor phenamine, dextromethorphan, diphenhydramine, ephedrine, guaifenesin, ipecacuanha, phenylephrine, pholcodine, pseudoephedrine, oxymetazoline, and xylometazoline. There have been five deaths and over 100 cases of serious adverse reactions attributed to cough and cold medicines in the UK in the last year. The researchers found that most of the overdoses were the result of children taking the medicine by themselves. Another cause is parents accidentally overdosing their kids with a cough medicine or giving their children the proper dose of more than one preparation. The Laryngoscope, 1/08 Copyright Pediatrics for Parents, Inc. Jul 2008 (c) 2008 Pediatrics for Parents. Provided by ...
Cough caused by URTI can be a very troublesome symptom for a child, and for a health professional, not to offer any treatment may seem unacceptable to many parents and lay people. However, as this systematic review shows, there is very little evidence to suggest that OTC cough medicines are effective. For this reason, we cannot recommend these as first line treatment for acute cough. It is, however, vital that paediatricians, GPs, and other health care workers take the symptoms of acute cough seriously, taking a careful history and performing a thorough physical examination to search for possible underlying diagnoses. If a viral URTI seems the most likely diagnosis, the treatment options and the lack of evidence for the effectiveness of OTC cough medicines should be discussed carefully with parents. Whether a child is being treated or not, parents should always be offered a further appointment in case the cough persists, which may suggest the possibility of another underlying condition.. At ...
Featuring English Ivy Extract to help your child when they are coughing to clear mucus* and melatonin, a non-habit forming and drug-free ingredient, to help promote restful sleep,* Zarbees Naturals Childrens Cough Syrup + Mucus Nighttime is a safe and effective way to soothe coughs associated with mucus, hoarseness, and irritants.* Fortified with vitamin C and zinc for immune support,* this wholesome cough syrup is specially formulated with a proprietary blend of natural dark honeys to coat the throat and calm occasional coughs.* Founded by a pediatrician and father looking for a healthy and chemical-free alternative for his family, Zarbees Naturals Childrens Cough Syrup + Mucus Nighttime is made with carefully-sourced, wholesome ingredients, with no drugs, alcohol, artificial flavors, artificial sweeteners, or dyes. This gluten-free, natural grape-flavored cough syrup is pediatrician recommended for children two years and older. *These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug ...
CHESTAL COUGH SYRUP 8.45OZ-hestal Cough Syrup soothes coughs with Chestal Cough Syrup from Boiron. It features honey to soothe the throat with natural goodness. The homeopathic medicines in Chestal Cough Syrup have been traditionally used to treat di
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Cough medicine: Does anyone know if there is a homeopathic cough medicine for children under 1 year of age? My dd has a terrible cough and runny nose. She doesnt have a fever and is acting like her normal self. Just feel bad for her. also is there a childrens Vicks vapourub?? - BabyCenter Canada
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This blended cough syrup is used to address manifestations created by the basic cough, influenza, anaphylaxes, roughage fever, cold, or other respiration sicknesses, for example, bronchitis, sinusitis). The cough suppressant in Bromfed DM is Dextromethorphan, which manipulates the brain to reduce the desire to cough. Decongestants help ease stuffy nose side effects such as runny nose. Antihistamines diminish eye problems such as wet, itchy, red eye.. For Kids: Bromfed DM cough syrup in not designed for kids, even other cough syrups are not recommended for kids under 6. So contact a doctor for children coughing instead of taking the advantage of this syrup. It can lead to severe conditions in kids such as lung failure, mood changes, low bone density. Approach to your specialist or drug specialist for more insights about utilizing your item securely. These items cannot cure or abbreviate the duration of the regular flu and may lead to severe symptoms. To lessen the threat for severe symptoms, ...
Cough medicines are medications used in those with coughing and related conditions. It is not known whether over-the-counter cough medications reduce coughing. While they are used by 10% of American children in any given week, they are not recommended in Canada and the United States in children 6 years or younger because of lack of evidence showing effect and concerns of harm. There are a number of different cough and cold medications, which may be used for various coughing symptoms. The commercially available products may include various combinations of any one or more of the following five types of substances: Expectorants are substances claimed to make coughing easier while enhancing the production of mucus and phlegm. Two examples are acetylcysteine and guaifenesin. Antitussives, or cough suppressants, are substances which suppress the coughing itself. Examples are codeine, pholcodine, dextromethorphan, noscapine, and butamirate. Antihistamines may produce mild sedation and reduce other ...
Even though there are billions of dollars spent every year in the US on over-the-counter cough syrups, most such medicines do little if anything to relieve coughs say the ACCP (American College of Chest Physicians). According to the nations chest physicians, cough syrups generally contain drugs in too low a dose to be effective, or contain combinations of drugs that have never been proven to treat coughs. Some over-the-counter cough syrups do contain two drugs that have been shown to help relieve coughs. Read more ...
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Yogis Adulsa cough syrup is one of the best cough syrups in the market. Its non-narcotic formulation gives quick and safe relief from sore throat, chest congestion, bronchitis, dry and productive cough etc. It is also beneficial for the smokers cough and cough associated with respiratory infections and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Yogi Adulsa cough syrup is unique anti allergic formulation suitable for consumption by all age provides quick relief from throat irritation, dissolves and expels congealed cough and phlegm from your lungs and nasal cavity, and helps to prevent formation of new sputum.
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Cough Syrup predates Young the Giant, when the band was known as The Jakes. The song appeared on the bands 2008 Shake My Hand EP, received regular airplay on KROQs Locals Only radio program, and won a Best Song nomination at the 2009 OC Music Awards.[3][4]. Lead vocalist Sameer Gadhia explained that Cough Syrup was written at a time when the band was unsigned, had no money and didnt really know what to do with [themselves]. The group, he continued, felt somewhat oppressed by the universal expectation of what to do in Orange County...in suburbia in general. I think we really yearned to break out of that and do something a little bit different. Gadhia said the song is kind of a cry for help to break free, not necessarily from oppression, but the common symptoms of suburbia like boredom, normality and homogeneity. Bassist Payam Doostzadeh, in a 2011 interview, said that with Cough Syrup being the oldest song in Young the Giants catalog, its kind of hard for us to play it. ...
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Researchers at the American Chemical Society answer the question, Does Cough Syrup Work?. This post from Big Think discusses their verdict. Americans spend around $4 billion each year on cough medicine. Researchers at the American Chemical Society showcase how we may be wasting our money. https://youtu.be/4TnJQYpKz0E In a new video posted on the American Chemical Societys ... Continue Reading ...
