Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
A thiosemicarbazone that is used in association with other antimycobacterial agents in the initial and continuation phases of antituberculosis regimens. Thiacetazone containing regimens are less effective than the short-course regimen recommended by the International Union Against Tuberculosis and are used in some developing countries to reduce drug costs. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p217)
Antibacterial agent used primarily as a tuberculostatic. It remains the treatment of choice for tuberculosis.
Substances obtained from various species of microorganisms that are, alone or in combination with other agents, of use in treating various forms of tuberculosis; most of these agents are merely bacteriostatic, induce resistance in the organisms, and may be toxic.
A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)
An antitubercular agent that inhibits the transfer of mycolic acids into the cell wall of the tubercle bacillus. It may also inhibit the synthesis of spermidine in mycobacteria. The action is usually bactericidal, and the drug can penetrate human cell membranes to exert its lethal effect. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p863)
Tuberculous infection of the eye, primarily the iris, ciliary body, and choroid.
Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
A pyrazine that is used therapeutically as an antitubercular agent.
A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE.
ANESTHESIA achieved by lowering either BODY TEMPERATURE (core cooling) or SKIN TEMPERATURE (external cooling).
A second-line antitubercular agent that inhibits mycolic acid synthesis.
A tricyclo bridged hydrocarbon.
Tuberculosis of the bones or joints.
TUBERCULOSIS that involves any region of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, mostly in the distal ILEUM and the CECUM. In most cases, MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS is the pathogen. Clinical features include ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; and palpable mass in the ileocecal area.
Compounds containing dibenzo-1,4-thiazine. Some of them are neuroactive.
MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the male reproductive tract (GENITALIA, MALE).
A well-circumscribed mass composed of tuberculous granulation tissue that may occur in the cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum, brain stem, or perimeningeal spaces. Multiple lesions are quite common. Management of intracranial manifestations vary with lesion site. Intracranial tuberculomas may be associated with SEIZURES, focal neurologic deficits, and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. Spinal cord tuberculomas may be associated with localized or radicular pain, weakness, sensory loss, and incontinence. Tuberculomas may arise as OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS, but also occur in immunocompetent individuals.
Tuberculosis of the skin. It includes scrofuloderma and tuberculid, but not LUPUS VULGARIS.
Tuberculosis resistant to chemotherapy with two or more ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS, including at least ISONIAZID and RIFAMPICIN. The problem of resistance is particularly troublesome in tuberculous OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS associated with HIV INFECTIONS. It requires the use of second line drugs which are more toxic than the first line regimens. TB with isolates that have developed further resistance to at least three of the six classes of second line drugs is defined as EXTENSIVELY DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS.
MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.
Math calculations done for preparing appropriate doses of medicines, taking into account conversions of WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. Mistakes are one of the sources of MEDICATION ERRORS.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
The process of finding chemicals for potential therapeutic use.
A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.
Five-membered heterocyclic ring structures containing an oxygen in the 1-position and a nitrogen in the 3-position, in distinction from ISOXAZOLES where they are at the 1,2 positions.
An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.
The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.
Agents that are put on the SKIN to reduce SWEATING or prevent excess sweating (HYPERHIDROSIS).
The methyl ester of methacrylic acid. It polymerizes easily to form POLYMETHYL METHACRYLATE. It is used as a bone cement.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).
Diseases affecting the eye.
The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of bacteria, and BACTERIAL INFECTIONS.
A surgical specialty concerned with the structure and function of the eye and the medical and surgical treatment of its defects and diseases.
Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.
MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the female reproductive tract (GENITALIA, FEMALE).
An order of zygomycetous fungi, usually saprophytic, causing damage to food in storage, but which may cause respiratory infection or MUCORMYCOSIS in persons suffering from other debilitating diseases.
Compounds of the general formula R:N.NR2, as resulting from the action of hydrazines with aldehydes or ketones. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)

Epidemiology of drug-resistant tuberculosis in Texas. (1/3795)

During 1987-1996, over 22,000 tuberculosis cases were reported in Texas, at an average annual incidence rate of 12.5 cases per 100,000 population. Counties with the highest rates were located along the Mexico-Texas border and in northwestern Texas. Nine percent of cases were resistant to at least one of the five first-line antituberculosis drugs used for treatment. Almost 5 percent (4.6%) were resistant to isoniazid, either alone or in combination with other antibiotics; 2.3% were resistant to rifampin; and only 1.3% were resistant to both isoniazid and rifampin. Being a recurrent case, being foreign-born, being 20-39 years of age, and residing in a Mexico-Texas border county were independent risk factors for isoniazid resistance and rifampin resistance. Tuberculosis patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection were more likely to have rifampin resistance and less likely to have isoniazid resistance than patients without HIV infection. Factors associated with multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis included a history of previous tuberculosis (relative risk (RR) = 4.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.5-6.8), non-US birth (RR = 2.69, 95% CI 2.1-3.5), age younger than 20 years (RR = 1.97, 95% CI 1.1-3.5), age 20-39 years (RR = 1.82, 95% CI 1.3-2.6), and residence in a Mexico-Texas border county (RR = 2.33, 95% CI 1.8-3.1).  (+info)

Issues in the treatment of active tuberculosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. (2/3795)

Most HIV-infected patients with tuberculosis can be treated satisfactorily with standard regimens with expectations of good results. Treatment of tuberculosis in these patients has been complicated by the introduction of HAART, which relies on drugs that interfere with the most potent class of antituberculous medications. Rifampin-free regimens or regimens that employ rifabutin may be acceptable strategies for patients who are receiving protease inhibitors, although these regimens have not been rigorously evaluated in patients with AIDS. At present, there is good reason to believe that a 6-month course of a rifabutin-containing regimen or a 9-12-month course of a regimen of streptomycin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide should be adequate therapy for most patients with drug-susceptible disease. As the treatment of HIV infection with antiretroviral agents evolves, the treatment of tuberculosis in patients with AIDS is likely to evolve as well. This will require careful coordination of antituberculosis and antiretroviral therapies.  (+info)

Reduced pyrazinamidase activity and the natural resistance of Mycobacterium kansasii to the antituberculosis drug pyrazinamide. (3/3795)

Pyrazinamide (PZA), an analog of nicotinamide, is a prodrug that requires conversion to the bactericidal compound pyrazinoic acid (POA) by the bacterial pyrazinamidase (PZase) activity of nicotinamidase to show activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mutations leading to a loss of PZase activity cause PZA resistance in M. tuberculosis. M. kansasii is naturally resistant to PZA and has reduced PZase activity along with an apparently detectable nicotinamidase activity. The role of the reduction in PZase activity in the natural PZA resistance of M. kansasii is unknown. The MICs of PZA and POA for M. kansasii were determined to be 500 and 125 micrograms/ml, respectively. Using [14C]PZA and [14C]nicotinamide, we found that M. kansasii had about 5-fold-less PZase activity and about 25-fold-less nicotinamidase activity than M. tuberculosis. The M. kansasii pncA gene was cloned on a 1.8-kb BamHI DNA fragment, using M. avium pncA probe. Sequence analysis showed that the M. kansasii pncA gene encoded a protein with homology to its counterparts from M. tuberculosis (69.9%), M. avium (65.6%), and Escherichia coli (28.5%). Transformation of naturally PZA-resistant M. bovis BCG with M. kansasii pncA conferred partial PZA susceptibility. Transformation of M. kansasii with M. avium pncA caused functional expression of PZase and high-level susceptibility to PZA, indicating that the natural PZA resistance in M. kansasii results from a reduced PZase activity. Like M. tuberculosis, M. kansasii accumulated POA in the cells at an acidic pH; however, due to its highly active POA efflux pump, the naturally PZA-resistant species M. smegmatis did not. These findings suggest the existence of a weak POA efflux mechanism in M. kansasii.  (+info)

Pharmacokinetics of ethambutol under fasting conditions, with food, and with antacids. (4/3795)

Ethambutol (EMB) is the most frequent "fourth drug" used for the empiric treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and a frequently used drug for infections caused by Mycobacterium avium complex. The pharmacokinetics of EMB in serum were studied with 14 healthy males and females in a randomized, four-period crossover study. Subjects ingested single doses of EMB of 25 mg/kg of body weight under fasting conditions twice, with a high-fat meal, and with aluminum-magnesium antacid. Serum was collected for 48 h and assayed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Data were analyzed by noncompartmental methods and by a two-compartment pharmacokinetic model with zero-order absorption and first-order elimination. Both fasting conditions produced similar results: a mean (+/- standard deviation) EMB maximum concentration of drug in serum (Cmax) of 4.5 +/- 1.0 micrograms/ml, time to maximum concentration of drug in serum (Tmax) of 2.5 +/- 0.9 h, and area under the concentration-time curve from 0 h to infinity (AUC0-infinity) of 28.9 +/- 4.7 micrograms.h/ml. In the presence of antacids, subjects had a mean Cmax of 3.3 +/- 0.5 micrograms/ml, Tmax of 2.9 +/- 1.2 h, and AUC0-infinity of 27.5 +/- 5.9 micrograms.h/ml. In the presence of the Food and Drug Administration high-fat meal, subjects had a mean Cmax of 3.8 +/- 0.8 micrograms/ml, Tmax of 3.2 +/- 1.3 h, and AUC0-infinity of 29.6 +/- 4.7 micrograms.h/ml. These reductions in Cmax, delays in Tmax, and modest reductions in AUC0-infinity can be avoided by giving EMB on an empty stomach whenever possible.  (+info)

Use of site-directed mutagenesis to probe the structure, function and isoniazid activation of the catalase/peroxidase, KatG, from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (5/3795)

A series of mutants bearing single amino acid substitutions often encountered in the catalase/peroxidase, KatG, from isoniazid-resistant isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been produced by site-directed mutagenesis. The resultant enzymes were overexpressed, purified and characterized. Replacing Cys-20 by Ser abolished disulphide-bridge formation, but did not affect either dimerization of the enzyme or catalysis. The substitution of Thr-275, which is probably involved in electron transfer from the haem, by proline resulted in a highly unstable enzyme with insignificant enzyme activities. The most commonly occurring substitution in drug-resistant clinical isolates is the replacement of Ser-315 by Thr; this lowered catalase and peroxidase activities by 50% and caused a significant decrease in the KatG-mediated inhibition of the activity of the NADH-dependent enoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] reductase, InhA, in vitro. The ability of this enzyme to produce free radicals from isoniazid was severely impaired, as judged by its loss of NitroBlue Tetrazolium reduction activity. Replacement of Leu-587 by Pro resulted in marked instability of KatG, indicating that the C-terminal domain is also important for structural and functional integrity.  (+info)

Susceptibility of multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to amoxycillin in combination with clavulanic acid and ethambutol. (6/3795)

