Antitussive Agents: Agents that suppress cough. They act centrally on the medullary cough center. EXPECTORANTS, also used in the treatment of cough, act locally.Aporphines: Dibenzoquinolines derived in plants from (S)-reticuline (BENZYLISOQUINOLINES).Dextromethorphan: Methyl analog of DEXTRORPHAN that shows high affinity binding to several regions of the brain, including the medullary cough center. This compound is an NMDA receptor antagonist (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) and acts as a non-competitive channel blocker. It is one of the widely used ANTITUSSIVES, and is also used to study the involvement of glutamate receptors in neurotoxicity.Cough: A sudden, audible expulsion of air from the lungs through a partially closed glottis, preceded by inhalation. It is a protective response that serves to clear the trachea, bronchi, and/or lungs of irritants and secretions, or to prevent aspiration of foreign materials into the lungs.Methadone: A synthetic opioid that is used as the hydrochloride. It is an opioid analgesic that is primarily a mu-opioid agonist. It has actions and uses similar to those of MORPHINE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1082-3)Opiate Substitution Treatment: Medical treatment for opioid dependence using a substitute opiate such as METHADONE or BUPRENORPHINE.Heroin Dependence: Strong dependence, both physiological and emotional, upon heroin.Opioid-Related Disorders: Disorders related or resulting from abuse or mis-use of opioids.Narcotics: Agents that induce NARCOSIS. Narcotics include agents that cause somnolence or induced sleep (STUPOR); natural or synthetic derivatives of OPIUM or MORPHINE or any substance that has such effects. They are potent inducers of ANALGESIA and OPIOID-RELATED DISORDERS.Patient Dropouts: Discontinuance of care received by patient(s) due to reasons other than full recovery from the disease.Substance Abuse Treatment Centers: Health facilities providing therapy and/or rehabilitation for substance-dependent individuals. Methadone distribution centers are included.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Phenmetrazine: A sympathomimetic drug used primarily as an appetite depressant. Its actions and mechanisms are similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE.Candy: Sweet food products combining cane or beet sugars with other carbohydrates and chocolate, milk, eggs, and various flavorings. In the United States, candy refers to both sugar- and cocoa-based confections and is differentiated from sweetened baked goods; elsewhere the terms sugar confectionary, chocolate confectionary, and flour confectionary (meaning goods such as cakes and pastries) are used.Hallucinations: Subjectively experienced sensations in the absence of an appropriate stimulus, but which are regarded by the individual as real. They may be of organic origin or associated with MENTAL DISORDERS.Lethargy: A general state of sluggishness, listless, or uninterested, with being tired, and having difficulty concentrating and doing simple tasks. It may be related to DEPRESSION or DRUG ADDICTION.Designer Drugs: Drugs designed and synthesized, often for illegal street use, by modification of existing drug structures (e.g., amphetamines). Of special interest are MPTP (a reverse ester of meperidine), MDA (3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine), and MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine). Many drugs act on the aminergic system, the physiologically active biogenic amines.Methyl-CpG-Binding Protein 2: A DNA-binding protein that interacts with methylated CPG ISLANDS. It plays a role in repressing GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and is frequently mutated in RETT SYNDROME.Rett Syndrome: An inherited neurological developmental disorder that is associated with X-LINKED INHERITANCE and may be lethal in utero to hemizygous males. The affected female is normal until the age of 6-25 months when progressive loss of voluntary control of hand movements and communication skills; ATAXIA; SEIZURES; autistic behavior; intermittent HYPERVENTILATION; and HYPERAMMONEMIA appear. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p199)CpG Islands: Areas of increased density of the dinucleotide sequence cytosine--phosphate diester--guanine. They form stretches of DNA several hundred to several thousand base pairs long. In humans there are about 45,000 CpG islands, mostly found at the 5' ends of genes. They are unmethylated except for those on the inactive X chromosome and some associated with imprinted genes.Search Engine: Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.DNA Methylation: Addition of methyl groups to DNA. DNA methyltransferases (DNA methylases) perform this reaction using S-ADENOSYLMETHIONINE as the methyl group donor.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone: Nucleoproteins, which in contrast to HISTONES, are acid insoluble. They are involved in chromosomal functions; e.g. they bind selectively to DNA, stimulate transcription resulting in tissue-specific RNA synthesis and undergo specific changes in response to various hormones or phytomitogens.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Gallium Isotopes: Stable gallium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element gallium, but differ in atomic weight. Ga-71 is a stable gallium isotope.Brompheniramine: Histamine H1 antagonist used in treatment of allergies, rhinitis, and urticaria.Spectrophotometry, Atomic: Spectrophotometric techniques by which the absorption or emmision spectra of radiation from atoms are produced and analyzed.Capsules: Hard or soft soluble containers used for the oral administration of medicine.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Nasal Decongestants: Drugs designed to treat inflammation of the nasal passages, generally the result of an infection (more often than not the common cold) or an allergy related condition, e.g., hay fever. The inflammation involves swelling of the mucous membrane that lines the nasal passages and results in inordinate mucus production. The primary class of nasal decongestants are vasoconstrictor agents. (From PharmAssist, The Family Guide to Health and Medicine, 1993)Histamine H1 Antagonists, Non-Sedating: A class of non-sedating drugs that bind to but do not activate histamine receptors (DRUG INVERSE AGONISM), thereby blocking the actions of histamine or histamine agonists. These antihistamines represent a heterogenous group of compounds with differing chemical structures, adverse effects, distribution, and metabolism. Compared to the early (first generation) antihistamines, these non-sedating antihistamines have greater receptor specificity, lower penetration of BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER, and are less likely to cause drowsiness or psychomotor impairment.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Rhinitis, Allergic, Perennial: Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the nose similar to that found in hay fever except that symptoms persist throughout the year. The causes are usually air-borne allergens, particularly dusts, feathers, molds, animal fur, etc.Efficiency: Ratio of output to effort, or the ratio of effort produced to energy expended.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Rhinitis: Inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA, the mucous membrane lining the NASAL CAVITIES.Vasoplegia: Condition of low SYSTEMIC VASCULAR RESISTANCE that develops secondary to other conditions such as ANAPHYLAXIS; SEPSIS; SURGICAL SHOCK; and SEPTIC SHOCK. Vasoplegia that develops during or post surgery (e.g., CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS) is called postoperative vasoplegic syndrome or vasoplegic syndrome.Drug Hypersensitivity: Immunologically mediated adverse reactions to medicinal substances used legally or illegally.Proton Pump Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit H(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE. They are used as ANTI-ULCER AGENTS and sometimes in place of HISTAMINE H2 ANTAGONISTS for GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX.Pharmacies: Facilities for the preparation and dispensing of drugs.Pharmacy Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the receiving, storing, and distribution of pharmaceutical supplies.Humeral Head: The portion of the upper rounded extremity fitting into the glenoid cavity of the SCAPULA. (from Stedman, 27th ed)Respiratory Tract Infections: Invasion of the host RESPIRATORY SYSTEM by microorganisms, usually leading to pathological processes or diseases.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Physical Examination: Systematic and thorough inspection of the patient for physical signs of disease or abnormality.Whooping Cough: A respiratory infection caused by BORDETELLA PERTUSSIS and characterized by paroxysmal coughing ending in a prolonged crowing intake of breath.Menthol: An alcohol produced from mint oils or prepared synthetically.Eucalyptus: A genus of trees of the Myrtaceae family, native to Australia, that yields gums, oils, and resins which are used as flavoring agents, astringents, and aromatics.Citric Acid: A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.Ceruletide: A specific decapeptide obtained from the skin of Hila caerulea, an Australian amphibian. Caerulein is similar in action and composition to CHOLECYSTOKININ. It stimulates gastric, biliary, and pancreatic secretion; and certain smooth muscle. It is used in paralytic ileus and as diagnostic aid in pancreatic malfunction.Thorax: The upper part of the trunk between the NECK and the ABDOMEN. It contains the chief organs of the circulatory and respiratory systems. (From Stedman, 25th ed)

Pharmacological studies on root bark of mulberry tree (Morus alba L.) (1/196)

Pharmacological studies were done on the root bark of mulberry tree and pharmacological effects were compared with the clinical effects of "Sohakuhi" in Chinese medicine. n-Butanol- and water-soluble fractions of mulberry root had similar effects except for those on the cadiovascular system. Both fractions showed cathartic, analgesic, diuretic, antitussive, antiedema, sedative, anticonvulsant, and hypotensive actions in mice, rats, guinea pigs and dogs. There appears to be a correlation between the experimental pharmacological results and the clinical applications of mulberry root found in the literature on Chinese medicine.  (+info)

