Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.
An antitoxin used for the treatment of TETANUS.
An antitoxin produced against the toxin of CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE that is used for the treatment of DIPHTHERIA.
Antiserum given therapeutically in BOTULISM.
A localized infection of mucous membranes or skin caused by toxigenic strains of CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE. It is characterized by the presence of a pseudomembrane at the site of infection. DIPHTHERIA TOXIN, produced by C. diphtheriae, can cause myocarditis, polyneuritis, and other systemic toxic effects.
Preparations of pathogenic organisms or their derivatives made nontoxic and intended for active immunologic prophylaxis. They include deactivated toxins. Anatoxin toxoids are distinct from anatoxins that are TROPANES found in CYANOBACTERIA.
A disease caused by tetanospasmin, a powerful protein toxin produced by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI. Tetanus usually occurs after an acute injury, such as a puncture wound or laceration. Generalized tetanus, the most common form, is characterized by tetanic muscular contractions and hyperreflexia. Localized tetanus presents itself as a mild condition with manifestations restricted to muscles near the wound. It may progress to the generalized form.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.
A disease caused by potent protein NEUROTOXINS produced by CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM which interfere with the presynaptic release of ACETYLCHOLINE at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. Clinical features include abdominal pain, vomiting, acute PARALYSIS (including respiratory paralysis), blurred vision, and DIPLOPIA. Botulism may be classified into several subtypes (e.g., food-borne, infant, wound, and others). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1208)
The formaldehyde-inactivated toxin of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It is generally used in mixtures with TETANUS TOXOID and PERTUSSIS VACCINE; (DTP); or with tetanus toxoid alone (DT for pediatric use and Td, which contains 5- to 10-fold less diphtheria toxoid, for other use). Diphtheria toxoid is used for the prevention of diphtheria; DIPHTHERIA ANTITOXIN is for treatment.
Originally an island of the Malay Archipelago, the second largest island in the world. It divided, West New Guinea becoming part of Indonesia and East New Guinea becoming Papua New Guinea.
A species of gram-positive, asporogenous bacteria in which three cultural types are recognized. These types (gravis, intermedius, and mitis) were originally given in accordance with the clinical severity of the cases from which the different strains were most frequently isolated. This species is the causative agent of DIPHTHERIA.
An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.
Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.
A species of anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that produces proteins with characteristic neurotoxicity. It is the etiologic agent of BOTULISM in humans, wild fowl, HORSES; and CATTLE. Seven subtypes (sometimes called antigenic types, or strains) exist, each producing a different botulinum toxin (BOTULINUM TOXINS). The organism and its spores are widely distributed in nature.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.
An ADP-ribosylating polypeptide produced by CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE that causes the signs and symptoms of DIPHTHERIA. It can be broken into two unequal domains: the smaller, catalytic A domain is the lethal moiety and contains MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASES which transfers ADP RIBOSE to PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTOR 2 thereby inhibiting protein synthesis; and the larger B domain that is needed for entry into cells.
The cause of TETANUS in humans and domestic animals. It is a common inhabitant of human and horse intestines as well as soil. Two components make up its potent exotoxin activity, a neurotoxin and a hemolytic toxin.
The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.
A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.
An acute diarrheal disease endemic in India and Southeast Asia whose causative agent is VIBRIO CHOLERAE. This condition can lead to severe dehydration in a matter of hours unless quickly treated.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
A combined vaccine used to prevent infection with diphtheria and tetanus toxoid. This is used in place of DTP vaccine (DIPHTHERIA-TETANUS-PERTUSSIS VACCINE) when PERTUSSIS VACCINE is contraindicated.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
A reaction that severs one of the sugar-phosphate linkages of the phosphodiester backbone of RNA. It is catalyzed enzymatically, chemically, or by radiation. Cleavage may be exonucleolytic, or endonucleolytic.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
The most common etiologic agent of GAS GANGRENE. It is differentiable into several distinct types based on the distribution of twelve different toxins.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A prokaryotic ATP-dependent protease that plays a role in the degradation of many abnormal proteins. It is a tetramer of 87-kDa subunits, each of which contains a proteolytic site and a ATP-binding site.
Protein synthesized by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI as a single chain of ~150 kDa with 35% sequence identity to BOTULINUM TOXIN that is cleaved to a light and a heavy chain that are linked by a single disulfide bond. Tetanolysin is the hemolytic and tetanospasmin is the neurotoxic principle. The toxin causes disruption of the inhibitory mechanisms of the CNS, thus permitting uncontrolled nervous activity, leading to fatal CONVULSIONS.
A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P1-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It is the largest of the COLIPHAGES and consists of double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and circularly permuted.
Fluids originating from the epithelial lining of the intestines, adjoining exocrine glands and from organs such as the liver, which empty into the cavity of the intestines.
Drugs which have received FDA approval for human testing but have yet to be approved for commercial marketing. This includes drugs used for treatment while they still are undergoing clinical trials (Treatment IND). The main heading includes drugs under investigation in foreign countries.
A TETRACYCLINE analog isolated from the actinomycete STREPTOMYCES rimosus and used in a wide variety of clinical conditions.
Toxins produced, especially by bacterial or fungal cells, and released into the culture medium or environment.
A severe condition resulting from bacteria invading healthy muscle from adjacent traumatized muscle or soft tissue. The infection originates in a wound contaminated with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM. C. perfringens accounts for the majority of cases (over eighty percent), while C. noyvi, C. septicum, and C. histolyticum cause most of the other cases.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
An acute infection caused by the spore-forming bacteria BACILLUS ANTHRACIS. It commonly affects hoofed animals such as sheep and goats. Infection in humans often involves the skin (cutaneous anthrax), the lungs (inhalation anthrax), or the gastrointestinal tract. Anthrax is not contagious and can be treated with antibiotics.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of RNA. It includes EC 3.1.26.-, EC 3.1.27.-, EC 3.1.30.-, and EC 3.1.31.-.
A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.
Diseases of newborn infants present at birth (congenital) or developing within the first month of birth. It does not include hereditary diseases not manifesting at birth or within the first 30 days of life nor does it include inborn errors of metabolism. Both HEREDITARY DISEASES and METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS are available as general concepts.
A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.

Antigenicity of purified glutaraldehyde-treated cholera toxoid administered orally. (1/590)

The antigenicity of orally administered glutaraldehyde-treated cholera toxoid was investigated in healthy volunteers. Fourteen volunteers ingested two or three 2-mg doses of toxoid with saline, with the doses spaced at 28-day intervals. Thirteen other volunteers received comparable toxoid doses with NaHCO3 and milk to neutralize gastric acid. Increments in circulating antitoxin levels were used to assay the antigenicity of oral toxoid. Antitoxin was measured by adrenal cell, rabbit skin permeability factor, and passive hemagglutination assays in sera collected on days 0, 28, 35, 56, 63, and 84 after primary immunization. Adrenal cell and rabbit skin assays exhibited identical sensitivity in detecting antitoxin rises in the 27 vaccinees (19/27) and were significantly more sensitive than passive hemagglutination (11/27) (P less than 0.03). Volunteers who ingested toxoid with NaHCO3 and milk had a higher rate of seroconversion (77%) than those who received toxoid with saline (64%); they also had earlier rises in antitoxin titer and consistently higher geometric mean titers on all days tested. These studies demonstrate that purified cholera toxoid is antigenic in humans after oral administration. The possible role of oral toxoid in enhancing the protective effect of killed whole-cell vaccines can now be investigated.  (+info)

Lack of J chain inhibits the transport of gut IgA and abrogates the development of intestinal antitoxic protection. (2/590)

Recent publications have provided confusing information on the importance of the J chain for secretion of dimeric IgA at mucosal surfaces. Using J chain-deficient (J chain-/-) mice, we addressed whether a lack of J chain had any functional consequence for the ability to resist challenge with cholera toxin (CT) in intestinal loops. J chain-/- mice had normal levels of IgA plasma cells in the gut mucosa, and the Peyer's patches exhibited normal IgA B cell differentiation and germinal center reactions. The total IgA levels in gut lavage were reduced by roughly 90% as compared with that in wild-type controls, while concomitantly serum IgA levels were significantly increased. Total serum IgM levels were depressed, whereas IgG concentrations were normal. Following oral immunizations with CT, J chain-/- mice developed 10-fold increased serum antitoxin IgA titers, but gut lavage anti-CT IgA levels were substantially reduced. However, anti-CT IgA spot-forming cell frequencies in the gut lamina propria were normal. Anti-CT IgM concentrations were low in serum and gut lavage, whereas anti-CT IgG titers were unaltered. Challenge of small intestinal ligated loops with CT caused dramatic fluid accumulation in immunized J chain-/- mice, and only 20% protection was detected compared with unimmunized controls. In contrast, wild-type mice demonstrated 80% protection against CT challenge. Mice heterozygous for the J chain deletion exhibited intermediate gut lavage anti-CT IgA and intestinal protection levels, arguing for a J chain gene-dosage effect on the transport of secretory IgA. This study unequivocally demonstrates a direct relationship between mucosal transport of secretory SIgA and intestinal immune protection.  (+info)

