Agents that suppress cough. They act centrally on the medullary cough center. EXPECTORANTS, also used in the treatment of cough, act locally.
Dibenzoquinolines derived in plants from (S)-reticuline (BENZYLISOQUINOLINES).
Methyl analog of DEXTRORPHAN that shows high affinity binding to several regions of the brain, including the medullary cough center. This compound is an NMDA receptor antagonist (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and acts as a non-competitive channel blocker. It is one of the widely used ANTITUSSIVES, and is also used to study the involvement of glutamate receptors in neurotoxicity.
A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.

Pharmacological studies on root bark of mulberry tree (Morus alba L.) (1/196)

Pharmacological studies were done on the root bark of mulberry tree and pharmacological effects were compared with the clinical effects of "Sohakuhi" in Chinese medicine. n-Butanol- and water-soluble fractions of mulberry root had similar effects except for those on the cadiovascular system. Both fractions showed cathartic, analgesic, diuretic, antitussive, antiedema, sedative, anticonvulsant, and hypotensive actions in mice, rats, guinea pigs and dogs. There appears to be a correlation between the experimental pharmacological results and the clinical applications of mulberry root found in the literature on Chinese medicine.  (+info)

Influence of central antitussive drugs on the cough motor pattern. (2/196)

The present study was conducted to determine the effects of administration of centrally active antitussive drugs on the cough motor pattern. Electromyograms of diaphragm and rectus abdominis muscles were recorded in anesthetized, spontaneously breathing cats. Cough was produced by mechanical stimulation of the intrathoracic trachea. Centrally acting drugs administered included codeine, morphine, dextromethorphan, baclofen, CP-99,994, and SR-48,968. Intravertebral artery administration of all drugs reduced cough number (number of coughs per stimulus trial) and rectus abdominis burst amplitude in a dose-dependent manner. Codeine, dextromethorphan, CP-99,994, SR-48,968, and baclofen had no effect on cough cycle timing (CTtot) or diaphragm amplitude during cough, even at doses that inhibited cough number by 80-90%. Morphine lengthened CTtot and inhibited diaphragm amplitude during cough, but these effects were not dose dependent. Only CP-99,994 altered the eupneic respiratory pattern. Central antitussive drugs primarily suppress cough by inhibition of expiratory motor drive and cough number. CTtot and inspiratory motor drive are relatively insensitive to the effects of these drugs. CTtot can be controlled independently from cough number.  (+info)

Sigmoidal kinetics of CYP3A substrates: an approach for scaling dextromethorphan metabolism in hepatic microsomes and isolated hepatocytes to predict in vivo clearance in rat. (3/196)

The metabolism of a number of compounds by the cytochrome P-450 subfamily CYP3A does not exhibit classic Michaelis-Menten kinetics but displays a sigmoidal rate-substrate concentration relationship. Intrinsic clearance (CLint) cannot be calculated for these drugs due to the lack of a first order region in their kinetic profiles, and a suitable parameter has yet to be identified to allow such data to be scaled to predict in vivo clearance. As sigmoidal kinetics have only been observed with microsomal systems, we have investigated whether this behavior is demonstrable in freshly isolated hepatocytes. We have also evaluated the term maximum clearance (CLmax), which refers to the in vitro clearance when the enzyme is fully activated, to predict in vivo clearance. To these ends we have studied the metabolism of dextromethorphan to methoxymorphinan and dextrorphan; methoxymorphinan production is best described by sigmoidal kinetics in both hepatocytes and microsomes, dextrorphan production is best described by a two site Michaelis-Menten model in microsomes but is sigmoidal in hepatocytes. Total clearance, estimated from the CLmax and CLint terms, was scaled to give mean predictions of 127 to 319 ml/min/standard rat weight of 250 g. In vivo CLint, determined after infusion via the hepatic portal vein to steady state and correcting for plasma protein binding and blood-to-plasma concentration ratio, was 259 +/- 59.2 ml/min/standard rat weight of 250 g. These investigations show that sigmoidal kinetics is not unique to microsomes and that CLmax is a useful parameter for scaling to the in vivo situation.  (+info)

Characterization of cytochrome P-450 2D1 activity in rat brain: high-affinity kinetics for dextromethorphan. (4/196)

We investigated the enzymatic function, stability, and regional distribution of rat brain cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 2D1 activity. CYP2D1 is the homolog of human CYP2D6, a genetically variable enzyme that activates or inactivates many clinical drugs acting on the central nervous system (e.g., antidepressants, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, serotonin uptake inhibitors, and neuroleptics), drugs of abuse (e.g., amphetamine and codeine), neurotoxins (e.g., 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, 1,2,3, 4-tetrahydroquinoline), and endogenous neurochemicals (e.g., tryptamine). The CYP2D family has been identified in rodent, canine, and primate brain. Conversion of dextromethorphan to dextrorphan by rat brain membranes was assayed by HPLC and was dependent on NADPH, protein concentration, and incubation time. Significant loss of activity was observed in some homogenizing buffers and after freezing of whole tissues or membrane preparations. Dextromethorphan (0.5-640 microM) metabolism was mediated by high- and low-affinity enzyme systems; K(m1) was 2.7 +/- 2.6 and K(m2) was 757 +/- 156 microM (n = 3 rats, mean +/- S.E.). The enzyme activity was significantly (p <.01) and stereoselectively inhibited by CYP2D1 inhibitors quinine and quinidine (not by CYP2C or CYP3A inhibitors), and by anti-CYP2D6 peptide antiserum (not by anti-CYP2C, -CYP2B, or -CYP3A antibodies). The enzymatic activity demonstrated significant brain regional variation (n = 10 regions, p <.001). These data characterize CYP2D1-mediated dextromethorphan metabolism in rat brain and suggest that localized metabolism of other CYP2D1 substrates (drugs, neurotoxins, and possibly endogenous compounds) within the brain will occur. In humans, CYP2D6 is genetically polymorphic; the variable expression of brain CYP2D6 may result in interindividual differences in central drug and neurotoxin metabolism, possibly contributing to interindividual differences in drug effects and neurotoxicity.  (+info)

