Antitubercular Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).Thioacetazone: A thiosemicarbazone that is used in association with other antimycobacterial agents in the initial and continuation phases of antituberculosis regimens. Thiacetazone containing regimens are less effective than the short-course regimen recommended by the International Union Against Tuberculosis and are used in some developing countries to reduce drug costs. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p217)Isoniazid: Antibacterial agent used primarily as a tuberculostatic. It remains the treatment of choice for tuberculosis.Antibiotics, Antitubercular: Substances obtained from various species of microorganisms that are, alone or in combination with other agents, of use in treating various forms of tuberculosis; most of these agents are merely bacteriostatic, induce resistance in the organisms, and may be toxic.Rifampin: A semisynthetic antibiotic produced from Streptomyces mediterranei. It has a broad antibacterial spectrum, including activity against several forms of Mycobacterium. In susceptible organisms it inhibits DNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity by forming a stable complex with the enzyme. It thus suppresses the initiation of RNA synthesis. Rifampin is bactericidal, and acts on both intracellular and extracellular organisms. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1160)Ethambutol: An antitubercular agent that inhibits the transfer of mycolic acids into the cell wall of the tubercle bacillus. It may also inhibit the synthesis of spermidine in mycobacteria. The action is usually bactericidal, and the drug can penetrate human cell membranes to exert its lethal effect. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1992, p863)Tuberculosis, Ocular: Tuberculous infection of the eye, primarily the iris, ciliary body, and choroid.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Pyrazinamide: A pyrazine that is used therapeutically as an antitubercular agent.NitroimidazolesEthylenediaminesNigella: A plant genus of the family RANUNCULACEAE.Cryoanesthesia: ANESTHESIA achieved by lowering either BODY TEMPERATURE (core cooling) or SKIN TEMPERATURE (external cooling).Ethionamide: A second-line antitubercular agent that inhibits mycolic acid synthesis.Adamantane: A tricyclo bridged hydrocarbon.Tuberculosis, Osteoarticular: Tuberculosis of the bones or joints.Mycolic AcidsTuberculosis, Gastrointestinal: TUBERCULOSIS that involves any region of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT, mostly in the distal ILEUM and the CECUM. In most cases, MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS is the pathogen. Clinical features include ABDOMINAL PAIN; FEVER; and palpable mass in the ileocecal area.Phenothiazines: Compounds containing dibenzo-1,4-thiazine. Some of them are neuroactive.Tuberculosis, Male Genital: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the male reproductive tract (GENITALIA, MALE).Tuberculoma, Intracranial: A well-circumscribed mass composed of tuberculous granulation tissue that may occur in the cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum, brain stem, or perimeningeal spaces. Multiple lesions are quite common. Management of intracranial manifestations vary with lesion site. Intracranial tuberculomas may be associated with SEIZURES, focal neurologic deficits, and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. Spinal cord tuberculomas may be associated with localized or radicular pain, weakness, sensory loss, and incontinence. Tuberculomas may arise as OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS, but also occur in immunocompetent individuals.Tuberculosis, Cutaneous: Tuberculosis of the skin. It includes scrofuloderma and tuberculid, but not LUPUS VULGARIS.Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant: Tuberculosis resistant to chemotherapy with two or more ANTITUBERCULAR AGENTS, including at least ISONIAZID and RIFAMPICIN. The problem of resistance is particularly troublesome in tuberculous OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS associated with HIV INFECTIONS. It requires the use of second line drugs which are more toxic than the first line regimens. TB with isolates that have developed further resistance to at least three of the six classes of second line drugs is defined as EXTENSIVELY DRUG-RESISTANT TUBERCULOSIS.Tuberculosis, Pulmonary: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.Drug Dosage Calculations: Math calculations done for preparing appropriate doses of medicines, taking into account conversions of WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. Mistakes are one of the sources of MEDICATION ERRORS.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Drug Discovery: The process of finding chemicals for potential therapeutic use.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Oxazoles: Five-membered heterocyclic ring structures containing an oxygen in the 1-position and a nitrogen in the 3-position, in distinction from ISOXAZOLES where they are at the 1,2 positions.Streptomycin: An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.Antiperspirants: Agents that are put on the SKIN to reduce SWEATING or prevent excess sweating (HYPERHIDROSIS).Methylmethacrylate: The methyl ester of methacrylic acid. It polymerizes easily to form POLYMETHYL METHACRYLATE. It is used as a bone cement.HydrazinesTuberculosis, Female Genital: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the female reproductive tract (GENITALIA, FEMALE).Mucorales: An order of zygomycetous fungi, usually saprophytic, causing damage to food in storage, but which may cause respiratory infection or MUCORMYCOSIS in persons suffering from other debilitating diseases.Hydrazones: Compounds of the general formula R:N.NR2, as resulting from the action of hydrazines with aldehydes or ketones. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.BooksPublishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Eye Diseases: Diseases affecting the eye.Bacteriology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of bacteria, and BACTERIAL INFECTIONS.Ophthalmology: A surgical specialty concerned with the structure and function of the eye and the medical and surgical treatment of its defects and diseases.Nobel PrizeHistory, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Book SelectionRifabutin: A broad-spectrum antibiotic that is being used as prophylaxis against disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection in HIV-positive patients.Lopinavir: An HIV protease inhibitor used in a fixed-dose combination with RITONAVIR. It is also an inhibitor of CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A.Partnership Practice, Dental: A voluntary contract between two or more dentists who may or may not share responsibility for the care of patients, with proportional sharing of profits and losses.Ritonavir: An HIV protease inhibitor that works by interfering with the reproductive cycle of HIV. It also inhibits CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A.PyrimidinonesBulimia: Eating an excess amount of food in a short period of time, as seen in the disorder of BULIMIA NERVOSA. It is caused by an abnormal craving for food, or insatiable hunger also known as "ox hunger".

Epidemiology of drug-resistant tuberculosis in Texas. (1/3795)

During 1987-1996, over 22,000 tuberculosis cases were reported in Texas, at an average annual incidence rate of 12.5 cases per 100,000 population. Counties with the highest rates were located along the Mexico-Texas border and in northwestern Texas. Nine percent of cases were resistant to at least one of the five first-line antituberculosis drugs used for treatment. Almost 5 percent (4.6%) were resistant to isoniazid, either alone or in combination with other antibiotics; 2.3% were resistant to rifampin; and only 1.3% were resistant to both isoniazid and rifampin. Being a recurrent case, being foreign-born, being 20-39 years of age, and residing in a Mexico-Texas border county were independent risk factors for isoniazid resistance and rifampin resistance. Tuberculosis patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection were more likely to have rifampin resistance and less likely to have isoniazid resistance than patients without HIV infection. Factors associated with multi-drug-resistant tuberculosis included a history of previous tuberculosis (relative risk (RR) = 4.91, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.5-6.8), non-US birth (RR = 2.69, 95% CI 2.1-3.5), age younger than 20 years (RR = 1.97, 95% CI 1.1-3.5), age 20-39 years (RR = 1.82, 95% CI 1.3-2.6), and residence in a Mexico-Texas border county (RR = 2.33, 95% CI 1.8-3.1).  (+info)

Issues in the treatment of active tuberculosis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. (2/3795)

Most HIV-infected patients with tuberculosis can be treated satisfactorily with standard regimens with expectations of good results. Treatment of tuberculosis in these patients has been complicated by the introduction of HAART, which relies on drugs that interfere with the most potent class of antituberculous medications. Rifampin-free regimens or regimens that employ rifabutin may be acceptable strategies for patients who are receiving protease inhibitors, although these regimens have not been rigorously evaluated in patients with AIDS. At present, there is good reason to believe that a 6-month course of a rifabutin-containing regimen or a 9-12-month course of a regimen of streptomycin, isoniazid, and pyrazinamide should be adequate therapy for most patients with drug-susceptible disease. As the treatment of HIV infection with antiretroviral agents evolves, the treatment of tuberculosis in patients with AIDS is likely to evolve as well. This will require careful coordination of antituberculosis and antiretroviral therapies.  (+info)

Reduced pyrazinamidase activity and the natural resistance of Mycobacterium kansasii to the antituberculosis drug pyrazinamide. (3/3795)

Pyrazinamide (PZA), an analog of nicotinamide, is a prodrug that requires conversion to the bactericidal compound pyrazinoic acid (POA) by the bacterial pyrazinamidase (PZase) activity of nicotinamidase to show activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mutations leading to a loss of PZase activity cause PZA resistance in M. tuberculosis. M. kansasii is naturally resistant to PZA and has reduced PZase activity along with an apparently detectable nicotinamidase activity. The role of the reduction in PZase activity in the natural PZA resistance of M. kansasii is unknown. The MICs of PZA and POA for M. kansasii were determined to be 500 and 125 micrograms/ml, respectively. Using [14C]PZA and [14C]nicotinamide, we found that M. kansasii had about 5-fold-less PZase activity and about 25-fold-less nicotinamidase activity than M. tuberculosis. The M. kansasii pncA gene was cloned on a 1.8-kb BamHI DNA fragment, using M. avium pncA probe. Sequence analysis showed that the M. kansasii pncA gene encoded a protein with homology to its counterparts from M. tuberculosis (69.9%), M. avium (65.6%), and Escherichia coli (28.5%). Transformation of naturally PZA-resistant M. bovis BCG with M. kansasii pncA conferred partial PZA susceptibility. Transformation of M. kansasii with M. avium pncA caused functional expression of PZase and high-level susceptibility to PZA, indicating that the natural PZA resistance in M. kansasii results from a reduced PZase activity. Like M. tuberculosis, M. kansasii accumulated POA in the cells at an acidic pH; however, due to its highly active POA efflux pump, the naturally PZA-resistant species M. smegmatis did not. These findings suggest the existence of a weak POA efflux mechanism in M. kansasii.  (+info)

Pharmacokinetics of ethambutol under fasting conditions, with food, and with antacids. (4/3795)

Ethambutol (EMB) is the most frequent "fourth drug" used for the empiric treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and a frequently used drug for infections caused by Mycobacterium avium complex. The pharmacokinetics of EMB in serum were studied with 14 healthy males and females in a randomized, four-period crossover study. Subjects ingested single doses of EMB of 25 mg/kg of body weight under fasting conditions twice, with a high-fat meal, and with aluminum-magnesium antacid. Serum was collected for 48 h and assayed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Data were analyzed by noncompartmental methods and by a two-compartment pharmacokinetic model with zero-order absorption and first-order elimination. Both fasting conditions produced similar results: a mean (+/- standard deviation) EMB maximum concentration of drug in serum (Cmax) of 4.5 +/- 1.0 micrograms/ml, time to maximum concentration of drug in serum (Tmax) of 2.5 +/- 0.9 h, and area under the concentration-time curve from 0 h to infinity (AUC0-infinity) of 28.9 +/- 4.7 micrograms.h/ml. In the presence of antacids, subjects had a mean Cmax of 3.3 +/- 0.5 micrograms/ml, Tmax of 2.9 +/- 1.2 h, and AUC0-infinity of 27.5 +/- 5.9 micrograms.h/ml. In the presence of the Food and Drug Administration high-fat meal, subjects had a mean Cmax of 3.8 +/- 0.8 micrograms/ml, Tmax of 3.2 +/- 1.3 h, and AUC0-infinity of 29.6 +/- 4.7 micrograms.h/ml. These reductions in Cmax, delays in Tmax, and modest reductions in AUC0-infinity can be avoided by giving EMB on an empty stomach whenever possible.  (+info)