Similarities between the pathogenesis of and immunity to diphtheria and pertussis: the complex nature of serum antitoxin-induced immunity to these two diseases. (3/590)

Despite data from animal studies, seroepidemiological surveys, and controlled clinical trials, skepticism persists about immunity to pertussis conferred by serum IgG neutralizing antibodies (antitoxin). This is largely prompted by the absence of a "protective" level of antitoxin. Examination of the similarities between the pathogenesis and immunity to pertussis and diphtheria provides an explanation for this dilemma. As with pertussis, diphtheria toxoid vaccination confers only approximately 70% immunity on an individual basis, individuals with protective levels of antitoxin may contract diphtheria, and about 50% of the entire population, especially adults, have less than protective levels of antitoxin. The virtual disappearance of diphtheria followed vaccination of the entire population with diphtheria toxoid, which blocked transmission of toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae and thus reduced the pathogen to almost undetectable levels. The individual and community-based immunity induced by diphtheria toxoid, we hypothesize, is similar to that of pertussis and pertussis toxoid.  (+info)

Shigellosis and Escherichia coli diarrhea: relative importance of invasive and toxigenic mechanisms. (4/590)

Shigellae and dysentery-like Escherichia coli must invade the epithelium of the colon to cause disease which can present as dysentery, diarrhea, or both. This paper addresses the possible role of a Shigella dysenteriae-like (Shiga-like) toxin in the pathogenesis of shigellosis and E. coli diarrheal diseases. The possibility for such a role is suggested by the following observations: 1) diarrhea, considered to be a result of secretion of water by the small bowel, is frequently observed in shigellosis, a large bowel disease. 2) Even though shigellae do not invade the jejunum of monkeys fed Shigella flexneri, jejunal secretion is seen in animals with diarrhea. 3) The Shiga toxin of S. dysenteriae has enterotoxic activity and other serotypes of shigellae produce Shiga-like toxins. 4) E. coli 015 RDEC-1 causes a diarrheal disease and frequently death in young rabbits. This organism neither produces E. coli enterotoxins nor is it invasive, but it may produce low levels of a Shiga-like toxin.  (+info)

The sigma ligand, igmesine, inhibits cholera toxin and Escherichia coli enterotoxin induced jejunal secretion in the rat. (5/590)

BACKGROUND: Cholera toxin, and Escherichia coli heat labile (LT) and heat stable (STa) enterotoxins induce small intestinal secretion in part by activating enteric nerves. Igmesine is a novel sigma receptor ligand that inhibits neurally mediated secretion. AIMS: To assess the antisecretory potential of igmesine in cholera toxin, LT, and STa induced water and electrolyte secretion using an in vivo rat model of jejunal perfusion. METHODS: After pretreatment with igmesine, 0.03-10 mg/kg intravenously, jejunal segments of anaesthetised, adult male Wistar rats were incubated with cholera toxin (25 microg), LT (25 microg), or saline. Jejunal perfusion with a plasma electrolyte solution containing a non-absorbable marker was undertaken. In some cases 200 microg/l STa was added to the perfusate. After equilibration, net water and electrolyte movement was determined. In additional experiments rats received igmesine, intravenously or intrajejunally, after exposure to cholera toxin. RESULTS: Cholera toxin induced net water secretion was inhibited by 1 mg/kg igmesine (median -120 versus -31 microl/min/g, p<0.001). LT and STa induced secretion were also inhibited by 1 mg/kg igmesine (-90 versus -56, p<0.03; and -76 versus -29, p<0.01, respectively). Igmesine reduced established cholera toxin induced secretion. CONCLUSION: The sigma ligand, igmesine, inhibits neurally mediated enterotoxigenic secretion. Its ability to inhibit established secretion makes it an agent with therapeutic potential.  (+info)

Vitronectin and its fragments purified as serum inhibitors of Staphylococcus aureus gamma-hemolysin and leukocidin, and their specific binding to the hlg2 and the LukS components of the toxins. (6/590)

Staphylococcal gamma-hemolysin and leukocidin are bi-component cytolysins, consisting of LukF (or Hlg1)/Hlg2 and LukF/LukS, respectively. Here, we purified serum inhibitors of gamma-hemolysin and leukocidin from human plasma. Protein sequencing showed that the purified inhibitors of 62, 57, 50 and 38 kDa were the vitronectin fragments with truncation(s) of the C-terminal or both N- and C-terminal regions. The purified vitronectin fragments specifically bound to the Hlg2 component of gamma-hemolysin and the LukS component of leukocidin to form high-molecular-weight complexes with them, leading to inhibition of the toxin-induced lysis of human erythrocytes and human polymorphonuclear leukocytes, respectively. Intact vitronectin also showed inhibitory activity to the toxins. The ability of gamma-hemolysin and leukocidin to bind vitronectin and its fragments is a novel function of the pore-forming cytolysins.  (+info)

Monoclonal antibodies against the Androctonus australis hector scorpion neurotoxin I: characterisation and use for venom neutralisation. (7/590)

A series of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific for the alpha-neurotoxin I (Aah I) from the venom of the dangerous Androctonus australis hector scorpion were obtained using carrier protein-coupled toxin. Competitive RIA, receptor assays and mouse toxicity tests were performed to characterise mAbs in terms of affinity and neutralisation. Cross-reactivity studies and two-site ELISA results allowed some classification of mAbs into three groups. One mAb, 9C2, was particularly interesting since it recognised the parent toxin I with a K(D) of 0.15 nM and was also reactive with toxins of the same immunological group. Its ability to neutralise the toxic effect of the parent toxin and the venom fraction has been investigated. This anti-Aah I mAb 9C2, associated with anti-Aah II mAb 4C1, provides a valuable tool to neutralise the toxicity of the venom.  (+info)

Combining phage display and molecular modeling to map the epitope of a neutralizing antitoxin antibody. (8/590)