The role of codeine phosphate premedication in fibre-optic bronchoscopy under insufficient local anaesthesia and midazolam sedation. (5/196)

Midazolam is widely used as a sedative agent to produce amnesia in patients undergoing fibre-optic bronchoscopy. However, if a patient does not receive sufficient local anaesthesia, continuous severe cough and physical movement may interrupt the procedure and reduce its safety. We therefore examined whether codeine phosphate is a useful premedication for bronchoscopy. The study design was a randomized comparison between codeine phosphate and a placebo in patients undergoing light local anaesthesia and midazolam sedation. We used low dose local anaesthesia (5 ml of nebulized 2% xylocaine) on the assumption of insufficient local anaesthesia. Patients were allocated to receive codeine phosphate 0.4 mg kg-1 or a saline placebo 60 min before they were sedated with i.v. midazolam. If the patients exhibited severe cough during bronchoscopy, intrabronchial supplemental local anaesthesia (2% xylocaine solution in 1 ml increments) was instilled via a bronchoscope to the trachea and segmental bronchi to suppress the cough. The dose of supplemental xylocaine was assessed and the requirements were significantly lower in the codeine group compared to the placebo group: 36.4 +/- 10.2 mg vs. 95.1 +/- 24.6 mg, respectively. After bronchoscopy, patients were interviewed by a doctor to assess their willingness to undergo a repeat procedure if one was clinically indicated, but no significant difference was observed between the two groups. If local anaesthesia is insufficient, midazolam together with codeine phosphate premedication is useful for both the patient and the bronchoscopist.  (+info)

The antitussive effect of dextromethorphan in relation to CYP2D6 activity. (6/196)

AIMS: To test the hypothesis that inhibition of cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) by quinidine increases the antitussive effect of dextromethorphan (DEX) in an induced cough model. METHODS: Twenty-two healthy extensive metaboliser phenotypes for CYP2D6 were studied according to a double-blind, randomised cross-over design after administration of: (1) Placebo antitussive preceded at 1 h by placebo inhibitor; (2) 30 mg oral DEX preceded at 1 h by placebo inhibitor (DEX30); (3) 60 mg oral DEX preceded at 1 h by placebo inhibitor (DEX60); (4) 30 mg oral DEX preceded at 1 h by 50 mg oral quinidine sulphate (QDEX30). Cough frequency following inhalation of 10% citric acid was measured at baseline and at intervals up to 12 h. Plasma concentrations of DEX and its metabolites were measured up to 96 h by h.p.l.c. RESULTS: Inhibition of CYP2D6 by quinidine caused a significant increase in the mean ratio of DEX to dextrorphan (DEX:DOR) plasma AUC(96) (0.04 vs 1.81, P<0.001). The mean (+/-s.d.) decrements in cough frequency below baseline over 12 h (AUEC) were: 8% (11), 17% (14.5), 25% (16.2) and 25% (16.9) for placebo, DEX30, DEX60 and QDEX30 treatments, respectively. Statistically significant differences in antitussive effect were detected for the contrasts between DEX60/placebo (P<0.001; 95% CI of difference +80, +327) and QDEX30/placebo (P<0.001, +88, +336), but not for DEX30/placebo, DEX30/DEX60 or DEX30/QDEX30 (P=0.071, -7, +241; P=0.254, -37, +211; P=0.187, -29, +219, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: A significant antitussive effect was demonstrated after 60 mg dextromethorphan and 30 mg dextromethorphan preceded by 50 mg quinidine using an induced cough model. However, although the study was powered to detect a 10% difference in cough response, the observed differences for other contrasts were less than 10%, such that it was possible only to imply a dose effect (30 vs 60 mg) in the antitussive activity of DEX and enhancement of this effect by CYP2D6 inhibition.  (+info)

Dextromethorphan. Extrapolation of findings from reproductive studies in animals to humans. (7/196)

QUESTION: One of my patients, who is now 8 weeks pregnant, just read in the newspaper that dextromethorphan (DM), an antitussive found in a variety of cough medicines, caused birth defects in chicken embryos. The author of the study stated that even one dose could be dangerous and that he would never allow his wife to use this drug if she were pregnant. My patient was understandably very concerned because last week she was suffering from a nasty cough and had been advised by her pharmacist to use a cough mixture containing DM, which she subsequently took for several days. ANSWER: You may reassure your patient that she did not put her baby at risk by using this substance. Dextromethorphan has been on the market for many years and has never been implicated as a human teratogen. Furthermore, chick embryos are not a good model for predicting teratogenic potential in humans and, consequently, were abandoned as such more than 30 years ago.  (+info)