Influence of central antitussive drugs on the cough motor pattern. (2/196)

The present study was conducted to determine the effects of administration of centrally active antitussive drugs on the cough motor pattern. Electromyograms of diaphragm and rectus abdominis muscles were recorded in anesthetized, spontaneously breathing cats. Cough was produced by mechanical stimulation of the intrathoracic trachea. Centrally acting drugs administered included codeine, morphine, dextromethorphan, baclofen, CP-99,994, and SR-48,968. Intravertebral artery administration of all drugs reduced cough number (number of coughs per stimulus trial) and rectus abdominis burst amplitude in a dose-dependent manner. Codeine, dextromethorphan, CP-99,994, SR-48,968, and baclofen had no effect on cough cycle timing (CTtot) or diaphragm amplitude during cough, even at doses that inhibited cough number by 80-90%. Morphine lengthened CTtot and inhibited diaphragm amplitude during cough, but these effects were not dose dependent. Only CP-99,994 altered the eupneic respiratory pattern. Central antitussive drugs primarily suppress cough by inhibition of expiratory motor drive and cough number. CTtot and inspiratory motor drive are relatively insensitive to the effects of these drugs. CTtot can be controlled independently from cough number.  (+info)

Sigmoidal kinetics of CYP3A substrates: an approach for scaling dextromethorphan metabolism in hepatic microsomes and isolated hepatocytes to predict in vivo clearance in rat. (3/196)

The metabolism of a number of compounds by the cytochrome P-450 subfamily CYP3A does not exhibit classic Michaelis-Menten kinetics but displays a sigmoidal rate-substrate concentration relationship. Intrinsic clearance (CLint) cannot be calculated for these drugs due to the lack of a first order region in their kinetic profiles, and a suitable parameter has yet to be identified to allow such data to be scaled to predict in vivo clearance. As sigmoidal kinetics have only been observed with microsomal systems, we have investigated whether this behavior is demonstrable in freshly isolated hepatocytes. We have also evaluated the term maximum clearance (CLmax), which refers to the in vitro clearance when the enzyme is fully activated, to predict in vivo clearance. To these ends we have studied the metabolism of dextromethorphan to methoxymorphinan and dextrorphan; methoxymorphinan production is best described by sigmoidal kinetics in both hepatocytes and microsomes, dextrorphan production is best described by a two site Michaelis-Menten model in microsomes but is sigmoidal in hepatocytes. Total clearance, estimated from the CLmax and CLint terms, was scaled to give mean predictions of 127 to 319 ml/min/standard rat weight of 250 g. In vivo CLint, determined after infusion via the hepatic portal vein to steady state and correcting for plasma protein binding and blood-to-plasma concentration ratio, was 259 +/- 59.2 ml/min/standard rat weight of 250 g. These investigations show that sigmoidal kinetics is not unique to microsomes and that CLmax is a useful parameter for scaling to the in vivo situation.  (+info)

Characterization of cytochrome P-450 2D1 activity in rat brain: high-affinity kinetics for dextromethorphan. (4/196)

We investigated the enzymatic function, stability, and regional distribution of rat brain cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 2D1 activity. CYP2D1 is the homolog of human CYP2D6, a genetically variable enzyme that activates or inactivates many clinical drugs acting on the central nervous system (e.g., antidepressants, monoamine oxidase inhibitors, serotonin uptake inhibitors, and neuroleptics), drugs of abuse (e.g., amphetamine and codeine), neurotoxins (e.g., 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, 1,2,3, 4-tetrahydroquinoline), and endogenous neurochemicals (e.g., tryptamine). The CYP2D family has been identified in rodent, canine, and primate brain. Conversion of dextromethorphan to dextrorphan by rat brain membranes was assayed by HPLC and was dependent on NADPH, protein concentration, and incubation time. Significant loss of activity was observed in some homogenizing buffers and after freezing of whole tissues or membrane preparations. Dextromethorphan (0.5-640 microM) metabolism was mediated by high- and low-affinity enzyme systems; K(m1) was 2.7 +/- 2.6 and K(m2) was 757 +/- 156 microM (n = 3 rats, mean +/- S.E.). The enzyme activity was significantly (p <.01) and stereoselectively inhibited by CYP2D1 inhibitors quinine and quinidine (not by CYP2C or CYP3A inhibitors), and by anti-CYP2D6 peptide antiserum (not by anti-CYP2C, -CYP2B, or -CYP3A antibodies). The enzymatic activity demonstrated significant brain regional variation (n = 10 regions, p <.001). These data characterize CYP2D1-mediated dextromethorphan metabolism in rat brain and suggest that localized metabolism of other CYP2D1 substrates (drugs, neurotoxins, and possibly endogenous compounds) within the brain will occur. In humans, CYP2D6 is genetically polymorphic; the variable expression of brain CYP2D6 may result in interindividual differences in central drug and neurotoxin metabolism, possibly contributing to interindividual differences in drug effects and neurotoxicity.  (+info)

The role of codeine phosphate premedication in fibre-optic bronchoscopy under insufficient local anaesthesia and midazolam sedation. (5/196)

Midazolam is widely used as a sedative agent to produce amnesia in patients undergoing fibre-optic bronchoscopy. However, if a patient does not receive sufficient local anaesthesia, continuous severe cough and physical movement may interrupt the procedure and reduce its safety. We therefore examined whether codeine phosphate is a useful premedication for bronchoscopy. The study design was a randomized comparison between codeine phosphate and a placebo in patients undergoing light local anaesthesia and midazolam sedation. We used low dose local anaesthesia (5 ml of nebulized 2% xylocaine) on the assumption of insufficient local anaesthesia. Patients were allocated to receive codeine phosphate 0.4 mg kg-1 or a saline placebo 60 min before they were sedated with i.v. midazolam. If the patients exhibited severe cough during bronchoscopy, intrabronchial supplemental local anaesthesia (2% xylocaine solution in 1 ml increments) was instilled via a bronchoscope to the trachea and segmental bronchi to suppress the cough. The dose of supplemental xylocaine was assessed and the requirements were significantly lower in the codeine group compared to the placebo group: 36.4 +/- 10.2 mg vs. 95.1 +/- 24.6 mg, respectively. After bronchoscopy, patients were interviewed by a doctor to assess their willingness to undergo a repeat procedure if one was clinically indicated, but no significant difference was observed between the two groups. If local anaesthesia is insufficient, midazolam together with codeine phosphate premedication is useful for both the patient and the bronchoscopist.  (+info)

The antitussive effect of dextromethorphan in relation to CYP2D6 activity. (6/196)

AIMS: To test the hypothesis that inhibition of cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) by quinidine increases the antitussive effect of dextromethorphan (DEX) in an induced cough model. METHODS: Twenty-two healthy extensive metaboliser phenotypes for CYP2D6 were studied according to a double-blind, randomised cross-over design after administration of: (1) Placebo antitussive preceded at 1 h by placebo inhibitor; (2) 30 mg oral DEX preceded at 1 h by placebo inhibitor (DEX30); (3) 60 mg oral DEX preceded at 1 h by placebo inhibitor (DEX60); (4) 30 mg oral DEX preceded at 1 h by 50 mg oral quinidine sulphate (QDEX30). Cough frequency following inhalation of 10% citric acid was measured at baseline and at intervals up to 12 h. Plasma concentrations of DEX and its metabolites were measured up to 96 h by h.p.l.c. RESULTS: Inhibition of CYP2D6 by quinidine caused a significant increase in the mean ratio of DEX to dextrorphan (DEX:DOR) plasma AUC(96) (0.04 vs 1.81, P<0.001). The mean (+/-s.d.) decrements in cough frequency below baseline over 12 h (AUEC) were: 8% (11), 17% (14.5), 25% (16.2) and 25% (16.9) for placebo, DEX30, DEX60 and QDEX30 treatments, respectively. Statistically significant differences in antitussive effect were detected for the contrasts between DEX60/placebo (P<0.001; 95% CI of difference +80, +327) and QDEX30/placebo (P<0.001, +88, +336), but not for DEX30/placebo, DEX30/DEX60 or DEX30/QDEX30 (P=0.071, -7, +241; P=0.254, -37, +211; P=0.187, -29, +219, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: A significant antitussive effect was demonstrated after 60 mg dextromethorphan and 30 mg dextromethorphan preceded by 50 mg quinidine using an induced cough model. However, although the study was powered to detect a 10% difference in cough response, the observed differences for other contrasts were less than 10%, such that it was possible only to imply a dose effect (30 vs 60 mg) in the antitussive activity of DEX and enhancement of this effect by CYP2D6 inhibition.  (+info)