Thirty clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, 20 of which were multidrug-resistant (MDR), were tested for susceptibility to different combinations of amoxycillin, clavulanic acid and subinhibitory concentrations of ethambutol. beta-Lactamase production was assessed semiquantitatively with the nitrocefin method and susceptibility testing was performed with the BACTEC method. All isolates were beta-lactamase positive and were resistant to 16 mg/L amoxycillin. The MIC of amoxycillin in combination with clavulanic acid was > or =2 mg/L for 27/30 (90%) isolates. Addition of subinhibitory concentrations of ethambutol significantly reduced the MIC of amoxycillin for all tested isolates. Twenty-nine (97%) isolates had an MIC of amoxycillin of < or =0.5 mg/L when subinhibitory concentrations of ethambutol were added; this is well below the concentrations achievable in serum and tissue.  (+info)

Molecular evidence for heterogeneity of the multiple-drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis population in Scotland (1990 to 1997). (7/3795)

Multiple-drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR-MTB) has been well studied in hospitals or health care institutions and in human immunodeficiency virus-infected populations. However, the characteristics of MDR-MTB in the community have not been well investigated. An understanding of its prevalence and circulation within the community will help to estimate the problem and optimize the strategies for control and prevention of its development and transmission. In this study, MDR-MTB isolates from Scotland collected between 1990 and 1997 were characterized, along with non-drug-resistant isolates. The results showed that they were genetically diverse, suggesting they were unrelated to each other and had probably evolved independently. Several new alleles of rpoB, katG, and ahpC were identified: rpoB codon 525 (ACC-->AAC; Thr525Asn); katG codon 128 (CGG-->CAG; Arg128Gln) and codon 291 (GCT-->CCT; Ala291Pro); and the ahpC synonymous substitution at codon 6 (ATT-->ATC). One of the MDR-MTB isolates from an Asian patient had an IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism pattern very similar to that of the MDR-MTB W strain and had the same drug resistance-related alleles but did not have any epidemiological connection with the W strains. Additionally, a cluster of M. tuberculosis isolates was identified in our collection of 715 clinical isolates; the isolates in this cluster had genetic backgrounds very similar to those of the W strains, one of which had already developed multiple drug resistances. The diverse population of MDR-MTB in Scotland, along with a low incidence of drug-resistant M. tuberculosis, has implications for the control of the organism and prevention of its spread.  (+info)

Rapid film-based determination of antibiotic susceptibilities of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains by using a luciferase reporter phage and the Bronx Box. (8/3795)

Detecting antibiotic resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis is becoming increasingly important with the global recognition of drug-resistant strains and their adverse impact on clinical outcomes. Current methods of susceptibility testing are either time-consuming or costly; rapid, reliable, simple, and inexpensive methods would be highly desirable, especially in the developing world where most tuberculosis is found. The luciferase reporter phage is a unique reagent well-suited for this purpose: upon infection with viable mycobacteria, it produces quantifiable light which is not observed in mycobacterial cells treated with active antimicrobials. In this report, we describe a modification of our original assay, which allows detection of the emitted light with a Polaroid film box designated the Bronx Box. The technique has been applied to 25 M. tuberculosis reference and clinical strains, and criteria are presented which allow rapid and simple discrimination among strains susceptible or resistant to isoniazid and rifampin, the major antituberculosis agents.  (+info)