Effect of oral mexiletine on the cough response to capsaicin and tartaric acid. (8/196)

BACKGROUND: The effect of the orally active local anaesthetic mexiletine on the cough response to two different tussive agents, a C-fibre ending stimulator capsaicin and a chemostimulant tartaric acid, was examined in normal subjects. METHODS: The cough threshold, defined as the lowest concentration of capsaicin (C(5)-CP) or tartaric acid (C(5)-TA) causing five or more coughs, and histamine induced bronchoconstriction were measured three hours after a single oral dose of 300 mg mexiletine or placebo in 14 normal subjects. RESULTS: Mexiletene in a mean (SE) serum concentration of 0.99 (0. 04) microg/ml significantly increased C(5)-TA from a geometric mean (SE) of 32.0 (1.27) mg/ml with placebo to 49.9 (1.34) mg/ml, but C(5)-CP did not differ significantly between treatment with mexiletine (12.2 (1.33) microM) and placebo (14.9 (1.23) microM). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the cough response to capsaicin and tartaric acid may be mediated in part via different neural pathways.  (+info)

Antitussive agents are medications that are used to suppress cough. They work by numbing the throat and interrupting the cough reflex. Some common antitussives include dextromethorphan, codeine, and hydrocodone. These medications can be found in various over-the-counter and prescription cough and cold products. It is important to use antitussives only as directed, as they can have side effects such as drowsiness, constipation, and slowed breathing. Additionally, it's important to note that long term use of opioid antitussive like codeine and hydrocodone are not recommended due to the risk of addiction and other serious side effects.

Aporphine is a type of chemical compound called alkaloids, which are found in certain plants. Aporphines have a specific chemical structure and can have various pharmacological effects. They have been studied for their potential medicinal properties, including anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, and antiasthmatic activities. Some aporphine alkaloids have also been found to have psychoactive effects and are used in traditional medicine in some cultures. However, more research is needed to fully understand the therapeutic potential and safety of aporphines.

Dextromethorphan is a medication that is commonly used as a cough suppressant in over-the-counter cold and cough remedies. It works by numbing the throat area, which helps to reduce the cough reflex. Dextromethorphan is a synthetic derivative of morphine, but it does not have the same pain-relieving or addictive properties as opioids.

Dextromethorphan is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, liquids, and lozenges. It is often combined with other medications, such as antihistamines, decongestants, and pain relievers, to provide relief from cold and flu symptoms.

While dextromethorphan is generally considered safe when used as directed, it can have side effects, including dizziness, drowsiness, and stomach upset. In high doses or when taken with certain other medications, dextromethorphan can cause hallucinations, impaired judgment, and other serious side effects. It is important to follow the recommended dosage and to talk to a healthcare provider before taking dextromethorphan if you have any health conditions or are taking other medications.

A cough is a reflex action that helps to clear the airways of irritants, foreign particles, or excess mucus or phlegm. It is characterized by a sudden, forceful expulsion of air from the lungs through the mouth and nose. A cough can be acute (short-term) or chronic (long-term), and it can be accompanied by other symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, or fever. Coughing can be caused by various factors, including respiratory infections, allergies, asthma, environmental pollutants, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and chronic lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and bronchitis. In some cases, a cough may be a symptom of a more serious underlying condition, such as heart failure or lung cancer.