Dextromethorphan. Extrapolation of findings from reproductive studies in animals to humans. (7/196)

QUESTION: One of my patients, who is now 8 weeks pregnant, just read in the newspaper that dextromethorphan (DM), an antitussive found in a variety of cough medicines, caused birth defects in chicken embryos. The author of the study stated that even one dose could be dangerous and that he would never allow his wife to use this drug if she were pregnant. My patient was understandably very concerned because last week she was suffering from a nasty cough and had been advised by her pharmacist to use a cough mixture containing DM, which she subsequently took for several days. ANSWER: You may reassure your patient that she did not put her baby at risk by using this substance. Dextromethorphan has been on the market for many years and has never been implicated as a human teratogen. Furthermore, chick embryos are not a good model for predicting teratogenic potential in humans and, consequently, were abandoned as such more than 30 years ago.  (+info)

Effect of oral mexiletine on the cough response to capsaicin and tartaric acid. (8/196)

BACKGROUND: The effect of the orally active local anaesthetic mexiletine on the cough response to two different tussive agents, a C-fibre ending stimulator capsaicin and a chemostimulant tartaric acid, was examined in normal subjects. METHODS: The cough threshold, defined as the lowest concentration of capsaicin (C(5)-CP) or tartaric acid (C(5)-TA) causing five or more coughs, and histamine induced bronchoconstriction were measured three hours after a single oral dose of 300 mg mexiletine or placebo in 14 normal subjects. RESULTS: Mexiletene in a mean (SE) serum concentration of 0.99 (0. 04) microg/ml significantly increased C(5)-TA from a geometric mean (SE) of 32.0 (1.27) mg/ml with placebo to 49.9 (1.34) mg/ml, but C(5)-CP did not differ significantly between treatment with mexiletine (12.2 (1.33) microM) and placebo (14.9 (1.23) microM). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the cough response to capsaicin and tartaric acid may be mediated in part via different neural pathways.  (+info)