Use of site-directed mutagenesis to probe the structure, function and isoniazid activation of the catalase/peroxidase, KatG, from Mycobacterium tuberculosis. (5/3795)

A series of mutants bearing single amino acid substitutions often encountered in the catalase/peroxidase, KatG, from isoniazid-resistant isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been produced by site-directed mutagenesis. The resultant enzymes were overexpressed, purified and characterized. Replacing Cys-20 by Ser abolished disulphide-bridge formation, but did not affect either dimerization of the enzyme or catalysis. The substitution of Thr-275, which is probably involved in electron transfer from the haem, by proline resulted in a highly unstable enzyme with insignificant enzyme activities. The most commonly occurring substitution in drug-resistant clinical isolates is the replacement of Ser-315 by Thr; this lowered catalase and peroxidase activities by 50% and caused a significant decrease in the KatG-mediated inhibition of the activity of the NADH-dependent enoyl-[acyl-carrier protein] reductase, InhA, in vitro. The ability of this enzyme to produce free radicals from isoniazid was severely impaired, as judged by its loss of NitroBlue Tetrazolium reduction activity. Replacement of Leu-587 by Pro resulted in marked instability of KatG, indicating that the C-terminal domain is also important for structural and functional integrity.  (+info)

Susceptibility of multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis to amoxycillin in combination with clavulanic acid and ethambutol. (6/3795)

Thirty clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, 20 of which were multidrug-resistant (MDR), were tested for susceptibility to different combinations of amoxycillin, clavulanic acid and subinhibitory concentrations of ethambutol. beta-Lactamase production was assessed semiquantitatively with the nitrocefin method and susceptibility testing was performed with the BACTEC method. All isolates were beta-lactamase positive and were resistant to 16 mg/L amoxycillin. The MIC of amoxycillin in combination with clavulanic acid was > or =2 mg/L for 27/30 (90%) isolates. Addition of subinhibitory concentrations of ethambutol significantly reduced the MIC of amoxycillin for all tested isolates. Twenty-nine (97%) isolates had an MIC of amoxycillin of < or =0.5 mg/L when subinhibitory concentrations of ethambutol were added; this is well below the concentrations achievable in serum and tissue.  (+info)

Molecular evidence for heterogeneity of the multiple-drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis population in Scotland (1990 to 1997). (7/3795)

Multiple-drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR-MTB) has been well studied in hospitals or health care institutions and in human immunodeficiency virus-infected populations. However, the characteristics of MDR-MTB in the community have not been well investigated. An understanding of its prevalence and circulation within the community will help to estimate the problem and optimize the strategies for control and prevention of its development and transmission. In this study, MDR-MTB isolates from Scotland collected between 1990 and 1997 were characterized, along with non-drug-resistant isolates. The results showed that they were genetically diverse, suggesting they were unrelated to each other and had probably evolved independently. Several new alleles of rpoB, katG, and ahpC were identified: rpoB codon 525 (ACC-->AAC; Thr525Asn); katG codon 128 (CGG-->CAG; Arg128Gln) and codon 291 (GCT-->CCT; Ala291Pro); and the ahpC synonymous substitution at codon 6 (ATT-->ATC). One of the MDR-MTB isolates from an Asian patient had an IS6110 restriction fragment length polymorphism pattern very similar to that of the MDR-MTB W strain and had the same drug resistance-related alleles but did not have any epidemiological connection with the W strains. Additionally, a cluster of M. tuberculosis isolates was identified in our collection of 715 clinical isolates; the isolates in this cluster had genetic backgrounds very similar to those of the W strains, one of which had already developed multiple drug resistances. The diverse population of MDR-MTB in Scotland, along with a low incidence of drug-resistant M. tuberculosis, has implications for the control of the organism and prevention of its spread.  (+info)

Rapid film-based determination of antibiotic susceptibilities of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains by using a luciferase reporter phage and the Bronx Box. (8/3795)

Detecting antibiotic resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis is becoming increasingly important with the global recognition of drug-resistant strains and their adverse impact on clinical outcomes. Current methods of susceptibility testing are either time-consuming or costly; rapid, reliable, simple, and inexpensive methods would be highly desirable, especially in the developing world where most tuberculosis is found. The luciferase reporter phage is a unique reagent well-suited for this purpose: upon infection with viable mycobacteria, it produces quantifiable light which is not observed in mycobacterial cells treated with active antimicrobials. In this report, we describe a modification of our original assay, which allows detection of the emitted light with a Polaroid film box designated the Bronx Box. The technique has been applied to 25 M. tuberculosis reference and clinical strains, and criteria are presented which allow rapid and simple discrimination among strains susceptible or resistant to isoniazid and rifampin, the major antituberculosis agents.  (+info)

*Bedaquiline

Worley, Marylee V.; Estrada, Sandy J. (2014-11-01). "Bedaquiline: A Novel Antitubercular Agent for the Treatment of Multidrug- ... Bedaquiline was described for the first time in 2004 at the Interscience Conference on Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy ( ...

*Primidone

Isoniazid, an antitubercular agent with MAOI properties, has been known to strongly inhibit the metabolism of primidone. Like ... They all had larger protective indexes than conventional agents and unlike these agents, the new ones did not cause birth ... These new agents were often described as having "innovative" and "selective" mechanisms of action; in reality, most of them ... These new agents were aggressively marketed. In 1994, felbamate became the anticonvulsant of last resort after ten people out ...

*Pyrazinamide

Its discovery as an anti-tubercular agent was remarkable since it has no activity against tuberculosis in-vitro, due to not ... Dillon, Nicholas A.; Peterson, Nicholas D.; Feaga, Heather A.; Keiler, Kenneth C.; Baughn, Anthony D. (2017-07-21). "Anti-tubercular ... Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 39: 1269-1271. doi:10.1128/aac.39.6.1269. Klemens, S.P.; Sharpe, C.A.; Cynamon, M.H. ( ... Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 59 (12): 7320-7326. doi:10.1128/aac.00967-15. PMID 26369957. Shi W, Zhang X, Jiang X, ...

*Infection

... including antitubercular), antiviral, antifungal and antiparasitic (including antiprotozoal and antihelminthic) agents. ... First, the catalog of infectious agents has grown to the point that virtually all of the significant infectious agents of the ... Second, an infectious agent must grow within the human body to cause disease; essentially it must amplify its own nucleic acids ... Not all infectious agents cause disease in all hosts. For example, less than 5% of individuals infected with polio develop ...

*List of MeSH codes (D16)

... antitubercular MeSH D27.505.954.122.085.222 --- antitreponemal agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.085.255 --- antitubercular agents ... anti-allergic agents MeSH D27.505.954.122 --- anti-infective agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.085 --- anti-bacterial agents MeSH ... antiviral agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.388.077 --- anti-retroviral agents MeSH D27.505.954.122.388.077.088 --- anti-hiv agents ... renal agents MeSH D27.505.954.613.056 --- anti-infective agents, urinary MeSH D27.505.954.613.860 --- uricosuric agents MeSH ...

*Leprostatic agent

Sulfone - Dapsone (DDS), Phenazine derivative - Clofazimine, Antitubercular drugs - Rifampicin, Ethionamide, Solapsone, Other ... A leprostatic agent is a drug that interferes with proliferation of the bacterium that causes leprosy. The following agents are ... Established agents used in the treatment of leprosy are dapsone, clofazimine, and rifampicin. Treatment of tuberculoid leprosy ... Dapsone, combined with other antileprosy agents like rifampicin and clofazimine, is used in the treatment of both ...

*Proteasome accessory factor E

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is the etiologic agent of the disease tuberculosis, which kills approximately 1.4 million ... recent emergence of increasingly drug-resistant Mtb strains have given rise to an urgent need for the development of new anti-tubercular ...

*Einhorn-Brunner reaction

Triazoles have been found to have a number of real world applications as antibacterial agents. The Einhorn-Brunner reaction ... Research done by Pattan et al., specifically on 1,2,4-triazoles, found antibacterial, antifungal, antitubercular, and anti- ... antitubercular and anti-inflammatory activities" (PDF). Indian Journal of Chem. 51B: 297-301. ...

*Psychopharmacology revolution

Nevertheless related agents such as phenelzine and isocarboxazid are still on the market. In addition, tranylcypromine is a non ... Iproniazid was the result of a failed medicinal chemistry attempt to improve on the anti-tubercular activity of isoniazid. It ... A limitation of these agents is their potential to cause hypertension so their safety is not guaranteed. However, it seems that ... He noted the so-called "indifference" that this agent causes and suggested that it be used on agitated psychotic patients. ...

*Furonazide

In vivo studies in the guinea pig showed furonazide slightly more active than isoniazid as a tuberculostatic agent. The drug ... Antitubercular compounds". Yakugaku Zasshi. 75: 1066-9. Kiichiro Kakemi; Sezaki, Hitoshi; Iwamoto, Kikuo; Sano, Yukito (1969 ...

*SQ109

In preclinical studies SQ109 enhanced the activity of anti-tubercular drugs isoniazid and rifampin and reduced by >30% the time ... "Synthesis and evaluation of carbamate prodrugs of SQ109 as antituberculosis agents". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters. ... a new diamine-based antitubercular drug". British Journal of Pharmacology. 144 (1): 80-87. doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0705984. PMC ...

*Streptomyces isolates

A recent screening of TCM extracts revealed a Streptomyces that produces a number of antitubercular pluramycins. Biology portal ... Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 8 (6): 721-32. doi:10.1128/AAC.8.6.721. PMC 429454 . PMID 1211926. Retrieved 2012-01-19 ... Y3111 from traditional Chinese medicine produced antitubercular pluramycins". Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 98 (3): 1077-85. doi: ...

*Mycolic acid

An international multi-centre study has proved that delamanid (OPC-67683), a new agent derived from the nitro-dihydro- ... Raman, K.; Rajagopalan, P.; Chandra, N. (2005). "Flux Balance Analysis of Mycolic Acid Pathway: Targets for Anti-Tubercular ... Novel inhibitors of this enzyme could potentially be used as therapeutic agents. The mycolic acids show interesting ... the causative agent of the disease tuberculosis. They form the major component of the cell wall of mycolata species. Despite ...