This agent is primarily used for its antitussive (cough-suppressing) effects. Noscapine is often used as an antitussive ... Church J, Jones MG, Davies SN, Lodge D (June 1989). "Antitussive agents as N-methylaspartate antagonists: further studies". ... Noscapine's antitussive effects appear to be primarily mediated by its σ-receptor agonist activity. Evidence for this mechanism ... Noscapine is itself an anti-mitiotic agent, therefore its analogs have great potential as novel anti-cancer drugs. Analogs ...
"Objective evaluation of dextromethorphan and glaucine as antitussive agents". British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 17 (5 ... and is used medically as an antitussive in some countries. Glaucine may produce side effects such as sedation, fatigue, and a ... "Detection of the pharmaceutical agent glaucine as a recreational drug". European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 64 (5): 553- ...
"Objective evaluation of dextromethorphan and glaucine as antitussive agents". Br J Clin Pharmacol. 17 (5): 521-524. doi:10.1111 ...
It is currently used as an antitussive agent in Iceland, as well as Romania, Bulgaria, Russia and other eastern European ... "Objective evaluation of dextromethorphan and glaucine as antitussive agents". British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 17 (5 ... May 2008). "Detection of the pharmaceutical agent glaucine as a recreational drug". European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. ... and is used medically as an antitussive in some countries. TLRs plays role in its anti inflammatory effects. Glaucine may ...
Hougs W, Nielsen IM, Norn S, Nymark M (1966). "Pharmacology of a new antitussive agent: meprotixol (N 7020)". Acta ... Antitussives, Thioxanthenes, Phenol ethers, Tertiary alcohols, Dimethylamino compounds, All stub articles, Respiratory system ...
Schenker H (April 1983). "[Efficacy of morclofon, a new synthetic antitussive agent, in geriatric patients. Results of a double ... Antitussives, 4-Morpholinyl compounds, Phenol ethers, Benzophenones, Chloroarenes, All stub articles, Respiratory system drug ...
Clinical comparison of butamirate citrate with a codeine-based antitussive agent]". Revue Médicale de la Suisse Romande. 110 ( ... Effect of sigma ligands and other agents". The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 251 (1): 207-15. PMID ... Antitussives, Diethylamino compounds, Carboxylate esters, Ethers, All stub articles, Respiratory system drug stubs). ...
Dextropropoxyphene is an analgesic agent (Darvon) and levopropoxyphene an effective antitussive (Novrad). Interestingly the ...
... is an antitussive agent of the benzanilide class, formerly marketed under the name Noleptan. It binds poorly to the ... Sasaki T, Sugiyama M, Sasaki H, Suzuki S, Takishima T (1985). "Effects of the antitussive fominoben (PB89) on hypoxia in ... Antitussives, GABAA receptor positive allosteric modulators, Benzanilides, 4-Morpholinyl compounds, Chloroarenes, Tertiary ... sigma-1 receptor, a receptor activated by many other antitussives. It is reported to have respiratory stimulant activity. Other ...
Kobayashi, S; Hasegawa, K; Mori, M; Takagi, H (1970). "Pharmacological studies on a new specifically potent antitussive agent, ... Drotebanol has powerful antitussive (cough suppressant) effects, and is around 10x more potent than codeine in producing this ... Antitussives, Morphinans, Mu-opioid receptor agonists, Phenol ethers, Semisynthetic opioids, Cyclohexanols). ...
... is widely used in preparations as an enhancing agent for some analgesics and antitussives (acetaminophen, ... possesses antitussive action of its own and is particularly useful in semi-productive coughs because of its moderate drying ...
... is a synthetic opioid analgesic and antitussive agent.[citation needed] Normethadone is listed under the Single Convention on ... Antitussives, Ketones, Mu-opioid receptor agonists, Synthetic opioids, All stub articles, Analgesic stubs, Respiratory system ...
... an antifungal and an antitussive agent. In combination with Tridax procumbens and Euphorbia thymifolia, it has been found to be ...
February 1995). "N-acyl-2-substituted-1,3-thiazolidines, a new class of non-narcotic antitussive agents: studies leading to the ... Morita K, Kamei J (April 2000). "Involvement of ATP-sensitive K(+) channels in the anti-tussive effect of moguisteine". ... Moguisteine is a non-narcotic, peripherally acting antitussive. In a small double-blind, randomized controlled trial, 200 mg of ... a novel peripheral non-narcotic antitussive drug". British Journal of Pharmacology. 112 (3): 795-800. doi:10.1111/j.1476- ...
... has been widely used as an antitussive agent but by 2023 concerns over its association with anaphylaxis in some ... Pholcodine is an opioid cough suppressant (antitussive). It helps suppress unproductive coughs and also has a mild sedative ... neuromuscular blocking agents), is a risk factor for developing an anaphylactic reaction to NMBAs. Given the advice of the CHM ... Antitussives, 4,5-Epoxymorphinans, 4-Morpholinyl compounds, Phenol ethers, Secondary alcohols, Heterocyclic compounds with 5 ...
Various agents can inhibit 5-HT reuptake, including cocaine, dextromethorphan (an antitussive), tricyclic antidepressants and ... These agents are available as dietary supplements and in various foods, and may be effective serotonergic agents. One product ... and since it was a serum agent affecting vascular tone, they named it serotonin. In 1952, enteramine was shown to be the same ... are important antiemetic agents. They are particularly important in treating the nausea and vomiting that occur during ...
One of the partner is dextropropoxyphene, an analgesic agent (Darvon) and the other is called levopropoxyphene, an effective ... antitussive (Novrad). It is interesting to note that the trade names of the drugs, DARVON and NOVRAD, also reflect the chemical ...
... to reduce pain Anti-inflammatory agents, for inflammation caused by arthritis Antitussives, for cough Antihistaminics (also ...