Crotoxin is a potent presynaptic neurotoxin from the venom of the rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. It is composed of the noncovalent and synergistic association of a weakly toxic phospholipase A2, CB, and a nontoxic three-chain subunit, CA, which increases the lethal potency of CB. The A-56.36 mAb is able to dissociate the crotoxin complex by binding to the CA subunit, thereby neutralizing its toxicity. Because A-56.36 and CB show sequence homology and both compete for binding to CA, we postulated that A-56.36 and CB had overlapping binding sites on CA. By screening random phage-displayed libraries with the mAb, phagotopes bearing the (D/S)GY(A/G) or AAXI consensus motifs were selected. They all bound A-56.36 in ELISA and competed with CA for mAb binding, although with different reactivities. When mice were immunized with the selected clones, polyclonal sera reacting with CA were induced. Interestingly, the raised antibodies retained the crotoxin-dissociating effect of A-56.36, suggesting that the selected peptides may be used to produce neutralizing antibodies. By combining these data with the molecular modeling of CA, it appeared that the functional epitope of A-56.36 on CA was conformational, one subregion being discontinuous and corresponding to the first family of peptides, the other subregion being continuous and composed of amino acids of the second family. Phage-displayed peptides corresponding to fragments of the two identified regions on CA reacted with A-56.36 and with CB. Our data support the hypothesis that A-56.36 and CB interact with common regions of CA, and highlight residues which are likely to be critical for CA-CB complex formation.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Duration of serum antitoxin response following Vibrio cholerae infection in North Americans. T2 - Relevance for seroepidemiology. AU - Levine, Myron M.. AU - Young, Charles R.. AU - Hughes, Timothy P.. AU - Odonnell, Sylvia. AU - Black, Robert E.. AU - Clements, Mary Lou. AU - Robins-browne, Roy. AU - Lim, Yu Leong. PY - 1981/9. Y1 - 1981/9. N2 - Because of repeated infections with bacterial enteropathogens elaborating antigenically related enterotoxins, persons living in less-developed areas even where cholera is not endemic have high prevalence and levels of cholera antitoxin. Thus, in less-developed areas, antitoxin is not helpful for the seroepidemiology of cholera. In contrast, since diarrheal infections due to pathogens elaborating cholera-like enterotoxins are rare in industrialized countries, this study reviewed the magnitude and duration of the serum antitoxin response to cholera infections in North Americans to develop guidelines for use of antitoxin as a ...
Type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are most commonly composed of two genes encoding a stable toxin, which harms the cell, and an unstable antitoxin that can inactivate it. TA systems were initially characterized as selfish elements, but have recently gained attention for regulating general stress responses responsible for pathogen virulence, formation of drug-tolerant persister cells and biofilms - all implicated in causing recalcitrant chronic infections. We use a bioinformatics approach to explore the distribution and evolution of type II TA loci of the opportunistic pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, across longitudinally sampled isolates from cystic fibrosis lungs. We identify their location in the genome, mutations, and gain/loss during infection to elucidate their function(s) in stabilising selfish elements and pathogenesis. We found (1) 26 distinct TA systems, where all isolates harbour four in their core genome and a variable number of the remaining 22 on genomic islands; (2) limited mutations
A toxin-antitoxin system is a set of two or more closely linked genes that together encode both a protein poison and a corresponding antidote. When these systems are contained on plasmids - transferable genetic elements - they ensure that only the daughter cells that inherit the plasmid survive after cell division. If the plasmid is absent in a daughter cell, the unstable antitoxin is degraded and the stable toxic protein kills the new cell; this is known as post-segregational killing (PSK). Toxin-antitoxin systems are widely distributed in prokaryotes, and organisms often have them in multiple copies. Toxin-antitoxin systems are typically classified according to how the antitoxin neutralises the toxin. In a Type I toxin-antitoxin system, the translation of messenger RNA (mRNA) that encodes the toxin is inhibited by the binding of a small non-coding RNA antitoxin to the mRNA. The protein toxin in a type II system is inhibited post-translationally by the binding of another protein ...
Bacterial toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are diverse and widespread in the prokaryotic kingdom. They are composed of closely linked genes encoding a stable toxin that can harm the host cell and its cognate labile antitoxin, which protects the host from the toxins deleterious effect. TA systems are thought to invade bacterial genomes through horizontal gene transfer. Some TA systems might behave as selfish elements and favour their own maintenance at the expense of their host. As a consequence, they may contribute to the maintenance of plasmids or genomic islands, such as super-integrons, by post-segregational killing of the cell that loses these genes and so suffers the stable toxins destructive effect. The function of the chromosomally encoded TA systems is less clear and still open to debate. This Review discusses current hypotheses regarding the biological roles of these evolutionarily successful small operons. We consider the various selective forces that could drive the maintenance of TA systems in
Bacterial toxin-antitoxin loci consist of two genes: one encodes a potentially toxic protein, and the second, an antitoxin to repress its function or expression. The antitoxin can either be an RNA or a protein. For type I and type III loci, the antitoxins are RNAs; however, they have very different modes of action. Type I antitoxins repress toxin protein expression through interacting with the toxin mRNA, thereby targeting the mRNA for degradation or preventing its translation or both; type III antitoxins directly bind to the toxin protein, sequestering it. Along with these two very different modes of action for the antitoxin, there are differences in the functions of the toxin proteins and the mobility of these loci between species. Within this review, we discuss the major differences as to how the RNAs repress toxin activity, the potential consequences for utilizing different regulatory strategies, as well as the confirmed and potential biological roles for these loci across bacterial species.
The activity of type II toxin-antitoxin systems (TA), which are responsible for many important features of bacterial cells, is based on the differences between toxin and antitoxin stabilities. The antitoxin lability results from bacterial protease activity. Here, we investigated how particular Escherichia coli cytosolic proteases, namely, Lon, ClpAP, ClpXP, and ClpYQ, affect the stability of both the toxin and antitoxin components of the parDE system from the broad host range plasmid RK2. The results of our in vivo and in vitro experiments show that the ParD antitoxin is degraded by the ClpAP protease, and dsDNA stimulates this process. The ParE toxin is not degraded by any of these proteases and can therefore cause growth inhibition of plasmid-free cells after an unequal plasmid distribution during cell division. We also demonstrate that the ParE toxin interaction with ParD prevents antitoxin proteolysis by ClpAP; however, this interaction does not prevent the ClpAP interaction with ParD. We show that
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Krzysztof Fiedoruk, Tamara Daniluk, Izabela Swiecicka, Malgorzata Sciepuk, Katarzyna Leszczynska].
RdlD RNA (regulator detected in LDR-D) is a family of small non-coding RNAs which repress the protein LdrD in a type I toxin-antitoxin system. It was discovered in Escherichia coli strain K-12 in a long direct repeat (LDR) named LDR-D. This locus encodes two products: a 35 amino acid peptide toxin (ldrD) and a 60 nucleotide RNA antitoxin. The 374nt toxin mRNA has a half-life of around 30 minutes while rdlD RNA has a half-life of only 2 minutes. This is in keeping with other type I toxin-antitoxin systems. Northern blots showed that ldrD and rdlD are both transcribed and primer extension analysis showed the rdlD transcript is not translated. Homologues exist in related Enterobacteriaceae such as Salmonella enterica and Shigella boydii. The Ldr peptide genes that have been discovered are thought to have evolved from a common ancestor. Four long direct repeat (LDR) sequences were identified during genetic sequencing of a 718kb segment of the E. coli genome. One of these, LDR-D was studied further ...
Mixed Gas-Gangrene Antitoxin information about active ingredients, pharmaceutical forms and doses, Mixed Gas-Gangrene Antitoxin indications, usages and related health products lists
In a multicellular organisms, it is not only essential to control the rate of cell division but also to control the rate of cell death of cells that are no longer needed. Programmed Cell death (PCD) is a bacterial stress response which leads to cell suicide mediated by an intracellular program and is responsible for eliminating unwanted or potentially harmful cells.. Chromosomal toxin-antitoxin module mazEF. mazEF is one of the toxin-antitoxin systems that have been found on the chromosomes of many bacteria including Escherichial coli that was discovered to play an important part in bacterial programmed cell death to regulate the amount of cells and to assist bacteria on coping with a stressful environment change.. The mazEF module consists of two adjacent genes, mazF and mazE. MazF is a stable, long-lived toxin while MazE is a labile antitoxin that is antagonizes MazF and are degraded in vivo by ClpPA serine protease. These two genes are co-expressed and the mazEF system is negatively ...