Early diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) and multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB) is important for the elimination of TB. We evaluated the microscopic observation drug susceptibility (MODS) assay as a direct rapid drug susceptibility testing (DST) method for MDR-TB screening in sputum samples All adult TB suspects, who were newly presenting to Pham Ngoc Thach Hospital from August to November 2008 were enrolled into the study. Processed sputum samples were used for DST by MODS (DST-MODS) (Rifampicin (RIF) 1 μg/ml and Isoniazid (INH) 0.4 μg/ml), MGIT culture (Mycobacterial Growth Indicator Tube) and Lowenstein Jensen (LJ) culture. Cultures positive by either MGIT or LJ were used for proportional DST (DST-LJ) (RIF 40 μg/ml and INH 0.2 μg/ml). DST profiles on MODS and LJ were compared. Discrepant results were resolved by multiplex allele specific PCR (MAS-PCR). Seven hundred and nine TB suspects/samples were enrolled into the study, of which 300 samples with DST profiles available from both MODS and
IN VITRO STUDY OF URSOLIC ACID COMBINATION FIRST-LINE ANTITUBERCULOSIS DRUGS AGAINST DRUG-SENSITIVE AND DRUG-RESISTANT STRAINS OF Mycobacterium tuberculosis
TY - JOUR. T1 - In vitro effect of three-drug combinations of antituberculous agents against multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. AU - Rey-Jurado, Emma. AU - Tudó, Griselda. AU - De La Bellacasa, Jorge Puig. AU - Espasa, Mateu. AU - González-Martín, Julian. PY - 2013/3/1. Y1 - 2013/3/1. N2 - Multidrug resistance has become a problem in the management of tuberculosis, leading to an urgent need for research related to new regimens including the currently available drugs. The objectives of this study were: (i) to study the effect of the following second-choice three-drug combinations against multidrug-resistant (MDR) and drug-susceptible clinical isolates (levofloxacin, linezolid and ethambutol; levofloxacin, amikacin and ethambutol; and levofloxacin, linezolid and amikacin); and (ii) to compare the effect of these combinations with an isoniazid, rifampicin and ethambutol combination against drug-susceptible clinical isolates. A total of 9 MDR clinical and 12 drug-susceptible ...
Description of Agent or Intervention:. The study intervention is to start patients with HIV and tuberculosis on anti-retroviral treatment along with the continuation phase of anti-tuberculosis treatment (ATT)ie after completion of first two months of treatment. The anti-TB regimen used in this trial will be 2EHRZ3/4RH3. Two different once-daily regimens are being compared for their efficacy and adverse event profile, namely ddI + 3TC + NVP versus ddI + 3TC + EFZ. The primary aim is to study the outcome of patients treated with both ART and ATT at 6 months (24 weeks of ART). A secondary objective is to compare the utility of partially supervised directly observed treatment with unsupervised administration of anti-retroviral drugs.. Patients with HIV-1 infection and active tuberculosis (pulmonary and extrapulmonary) will be started on a four-drug intermittent short-course anti-TB regimen on recruitment to the trial. They will be randomized at the end of intensive phase of ATT to receive either of ...
Description of Agent or Intervention:. The study intervention is to start patients with HIV and tuberculosis on anti-retroviral treatment along with the continuation phase of anti-tuberculosis treatment (ATT)ie after completion of first two months of treatment. The anti-TB regimen used in this trial will be 2EHRZ3/4RH3. Two different once-daily regimens are being compared for their efficacy and adverse event profile, namely ddI + 3TC + NVP versus ddI + 3TC + EFZ. The primary aim is to study the outcome of patients treated with both ART and ATT at 6 months (24 weeks of ART). A secondary objective is to compare the utility of partially supervised directly observed treatment with unsupervised administration of anti-retroviral drugs.. Patients with HIV-1 infection and active tuberculosis (pulmonary and extrapulmonary) will be started on a four-drug intermittent short-course anti-TB regimen on recruitment to the trial. They will be randomized at the end of intensive phase of ATT to receive either of ...
Background. A drug resistance survey is an essential public health management tool for evaluating and improving the performance of National Tuberculosis control programmes. The current manuscript describes the implementation of the first national drug resistance survey in Tanzania. Methods. Description of the implementation process of a national anti-tuberculosis drug resistance survey in Tanzania, in relation to the study protocol and Standard Operating Procedures. Results. Factors contributing positively to the implementation of the survey were a continuous commitment of the key stakeholders, the existence of a well organized National Tuberculosis Programme, and a detailed design of cluster-specific arrangements for rapid sputum transportation. Factors contributing negatively to the implementation were a long delay between training and actual survey activities, limited monitoring of activities, and an unclear design of the data capture forms leading to difficulties in form-filling. Conclusion. ...
Mycobacterium tuberculosis drug resistance (DR) challenges effective tuberculosis disease control. Current molecular tests examine limited numbers of mutations, and although whole genome sequencing approaches could fully characterise DR, data complexity has restricted their clinical application. A library (1,325 mutations) predictive of DR for 15 anti-tuberculosis drugs was compiled and validated for 11 of them using genomic-phenotypic data from 792 strains. A rapid online TB-Profiler tool was developed to report DR and strain-type profiles directly from raw sequences. Using our DR mutation library, in silico diagnostic accuracy was superior to some commercial diagnostics and alternative databases. The library will facilitate sequence-based drug-susceptibility testing.
Three (S)-prolinol-derived conformationally restricted analogues of the antitubercular agent ethambutol were prepared and tested against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
A series of 2-(substituted phenyl/benzyl-amino)-6-(4-chlorophenyl)-5-(methoxycarbonyl)-4-methyl-3,6-dihydropyrimidin-1-ium chlorides 7-13 and 15 was synthesized in their hydrochloride salt form. The title compounds were characterized by FT-IR, NMR (1H and 13C) and elemental analysis. They were evaluated for their in vitro antitubercular activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, multidrug resistance tuberculosis and extensively drug resistance tuberculosis by agar diffusion method and tested for the cytotoxic action on peripheral blood mononuclear cells by MTT assay. Among all the tested compounds in the series, compounds 7 and 11 emerged as promising antitubercular agents at 16 μg/mL against multidrug resistance tuberculosis and over 64 μg/mL against extensively drug resistance tuberculosis. The conformational features and supramolecular assembly of the promising compounds 7 and 11 were determined by single crystal X-ray study. ...
Global trends in resistance to antituberculosis drugs. World Health Organization-International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease Working Group on Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Resistance Surveillance.. N Engl J Med 2001,344(17):1294-1303.PubMedCrossRef 4. Van Rie A, Enarson D: XDR tuberculosis: an indicator of public-health negligence. Lancet 2006,368(9547):1554-1556.PubMedCrossRef 5. Daffe M, Draper see more P: The envelope layers of mycobacteria with reference to their pathogenicity. Adv Microb Physiol 1998, 39:131-203.PubMedCrossRef 6. Lee RE, Brennan PJ, Besra GS: Mycobacteriumtuberculosis cell envelope. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 1996, 215:1-27.PubMed 7. Zhang Y, Telenti A: Genetics of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis . In Ulixertinib purchase Molecular genetics of mycobacteria. Edited by: Hatfull GF, Jacobs WR Jr. Washington, D.C.: ASM Press; 2000:235-254. 8. Jackson M, Crick DC, Brennan PJ: Phosphatidylinositol is an essential phospholipid of mycobacteria. J Biol Chem ...
The ERS-education website provides centralised access to all educational material produced by the European Respiratory Society. It is the worlds largest CME collection for lung diseases and treatment offering high quality e-learning and teaching resources for respiratory specialists. This distance learning portal contains up-to-date study material for the state-of-the-art in Pulmonology.
Measurement of drug concentrations and performing therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) are widely used to optimize efficacy and safety of many commonly used drugs today. Although TDM of first-line antitubercular drugs is used during the treatment of tuberculosis, the extent of any benefit achieved is currently unknown. This review summarizes the available literature describing TDM of first-line treatment agents in patients with tuberculosis and describes clinical associations with achievement of target drug concentrations, including data from special populations. A literature review was conducted for articles describing drug concentration and TDM outcomes for first-line tuberculosis agents in adults. A total of 40 studies were included in the review. Studies were a mixture of controlled trials, observational studies, cross-sectional studies, and case reports. The majority of the studies showed standard dosing does not consistently achieve target concentrations for the first-line antitubercular ...
Adverse reactions. The most frequent ADR was hepatitis. Five of these patients were alcoholic, two had a previous history of chronic liver disease and one was HIV-positive. Asymptomatic hepatotoxicity occurred in 35 cases and the remaining 18 were symptomatic. The most common symptoms were nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain. One female patient with no history of comorbid conditions had a poor outcome and needed liver transplantation while all others had complete liver transaminases normalization.. Rash occurred in five cases, with itchiness in three of them, and was the second most frequent adverse reaction.. One patient with chronic inflammatory arthritis and LTBI suffered gastrointestinal toxicity associated to RIF. One other patient with LTBI and no significant comorbid conditions had an episode of angioedema 25 days after initiating INH plus RIF anti-TB regimen which was subsequently interrupted. EMB was responsible for one single case of ocular toxicity in a patient with genitourinary TB ...
Effect of Immunomodulator Dzherelo In HIV/TB co-Infected patients receiving anti-tuberculosis therapy under DOTS. Міжнародна діяльність. Екомед
Changes in CD4+ T-cells and HIV RNA resulting from combination of anti-TB therapy with Dzherelo in TB/HIV dually infected patients. Международная деятельность. Экомед
UNITED BIOTECH (P) LTD is Manufacturer and exporter of Antituberculosis Drugs,Atorvastatin Tablets,Ganciclovir Capsules,Heparin Injection based in Delhi,In
Download Free Full-Text of an article SYNTHESIS AND ANTITUBERCULAR ACTIVITY OF NEW N,N-DIARYL-4-(4,5-DICHLOROIMIDAZOLE-2-YL)-1,4-DIHYDRO-2,6-DIMETHYL-3,5-PYRIDINEDICARBOXAMIDES
Title: Recent Development and Future Perspective of Antitubercular Therapy. VOLUME: 9 ISSUE: 2. Author(s):Mahesh Chhabria, Shailesh Patel and Mitesh Jani. Affiliation:Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, L.M. College of Pharmacy, Ahmedabad, Gujarat 380 009, India.. Keywords:Mycobacterium tuberculosis, MDR, &, XDR TB, novel targets, ligands. Abstract: Tuberculosis (TB) has remained an enemy of humankind before the beginning of recorded history. Although it is curable and preventable, TB claims the lives of more than 5,000 people every day. Despite of availability of effective chemotherapy and BCG vaccine in 21st century, TB remains one of the most deadly infectious diseases. The concomitant resurgence of TB with the Multi-drug resistant (MDR) or Extremely drug resistant (XDR)-TB and HIV/AIDS pandemic raises the threat posed by untreatable and fatal human TB, exposing the frailties of the current drug armatorium. No new drug is available acting through novel mechanism since last 40 years. The ...
We obtained whole-genome sequences and associated phenotypes of resistance or susceptibility to the first-line antituberculosis drugs isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide for isolates from 16 countries across six continents. For each isolate, mutations associated with drug resistance and drug susceptibility were identified across nine genes, and individual phenotypes were predicted unless mutations of unknown association were also present. To identify how whole-genome sequencing might direct first-line drug therapy, complete susceptibility profiles were predicted. These profiles were predicted to be susceptible to all four drugs (i.e., pansusceptible) if they were predicted to be susceptible to isoniazid and to the other drugs or if they contained mutations of unknown association in genes that affect susceptibility to the other drugs. We simulated the way in which the negative predictive value changed with the prevalence of drug resistance ...
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) threatens TB control worldwide. The microscopic observation drug susceptibility (MODS) assay is a low-cost, high-performance TB diagnostic tool for rapid liquid culture and direct isoniazid and rifampicin drug susceptibility testing (DST). The objective of this study was to explore the potential for extending the MODS assay to rapid second-line DST and to identify critical concentrations of candidate drugs for prospective testing. Sputum samples from 94 TB culture-positive patients receiving second-line TB agents were cultured following standardised MODS protocols, with a range of titrations of antimicrobial drugs added. Critical concentrations were determined using a modified Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis. Candidate critical concentrations were determined for capreomycin (10 mu g.mL(-1)), ciprofloxacin (1.25 mu g.mL(-1)), cycloserine (40 mu g.mL(-1)), ethambutol (10 mu g.mL(-1)), ethionamide (5 mu g.mL(-1)), kanamycin (5 mu g.mL(-1)) ...