... is a trade name for a medication whose active substances are: Bromhexine, a mucolytic agent. In addition, bromhexine ... Orphaned articles from June 2015, All orphaned articles, Antitussives). ... Concise Dictionary of Pharmacological Agents. Springer. p. 55. ISBN 0-7514-0499-3. Retrieved 2009-06-03. ( ...
It may be used as a nasal/sinus decongestant, as a stimulant, or as a wakefulness-promoting agent in higher doses. It was first ... According to one study, pseudoephedrine may show effectiveness as an antitussive drug (suppression of cough). Pseudoephedrine ... Pseudoephedrine is also indicated for vasomotor rhinitis, and as an adjunct to other agents in the optimum treatment of ... It has also been reported that pseudoephedrine, among other sympathomimetic agents, may be associated with the occurrence of ...
In the inter-war period, the first anti-bacterial agents such as the sulpha antibiotics were developed. The Second World War ... Bronchodilators, antitussives, mucolytics, decongestants, inhaled and systemic corticosteroids, beta2-adrenergic agonists, ... These were drugs that worked chiefly as anti-anxiety agents and muscle relaxants. The first benzodiazepine was Librium. Three ... Antifungal, alkalinizing agents, quinolones, antibiotics, cholinergics, anticholinergics, antispasmodics, 5-alpha reductase ...
It has been used as an astringent, antiseptic, anti-parasitic, anti-viral anti-tussive, emmenagogue, and anti-spasmodic agent. ... Due to its medicinal properties, it is imagined as a potential preventative and therapeutic agent for several diseases, ...
... non-opioid antitussive and expectorant of the thiambutene class. It acts as an inhibitor of G protein-coupled inwardly- ... Dictionary of Pharmacological Agents. CRC Press. pp. 1988-. ISBN 978-0-412-46630-4. Index Nominum 2000: International Drug ... Antitussives, Expectorants, Piperidines, Potassium channel blockers, Thiophenes, All stub articles, Respiratory system drug ... "The centrally acting non-narcotic antitussive tipepidine produces antidepressant-like effect in the forced swimming test in ...
Soapberries can act as industrial emulsifiers, moistening agents, or foaming agents, and thus can be used as ingredients in ... antitussives and cytotoxic activities have been demonstrated in the saponins of plants. Traditionally, soapberries were sun ...
... was used as both an analgesic and antitussive. It binds to and activates both the μ- and δ-opioid receptors, with ... Morton IK, Hall JM (1999). Concise Dictionary of Pharmacological Agents: Properties and Synonyms. Springer. p. 157. ISBN 978-0- ... Winter CA, Flataker L (November 1952). "Antitussive action of d-isomethadone and d-methadone in dogs". Proceedings of the ... Isomethadone (INN, BAN; trade nameLiden; also known as isoamidone) is a synthetic opioid analgesic and antitussive related to ...
Dictionary of Pharmacological Agents. Vol. 1. Boca Raton: Chapman & Hall/CRC. p. 711. ISBN 0-412-46630-9. Retrieved on August 2 ... although a combination of dacemazine and di-tert-butylnaphthalenesulfonate was sold as an antispasmodic and antitussive under ...
... anti-asthmatic agents MeSH D27.505.954.796.050.100 - bronchodilator agents MeSH D27.505.954.796.090 - antitussive agents MeSH ... anti-obesity agents MeSH D27.505.954.427.140.155 - appetite depressants MeSH D27.505.954.427.153 - antitussive agents MeSH ... antiviral agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.388.077 - anti-retroviral agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.388.077.088 - anti-hiv agents MeSH ... tocolytic agents MeSH D27.505.954.016 - anti-allergic agents MeSH D27.505.954.122 - anti-infective agents MeSH D27.505.954.122. ...
Soeda F, Fujieda Y, Kinoshita M, Shirasaki T, Takahama K (May 2016). "Centrally acting non-narcotic antitussives prevent ... Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 50 (12): 4214-4216. doi:10.1128/AAC.00617-06. PMC 1693980. PMID 17015627. Lawrence CL, ... "The centrally acting non-narcotic antitussive tipepidine produces antidepressant-like effect in the forced swimming test in ...
It also contains large amounts of egosaponin, a poisonous agent that has been used in East Asian traditional fishing to stun ... such as the anagesic effects used to treat toothaches and sore throats and antitussive purposes to treat coughs. Along with its ...
Kogi K, Konishi K, Saito T (1983). "Pharmacological and toxicological studies on domiodol, a new mucolytic agent and ... Antitussives, Organoiodides, Primary alcohols, Dioxolanes, All stub articles, Respiratory system drug stubs). ...
Antiviral Agents. Class Summary. Influenza vaccinations offer greater protection for the appropriate populations because they ... Antitussives/expectorants. Class Summary. Sparse data attest to the efficacy of expectorants outside the test tube. ... This agent inhibits bacterial protein synthesis by binding with the 30S and, possibly, the 50S ribosomal subunit(s). It is less ... The prototype antitussive, codeine, has been used successfully in some chronic cough and induced-cough models, but scant ...
Antitussive Agents ✖Remove constraint Subjects: Antitussive Agents Languages French ✖Remove constraint Languages: French ... Antitussive Agents. Child 2. Sirop Zed: [girls by the water] Publication: [Paris] : [publisher not identified], [between 1880 ... Antitussive Agents. Child 3. Sirop Dr Zed, Paris: [girl in pink hat] ...
This agent is primarily used for its antitussive (cough-suppressing) effects. Noscapine is often used as an antitussive ... Church J, Jones MG, Davies SN, Lodge D (June 1989). "Antitussive agents as N-methylaspartate antagonists: further studies". ... Noscapines antitussive effects appear to be primarily mediated by its σ-receptor agonist activity. Evidence for this mechanism ... Noscapine is itself an anti-mitiotic agent, therefore its analogs have great potential as novel anti-cancer drugs. Analogs ...