Toxic component of a type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) module, first identified by mutations that increase production of persister cells, a fraction of cells that are phenotypic variants not killed by antibiotics, which lead to multidrug tolerance (PubMed:6348026, PubMed:8021189, PubMed:16707675, PubMed:26222023). Persistence may be ultimately due to global remodeling of the persister cells ribosomes (PubMed:25425348). Phosphorylates Glu-tRNA-ligase (AC P04805, gltX, on Ser-239) in vivo (PubMed:24095282, PubMed:24343429). Phosphorylation of GltX prevents it from being charged, leading to an increase in uncharged tRNA(Glu). This induces amino acid starvation and the stringent response via RelA/SpoT and increased (p)ppGpp levels, which inhibits replication, transcription, translation and cell wall synthesis, reducing growth and leading to persistence and multidrug resistance (PubMed:24095282, PubMed:24343429, PubMed:25848049). Once the level of HipA exceeds a threshold cells become dormant, and the length
Welcome to the Diphtheria Equine Antitoxin information hub. Featuring active ingredients, dosages, related medications, and Diphtheria Equine Antitoxin forums.
When written, the Professor requested that his name be omitted due to concern for reprisal.. Glyoxylide and associated antitoxins act catalytically, yet the substances themselves are readily oxidized because of the unsaturated double bond linkages, and that is what makes them effective. In this latter respect, the substances differ from true catalysts and enzymes, which are not used up in the process of reaction. It appears as though these antitoxins are so to speak highly combustible in the metabolism of animals and their oxidation, therefore can occur at the low oxidative levels which obtain in the sick organism. By analogy, they would have a lower kindling temperature. And once these metabolites burst into flame, a great release of energy and radiation occurs which spreads like wildfire to toxic substances, which are then burned in their turn. This oxidation then continues from cell to cell in the body in all directions, from many centers of dispersal, operating like a continues ...
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Persisters have traditionally been identified as subpopulations of cells that survive antibiotic treatment via epigenetic means. They were first recognized while treating Staphylococcus with penicillin [1] and were later identified as the source of multidrug tolerance in biofilms [2], making them responsible for 65% to 80% of bacterial infections [3,4]. Persisters have been implicated in the stubborn Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections to which most cystic fibrosis patients eventually succumb [5], as well as the oral Candida albicans infections common in cancer patients [6]. They may also explain the recurrence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections, responsible for 1.6 million deaths each year [7].. Persistence is not the result of a genetic mutation, but rather of a heterogeneous population. Modern single-cell studies have confirmed that persisters are rare, slowly growing cells [8], and that slowly growing cells are less susceptible to antibiotics [9]. More recent evidence suggests that slow ...
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A BLAST search with the HI0659 protein sequence turns up homologs in only the same species. Some of these are annotated as members of an Xre-family toxin-antitoxin system (I think HI0660 is homologous to the toxin component, and HI0659 to the antitoxin component). HI0660 is also tagged as a member of the Gp49 superfamily (also phage proteins I think). Xre family repressors are known to perform a variety of regulatory functions unrelated to toxin-antitoxin systems (ref). The same paper suggests that the Tad toxin components might be mRNA-cleaving ribonucleases. Maybe thats what HI0660 does, and HI0659 is a repressor that prevents it from acting. If so, and if sxy mRNA was HI0660s target, then the mutant phenotypes would make sense. ...
Toxin-antitoxin (TA) loci, which are widely distributed in prokaryotes, are organized in small operons, consisting of genes encoding toxins and antitoxins. Transcription from the promoter is regulated by the TA protein complex. Activation of the toxin occurs when the toxin is in excess of the antitoxin, for example during nutritional stress when the labile antitoxins are rapidly degraded by cellular proteases. The biological function of TA systems is debated and several different models have been proposed. Several of the TA loci encode messenger RNA interferases (mls) that inhibit translation by cleaving mRNA. Two types are known: those that cleave mRNA codons at the ribosomal A-site and those that cleave any RNA site-specifically. In this work, it was shown that the ml, YoeB cleaved mRNA strictly dependent on translation in vivo. Furthermore, it was shown that site-specific mRNA cleavage by MazF occurs independently of translation but that translation can seriously influence MazF cleavage ...
This grouping is largely consistent with the evolutionary division of prokaryotic organisms based on 16S rRNA sequences. Furthermore, the evolutionary relationship within the subgroups agrees well with the evolutionary grouping of the corresponding organisms (Fig. 3). However, the significant number of exceptions to regular grouping could reflect lateral gene transfer. Lateral interkingdom gene transfer is consistent with the finding that the deep-branching members of the domainBacteria such as Aquifex aeolicus andThermotoga maritima contain many genes like archaeal genes (16 and 24%, respectively) (61). Alternatively, irregular grouping of the homologues could reflect statistical fluctuations caused by the small size of the RelE proteins, rather than a true evolutionary relationship.. One striking finding is that several chromosomes contain two or morerelBE homologues (paralogues). The complex relationship between multiple paralogues and orthologues as described by Tatusov et al. (89) is not ...
This grouping is largely consistent with the evolutionary division of prokaryotic organisms based on 16S rRNA sequences. Furthermore, the evolutionary relationship within the subgroups agrees well with the evolutionary grouping of the corresponding organisms (Fig. 3). However, the significant number of exceptions to regular grouping could reflect lateral gene transfer. Lateral interkingdom gene transfer is consistent with the finding that the deep-branching members of the domainBacteria such as Aquifex aeolicus andThermotoga maritima contain many genes like archaeal genes (16 and 24%, respectively) (61). Alternatively, irregular grouping of the homologues could reflect statistical fluctuations caused by the small size of the RelE proteins, rather than a true evolutionary relationship.. One striking finding is that several chromosomes contain two or morerelBE homologues (paralogues). The complex relationship between multiple paralogues and orthologues as described by Tatusov et al. (89) is not ...
Looking for antitoxic? Find out information about antitoxic. any of a group of antibodies formed in the body as a response to the introduction of poisonous products, or toxins toxin, poison produced by living... Explanation of antitoxic
Hotspot2. In addition to SXT or R391-specific molecular profiles in hotspot2 loci as previously reported [23], variable gene contents in HS2 were identified in eight ICEs characterized in this study (Figure 1). Previous studies indicated that most SXT/R391 ICEs contain mosA and mosT genes in HS2, which encode a novel toxin-antitoxin pair that promotes SXT maintenance by killing or severely inhibiting the growth of cells that have lost this element [37]. However, the two genes were absent from the HS2 (1.3 kb) in six ICEs including ICEVchChn1, ICEVchChn3, ICEVchChn4, ICEVchChn5, ICEVchChn6 and ICEVpaChn1. These results are consistent with those yielded from R391 and few other ICEs [10, 37]. Nevertheless, BLAST analysis of the HS2 (GenBank: KF411056-KF411060) in these six elements revealed that they contain two homologous genes (98% amino acid identity) to those that occur in the 3′-region of the HS2 in ICEVspPor2, possibly encoding additional anti-toxin component protecting against the loss of ...
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✅ Answered - [interferon] [antitoxins] [antigens] [Both a and b] are the options of mcq question Proteins which are synthesized by blood to protect body from nucleic acids and toxins of invading organism realted topics topics with 0 Attempts, 0 % Average Score, 0 Topic Tagged and 0 People Bookmarked this question which was asked on May 03, 2019 05:36
The best 24 synonyms for serum, including: antitoxin, antiserum, immunotoxin, blood-serum, plasma, agglutinogen, agglutinoid, albumin, ferritin, oestradiol, fibrinogen and more... Find another word for serum at YourDictionary.
Sterckx, Y. G. J., A. Volkov, W. F. Vranken, J. Kragelj, M. Ringkjøbi Jensen, L. Buts, A. Garcia-Pino, T. Jové, L. Van Melderen, M. Blackledge, et al., Small-angle X-ray scattering- and nuclear magnetic resonance-derived conformational ensemble of the highly flexible antitoxin PaaA2., Structure, vol. 22, issue 6, pp. 854-65, 2014 Jun 10. ...
Looking for the definition of WESR? Find out what is the full meaning of WESR on Abbreviations.com! AM-1330. FM-103.3, Onley, Virginia is one option -- get in to view more @ The Webs largest and most authoritative acronyms and abbreviations resource.