Believe it or not, this type of medicine has gained widespread support despite evidence that it really works. The results of a recent study in the British Medical Journal may surprise you. To determine whether over-the-counter cough medicines are effective for treating acute cough, the authors of the review searched all studies in the U.K. involving adults with cough for less than three weeks who were administered cough medicine. All studies included placebo groups or no-medicine groups for comparison to the group taking medicine. Fifteen studies involving 2,000 individuals were assessed. In nine (60%) of the studies, cough medication was deemed "no better than placebo" for treating a cough. In the remaining six studies, the positive results "were of questionable clinical relevance." This was true for multiple forms of medication: antihistamines, antitussives, expectorants, decongestants, and combinations of these types of drugs. Given the amount of over-the-counter cough medicines available, ...
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PHOENIX (AP) - A new state law banning over-the-counter sales of certain cough medicines to minors goes into effect Thursday, adding Arizona to several states that have passed similar measures. Dextromethorphan is a cough suppressant used in more than 100 medications and is safe at normal doses, but it can cause hallucinations and effects similar to illicit drugs in larger amounts. Ingredients like acetaminophen are also used in cough medicine and could cause liver failure and lead to death if abused, said Steven Pray, a professor at Southwestern Oklahoma State University.
By Anonymous Authorities in the United Kingdom have removed six cough medicines from their pharmacies and moved about 100 other products to "behind the counter" until their labeling is changed to state they are not for children under two years of age. The alert concerns 12 active ingrethents: brompheniramine, chlor phenamine, dextromethorphan, diphenhydramine, ephedrine, guaifenesin, ipecacuanha, phenylephrine, pholcodine, pseudoephedrine, oxymetazoline, and xylometazoline. There have been five deaths and over 100 cases of serious adverse reactions attributed to cough and cold medicines in the UK in the last year. The researchers found that most of the overdoses were the result of children taking the medicine by themselves. Another cause is parents accidentally overdosing their kids with a cough medicine or giving their children the proper dose of more than one preparation. The Laryngoscope, 1/08 Copyright Pediatrics for Parents, Inc. Jul 2008 (c) 2008 Pediatrics for Parents. Provided by ...
Cough caused by URTI can be a very troublesome symptom for a child, and for a health professional, not to offer any treatment may seem unacceptable to many parents and lay people. However, as this systematic review shows, there is very little evidence to suggest that OTC cough medicines are effective. For this reason, we cannot recommend these as first line treatment for acute cough. It is, however, vital that paediatricians, GPs, and other health care workers take the symptoms of acute cough seriously, taking a careful history and performing a thorough physical examination to search for possible underlying diagnoses. If a viral URTI seems the most likely diagnosis, the treatment options and the lack of evidence for the effectiveness of OTC cough medicines should be discussed carefully with parents. Whether a child is being treated or not, parents should always be offered a further appointment in case the cough persists, which may suggest the possibility of another underlying condition.. At ...
Featuring English Ivy Extract to help your child when they are coughing to clear mucus* and melatonin, a non-habit forming and drug-free ingredient, to help promote restful sleep,* Zarbees Naturals Childrens Cough Syrup + Mucus Nighttime is a safe and effective way to soothe coughs associated with mucus, hoarseness, and irritants.* Fortified with vitamin C and zinc for immune support,* this wholesome cough syrup is specially formulated with a proprietary blend of natural dark honeys to coat the throat and calm occasional coughs.* Founded by a pediatrician and father looking for a healthy and chemical-free alternative for his family, Zarbees Naturals Childrens Cough Syrup + Mucus Nighttime is made with carefully-sourced, wholesome ingredients, with no drugs, alcohol, artificial flavors, artificial sweeteners, or dyes. This gluten-free, natural grape-flavored cough syrup is pediatrician recommended for children two years and older. *These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug ...
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Cough medicine: Does anyone know if there is a homeopathic cough medicine for children under 1 year of age? My dd has a terrible cough and runny nose. She doesnt have a fever and is acting like her normal self. Just feel bad for her. also is there a childrens Vicks vapourub?? - BabyCenter Canada
Vintage Watkins Cough Medicine bottle This Watkins Cough Medicine bottle is empty. It is in "as found" condition with product residue coloring the inside of the clear glass bottle. It measures 8 1/2 x 3 1/8 x 1 3/8 inches. The paper label has some loss on the front left and around some of the edges. The bottom right side of the label is loose. Still a great vintage Watkins piece to add to your collection. ...
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This blended cough syrup is used to address manifestations created by the basic cough, influenza, anaphylaxes, roughage fever, cold, or other respiration sicknesses, for example, bronchitis, sinusitis). The cough suppressant in Bromfed DM is Dextromethorphan, which manipulates the brain to reduce the desire to cough. Decongestants help ease stuffy nose side effects such as runny nose. Antihistamines diminish eye problems such as wet, itchy, red eye.. For Kids: Bromfed DM cough syrup in not designed for kids, even other cough syrups are not recommended for kids under 6. So contact a doctor for children coughing instead of taking the advantage of this syrup. It can lead to severe conditions in kids such as lung failure, mood changes, low bone density. Approach to your specialist or drug specialist for more insights about utilizing your item securely. These items cannot cure or abbreviate the duration of the regular flu and may lead to severe symptoms. To lessen the threat for severe symptoms, ...
Cough medicines are medications used in those with coughing and related conditions. It is not known whether over-the-counter cough medications reduce coughing. While they are used by 10% of American children in any given week, they are not recommended in Canada and the United States in children 6 years or younger because of lack of evidence showing effect and concerns of harm. There are a number of different cough and cold medications, which may be used for various coughing symptoms. The commercially available products may include various combinations of any one or more of the following five types of substances: Expectorants are substances claimed to make coughing easier while enhancing the production of mucus and phlegm. Two examples are acetylcysteine and guaifenesin. Antitussives, or cough suppressants, are substances which suppress the coughing itself. Examples are codeine, pholcodine, dextromethorphan, noscapine, and butamirate. Antihistamines may produce mild sedation and reduce other ...
Even though there are billions of dollars spent every year in the US on over-the-counter cough syrups, most such medicines do little if anything to relieve coughs say the ACCP (American College of Chest Physicians). According to the nations chest physicians, cough syrups generally contain drugs in too low a dose to be effective, or contain combinations of drugs that have never been proven to treat coughs. Some over-the-counter cough syrups do contain two drugs that have been shown to help relieve coughs. Read more ...
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Made from DRY IVY LEAF extract Prospan Cough Syrup is an alcohol free and sugar free herbal cough syrup which can be use by diabetes patients as well as infants. It is a clinically proven cough medicine that is suitable for chesty and bronchial coughs. Relief of cough, throat irritation & reducing phlegm.. ...
Researchers at the American Chemical Society answer the question, Does Cough Syrup Work?. This post from Big Think discusses their verdict. Americans spend around $4 billion each year on cough medicine. Researchers at the American Chemical Society showcase how we may be wasting our money. https://youtu.be/4TnJQYpKz0E In a new video posted on the American Chemical Societys ... Continue Reading ...
The bill enjoyed the support of industry leaders, including the Consumer Healthcare Products Association. "We take very seriously our obligation to educate and raise awareness about cough medicine abuse among teens," CHPApresident and CEO Scott Melville said. "This unprecedented action by California lawmakers will help address medicine abuse and sets a high standard that we would ultimately like to see enacted nationwide.". Dextromethorphan is a safe and effective ingredient found in more than 100 over-the-counter cough-cold products; however, some teens abuse large amounts of cough medicine containing dextromethorphan - sometimes as much as 25 to 50 times the recommended dose - to get high.. Aside from calling for a national age restriction on DXM-containing medicines, CHPA has been engaged in educational efforts to curb teen cough medicine abuse for a number of years, and introduced an educational icon on the packaging of DXM-containing cough medicines to alert parents to the potential for ...
Stop Medicine Abuse is a prevention campaign working to alert parents and members of the community about the problem of teen abuse of over-the-counter (OTC) cough medicines containing dextromethorphan (DXM).
Because liquids are easy to swallow, most people with cough associated with a cold prefer a liquid dosage form, according to consumer surveys. Learn more about liquid cough medicine.
Video: If you want to get rid of a cough, its natural to reach for something labelled cough medicine. But the ingredients in cough medicines probably dont work as well as you think they do. This video explains the sad situation....
The FDA is warning parents not to give cough medicine to their children, under 2 years, warning it could be dangerous, even deadly.
STAT - A federal committee will meet in three weeks to consider whether cough medicine containing certain opioids should be prescribed to children, the Food and Drug Administration announced Monday.
Learn about proper dosing for childrens cough medicine. For any medicine, always follow the label instructions on the package and bottle.
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Saturday afternoon: drop Krista off at the airport for her trip to AZ to visit lor and see the Killers. Drive to lake of the isles with Jake and Grey to throw rocks in the lake and see the lake creature. Stop by Noodles and co. to get dinner for Jake and I, eat at home on the sidewalk, continue to chase Grey to get some food in his mouth. Grey: tub, rock and put to bed. Jake: tub, stories, cough medicine and put to bed. Pick up toys. Try to read Rodney Smiths blog, bed about 12:10.. Sunday: wake up with Jake next to me, Grey up 6:30ish. Get ready for church, feed boys. Over fill Greys mouth causing him to puke. Put in bath and clean up. Get boys ready for church, didnt hear a thing in church because Grey was all over the place, wiggle, climb, dash away, climb up, scoot down, play with the people behind us… Jake laid down the entire time and coughed. We leave after sacrament put Jake in front of the TV and put Grey down for a nap. Go over to in-laws for Sunday dinner. Back home. Grey: tub and ...