The bill enjoyed the support of industry leaders, including the Consumer Healthcare Products Association. We take very seriously our obligation to educate and raise awareness about cough medicine abuse among teens, CHPApresident and CEO Scott Melville said. This unprecedented action by California lawmakers will help address medicine abuse and sets a high standard that we would ultimately like to see enacted nationwide.. Dextromethorphan is a safe and effective ingredient found in more than 100 over-the-counter cough-cold products; however, some teens abuse large amounts of cough medicine containing dextromethorphan - sometimes as much as 25 to 50 times the recommended dose - to get high.. Aside from calling for a national age restriction on DXM-containing medicines, CHPA has been engaged in educational efforts to curb teen cough medicine abuse for a number of years, and introduced an educational icon on the packaging of DXM-containing cough medicines to alert parents to the potential for ...
Home Care Advice for Cough:. 1. Reassurance:. * Coughs are a normal part of a cold. * Coughing up mucus is very important for protecting the lungs from pneumonia. * We want to encourage a productive cough, not turn it off. 2. Homemade Cough Medicine:. • Goal: Reduce the irritation or tickle in the throat that triggers a dry cough. * Child Aged 3 Months to 1 Year: Give warm, clear fluids (eg, warm water, apple juice) to treat the cough. Amount: 1 to 3 teaspoons (5 to 15 mL) 4 times per day when coughing. Avoid honey until 1 year of age.. * Child Aged 1 Year and Older: Use HONEY, ½ to 1 teaspoon (2 to 5 mL), as needed as a homemade cough medicine. It can thin the secretions and loosen the cough. (If not available, you can use corn syrup). * Child Aged 6 Years and Older: Use COUGH DROPS to coat the irritated throat. (If not available, you can use hard candy). 3. Nonprescription Cough Medicine (Dextromethorphan):. * Nonprescription cough medicines are NOT recommended (Reason: no proven benefit ...
A large team of researchers with members from across the globe has found that an ingredient in popular cough medicines may help people with Type 2 diabetes. They have published a description of their research and their findings in the journal Nature Medicine.. Type 2 diabetes is the kind of diabetes that people normally get as adults, it is characterized by the pancreas producing less insulin, a hormone that helps the body regulate and use glucose. The cause of diabetes is not known and there is no cure. Patients must typically modify their diet and take medications or insulin to maintain their health. In this new effort, the researchers report that they were conducting a study of dextromethorphan, the active ingredient in many cough suppressants-prior research had shown that when ingested, as the body works on it, a byproduct called dextrorphan is formed-a compound that suppresses the activity of certain brainreceptor cells which reduces the urge to cough. Prior research had shown that it also ...
Stop Medicine Abuse is a prevention campaign working to alert parents and members of the community about the problem of teen abuse of over-the-counter (OTC) cough medicines containing dextromethorphan (DXM).
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Video: If you want to get rid of a cough, its natural to reach for something labelled cough medicine. But the ingredients in cough medicines probably dont work as well as you think they do. This video explains the sad situation....
The FDA is warning parents not to give cough medicine to their children, under 2 years, warning it could be dangerous, even deadly.
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Background Cough variant Asthma (CVA) is defined as chronic cough without wheezing, and may be precursor of typical asthma. Thus, the diagnosis of CVA and early intervention can partly inhibit asthma progression.This study aimed to evaluate the role of spirometry in diagniosis of Cough variant Asthma in Iranian Children. Materials and Methods This descriptive observational study included a total of 73 patients, who were referred to the specialized lung clinic of Tabriz Pediatric Center, Tabriz city, Iran. Patients were divided into two groups with classic asthma (n=37) and cough variant asthma (n=36) and basic spirometry parameters such as FEV1, FVC, FEV1/FVC, FEF 25-75% and PEF were measured, and the spirometry findings of each individual were measured based on the European Respiratory Society (ERS) criteria. Results The mean of FEV1 and FVC in the classic asthma group were 83.45 ± 20.49% and 86.45 ± 21.57%, respectively; and in the cough variant asthma group were 87.44 ± 13.99% and 86.8 ± 14.71%,
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A company that sells childrens cough medicine at Kroger, CVS, Dollar General and Rite-Aid stores is recalling the product due to overdosing concerns. The Perrigo Company announced this week that it initiated a voluntary nationwide recall for two batches of its childrens guaifenesin grape liquid and three batches of its childrens guaifenesin DM cherry liquid.. ...
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The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is concerned about the abuse of dextromethorphan (DXM), a synthetically produced ingredient found in many over-the-counter (OTC) cough and cold remedies. The agency is working with other health and law enforcement authorities to address this serious issue and warn the public of potential harm, after five recently reported deaths of teenagers that may be associated with the consumption of powdered DXM sold in capsules.. Although DXM, when formulated properly and used in small amounts, can be safely used in cough suppressant medicines, abuse of the drug can cause death as well as other serious adverse events such as brain damage, seizure, loss of consciousness, and irregular heart beat.. DXM abuse, though not a new phenomenon, has developed into a disturbing new trend which involves the sale of pure DXM in powdered form. This pure DXM is often encapsulated by the dealer and offered for street use.. DXM has gradually replaced codeine as the most widely used ...
COUGH SYRUP DM DECONGESTANT is a specialty drug on the Reformulary and can be used to treat . Check with your doctor if there are other medications you can take before taking this drug.
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Covonia Expectorant Mentholated Cough Syrup 150ml - Dose: For Oral Use: Adults, the elderly and children over 12 years: Take 1 or 2 x 5ml spoonfuls. Children 5-12 years: Take 1 x 5ml spoonful. The dose may be repeated every 4 hours if required. Not recommended for children under 5 years. Effective relief of troublesome chesty coughs., NON DROWSY, CHESTY COUGHS.EXPECTORANT. An oral solution for the symptomatic relief of productive (chesty) coughs and sore throats.Keep out of the reach and sight of children.Medicinal product. For relief of productive chesty coughs and sore throats. Active Ingredients, Levomenthol 4.0mg, sqill tincture 0.6ml and liquorice liquid extract 0.125ml. Please read enclosed leaflet carefully before use. Do not give to children under 5 years old. Store out of reach and sight of children., 000 from Wilko.com
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Cough syrup is considered an expectorant, meaning that it will help you cough out the mucus by making it thin and loose. Mucosolvan cough syrup, for instance, works in three ways: It loosens your mucus, clears your airways, and prevents new mucus production. Expectorants like this are usually the best solution since they are effective for up to 12 hours.. As with any medication, exercise proper caution in using over-the-counter cough medicines like decongestants and expectorants. Make sure that you are taking the right dosage by checking its instructions either on its label or its package leaflet. If unsure, you have to consult a pharmacist or your doctor.. Seeing your doctor is also highly recommended when coughing does not stop after two weeks, despite doing all the above-mentioned remedies. Bear in mind as well that you should make an appointment with your doctor if your coughing is accompanied by wheezing, difficulty or shortness of breath, chest pain, and blood.. ...