This is the first comprehensive report of serologic responses to the oral ETEC-rCTB vaccine in subjects living in an area where ETEC is endemic. We consider the pediatric data presented herein especially relevant, since children and infants in Egypt and other developing countries represent important targets for ETEC immunization. Several of our findings bear importance for future evaluations of the ETEC-rCTB vaccine. First, the vaccine elicited pronounced antitoxin antibody responses of both IgA and IgG isotypes in all three age groups as reported here and elsewhere (15). Second, a high proportion of vaccinated children achieved seroconversion to each of the four vaccine-shared CF antigens studied, and the magnitude of antibody elevations, particularly of IgA isotype, was substantial. Third, both age and preimmunization titer were independently and inversely associated with the magnitude of IgA antibody responses to the vaccine. Last, IgG antibodies to CF antigens appeared to reflect a ...
Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are small genetic elements that are ubiquitous in prokaryotes. Most studies on TA systems have focused on commensal and pathogenic bacteria; yet very few studies have focused on TAs in marine bacteria, especially those isolated from a deep sea environment. Here, we characterized a type II VapC/VapB TA system from the deep-sea derived Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 02999. The VapC (virulence-associated protein) protein belongs to the PIN (PilT N-terminal) superfamily. Overproduction of VapC strongly inhibited cell growth and resulted in a bleb-containing morphology in E. coli. The toxicity of VapC was neutralized through direct protein-protein interaction by a small protein antitoxin VapB encoded by a neighboring gene. Antitoxin VapB alone or the VapB/VapC complex negatively regulated the vapBC promoter activity. We further revealed that three conserved Asp residues in the PIN domain were essential for the toxic effect of VapC. Additionally, the VapC/VapB TA system stabilized plasmid
Induced Lethality Induced lethality is a biocontainment strategy in which GMOs are contained by the induction of toxic genes upon leaving the lab setting. The toxin/antitoxin systems of bacteria have been used in many papers examining the use of induced lethality. This induction is typically controlled by the presence or absence of an induction molecule, but theoretically any inducible promoter can be adapted to this purpose. More recently, the idea of induced lethality that has been engineered to cause death after a certain number of cell cycles has been proposed [3]. A study was able to count events in a cell using a a riboregulated transcriptional cascade and a recombinase-based cascade and by coupling [7]. These counters could count cell cycle events and a toxin gene could be induced upon a certain number of cell cycles [3]. The 2012 synthetic biology class went into toxin/antitoxin systems in greater detail (http://openwetware.org/wiki/CH391L/S12/ToxinAntitoxins). Examples of Induced ...
Under Objective 1, progress was made towards examining Xylella fastidiosa genomic and phenotypic diversity through next generation sequencing (NGS) and cell membrane fatty acid profiling approaches, respectively. A single copy plasmid with two toxin-antitoxin systems was discovered and plasmid variation was detected between Xylella fastidiosa grown in vitro versus in planta. In addition, NGS analysis revealed that two different subspecies of Xylella fastidiosa are associated with pecan leaf scorch disease in Georgia. Eight distinct isolates of Xylella fastidiosa were analyzed by profiling the fatty acid membrane composition to allow bacterial characterization at the subspecies, strain, and host plant association levels. Progress was made towards the identification and characterization of genes involved in pathogenicity of Xylella fastidiosa in grapevines. Xylella fastidiosa knockout-mutant strains in several toxin-antitoxin gene systems were evaluated for growth, survival, and altered gene ...
21 Rabbits 1, 3, and 4 had been given a series of four weekly injections, which were apparently insufficient to demonstrate an appreciable antitoxin titer. All were bred; no offspring showed any antitoxin titer. Five months later, another series of injections was begun, in the above quantities, the three rabbits receiv-ing 0.4, 0.05, and 0.2 ml., respectively, each time. These were given naught, three, eight, ten, fourteen, fif-teen, seventeen, twenty-two, and twenty-four days after the first injection, with the intention of producing as high as possible an hyperimmune state in the three experi-mental rabbits. Bleedings from the marginal vein of the ear were made before the first injection, and seven, thirty-nine, and sixty-three days later. The blood specimens were allowed to clot, centrifuged, and serum removed and frozen until they were ready to be titrated. Additional inoculations of toxoid were given sixty-eight, sixty-nine, seventy, eighty-four, and eighty-eight days after the original ...
We were going to use the wild type promoters of the Toxin-Antitoxin modules; however the deterministic model gave us feedback which established that inducible promoters were much more likely to give us the results we were looking for. For the construction of our inducible parts, we first tried to build the toxins under the control of the Lac promoter and the antitoxins under the tetR promoter. We succeeded in the construction of the parts containing the HipB and istR antitoxins and the MqsR toxin. But due to the leakage of lac promoter and even that of the tetR promoter (has less leakage that lac) we were unable to construct the remaining toxin parts using both of those promoters. To overcome this inconvenience we decided to use the pmr promoter which is inducible by the CI lambda phage protein. So far we have constructed the inducible HipA7 part with the aforementioned promoter. In order to assess the functionality of these parts, we cloned hipB under the control of lac promoter in an ...
We were going to use the wild type promoters of the Toxin-Antitoxin modules; however the deterministic model gave us feedback which established that inducible promoters were much more likely to give us the results we were looking for. For the construction of our inducible parts, we first tried to build the toxins under the control of the Lac promoter and the antitoxins under the tetR promoter. We succeeded in the construction of the parts containing the HipB and istR antitoxins and the MqsR toxin. But due to the leakage of lac promoter and even that of the tetR promoter (has less leakage that lac) we were unable to construct the remaining toxin parts using both of those promoters. To overcome this inconvenience we decided to use the pmr promoter which is inducible by the CI lambda phage protein. So far we have constructed the inducible HipA7 part with the aforementioned promoter. In order to assess the functionality of these parts, we cloned hipB under the control of lac promoter in an ...
The previously identified spoIIS locus encodes a toxin-antitoxin system in Bacillus subtilis. It comprises two genes, spoIISA encoding a toxin and spoIISB encoding an antitoxin, which lies adjacent to each other on the chromosome. Each of the spoIIS coding sequences is preceded by a promoter region and the two genes together constitute an operon. The function of SpoIISA is unknown, although it has been shown that the absence of SpoIISB or loss of its function leads to a block in sporulation at stage II. The cytoplasmic membrane has been proposed as the target of the SpoIISA toxin. Heterologously expressed SpoIISA-SpoIISB was shown to be functional in Escherichia coli, where again the cytoplasmic membrane was the most probable target for SpoIISA toxicity. Here we analyzed the effects of SpoIISA production during vegetative growth of B. subtilis and during sporulation by following the levels of SpoIISA. SpoIISA levels increase at the point of entry into stationary phase of cell cultures grown in
Antitoxins are needed that can be produced economically with improved safety and shelf life compared to conventional antisera-based therapeutics. Here we report a practical strategy for development of simple antitoxin therapeutics with substantial advantages over currently available treatments. The therapeutic strategy employs a single recombinant targeting agent that binds a toxin at two unique sites and a clearing Ab that binds two epitopes present on each targeting agent. Co-administration of the targeting agent and the clearing Ab results in decoration of the toxin with up to four Abs to promote accelerated clearance. The therapeutic strategy was applied to two Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) serotypes and protected mice from lethality in two different intoxication models with an efficacy equivalent to conventional antitoxin serum. Targeting agents were a single recombinant protein consisting of a heterodimer of two camelid anti-BoNT heavy-chain-only Ab VH (VHH) binding domains and two E-tag
ALS, a specific, reliable, and accurate immunoassay, was developed for the evaluation of fresh antibody production from circulating mucosal secreting B lymphocytes. In the human trial described here, the ALS assay detected the significant antitoxin increases induced by either formulation of the oral vaccine. The ALS results indicated a peak booster antitoxin response at day 21, which is 7 days after the second dose, that started to decrease at day 24. (Complete results for this clinical trial will be reported separately.). By assaying only antibodies secreted by circulating cells, the ALS method controlled the confounding effect of accumulative antibody in the serum samples, which contain both recent and preexistent soluble antibodies. Since the serum portion of the blood sample has been removed in the ALS assay, this assay measures only the secreting antibodies. When the ALS assay was performed, antibody titers from prevaccination samples were barely detectable, but background titers in serum ...