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Houston, TX (SafetyAlerts) - The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) today reported that Great Southern Laboratories (GSL) is recalling Cyndal HD Cough Syrup because of subpotency of the phenylephrine (50%) due to incorrect weight addition in batch production. The recalled Cyndal HD Cough Syrup (Hydrocodone Bitartrate 1.57mg/ Phenylephrine Hydrochloride 5mg/Chlorpheniramine Maleate 2mg), was sold in 16 fluid ounce (NDC 60258-703-16) and 1 gallon (NDC 60258-703-28) containers. According to FDA, 118 gallon bottles and 7,032 pint bottles were distributed in the Southeastern United States.. The recalled vials can be identified by the Lot Number 91949.. This ongoing Class III recall was initiated by GSL by verbal communication on December 15, 1999, followed by letters dated December 21 and 30, 1999. This is the first public notice issued by the FDA.. Questions concerning this recall may be directed to the FDA at 1-888-INFO-FDA ...
Cough syrup definition, a medicated, syruplike fluid, usually flavored and nonnarcotic or mildly narcotic, for relieving coughs or soothing irritated throats. See more.
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Unopened PINEX Throat Medicine Unopened original box, retailed for 75 cents, 2 1/2 fluid ounce size, box is 5 7/8" tall, 1 1/8" by 2", corners are crisp. This item is from an antique drugstore that closed many years ago in New York. This unopened Pinex concentrate when mixed would make pint of throat medicine. Label includes instructions for mixing the syrup concentrate with water and sugar. Box also contains list of ingredients. In 1910 Pinex could be purchase in most drugstores in the USA. The company was started in 1905 and manufactured in Fort Wayne, Indiana. The proprietary amber glass bottle is 6" tall, made by the Fairmount Glass Co., of Fairmount, Indiana. The side is embossed with PINEX trademark. Bottle has metal twist off top with PINEX printed in silver. See photo. This item is being sold for display only and NOT for consumption or use. Overall condition is MINT. See photo of other cough syrup items we are selling. We also have Smith Brothers Cough Syrup trolley sign listed To ...
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Washington parents need to be aware that Perrigo, a manufacturer of childrens cough syrup sold at various retailers recently recalled five batches of childrens cough syrup. The problem with the...
A senior doctor has urged parents to avoid using over-the-counter cough syrups and medicines to treat coughs and colds in children - in favour of "old-fashioned" honey and lemon.. Dr Oliver Bevington, a senior registrar in paediatrics at Southampton Childrens Hospital, warned they often contained ingredients that could have adverse effects or be toxic if consumed in large doses.. He also said many included paracetamol which could lead to parents unintentionally overdosing their children and there was absolutely no evidence cough medicines worked and warned they could "actually do more harm than good".. He said: "We are now heading into our busiest time of the year where hospitals and GPs will see hundreds of children a day with respiratory symptoms including coughing, colds and temperatures.. "Most coughs and colds in children will be caused by a viral infection which will get better without antibiotics and with rest, fluids and possibly paracetamol and/or ibuprofen, though many parents worry ...
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An imaging study of chronic users of codeine-containing cough syrups has found deficits in specific regions of brain white matter and associates these changes with increased impulsivity in codeine-containing cough syrup users.
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Cough Syrup DM: Dextromethorphan belongs to a group of medications called antitussives (cough suppressants). This medication works by suppressing dry, hacking coughs. It is usually used for a short term to control coughing associated with the flu, a cold, or due to inhaled irritants.
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What do you do when you have a bad cough? If you reach for the yummy, cherry-flavored cough medicine, youre not alone. Every year, people spend billions of dollars on these over-the-counter remedies. But do any of them work? In this weeks Reactions video, we explain the chemistry behind cough medicine, and dig into the evidence to find out which remedies actually work. Watch the video here: https://youtu.be/4TnJQYpKz0E.
A new law will now prohibit people under 18 from buying some over-the-counter cough syrups that contain a certain ingredient often abused by minors.
The results of this years Monitoring the Future survey do indicate there may be some decline, and our StopMedicineAbuse campaign remains committed to increasing parental awareness about this troubling teen behavior," stated Scott Melville, president and CEO for the Consumer Healthcare Products Association. "Abuse of over-the-counter cough medicines often flies under parents radars, which is why the makers of these medicines will forge ahead in our efforts to educate parents about this abuse and encourage them to monitor their medicines and to talk to their teens about dangers of abusing all medicines, including OTC cough medicine, he said. This year CHPA partnered with the Partnership at Drugfree.org to launch a social media campaign to influence teens directly. Using YouTube videos and a Facebook app, the campaign reaches teens who are likely triers looking for information on how to abuse DXM and conveys the health risks and social disapproval associated with OTC cough medicine abuse. In ...
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Treatment: To stop night time coughing in a child (or an adult, as we found out personally), put Vicks Vapor Rub generously on the bottom of the feet at bedtime and then cover with socks. Even persistent, heavy, deep coughing will stop in about five minutes and stay stopped for many, many hours of relief. This works 100 percent of the time, and is more effective in children than even very strong prescription cough medicines. In addition it is extremely soothing and comforting and they will sleep soundly. I heard the head of the Canada Research Council describe these findings on the part of their scientists when they were investigating the effectiveness and usage of prescription cough medicines in children, as compared to alternative therapies like acupressure. I just happened to tune in to a.m. Radio and picked up this guy talking about why cough medicines in kids often do more harm than good due to the chemical makeup of these strong drugs, so I listened. It was a surprising finding and found ...
These cough medicines are claiming that they are effective, safe and fast in dealing with cough. Well, they are medicines which are intended to cure then it is just right for them to be effective and relieve cough as what we are expecting and paying for but I doubt the faster relief and safety claims. More often than not, it takes 5 days before the medicine works and I believe that all of them have side effects one way or another.. I understand that companies need to develop creative campaigns in order to obtain consumers attentions and this is beneficial to consumers because increasing competition among companies boosts the intensity of price competition resulting to lower prices of cough medicines. However, advertisements should be truthful and non-deceptive. Some cough medicines are attacking herbal-based medicines because more people are using them due to the reviving interest of its medicinal values and I do not think it is fair. Well, at the end of the day, it is still our choice whether ...
Codeine is an opiate used to treat pain, as a cough medicine, and for diarrhea. It is typically used to treat mild to moderate degrees of pain. Greater benefit may Tickly, annoying cough? Could this cough remedy help? Information about taking Galcodine linctusThe generic Codeine combination is manufactured by 90 companies. The information provided includes the cost of the drug and the type of drug - tablet, capsule, syrup Codeine reference guide for safe and effective use from the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists .Latest Drug News. FDA Bans Use of Opioid-Containing Cough Meds by Kids HealthDay News; High Costs Keep Many Cancer Patients From Needed Drugs HealthDay NewsLatest cialis online canada paypal Drug News. FDA Bans Use of Opioid-Containing Cough Meds by Kids HealthDay News; High Costs Keep Many Cancer Patients From Needed Drugs HealthDay NewsLearn about the potential side effects of Buckleys Mixture Cough Suppressant . Includes common and rare side effects information for ...
Decided to take MC as I feel that I couldnt work that day. Went to another panel clinic, Klinik Wangsa nearby Alpha Angle Wangsa Maju. Met up with Dr Nadir Khan, told him my flu didnt get any better but it good worst. I suspected that I had sinus problem, maybe I was allergic with seafood (I had seafood tomyam on Friday night, thats when the headache and runny nose started). Dr Nadir Khan said that the symptoms are almost similar and went on to declare,"I havent given any flu or cough medicine to my patients in almost 17 years". Wow. And I thought that the flu medicine is the answer to our flu problems. And cough medicine for our cough problems. He said explained that flu or cough medicine would dry up the phelgm inside of you that at one point your phelgm will be very thick and yellow, and when you cough it will be very dry and hurts your throat ...
To stop nighttime coughing in a child (or an adult, as we found out personally), put Vicks Vapor Rub generously on the bottom of the feet at bedtime and then cover with socks.. Even persistent, heavy, deep coughing will stop in about five minutes and stay stopped for many, many hours of relief.. This works 100 percent of the time, and is more effective in children than even very strong prescription cough medicines. In addition it is extremely soothing and comforting and they will sleep soundly.. I heard the head of the Canada Research Council describe these findings on the part of their scientists when they were investigating the effectiveness and usage of prescription cough medicines in children, as compared to alternative therapies like acupressure.. I just happened to tune in to AM Radio and picked up this guy talking about why cough medicines in kids often do more harm than good due to the chemical makeup of these strong drugs, so I listened.. It was a surprising finding. I found to be more ...
In Gaborone, Botswana, government officials and representatives of drug regulatory agencies from 23 nations, the research-based and generic pharmaceutical industries, public health leaders, health care providers, advocacy groups (including persons living with HIV/AIDS), academia and members of non-governmental organizations held discussions from March 29-31 on the scientific and technical principles for fixed-dose combination drug products (FDCs) for use in the treatment of AIDS, tuberculosis and malaria, the most serious infectious disease threats facing the world today ...