*Rifampicin

... is relatively ineffective against spirochetes, which has led to its use as a selective agent capable of isolating ... Mycobacterial resistance to rifampicin may occur alone or along with resistance to other first line anti-tubercular drugs. ... Leschine, S.B.; Canale-Parola, E. (December 1980). "Rifampin as a Selective Agent for the Isolation of Oral Spirochetes" (PDF ... Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 42: 2762-4. PMC 105936 . PMID 9756794. Pugazhenthan Thangaraju; Hosanna Singh; M Punitha ...

*Osteomyelitis

In patients with sickle cell disease, the most common causative agent is Salmonella, with a relative incidence more than twice ... Tubercular osteomyelitis of the spine was so common before the initiation of effective antitubercular therapy, it acquired a ...

*Beta-ketoacyl-(acyl-carrier-protein) synthase III

Agents Chemother. 48 (8): 3093-102. doi:10.1128/AAC.48.8.3093-3102.2004. PMC 478545 . PMID 15273125. Al-Balas Q, Anthony NG, Al ... Raman K, Rajagopalan P, Chandra N (October 2005). "Flux Balance Analysis of Mycolic Acid Pathway: Targets for Anti-Tubercular ... Agents Chemother. 50 (2): 519-26. doi:10.1128/AAC.50.2.519-526.2006. PMC 1366929 . PMID 16436705. Ondeyka JG, Zink DL, Young K ... the causative agent of another serious refractory problem, malaria. Given the predominance of TB in poor countries, the ...