Hoskisson, Paul A and Sumby, Paul and Smith, Margaret C. M. (2015) The phage growth limitation system in Streptomyces coelicolor A(3)2 is a toxin/antitoxin system, comprising enzymes with DNA methyltransferase, protein kinase and ATPase activity. Virology, 477. pp. 100-109. ISSN 1096-0341 Lamb, Karen Elaine and Flasche, Stefan and Diggle, Matthew and Inverarity, Donald and Greenhalgh, David and Jefferies, Johanna and Smith, Andrew and Edwards, Giles F S and Denham, Barbara and McMenamin, Jim and McDonald, Eisin and Mitchell, Tim J and Clarke, Stuart C and Robertson, Chris (2014) Trends in serotypes and sequence types among cases of invasive pneumococcal disease in Scotland, 1999-2010. Vaccine, 32 (34). pp. 4356-4363. ISSN 0264-410X Mattey, M. and Spencer, J. (2008) Bacteriophage therapy - cooked goose or Phoenix rising? Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 19 (6). pp. 608-612. ISSN 0958-1669 McDonald, S.A. and Hutchinson, Sharon and Mills, P.R. and S.M., Bird and Cameron, S. and Dillon, J.F. and ...
A method of prophylactics with respect to detoxification of Staphylococcus aureus and other toxins by ascorbic acid, salts and esters, topically applied by means of carriers which are otherwise regularly employed in the area where Staphylococcus aureus or other bacteria colonize, such as a pharmacological appliance including gauze pads, an absorbant mass or pad associated with menses, douches, and contraceptive compositions.
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Mlýnský V, Kührová P, Zgarbová M, Jurečka P, Walter NG, Otyepka M, Šponer J, Banáš P: Reactive Conformation of the Active Site in the Hairpin Ribozyme Achieved by Molecular Dynamics Simulations with $epsilon$/$zeta$ Force Field Reparametrizations. J. Phys. Chem. B., 119(11), 4220-4229, 2015. (DOI ...
De Gieter, S., A. Konijnenberg, A. Talavera, A. Butterer, S. Haesaerts, H. De Greve, F. Sobott, R. Loris, and A. Garcia-Pino, The intrinsically disordered domain of the antitoxin Phd chaperones the toxin Doc against irreversible inactivation and misfolding., J Biol Chem, vol. 289, issue 49, pp. 34013-23, 2014 Dec 05. ...
1. The immunological properties of two contrasting types of human antisera, each containing a high titer of diphtheria antitoxin, have been investigated. 2. Sera which contain only non-precipitating antitoxin exhibit most of the properties of atopic reagin-containing sera. This type of antitoxin is capable of sensitizing normal human skin to toxin or toxoid and remains for many weeks in the injected area. It exhibits no Danysz effect, does not fix complement unless very large amounts of serum are used, and can be specifically coprecipitated by addition of precipitating antitoxin and toxin. On the other hand, it is capable of sensitizing guinea pigs to fatal anaphylactic shock. Heating at 56°C. for 4 hours destroys the skin-sensitizing properties and results in almost quantitative conversion to a modified antitoxin which is capable of blocking the wheal and erythema reaction caused by injection of toxoid into sensitized skin. Heating at 56°C. does not result in an appreciable loss of ...
TETANUS ANTITOXIN Antitoxins & Sera Enzyme refined equine globulin solution 1500 IU/1ml ampoule 10,000 IU/3.4ml vial 20,000 IU/5ml vial Packing : 1ml ampoule X 10, 1ml ampoule X 100 3.4ml vial X 10 5ml vial X 10
AbstractThrough the formation of persister cells, bacteria exhibit tolerance to multidrug and other environmental stresses without undergoing genetic changes. The toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are involved in the formation of persister cells because they are able to induce cell dormancy. Among the TA systems, the MqsRA system has been observed to be highly induced in persister cells of Xylella fastidiosa (causal agent of citrus variegated chlorosis - CVC) activated by copper stress, and has been described in Escherichia coli as related to the formation of persister cells and biofilms. Thus, we evaluated the role of this TA system in X. fastidiosa by overexpressing the MqsR toxin, and verified that the toxin positively regulated biofilm formation and negatively cell movement, resulting in reduced pathogenicity in citrus plants. The overexpression of MqsR also increased the formation of persister cells under copper stress. Analysis of the gene and protein expression showed that this system likely has an
ContextBotulism is an important public health problem in Argentina, but obtaining antitoxin rapidly has been difficult because global supplies are limited. In
Patients must have advanced stage solid tumor with histologically or cytologically proven evaluable or measurable disease and who are refractory to standard treatment for their malignancy or for whom no effective standard therapy exists.. Must have the presence of B3 antigen on the surface of greater than 30% of the tumor cells.. Must be greater than or equal to 18 years old and be able to give informed consent.. Must have an ECOG performance status of 0 or 1 and a minimum life expectancy of 3 months.. Must have normal renal function (Creatinine less than or equal to 1.4 mg/dl), SGOT and SGPT less than or equal to 2.5 x of the upper limits of normal. Total bilirubin less than 1.5 mg/dL; AGC greater than or equal to 1.5 x 10(3) microliter; platelets greater than 100,000 per mm(3).. Must have recovered from the toxic effects of prior chemotherapy or radiation therapy. At least 3 weeks must have elapsed since the last dose of chemotherapy, hormonal therapy or radiation therapy. At least six weeks ...
In 1904, a German physiologist named Wilhelm Weichardt announced that he had discovered a vaccine against fatigue. He thought that tiredness was caused by a toxin in the bloodstream and that he could inject that toxin into animals to produce an antitoxin that would get rid of the toxin. He thought that fatigue is like an infection. When a germ gets into your body, you make specific proteins called antibodies that attach to that germ and kill it. He thought that the blood of exhausted rats contained a toxin that made them tired. He also thought that, in the same way that antibodies can cure infections, antibodies against the toxin causing fatigue would disable the toxin and cure fatigue. He forced rats to exercise until they were exhausted and then drew blood from their veins. Then he injected the rats blood into horses, which he thought would produce an antitoxin. Then he withdrew blood from the horses and injected small amounts of this fictional antitoxin into humans and reported that the ...
Nearly normal secondary tetanus antitoxin responses were produced by young adult female mice subjected to 600 rads of 60Co gamma whole-body radiation 4 days after secondary antigenic stimulation via the hind leg footpads. In an attempt to correlate the rapid transition from radiosensitivity of the antibody-forming system on day 3 to relative radioresistance on day 4 after booster, we carried out studies on cytokinetics in regional (popliteal) lymph nodes and on incorporation of 3H-l-histidine into circulating antitoxin. Analyses of tritium radioactivity in antigen-antibody precipitates of pooled sera 2 hr after i.v. injection of the labeled amino acid revealed maximum incorporation into antibody around day 7 after booster in nonirradiated controls, and around day 12, i.e., 8 days after radiation, in experimental mice, respectively. Relative radioresistance of the antibody-forming system on day 4 after booster, as opposed to day 3, was attributed to the finding that plasmacellular proliferation ...
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Synonyms for Acla in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Acla. 21 words related to antibody: active site, protein, autoantibody, precipitin, ABO antibodies, Rh antibody, antitoxin, agglutinin, Forssman antibody.... What are synonyms for Acla?
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The F plasmid contains another homologous toxin-antitoxin system called srnB. The first type I toxin-antitoxin system to be ... Daughter cells without a copy of the R1 plasmid die because they do not have the means to produce more sok antitoxin transcript ... It was the first type I toxin-antitoxin pair to be identified through characterisation of a plasmid-stabilising locus. It is a ... Due to the short half-life of the sok antitoxin, daughter cells inherit only small amounts and it quickly degrades. If a ...
These observations are in accordance with those made of Type I toxin-antitoxin systems. In type I toxin-antitoxin systems, the ... Type I toxin-antitoxin loci are frequently found in both prokaryotic chromosomes and plasmids. The secondary structure of ... Hok/sok system Toxin-antitoxin system Findeiss S, Schmidtke C, Stadler PF, Bonas U (March 2010). "A novel family of plasmid- ... Gerdes K, Wagner EG (April 2007). "RNA antitoxins". Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 10 (2): 117-24. doi:10.1016/j.mib.2007.03.003. PMID ...
... , also known as tetanus immune globulin (TIG) and tetanus antitoxin, is a medication made up of ... "Tetanus Antitoxin". International Drug Price Indicator Guide. Retrieved 8 December 2016. "Immunoglobulin Prices 2013 - PAHO/WHO ...
Patients with severe cases are put in a hospital intensive care unit and given a diphtheria antitoxin. Since antitoxin does not ... Louis children died from contaminated diphtheria antitoxin. The horse from which the antitoxin was derived died of tetanus. ... In 1919, in Dallas, Texas, 10 children were killed and 60 others made seriously ill by toxic antitoxin which had passed the ... ISBN 0-07-139140-1. "Antitoxin dars 1735 and 1740." The William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd Ser., Vol 6, No 2. p. 338. Shulman, S. ...