In an interview with The Daily Mail, Professor Alyn Morice, who is the head of cardiovascular and respiratory studies at the University of Hull, said that chocolate "can calm coughs." This may sound too good to be true, especially for chocolate lovers.. Professor Morice, who is also a founding member of the International Society for the Study of Cough, is an independent clinician and she has spent several years studying the mechanism of cough. Professor Morice explained that while this sounds unbelievable, it is a fact that is backed by verified scientific data.. The professor referenced a European study on over-the-counter (OTC) cough remedies. In the study, researchers found that patients who took a new medicine with cocoa had "a significant improvement in their cough and sleeplessness" after only two days, unlike the participants who took standard cough syrup.. Professor Morice added that there are other studies which prove that chocolate can help calm coughs.. Prior to the European study, ...
Dextromethorphan suppresses the cough reflex by a direct action on the cough center in the medulla of the brain. Dextromethorphan shows high affinity binding to several regions of the brain, including the medullary cough center. This compound is an NMDA receptor antagonist and acts as a non-competitive channel blocker. It is one of the widely used antitussives, and is also used to study the involvement of glutamate receptors in neurotoxicity ...
Question - Having flu with severe headache, cough, nausea excess salivation. On cough syrups, anti-inflammatory medications. Is this serious?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Persistant cough, Ask a Neurologist
For an otherwise symptomless cough, Gabet recommends a basic cough suppressant, often dextromethorphan - the active ingredient in most over-the-counter cough syrups - in either liquid or tablet form for adults. "It will help you manage, whether that [means] sleeping better or going to work," she says. When it comes to kids, Health Canada advises against cough medicines for those under the age of six years. (See "Kids and Coughs," page 86, for more information.) An allergy-related cough, meanwhile, can be helped by over-the-counter antihistamines (which themselves contain a mild cough-suppressing property). If youre looking for a natural cure, try a spoonful of honey: many studies have shown that it can be as effective as over-the-counter cough remedies. To help fight the germs faster, opt for a cup of tea with lemon, which "is thought to have antiviral properties," says Gabet. And the old advice is still best: drink plenty of fluids.. WET ...
Just because a drug or medicine is sold at your local pharmacy or supermarket, that doesnt mean that it is safe for you to use while you are being treated for cancer. Many over-the-counter medicines can interact with cancer-fighting medications. You should always talk to your doctor or nurse before taking any sort of medication.. There is a big misunderstanding among teenagers and adults that it is safer to "abuse" medicines sold at stores than those that are illegal. Although these medicines are safer in that they are made in a controlled, safe environment, not following their dosing instructions or abusing them can have similar outcomes to those of illegal drugs and alcohol.. Cough medicine is a common household medication that is abused by teenagers. The common ingredient in many cough and cold remedies, Dextromethorphan (DXM), (a cough suppressant) is found in at least 70 over-the-counter products, including Alka-Seltzer Plus Cold & Cough Medicine, Coricidin Cough and Cold Tablets, Dimetapp ...
When it comes to helping a child fight off a cough, the centuries-old remedy of honey is still the best, researchers say. The natural sweetener is a traditional soother and remains better than costly over-the-counter medicines. In a study, a dose before bedtime easily outperformed a cough suppressant widely used in commercial treatments.. Honey was better at cutting the severity, frequency and disturbance from night time coughs of those suffering upper respiratory infection. It also helped their sleep, suggesting that parents may be wasting their money on expensive alternatives sold in chemists and supermarkets.. Read the article at The Daily Mail. ...
LAHORE: Punjab Chief Minister Shahbaz Sharif has said that loss of human lives due to cough syrup is tragic and the government will take stern action against the elements responsible for these killings .
An ingredient in many over-the-counter cough suppressants seems to improve the release of insulin in humans, a discovery that may lead to new treatments for Type 2 diabetes. Doctors at Heinrich Heine University in Düsseldorf, Germany, found that the drug dextromethorphan increased the release of insulin from the
BronchoStop Cough Syrup Traditional herbal medicinal product used for the relief of coughs, such as chesty coughs and dry, tickly, irritating coughs and catarrh, based on use as a traditional remedy
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2018-11-22 - The Health Ministry has banned the manufacture, distribution and sale of cough syrups containing codeine and has restricted access to Tramadol in the country.
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Rappers need their sizzurp!. And according to TMZ, they are going through extreme measures in order to get it.. Some rappers are reportedly offering hugh sums of money - like $100,000 - for bottles of Promethazine and Codeine cough syrup.. Actavis, the makers of Phenergan-Codeine cough syrup, are apparently not happy rappers are abusing their drug for getting high. So much so its off the market.. And after Lil Waynes seizures, it would make sense for rappers to be more cautious of abusing the cough syrup.. Although Lil Waynes seizures are believed to be caused by Promethazine/Codeine, he said the seizures were caused by epilepsy. Yet Promethazine/Codeine causes epileptic seizures. Hmm…. But rappers - like Soulja Boy - act like they cant live without their sizzurp (also known as that purple drank).. Soulja Boy must have been going through withdraw. He was told he couldnt feed his addiction. But he wouldnt accept that.. On Instagram he posted six bottles of the cough syrup. Really… six ...
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Dietary Supplement. Dark honey and ivy leaf extract help your child when they are coughing to clear mucus. Safe & effective for children 2 years+. Pediatrician recommended. Visit us online at Zarbees.com or call 1-877-528-0420. Zarbees Story: Dr. Zak Zarbock, a pediatrician and father, couldnt find effective chemical-free products to keep the whole family healthy, so he created his own products including handpicked natural ingredients, whenever possible. The result is Zarbees Naturals. Our Childrens Cough Syrups are specially formulated, proprietary blend of dark honey formulated to safely coat the throat and calm occasional coughs. Safe & Effective: Soothes coughs associated with mucus, hoarseness and irritants. Made with our proprietary blend of dark honey blend and English ivy leaf extract to help your child when they are coughing to clear mucus. Melatonin promotes peaceful sleep in children. No drugs or alcohol. No dyes. No artificial flavors. No artificial sweeteners. Gluten-free. ...
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Cough is a life saving reflex, therefore it is important, especially in pediatrics, to calm cough spells without sedating the reflex. Mucolytic agents have been shown to be helpful but side effects have been reported and use has been prohibited under 2 years of age. Therefore, a completely safe and effective cough remedy has not been officially reported yet in a randomised trial. Looking into other mechanisms for cough management such as protection of irritated pharynx mucosa from post nasal drip or other irritating substances is theoretically sound and shows practical interesting results.. A parallel comparison of efficacy and tolerability between such protective mechanism (acting through a barrier and radical scavenging action) due to natural substances (honey, plantago lanceolata, grindelia robusta and helichrysum italicum) and a mucolytic substance has not been done so far, in young children, especially in a time frame of 4 days. The intent of this study is to use the protective syrup versus ...
Consumer Medicine Information (CMI) about Codral Original Cold & Flu Tablets (Paracetamol, Pseudoephedrine hydrochloride, Codeine phosphate) intended for persons living in Australia.
China Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide Monohydrate Powder, Dxm CAS 6700-34-1, Find details about China 6700-34-1, Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide Monohydrate from Dextromethorphan Hydrobromide Monohydrate Powder, Dxm CAS 6700-34-1 - HUBEI AOKS BIO-TECH CO., LTD.
Cough Suppressant & Expectorant Temporarily relieves coughs due to minor throat & bronchial irritation occuring with a cold or inhaled irritants. Soothes the throat. Helps loosen phlegm (spudtum)& thin bronchial secretions to rid the bronchial passageways of bothersome mucus and drain bronchial tubes. Relieves difficulty in sleeping associated with cough and bronchial conditions. Ingredients: Antimonium sulphuratun aureum 6X 5% Bryonia alba 3X 5% Drosera rotundifola 3X 5%, Eucalyptus, globulus 3X 5% Ipecacuanha 4X 5%, Illicium anisatum 1X 0.75% Contains honey. Directions Children 6 to 12 years of age: 2 teaspoons every 2 hours. For severe coughs, repeat every 20 minutes for the first hour, then every 2 hours. Children 2 to 5: half of older childrens dose. Children under 2: consult a doctor. Warnings A persistent cough may be a sign of a serious condition. If cough persists for more than 1 week, tends to recur, or is accompanied by faver, rash, or persistent headache, consult a doctor. Do not
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Medications that can cause hyperthyroid graves disease - Holistic medicine for graves disease and hyperthyroidism.... Thyromine is a natural thyroid health supplement that will help your thyroid function normally optimising your weight and overall health.
It is currently used as an antitussive agent in Iceland, as well as Romania, Bulgaria, Russia and other eastern European ... "Objective evaluation of dextromethorphan and glaucine as antitussive agents". British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 17 (5 ... Also indirect D2 agonists, such as dopamine reuptake inhibitors (cocaine, methylphenidate), releasing agents (amphetamine, ... and is used medically as an antitussive in some countries.[6] Glaucine may produce side effects such as sedation, fatigue, and ...
This agent is primarily used for its antitussive (cough-suppressing) effects. Noscapine is often used as an antitussive ... Church J, Jones MG, Davies SN, Lodge D (June 1989). "Antitussive agents as N-methylaspartate antagonists: further studies". Can ... Noscapine's antitussive effects appear to be primarily mediated by its σ-receptor agonist activity. Evidence for this mechanism ... Noscapine is currently being investigated as an antitumor agent in animal models of several human cancers. At very high doses ...
Hougs, W.; Nielsen, I. M.; Norn, S.; Nymark, M. (1966). "Pharmacology of a new antitussive agent: Meprotixol (N 7020)". Acta ...