*Bioenhancer

It increases the bioavailability of the active agent paclitaxel used to treat cancer. The bioenhancer technology is primarily ... Dr.Atal also initiated the bioenhanced anti tubercular drug research project using Rifampicin which later resulted in ... Glycyrrhizin, a saponin of the liquorice plant, promotes the action of numerous antibiotics and the antifungal agent ... ginger and other herbal ingredients in food a lack of nutrients or insufficient effects of active agents can be prevented: ...
IN VITRO STUDY OF URSOLIC ACID COMBINATION FIRST-LINE ANTITUBERCULOSIS DRUGS AGAINST DRUG-SENSITIVE AND DRUG-RESISTANT STRAINS OF Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Description of Agent or Intervention:. The study intervention is to start patients with HIV and tuberculosis on anti-retroviral treatment along with the continuation phase of anti-tuberculosis treatment (ATT)ie after completion of first two months of treatment. The anti-TB regimen used in this trial will be 2EHRZ3/4RH3. Two different once-daily regimens are being compared for their efficacy and adverse event profile, namely ddI + 3TC + NVP versus ddI + 3TC + EFZ. The primary aim is to study the outcome of patients treated with both ART and ATT at 6 months (24 weeks of ART). A secondary objective is to compare the utility of partially supervised directly observed treatment with unsupervised administration of anti-retroviral drugs.. Patients with HIV-1 infection and active tuberculosis (pulmonary and extrapulmonary) will be started on a four-drug intermittent short-course anti-TB regimen on recruitment to the trial. They will be randomized at the end of intensive phase of ATT to receive either of ...
Description of Agent or Intervention:. The study intervention is to start patients with HIV and tuberculosis on anti-retroviral treatment along with the continuation phase of anti-tuberculosis treatment (ATT)ie after completion of first two months of treatment. The anti-TB regimen used in this trial will be 2EHRZ3/4RH3. Two different once-daily regimens are being compared for their efficacy and adverse event profile, namely ddI + 3TC + NVP versus ddI + 3TC + EFZ. The primary aim is to study the outcome of patients treated with both ART and ATT at 6 months (24 weeks of ART). A secondary objective is to compare the utility of partially supervised directly observed treatment with unsupervised administration of anti-retroviral drugs.. Patients with HIV-1 infection and active tuberculosis (pulmonary and extrapulmonary) will be started on a four-drug intermittent short-course anti-TB regimen on recruitment to the trial. They will be randomized at the end of intensive phase of ATT to receive either of ...
Background. A drug resistance survey is an essential public health management tool for evaluating and improving the performance of National Tuberculosis control programmes. The current manuscript describes the implementation of the first national drug resistance survey in Tanzania. Methods. Description of the implementation process of a national anti-tuberculosis drug resistance survey in Tanzania, in relation to the study protocol and Standard Operating Procedures. Results. Factors contributing positively to the implementation of the survey were a continuous commitment of the key stakeholders, the existence of a well organized National Tuberculosis Programme, and a detailed design of cluster-specific arrangements for rapid sputum transportation. Factors contributing negatively to the implementation were a long delay between training and actual survey activities, limited monitoring of activities, and an unclear design of the data capture forms leading to difficulties in form-filling. Conclusion. ...
A series of 2-(substituted phenyl/benzyl-amino)-6-(4-chlorophenyl)-5-(methoxycarbonyl)-4-methyl-3,6-dihydropyrimidin-1-ium chlorides 7-13 and 15 was synthesized in their hydrochloride salt form. The title compounds were characterized by FT-IR, NMR (1H and 13C) and elemental analysis. They were evaluated for their in vitro antitubercular activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv, multidrug resistance tuberculosis and extensively drug resistance tuberculosis by agar diffusion method and tested for the cytotoxic action on peripheral blood mononuclear cells by MTT assay. Among all the tested compounds in the series, compounds 7 and 11 emerged as promising antitubercular agents at 16 μg/mL against multidrug resistance tuberculosis and over 64 μg/mL against extensively drug resistance tuberculosis. The conformational features and supramolecular assembly of the promising compounds 7 and 11 were determined by single crystal X-ray study. ...
Measurement of drug concentrations and performing therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) are widely used to optimize efficacy and safety of many commonly used drugs today. Although TDM of first-line antitubercular drugs is used during the treatment of tuberculosis, the extent of any benefit achieved is currently unknown. This review summarizes the available literature describing TDM of first-line treatment agents in patients with tuberculosis and describes clinical associations with achievement of target drug concentrations, including data from special populations. A literature review was conducted for articles describing drug concentration and TDM outcomes for first-line tuberculosis agents in adults. A total of 40 studies were included in the review. Studies were a mixture of controlled trials, observational studies, cross-sectional studies, and case reports. The majority of the studies showed standard dosing does not consistently achieve target concentrations for the first-line antitubercular ...
Adverse reactions. The most frequent ADR was hepatitis. Five of these patients were alcoholic, two had a previous history of chronic liver disease and one was HIV-positive. Asymptomatic hepatotoxicity occurred in 35 cases and the remaining 18 were symptomatic. The most common symptoms were nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain. One female patient with no history of comorbid conditions had a poor outcome and needed liver transplantation while all others had complete liver transaminases normalization.. Rash occurred in five cases, with itchiness in three of them, and was the second most frequent adverse reaction.. One patient with chronic inflammatory arthritis and LTBI suffered gastrointestinal toxicity associated to RIF. One other patient with LTBI and no significant comorbid conditions had an episode of angioedema 25 days after initiating INH plus RIF anti-TB regimen which was subsequently interrupted. EMB was responsible for one single case of ocular toxicity in a patient with genitourinary TB ...
Effect of Immunomodulator Dzherelo In HIV/TB co-Infected patients receiving anti-tuberculosis therapy under DOTS. Міжнародна діяльність. Екомед
Changes in CD4+ T-cells and HIV RNA resulting from combination of anti-TB therapy with Dzherelo in TB/HIV dually infected patients. Международная деятельность. Экомед
UNITED BIOTECH (P) LTD is Manufacturer and exporter of Antituberculosis Drugs,Atorvastatin Tablets,Ganciclovir Capsules,Heparin Injection based in Delhi,In
Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) threatens TB control worldwide. The microscopic observation drug susceptibility (MODS) assay is a low-cost, high-performance TB diagnostic tool for rapid liquid culture and direct isoniazid and rifampicin drug susceptibility testing (DST). The objective of this study was to explore the potential for extending the MODS assay to rapid second-line DST and to identify critical concentrations of candidate drugs for prospective testing. Sputum samples from 94 TB culture-positive patients receiving second-line TB agents were cultured following standardised MODS protocols, with a range of titrations of antimicrobial drugs added. Critical concentrations were determined using a modified Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis. Candidate critical concentrations were determined for capreomycin (10 mu g.mL(-1)), ciprofloxacin (1.25 mu g.mL(-1)), cycloserine (40 mu g.mL(-1)), ethambutol (10 mu g.mL(-1)), ethionamide (5 mu g.mL(-1)), kanamycin (5 mu g.mL(-1)) ...
With the global rise of MDR strains, there is an increasing need to determine susceptibility to first and second-line anti-TB agents exactly. Treatment of patients with drug-resistant TB should be based on reliable and quantitative measures of susceptibility testing, a cornerstone for preventing further amplification of resistance (18) and for optimally exploiting available compounds. Detailed knowledge on quantitative drug resistance may guide empirical treatment of drug-resistant TB, e.g., addressing whether and when to add second-line drugs. A fundamental drawback to this strategy is that even in industrialized countries, only a limited panel of anti-TB drug concentrations is tested, leaving the exact resistance level of clinical M. tuberculosis isolates vestigial. In principle, automatic systems have the potential to meet the challenge of precise determinations of drug resistance levels with reasonable labor input. The MGIT 960 platform has been extensively validated for testing ...
Background. In Tomsk Oblast, Russian Federation, during the period of 1996-2000, most previously untreated patients with tuberculosis received standardized short-course chemotherapy, irrespective of drug-susceptibility testing results. A retrospective analysis was done to determine the effect of initial drug resistance on treatment outcome and acquired drug resistance in new patients receiving standardized short-course chemotherapy.. Methods. During the period of 1 November 1996 through 31 December 2000, a total of 2194 patients received a category 1 treatment regimen. Drug susceptibility test results for 1681 patients were available for analysis. Drug resistance patterns before and during treatment were compared for 73 patients whose culture results were persistently positive during treatment. Acquired resistance was defined as new drug resistance (during or at the end of treatment) that was not present at the beginning of treatment.. Results. Pretreatment drug resistance was strongly ...
The ultimate goal of evidence-based drug treatment is to produce a desired pharmacological response in a predictable manner and also to minimise adverse effects," notes a June 2013 paper published in the International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. The two goals can be achieved only when the correct therapeutic drug dosage of anti-TB drugs required by children, particularly those younger than five years, and the age-related differences in toxicity and pharmacokinetics are well studied and known.. "Pharmacokinetics is the metabolism of the drugs in humans," Dr. Peter R. Donald, Emeritus Professor in the Department of Paediatrics and Child Health of the Faculty of Health Sciences at Stellenbosch University, South Africa said in an email to this Correspondent. "The pharmacokinetics of first-line anti-TB drugs is not known for children younger than two years.". Since children have "relatively greater mass of liver in proportion to total body weight," they metabolise and eliminate drugs ...
TB is the cause of the largest killer of humanity, killing nearly 2 million people each year. The poor efficacy of existing TB drugs requires that they be administered in a multi drug regimen for at least six months. This results in poor patient compliance and leads to development of multidrug-‐resistant TB (MDR-‐TB) and extremely drug-‐resistant TB (XDR-‐TB). Decades of misuse of existing antibiotics and poor compliance have created an epidemic of drug resistance that threatens TB control programs worldwide ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of [The effects of antituberculous drugs on the catalase-activities of sensitive and resistant strains of human type tubercle bacilli]. by Yoshio Nakano
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A drug that costs just two cents for a daily dose can treat tuberculosis, even a drug-resistant form of the disease, new research says.
Around much of the world where rates of HIV-tuberculosis co-infection are highest, one of the challenges killing patients has been the wait to discover if their TB would respond to the most common treatments. A four-year South Africa study of co-infected patients showed starting treatment for HIV during the course of anti-tuberculosis treatment, rather than […]. ...
Content and methods: in St-Petersburg Research Institute of Phthisiopulmonology from 2013 to 2015, 49 patients with XDR lung TB, from 18 to 60 have been treated. Linezolid was used in 24 patients with XDR-TB during the first 6 months of intensive phase of treatment in the dose - 600 mg per day intravenously, by drop infusion in combination with 5-6 anti TB drugs taking into account range of MBT drug resistance Studied group (group I). Control group -group II(n=25), used 5-6 anti TB drugs without linezolid.We carried out statistical analysis with the use of the program Statistica 6.0. We applied the criterion chi-square(χ2 ...
With approximately nine million new cases and the attributable cause of death of an estimated two millions people every year there is an urgent need for new and effective drugs and treatment regimens targeting tuberculosis. The tuberculosis drug development pathway is however not ideal, containing non-predictive model systems and unanswered questions that may increase the risk of failure during late-phase drug development. The aim of this thesis was hence to develop pharmacometric tools in order to optimize the development of new anti-tuberculosis drugs and treatment regimens.. The General Pulmonary Distribution model was developed allowing for prediction of both rate and extent of distribution from plasma to pulmonary tissue. A distribution characterization that is of high importance as most current used anti-tuberculosis drugs were introduced into clinical use without considering the pharmacokinetic properties influencing drug distribution to the site of action. The developed optimized ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of [Studies on the endogenous metabolism of mycobacteria. 2. On the influence of enzyme inhibitors and effective antitubercular substances on 32 P-incorporation]. by H. Iwainsky et al.
In what investigators say is a surprise finding, results of a new study appear to strongly affirm the effectiveness of prescribing the anti-tuberculosis drug isoniazid alone - in place of the standard four-drug regimen - to prevent TB and reduce death in people with advanced HIV/AIDS infections. Those with HIV and AIDS are highly susceptible to TB.
NEW YORK/LIVERPOOL, OCTOBER 26, 2016 - At the annual Union World Conference on Lung Health, which started in Liverpool today, Doctors Without Borders/Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) is sharing its experience of using the new tuberculosis drugs bedaquiline and delamanid to treat people with drug-resistant TB. MSF is also involved in two clinical trials to test new TB treatments, both of which will start enrolling patients soon.
Free flashcards to help memorize facts about Anti-TB Drugs. Other activities to help include hangman, crossword, word scramble, games, matching, quizes, and tests.
The ability of M. tuberculosis to develop resistances to antibiotics was described in the very first randomised clinical trial conducted with streptomycin and published in 1948 [6]. The first great lesson learnt from early randomised clinical trials was that using TB drugs in monotherapy, or in poor combinations, would lead to the selection of resistance to these drugs [5]. Thus, as a result of the misuse of the available drugs, mono-resistant TB started to develop, followed by poly-resistant TB (resistance to two or more drugs), multi-drug resistant (MDR)-TB (resistance to at least H+R), and extensively-drug resistant (XDR)-TB (defined as MDR-TB plus resistance to at least one fluoroquinolone (FQ) and one second-line injectable drug). The need for definitions beyond XDR-TB is a currently an issue of debate.. The definitions in the field of anti-TB drug resistance should be based on two main factors: 1) the capacity to reliably test anti-TB drugs in the laboratory, and 2) the possible different ...
Improved medicines for children with drug-sensitive TB means tablets in the correct fixed dose combinations of the commonly used anti-TB drugs.The combination of rifampicin + Isoniazid is used for the final four months of TB treatment, sometimes called the "continuation phase." These products offer significant advantages over previous drugs including:. ...
Background: Health-care workers have a major role to play in ensuring that malaria treatment is carried out in accordance to treatment guidelines, to ensure the quality of patient care. Having the requisite knowledge of the ailment and its management is a necessity in achieving optimal treatment outcomes. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to assess and compare health-care workers knowledge on malaria and its treatment across public and private primary health-care facilities of Bassa Local Government Area, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: Two hundred pretested semi-structured questionnaires were administered to health-care workers across selected public and private facilities; and the generated data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences software version 20. Results: A total of 184 health-care workers (92% of the study population of 200) participated in the study. The majority of the health-care workers (65.8%) were from the public sector, while 34.2% were from ...
Since the heyday of TB drug development in the 1950s and 60s, no new class of TB drugs has been approved to treat the disease. However, over the past few ...
Archivos de Bronconeumologia (http: www.archbronconeumol.org) publishes original studies whose content is based upon results dealing with several aspects of respiratory diseases such as epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinics, surgery, and basic investigation. Other types of articles such as reviews, editorials, special articles, clinical reports, and letters to the Editor are also published in the Journal. It is a monthly Journal that publishes a total of 12 issues, which contain these types of articles to different extents. All manuscripts are sent to peer-review and handled by the Editor or an Associate Editor from the team. The Journal is published both in Spanish and English. Therefore, the submission of manuscripts written in either Spanish or English is welcome. Translators working for the Journal are in charge of the corresponding translations. Manuscripts will be submitted electronically using the following web site: http://ees.elsevier.com/arbr, link which is also accessible through the ...
Concurrent use pumps with Ethambutol hydrochloride may readily result in increased and prolonged blood levels of ethambutol. barr laboratories inc is the tough competitor among all small producers of ethambutol. The modified second place in the list of foreign manufacturers of didanosine in evolutionary terms nor of the volume was very
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... To support TB programs coping with shortages, we have asked TB controllers to share tools they have developed. The NTCA does
This chapter provides an overview of the role that modern thoracic surgery can play in diagnosing and managing patients with TB and its sequelae. When operating on patients with tuberculosis (TB), the same fundamental principles and considerations of any thoracic surgical operation still apply. It is worth considering some of the common concepts before proceeding with the detailed discussion of surgery for specific aspects of TB management. The first consideration when called upon to diagnose TB through surgery is to identify a potential target site for biopsy. Secondary considerations include the patients suitability for surgery. For patients for whom surgery is potentially hazardous, alternative investigation modalities or even empirical anti-TB treatment may need to be considered. The primary management of TB today is undoubtedly medical, and anti-TB drugs are highly effective in the vast majority of cases. The aim of surgical treatment is to remove the predominant pulmonary lesion(s), thereby