Abstract:. Introduction: The use of alcohol as an excipient in pharmaceutical preparations raises safety concerns, especially when used in high concentration. This study aims to scrutinize the ethanol concentration in traditional herbal cough syrups available over-the-counter (OTC) in Malaysia. Method: Enzymatic analysis was adopted to estimate the alcohol contents of five selected syrups. The principle reaction involved ethanol oxidation by nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide (NAD) in the presence of the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), forming acetaldehyde, reduced NAD (NADH) and a proton. The ethanol concentration of each syrup was quantitatively determined by detecting NADH using UV spectrophotometry at detection wavelength of 340 nm. Results: The ethanol percentage by volume (% v/v) in the tested syrups ranges from 0.102% to 2.576%. All five syrups studied comply with the FDA requirement for drugs for adults and children ,6 years since they do not contain more than 5% ethanol. However, ...
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Global Codeine Phosphate Market is segmented, by Product, into Extracts from Opium, Synthesized by Morphine. Codeine Phosphate is an opioid based medication operative in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. The chemical make-up and action is similar to that of morphine; however, not as strong. It is also used to treat diarrhea as well as a dry or unproductive cough. It is frequently optional when milder painkillers such as paracetamol and ibuprofen have not provided relief.. It functions by assigning to opioid receptors in the central nervous system and effectively blocks the signals coming into the CNS so that pain is not conversant or at least reduced. It also has sedating effects and aids in relaxation. Codeine is an opiate used to treat pain, as a cough medicine, and for diarrhea. It is typically used for treating mild to moderate degrees of pain. It would work wonders when combined with paracetamol (acetaminophen) or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) such as ibuprofen or ...
Global Codeine Phosphate Market is segmented, by Product, into Extracts from Opium, Synthesized by Morphine. Codeine Phosphate is an opioid based medication operative in the treatment of mild to moderate pain. The chemical make-up and action is similar to that of morphine; however, not as strong. It is also used to treat diarrhea as well as a dry or unproductive cough. It is frequently optional when milder painkillers such as paracetamol and ibuprofen have not provided relief.. It functions by assigning to opioid receptors in the central nervous system and effectively blocks the signals coming into the CNS so that pain is not conversant or at least reduced. It also has sedating effects and aids in relaxation. Codeine is an opiate used to treat pain, as a cough medicine, and for diarrhea. It is typically used for treating mild to moderate degrees of pain. It would work wonders when combined with paracetamol (acetaminophen) or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) such as ibuprofen or ...
DM-D preparations contain both a cough suppressant and decongestant. • DM-D-E contain all three: a cough suppressant, a decongestant and an expectorant. If you are going to be using these medications in older children, I recommend not using combination preparations. Why? Because it does not make sense to give an expectorant, for example, at the same time as a cough suppressant. Bringing up secretions causes a cough reflex, allowing us to clear the secretions out. Giving a cough suppressant at the same time makes no sense.. However if an older child (depending on age, of course) requires treatment, a DM (cough) preparation may be helpful only if he/she is made uncomfortable by the cough - that is, waking up at night or not being able to sleep. If these medicines are necessary, please use them carefully. Your doctor or pharmacist can give you more details relating to your particular situation.. Please note that the fever will not respond to these types of medicines. Only fever medications ...
CAN I TAKE METHOCARBAMOL WITH THIS COUGH MEDICINE? ## Based on my research there are drug interactions found between Methocarbamol and the Codeine inside of Iophen-C NR (codeine + guaifenesin). Information I was able to gather states the following, regarding this interaction: Central nervous sy
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FDA is restricting the use of codeine and tramadol medicines in children. Codeine is approved to treat pain and cough, and tramadol is approved to treat pain. These medicines carry serious risks, including slowed or difficult breathing and death, which appear to be a greater risk in children younger than 12 years and must not be used in these children. These medicines should also be limited in some older children. Single-ingredient codeine and all tramadol-containing products are FDA-approved only for use in adults. We are also recommending against using codeine and tramadol medicines in breastfeeding mothers due to possible harm to their infants.
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If cough tends to recur or is accompanied by a fever, rash or persistent headache, a physician should be consulted. Section 4.6 updated as follows:. Section 4.6 updated as follows:. Section 4.6 updated as follows: This product has been formulated specifically for children, and would therefore not normally be taken during pregnancy and lactation.. Pregnancy. There are no or limited amount of data from the use of guaifenesin in pregnant women. Animal studies are insufficient with respect to reproductive toxicity (see section 5.3). BENYLIN Childrens Chesty Cough is not recommended during pregnancy and in women of childbearing potential not using contraception. Breastfeeding. Guaifenesin is excreted in breast milk in small amounts. There is insufficient information on the effects of Guaifenesin in newborns/infants. A decision must be made whether to discontinue breast-feeding or to discontinue/abstain from BENYLIN Childrens Chesty Coughs therapy, taking into account the benefit of breast feeding ...
DXM is a common ingredient in many cough and cold remedies. Its also become a popular substance to abuse by teens searching for a cheap, easy high. Heres what you should know.
Broncleer is a cough mixture that is manufactured by Adcock Ingram Limited in South Africa and is exported to Botswana. In South Africa members, of the public can buy the cough mixture over the counter, i.e., without needing a doctors prescription. This cough mixture is banned in Zimbabwe so it is illegal to import it or sell it. It contains, among other ingredients Codeine Phosphate, Diphenhydramine hydrochloride, Ammonium Chloride, Sodium citrate and Nipastat (preservative).. Looking at the patient information leaflet that accompanies the cough mixture, there is the following warning: The use of this medicine may lead to drowsiness and impaired concentration, which may be aggravated by the simultaneous intake of alcohol or other central nervous system depressant agents. Patients should be warned against performing potentially hazardous tasks where loss of concentration may lead to accidents.. This is a warming that must not be ignored, yet this exactly what is happening. The cough mixture ...