With the global rise of MDR strains, there is an increasing need to determine susceptibility to first and second-line anti-TB agents exactly. Treatment of patients with drug-resistant TB should be based on reliable and quantitative measures of susceptibility testing, a cornerstone for preventing further amplification of resistance (18) and for optimally exploiting available compounds. Detailed knowledge on quantitative drug resistance may guide empirical treatment of drug-resistant TB, e.g., addressing whether and when to add second-line drugs. A fundamental drawback to this strategy is that even in industrialized countries, only a limited panel of anti-TB drug concentrations is tested, leaving the exact resistance level of clinical M. tuberculosis isolates vestigial. In principle, automatic systems have the potential to meet the challenge of precise determinations of drug resistance levels with reasonable labor input. The MGIT 960 platform has been extensively validated for testing ...
Background. In Tomsk Oblast, Russian Federation, during the period of 1996-2000, most previously untreated patients with tuberculosis received standardized short-course chemotherapy, irrespective of drug-susceptibility testing results. A retrospective analysis was done to determine the effect of initial drug resistance on treatment outcome and acquired drug resistance in new patients receiving standardized short-course chemotherapy.. Methods. During the period of 1 November 1996 through 31 December 2000, a total of 2194 patients received a category 1 treatment regimen. Drug susceptibility test results for 1681 patients were available for analysis. Drug resistance patterns before and during treatment were compared for 73 patients whose culture results were persistently positive during treatment. Acquired resistance was defined as new drug resistance (during or at the end of treatment) that was not present at the beginning of treatment.. Results. Pretreatment drug resistance was strongly ...
The ultimate goal of evidence-based drug treatment is to produce a desired pharmacological response in a predictable manner and also to minimise adverse effects, notes a June 2013 paper published in the International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. The two goals can be achieved only when the correct therapeutic drug dosage of anti-TB drugs required by children, particularly those younger than five years, and the age-related differences in toxicity and pharmacokinetics are well studied and known.. Pharmacokinetics is the metabolism of the drugs in humans, Dr. Peter R. Donald, Emeritus Professor in the Department of Paediatrics and Child Health of the Faculty of Health Sciences at Stellenbosch University, South Africa said in an email to this Correspondent. The pharmacokinetics of first-line anti-TB drugs is not known for children younger than two years.. Since children have relatively greater mass of liver in proportion to total body weight, they metabolise and eliminate drugs ...
TB is the cause of the largest killer of humanity, killing nearly 2 million people each year. The poor efficacy of existing TB drugs requires that they be administered in a multi drug regimen for at least six months. This results in poor patient compliance and leads to development of multidrug-‐resistant TB (MDR-‐TB) and extremely drug-‐resistant TB (XDR-‐TB). Decades of misuse of existing antibiotics and poor compliance have created an epidemic of drug resistance that threatens TB control programs worldwide ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of [The effects of antituberculous drugs on the catalase-activities of sensitive and resistant strains of human type tubercle bacilli]. by Yoshio Nakano
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Anti-tuberculosis drugs are groups of antimicrobial agents that are used for the management and treatment of infections and/or disease caused by the Gram-negative, acid-fast and […]. ...
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Without a doubt, tuberculosis (TB) is a symbolic threat to human health, causing millions of mortalities per year. Developing TB therapy without leading to drug
A drug that costs just two cents for a daily dose can treat tuberculosis, even a drug-resistant form of the disease, new research says.
Around much of the world where rates of HIV-tuberculosis co-infection are highest, one of the challenges killing patients has been the wait to discover if their TB would respond to the most common treatments. A four-year South Africa study of co-infected patients showed starting treatment for HIV during the course of anti-tuberculosis treatment, rather than […]. ...
Content and methods: in St-Petersburg Research Institute of Phthisiopulmonology from 2013 to 2015, 49 patients with XDR lung TB, from 18 to 60 have been treated. Linezolid was used in 24 patients with XDR-TB during the first 6 months of intensive phase of treatment in the dose - 600 mg per day intravenously, by drop infusion in combination with 5-6 anti TB drugs taking into account range of MBT drug resistance Studied group (group I). Control group -group II(n=25), used 5-6 anti TB drugs without linezolid.We carried out statistical analysis with the use of the program Statistica 6.0. We applied the criterion chi-square(χ2 ...
With approximately nine million new cases and the attributable cause of death of an estimated two millions people every year there is an urgent need for new and effective drugs and treatment regimens targeting tuberculosis. The tuberculosis drug development pathway is however not ideal, containing non-predictive model systems and unanswered questions that may increase the risk of failure during late-phase drug development. The aim of this thesis was hence to develop pharmacometric tools in order to optimize the development of new anti-tuberculosis drugs and treatment regimens.. The General Pulmonary Distribution model was developed allowing for prediction of both rate and extent of distribution from plasma to pulmonary tissue. A distribution characterization that is of high importance as most current used anti-tuberculosis drugs were introduced into clinical use without considering the pharmacokinetic properties influencing drug distribution to the site of action. The developed optimized ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of [Studies on the endogenous metabolism of mycobacteria. 2. On the influence of enzyme inhibitors and effective antitubercular substances on 32 P-incorporation]. by H. Iwainsky et al.
TB drugs Latest Breaking News, Pictures, Videos, and Special Reports from The Economic Times. TB drugs Blogs, Comments and Archive News on Economictimes.com
In what investigators say is a surprise finding, results of a new study appear to strongly affirm the effectiveness of prescribing the anti-tuberculosis drug isoniazid alone - in place of the standard four-drug regimen - to prevent TB and reduce death in people with advanced HIV/AIDS infections. Those with HIV and AIDS are highly susceptible to TB.
NEW YORK/LIVERPOOL, OCTOBER 26, 2016 - At the annual Union World Conference on Lung Health, which started in Liverpool today, Doctors Without Borders/Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) is sharing its experience of using the new tuberculosis drugs bedaquiline and delamanid to treat people with drug-resistant TB. MSF is also involved in two clinical trials to test new TB treatments, both of which will start enrolling patients soon.
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Isoniazid preventive therapy is a key public health intervention for the prevention of tuberculosis disease among people living with HIV. Despite the confirmed efficacy of isoniazid preventive therapy and global recommendations existing for decades, its implementation remains limited. In resource constrained settings, few have investigated why isoniazid preventive therapy is not implemented on full scale. This study was designed to investigate the level of isoniazid preventive therapy implementation and reasons for suboptimal implementation in Tigray region of Ethiopia. A review of patient records combined with a qualitative study using in-depth interviews and focus group discussions was conducted in 11 hospitals providing isoniazid preventive therapy in the Tigray Region. The study participants were health providers working in the HIV clinics of the 11 hospitals in the province. Health providers were interviewed about their experience of providing isoniazid preventive therapy and challenges faced
The microscopic observation drug susceptibility assay (MODS) is a novel and promising test for the early diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). We evaluated the MODS assay for the early diagnosis of TB in HIV-positive patients presenting to Pham Ngoc Thach Hospital for Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases in southern Vietnam. A total of 738 consecutive sputum samples collected from 307 HIV-positive individuals suspected of TB were tested by smear, MODS, and the mycobacteria growth indicator tube method (MGIT). The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of MODS compared to the microbiological gold standard (either smear or MGIT) were 87 and 93%, respectively. The sensitivities of smear, MODS, and MGIT were 57, 71, and 75%, respectively, against clinical gold standard (MODS versus smear, P|0.001; MODS versus MGIT, P=0.03). The clinical gold standard was defined as patients who had a clinical examination and treatment consistent with TB, with or without microbiological confirmation. For the diagnosis of smear-negative
EDITOR-Lawn and Wilkinson report on the global emergence of extensively drug resistant tuberculosis.1 An outbreak of extensively drug resistant tuberculosis has been ongoing for a decade in Norway.2 In 1994 treatment was started in a patient with pulmonary tuberculosis who was lost to follow-up. One year later, the same patient was admitted to hospital with smear positive, pulmonary, extensively drug resistant tuberculosis.2 In the following 10 years, 23 other patients were diagnosed with a strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis that carried the same IS6110 RFLP and spoligotyping DNA patterns. Of these, 15 had extensively drug resistant tuberculosis (table). Among 3131 patients diagnosed with tuberculosis in Nor-way during these 12 years M tuberculosis was isolated from 2284. Multidrug resistant tuberculosis was identified in 37 of them. The 15 cases of extensively drug resistant tuberculosis in the current outbreak are 0.66% of all culture positive cases and 40% of the multidrug resistant cases ...
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BioAssay record AID 739417 submitted by ChEMBL: Antitubercular activity against extensively drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis R506 by microplate Alamar Blue assay.
BioAssay record AID 1084878 submitted by ChEMBL: Antitubercular activity against multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis by NCCLS agar dilution method.
In the context of tuberculosis (TB) resurgence, isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) is increasingly promoted, but concerns about the risk for development of isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis may hinder its widespread implementation. We conducted a systematic review of data published since 1951 to assess the effect of primary IPT on the risk for isoniazid-resistant TB. Different definitions of isoniazid resistance were used, which affected summary effect estimates; we report the most consistent results. When all 13 studies (N = 18,095 persons in isoniazid groups and N = 17,985 persons in control groups) were combined, the summary relative risk for resistance was 1.45 (95% confidence interval 0.85-2.47). Results were similar when studies of HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected persons were considered separately. Analyses were limited by small numbers and incomplete testing of isolates, but findings do not exclude an increased risk for isoniazid-resistant TB after IPT. The diagnosis of active TB should be
To determine differences in the ability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains to withstand antituberculosis drug treatment, we compared the activity of antituberculosis drugs against susceptible Beijing and East-African/Indian genotype M. tuberculosis strains. Beijing genotype strains showed high rates of mutation within a wide range of drug concentrations, possibly explaining this genotypes association with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.
Evidence exists pointing out how non-adherence to treatment remains a major hurdle to efficient tuberculosis control in developing countries. Many tuberculosis (Tb) patients do not complete their six-month course of anti-tuberculosis medications and are not aware of the importance of sputum re-examinations, thereby putting themselves at risk of developing multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant forms of tuberculosis and relapse. However, there is a dearth of publications about non-adherence towards anti-Tb medication in these settings. We assessed the prevalence of and associated factors for anti-Tb treatment non-adherence in public health care facilities of South Ethiopia. This was a cross-sectional survey using both quantitative and qualitative methods. The quantitative study was conducted among 261 Tb patients from 17 health centers and one general hospital. The qualitative aspect included an in-depth interview of 14 key informants. For quantitative data, the analysis of descriptive
Early detection of resistance to second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs is important for the management of multidrug-resistant (MDR)-TB. The Genotype® MTBDRsl VERSION 2.0 (VER 2.0) line probe assay has been redesigned for molecular detection of resistance-conferring mutations of fluoroquinolones (FLQ) (gyrA and gyrB genes) and second-line injectable drugs (SLID) (rrs and eis genes). The study evaluated the diagnostic performance of MTBDRsl VER 2.0 for the detection of second-line drug resistance compared with phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST), using the Bactec™ MGIT 960 system on Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates from South Africa. A total of 268 repository isolates collected between 2012 and 2014, with rifampicin -mono-resistant (RR) or MDR based on DST were selected. MTBDRsl VER 2.0 testing was performed on these isolates and results analysed. The MTBDRsl VER 2.0 sensitivity and specificity indices for culture isolates were; FLQ 100% (95% CI, 95.8-100%) ; 98.9% (95% CI, ...