ClinicalTrials.gov: Antitussive Agents (National Institutes of Health) * ClinicalTrials.gov: Histamine Antagonists (National ... Article: Antitussive efficacy of the current treatment protocol for refractory chronic cough:... ...
Dextromethorphan is a widely used antitussive agent, also showing increased recreational abuse. Dextromethorphan and its ...
Respiratory Tract Agents, Antitussives Respiratory Tract Agents, Vasodilating Agents Respiratory Tract Agents: Antifibrotic ... Cardiovascular Drugs / Antilipemic Agents / HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors (i.e. Statins) Cardiovascular Drugs, a-Adrenergic ... Skin and Mucous Membrane Agents - Anti-inflammatory Agents Skin and Mucous Membrane Agents - Anti-Inflammatory Agents ... Skin and Mucous Membrane Agents - Anti-infectives ... Skin and Mucous Membrane Agents Skin and Mucous Membrane Agents ...
Dextromethorphan (DXM) is an antitussive agent found in many over-the-counter cough and cold medicines. DXMs clinical effects ... This unknown agent may have untoward effects above and beyond those of the intended drug. Dosing and potency are also common ... Many other agents can be classified as pseudohallucinogens because they produce psychotic and delirious effects without the ... Synthetic cathinone or "bath salt" use has emerged over the last decade and gained popularity in large part due to these agents ...
Of the 365 products, 24 (6.6%) were available as powders for reconstitution before use; there were 79.1% anti-infective agents ... Majority of the products were antitussives (21.4%), followed by anti-infectives (18.6%), vitamins and minerals (15.3%), ... and antitussives. Further, syringes were found to be the most accurate but the least available dosing device. Accurate dosing ... and antiparasitic agents such as antimalarials. This is unsurprising due to the overwhelming burden of infectious diseases in ...
... and antitussive agent. Such analyses have shed light on the pharmacological therapies administered to the patients near the ... and antitussive agent. Such analyses have shed light on the pharmacological therapies administered to the patients near the ... spasmolytic and antitussive40,41. The findings presented in this research therefore confirm the archival data and implement our ... spasmolytic and antitussive40. By opposition, from the bone samples that resulted positive to toxicological investigation, we ...
Throat lozenges generally contain painkillers, antibacterial agents, antitussives, pectin, menthol and/or eucalyptus. We take a ... Antitussives (cough suppressants). Pholcodine and dextromethorphan hydrobromide are antitussives that are intended to help ... Pectin is commonly used as a thickening agent in foods like jam and jelly. In throat lozenges its used to coat the throat, and ... The majority of sore throats are caused by viral infections rather than bacterial, so for the most part antibacterial agents in ...
Codeine: Codeine is used to treat mild to moderate pain and as an antitussive agent. ...
Benzonatate, a non-narcotic oral antitussive agent, is 2, 5, 8, 11, 14, 17, 20, 23, 26-nonaoxaoctacosan-28-yl p-(butylamino) ... Benzonatate is chemically related to anesthetic agents of the para-amino-benzoic acid class (e.g. procaine; tetracaine) and has ... Severe reactions have required intervention with vasopressor agents and supportive measures.. Psychiatric Effects Isolated ... been associated with adverse CNS effects possibly related to a prior sensitivity to related agents or interaction with ...
The antitussive activity of the extract was comparable to that of codeine phosphate (10 mg), a standard antitussive agent. The ... Antitussive potential of methanol extract of stem bark of Ficus racemosa Linn. Bhaskara Rao, R., Murugesan, T., Pal, M., Saha, ... Antitussive potential of methanol extract of stem bark of Ficus racemosa Linn.. The methanol extract of Ficus racemosa Linn ( ... The extract demonstrated significant (p , 0.001) antitussive activity at all tested dose levels when compared with the control ...
A variety of antitussive agents have been used, but controlled studies assessing efficacy have not been done. Rib fractures ... Other antifibrotic agents. Other antifibrotic agents are being tested in the treatment of lung fibrosis and include interferon ... Patients may also complain of paroxysmal dry cough that is refractory to antitussive agents. ... Other novel agents. Because epithelial injury in IPF may be mediated by oxygen radicals (208) it has been suggested that ...
Prospective study of the efficacy of antibiotics versus antitussive drugs for the management of URTI-related acute cough in ... Dive into the research topics of Prospective study of the efficacy of antibiotics versus antitussive drugs for the management ...
x) Agents that can be classed as mucolytics or anti-tussive,. *(y) Antibiotics, ... Suitable examples of other therapeutic agents which may be used in combination with the compound(s) of formula (I), or ... sequential administration of such combination of hydrochloride salt of the invention and therapeutic agent(s) to a patient in ... sequential administration of such combination of hydrochloride salt of the invention and therapeutic agent(s) to a patient in ...
Cough Hypersensitivity Syndrome Treatment Market (Drug Class: Antitussive Agents, Inhaled Corticosteroids, Short Acting Beta-2 ...
Antineoplastics Antiparkinson Agents Antiplatelets Antipsychotics Antipyretics Antiretrovirals Antituberculars Antitussives/ ... General/Local Antacids Anti-Alzheimer Agents Antianginals Antianxiety Agents Antiasthmatics Anticholinergics Anticoagulants ... Blockers Corticosteroids Diuretics Histamine H2 Antagonists Immunosuppressants Laxatives Neuromuscular Blocking Agents ...
It is an antitussive agent which relieves cough as well as upper respiratory symptoms linked to cold or allergy so buy ...
Effectiveness of antitussives, anticholinergics, and honey versus usual care in adults with uncomplicated acute bronchitis: a ...