WASHINGTON - Manufacturers of unapproved extended-release cough and cold drugs that contain an expectorant called guaifenesin have until Nov. 25 to stop shipping the medicines, health officials said Friday.The Food and Drug Administration said roughly 20 companies make hundreds of timed-release medicines containing guaifenesin that have never undergone agency review. They are expected to stop making the drugs even earlier, by Aug. 27. The drugs are sold both by prescription and over the counter,
With great elegance nature builds up complex structures from simple building blocks. A central class of compounds are terpenes. More than 8000 terpenes and about 30,000 of the related terpenoids are currently known. They are the key substances for many biological and pharmaceutical functions.. Eucalyptol, or 1.8-cineole, for example is contained in many medicines for cough. It is an expectorant and works bactericidal. Chemically it consists of a ring of six carbon atoms which is additionally bridged. Starting out from geraniol, the main constitutend of the scent of geranium, this double ring is formed by a so-called tail-head-cyclization.. The biggest challenge of an artificial production is that as a first step a high-energy intermediate state is formed, in which the molecule has a positive charge. Without a catalyst, the molecule could further react in different directions. The desired product would be one of many and the yield only low.. Our catalyst stabilizes the transition state and ...
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Dextromethorphan suppresses the cough reflex by a direct action on the cough center in the medulla of the brain. Dextromethorphan shows high affinity binding to several regions of the brain, including the medullary cough center. This compound is an NMDA receptor antagonist and acts as a non-competitive channel blocker. It is one of the widely used antitussives, and is also used to study the involvement of glutamate receptors in neurotoxicity ...
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It is currently used as an antitussive agent in Iceland, as well as Romania, Bulgaria, Russia and other eastern European ... "Objective evaluation of dextromethorphan and glaucine as antitussive agents". British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 17 (5 ... Also indirect D2 agonists, such as dopamine reuptake inhibitors (cocaine, methylphenidate), releasing agents (amphetamine, ... and is used medically as an antitussive in some countries.[6] Glaucine may produce side effects such as sedation, fatigue, and ...
Triggle DJ, Ganellin CR, MacDonald F (1996). Dictionary of Pharmacological Agents. 1. Boca Raton: Chapman & Hall/CRC. p. 711. ... although a combination of dacemazine and di-tert-butylnaphthalenesulfonate was sold as an antispasmodic and antitussive under ...
... is widely used in preparations as an enhancing agent for some analgesics and antitussives (acetaminophen, ... Also indirect D2 agonists, such as dopamine reuptake inhibitors (cocaine, methylphenidate), releasing agents (amphetamine, ... Phenyltoloxamine, like diphenhydramine and doxylamine, is an effective non-narcotic anti-tussive on its own but tends to be ... It is a member of the ethanolamine class of antihistaminergic agents and an anticholinergic. ...
... was used as both an analgesic and antitussive. It binds to and activates both the μ- and δ-opioid receptors, with ... Morton IK, Hall JM (1999). Concise Dictionary of Pharmacological Agents: Properties and Synonyms. Springer. p. 157. ISBN 978-0- ... Winter CA, Flataker L (November 1952). "Antitussive action of d-isomethadone and d-methadone in dogs". Proceedings of the ... Isomethadone (INN, BAN; trade nameLiden; also known as isoamidone) is a synthetic opioid analgesic and antitussive related to ...
Various agents can inhibit 5-HT reuptake, including cocaine, dextromethorphan (an antitussive), tricyclic antidepressants and ... These agents are available as dietary supplements, and may be effective serotonergic agents. One product of serotonin breakdown ... Some 5-HT3 antagonists, such as ondansetron, granisetron, and tropisetron, are important antiemetic agents. They are ... but require a combination of serotonergic agents, such as an SSRI with an MAOI.[81] The intensity of the symptoms of serotonin ...
... non-opioid antitussive and expectorant of the thiambutene class. It acts as an inhibitor of G protein-coupled inwardly- ... Dictionary of Pharmacological Agents. CRC Press. pp. 1988-. ISBN 978-0-412-46630-4. Index Nominum 2000: International Drug ... "The centrally acting non-narcotic antitussive tipepidine produces antidepressant-like effect in the forced swimming test in ...
... anti-asthmatic agents MeSH D27.505.954.796.050.100 - bronchodilator agents MeSH D27.505.954.796.090 - antitussive agents MeSH ... anti-obesity agents MeSH D27.505.954.427.140.155 - appetite depressants MeSH D27.505.954.427.153 - antitussive agents MeSH ... antiviral agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.388.077 - anti-retroviral agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.388.077.088 - anti-hiv agents MeSH ... tocolytic agents MeSH D27.505.954.016 - anti-allergic agents MeSH D27.505.954.122 - anti-infective agents MeSH D27.505.954.122. ...
"The influence of CYP2D6 polymorphism and quinidine on the disposition and antitussive effect of dextromethorphan in humans". ... Dextromethorphan is the actual therapeutic agent in the combination; quinidine merely serves to inhibit the enzymatic ...
Antitussives, or cough suppressants, are substances which suppress the coughing itself. Examples are codeine, pholcodine, ... Agents whose purpose is to suppress coughing. Cold medicine. Cough medicine often contains cough suppressants and expectorants. ...
antitussive, analgesic Colchicine remedy for gout Emetine antiprotozoal agent, Emesis Ergot alkaloids Vasoconstriction, ... Int J Antimicrob Agents. 44 (5): 377-386. doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2014.06.001. PMID 25130096.. ... The newer semi-synthetic chemotherapeutic agent vinorelbine is used in the treatment of non-small-cell lung cancer.[134][195] ...
June 2001). "Preclinical evaluation of CHF3381 as a novel antiepileptic agent". Neuropharmacology. 40 (7): 866-78. doi:10.1016/ ...
Sigma (σ) receptors were once considered to be opioid receptors due to the antitussive actions of many opioid drugs' being ... and opioid receptor site-directed alkylating agent having narcotic agonist activity". Science. 204 (4390): 316-8. Bibcode: ...
antifungal, alkalinizing agents, quinolones, antibiotics, cholinergics, anticholinergics, antispasmodics, 5-alpha reductase ... bronchodilators, antitussives, mucolytics, decongestants. inhaled and systemic corticosteroids, Beta2-adrenergic agonists, ... In the inter-war period, the first anti-bacterial agents such as the sulpha antibiotics were developed. The Second World War ... These were drugs that worked chiefly as anti-anxiety agents and muscle relaxants. The first benzodiazepine was Librium. Three ...