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The use of anti-tuberculosis therapy for latent TB infection Justin T Denholm1,2, Emma S McBryde1,21Victorian Infectious Diseases Service, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia; 2Department of Medicine, (RMH/WH), University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria, AustraliaAbstract: Tuberculosis infection is of global public health significance, with millions of incident cases each year. Many cases, particularly in low-prevalence settings, result from the reactivation of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI); potentially acquired years prior to active disease. Up to one-third of the world’s population has been infected with LTBI, and so may be at risk for future active TB disease. A variety of antituberculosis medications and treatment regimens have now been evaluated in the management of LTBI, with the aim of eradicating tuberculosis bacilli and reducing the likelihood of subsequent reactivation disease. This article reviews LTBI therapies and their use in clinical contexts, and
Infections caused by drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains represent a serious public health problem in recent years. The aim of this retrospective study was to investigate the resistance rates of M.tuberculosis complex strains isolated from clinical specimens in the laboratories of Cumhuriyet University and Numune State Hospitals in Sivas province (located in the middle Anatolia), between May 2004-May 2006 period, to the major antituberculous drugs. A total of 158 M.tuberculosis complex strains which were isolated from sputum, bronchial lavage fluid, stomach fluid, urine, pus, peritoneal fluid and cerebrospinal fluid samples, each of which from different patients were included to the study. The identification of the isolates and antituberculosis drug susceptibility testing were performed by MGIT (Mycobacteria Growth Indicator Tube) 960 system in both of the laboratories. Of 158 isolates 42 (26.6%) were found resistant to at least one of the drugs, while 116 (73.4%) were susceptible ...
Tuberculosis (TB) is the most common opportunistic infection and the leading cause of death in people living with HIV (PLHIV). HIV-infected children are at a higher risk of TB infection and disease compared to those without HIV. Isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) is an effective intervention in preventing progression of latent TB infection to active TB. The World Health Organization (WHO) currently recommends that all children aged | 12 months and adults living with HIV in whom active TB has been excluded should receive a 6-months course of IPT as part of a comprehensive package of HIV care. Despite this recommendation, the uptake of IPT among PLHIV has been suboptimal globally. This study sought to determine the factors affecting IPT uptake and completion among HIV-infected children in a large HIV care centre in Nairobi, Kenya. This was a cross-sectional mixed methods study comprising of quantitative and qualitative study designs. Medical records of 225 HIV-infected children aged 1 to | 10 years, in
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prescription practice of anti-tuberculosis drugs in Yunnan, China. T2 - A clinical audit. AU - Xu, Lin. AU - Chen, Jinou. AU - Innes, Anh L.. AU - Li, Ling. AU - Chiang, Chen Yuan. PY - 2017/10/1. Y1 - 2017/10/1. N2 - Objectives: China has a high burden of drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB). As irrational use and inadequate dosing of anti-TB drugs may contribute to the epidemic of drug-resistant TB, we assessed the drug types and dosages prescribed in the treatment of TB cases in a representative sample of health care facilities in Yunnan. Methods: We applied multistage cluster sampling using probability proportion to size to select 28 counties in Yunnan. Consecutive pulmonary TB patients were enrolled from either the TB centers of Yunnan Center of Disease Control or designated TB hospitals. Outcomes of interest included the regimen used in the treatment of new and retreatment TB patients; and the proportion of patients treated with adequate dosing of anti-TB drugs. Furthermore, we ...
A prospective pharmacovigilance study to evaluate adverse effect profile of first line anti-tubercular drugs in newly diagnosed sputum positive patients
Queen Mary University Hospital, London, United Kingdom. MedicalResearch.com: What is the background for this study? What are the main findings?. Response: Multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) has been on the increase worldwide over the past decade. Many patients who have been identified with MDR-TB live in the European region. Despite treatment with expensive second-line drug regimens, curing MDR TB remains a challenge and cure rates were thought to be very low. As part of the EU Commission funded TB-PANNET project 380 patients with MDR-TB were observed at 23 TB centers in countries of high, intermediate and low TB burden in Europe over a period of 5 years. Observation started from the time of diagnosis and lasted until one year after the end of the treatment.. The TBNET proposed new definitions for cure and failure of MDR-TB treatment based on the sputum culture status at 6 month after the initiation of therapy and whether patients were free from disease recurrence one year after the ...
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Tuberculosis (TB) disease is a common opportunistic infection among people living with HIV (PLHIV). WHO recommends at least 6 months of isoniazid Preventive Therapy (IPT) to reduce the risk of active TB. It is important to monitor the six-month IPT completion since a suboptimal dose may not protect PLHIV from TB infection. This study determined the six-month IPT completion and factors associated with six-month IPT completion among PLHIV aged 15 years or more in Dar es Salaam region, Tanzania. Secondary analysis of routine data from PLHIV attending 58 care and treatment clinics in Dar es Salaam region was used. PLHIV, aged 15 years and above, who screened negative for TB symptoms and initiated IPT from January, 2013 to June, 2017 were recruited. Modified Poisson regression with robust standard errors was used to estimate prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for factors associated with IPT completion. Multilevel analysis was used to account for health facility random effects in order to
The place of prodrugs in the current antitubercular therapeutic arsenal is preponderant, since two of the four first-line antitubercular agents, isoniazid (INH) and pyrazinamide (PZA), need to be activated by Mycobacterium tuberculosis before exerting their activity. In addition, six other prodrugs can be found in the second- and third-line therapeutic regimens. The emergence of mycobacterial strains resistant to one or several antitubercular agents is one of the main issues of the antitubercular therapy. In the case of prodrugs, the resistance phenomenon is often related to a mutation in the gene encoding for the activation enzymes, resulting thus in a default of these enzymes that are no more able to activate prodrugs ...
Background: Tuberculosis is a major cause of infectious disease mortality all over the world. Multidrug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) is a major problem in the management of tuberculosis. With recent advances in understanding the immunopathogenesis of tuberculosis, the use of various cytokine therapies has been suggested. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of parenteral INF- for treating MDR-TB patients. Materials and Methods: To conduct the study, 12 MDR- TB patients hospitalised in the clinical mycobacteriology ward of Massih Daneshvari hospital were selected randomly between October 2000 and March 2001. All had chest involvement in radiography, so they were smear and culture positive on two occasions. All had at least resistance to isoniazid and rifampin in antibiogram. They were divided in two groups. One group received INF- ; (3,000,000U, three times a week, subcutaneously) in addition to anti-TB drugs, and the other group received only anti -TB medications as control group.
Treatment success rates of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) remain unsatisfactory, and long-term use of second-line anti-TB drugs is accompanied by the frequent occurrence of adverse events, low treatment compliance, and high costs. The development of new efficient regimens with shorter treatment durations for MDR-TB will solve these issues and improve treatment outcomes. This study is a phase II/III, multicenter, randomized, open-label clinical trial of non-inferiority design comparing a new regimen to the World Health Organization-endorsed conventional regimen for fluoroquinolone-sensitive MDR-TB. The control arm uses a conventional treatment regimen with second-line drugs including injectables for 20-24 months. The investigational arm uses a new shorter regimen including delamanid, linezolid, levofloxacin, and pyrazinamide for 9 or 12 months depending on time to sputum culture conversion. The primary outcome is the treatment success rate at 24 months after treatment initiation. Secondary
Tuberculosis is usually treated with first-line anti-tuberculous drugs such as isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide.. Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR) is disease due to strains resistant to both isoniazid and rifampicin. Treatment of such strains requires use of second-line drugs which include fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, capreomycin (injectable drugs), para-aminosalicylate, cycloserine, and ethionamide.. Recently, however, strains resistant to fluoroquinolones have been noticed worldwide. When MDR TB strains become resistant to fluoroquinolones, treatment becomes difficult since other drugs used have limited efficacy. Treatment options become even more limited when in addition to fluoroquinolones, strains are resistant to any one of the injectable drugs. Such strains are labeled extensively drug resistant (XDR).. Patients with XDR TB require longer duration of treatment (at least 18 months) with drugs regimens that incorporate both old and new agents. Newer drugs ...
Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease that produces several million deaths annually. With the appearance of multi drug resistant microbial strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, innovations in TB drug discovery and evolving strategies to bring new agents with best performance is an essential investigation. Taking this into account, there is a pressing need to develop new and more effective anti tubercular agents. The coordination of metal with organic drugs is a promising strategy that has been successful in many cases with different pharmacological activities. The emergence of new cases and the adverse effects of first and second-line antituberculosis drugs have led to renewed research interest in metal drug complexes in the hope of discovering new antituberculosis drugs. The aim of the present study is to assess the antituberculosis activity of Ni (II) and Cu (II) complexes of polymer ligand poly (3-nitrobenzylidene-1-naphthylamine-co-methacrylic acid). ...
All of the 87 INH-resistant isolates from China had mutations in the nine structural genes (furA, katG, inhA, kasA, Rv0340, iniB, iniA, iniC, and efpA) or two regulatory regions (the oxyR-ahpC intergenic region and the promoter of mabA-inhA). Thirty-nine distinct mutations were identified. Among these, mutations in the katG gene were predominant, as expected; katG mutations were found in 82 (94.3%) isolates. Geographical differences in the frequencies of the katG codon 315 mutations were apparent in the analysis of data from other studies: mutations in katG codon 315 were detected in only 34.6% of the INH-resistant isolates from Madrid (18) but were detected in a substantial 93.6% of isolates from northwest Russia (26). Therefore, the documented information regarding the frequencies and types of mutations in one country or geographical region may not apply generally to other regions. We found mutations in katG codon 315 in 64.4% of the INH-resistant isolates from five provinces of China, which ...
International Scholarly Research Notices is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal covering a wide range of subjects in science, technology, and medicine. The journals Editorial Board as well as its Table of Contents are divided into 108 subject areas that are covered within the journals scope.
Childhood tuberculosis is considered a major cause of morbidity and mortality in high burden TB countries. It has had a low priority for research and development globally and was not given much attention in the past on ways and means to operationalize the case management strategies within the context of National TB Control Programmes. The current thesis focuses on various cohorts of childhood TB and audit of the case management practices within the routine national TB control programme of Pakistan. The thesis also documents the lessons learned during this research and development. Our initial retrospective cohorts were based on the review of patient records, focused on the case notification, treatment outcomes and case management practices of patients registered during two complete years 2004 and 2005, when NTP had no particular emphasis on childhood TB and had recently expanded the DOTS strategy for adults. These results we compared with those of patients registered during 2006 and 2007, when ...
We performed spoligotyping on 114 strains of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) complex that had been isolated from patients in Minas Gerais Health Units
The comorbidities of tuberculosis and diseases such as HIV require long-term treatment with multiple medications. Despite substantial in vitro and in vivo information on effects of rifampicin and isoniazid on human CYPs, there is limited published data regarding the inhibitory effects of other anti-TB drugs on human CYPs and UGTs. The inhibitory effects of 5 first-line anti-TB drugs (isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide, ethambutol, and rifabutin), and the newly approved bedaquiline, were evaluated for 6 common human hepatic UGT enzymes (UGT1A1, 1A4, 1A6, 1A9, 2B7 and 2B15) in vitro using HLMs. Pyrazinamide, ethambutol, rifabutin and bedaquiline were also studied for their inhibitory effects on 8 of the most common human CYP enzymes (CYP1A2, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1 and 3A). Rifabutin inhibited multiple CYPs to varying degrees in vitro, but with all IC50 values exceeding 25 μM. Rifabutin and rifampicin also inhibited several human UGTs including UGT1A4. The Ki value for rifabutin on human ...