Among 192 patients, factors significantly associated with poor outcome in multivariate analysis include three or more treatment interruptions during the intensive phase of therapy and alcohol or drug addiction (adjusted OR [aOR] 2.1, 95%CI 1.0-4.3 and aOR 1.9, 95%CI 1.0-3.7). Previous treatment was associated with poor outcome, but only among smear-positive patients (aOR 3.1, 95%CI 1.3-7.3). Ten patients (5%) developed extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) during treatment; of 115 patients with at least 6 months of follow-up data after outcomes were recorded, 13 (11%) developed XDR-TB ...
This video is targeted to nurses and nursing students, as a pharmacology review previous to the NCLEX exam. It reviews the following drug classes:
Rifapentine is an antibiotic that is used to treat tuberculosis in both children and adults. It is often paired with other medicines for a better effect.
Part of Stop TB Partnership, we are a network of committed individuals devoted to accelerating the development of effective, affordable new therapies for TB.. Visit the Stop TB Partnership ...
Antibiotics - Etibi (Brand name: myambutol) ethambutol, Althocin,Amiobutols,Apo-ethambutol,Bacbutol,Combutol,Corsabutol,Dexambutol,Ebutol,Ecox,Emb-fatol,Esanbutol,Etambutol,Etapiam,Etham,Ethambutolo,Ethambutolum,Etibi,Fiambutol,Macox,Miambutol,Mycobutol,Niazitol,Oributol,Pharex ethambutol,Phthizoetham,Pulna,Rifafour,Rimstar,Santibi,Servambutol,Sural,Themibutol,Tibitol,Tibutol,Turresis, Myambutol is used for treating tuberculosis (TB) infections of the lung along with other medicines..
Antibiotics - Corsabutol (Brand name: myambutol) ethambutol, Althocin,Amiobutols,Apo-ethambutol,Bacbutol,Combutol,Corsabutol,Dexambutol,Ebutol,Ecox,Emb-fatol,Esanbutol,Etambutol,Etapiam,Etham,Ethambutolo,Ethambutolum,Etibi,Fiambutol,Macox,Miambutol,Mycobutol,Niazitol,Oributol,Pharex ethambutol,Phthizoetham,Pulna,Rifafour,Rimstar,Santibi,Servambutol,Sural,Themibutol,Tibitol,Tibutol,Turresis, Myambutol is used for treating tuberculosis (TB) infections of the lung along with other medicines..
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I do not like dancing. This is something that I have not enjoyed doing, well, pretty much ever. Last night I decided to step out of my comfort zone and go country dancing with some friends. I was just going to have a good attitude and be a good sport. I drove downtown, payed $4 and started dancing. At the beginning they have a lesson to benefit all of the people like myself that do not regularly (or ever) country dance. Maybe 15 or 20 minutes into the lesson I injured myself. I am not sure what move we were doing, but it involved a drop, twist and pull back up. The guy I was dancing with, who I had never met before, kept saying that I needed to drop lower. Well I finally did and then I twisted, like you are supposed to and somehow in all of that I dislocated my knee cap. It is officially called Patellar Subluxation. Essentially it means that my knee cap went to the lateral side of my knee instead of staying on the top. I have done this once before about 8 years ago. As soon as it happened I was ...
Looking for online definition of antituberculous drugs in the Medical Dictionary? antituberculous drugs explanation free. What is antituberculous drugs? Meaning of antituberculous drugs medical term. What does antituberculous drugs mean?
BioAssay record AID 739417 submitted by ChEMBL: Antitubercular activity against extensively drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis R506 by microplate Alamar Blue assay.
BioAssay record AID 1084878 submitted by ChEMBL: Antitubercular activity against multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis by NCCLS agar dilution method.
In the context of tuberculosis (TB) resurgence, isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT) is increasingly promoted, but concerns about the risk for development of isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis may hinder its widespread implementation. We conducted a systematic review of data published since 1951 to assess the effect of primary IPT on the risk for isoniazid-resistant TB. Different definitions of isoniazid resistance were used, which affected summary effect estimates; we report the most consistent results. When all 13 studies (N = 18,095 persons in isoniazid groups and N = 17,985 persons in control groups) were combined, the summary relative risk for resistance was 1.45 (95% confidence interval 0.85-2.47). Results were similar when studies of HIV-uninfected and HIV-infected persons were considered separately. Analyses were limited by small numbers and incomplete testing of isolates, but findings do not exclude an increased risk for isoniazid-resistant TB after IPT. The diagnosis of active TB should be
To determine differences in the ability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains to withstand antituberculosis drug treatment, we compared the activity of antituberculosis drugs against susceptible Beijing and East-African/Indian genotype M. tuberculosis strains. Beijing genotype strains showed high rates of mutation within a wide range of drug concentrations, possibly explaining this genotypes association with multidrug-resistant tuberculosis.
Evidence exists pointing out how non-adherence to treatment remains a major hurdle to efficient tuberculosis control in developing countries. Many tuberculosis (Tb) patients do not complete their six-month course of anti-tuberculosis medications and are not aware of the importance of sputum re-examinations, thereby putting themselves at risk of developing multidrug-resistant and extensively drug-resistant forms of tuberculosis and relapse. However, there is a dearth of publications about non-adherence towards anti-Tb medication in these settings. We assessed the prevalence of and associated factors for anti-Tb treatment non-adherence in public health care facilities of South Ethiopia. This was a cross-sectional survey using both quantitative and qualitative methods. The quantitative study was conducted among 261 Tb patients from 17 health centers and one general hospital. The qualitative aspect included an in-depth interview of 14 key informants. For quantitative data, the analysis of descriptive
Early detection of resistance to second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs is important for the management of multidrug-resistant (MDR)-TB. The Genotype® MTBDRsl VERSION 2.0 (VER 2.0) line probe assay has been redesigned for molecular detection of resistance-conferring mutations of fluoroquinolones (FLQ) (gyrA and gyrB genes) and second-line injectable drugs (SLID) (rrs and eis genes). The study evaluated the diagnostic performance of MTBDRsl VER 2.0 for the detection of second-line drug resistance compared with phenotypic drug susceptibility testing (DST), using the Bactec™ MGIT 960 system on Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex isolates from South Africa. A total of 268 repository isolates collected between 2012 and 2014, with rifampicin -mono-resistant (RR) or MDR based on DST were selected. MTBDRsl VER 2.0 testing was performed on these isolates and results analysed. The MTBDRsl VER 2.0 sensitivity and specificity indices for culture isolates were; FLQ 100% (95% CI, 95.8-100%) ; 98.9% (95% CI, ...
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A prospective pharmacovigilance study to evaluate adverse effect profile of first line anti-tubercular drugs in newly diagnosed sputum positive patients
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The place of prodrugs in the current antitubercular therapeutic arsenal is preponderant, since two of the four first-line antitubercular agents, isoniazid (INH) and pyrazinamide (PZA), need to be activated by Mycobacterium tuberculosis before exerting their activity. In addition, six other prodrugs can be found in the second- and third-line therapeutic regimens. The emergence of mycobacterial strains resistant to one or several antitubercular agents is one of the main issues of the antitubercular therapy. In the case of prodrugs, the resistance phenomenon is often related to a mutation in the gene encoding for the activation enzymes, resulting thus in a default of these enzymes that are no more able to activate prodrugs ...
Tuberculosis is usually treated with first-line anti-tuberculous drugs such as isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide.. Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR) is disease due to strains resistant to both isoniazid and rifampicin. Treatment of such strains requires use of second-line drugs which include fluoroquinolones, aminoglycosides, capreomycin (injectable drugs), para-aminosalicylate, cycloserine, and ethionamide.. Recently, however, strains resistant to fluoroquinolones have been noticed worldwide. When MDR TB strains become resistant to fluoroquinolones, treatment becomes difficult since other drugs used have limited efficacy. Treatment options become even more limited when in addition to fluoroquinolones, strains are resistant to any one of the injectable drugs. Such strains are labeled extensively drug resistant (XDR).. Patients with XDR TB require longer duration of treatment (at least 18 months) with drugs regimens that incorporate both old and new agents. Newer drugs ...
International Scholarly Research Notices is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal covering a wide range of subjects in science, technology, and medicine. The journals Editorial Board as well as its Table of Contents are divided into 108 subject areas that are covered within the journals scope.
The comorbidities of tuberculosis and diseases such as HIV require long-term treatment with multiple medications. Despite substantial in vitro and in vivo information on effects of rifampicin and isoniazid on human CYPs, there is limited published data regarding the inhibitory effects of other anti-TB drugs on human CYPs and UGTs. The inhibitory effects of 5 first-line anti-TB drugs (isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide, ethambutol, and rifabutin), and the newly approved bedaquiline, were evaluated for 6 common human hepatic UGT enzymes (UGT1A1, 1A4, 1A6, 1A9, 2B7 and 2B15) in vitro using HLMs. Pyrazinamide, ethambutol, rifabutin and bedaquiline were also studied for their inhibitory effects on 8 of the most common human CYP enzymes (CYP1A2, 2B6, 2C8, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, 2E1 and 3A). Rifabutin inhibited multiple CYPs to varying degrees in vitro, but with all IC50 values exceeding 25 μM. Rifabutin and rifampicin also inhibited several human UGTs including UGT1A4. The Ki value for rifabutin on human ...
During the 1990s, multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB), resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampin, emerged as a great threat to global tuberculosis (TB) control [1]. For most MDR-TB patients, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a treatment regimen including second-line anti-TB drugs [2]. One of the most effective second-line drugs is fluoroquinolone [3]. During the treatment, MDR-TB may develop resistance to fluoroquinolone, or even become extensively drug-resistant (XDR-TB), which is resistant to both fluoroquinolone and at least one of three injectable second-line drugs [4]. The main genetic mechanism of fluoroquinolone resistance lies in the mutations in the quinolone-resistance-determining region of gyrA and gyrB [5]. ...
Drug-resistant tuberculosis (TB) has become one of the major obstacles currently encountered in the control of this disease worldwide.1 The widespread and sometimes inappropriate use of rifampicin in the last 40 years has generated a growing number of cases of rifampicin-resistant TB (RR-TB). Rifampicin resistance is the most decisive factor in the prognosis of TB patients.2 If this drug cannot be used, treatment must continue for at least 21-24 months, and combinations of less effective, more toxic drugs3 are required, leading to cure rates of only 50%.1 Moreover, more than 90% of RR-TB cases are also carriers of isoniazid (H)-resistant strains3; these patients make up the so-called multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) group.. The problem is further compounded by the appearance and spread of cases of extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB), which is MDR-TB that is also resistant to the fluoroquinolones (FQ: levofloxacin and/or moxifloxacin) and second-line injectable drugs (SLID: amikacin and/or ...
Researchers find the preventive treatment beneficial in protecting the children, who are in close contact with multidrug resistant tuberculosis affected patients, from acquiring the disease.
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Although our baseline analysis assumed that DOTS-plus can be implemented effectively, the proportion of patients completing even standard treatment regimens is low in areas where multidrug resistant tuberculosis has become a major problem.21 In areas where direct smear microscopy and giving two to four relatively non-toxic drugs for six months is impossible, routinely performing mycobacterial cultures and first and second line susceptibility testing as well as administering four to seven toxic drugs for 18-24 months is unlikely to be possible.. A tuberculosis control programme should have implemented effective DOTS before implementing DOTS-plus.28 A poorly run control programme can generate multidrug resistant tuberculosis, but effective DOTS can decrease the rates of multidrug resistant tuberculosis.29 More widespread implementation of effective DOTS would therefore decrease the number of cases for which DOTS-plus would be necessary.30 Currently, 77% of tuberculosis cases worldwide are not ...
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There are approximately 13000 cases of multi drug resistant Tuberculosis (MDRTB) diagnosed in Pakistan each year. Treatment of MDR-TB requires 18-24 months of medication, support and supervision at a significant cost. The study will assess 2 types of service delivery models for their effectiveness and cost-effectiveness in low resource settings in Pakistan. These care models are: ...
In this prospective cohort study of previously treated pulmonary TB patients managed under programmatic conditions in Uganda, we found that 70%-80% of patients with and without HIV coinfection had a successful treatment outcome at the conclusion of antituberculous therapy (i.e., cured and completed treatment). Although this overall response compares well with many other studies, we found that the retreatment regimen has unacceptably low treatment response rates in certain subgroups of patients and is associated with poor long-term outcomes, particularly in MDR-TB and in HIV-infected patients. Initiation of treatment with ART in eligible patients mitigated much of the excess mortality associated with HIV infection alone, in agreement with a recent clinical trial showing that use of ART concurrently with antituberculous therapy in TB patients is safe and improves survival [34]. HIV-infected patients with MDR-TB had the highest death rate, but we could not ascertain if death was a consequence of ...
Self-Administered Tuberculosis Treatment Outcomes in a Tribal Population on the Indo-Myanmar Border, Nagaland, India. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Strong strategies, including proven service delivery models, are needed to address the growing global threat of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in low- and middle-income settings. The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of the nationally approved ambulatory service delivery model for MDR-TB treatment in two regions of Ethiopia. We used routinely reported data to describe the process and outcomes of implementing an ambulatory model for MDR-TB services in a resource-limited setting. We compared percentage improvements in the number of MDR-TB diagnostic and treatment facilities, number of MDR-TB sputum samples processed per year, and MDR-TB cases ever enrolled in care between baseline and 2015. We also calculated interim and final treatment outcomes for patients who had completed at least 12 and 24 months of follow-up, respectively. Between 2012 and 2015, the number of MDR-TB treatment-initiating centers increased from 1 to 23. The number of sputum ...
Provides major boost for improved development of TB treatment to meet major public health challenge. TUCSON, Ariz., February 6, 2015 - The Critical Path Institute (C-Path), an independent, non-profit organization working to accelerate the process of drug and medical product development, announced today that the European Medicines Agency (EMA) rendered a positive qualification opinion on its Hollow Fiber System for Tuberculosis (HFS-TB) tool. This innovative model aids researchers in determining which drugs to combine and at what doses in order to effectively fight multi-drug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). EMAs qualification will speed the models adoption by drug developers, who can now be assured that European regulatory bodies will accept supportive data from research using this method.. The HFS-TB provides a deep understanding of how drugs move through the body and exert their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effect on Mtb. This represents a significant advancement in the ...
Ang TB-DOTS o Tutok Gamutan ang pinakamabisang paraan para magamot ang TB. Kailangan lamang ng di bababa sa 6 buwang tuloy-tuloy na gamutan. Iinumin ang mga gamot para sa TB araw-araw sa gabay ng health service provider. Importanteng hindi mahinto ang gamutan upang hindi umabot sa pagiging drug resistant ang TB (DR-TB), dahil magiging mas matagal ang gamutan (hanggang 24 na buwan) o maging dahilan ng iyong pagkamatay.. ...
We report the treatment success rates and 2-year outcomes in the first cohort of HIV-negative (81.0%) and HIV-coinfected (69.9%) patients (combined treatment success of 78.6%) enrolled into MDR TB treatment in Ethiopia. These outcomes surpass the outcomes reported elsewhere in Africa and exceed the WHO 2015 target of at least 75% treatment success of MDR TB.17 Furthermore, these outcomes were achieved in a setting with many programmatic challenges including lack of both SLD and isolation space at programme initiation and the persistent programmatic challenges of lack of oxygen support, lack of consistent lab capacity and ancillary drug supply. Furthermore, the cohort was treatment-experienced with advanced disease, had a substantial HIV-coinfection rate and nearly half of the cohort had severe malnutrition (BMI,16). Our positive outcomes are thus in striking contrast to reports of high mortality and lower treatment success rates (40-62%) for patients with MDR TB treated elsewhere in Africa.3 ,4 ...
The aim of the study was to investigate behavior of resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) isolates under a high dose of ofloxacin and its morphological changes. 19 extensively drug resistant (XDR) clinical isolates of MTB were grown on Löwenstein-Jensen medium containing progressively increasing concentrations of ofloxacin (2, 4, 8, 16, 32 mg/L). Ultra-structure analyses of resistant isolates grown on ofloxacin were conducted by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Fixation was carried out by 4% glutaraldehyde in 0.1 M sodium cacodylate buffer on 300 mesh carbon formvar copper grid. The samples were negatively stained with uranium acetate suspension. All19XDRMTBisolatesweregrownandformedcoloniessuccessfullyon2,4,8mg/L,sevenisolates on16mg/L,andfourisolateson32mg/Lofloxacin. Morphologicalchangesandunusualformswere detected in 8, 16 and 32 mg/L ofloxacin at 43%, 76.5% and 81% of cells, respectively. Swollen form (protoplast like), ghost-like cell, degraded forms, and in a few cases, detached