Local numbing agentEdit. The efficacy profile of lidocaine as a local anaesthetic is characterized by a rapid onset of action ... Animal studies and a few human studies suggest that lidocaine has an antitussive effect…. ... Concurrent treatment with quinidine, flecainide, disopyramide, procainamide (class I antiarrhythmic agents). *Prior use of ... Lidocaine is often given intravenously as an antiarrhythmic agent in critical cardiac-care situations.[33] Treatment with ...
The role of NMDAR antagonism in the effect of PCP, ketamine, and related dissociative agents was first published in the early ... "Antitussives and substance abuse". Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation. 4: 75-82. doi:10.2147/SAR.S36761. PMC 3931656. PMID ... while investigating synthetic analgesic agents. It was known under the developmental code name CI-395.[75] It was approved for ...
Paregoric, an antidiarrheal and anti-tussive, which contains opium combined with camphor (which makes it less addiction-prone ... Drug enforcement administration agents inspect packages for illegal drug shipments at an international mail facility in New ... Halpern, J.H. (2004). "Hallucinogens and dissociative agents naturally growing in the United States". Pharmacology & ... drug agents.[23] Proceedings to add, delete, or change the schedule of a drug or other substance may be initiated by the DEA, ...
Levocloperastine is an effective antitussive agent for the treatment of cough in patients of all ages. Request. Callback ...
AN ANALGETIC AND ANTITUSSIVE AGENT. C. V. Winder, M. Welford, J. Wax and D. H. Kaump ... AN ANALGETIC AND ANTITUSSIVE AGENT. C. V. Winder, M. Welford, J. Wax and D. H. Kaump ... AN ANALGETIC AND ANTITUSSIVE AGENT. C. V. Winder, M. Welford, J. Wax and D. H. Kaump ... PHARMACOLOGIC AND TOXICOLOGIC STUDIES OF m-(1-METHYL-3-PROPYL-3-PYRROLIDINYL)PHENOL (CI-572), AN ANALGETIC AND ANTITUSSIVE ...
Butorphanol is a synthetic opioid agonist-antagonist analgesic with a pharmacological and therapeutic profile that has been well established since its launch as a parenteral formulation in 1978. The introduction of a transnasal formulation of butorphanol represents a new and noninvasive presentation of an analgesic for moderate to severe pain. This route of administration bypasses the gastrointestinal tract, and this is an advantage for a drug such as butorphanol that undergoes significant first-pass metabolism after oral administration. The onset of action and systemic bioavailability of butorphanol following transnasal delivery are similar to those after parenteral administration. Butorphanol blocks pain impulses at specific sites in the brain and spinal cord ...
Because acute bronchitis most often has a viral cause, symptomatic treatment with protussives, antitussives, or bronchodilators ... Selected Nonspecific Antitussive Agents. Preparation. Dosage. Side effects. Hydromorphone-guaifenesin (e.g., Hycotuss) ... PROTUSSIVES AND ANTITUSSIVES. Because acute bronchitis is most often caused by a viral infection, usually only symptomatic ... Nonspecific antitussives, such as hydrocodone (e.g., in Hycodan), dextromethorphan (e.g., Delsym), codeine (e.g., in Robitussin ...
Antitussive, Cough Suppression, Antitussive Therapy, Benzonatate, Tessalon Perles. ... Antitussive Agents, Antitussive Drugs, Antitussives, Drugs, Antitussive, Antitussive Agent [TC], Antitussive, Antitussive Agent ... Antitussive agent (product), Antitussive agent (substance), Antitussive agent, Antitussive, NOS. French. Médicaments ... antitussive drugs, antitussive, coughing suppressants, cough suppressants, antitussives, cough suppressant, Cough Medicines, ...
Anti-Obesity Agents. Sympathomimetics. Autonomic Agents. Peripheral Nervous System Agents. Nasal Decongestants. Vasoconstrictor ... Monotherapy with Su-Huang antitussive capsule. Drug: Su-Huang antitussive capsule Su-Huang antitussive capsule (0.45g) 3 ... Antitussive Agents. Guaifenesin. Phenylpropanolamine. Chlorpheniramine, phenylpropanolamine drug combination. Respiratory ... Adrenergic Agents. Neurotransmitter Agents. Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action. Physiological Effects of Drugs. ...
Antitussive Agents. Bronchodilator Agents. Autonomic Agents. Peripheral Nervous System Agents. Physiological Effects of Drugs. ... Anti-Asthmatic Agents. Respiratory System Agents. Vasodilator Agents. Expectorants. Adrenergic alpha-Agonists. Adrenergic ... Adrenergic Agents. Neurotransmitter Agents. Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action. Appetite Depressants. Anti-Obesity ... as an Antitussive Agent in Acute Cough Patients.. ... The aim of this clinical trial is to evaluate the antitussive ...
Use of Codeine as an Antitussive Agent in Children. Codeine is also prescribed as an antitussive agent and is still available ... Codeine has been prescribed to pediatric patients for many decades as both an analgesic and an antitussive agent. Codeine is a ... the risks of codeine administration described previously also apply to children receiving this agent as an antitussive agent. ... 50 years as an analgesic and an antitussive agent. Historically, codeine was considered an optimal oral analgesic for the ...
Schenker H (April 1983). "[Efficacy of morclofon, an new synthetic antitussive agent, in geriatric patients. Results of a ...
Sensory System Agents. Peripheral Nervous System Agents. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Antipyretics. Anti-Inflammatory Agents ... Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Antirheumatic Agents. Gout Suppressants. Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors. Enzyme Inhibitors. Molecular ...
Antitussive Agents. Respiratory System Agents. Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists. Excitatory Amino Acid Agents. ...
Other agents are preferred over methadone for pain control during breastfeeding. ... Antitussive Agents. Disclaimer: Information presented in this database is not meant as a substitute for professional judgment. ... Other agents are preferred over methadone for pain control during breastfeeding.. Women who received methadone maintenance ...
Evaluation of antitussive agents in man. Pulm Pharmacol.1996;9 :299- 308. ... Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus induced by the antitussive agent dextromethorphan. Diabetologia.2000;43 :261- 262. ... Although 2 older subjective investigations found DM to be an effective antitussive medication for children with URIs,6,7 more ... Effectiveness of antitussives, anticholinergics or honey versus usual care in adults with uncomplicated acute bronchitis: a ...
Dextromethorphan is known to have pharmacological activity as an antitussive agent and is described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,196,436 ... Sensory agents. Also useful herein are sensory agents selected from the group consisting of coolants, salivating agents, ... Transdermally administered dextromethorphan as antitussive agent. EP0295941A2. Jun 17, 1988. Dec 21, 1988. Elan Corporation P.L ... antitussives; expectorants; mucolytics; analgesics, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory agents. The compositions are manufactured ...