27 (Associated Press).-Nome has a diphtheria epidemic and no antitoxin. The nearest known supply of antitoxin is at Anchorage, ... "DOGS RUSH ANTI-TOXIN FOR NOME EPIDEMIC; Two Fliers Volunteer Services". The New York Times. Associated Press. January 29, 1925 ... The antitoxin units are to leave Seattle Saturday on the steamship Alameda. . . . WASHINGTON, Jan. 29.-Possibility that an ... This is reminiscent of the 1925 serum run to Nome, a sled dog relay carrying antitoxin that was responsible for halting a ...
... its cognate antitoxin. The toxin-antitoxin complex is thought to autoregulate its own operon, repressing transcription of both ... Zhang, YX; Li, J; Guo, XK; Wu, C; Bi, B; Ren, SX; Wu, CF; Zhao, GP (Jun 2004). "Characterization of a novel toxin-antitoxin ... The toxins in this family are thought to perform RNA cleavage, which is inhibited by the co-expression of the antitoxin, in a ... Toxin-antitoxin database Robson, Jennifer; McKenzie, Joanna L.; Cursons, Ray; Cook, Gregory M.; Arcus, Vickery L. (17 July 2009 ...
Plasma derivatives, including immunoglobulins, hyperimmune products, and antitoxins. Human cells, tissues, and cellular and ...
Rees, Anthony R. (2015). The Antibody Molecule: From Antitoxins to Therapeutic Antibodies. Oxford University Press. pp. 104-120 ...
The second antitoxin, heptavalent (A,B,C,D,E,F,G) botulinum antitoxin, is derived from "despeciated" equine IgG antibodies ... This human-derived antitoxin has been shown to be both safe and effective for the treatment of infant botulism. However, the ... A trivalent antitoxin containing antibodies raised against botulinum toxin types A, B, and E is used most commonly, however a ... To avoid this, a human-derived antitoxin has been developed and approved by the U.S. FDA in 2003 for the treatment of infant ...
Toxin-antitoxin system PDB: 1BRS​; Buckle AM, Schreiber G, Fersht AR (August 1994). "Protein-protein recognition: crystal ...
Antitoxins. Substances in the serum that can neutralize. the activity of toxins, enabling passive immunization. von Behring and ... went on to develop the diphtheria antitoxin, which became the first major success of modern immunotherapy.[3] The presence and ... were used to vaccinate animals in an attempt to demonstrate that immunized serum contained an antitoxin that could neutralize ...
He also worked on antitoxins for diphtheria and anthrax. Kitasato and Behring demonstrated the value of antitoxin in preventing ... Sri Kantha, S. A Centennial review; the 1890 Tetanus antitoxin paper of von Behring and Kitasato and the related developments. ... Kitasato and Emil von Behring, working together in Berlin in 1890, announced the discovery of diphtheria antitoxin serum. Von ...
The majority of PIN-domain proteins found in prokaryotes are the toxic components of toxin-antitoxin operons. These loci ... Gerdes K, Christensen SK, Løbner-Olesen A (May 2005). "Prokaryotic toxin-antitoxin stress response loci". Nat. Rev. Microbiol. ... "The PIN-domain ribonucleases and the prokaryotic VapBC toxin-antitoxin array". Protein Eng. Des. Sel. 24 (1-2): 33-40. doi: ...
Gerdes K, Christensen SK and Lobner-Olesen A (2005). "Prokaryotic toxin-antitoxin stress response loci". Nat. Rev. Microbiol. ( ... Many stress-response toxins of prokaryotic toxin-antitoxin systems have been shown to have RNase activity and homology. EC 3.1. ... "Comprehensive Functional Analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Toxin-Antitoxin Systems: Implications for Pathogenesis, Stress ...
... method of toxin neutralization by the antitoxin, and autoregulation of the addiction module by the antitoxin or toxin:antitoxin ... Once the antitoxin has bound to the toxin, the toxin prevents the proteases normally responsible for degrading antitoxin to do ... In addition, the transcription of the antitoxin RNA is heavily upregulated by a strong promoter which ensures excess antitoxin ... so that the antitoxin is available to immediately neutralize the toxin. This upstream placement of the antitoxin gene is found ...
Magnuson, Roy David (1 September 2007). "Hypothetical Functions of Toxin-Antitoxin Systems". Journal of Bacteriology. 189 (17 ...
In the last few years there are some new developments to create an antitoxin or a vaccine for the toxic snake bites. In 2005 a ... Rediocides A and G are found to be a possible antitoxin for α-cobratoxin. These rediocides bind at the same nicotinic ... Utsintong M, Kaewnoi A, Leelamanit W, Olson AJ, Vajragupta O (2009). "Rediocides A and G as potential antitoxins against cobra ...
The institute remained an important manufacturer of vaccines and antitoxins. It produced the 'triple vaccine' for diphtheria, ...
As part of a $450 million contract with BARDA for the SNS, Emergent also developed the only FDA-licensed botulinum antitoxin, ... "Health Canada approves Emergent BioSolutions' botulism antitoxin". Homeland Preparedness News. 2016-12-13. Retrieved 2017-01-19 ... BAT [Botulism Antitoxin Heptavalent] for treating naturally occurring botulism.[v] Canada has also approved BAT. The federal ...
Sponsored Successful Search for Scarlet Fever Antitoxin. A Supporter of Opera". New York Times. October 17, 1941. Retrieved ...
In December 2016, Health Canada approved the purchase of Emergent's new botulism antitoxin called Botulism Antitoxin ... BAT was first licensed in the U.S. in 2013 and is the only botulism antitoxin available in the U.S. for naturally-occurring ... "Emergent BioSolutions Signs $53 Million Modification to BARDA Contract for the Manufacture of Botulism Antitoxin". Emergent ... "Health Canada approves Emergent BioSolutions' botulism antitoxin". Homeland Preparedness News. 2016-12-13. Retrieved 2017-01-11 ...
... -antitoxin system. References[edit]. *^ "toxin" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary *^ "toxin - Definition from the Merriam- ...
The par locus contains two genes: fst which encodes a 33-amino acid toxic protein and a gene for RNAII, the small RNA anti- ... The par stability determinant is a 400 bp locus of the pAD1 plasmid which encodes a type I toxin-antitoxin system in ... Hayes F (September 2003). "Toxins-antitoxins: plasmid maintenance, programmed cell death, and cell cycle arrest". Science. 301 ... Page for fst antitoxin sRNA (RNAII) at Rfam. ...
The second antitoxin is Heptavalent (A,B,C,D,E,F,G) botulinum antitoxin, which is derived from equine antibodies which have ... Two preparations of botulinum antitoxins are available for treatment of botulism. Trivalent (A,B,E) botulinum antitoxin is ... Botulinum antitoxin is available and may be used to prevent the worsening of symptoms, though it will not reverse existing ... This antitoxin is effective against all known strains of botulism. Botulinum toxin exerts its effect by cleaving key proteins ...
Diphtheria antitoxin was serum from horses that had been immunized against diphtheria, and was used to treat human cases by ... In 1901, antitoxin from a horse named Jim was contaminated with tetanus and killed 13 children in St Louis, Missouri. This ... Injection of horse serum into humans as used in antitoxin can cause hypersensitivity, commonly referred to as serum sickness. ... Moreover, the continued production of smallpox vaccine in animals and the production of antitoxins in horses prompted anti- ...
Porter, J. D., Perkin, M. A., Corbel, M. J., Farrington, C. P., Watkins, J. T., Begg, N. T. (1992). "Lack of early antitoxin ... In such cases, it can be given with or without tetanus immunoglobulin (also called tetanus antibodies or tetanus antitoxin). It ... In 1897, Edmond Nocard showed that tetanus antitoxin induced passive immunity in humans, and could be used for prophylaxis and ... also called tetanus antibodies or tetanus antitoxin. It can be given as intravenous therapy or by intramuscular injection. ...
Antitoxin is recommended for those with widespread infection. Anthrax among humans is most common in Africa and central and ... If infection occurs treatment is with antibiotics and possibly antitoxin. The type and number of antibiotics used depends on ...
Dean, H. R. (1927). "Complement fixation in mixtures of toxin and antitoxin". The Journal of Pathology and Bacteriology. 30 (4 ... with especial reference to the changes which follow the injection of antitoxin". The Journal of Pathology and Bacteriology. 12 ...
Rocker, A.; Meinhart, A. (2015). "A cis-acting antitoxin domain within the chromosomal toxin-antitoxin module EzeT of ... These enzymes are found as part of plasmid-encoded and chromosomal bacterial toxin-antitoxin systems. Mutschler, H.; Gebhardt, ... Zielenkiewicz U.; Cegłowski P. (2005). "The Toxin-Antitoxin System of the Streptococcal Plasmid pSM19035". J Bacteriol. 187: ... M.; Shoeman, R.L.; Meinhart, A. (2011). "A novel mechanism of programmed cell death in bacteria by toxin-antitoxin systems ...
Gupta, RK; Griffin P, Jr; Xu, J; Rivera, R; Thompson, C; Siber, GR (Jun 1996). "Diphtheria antitoxin levels in US blood and ... Gupta, RK; Siber, GR (Sep 1994). "Comparative analysis of tetanus antitoxin titers of sera from immunized mice and guinea pigs ... Gupta, RK; Siber, GR (Mar 1995). "Need for a reference preparation of pertussis antitoxin for Chinese hamster ovary cell assay ... "Suitability of the Vero cell method for titration of diphtheria antitoxin in the United States potency test for diphtheria ...
Toxin-antitoxin systems are subject to both auto- and cross-regulation. Cognate regulatory interactions are in red and non- ... antitoxins). Antitoxins are DNA-binding proteins and auto-repress transcription of TA operons. Transcription of multiple TA ... form a tight complex and antitoxin inhibits the toxin through direct protein-protein interaction. Antitoxin, both alone and in ... Transcriptional cross-activation between toxin-antitoxin systems of Escherichia coli.. Kasari V1, Mets T, Tenson T, Kaldalu N. ...