antitussive and expectorant agent * Nervous System Drugs. * Antihistamine * common cold * Antipyretic, analgesic ...
Codeine - as antitussive agent. Papaverine - as muscle relaxant. Morphine - to treat acute angina ...
Antitussive (an agent that relieves coughing). Oxytocic (an agent that stimulates contraction of the uterine muscle, ... Uterotonic (an agent that tones, strengthens and invigorates the uterus or the entire organism giving a feeling of well-being) ... Vasa is a Expectorant (an agent that promotes the discharge of mucous and secretions from the respiratory passages) ... An Antispasmodic (an agent which relieves or eases muscular spasms, cramps or convulsions) ...
Other pharmacological agents producing sedation (sedatives and agents used off-label for sedative side-effects) should be used ... These are the agents that should be exclusively classified as hypnotics and utilized to induce sleep when medications are ... and agents utilized in treating insomnia-inducing sleep diagnoses such as restless leg syndrome are discussed. The newer GABA- ... is a common and often-unwanted side effect for many types of prescription medications including commonly used antitussives, ...
Current agents have been shown to be effective in adults, but the side-effect profile is significant and may be mitigated by ... Antitussive effect of the leukotriene receptor antagonist zafirlukast in subjects with cough-variant asthma. J Asthma 2002; 39 ... Antitussive effects of the leukotriene receptor antagonist montelukast in patients with cough variant asthma and atopic cough. ... An alternative antitussive strategy is to reduce hypersensitivity by neuromodulation. Low-dose morphine is highly effective in ...
... decongestant and antihistamine agent. Dextromethorphan is a safe, effective, non-narcotic antitussive agent which has a central ... Dextromethorphan, a centrally-acting antitussive agent, depresses the medullary cough center through sigma receptor stimulation ... This preparation is a mixture of antitussive, ...
  • As long as the cough is dry, antitussive agents (cough suppressants) may dampen the urge to cough. (uniklinik-freiburg.de)
  • Since productive coughs are a necessary means of removing the infectious and obstructive material, cough suppressants called antitussives should only be used for dry coughs. (healthy.net)
  • Today, opium alkaloids are used as an analgesic, antitussive (cough suppressant), and antispasmodic agents (smooth muscle relaxant). (martifarm.com)
  • Dextromethorphan is an antitussive agent and, unlike the isomeric levorphanol, it has no analgesic or addictive properties. (medlibrary.org)
  • Hydrocodone is an effective antitussive (anti-cough) agent, and as an opiate it is also an effective analgesic for mild to moderate pain control. (wethevillage.co)
  • By combining analgesic agents that target different receptors and pathways, we can enhance pain control by producing additive, or synergistic, effects. (medscape.com)
  • Pholcodine and dextromethorphan hydrobromide are antitussives that are intended to help suppress dry, unproductive (non-phlegmy) coughs, which can contribute to making your throat sore. (choice.com.au)
  • Therapy for patients with acute bronchitis is generally aimed toward alleviation of symptoms and includes the use of analgesics, antipyretics, antitussives, and expectorants. (medscape.com)
  • Codeine is used to treat mild to moderate pain and as an antitussive agent. (rehabs.com)
  • The antitussive activity of the extract was comparable to that of codeine phosphate (10 mg), a standard antitussive agent. (wikigenes.org)
  • 14. Takahama K, Shirasaki T Central and peripheral mechanisms of narcotic antitussives: codeine-sensitive and -resistant coughs. (lekwpolsce.pl)
  • 17. Freestone C, Eccles R. Assessment of the antitussive efficacy of codeine in cough associated with common cold. (lekwpolsce.pl)
  • We could also demonstrate that the antitussive activity of E. officinalis is less effective than shown by the classical narcotic antitussive drug codeine, but more effective than the non-narcotic antitussive agent dropropizine. (xn--i3cdfkjosmlnjq3e1ewb6d9kc8l.com)
  • Dextromethorphan is a safe, effective, non-narcotic antitussive agent which has a central action on the cough centre in the medulla. (medeasy.health)
  • But a wide-scale review of trials testing antitussives (mainly dextromethorphan) found that they were no more effective than a placebo for treating coughs in most cases. (choice.com.au)
  • The over-the-counter cough and cold products examined in this study include these ingredients: decongestants (for unclogging a stuffy nose), expectorants (for loosening mucus so that it can be coughed up), and antitussives (for quieting coughs). (cdc.gov)
  • Almost all men nonsteroidal agent with antitussive, astringent, and up the United right here all and poison the 3, 4, and. (sportsintegrityinitiative.com)
  • These concerns have stimulated research to develop alternative skin lightening agents with efficacy comparable to hydroquinone but with a better safety profile. (xn--i3cdfkjosmlnjq3e1ewb6d9kc8l.com)
  • It is supposed that the antitussive activity of the dry extract of Emblica officinalis is due not only to antiphlogistic, antispasmolytic and antioxidant efficacy effects, but also to its effect on mucus secretion in the airways. (xn--i3cdfkjosmlnjq3e1ewb6d9kc8l.com)
  • Cardiovascular Drugs / Antilipemic Agents / HMG-CoA Reductase Inhibitors (i.e. (tevausa.com)
  • Insomnia inducing drugs include caffeine, nicotine, weight loss preparations, and activating agents of both prescription and abuse. (springer.com)
  • Different treatable traits exist with cough variant asthma (CVA)/eosinophilic bronchitis responding to anti-inflammatory treatment and non-acid reflux being treated with promotility agents rather the anti-acid drugs. (ersjournals.com)
  • The abuser of these drugs has been shown not to be the inner city youth, but instead a famous actor, a suburban real estate agent, or your next door neighbor. (wethevillage.co)