This year alone, approximately half a million people will develop drug-resistant TB. Multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) is caused by TB bacteria that is resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampin, the two most potent TB drugs. Less than 20 percent of people with MDR-TB receive treatment; of that small fraction, about half are cured. To place the drug resistant TB situation in perspective, patients with Ebola, for whom there is no available drug therapy, have the same chances of survival that patients with drug-resistant TB patients have, accessing todays available medicines. MDR-TB is also the most contagious of all the pathogens noted on the WHOs list, spreading readily from person to person, and is especially dangerous to children, people with HIV, and other vulnerable populations ...
We wish to clarify a point made in our report on multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in the United States. By noting that clusters of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis cases had been reported from 12 U.S. hospitals [1], we did not mean that nosocomial transmission had been verified in each. Hospital clusters may result from outbreaks caused by transmission inside or outside the hospital. Transmission in the hospital may be implicated by epidemiologic associations between exposure in the hospital and the subsequent development of disease or by the demonstration of molecular genetic similarity between patient isolates [1 ...
Kiev, Ukraine (PRWEB) January 26, 2009 -- Ekomed LLC publishes study of immunoadjuvant therapy with Dzherelo (Immunoxel) in patients with drug-resistant TB.
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Sirturo (bedaquiline) is used to treat multi-drug resistant pulmonary tuberculosis. Includes Sirturo side effects, interactions and indications.
1. Send PURE culture only. If the specimen submitted is mixed, there will be no workup pending clarification with the client. There will be separate charges for each organism that requires susceptibility testing. 2. If broth is submitted, it will be subbed onto an agar plate for isolation. This process will delay test results. 3. Drugs tested are: Amikacin, Azithromycin, Ciprofloxacin, Clarithromycin, Ethambutol, Ethionamide, and Rifampin. 4. MAC susceptibility testing is recommended in the following situations: (NCCLS M24-T2, Vol 20). a. Clinically significant isolates from patients on prior macrolide therapy; b. Isolates from patients who develop bacteremia while on macrolide prophylaxis; c. Isolates from patients who relapse while on macrolide therapy; d. Initial isolates from blood or tissue (patients with disseminated disease) or from clinically significant respiratory samples (e.g., sputum or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid) to establish baseline values. CPT Codes: ...
Via The Economic Times: Government to provide free tuberculosis drugs at all chemist shops and corporate hospitals. Excerpt: NEW DELHI: In a move to curb multi-drug resistant tuberculosis cases caused mostly because of irregular medication, the government has decided that...
Pyrazinamide is an anti tuberculosis drug. Pyrazinamide is used to treat patient with tuberculosis and tuberculous meningitis. Pyrazinamide is given orally.
According to our previous study 29 derivatives of 2-hydroxy-3-(4-phenylpiperazin-1-yl)-propylphenylcarbamates were tested for in vitro antimycobacterial activity against potential pathogenic strains Mycobacterium kansasii and Mycobacterium avium. The variations in group of compounds were by the substitution on phenyl rings. The Free-Wilson method was used to evaluate structure-antimycobacterial activity relationships. The advantage of compounds under study is in the activity against M. kansasii.
A study published on 23rd July 2012 in the medical journal The Lancet has raised hopes for a novel combination drug regimen that promises to make multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) treatment shorter, simpler, safer, and more cost effective. The findings of this study from researchers and the non-profit Global Alliance For TB Drug Development (TB Alliance), which were presented at the XIX International AIDS Conference (AIDS 2012) reveal that a novel TB drug combination PaMZ (consisting of PA- 824, moxifloxacin and pyrazinamide) has shown the potential to dramatically shorten the length of multi drug resistant TB treatment by 80%, from the existing 24 months to 4 months; reduce the pill burden by 97%, from the existing 12,600 pills to 360 pills; and eliminates the need of injections and daily powdered drug formulations completely. (Currently patients have to take a daily dose of very painful injections for 6 months). ...
MSF is involved in two TB clinical trials - TB PRACTECAL and as part of the endTB partnership - to find new, shorter, more effective combination treatments for multi-drug resistant TB that include the new drugs. Patients needs are at the heart of both trials, which aim to find treatments that contain no injectable drugs and have manageable side effects. Both trials are expected to enrol the first patient by the end of the year.. Within the framework of the endTB project, MSF and its partners are also collecting programmatic evidence about the use of bedaquiline and delamanid in a cohort of 2,600 patients across 15 countries.. To increase use of, and access to, more effective regimens containing the new drugs, MSF and its partners have provided delamanid to 236 patients (including 21 children) and bedaquiline to 781 patients. Moreover, 41 patients received a combination of both drugs, and 101 are being treated for more than six months. These efforts span 12 countries in Africa, Eastern Europe, ...
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TB is routinely treated with daily doses of a range of proven and effective low cost drugs. Treatment is lengthy and demands regular daily intake. Unsupervised patients can discontinue treatment or restrict the number of drugs used which has led to the recent and rapid development of drug resistant strains and more worrying, so called multiple drug resistant strains (MDR TB). This is not only a 3rd World problem, where WHOs program of "daily observed treatment" (DOT) of supervised drug delivery has helped. It is also a problem in New York and California where the Federal Centre for Disease Control (CDC) report 7.7% of new cases in 2002 were resistant to isoniazid, the first line drug of choice. WHO estimates that 50 million people worldwide are infected with MDR TB ...
The Cambridge-Chennai Centre Partnership on Antimicrobial Resistant Tuberculosis will bring together a multidisciplinary team of international researchers, and will be led by Professor Sharon Peacock and Dr Soumya Swaminathan. The team, including Professors Lalita Ramakrishnan, Ken Smith, Tom Blundell and Andres Floto, will focus on developing new diagnostic tools and treatments to address the sharp rise in cases of multidrug resistant tuberculosis (TB). This will include research into:
This paper reports the feasibility of involving unpaid National Service Scheme (NSS) male student volunteers in a city-based tuberculosis (TB) programme in supplying drugs and retrieving non-compliant TB patients. Twenty-five students were selected after assessing their attitude and were trained on TB drug delivery, home visits and motivation of non-compliant patients. Twenty-three sputum positive patients identified in a medical camp were started on an 8-month short-course chemotherapy regimen. Students supplied the drugs on a weekly basis and defaulters were visited. The treatment completion rate was 83% and defaulter retrieval was 57%. All patients had sputum smear conversion by 2 months and one relapsed during the 24-month follow-up ...
Marcus Horwitz and colleagues at UCLA in the U.S. will develop and test a novel drug delivery system in which nanoparticles loaded with anti-TB drugs selectively target macrophages, and release the drugs intracellularly via a pH-dependent gate, allowing delivery of high concentrations on antibiotics into the host cells for Mycobacterium tuberculosis.. ...
Health, ...Pyrazinamide (PZA)a frontline tuberculosis (TB) drugkills dormant pers...A recent study led by researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg Scho...Previously the Johns Hopkins group identified mutations in the pncA g...However for unknown reasons some PZA-resistant TB bacteria lack muta...,Researchers,identify,a,new,mechanism,of,TB,drug,resistance,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Janssen Therapeutics announced that the FDA has granted accelerated approval to Sirturo (bedaquiline tablets) for the treatment of pulmonary multi-drug resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) as part of combination therapy in adults.
The largest recent outbreak of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) in the United States is currently unfolding in the Minnesota Hmong community. Many Hmong elders were resettled in the Twin Cities years ago after living in a Thai refugee camp where TB ...
Pyrazinamide (Pyrazinamide) drug information & product resources from MPR including dosage information, educational materials, & patient assistance.
Title:Synthesis and Antibacterial/Antitubercular/Antioxidant Activities of Compounds Containing Fluoroquinolone Ring Linked to a 4-thiazolidinone Moiety. VOLUME: 15 ISSUE: 10. Author(s):Tejeswara Rao Allaka, Naresh Kumar Katari, Venkanna Banothu, Srinubabu Maddela, Manojit Pal* and Jaya Shree Anireddy*. Affiliation:Centre for Chemical Sciences and Technology, Institute of Science & Technology, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Hyderabad, Kukatpally, Hyderabad, Telangana, Department of Chemistry, GITAM School of Technology, GITAM University, HTP Campus, Rudraram, Medak, Telangana, Centre for Biotechnology, Department of Biotechnology, Institute of Science & Technology, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Hyderabad, Kukatpally, Hyderabad, Telangana, Centre for Pharmaceutical Sciences, Department of Pharmacy, Institute of Science and Technology, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Hyderabad, Kukatpally, Hyderabad, Telangana, Dr. Reddy`s Institute of Life Sciences, University of ...
BackgroundTo assess and compare the prevalence, severity and prognosis of anti-TB drug induced hepatotoxicity (DIH) in HIV positive and HIV negative tuberculosis (TB) patients in Ethiopia.Methodology/Principal FindingsIn this study, 103 HIV positive and 94 HIV negative TB patients were enrolled. All patients were evaluated for different risk factors and monitored biochemically and clinically for development of DIH. Sub-clinical hepatotoxicity was observed in 17.3% of the patients and 8 out of the 197 (4.1%) developed clinical hepatotoxicity. Seven of the 8 were HIV positive and 2 were positive for HBsAg.Conclusions/SignificanceSub-clinical hepatotoxicity was significantly associated with HIV co-infection (p = 0.002), concomitant drug intake (p = 0.008), and decrease in CD4 count (p = 0.001). Stepwise restarting of anti TB treatment was also successful in almost all the patients who developed clinical DIH. We therefore conclude that anti-TB DIH is a major problem in HIV-associated TB with a decline in
Most recently TB Alliance has conceived NC001 (New Combination 1) which is a totally different way to do clinical trials. This is a phase 2 study that, for the first time, tested multiple new drugs together in combination, early in the development cycle. Before this novel experiment, one could test only one new drug in that regimen at a time. This took too long. NC001 uses a new paradigm that tests combinations of three drugs simultaneously, thus reducing the time to develop a new drug regimen by up to 75%. It is a currently a phase2 early bacterial activity trial that evaluates the combination of novel TB drug regimen comprising PA-824 (a totally new drug), antibiotic moxifloxacin (which is not yet approved for TB treatment), and pyrazinamide (one of the drugs currently used in standard first line TB treatment). This three drug regimen PaMZ, shows the potential for a single regimen to treat both DS and MDR TB in 4 months from the existing 2 years. The ability to treat these two forms of TB with ...
The Revised National TB Control Programme (RNTCP) that came into being in 1997 has to its credit some enviable accomplishments. For instance, it achieved country-wide coverage in March 2006 and achieved 86 per cent treatment success rate in recent years. More than 15,000 suspects are examined for the disease every day and about 3,500 patients…
Pyrazinamide is a first-line drug for treating tuberculosis, but pyrazinamide resistance testing is usually too slow to guide initial therapy, so some patients receive inappropriate therapy. We therefore aimed to optimize and evaluate a rapid molecular test for tuberculosis drug resistance to pyrazinamide. Tuberculosis polymerase chain reaction single strand conformational polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) was optimized to test for mutations causing pyrazinamide resistance directly from sputum samples and Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates. The reliability of PCR-SSCP for sputum (n=65) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates (n=185) from 147 patients was compared with four tests for pyrazinamide resistance: Bactec-460 automated-culture; the Wayne biochemical test; DNA sequencing for pncA mutations; and traditional microbiological broth culture. PCR-SSCP provided interpretable results for 96% (46/48) of microscopy-positive sputum samples, 76% (13/17) of microscopy-negative sputa and 100% of Mycobacterium ...
Molecular detection of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis among smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Jigjiga town, Ethiopia Mussie Brhane,1 Ameha Kebede,2 Yohannes Petros 2 1Department of Tuberculosis Culture and DST Laboratory, Harar Health Research and Regional Laboratory, Harar, Ethiopia; 2Department of Biology, College of Computational and Natural Sciences, Haramaya University, Haramaya, Ethiopia Background: Molecular methods that target drug resistance mutations are suitable approaches for rapid drug susceptibility testing to detect multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). The aim of the study was to determine MDR-TB cases and to analyze the frequency of gene mutations associated with rifampicin (RIF) and/or isoniazid (INH) resistance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis among smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients. Methods: Institution-based cross-sectional study design was employed. Sputum specimens were collected, and using a pretested questionnaire, data for associated risk
Chopanova, Lale, Vremis, Vitalie, Durdyeva, Myahri, Gashimova, Ayna, Karriyeva, Bahtygul. et al. (‎2018)‎. Strengthening implementation mechanisms for national tuberculosis control programme in Turkmenistan to achieve Sustainable Development Goals and End TB Strategy targets at the country level. Public health panorama, 04 (‎02)‎, 181 - 189. World Health Organization. Regional Office for Europe. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/325030. License: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 ...
Background: In high HIV prevalence, tuberculosis diagnosis is challenging. Some countries hence use clinical algorithms to screen for tuberculosis in People Living with HIV (PLHIV). Objectives: The aim of the study was to validate the national algorithm for clinical tuberculosis screening of persons living with HIV who attend comprehensive HIV clinics. Methods: A cross-sectional study of PLHIV who presented with cough of at least 2 weeks duration between 2009 and 2011 at St Patricks Hospital, Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Sputum smear microscopy for acid fast bacilli was obtained from the participants. Results: Three hundred and twelve PLHIV were studied: 146 (46.8%) males and 166 (53.2%) females. Only 55 (17.6%) of the participants had smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis. Weight loss (c2 = 2.33; P = 0.127), hemoptysis (c2 = 0.03; P = 0.864), night sweats (c2 = 1.52; P = 0.218), fever (c2 = 3.49; P = 0.06), anorexia (c2 = 0.49; P = 0.484), chest pain (c2 = 2.48; P = 0.115), breathlessness (c2 = 0.63; P = 0
Folate biosynthesis is an established anti-infective target, and the antifolate para-aminosalicylic acid (PAS) was one of the first anti-infectives introduced into clinical practice based on target-based drug discovery. Fifty years later, PAS continues in use for tuberculosis. PAS is assumed to inhibit dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) by mimicking the substrate, p-aminobenzoate (PABA). However, we found that sulfonamide inhibitors of DHPS inhibited growth of M. tuberculosis only weakly due to their intracellular metabolism. PAS, by contrast, served as a replacement substrate for DHPS. Products of PAS metabolism at this and subsequent steps in folate metabolism inhibited those enzymes, competing with their substrates. PAS is thus a prodrug that blocks growth of M. tuberculosis when its active forms are generated by enzymes in the pathway they poison.. ...
Tuberculous pericarditis is one of the most severe forms of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, causing death or disability in a substantial proportion of affected people.1,2 In Africa, the incidence of tuberculous pericarditis is rising as a result of the HIV epidemic.3 The effect of HIV infection on survival in patients with tuberculous pericarditis is unknown.2,4 Whereas some investigators have suggested that HIV-infected patients with tuberculous pericarditis have a similar outcome to non-infected cases,5 others have shown that there may be an increase in mortality in HIV associated with tuberculous pericarditis.2,6,7 We established a prospective observational study, the Investigation of the Management of Pericarditis in Africa (IMPI Africa) registry, to obtain current information on the diagnosis, management and outcome of patients with presumed tuberculous pericarditis living in sub-Saharan Africa, where the burden of HIV infection is the greatest in the world.4,8-10 In this paper, we report the ...
A diagnosis of latent tuberculosis (LTB), also called latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) means a patient is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, but the patient does not have active tuberculosis. Active tuberculosis can be contagious while latent tuberculosis is not, and it is therefore not possible to get TB from someone with latent tuberculosis. The main risk is that approximately 10% of these patients (5% in the first two years after infection and 0.1% per year thereafter) will go on to develop active tuberculosis. This is particularly true, and there is added risk, in particular situations such as medication that suppresses the immune system or advancing age. The identification and treatment of people with latent TB is an important part of controlling this disease. Various treatment regimens are in use to treat latent tuberculosis, which generally need to be taken for several months. "TB Bacteria Are Spread Only from a Person with Active TB Disease ... In people who develop active TB ...
Rationale The clinical impact of Xpert MTB/RIF for tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis in high HIV-prevalence settings is unknown. Objective To determine the diagnostic accuracy and impact of Xpert MTB/RIF among high-risk TB suspects. Methods We prospectively enrolled consecutive, hospitalized, Ugandan TB suspects in two phases: baseline phase in which Xpert MTB/RIF results were not reported to clinicians and an implementation phase in which results were reported. We determined the diagnostic accuracy of Xpert MTB/RIF in reference to culture (solid and liquid) and compared patient outcomes by study phase. Results 477 patients were included (baseline phase 287, implementation phase 190). Xpert MTB/RIF had high sensitivity (187/237, 79%, 95% CI: 73-84%) and specificity (190/199, 96%, 95% CI: 92-98%) for culture-positive TB overall, but sensitivity was lower (34/81, 42%, 95% CI: 31-54%) among smear-negative TB cases. Xpert MTB/RIF reduced median days-to-TB detection for all TB cases (1 [IQR 0-26] vs. 0 [IQR