It is currently used as an antitussive agent in Iceland, as well as Romania, Bulgaria, Russia and other eastern European ... "Objective evaluation of dextromethorphan and glaucine as antitussive agents". British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 17 (5 ... Also indirect D2 agonists, such as dopamine reuptake inhibitors (cocaine, methylphenidate), releasing agents (amphetamine, ... and is used medically as an antitussive in some countries.[6] Glaucine may produce side effects such as sedation, fatigue, and ...
Antitussive Agents / therapeutic use* * Apitherapy * Child, Preschool * Cough / drug therapy* * Cough / etiology ...
Antitussive Agents. *MalaCards. *Medline Plus. Pharma. 542. Chlorpheniramine, phenylpropanolamine drug combination. *MalaCards ...
Anti-Bacterial Agents. 9. 10. Anti-Inflammatory Agents. 7. 10. Antitussive Agents. 1. 10. ... Pharmacological Actions : Anti-thrombotic, Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors, Vasodilator Agents. Additional Keywords : Aspirin ... T. vulgaris could be a new natural therapeutic and prophylactic agent for use in the treatment of chronic toxoplasmosis.Apr 19 ... Pharmacological Actions : Anti-Bacterial Agents. Additional Keywords : Bacterial Infections: Resistance/Biofilm Formation, ...
Pharmacological Actions : Antitussive Agents. Additional Keywords : Plant Extracts. [+] Pelargonium sidoides (umka) is well- ... Enzyme preparations are one of natures most powerful therapeutic agents - particularly, the proteolytic enzyme serrapeptase or ...
Antitussive Agents. Agents that suppress cough. They act centrally on the medullary cough center. EXPECTORANTS, also used in ... If you are a legal copyright holder or a designated agent for such and you believe a post on this website falls outside the ... is used to quantify cough sensitivity and evaluate the effects of cough therapies and antitussive medications. This study ...
Antitussive Agents / adverse effects * Antitussive Agents / therapeutic use * Child, Preschool * Common Cold / drug therapy* ...
0 (Antitussive Agents); 0 (Bronchodilator Agents); 0 (Expectorants); 0 (Histamine Antagonists); 0 (Nasal Decongestants); 0 ( ... 0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents); 0 (Antifungal Agents); 0 (Histamine Antagonists); 0 (Nasal Decongestants); 0 (Steroids); 451W47IQ8X ... Treatment guidelines universally classify INS as the most effective medical agents available for use in the OTC and primary ... 0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents); 0 (Free Radical Scavengers); 0 (Nasal Decongestants); 451W47IQ8X (Sodium Chloride); 74469-00-4 ( ...
Antitussive Agents / therapeutic use*. Chronic Disease. Codeine / therapeutic use. Cough / drug therapy*, physiopathology, ... 0/Analgesics, Opioid; 0/Antitussive Agents; 125-71-3/Dextromethorphan; 57-27-2/Morphine; 76-57-3/Codeine ...
0 (Antineoplastic Agents); 0 (Antitussive Agents); 8V32U4AOQU (Noscapine). [Em] M s de entrada:. 1702. ... 0 (Alkaloids); 0 (Antineoplastic Agents); 0 (Tubulin); 8V32U4AOQU (Noscapine); P88XT4IS4D (Paclitaxel). [Em] M s de entrada:. ... However, unlike the majority of tubulin-binding agents, it did not induce mitotic arrest; instead, it prolonged S-phase. ... Our results showed that noscapine had lower toxicity in normal cells and was an effective anticancer agent that induced ...
16 Antiinflammatory Agents Used In Bronch 16. Antiinflammatory agents used in bronchial asthma. Antitussive agents and ... Drugs used for the treatment of hypertension I: Classification of antihypertensive agents and their mechanisms of action ...
ClinicalTrials.gov: Antitussive Agents (National Institutes of Health) * ClinicalTrials.gov: Histamine Antagonists (National ...
Carbetapentane is a centrally acting non-narcotic antitussive agent. Carbetapentane has atropine-like and local anesthetic ... If hypotension is a problem, vasopressor agents may be considered.. V-COF Suspension Dosage and Administration. V-COF ... These drugs are not so prone to produce drowsiness and are among the most suitable agents for daytime use; but again, a ... Brompheniramine is an antihistamine, H1 receptor- blocking agent belonging to the alkylamine class of antihistamines. This ...
There are different types of antitussive agents used including centrally acting antitussives which consist of opioid ... Locally acting antitussive agents comprise local anesthetics. Cough is an important protective reflex symptom in health, but ... Macro and Microeconomic Factors Continue to Impact Antitussive Drugs Market Duri … Antitussive drugs are used to suppress ...
There are different types of antitussive agents used including centrally acting antitussives which consist of opioid ... Locally acting antitussive agents comprise local anesthetics. Cough is an important protective reflex symptom in health, but ... Pharmacologic Stress Agents Market - Global Industry Analysis and Forecast , 202 … Pharmacologic stress agents are employed in ... Antitussive Drugs Market - Global Industrial Applications Witness Fastest Growth … Antitussive drugs are used to suppress ...
Respiratory Agents. 40.9. 46.6. 33.4. 49.5. Antitussives, Expectorants, Mucolytic Agents. 27.1. 29.1. 22.3. 31.1. ... Cholesterol and Triglyceride Lowering Agents. 2.6. 76.0. 5.4*. 81.3. Ear/Eye/Nose/Rectum/Topical/Vagina/Other. 49.6. 64.4. 44.2 ... Anti-Cancer Agents. 4.0. 65.0. 2.8*. 76.3. SOURCE: Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey, Institutional Drug File, 1998.* ... Use of cardiovascular agents such as ace-inhibitors, cardiac stimulants, and calcium channel blockers are also similar in both ...