Schenker, H. (1983). "Efficacy of morclofon, an new synthetic antitussive agent, in geriatric patients. Results of a double- ...
"Clinical comparison of butamirate citrate with a codeine-based antitussive agent". Revue medicale de la Suisse romande. 110 (11 ... Effect of sigma ligands and other agents". The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 251 (1): 207-215. PMID ...
Homoarylamine is known to have been patented for use as an antitussive agent. Cyclization of Homoarylamine with formaldehyde ...
Kobayashi, S; Hasegawa, K; Mori, M; Takagi, H (1970). "Pharmacological studies on a new specifically potent antitussive agent, ... Drotebanol has powerful antitussive (cough suppressant) effects, and is around 10x more potent than codeine in producing this ...
Objective evaluation of dextromethorphan and glaucine as antitussive agents. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 1984 May ... Detection of the pharmaceutical agent glaucine as a recreational drug. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 2008 May;64(5 ... and is used medically as an antitussive in some countries. Glaucine may produce side effects such as sedation, fatigue, and a ...
... is widely used in preparations as an enhancing agent for some analgesics and antitussives (acetaminophen, ... It is a member of the ethanolamine class of antihistaminergic agents and an anticholinergic. ... possesses antitussive action of its own and is particularly useful in semi-productive coughs because of its moderate drying ... is an effective non-narcotic anti-tussive on its own but tends to be effective only for productive coughs as the ...
... is a synthetic opioid analgesic and antitussive agent.[citation needed] Normethadone is listed under the Single Convention on ...
... an antifungal and an antitussive agent. In combination with Tridax procumbens and Euphorbia thymifolia, it has been found to be ...
Various agents can inhibit 5-HT reuptake, including cocaine, dextromethorphan (an antitussive), tricyclic antidepressants and ... These agents are available as dietary supplements, and may be effective serotonergic agents. One product of serotonin breakdown ... Some 5-HT3 antagonists, such as ondansetron, granisetron, and tropisetron, are important antiemetic agents. They are ... and since it was a serum agent affecting vascular tone, they named it serotonin. In 1952, enteramine was shown to be the same ...
Examples of symptomatic treatments: Analgesics, for pain Anti-inflammatory agents, for inflammation caused by arthritis ... Antitussives, for cough Antihistaminics, for allergy Cerebral shunts, to alleviate hydrocephalus When the etiology for the ...
However, due to economic considerations currently the only widespread use as textile auxiliary is the use as an agent to ... Tannic acid is also used to produce tannate salts of certain antihistamine and antitussive products to impart increased ... Equally important are applications in the wine industry, where it finds use as a natural clarifying agent, colour stabilizer ... Tannic acid is still used in pharmaceutical applications to produce albumin tannate which is used as an antidiarrheal agent. ...
Various agents can inhibit 5-HT reuptake, including cocaine, dextromethorphan (an antitussive), tricyclic antidepressants and ... These agents are available as dietary supplements, and may be effective serotonergic agents. One product of serotonin breakdown ... Some 5-HT3 antagonists, such as ondansetron, granisetron, and tropisetron, are important antiemetic agents. They are ... but require a combination of serotonergic agents, such as an SSRI with an MAOI.[81] The intensity of the symptoms of serotonin ...
The open chain opioids tend to have at least one isomer that is at some level a strong pure mu opioid receptor agent. ... of methadone's antitussive properties first tested in dogs in Europe in 1952-1955 with different inert placebos, active ... In the early 1950s, methadone (most times the racemic HCl salts mixture) was also investigated for use as an antitussive. From ... levopropoxyphene with optical isomerism and one of which appeared to have no narcotic properties but was an antitussive which ...
... was used as both an analgesic and antitussive. It binds to and activates both the μ- and δ-opioid receptors, with ... Methadone F.. Macdonald (1997). Dictionary of Pharmacological Agents. CRC Press. p. 1169. ISBN 978-0-412-46630-4. Retrieved 16 ... WINTER CA, FLATAKER L (November 1952). "Antitussive action of d-isomethadone and d-methadone in dogs". Proceedings of the ... Isomethadone (INN, BAN; Liden), also known as isoamidone, is a synthetic opioid analgesic and antitussive related to methadone ...
Some act as locally anesthetic counterirritants and, thereby, exert an antitussive effect. Some essential oils, such as those ... Essential oils are used extensively as GRAS flavoring agents in foods, beverages, and confectioneries according to strict Good ... With relatively recent concerns about the overuse of antibacterial agents, many essential oils have seen a resurgence in off- ... Latin America and South America as a primary cleaning/disinfecting agent added to soaped mop and countertop cleaning solutions ...
David J. Triggle; C. R. Ganellin; F. MacDonald (1996). Dictionary of Pharmacological Agents. 1. Boca Raton: Chapman & Hall/CRC ... although a combination of dacemazine and di-tert-butylnaphthalenesulfonate was sold as an antispasmodic and antitussive under ...
Soapberries can act as industrial emulsifiers, moistening agents, or foaming agents, and thus can be used as ingredients in ... antitussives and cytotoxic activities have been demonstrated in the saponins of plants. Traditionally, soapberries were sun ...
In the inter-war period, the first anti-bacterial agents such as the sulpha antibiotics were developed. The Second World War ... antitussives, mucolytics, decongestants inhaled and systemic corticosteroids, Beta2-adrenergic agonists, anticholinergics, Mast ... These were drugs that worked chiefly as anti-anxiety agents and muscle relaxants. The first benzodiazepine was Librium. Three ... hypolipidaemic agents. Drugs affecting the central nervous system include: Psychedelics, hypnotics, anaesthetics, ...
... anti-asthmatic agents MeSH D27.505.954.796.050.100 --- bronchodilator agents MeSH D27.505.954.796.090 --- antitussive agents ... anti-obesity agents MeSH D27.505.954.427.140.155 --- appetite depressants MeSH D27.505.954.427.153 --- antitussive agents MeSH ... anti-allergic agents MeSH D27.505.954.122 --- anti-infective agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.085 --- anti-bacterial agents MeSH ... antiviral agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.388.077 --- anti-retroviral agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.388.077.088 --- anti-hiv agents ...
... non-opioid antitussive and expectorant of the thiambutene class. It acts as an inhibitor of G protein-coupled inwardly- ... Dictionary of Pharmacological Agents. CRC Press. pp. 1988-. ISBN 978-0-412-46630-4. Index Nominum 2000: International Drug ... "The centrally acting non-narcotic antitussive tipepidine produces antidepressant-like effect in the forced swimming test in ...
It has opened various sales depots and C&F agents in the year 2014 and is now having a Pan India distribution Network.The ... Division I - Aluminum Sulphate(Alum), Division II - drugs and pharmaceuticals, such as Analgesics & Antipyretics, Antitussive, ...
Previous studies showed that NADPH could not be used as a reducing agent, which suggested the enzyme's specific toward NADH as ... Hydrocodone is a FDA-approved, mild analgesic and antitussive. Notably, morphine and codeine are natural products of the opiate ...
606-. ISBN 978-3-88763-075-1. I.K. Morton; Judith M. Hall (6 December 2012). Concise Dictionary of Pharmacological Agents: ... The "right-handed" (dextrorotatory) enantiomer of racemorphan is dextrorphan (DXO), an antitussive, potent dissociative ...
Paregoric, an antidiarrheal and anti-tussive, which contains opium combined with camphor (which makes it less addiction-prone ... Drug enforcement administration agents inspect packages for illegal drug shipments at an international mail facility in New ... Halpern, J.H. (2004). "Hallucinogens and dissociative agents naturally growing in the United States". Pharmacology & ... drug agents.[23] Proceedings to add, delete, or change the schedule of a drug or other substance may be initiated by the DEA, ...
Antitussives, or cough suppressants, are substances which suppress the coughing itself. Examples are codeine, pholcodine, ... Agents whose purpose is to suppress coughing. Cold medicine. Cough medicine often contains cough suppressants and expectorants. ...
Butorphanol is a synthetic opioid agonist-antagonist analgesic with a pharmacological and therapeutic profile that has been well established since its launch as a parenteral formulation in 1978. The introduction of a transnasal formulation of butorphanol represents a new and noninvasive presentation of an analgesic for moderate to severe pain. This route of administration bypasses the gastrointestinal tract, and this is an advantage for a drug such as butorphanol that undergoes significant first-pass metabolism after oral administration. The onset of action and systemic bioavailability of butorphanol following transnasal delivery are similar to those after parenteral administration. Butorphanol blocks pain impulses at specific sites in the brain and spinal cord ...
Because acute bronchitis most often has a viral cause, symptomatic treatment with protussives, antitussives, or bronchodilators ... Selected Nonspecific Antitussive Agents. Preparation. Dosage. Side effects. Hydromorphone-guaifenesin (e.g., Hycotuss) ... PROTUSSIVES AND ANTITUSSIVES. Because acute bronchitis is most often caused by a viral infection, usually only symptomatic ... Nonspecific antitussives, such as hydrocodone (e.g., in Hycodan), dextromethorphan (e.g., Delsym), codeine (e.g., in Robitussin ...
Anti-Obesity Agents. Sympathomimetics. Autonomic Agents. Peripheral Nervous System Agents. Nasal Decongestants. Vasoconstrictor ... Monotherapy with Su-Huang antitussive capsule. Drug: Su-Huang antitussive capsule Su-Huang antitussive capsule (0.45g) 3 ... Antitussive Agents. Guaifenesin. Phenylpropanolamine. Chlorpheniramine, phenylpropanolamine drug combination. Respiratory ... Adrenergic Agents. Neurotransmitter Agents. Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action. Physiological Effects of Drugs. ...
Antitussive Agents. Bronchodilator Agents. Autonomic Agents. Peripheral Nervous System Agents. Physiological Effects of Drugs. ... Anti-Asthmatic Agents. Respiratory System Agents. Vasodilator Agents. Expectorants. Adrenergic alpha-Agonists. Adrenergic ... Adrenergic Agents. Neurotransmitter Agents. Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological Action. Appetite Depressants. Anti-Obesity ... as an Antitussive Agent in Acute Cough Patients.. ... The aim of this clinical trial is to evaluate the antitussive ...
Use of Codeine as an Antitussive Agent in Children. Codeine is also prescribed as an antitussive agent and is still available ... Codeine has been prescribed to pediatric patients for many decades as both an analgesic and an antitussive agent. Codeine is a ... the risks of codeine administration described previously also apply to children receiving this agent as an antitussive agent. ... 50 years as an analgesic and an antitussive agent. Historically, codeine was considered an optimal oral analgesic for the ...