J Glob Antimicrob Resist. 2021 Mar 28:S2213-7165(21)00081-3. doi: 10.1016/j.jgar.2021.03.015. Online ahead of print.. ABSTRACT. OBJECTIVES: New antituberculosis agents active on drug-resistant and nonreplicating tubercle bacilli remain an unmet medical obligation. We, therefore, evaluated a previously identified hit 2-(((2-hydroxyphenyl)amino) methylene)-5,5-dimethylcyclohexane-1,3-dione (PAMCHD) against a panel of clinical Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates including multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains and against nonreplicating drug-tolerant persisters of M. tuberculosis H37Rv.. METHODS: potential against drug-resistant isolates of M.tuberculosis was investigated by broth dilution assay. CFU enumeration was done to determine the activity of PAMCHD against five kinds of dormant bacilli.. RESULTS: No significant difference in MICs of PAMCHD was observed against M .tuberculosis H37Rv (2.5-5 µg/mL) and eight drug-susceptible strains (1.25-5 µg/mL) as well as drug-resistant strains including six ...
During the 1990s, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampin, emerged as a great threat to global tuberculosis (TB) control [1]. For most MDR-TB patients, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a treatment regimen including second-line anti-TB drugs [2]. One of the most effective second-line drugs is fluoroquinolone [3]. During the treatment, MDR-TB may develop resistance to fluoroquinolone, or even become extensively drug-resistant (XDR-TB), which is resistant to both fluoroquinolone and at least one of three injectable second-line drugs [4]. The main genetic mechanism of fluoroquinolone resistance lies in the mutations in the quinolone-resistance-determining region of gyrA and gyrB [5]. ...
Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) has become one of the major obstacles currently encountered in the control of this disease worldwide.1 The widespread and sometimes inappropriate use of rifampicin in the last 40 years has generated a growing number of cases of rifampicin-resistant TB (RR-TB). Rifampicin resistance is the most decisive factor in the prognosis of TB patients.2 If this drug cannot be used, treatment must continue for at least 21-24 months, and combinations of less effective, more toxic drugs3 are required, leading to cure rates of only 50%.1 Moreover, more than 90% of RR-TB cases are also carriers of isoniazid (H)-resistant strains3; these patients make up the so-called multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) group.. The problem is further compounded by the appearance and spread of cases of extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB), which is MDR-TB that is also resistant to the fluoroquinolones (FQ: levofloxacin and/or moxifloxacin) and second-line injectable drugs (SLID: amikacin and/or ...
Introduction In high multidrug resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) prevalence areas, drug susceptibility testing (DST) at diagnosis is recommended for patients with risk factors for MDR. However, this approach might miss a substantial proportion of MDR-TB in the general population. We studied primary MDR in patients considered to be at low risk of MDR-TB in Lima, Peru. Methods We enrolled new sputum smear-positive TB patients who did not report any MDR-TB risk factor: known exposure to a TB patient whose treatment failed or who died or who was known to have MDR-TB; immunosuppressive co-morbidities, ex prison inmates; prison and health care workers; and alcohol or drug abuse. A structured questionnaire was applied to all enrolled participants to confirm the absence of these factors and thus minimize underreporting. Sputum from all participants was cultured on Löwenstein-Jensen media and DST for first line drugs was performed using the 7H10 agar method. Results Of 875 participants with complete data,
Researchers find the preventive treatment beneficial in protecting the children, who are in close contact with multidrug resistant tuberculosis affected patients, from acquiring the disease.
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Prepubertal Swiss albino mice of both sex were administered with first-line anti-tuberculosis drugs (ATDs) viz; rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, streptomycin and ethambutol intraperitoneally, for 4 weeks. Two weeks after the completion of treatment, male mice were sacrificed to collect caudal spermatozoa and female mice were superovulated with pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) to collect metaphase II (MII) oocytes from oviduct. Administration of ATDs not only decreased the count, motility and, nuclear maturity and also, increased the head abnormalities, mitochondrial damage and DNA damage in epididymal spermatozoa. Reduction in number of ovulated oocytes, increased degeneration rate and altered distribution pattern of cytoplasmic organelles was observed in oocytes of female mice. Presence of ATDs in in vitro maturation (IVM) medium increased abnormalities in meiotic resulted in abnormal spindle organization (except ethambutol) without affecting ...
Objective To evaluate the efficacy of combined thermoablation and cryoablation treatment of lymph nodes fistula type of central airway tracheo-bronchial tuberculosis(TBTB)under flexible bronchoscopy(referred to as bronchoscopy).Methods A total of 78 patients with TBTB were enrolled in the Anhui Provincial Chest Hospital from January 2013 to January 2017.After approval by the Ethics Committee,39 patients in the control group were treated with systemic anti-tuberculosis treatment and bronchoscopy which biopsy forceps were repeatedly cleaned and the isoniazid was injected through the catheter at the lesion.The observation group were treated with systemic anti-tuberculosis treatment and bronchoscopy which combined with cryo-thermo ablation and the isoniazid was injected through the catheter at the lesion.All of them were ended up with endoscopic treatment after stable lesions and followed up for 1 year.The average number of treatments was calculated,and the clinical symptoms and bronchoscopy findings were
In Denmark, reporting of tuberculosis (TB) treatment outcome is voluntary and data incomplete. In the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control most recent report presenting data from 2017, only 53.9% of Danish pulmonary TB cases had a reported outcome. Monitoring of TB treatment outcome is not feasible based on such limited results. In this retrospective study from 2009 to 2014, we present complete treatment outcome data and describe characteristics of cases lost to follow up. All cases notified from 2009 through 2014 were reviewed. Hospital records were examined, and TB treatment outcome was categorized according to the World Health Organizations (WHO) definitions. A total of 2131 TB cases were included. Treatment outcome was reported to the Surveillance Unit in 1803 (84.6%) cases, of which 468 (26.0%) were reclassified. For pulmonary TB, 339 (28.9%) cases were reclassified between cured and treatment completed. Overall, the proportion of cases who achieved successful treatment outcome
TY - JOUR. T1 - Shorter regimens for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis should also be applicable in Europe. AU - Heldal, Einar. AU - Van Deun, Armand. AU - Chiang, Chen-Yuan. AU - Rieder, Hans L. PY - 2017/6. Y1 - 2017/6. KW - Antitubercular Agents. KW - Europe. KW - Humans. KW - Mycobacterium tuberculosis. KW - Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant. U2 - 10.1183/13993003.00228-2017. DO - 10.1183/13993003.00228-2017. M3 - Article. C2 - 28572127. VL - 49. JO - European Respiratory Journal. JF - European Respiratory Journal. SN - 0903-1936. IS - 6. ER - ...
Although our baseline analysis assumed that DOTS-plus can be implemented effectively, the proportion of patients completing even standard treatment regimens is low in areas where multidrug resistant tuberculosis has become a major problem.21 In areas where direct smear microscopy and giving two to four relatively non-toxic drugs for six months is impossible, routinely performing mycobacterial cultures and first and second line susceptibility testing as well as administering four to seven toxic drugs for 18-24 months is unlikely to be possible.. A tuberculosis control programme should have implemented effective DOTS before implementing DOTS-plus.28 A poorly run control programme can generate multidrug resistant tuberculosis, but effective DOTS can decrease the rates of multidrug resistant tuberculosis.29 More widespread implementation of effective DOTS would therefore decrease the number of cases for which DOTS-plus would be necessary.30 Currently, 77% of tuberculosis cases worldwide are not ...
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Drug resistant tuberculosis poses a tremendous downside for tuberculosis administration worldwide. Timely dedication of drug resistance and environment friendly explicit particular person remedy are necessary for blocking the transmission of drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. We aimed to find out and think about the accuracy of a reverse dot blot hybridization (RDBH) assay to concurrently detect the resistance of Four anti-tuberculosis medication in M. tuberculosis isolated in China.. In this look at, we utilized a RDBH assay to concurrently detect the resistance of rifampicin (RIF), isoniazid (INH), streptomycin (SM) and ethambutol (EMB) in 320 medical M. tuberculosis isolates and in distinction the outcomes to that from phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST) and sequencing.. The RDBH assay was designed to verify as a lot as 42 samples at a time. Pearsons chi-square check out was used to compute the statistical measures of the RDBH assay using the phenotypic DST or sequencing as ...
... an antitubercular agent with MAOI properties, has been known to strongly inhibit the metabolism of primidone.[55] ... They all had larger protective indexes than conventional agents and unlike these agents, the new ones did not cause birth ... "Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 45 (2): 382-92. doi:10.1128/AAC.45.2.382-392.2001. PMC 90302. PMID 11158730.. ... Other pharmacological agents include alprazolam, clonazepam, atenolol, sotalol, nadolol, clozapine, nimodipine, and botilinum ...
A Promising Antitubercular Agent". Chemical Biology & Drug Design. 86 (4): 410-423. doi:10.1111/cbdd.12527. PMID 25643871. Kaur ... Anti-Cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry. 16 (4): 465-489. doi:10.2174/1871520615666150819121106. PMID 26286663. Kathiravan, ... "The biology and chemistry of antifungal agents: A review". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry. 20 (19): 5678-5698. doi:10.1016/j. ...
... including antitubercular), antiviral, antifungal and antiparasitic (including antiprotozoal and antihelminthic) agents. ... First, the catalog of infectious agents has grown to the point that virtually all of the significant infectious agents of the ... Second, an infectious agent must grow within the human body to cause disease; essentially it must amplify its own nucleic acids ... Not all infectious agents cause disease in all hosts. For example, less than 5% of individuals infected with polio develop ...
Worley MV, Estrada SJ (November 2014). "Bedaquiline: a novel antitubercular agent for the treatment of multidrug-resistant ... Bedaquiline was described for the first time in 2004 at the Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy ( ...
Various 5‐styryl‐oxathiazol‐2‐one heterocycles have also been tested as anti-tubercular agents because of their ability to ... and Evaluation of 5-Styryl-Oxathiazol-2-one Mycobacterium tuberculosis Proteasome Inhibitors as Potential Antitubercular Agents ...
Isoniazid, an antitubercular agent with MAOI properties, has been known to strongly inhibit the metabolism of primidone. Like ... Other pharmacological agents include alprazolam, clonazepam, atenolol, sotalol, nadolol, clozapine, nimodipine, and botulinum ... Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 45 (2): 382-92. doi:10.1128/AAC.45.2.382-392.2001. PMC 90302. PMID 11158730. Theis JG, ...
Its discovery as an antitubercular agent was remarkable since it has no activity against tuberculosis in vitro, due to not ... Dillon, Nicholas A.; Peterson, Nicholas D.; Feaga, Heather A.; Keiler, Kenneth C.; Baughn, Anthony D. (21 July 2017). "Anti-tubercular ... Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 59 (12): 7320-26. doi:10.1128/aac.00967-15. PMC 4649215. PMID 26369957. Shi W, Zhang X, ... Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 39 (6): 1269-71. doi:10.1128/aac.39.6.1269. PMC 162725. PMID 7574514. Klemens, S.P.; ...
Sulfone - Dapsone (DDS), Phenazine derivative - Clofazimine, Antitubercular drugs - Rifampicin, Ethionamide, Solapsone, Other ... A leprostatic agent is a drug that interferes with proliferation of the bacterium that causes leprosy. The following agents are ... Established agents used in the treatment of leprosy are dapsone, clofazimine, and rifampicin. Treatment of tuberculoid leprosy ... Dapsone, combined with other antileprosy agents like rifampicin and clofazimine, is used in the treatment of both ...
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is the etiologic agent of the disease tuberculosis, which kills approximately 1.4 million ... recent emergence of increasingly drug-resistant Mtb strains have given rise to an urgent need for the development of new anti-tubercular ...
Triazoles have been found to have a number of real world applications as antibacterial agents.[citation needed] The Einhorn- ... Research done by Pattan et al., specifically on 1,2,4-triazoles, found antibacterial, antifungal, antitubercular, and anti- ... antitubercular and anti-inflammatory activities" (PDF). Indian Journal of Chemistry. 51B: 297-301.. ...
Nevertheless related agents such as phenelzine and isocarboxazid are still on the market. In addition, tranylcypromine is a non ... Iproniazid was the result of a failed medicinal chemistry attempt to improve on the anti-tubercular activity of isoniazid. It ... A limitation of these agents is their potential to cause hypertension so their safety is not guaranteed. However, it seems that ... He noted the so-called "indifference" that this agent causes and suggested that it be used on agitated psychotic patients. ...
In vivo studies in the guinea pig showed furonazide slightly more active than isoniazid as a tuberculostatic agent. The drug ... Antitubercular compounds". Yakugaku Zasshi. 75: 1066-9. Kiichiro Kakemi; Sezaki, Hitoshi; Iwamoto, Kikuo; Sano, Yukito (1969 ...
In preclinical studies SQ109 enhanced the activity of anti-tubercular drugs isoniazid and rifampin and reduced by >30% the time ... "Synthesis and evaluation of carbamate prodrugs of SQ109 as antituberculosis agents". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters. ... a new diamine-based antitubercular drug". British Journal of Pharmacology. 144 (1): 80-87. doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0705984. PMC ...