Hybrid Docking-QSAR Studies of 1, 4-dihydropyridine-3, 5-Dicarboxamides as Potential Antitubercular Agents | BenthamScienceHybrid Docking-QSAR Studies of 1, 4-dihydropyridine-3, 5-Dicarboxamides as Potential Antitubercular Agents | BenthamScience

Hybrid Docking-QSAR Studies of 1, 4-dihydropyridine-3, 5-Dicarboxamides as Potential Antitubercular Agents. Author(s): Yasaman ... 1, 4-dihydropyridines are multi-target ligands that recently are recognized as anti-tubercular agents. ... Title:Hybrid Docking-QSAR Studies of 1, 4-dihydropyridine-3, 5-Dicarboxamides as Potential Antitubercular Agents ... 1, 4-dihydropyridines are multi-target ligands that recently are recognized as anti-tubercular agents. ...
more infohttp://www.eurekaselect.com/node/151912/article/hybrid-docking-qsar-studies-of-1-4-dihydropyridine-3-5-dicarboxamides-as-potential-antitubercular-agents

Browsing  by Subject Antitubercular AgentsBrowsing by Subject "Antitubercular Agents"

World Health Organization. Regional Office for the Western Pacific (Manila : WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific, 2006) ...
more infohttps://iris.wpro.who.int/browse?authority=Antitubercular+Agents&type=mesh

In Vitro, In Silico and Ex Vivo Studies of Dihydroartemisinin Derivatives as Antitubercular Agents | Bentham ScienceIn Vitro, In Silico and Ex Vivo Studies of Dihydroartemisinin Derivatives as Antitubercular Agents | Bentham Science