Other agents are preferred over methadone for pain control during breastfeeding. ... Antitussive Agents. Disclaimer: Information presented in this database is not meant as a substitute for professional judgment. ... Other agents are preferred over methadone for pain control during breastfeeding.. Women who received methadone maintenance ...
ClinicalTrials.gov: Antitussive Agents (National Institutes of Health) * ClinicalTrials.gov: Histamine Antagonists (National ...
Sensory System Agents. Peripheral Nervous System Agents. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Antipyretics. Anti-Inflammatory Agents ... Anti-Inflammatory Agents. Antirheumatic Agents. Gout Suppressants. Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors. Enzyme Inhibitors. Molecular ...
Sensory System Agents. Peripheral Nervous System Agents. Adjuvants, Anesthesia. Anesthetics, Intravenous. Anesthetics, General ...
Dextromethorphan is known to have pharmacological activity as an antitussive agent and is described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,196,436 ... Sensory agents. Also useful herein are sensory agents selected from the group consisting of coolants, salivating agents, ... Transdermally administered dextromethorphan as antitussive agent. EP0295941A2. Jun 17, 1988. Dec 21, 1988. Elan Corporation P.L ... antitussives; expectorants; mucolytics; analgesics, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory agents. The compositions are manufactured ...
It is currently used as an antitussive agent in Iceland, as well as Romania, Bulgaria, Russia and other eastern European ... "Objective evaluation of dextromethorphan and glaucine as antitussive agents". British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 17 (5 ... Also indirect D2 agonists, such as dopamine reuptake inhibitors (cocaine, methylphenidate), releasing agents (amphetamine, ... and is used medically as an antitussive in some countries.[6] Glaucine may produce side effects such as sedation, fatigue, and ...
Antitussive Agents. *MalaCards. *Medline Plus. Pharma. 542. Chlorpheniramine, phenylpropanolamine drug combination. *MalaCards ...
Pharmacological Actions : Antitussive Agents. Additional Keywords : Plant Extracts. [+] Pelargonium sidoides (umka) is well- ... Enzyme preparations are one of natures most powerful therapeutic agents - particularly, the proteolytic enzyme serrapeptase or ...
Antitussive Agents. Agents that suppress cough. They act centrally on the medullary cough center. EXPECTORANTS, also used in ... If you are a legal copyright holder or a designated agent for such and you believe a post on this website falls outside the ... is used to quantify cough sensitivity and evaluate the effects of cough therapies and antitussive medications. This study ...
0 (Antitussive Agents); 0 (Bronchodilator Agents); 0 (Expectorants); 0 (Histamine Antagonists); 0 (Nasal Decongestants); 0 ( ... 0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents); 0 (Antifungal Agents); 0 (Histamine Antagonists); 0 (Nasal Decongestants); 0 (Steroids); 451W47IQ8X ... Treatment guidelines universally classify INS as the most effective medical agents available for use in the OTC and primary ... 0 (Anti-Bacterial Agents); 0 (Free Radical Scavengers); 0 (Nasal Decongestants); 451W47IQ8X (Sodium Chloride); 74469-00-4 ( ...
Antitussive Agents / therapeutic use*. Chronic Disease. Codeine / therapeutic use. Cough / drug therapy*, physiopathology, ... 0/Analgesics, Opioid; 0/Antitussive Agents; 125-71-3/Dextromethorphan; 57-27-2/Morphine; 76-57-3/Codeine ...
0 (Antineoplastic Agents); 0 (Antitussive Agents); 8V32U4AOQU (Noscapine). [Em] M s de entrada:. 1702. ... 0 (Alkaloids); 0 (Antineoplastic Agents); 0 (Tubulin); 8V32U4AOQU (Noscapine); P88XT4IS4D (Paclitaxel). [Em] M s de entrada:. ... However, unlike the majority of tubulin-binding agents, it did not induce mitotic arrest; instead, it prolonged S-phase. ... Our results showed that noscapine had lower toxicity in normal cells and was an effective anticancer agent that induced ...
16 Antiinflammatory Agents Used In Bronch 16. Antiinflammatory agents used in bronchial asthma. Antitussive agents and ... Drugs used for the treatment of hypertension I: Classification of antihypertensive agents and their mechanisms of action ...
Carbetapentane is a centrally acting non-narcotic antitussive agent. Carbetapentane has atropine-like and local anesthetic ... If hypotension is a problem, vasopressor agents may be considered.. V-COF Suspension Dosage and Administration. V-COF ... These drugs are not so prone to produce drowsiness and are among the most suitable agents for daytime use; but again, a ... Brompheniramine is an antihistamine, H1 receptor- blocking agent belonging to the alkylamine class of antihistamines. This ...
This agent is primarily used for its antitussive (cough-suppressing) effects. Noscapine is often used as an antitussive ... Church J, Jones MG, Davies SN, Lodge D (June 1989). "Antitussive agents as N-methylaspartate antagonists: further studies". Can ... Noscapines antitussive effects appear to be primarily mediated by its σ-receptor agonist activity. Evidence for this mechanism ... Noscapine is currently being investigated as an antitumor agent in animal models of several human cancers. At very high doses ...
Therapeutic class: Antihistamine, antitussive, antiemetic, antivertigo agent, antidyskinetic. Pregnancy risk category B ... A proprietary antihistamine developed in the mid-1940s which, like other older sedating agents, has been associated with fatal ... Diphenhydramine Allergy medicine An antihistamine which, like other older sedating agents, has been associated with fatal MVAs ...
167 Pages Report] Cough Hypersensitivity Syndrome Treatment Market by Drug Class (Antitussive Agents, Inhaled Corticosteroids, ... Antitussive agents are the common drugs used to treat cough hypersensitivity syndrome, owing to their effectiveness in treating ... Antitussive agents are being increasingly used by healthcare providers to treat various complications of cough hypersensitivity ... Increase in the usage of antitussive agents for the treatment of cough hypersensitivity and ongoing research on the development ...
It is effective as an antitussive agent and as an analgesic drug. Opioid analgesics have an important role in the management of ... Despite the medical value of HCPs as antitussive and analgesic drugs, the misuse and abuse of these products present numerous ... The mechanism of analgesic and antitussive effects of HCPs are different from those of nonnarcotic active ingredients present ... as an antitussive. Additionally the Secretary was required to solicit stakeholder input regarding the health benefits and ...
Antitussives. One study involving 57 children with night cough compared a single dose for three nights of dextromethorphan and ... antitussive-agents*:ME. expectorants*:ME. cholinergic-antagonists*:ME. drug-combinations*:ME. prescriptions-non-drug*:ME ... Appropriate use of antitussives and protussives. A practical review. Drugs1993;46:80-91. ... Antitussives, antihistamine-decongestant combinations, other fixed drug combinations, and antihistamines were no more effective ...
Antitussive Agents (Antitussives)IBA 06/01/2006 - "Like other over the counter antitussives, SO did not result in marked ... Anti-Bacterial Agents (Antibiotics)IBA 01/01/2005 - "Antibiotics are likely to be beneficial in the treatment of children with ... Drugs and Important Biological Agents (IBA) related to Cough: 1. Lidocaine (Xylocaine)FDA LinkGeneric 08/01/2009 - "With the ... 09/01/1992 - "The device may be useful in the study into the efficacy of new antitussive drugs and the assessment of cough ...
  • A histamine H1 antagonist used as an antiemetic, antitussive, for dermatoses and pruritus, for hypersensitivity reactions, as a hypnotic, an antiparkinson, and as an ingredient in common cold preparations. (drugbank.ca)
  • This includes agents used to facilitate bronchodilation, to reduce coughing and various expectorants and mucolytics. (vin.com)
  • In addition, it seems likely that drugs which broadly address asthmatic inflammation are likely to be of more therapeutic benefit than agents that are basically modifiers of bronchoconstriction. (vin.com)
  • Our data, consistent with previous studies of nicotine effect, suggest a dual action of nicotine: an immediate, peripheral protussive effect and a delayed central antitussive effect. (elsevier.com)
  • Because acute bronchitis most often has a viral cause, symptomatic treatment with protussives, antitussives, or bronchodilators is appropriate. (aafp.org)
  • Consequently bronchodilation may be achieved via anticholinergic agents (including beta 2 agonists), beta 2 adrenergic receptor agonists and agents such as the methylxanthines which produce bronchodilation at least in part due to increased intracellular cAMP levels in bronchial smooth muscle. (vin.com)
  • Patients who experience intractable coughing frequently visit their family doctors or chest physicians, despite the widespread availability of over the counter antitussive medications. (bmj.com)
  • This condition may also be linked with other blood vessel problems (hardening of blood vessels, low blood pressure, blood clots), or other conditions that may reduce blood flow to the colon (i.e., blockage, surgery, intense exercise, use of pharmaceutical agents or medications). (canada.ca)
  • site of action of antitussive drugs. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The abuser of these drugs has been shown not to be the inner city youth, but instead a famous actor, a suburban real estate agent, or your next door neighbor. (drug-rehab.org)
  • Before the development of more effective synthetic drugs such as quinacrine, chloroquine, and primaquine, quinine was the specific agent in the treatment of malaria. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The drugs Yohimbine and Adrenergic Agents have been mentioned in the context of this disorder. (malacards.org)
  • This paper summarizes the currently accepted concepts of the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying the morphological and functional changes in intranasal mucosa of the patients having a long history of the application of the long-acting topical vasoconstrictor agents. (bireme.br)
  • Guava ( Psidium guajava L.) is well known for edible fruit rich in proteins, carbohydrates, minerals, sugars, oils and vitamin-C. All parts of the plant pharmaceutical used as anti-diarrhoeal, antimicrobial, antimalarial, antitussive, antioxidant, antigenotoxic and antimutagenic agents. (springer.com)
  • 12. The composition according to claim 1 wherein the pharmaceutical active is an antitussive pharmaceutical active. (google.com)
  • Severe reactions have required intervention with vasopressor agents and supportive measures. (rxlist.com)
  • For instance, clonazepam and diazepam have the same potency in depressing polysynaptic spinal reflexes, whereas the former is 6 times more potent than diazepam as an antitussive. (aspetjournals.org)
  • A methylxanthine naturally occurring in some beverages and also used as a pharmacological agent. (drugbank.ca)
  • Abuse of antitussive agent will not only reduce our body's function to auto-clean our respiratory tract, but it also may mask the symptoms of other serious diseases. (hubpages.com)