  • 1 The use of codeine or dextromethorphan (DM), the most common over-the-counter (OTC) antitussive, for treatment of cough is not supported by the American Academy of Pediatrics, largely because there is a lack of proven benefit and some potential for toxicity and overdose. (aappublications.org)
  • 14. The composition according to claim 13 wherein the antitussive is dextromethorphan. (google.com)
  • Common cough treatments include narcotic antitussives, such as codeine and dextromethorphan. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The sites of action of antitussive agents (dextromethorphan, codeine, clonazepam, diazepam and caramiphen) were studied on the centrally induced cough responses. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Dextromethorphan is a non-opiate antitussive medication that has been available over the counter since 1958. (livestrong.com)
  • Dextromethorphan is an antitussive agent and has no analgesic or addictive properties. (pediatriconcall.com)
  • and the antitussive agent dextromethorphan should not be used with EMSAM because of a risk of serotonin syndrome ( 4 , 5.2 ). (nih.gov)
  • Neurodex is made of dextromethorphan combined with an enzyme inhibitor that slows the otherwise rapid metabolism of the anti-tussive agent, an active ingredient in marketed cough medicines. (bioworld.com)
  • Zelapar should not be used with the antitussive agent dextromethorphan and should not be administered along with other selegiline products. (salesandmarketingnetwork.com)
  • Codeine is in a class of drugs that are called opiate analgesics as well as antitussives. (heroin.org)
  • Additional clinical research must extend the understanding of the risks and benefits of both opioid and nonopioid alternatives for orally administered, effective agents for acute and chronic pain. (aappublications.org)
  • Pholcodine is a drug which is an opioid cough suppressant (antitussive). (wikipedia.org)
  • 2,3 Codeine has long been used in children as an analgesic and antitussive agent, and it was the most frequently used opioid medication among European children and adolescents in the early 2000s. (ajmc.com)
  • A Benefit Risk Review of Pediatric Use of Hydrocodone/Chlorpheniramine, a Prescription Opioid Antitussive Agent for the Treatment of Cough. (nih.gov)
  • A narcotic or opioid substance, synthetic or semisynthetic agent producing profound analgesia, drowsiness, and changes in mood. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • CI-572 has a considerably greater, nalorphine-antagonized antinociceptive activity in rats (2.5-4 times codeine or meperidine) than prodilidine, and, unlike prodilidine, has a corresponding antitussive activity in dogs with ammonia-induced cough. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Codeine has been prescribed to pediatric patients for many decades as both an analgesic and an antitussive agent. (aappublications.org)
  • These and other groups have or are considering a declaration of a contraindication for the use of codeine for children as either an analgesic or an antitussive. (aappublications.org)
  • Clonazepam was found to be the most potent antitussive among these agents, the mean effective dose being about 1/35 of that of codeine. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In the search for safe and effective antitussive drugs it has been noted that, in some animal models and in humans, tussigenic agents stimulate a recently cloned ion channel belonging to the transient receptor potential family of channels. (bmj.com)
  • Conclusions: Together, the data suggest that lesogaberan and related GABAB receptor agonists may hold promise as safe and effective antitussive agents largely devoid of CNS side effects. (elsevier.com)
  • 15. The composition according to claim 13 wherein the composition further comprises an additional pharmaceutical active selected from the group consisting of antihistamines, non-sedating antihistamines, decongestants, expectorants, analgesic mucolytics, antipyretic anti-inflammatory agents, local anesthetics, and mixtures thereof. (google.com)
  • Brompheniramine is an antihistamine, H 1 receptor- blocking agent belonging to the alkylamine class of antihistamines. (drugs.com)
  • Antitussives, antihistamine-decongestant combinations, other fixed drug combinations, and antihistamines were no more effective than placebo in relieving symptoms of acute cough. (bmj.com)
  • Negative interaction with passion flower could also occur if one is taking antihistamines, antitussives, central nervous system depressants, antispasmodics, or other neurological agents. (wisegeek.com)
  • Antibiotics were prescribed more often than antihistamines, nasal decongestants, corticosteroids, and antitussive, expectorant, and mucolytic agents (order reflects the frequency of recommended medication). (highlighthealth.com)
  • This study aims to observe the therapeutic effect of Su-Huang antitussive capsule on cough variant asthma. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Conclusion: KJ exerted significant antitussive effects in URL The present data further support the therapeutic use of KJ in upper respiratory tract infections. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Only limited evidence supports the few therapeutic agents available to treat acute URI-related cough (Paul, 2012). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • In addition, it seems likely that drugs which broadly address asthmatic inflammation are likely to be of more therapeutic benefit than agents that are basically modifiers of bronchoconstriction. (vin.com)
  • Noscapine, a naturally occurring opium alkaloid, is a widely used antitussive medication. (bireme.br)
  • We have previously discovered the naturally occurring antitussive alkaloid noscapine as a tubulin-binding agent that attenuates microtubule dynamics and arrests mammalian cells at mitosis via activation of the c-Jun NH 2 -terminal kinase pathway. (aacrjournals.org)
  • V-COF Suspension is an antihistamine/nasal decongestant/antitussive combination for oral administration as a suspension. (drugs.com)
  • 8. The antihistamine composition defined in claim 1 which further comprises a therapeutically effective amount of at least one agent selected from the group consisting of an analgesic agent, an antitussive agent, an expectorant, an anti-inflammatory agent, an anti-pyretic agent and a decongestant. (google.es)
  • and a sedative, antitussive agent and an antiseptic. (intox.org)
  • 6 It was the primary agent used for outpatient analgesia after adenotonsillectomy in children and was recommended as a step 2 medication in the World Health Organization Pain Ladder for the treatment of moderate pain. (aappublications.org)
  • Although 2 older subjective investigations found DM to be an effective antitussive medication for children with URIs, 6 , 7 more recent studies have shown it to be no better than placebo (PL) in controlling acute cough. (aappublications.org)
  • tetracaine) and has been associated with adverse CNS effects possibly related to a prior sensitivity to related agents or interaction with concomitant medication. (rxlist.com)
  • Opiate antitussives are narcotic agents that act centrally to suppress the cough reflex. (livestrong.com)
  • A) Hydrocodone is an effective antitussive (anti-cough) agent, and as an opiate it is also an effective analgesic for mild to moderate pain control. (drug-rehab.org)
  • In most cases, however, drugs currently available for antitussive treatment are only partially effective. (bmj.com)
  • site of action of antitussive drugs. (aspetjournals.org)
  • We have previously shown that the caudal ventral respiratory group (cVRG) is a possible site of action of some antitussive drugs and plays a crucial role in determining both the expiratory and inspiratory components of the cough motor pattern. (frontiersin.org)
  • The abuser of these drugs has been shown not to be the inner city youth, but instead a famous actor, a suburban real estate agent, or your next door neighbor. (drug-rehab.org)