A recent screening of TCM extracts revealed a Streptomyces that produces a number of antitubercular pluramycins. Biology portal ... Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 8 (6): 721-32. doi:10.1128/AAC.8.6.721. PMC 429454 . PMID 1211926. Retrieved 2012-01-19 ... Y3111 from traditional Chinese medicine produced antitubercular pluramycins". Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 98 (3): 1077-85. doi: ...
Five immunotherapy agents has been approved in the US for use in metastatic bladder cancer. They act by inhibiting programmed ... BCG strains are not sensitive to pyrazinamide therefore, it should not be a part of anti-tubercular treatment. BCG treatment ... In people with systemic infections, BCG therapy should be stopped and anti-tubercular multidrug treatment for at-least 6 months ... The most commonly used second-line chemotherapy is single-agent regimes of Taxanes (Paclitaxel, nab-paclitaxel and Docetaxel). ...
... antitubercular MeSH D27.505.954.122.085.222 - antitreponemal agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.085.255 - antitubercular agents MeSH ... antiviral agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.388.077 - anti-retroviral agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.388.077.088 - anti-hiv agents MeSH ... tocolytic agents MeSH D27.505.954.016 - anti-allergic agents MeSH D27.505.954.122 - anti-infective agents MeSH D27.505.954.122. ... tranquilizing agents MeSH D27.505.696.277.950.015 - anti-anxiety agents MeSH D27.505.696.277.950.025 - antimanic agents MeSH ...
... is used in combination with other antituberculosis agents as part of a second-line regimen for active tuberculosis ... Belardinelli, Juan M.; Morbidoni, Héctor R. (2013-04-01). "Recycling and refurbishing old antitubercular drugs: the encouraging ... Rastogi, Nalin; Labrousse, Valérie; Goh, Khye Seng (1996). "In Vitro Activities of Fourteen Antimicrobial Agents Against Drug ... Bennett, John E.; Dolin, Raphael; Blaser, Martin; Mandell, Gerald L (2015). "38 - Antimycobacterial Agents". Mandell, Douglas, ...
An international multi-centre study has proved that delamanid (OPC-67683), a new agent derived from the nitro-dihydro- ... Raman, K.; Rajagopalan, P.; Chandra, N. (2005). "Flux Balance Analysis of Mycolic Acid Pathway: Targets for Anti-Tubercular ... Novel inhibitors of this enzyme could potentially be used as therapeutic agents. The mycolic acids show interesting ... the causative agent of the disease tuberculosis. They form the major component of the cell wall of mycolata species. Despite ...
Xia, Yi; Yang, Zheng-Yu; Xia, Peng; Bastow, Kenneth F.; Nakanishi, Yuka; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung (2000). "Antitumor agents. Part 202: ... The therapeutic (anti-cancer, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-viral, anti-ameobic, anti-malarial, anti-tubercular, ... Some 2′-amino chalcones have been studied as potential antitumor agents. ... Chalcone scaffolds as anti-infective agents: Structural and molecular target perspectives. European journal of medicinal ...
... is relatively ineffective against spirochetes, which has led to its use as a selective agent capable of isolating ... Mycobacterial resistance to rifampicin may occur alone or along with resistance to other first line antitubercular drugs. Early ... Leschine SB, Canale-Parola E (December 1980). "Rifampin as a selective agent for isolation of oral spirochetes". Journal of ... Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 42 (10): 2762-4. doi:10.1128/AAC.42.10.2762. PMC 105936. PMID 9756794. Trivedi, Hirsh D ...
The benefits and risks of giving anti-tubercular drugs in those exposed to MDR-TB is unclear. Making HAART therapy available to ... The safety and effectiveness of these new agents are uncertain as of 2012, because they are based on the results of relatively ... In 2018, tuberculosis was the leading cause of death worldwide from a single infectious agent. The total number of tuberculosis ... Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 47 (3): 833-36. doi:10.1128/AAC.47.3.833-836.2003. PMC 149338. PMID 12604509. Bozzano F ...
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 49 (6): 2294-301. doi:10.1128/AAC.49.6.2294-2301.2005. PMC 1140539. PMID 15917524. ... in a series of 100 nitroimidazopyran derivatives synthesized and tested for antitubercular activity, by PathoGenesis (now a ...
In patients with sickle cell disease, the most common causative agent is Salmonella, with a relative incidence more than twice ... Tubercular osteomyelitis of the spine was so common before the initiation of effective antitubercular therapy, it acquired a ...
Agents Chemother. 48 (8): 3093-102. doi:10.1128/AAC.48.8.3093-3102.2004. PMC 478545. PMID 15273125. Al-Balas Q, Anthony NG, Al- ... Raman K, Rajagopalan P, Chandra N (October 2005). "Flux Balance Analysis of Mycolic Acid Pathway: Targets for Anti-Tubercular ... Agents Chemother. 50 (2): 519-26. doi:10.1128/AAC.50.2.519-526.2006. PMC 1366929. PMID 16436705. Ondeyka JG, Zink DL, Young K, ... the causative agent of another serious refractory problem, malaria. Given the predominance of TB in poor countries, the ...
Lessons learned from the successes and failures of siderophore-conjugate drugs evaluated during the development of novel agents ... Usmani SS, Bhalla S, Raghava GP (26 August 2018). "Prediction of Antitubercular Peptides From Sequence Information Using ... Antimicrobial peptides have been used as therapeutic agents; their use is generally limited to intravenous administration or ... These peptides are potent, broad spectrum antibiotics which demonstrate potential as novel therapeutic agents. Antimicrobial ...
Bin-Jubair, F.A.S. (2010). "Anti-Tubercular activity of Isatin and Derivatives". Int. J. Res. Pharm. Sci. 1: 113. Vuzquez de ... substituted indoles or oxindoles with different oxidizing agents such as TBHP, IBX-SO3K, tBuONO etc. The presence of an ...
"Antitubercular Agents" by people in this website by year, and whether "Antitubercular Agents" was a major or minor topic of ... "Antitubercular Agents" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Antitubercular Agents" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Antitubercular Agents". ...
Synergistic Interactions of MmpL3 Inhibitors with Antitubercular Compounds In Vitro. Wei Li, Andrea Sanchez-Hidalgo, Victoria ... Synergistic Interactions of MmpL3 Inhibitors with Antitubercular Compounds In Vitro. Wei Li, Andrea Sanchez-Hidalgo, Victoria ... Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy Mar 2017, 61 (4) e02399-16; DOI: 10.1128/AAC.02399-16 ... Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy Mar 2017, 61 (4) e02399-16; DOI: 10.1128/AAC.02399-16 ...
Hybrid Docking-QSAR Studies of 1, 4-dihydropyridine-3, 5-Dicarboxamides as Potential Antitubercular Agents. Author(s): Yasaman ... 1, 4-dihydropyridines are multi-target ligands that recently are recognized as anti-tubercular agents. ... Title:Hybrid Docking-QSAR Studies of 1, 4-dihydropyridine-3, 5-Dicarboxamides as Potential Antitubercular Agents ... 1, 4-dihydropyridines are multi-target ligands that recently are recognized as anti-tubercular agents. ...
... prolinol-derived conformationally restricted analogues of the antitubercular agent ethambutol were prepared and tested against ... Synthesis and biological evaluation of conformationally constrained analogues of the antitubercular agent ethambutol. Vanessa ... Abstract : Three (S)-prolinol-derived conformationally restricted analogues of the antitubercular agent ethambutol were ... Synthesis and biological evaluation of conformationally constrained analogues of the antitubercular agent ethambutol.. ...
"DNA-Minor Groove Binding Agents as Anti-Tubercular Probes. Old Tools for a New Challenge?", Anti-Infective Agents (2018) 16: 71 ... Anti-Infective Agents. *Green Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using Different Leaf Extracts of Ocimum gratissimum Linn for Anti ... DNA-Minor Groove Binding Agents as Anti-Tubercular Probes. Old Tools for a New Challenge?. Author(s): Federico Brucoli*. ... Title:DNA-Minor Groove Binding Agents as Anti-Tubercular Probes. Old Tools for a New Challenge? ...
Conventional and microwave assisted synthesis of novel pyrimidine derivatives as antimicrobial and antitubercular agent. Author ... Some of these novel derivatives showed moderate to potent in-vitro antibacterial, antifungal and antitubercular activity. ...
World Health Organization. Regional Office for the Western Pacific (Manila : WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific, 2006) ...
A substance, such as streptomycin or isoniazid, used in the treatment of tuberculosis Explanation of antitubercular agent ... Looking for antitubercular agent? Find out information about antitubercular agent. ... antitubercular agent. antitubercular agent. [¦an·tē·tə¦bərk·yə·lər ′ā·jənt] (pharmacology) A substance, such as streptomycin or ... Antitubercular agent , Article about antitubercular agent by The Free Dictionary https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/ ...
PTB Reports [Pharmacology, Toxicology and Biomedical Reports] - It is an international, peer-review, open access, online journal publishing research articles, review articles, clinical case reports and recent trends in experimental and clinical pharmacology, toxicology and Biomedicine. It covers clinical pharmacokinetics, biochemical pharmacology, clinical biochemistry, molecular biology, analytical toxicology, psychopharmacology, neuropharmacology, cardiovascular and renal pharmacology and other systemic pharmacology.. ...
Sparfloxacin is a synthetic fluoroquinolone broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent in the same class as ofloxacin and norfloxacin. ...
For use in the treatment of pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis when other antitubercular drugs have failed. ...
... ... Influence of genetic variants on toxicity to anti-tubercular agents : a systematic review and meta-analysis (protocol) ...
Book; Format: print Publisher: Geneva : World Health Organization, 1991Other title: Drugs used in mycobacterial diseases.Title translated: Fiches modèles OMS d information à l usage des prescripteurs médicaments utilisés dans les mycobactérioses; Modelo OMS de información sobre prescripción de medicamentos :medicamentos utilizados en las enfermedades micobacterianas.Online access: Full text now in IRIS Availability: Items available for loan: WHO HQ [Call number: QV 268 91WH] (3). Withdrawn (1). ...
New analogues of antitubercular drug PA-824 were synthesized, featuring alternative side chain ether linkers of varying size ... Antitubercular Agents / chemical synthesis* * Antitubercular Agents / pharmacokinetics * Antitubercular Agents / pharmacology * ... New analogues of antitubercular drug PA-824 were synthesized, featuring alternative side chain ether linkers of varying size ... Synthesis and structure-activity relationships of varied ether linker analogues of the antitubercular drug (6S)-2-nitro-6-{[4-( ...
antispasmodic and anti-tubercular agent rose Aromatic Scent aroma oil US $1-3 / Piece ...
... ... Although TDM of first-line antitubercular drugs is used during the treatment of tuberculosis, the extent of any benefit ... This review summarizes the available literature describing TDM of first-line treatment agents in patients with tuberculosis and ... literature review was conducted for articles describing drug concentration and TDM outcomes for first-line tuberculosis agents ...
Design, Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel Antitubercular Agents by Co.... In vitro antitubercular activity against ... TABLE-04: Results for Anti tubercular activity S.No. Compound code 100 µg/ml 50 µg/ml 25 µg/ml 12.5 µg/ml 6.25 µg/ml 3.12 µg/ml ... ISATIN DERIVATIVES AS ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS" submitted by the candidate bearing Register No.261215701 in partial fulfillment of ... ISATIN DERIVATIVES AS ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS" submitted by the candidate bearing the Reg. No. 261215701 in partial fulfillment ...
Results of search for su:{Tuberculosis} and su-to:Antitubercular agents Refine your search. *Availability * Limit to ...
Rational Design and Synthesis of Novel Diphenyl ether Derivatives as Antitubercular Agents ... Rational Design and Synthesis of Novel Diphenyl ether Derivatives as Antitubercular Agents. Drug Design, Development and ... Based on the antitubercular activity and druglikeness profile, it may be concluded that compound 10b could be a lead for future ... A series of triclosan mimic diphenyl ether derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro antitubercular ...
antitubercular agent A substance that kills or slows the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. and is used in the treatment of ... antitubercular agent A substance that kills or slows the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. and is used in the treatment of ... ethambutol (CHEBI:4877) has role antitubercular agent (CHEBI:33231) ethambutol (CHEBI:4877) has role environmental contaminant ...
Antitubercular Agents/economics. *Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use. *China. *Diagnosis, Differential. *Health Services ...
Antitubercular Agents*/therapeutic use. *Communicable Disease Control. *Controlled Clinical Trials as Topic ...
... has role antineoplastic agent (CHEBI:35610) rifampicin (CHEBI:28077) has role antitubercular agent ( ... antitubercular agent A substance that kills or slows the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. and is used in the treatment of ... antitubercular agent A substance that kills or slows the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. and is used in the treatment of ... antiamoebic agent An antiparasitic agent which is effective against amoeba, a genus of single-celled amoeboids in the family ...
Antifungal agents. Antileprosy agents. Antimalarial agents. Antiprotozoal agents. Antitubercular agents --. 2. Agents affecting ... Antifungal agents. Antileprosy agents. Antimalarial agents. Antiprotozoal agents. Antitubercular agents -- 2. Agents affecting ... Oxytocic agents --. 9. Homeostatic and nutrient agents: Agents used to treat hyperglycemia. Vitamins --. 10. Agents used to ... Oxytocic agents -- 9. Homeostatic and nutrient agents: Agents used to treat hyperglycemia. Vitamins -- 10. Agents used to treat ...
... seventeen novel quinoline-based carboxylic hydrazides were designed as potential anti-tubercular agents using molecular ... Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel quinoline-based carboxylic hydrazides as anti-tubercular agents.. *. ... In this study, seventeen novel quinoline-based carboxylic hydrazides were designed as potential anti-tubercular agents using ... synthesis and biological evaluation of novel quinoline-based carboxylic hydrazides as anti-tubercular agents.}, author={Subhash ...