  • It is an antitussive agent which relieves cough as well as upper respiratory symptoms linked to cold or allergy so buy Hydrocodone online. (video-bookmark.com)
  • It is also a confirmed a natural antitussive agent, which means that it can help suppress coughing [ 2 ]. (naturallydaily.com)
  • Dextromethorphan, a centrally-acting antitussive agent, depresses the medullary cough center through sigma receptor stimulation, resulting to decreased sensitivity of cough receptors and interruption of cough impulse transmission.Pseudoephedrine is both an α-and β-adrenergic receptor agonist. (medeasy.health)
  • Noscapine is often used as an antitussive medication. (wikipedia.org)
  • tetracaine) and has been associated with adverse CNS effects possibly related to a prior sensitivity to related agents or interaction with concomitant medication. (nih.gov)
  • Narcotics do play a role, but newer agents that are being used more prevalently include N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists, either ketamine or dextromethorphan , at doses that are well above what is used for an antitussive effect, as well as antiseizure medications like gabapentinoids, particularly gabapentin and pregabalin . (medscape.com)
  • Pretreatment with rimcazole, a σ-specific antagonist, causes a dose-dependent reduction in antitussive activity of noscapine. (wikipedia.org)
  • c) Tranquilizer agent (d) For extraction of alkaloids such as reserpine, ajamaline.In the preparation of rauwolfia liquid extract. (deepcrazyworld.com)
  • Other pharmacological agents producing sedation (sedatives and agents used off-label for sedative side-effects) should be used cautiously for the treatment of insomnia due to the increased risk of next day sleepiness as well as for known toxicities and adverse side effects. (springer.com)
  • Ephedrine is classified as a sympathomimetic agent that acts as an agonist at α and β receptors. (differencey.com)
  • Pseudoephedrine is classified as a sympathomimetic agent that acts as an agonist at α receptors. (differencey.com)
  • In this brief overview, medications used to treat insomnia such as hypnotics, sedatives, medications inducing sedation as a side effect, medications directed at the sleep-associated circadian neuroendocrine system, and agents utilized in treating insomnia-inducing sleep diagnoses such as restless leg syndrome are discussed. (springer.com)
  • These are the agents that should be exclusively classified as hypnotics and utilized to induce sleep when medications are required to treat the complaint of insomnia. (springer.com)
  • Medications for treating insomnia are classified as hypnotics, sedatives, medications inducing sedation as a side effect, medications directed at the sleep-associated circadian neuroendocrine system, and agents utilized in treating insomnia-inducing sleep diagnoses such as restless leg syndrome (RLS) (Curry et al. (springer.com)
  • Dextromethorphan is a widely used antitussive agent, also showing increased recreational abuse. (erowid.org)
  • Many of these substances have long been used in ritualistic medicine, and some are emerging agents of recreational use. (medscape.com)
  • We have with kann and components to sue the the real estate agents business planner practical strategies for maximizing your success 2005 criminals increased for various code, and to notice Residential strategies for original books to offer their Recreational 90s. (knott-hamburg.de)
  • Noscapine's antitussive effects appear to be primarily mediated by its σ-receptor agonist activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • 0.001) antitussive activity at all tested dose levels when compared with the control. (wikigenes.org)
  • The antitussive activity of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. (xn--i3cdfkjosmlnjq3e1ewb6d9kc8l.com)
  • It is usually well tolerated and provides good coverage of most infectious agents, but it is not effective against Mycoplasma and Legionella species. (medscape.com)
  • Benzodiazepines are the first-line agents, and should be administered liberally. (medscape.com)
  • Le recueil de données sur les intoxications au moyen d'un système de registre central est nécessaire pour la mise en oeuvre de programmes de prévention et leur évaluation future. (who.int)
  • This agent is primarily used for its antitussive (cough-suppressing) effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many other agents can be classified as pseudohallucinogens because they produce psychotic and delirious effects without the classic visual disturbances of true hallucinogens. (medscape.com)
  • This also helps to minimize any side effects that are associated with a single agent. (medscape.com)
  • An alternative antitussive strategy is to reduce hypersensitivity by neuromodulation. (ersjournals.com)
  • used as an anti-diarrheic and antitussive agent for the treatment of chronic diarrhea or dysentery, persistent cough, and hoarse voice. (tcmfans.club)
  • Penicillin is the antimicrobial agent of choice for treatment of group A streptococcal pharyngitis. (medscape.com)
  • This agent inhibits bacterial cell wall synthesis by binding to penicillin-binding proteins. (medscape.com)
  • This agent inhibits bacterial protein synthesis by binding with the 30S and, possibly, the 50S ribosomal subunit(s). (medscape.com)
  • 12. Morice A, Kardos P. Comprehensive evidence-based review on European antitussives. (lekwpolsce.pl)
  • In stable patients with spontaneous breathing, conservative management, including antibiotic prophylaxis, antitussive agents, and chest tube insertion if required, is considered sufficient. (silverchair.com)
  • Synthetic cathinone or "bath salt" abuse has emerged over the last decade and gained popularity in large part due to these agents' accessibility and ambiguous legal status. (medscape.com)
  • these include the short acting agents Atrovent® (ipratropium bromide) and Oxivent® (oxitropium bromide) and the long acting agent Spiriva® (tiotropium bromide). (justia.com)