  • Therefore the aim of this study was to analyze the effectiveness of antibiotics compared to symptomatic drugs (central and peripheral antitussives) on URTI-related cough in a pediatric population. (elsevier.com)
  • Before the development of more effective synthetic drugs such as quinacrine, chloroquine, and primaquine, quinine was the specific agent in the treatment of malaria. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The drugs Yohimbine and Adrenergic Agents have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. (malacards.org)
  • This includes agents used to facilitate bronchodilation, to reduce coughing and various expectorants and mucolytics. (vin.com)
  • Pretreatment with rimcazole, a sigma specific antagonist, causes a dose-dependent reduction in antitussive activity of noscapine. (bionity.com)
  • Guava ( Psidium guajava L.) is well known for edible fruit rich in proteins, carbohydrates, minerals, sugars, oils and vitamin-C. All parts of the plant pharmaceutical used as anti-diarrhoeal, antimicrobial, antimalarial, antitussive, antioxidant, antigenotoxic and antimutagenic agents. (springer.com)
  • The findings of the present study suggest that antitussives, especially peripherally acting agents, represent an effective treatment option for acute pediatric cough caused by URTIs. (elsevier.com)
  • I-RTX is a novel and potent antitussive drug which inhibits cough mediated by agents possibly acting via TRPV1 activation. (bmj.com)
  • For instance, clonazepam and diazepam have the same potency in depressing polysynaptic spinal reflexes, whereas the former is 6 times more potent than diazepam as an antitussive. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Antitussive effect of a fixed combination of Justicia adhatoda, Echinacea purpurea and Eleutherococcus senticosus extracts in patients with acute upper respiratory tract infection: a comparative, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • In the adult studies, six trials compared antitussives with placebo and had variable results. (cochrane.org)
  • Findings suggested that, compared with western conventional medicine or placebo, Chinese herbal medicine could effectively improve core symptoms of postinfectious cough, act better and have earlier antitussive effect, and enhance patients' quality of life. (hindawi.com)
  • Zelapar is also contraindicated for use with meperidine and should not be administered with the analgesic agents tramadol, methadone, and propoxyphene. (salesandmarketingnetwork.com)
  • Because acute bronchitis most often has a viral cause, symptomatic treatment with protussives, antitussives, or bronchodilators is appropriate. (aafp.org)
  • Consequently bronchodilation may be achieved via anticholinergic agents (including beta 2 agonists), beta 2 adrenergic receptor agonists and agents such as the methylxanthines which produce bronchodilation at least in part due to increased intracellular cAMP levels in bronchial smooth muscle. (vin.com)
  • Severity, frequency and type of cough were assessed at baseline and after 6 days of treatment (antitussives n = 123, antibiotics n = 89 or combination of them n = 38) or no treatment (n = 80). (elsevier.com)
  • Results: Between children treated with antitussives or antibiotics, there was a statistically significant difference in the resolution of cough. (elsevier.com)
  • There was no difference in cough resolution between children treated with antitussives and those receiving a combination of antibiotics and antitussives, either central and peripheral antitussives. (elsevier.com)
  • Efficacy of morclofon, an new synthetic antitussive agent, in geriatric patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • Then the same agent was given intravenously in an attempt to obtain an effective dose which was close to the minimum dose for blocking the cough. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The mean effective doses of these agents to abolish the cough via the vertebral artery were only about 1/20 of those required via intravenous injection. (aspetjournals.org)
  • CONCLUSIONS--Menthol is an effective antitussive agent in an evoked cough model. (bmj.com)
  • Group viii: Orellanine- and orelline-containing mushrooms cortinarius spp amanita smithiana pigments myoglobin hemoglobin radiocontrast agents xenobiotics that often are minimally regulated by clia, because no method, even sterilization, ispletely effective. (childbirthsolutions.com)
  • GABAB receptor agonists have also been shown to possess antitussive effects in patients and in animals independent of their effects on TLESR, suggesting that lesogaberan may be a promising treatment for chronic cough. (elsevier.com)
  • Palliation of chronic nonproductive cough should always first address the underlying cause but in some patients chronic, nonproductive cough persists and antitussive agents are required. (ebscohost.com)
  • Cough score and cough reflex sensitivity will be improved after treatment with Su-Huang antitussive capsule. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • This paper summarizes the currently accepted concepts of the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying the morphological and functional changes in intranasal mucosa of the patients having a long history of the application of the long-acting topical vasoconstrictor agents. (bireme.br)
  • Patients who experience intractable coughing frequently visit their family doctors or chest physicians, despite the widespread availability of over the counter antitussive medications. (bmj.com)
  • However, there is a growing need for newer agents that present realistic options for cough hypersensitivity syndrome patients. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • Therefore, regardless of how serious the dry cough may be, patients should not treat themselves with antitussive for any longer than 7 to 10 days, preferably only at night to ease the cough. (hubpages.com)
  • While immunosuppression may be a problem, particularly in those receiving conventional chemotherapeutic agents, it is possible that the non-specific effects of immune-enhancing therapies may confer some protection against SARS-CoV-2. (frontiersin.org)
  • Therefore, by targeting the spindle microtubules, chemotherapeutic agents can efficiently block cell cycle progression in normal cells with intact surveillance mechanisms while initiating programmed cell death in certain tumors to inhibit their aggressive growth ( 2 , 3 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • This trend is distinctly true, since antitussive agents are projected to dominate the cough hypersensitivity syndrome treatment market, with an estimated revenue of ~US$ 2.8 billion by 2027 . (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • Given the pivotal role of microtubules in biological processes such as intracellular transport, motility, morphogenesis, and mitotic spindle formation, treatment of cells with microtubule-targeting agents evokes activation of stress response pathways, cell cycle arrest, and induction of apoptosis ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Other agents are preferred over methadone for pain control during breastfeeding. (nih.gov)
  • Noscapine's antitussive effects appear to be primarily mediated by its sigma receptor agonist activity. (bionity.com)
  • The citric acid cough reflex test (CRT) is used to quantify cough sensitivity and evaluate the effects of cough therapies and antitussive medications. (bioportfolio.com)
  • It has bronchodilator and antiinflammatory effects, acting as a PDE4 inhibitor and calcium channel blocker , [5] and is used medically as an antitussive in some countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methods: We have assessed the direct antitussive effects of lesogaberan (AZD3355). (elsevier.com)
  • This agent is primarily used for its antitussive (cough-suppressing) effects. (bionity.com)
  • Abuse of antitussive agent will not only reduce our body's function to auto-clean our respiratory tract, but it also may mask the symptoms of other serious diseases. (hubpages.com)
  • Also disclosed are compositions for effectively depositing various benefit agents into and onto the skin. (google.com)