In Vitro, In Silico and Ex Vivo Studies of Dihydroartemisinin Derivatives as Antitubercular Agents. (E-pub Ahead of Print). ... As a part of our drug discovery program for anti-tubercular agents, dihydroartemisinin (DHA- 1) was screened against Mtb H37Rv ... Abstract:As a part of our drug discovery program for anti-tubercular agents, dihydroartemisinin (DHA- 1) was screened against ... Title:In Vitro, In Silico and Ex Vivo Studies of Dihydroartemisinin Derivatives as Antitubercular Agents ...
more infohttp://www.eurekaselect.com/node/170442/article/in-vitro-in-silico-and-ex-vivo-studies-of-dihydroartemisinin-derivatives-as-antitubercular-agents

WHO HQ Library catalog ›

    Results of search for su:{Antitubercular agents.}WHO HQ Library catalog › Results of search for 'su:{Antitubercular agents.}'

Book; Format: print Publisher: Geneva : World Health Organization, 1991Other title: Drugs used in mycobacterial diseases.Title translated: Fiches modèles OMS d information à l usage des prescripteurs médicaments utilisés dans les mycobactérioses; Modelo OMS de información sobre prescripción de medicamentos :medicamentos utilizados en las enfermedades micobacterianas.Online access: Full text now in IRIS Availability: Items available for loan: WHO HQ [Call number: QV 268 91WH] (3). Withdrawn (1). ...
more infohttps://kohahq.searo.who.int/cgi-bin/koha/opac-search.pl?q=su:%7BAntitubercular%20agents.%7D

WHO HQ Library catalog ›

    Results of search for su:{Antitubercular agents}WHO HQ Library catalog › Results of search for 'su:{Antitubercular agents}'

Book; Format: print Publisher: Geneva : World Health Organization, 1991Other title: Drugs used in mycobacterial diseases.Title translated: Fiches modèles OMS d information à l usage des prescripteurs médicaments utilisés dans les mycobactérioses; Modelo OMS de información sobre prescripción de medicamentos :medicamentos utilizados en las enfermedades micobacterianas.Online access: Full text now in IRIS Availability: Items available for loan: WHO HQ [Call number: QV 268 91WH] (3). Withdrawn (1). ...
more infohttps://kohahq.searo.who.int/cgi-bin/koha/opac-search.pl?q=su:%7BAntitubercular%20agents%7D

Review of Evidence for Measuring Drug Concentrations of First-Line Antitubercular Agents in AdultsReview of Evidence for Measuring Drug Concentrations of First-Line Antitubercular Agents in Adults

... ... Although TDM of first-line antitubercular drugs is used during the treatment of tuberculosis, the extent of any benefit ... This review summarizes the available literature describing TDM of first-line treatment agents in patients with tuberculosis and ... literature review was conducted for articles describing drug concentration and TDM outcomes for first-line tuberculosis agents ...
more infohttp://qspace.qu.edu.qa/handle/10576/4153

Rational Design and Synthesis of Novel Diphenyl ether Derivatives as Antitubercular Agents  - MAHE Digital RepositoryRational Design and Synthesis of Novel Diphenyl ether Derivatives as Antitubercular Agents - MAHE Digital Repository

Rational Design and Synthesis of Novel Diphenyl ether Derivatives as Antitubercular Agents ... Rational Design and Synthesis of Novel Diphenyl ether Derivatives as Antitubercular Agents. Drug Design, Development and ... Based on the antitubercular activity and druglikeness profile, it may be concluded that compound 10b could be a lead for future ... A series of triclosan mimic diphenyl ether derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated for their in vitro antitubercular ...
more infohttp://eprints.manipal.edu/148149/

Amneal Pharmas, 4,5-Dihydro-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine containing phenothiazines as antitubercular agents « New Drug...Amneal Pharma's, 4,5-Dihydro-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine containing phenothiazines as antitubercular agents « New Drug...

Tags: 1580464-40-9, 4, 4-d]pyrimidine, 5-Dihydro-1H-pyrazolo[3, amneal, Antitubercular activity, antitubercular agents, ... 4,5-Dihydro-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine containing phenothiazines as antitubercular agents. *Arif B. Siddiquia, , , ... These reasons make a compelling case for an urgent need for new and effective antitubercular agents with improved properties ... Amneal Pharmas, 4,5-Dihydro-1H-pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine containing phenothiazines as antitubercular agents. ...
more infohttps://newdrugapprovals.org/2016/06/15/amneal-pharmas-45-dihydro-1h-pyrazolo34-dpyrimidine-containing-phenothiazines-as-antitubercular-agents/

Anti-tubercular agents | PTB ReportsAnti-tubercular agents | PTB Reports

PTB Reports [Pharmacology, Toxicology and Biomedical Reports] - It is an international, peer-review, open access, online journal publishing research articles, review articles, clinical case reports and recent trends in experimental and clinical pharmacology, toxicology and Biomedicine. It covers clinical pharmacokinetics, biochemical pharmacology, clinical biochemistry, molecular biology, analytical toxicology, psychopharmacology, neuropharmacology, cardiovascular and renal pharmacology and other systemic pharmacology.. ...
more infohttp://ptbreports.org/tags/anti-tubercular-agents

Influence of genetic variants on toxicity to anti-tubercular agents : a systematic review and meta-analysis (protocol)Influence of genetic variants on toxicity to anti-tubercular agents : a systematic review and meta-analysis (protocol)

... ... Influence of genetic variants on toxicity to anti-tubercular agents : a systematic review and meta-analysis (protocol) ...
more infohttps://research-repository.st-andrews.ac.uk/handle/10023/11197

Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel quinoline-based carboxylic hydrazides as anti-tubercular agents. -...Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel quinoline-based carboxylic hydrazides as anti-tubercular agents. -...

... seventeen novel quinoline-based carboxylic hydrazides were designed as potential anti-tubercular agents using molecular ... Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of novel quinoline-based carboxylic hydrazides as anti-tubercular agents.. *. ... In this study, seventeen novel quinoline-based carboxylic hydrazides were designed as potential anti-tubercular agents using ... synthesis and biological evaluation of novel quinoline-based carboxylic hydrazides as anti-tubercular agents.}, author={Subhash ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Design-synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-nove-Chander-Ashok/641131ffc94b85f5def9efd3ef88f988fff7b6db

CYP genetic variants and toxicity related to anti-tubercular agents: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  - PubMed - NCBICYP genetic variants and toxicity related to anti-tubercular agents: a systematic review and meta-analysis. - PubMed - NCBI

CYP genetic variants and toxicity related to anti-tubercular agents: a systematic review and meta-analysis.. Richardson M1, ... CYP genetic variants and toxicity related to anti-tubercular agents: a systematic review and meta-analysis ... CYP genetic variants and toxicity related to anti-tubercular agents: a systematic review and meta-analysis ... CYP genetic variants and toxicity related to anti-tubercular agents: a systematic review and meta-analysis ...
more infohttps://phgkb.cdc.gov/PHGKB/phgHome.action?action=forward&dbsource=huge&id=179713

CYP genetic variants and toxicity related to anti-tubercular agents: a systematic review and meta-analysis.  - PubMed - NCBICYP genetic variants and toxicity related to anti-tubercular agents: a systematic review and meta-analysis. - PubMed - NCBI

CYP genetic variants and toxicity related to anti-tubercular agents: a systematic review and meta-analysis.. Richardson M1, ... CYP genetic variants and toxicity related to anti-tubercular agents: a systematic review and meta-analysis ... CYP genetic variants and toxicity related to anti-tubercular agents: a systematic review and meta-analysis ... CYP genetic variants and toxicity related to anti-tubercular agents: a systematic review and meta-analysis ...
more infohttps://phgkb.cdc.gov/PHGKB/phgHome.action?action=forward&dbsource=cluster&id=23249

Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in rural China: lack of public awareness, unaffordable costs and poor clinical management.  -...Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in rural China: lack of public awareness, unaffordable costs and poor clinical management. -...

Antitubercular Agents/economics. *Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use. *China. *Diagnosis, Differential. *Health Services ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30100573

Drug-induced ocular side effects (Book, 2001) [WorldCat.org]Drug-induced ocular side effects (Book, 2001) [WorldCat.org]

Antifungal agents. Antileprosy agents. Antimalarial agents. Antiprotozoal agents. Antitubercular agents --. 2. Agents affecting ... Antifungal agents. Antileprosy agents. Antimalarial agents. Antiprotozoal agents. Antitubercular agents -- 2. Agents affecting ... Oxytocic agents --. 9. Homeostatic and nutrient agents: Agents used to treat hyperglycemia. Vitamins --. 10. Agents used to ... Oxytocic agents -- 9. Homeostatic and nutrient agents: Agents used to treat hyperglycemia. Vitamins -- 10. Agents used to treat ...
more infohttp://www.worldcat.org/title/drug-induced-ocular-side-effects/oclc/44129071

EARNEST Rifabutin Pharmacokinetics (PK) Substudy - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govEARNEST Rifabutin Pharmacokinetics (PK) Substudy - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Anti-HIV Agents. Anti-Retroviral Agents. Antiviral Agents. Anti-Infective Agents. Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors. Cytochrome ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01663168?order=209

TBTC Study 23A: Pharmacokinetics of Intermittent Isoniazid and Rifabutin in HIV-TB - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govTBTC Study 23A: Pharmacokinetics of Intermittent Isoniazid and Rifabutin in HIV-TB - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Antitubercular Agents. Anti-Bacterial Agents. Anti-Infective Agents. Fatty Acid Synthesis Inhibitors. Hypolipidemic Agents. ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00023348?order=30

Aizthromycin or Clarithromycin in H-pylori Eradication Regimen - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govAizthromycin or Clarithromycin in H-pylori Eradication Regimen - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Anti-Bacterial Agents. Clarithromycin. Azithromycin. Antibiotics, Antitubercular. Anti-Infective Agents. Antitubercular Agents ...
more infohttps://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01667692

RCSB PDB - BHA Ligand Summary PageRCSB PDB - BHA Ligand Summary Page

An antitubercular agent often administered in association with isoniazid. The sodium salt of the drug is better tolerated than ... Aminosalicylic acid is an anti-mycobacterial agent used with other anti-tuberculosis drugs (most often isoniazid) for the ...
more infohttps://www.rcsb.org/ligand/BHA

ethambutol (CHEBI:4877)ethambutol (CHEBI:4877)

antitubercular agent A substance that kills or slows the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. and is used in the treatment of ... antitubercular agent A substance that kills or slows the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. and is used in the treatment of ... ethambutol (CHEBI:4877) has role antitubercular agent (CHEBI:33231) ethambutol (CHEBI:4877) has role environmental contaminant ...
more infohttps://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/searchId.do?chebiId=CHEBI:678172
  • These reasons make a compelling case for an urgent need for new and effective antitubercular agents with improved properties such as enhanced activity against MDR strains, reduced toxicity, rapid mycobactericidal mechanism of action and the ability to penetrate host cells and exert antimycobacterial effects in the intracellular environment. (newdrugapprovals.org)
  • WHO HQ Library catalog › Results of search for 'su:{Antitubercular agents. (who.int)