Anti-HIV Agents. Anti-Retroviral Agents. Antiviral Agents. Anti-Infective Agents. Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors. Cytochrome ...
Antitubercular Agents. Anti-Bacterial Agents. Anti-Infective Agents. Fatty Acid Synthesis Inhibitors. Hypolipidemic Agents. ...
Anti-HIV Agents. *Anti-Infective Agents. *Anti-Retroviral Agents. *Antibiotics, Antitubercular. *Antiinfectives for Systemic ... For the treatment of HIV-1 infection in combination with other antiretroviral agents.. ...
Anti-Bacterial Agents. Antibiotics, Antitubercular. Anti-Infective Agents. Antitubercular Agents. To Top ...
  • A number of inhibitors of the essential Mycobacterium tuberculosis mycolic acid transporter, MmpL3, are currently under development as potential novel antituberculosis agents. (asm.org)
  • Three (S)-prolinol-derived conformationally restricted analogues of the antitubercular agent ethambutol were prepared and tested against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (inserm.fr)
  • In summary, DNA-minor groove binding agents may serve as molecular scaffolds for the design of highly efficient probes to treat M. tuberculosis infections. (eurekaselect.com)
  • formulated a niosomal drug delivery system of antitubercular agents such as isoniazid that has exceptional potential for development into a low dose performed with effective treatment for tuberculosis [83]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • For use in the treatment of pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis when other antitubercular drugs have failed. (pharmacycode.com)
  • Manual de normas y procedimientos técnicos para la bacteriolog'ia de la tuberculosis / Comité Asesor de la OPS/OMS en Bacteriolog'ia de la Tuberculosis. (who.int)
  • Although TDM of first-line antitubercular drugs is used during the treatment of tuberculosis, the extent of any benefit achieved is currently unknown. (edu.qa)
  • This review summarizes the available literature describing TDM of first-line treatment agents in patients with tuberculosis and describes clinical associations with achievement of target drug concentrations, including data from special populations. (edu.qa)
  • A literature review was conducted for articles describing drug concentration and TDM outcomes for first-line tuberculosis agents in adults. (edu.qa)
  • A series of triclosan mimic diphenyl ether derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro antitubercular activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. (manipal.edu)
  • Aminosalicylic acid is an anti-mycobacterial agent used with other anti-tuberculosis drugs (most often isoniazid) for the treatment of all forms of active tuberculosis due to susceptible strains of tubercle bacilli. (rcsb.org)
  • 1,4-azaindole, a potential drug candidate for treatment of tuberculosis.Antimicrob Agents Chemother. (tballiance.org)
  • The emergence of resistance to antituberculosis drugs emphasize the necessity to discover new therapeutic agents for preferential tuberculosis therapy. (dovepress.com)
  • The title compounds were also synthesized, characterized, and tested for ex vivo antitubercular activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (ATCC27294) . (dovepress.com)
  • The outer membrane (OM) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis , the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), is distinctively characterized by the abundance of mycolic acids (MAs), C 60 -C 90 long-chain, branched fatty acids packed together to produce a bilayer with markedly reduced fluidity and permeability ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the etiological agent of tuberculosis (TB), an infectious disease of which ~9 million new cases and ~1.7 million mortalities were reported for the year 2009 ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • Los objetivos de la presente investigación fueron los siguientes, atendiendo específicamente a los cuatro estados de los Estados Unidos que tienen frontera con México: 1) describir la situación epidemiológica de la tuberculosis, 2) identificar los factores de riesgo de contraer la enfermedad y 3) examinar las estrategias aplicadas en los programas antituberculosos. (scielosp.org)
  • Durante el período de 1993 a 2001, 12 450 (76,7%) de los 16 223 casos de tuberculosis en residentes de Estados Unidos nacidos en México se notificaron en Arizona, California, Nuevo México y Texas. (scielosp.org)
  • En esos cuatro estados en general, la incidencia de tuberculosis en 2001 en personas nacidas en México fue 5,0 veces mayor que en personas nacidas en Estados Unidos. (scielosp.org)
  • Catalase-peroxidase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been exploited for the activation of the front-line antitubercular agent isoniazid to its antibiotic form. (auburn.edu)
  • They were evaluated for their in vitro antitubercular activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, multidrug resistance tuberculosis and extensively drug resistance tuberculosis by agar diffusion method and tested for the cytotoxic action on peripheral blood mononuclear cells by MTT assay. (wiley.com)
  • Among all the tested compounds in the series, compounds 7 and 11 emerged as promising antitubercular agents at 16 μg/mL against multidrug resistance tuberculosis and over 64 μg/mL against extensively drug resistance tuberculosis. (wiley.com)
  • Anti-Infective Agents publishes original research articles, full-length/mini reviews, drug clinical trial studies and guest edited issues on all the latest and outstanding developments on the medicinal chemistry, biology, pharmacology and use of anti-infective and anti-parasitic agents. (benthamscience.com)
  • An antitubercular agent often administered in association with isoniazid. (rcsb.org)
  • 2 The standard antitubercular treatment regimen, termed DOTS (Directly Observed Therapy, Short-course), is based on the co-administration of age-old drugs like isoniazid (INH), rifampin (RMP), ethambutol (EMB), and pyrazinamide (PZA) for the first two months, followed by a prolonged treatment with INH and RMP for additional 4-7 months with no guarantee of complete sterilization from the infection. (newdrugapprovals.org)
  • The project aimed at the development of very robust, predictive and well-validated quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs) that assisted us in the design of a series of new potentially active antitubercular compounds from particular relevant core structures, namely, isoniazid, thiobenzanilide, benzimidazole and indole scaffolds. (scienceportugal.com)
  • In spite of a few new antitubercular candidates in phase II and III of the clinical global TB drug pipeline, isoniazid (INH), first synthesized in 1952, is still the treatment of choice for TB and is part of all WHO multidrug recommended regimens. (scienceportugal.com)
  • Some of these novel derivatives showed moderate to potent in-vitro antibacterial, antifungal and antitubercular activity. (scholarsresearchlibrary.com)
  • Peoples, Isonicotinyl hydrazones as antitubercular agents and derivatives for identification of aldehydes and ketones, J. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Fifty molecules of 1,2,4-Triazole derivatives as potent antitubercular agents that were used in this study were obtained from the literature [4]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Design, Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Evaluation of Some Novel Isatin Derivatives as Antitubercular Agents. (1library.net)
  • 3-[4-(1H-Benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl) phenyl]-5-phenyl-1,2,4-oxadiazole derivatives useful as potential anticancer agents and process for the preparation thereof. (iictindia.org)
  • Synthesis and biological evaluation of conformationally constrained analogues of the antitubercular agent ethambutol. (inserm.fr)
  • A compound, usually an anti-bacterial agent or a toxin, which inhibits the synthesis of a protein. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel quinoline-based carboxylic hydrazides as anti-tubercular agents. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Herein, we reported the synthesis of a novel series of N-substituted amino acid hydrazides, utilising a scaffold hopping approach within a library of anti-tubercular agents. (ncl.ac.uk)
  • antineoplastic a's ( antitumor a's ) a class of antineoplastic agents that apparently affect the function or the synthesis, or both, of nucleic acids and thus are cell cycle nonspecific. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • these agents exert their action by inhibiting mucopeptide synthesis in bacterial plasma walls during multiplication of the organisms. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Synthesis and biological evaluation of 3,4,5-trimethoxy styrylarylamino Propenone as potential anticancer agents. (iictindia.org)
  • Antitubercular Agents" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (umassmed.edu)
  • Thank you for sharing this Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy article. (asm.org)
  • Message Body (Your Name) thought you would be interested in this article in Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. (asm.org)
  • These barriers reinforcing the need for development of new antimicrobial agents, that ideally should reduce the time of treatment and be active against susceptible and resistant strains. (frontiersin.org)
  • Antibiotics that are sufficiently nontoxic to the host are used as chemotherapeutic agents in the treatment of infectious diseases. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This review describes the structural features of the DNA-minor groove, the requirements for small molecules to bind to this site and the remarkable biophysical and antibacterial properties of DNA-minor groove binding agents, including netropsin, distamycin and their poly-heterocyclic analogues, diamidines, benzimidazole-containing molecules, duocarmycins and pyrrolo[2,1-c][1,4]benzodiazepines (PBDs). (eurekaselect.com)
  • New analogues of antitubercular drug PA-824 were synthesized, featuring alternative side chain ether linkers of varying size and flexibility, seeking drug candidates with enhanced metabolic stability and high efficacy. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we used AlMu to evaluate our small compounds library to discover agents to develop new anti-BU treatment. (nature.com)
  • An agent and endogenous substances that antagonize or inhibit the development of new blood vessels. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Based on the antitubercular activity and druglikeness profile, it may be concluded that compound 10b could be a lead for future development of antitubercular drugs. (manipal.edu)
  • Moreover, the emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) and extensively drug-resistant (XDR) strains of Mtb all over the world, together with significant levels of co-infection with HIV, makes the search for new antitubercular drugs a major public health challenge. (scienceportugal.com)
  • TB47 is highly potent against M. ulcerans and possesses desirable pharmacological attributes and low toxicity that warrant further assessment of this agent for treatment of BU. (nature.com)
  • It has been confirmed that there is an increase in hydrophobicity of the [OCH.sub.3] group at the C-4 position of the phenyl ring, which is attached to the azetidinone nucleus, which results in an increase in the antitubercular potency. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 2 an antimicrobial agent, derived from cultures of a microorganism or produced semisynthetically, used to treat infections. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Among them, compound 10b was found to possess antitubercular activity (minimum inhibitory concentration =12.5 μg/mL) comparable to triclosan. (manipal.edu)
  • These reasons make a compelling case for an urgent need for new and effective antitubercular agents with improved properties such as enhanced activity against MDR strains, reduced toxicity, rapid mycobactericidal mechanism of action and the ability to penetrate host cells and exert antimycobacterial effects in the intracellular environment. (newdrugapprovals.org)
  • The scope of the journal covers all pre-clinical and clinical research on antimicrobials, antibacterials, antiviral, antifungal, and antiparasitic agents. (benthamscience.com)
  • Fibrin sealant agents: clinical application of TachoSil® in abdominal surgery. (bioportfolio.com)
  • All participants reviewed relevant clinical published articles relating to tumour necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin (IL)-1 blocking agents. (bmj.com)
  • 6. Cardiac, vascular, and renal agents: Agents used to treat migraine. (worldcat.org)
  • The causative agent, Mycobacterium ulcerans , secretes toxin called mycolactone that triggers inflammation and immunopathology. (nature.com)
  • Antitubercular agents , Mycobacterium infection, Interstitial lung diseases. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The various study tools used were the patient profile form which recorded all the information, such as name, age, sex, socioeconomic status, life style factors and dietary factors and any concurrent diseases and medications other than antitubercular agents that the patients might be taking. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • They had expertise in the use of biological agents for the treatment of rheumatic diseases. (bmj.com)
  • These structures were explored for the targeted detection of the anti-tubercular agent rifampicin. (springer.com)
  • One propynyloxy-linked compound displayed an 89-fold higher efficacy than the parent drug in the acute model, and it was slightly superior to antitubercular drug OPC-67683 in a chronic infection model. (nih.gov)
  • Amino acids as selective sulfonamide acylating agents. (up.pt)
  • For the treatment of HIV-1 infection in combination with other antiretroviral agents. (rcsb.org)
  • Paradoxical response refers to the enlargement of old lesions or unexpected appearance of new lesions after initial improvement following treatment with antitubercular agents . (bvsalud.org)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Antitubercular Agents" by people in this website by year, and whether "Antitubercular Agents" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (umassmed.edu)
  • DNA-Minor Groove Binding Agents as Anti-Tubercular Probes. (eurekaselect.com)