The antitoxin can either be an RNA or a protein. For type I and type III loci, the antitoxins are RNAs; however, they have very ... Type I antitoxins repress toxin protein expression through interacting with the toxin mRNA, thereby targeting the mRNA for ... Along with these two very different modes of action for the antitoxin, there are differences in the functions of the toxin ... an antitoxin to repress its function or expression. ... type III antitoxins directly bind to the toxin protein, ...
Type II toxin-antitoxin systems are unevenly distributed among Escherichia coli phylogroups.. [Krzysztof Fiedoruk, Tamara ... Type II toxin-antitoxin systems (TAs) are bicistronic operons ubiquitous in prokaryotic genomes, displaying multilevel ...
b) M, mRNA; A, antitoxin; T, toxin; C, antitoxin bound to one toxin; D, antitoxin bound to two toxins. A and T are both ... Model of coupled toxin-antitoxin systems. (a) The toxin and antitoxin are translationally coupled. The antitoxin binds and ... Experimental evidence indicates that one toxin-antitoxin system can trigger another, unrelated toxin-antitoxin system [46-48]. ... differing only in the normal rate constant for antitoxin degradation When the antitoxin is more stable (e.g. figure 2b, red), ...
Mixed Gas-Gangrene Antitoxin indications, usages and related health products lists ... Mixed Gas-Gangrene Antitoxin information about active ingredients, pharmaceutical forms and doses, ... Gas-Gangrene Antitoxin Novyi*Gas-Gangrene Antitoxin Perfringens*Gas-Gangrene Antitoxin Septicum. ... Find online pharmacy, drugstore, pharma or beauty shop where to order or buy Mixed Gas-Gangrene Antitoxin brand or generic ...
... antitoxin by microtiter enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All 31 had significant rises in antitoxin one month after ... antitoxin by microtiter enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All 31 had significant rises in antitoxin one month after ... antitoxin by microtiter enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All 31 had significant rises in antitoxin one month after ... antitoxin by microtiter enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All 31 had significant rises in antitoxin one month after ...
Featuring active ingredients, dosages, related medications, and Diphtheria Equine Antitoxin forums. ... Welcome to the Diphtheria Equine Antitoxin information hub. ... Recent Diphtheria Equine Antitoxin Forums:. Be the first to ... Diphtheria Equine Antitoxin. *Injection: 10000unit/5ml Note: Above list includes dosages for all drugs with the same ... Diphtheria Equine Antitoxin Overview. Diphtheria is an infection caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheriae.[1] Signs ...
The Koch antitoxin seems to operate as a fuse- like adjunct to the "vis medicatrix naturae" itself since this antitoxin acts ... 1925 IS A CURE FOR CANCER POSSIBLE BY ANTITOXIN AND SERUM TREATMENT EIGHTEEN MONTHS WITH THE KOCH CANCER ANTITOXIN ... Kochs antitoxin is excellent kindling; it readily oxidizes and the energy released is intense enough to reach the kindling ... Glyoxylide and associated antitoxins act catalytically, yet the substances themselves are readily oxidized because of the ...
An antitoxin is an antibody with the ability to neutralize a specific toxin. Antitoxins are produced by certain animals, plants ... To prevent serum sickness, it is often best to use antitoxin generated from the same species (e.g. use human antitoxin to treat ... When the antitoxin is obtained from the blood, it is purified and injected into a human or other animal, inducing passive ... Antitoxins are made within organisms, but can be injected into other organisms, including humans. This procedure involves ...
Diphtheria antitoxin was developed and came into medical use in the late 1800s. It is on the World Health Organizations List ... Diphtheria antitoxin (DAT) is a medication made up of antibodies used in the treatment of diphtheria. It is no longer ... Diphtheria antitoxin is made from the blood plasma of horses that have been immunized against diphtheria toxin. It works by ... "A review of the international issues surrounding the availability and demand for diphtheria antitoxin for therapeutic use". ...
Diphtheria Antitoxin (DAT). Use of DAT, requesting DAT, how to return unused DAT, DAT forms and worksheets ... If the clinician revises the patients diagnosis after the release of DAT and the diphtheria antitoxin is not given, then it ... The Food and Drug Administration has not licensed diphtheria antitoxin (DAT) for use in the United States. However, CDC is ...
An oxygen-sensitive toxin-antitoxin system.. Marimon O1, Teixeira JM1, Cordeiro TN1, Soo VW2, Wood TL2, Mayzel M3, Amata I1, ... The Hha and TomB proteins from Escherichia coli form an oxygen-dependent toxin-antitoxin (TA) system. Here we show that YmoB, ... the Yersinia orthologue of TomB, and its single cysteine variant [C117S]YmoB can replace TomB as antitoxins in E. coli. In ...
Treatment of Diphtheria with Refined Antitoxin Br Med J 1939; 1 :384 ... Treatment of Diphtheria with Refined Antitoxin. Br Med J 1939; 1 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.1.4077.384 (Published 25 ...
Definition of tetanus antitoxin unit. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and ...
History of antitoxinEdit. Antitoxins to diphtheria and tetanus toxins were produced by Emil Adolf von Behring and his ... An antitoxin is an antibody with the ability to neutralize a specific toxin. Antitoxins are produced by certain animals, plants ... To prevent serum sickness, it is often best to use antitoxin generated from the same species (e.g. use human antitoxin to treat ... An antitoxin for scarlet fever was developed in 1924 simultaneously by Raymond Dochez and Gladys and George Frederick Dick.[4] ...
Make research projects and school reports about antitoxin easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and ... antitoxin Antibody produced by the body in response to a toxin. It is specific in action and neutralizes the toxin. Antitoxin ... antitoxin An antibody produced in response to a bacterial toxin.. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for ... antitoxin (anti-toks-in) n. an antibody produced by the body to counteract a toxin formed by invading bacteria or from any ...
... such as pyruvic acid and maleic acid were not effective antitoxins at 1 mg. Thus, the antitoxin activity of ascorbic acid is ...
Species: Transcriptional regulator, AbiEi antitoxin (IPR025159). Key Species. This entry matches no proteins from key species. ...
... locus of Escherichia coliK-12 codes for a translation-independent GCU site-specific endoribonuclease MqsR and an antitoxin MqsA ... 2011). Toxin-antitoxin systems in bacteria and archaea. Annual Review of Genetics, 45, 61-79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... 2011). Antitoxin MqsA helps mediate the bacterial general stress response. Nature Chemical Biology, 7(6), 359-366.PubMed ... 2010). Escherichia coli toxin/antitoxin pair MqsR/MqsA regulate toxin CspD. Environmental Microbiology, 12(5), 1105-1121.PubMed ...
D Antitoxin for animal usage including: active ingredients, directions for use, precautions, and storage information. ... C & D Antitoxin. This page contains information on C & D Antitoxin for veterinary use.. The information provided typically ... C & D Antitoxin Indications. Recommended for the prevention and treatment of enterotoxemia caused by Clostridium perfringens ... Every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the C & D Antitoxin information published above. However, it remains the ...
Some side effects may occur that usually do not need medical attention. These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. Also, your health care professional may be able to tell you about ways to prevent or reduce some of these side effects. Check with your health care professional if any of the following side effects continue or are bothersome or if you have any questions about them:. ...
Scientists are ready to transform the production of anti-venom after mapping the DNA of the Indian cobra for the first time.. Snake bites kill more than 120,000 people a year, more than a third of them in India. About 400,000 lose limbs after amputations become necessary to prevent the spread of the venom.. The National reports that even as the number of people bitten by snakes is increasing as a result of more people living near areas which are snake habitats, the production of venom antidotes has not changed much since anti-venom was first produced in 1896.. for more than a hundred years.. The antiquated technique - involving injecting a horse with venom, then harvesting the horses blood after antibodies have been produced - is costly and imprecise. It also produces anti-venom in quantities which are insufficient for coping with the growing need for it.. A study published Monday in the journal Nature Genetics promises to help transform the process after a researchteam created a detailed map ...
Scarlet fever antitoxin definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. ... scarlet fever antitoxin, solid angle, solid fuel, solid geometry, solid injection, solid of revolution ... The antitoxin for the toxins produced by the bacteria that cause scarlet fever. ...
They are part of the type I toxin antitoxin (TA) system, where expression of the proteinaceous toxin is controlled by an ... Type I toxin-antitoxin system, toxin Ldr (IPR025253). Short name: Toxin_Ldr ... For example, LdrD expression is inhibited by the antisense RNA RdlD, which functions as an antitoxin [PMID: 12123448]. ...
PROFESSOR DUNBARS ANTITOXIN TREATMENT OF HAY FEVER: A DISCLAIMER Br Med J 1903; 1 :1235 ... PROFESSOR DUNBARS ANTITOXIN TREATMENT OF HAY FEVER: A DISCLAIMER. Br Med J 1903; 1 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.1.2212. ...
G. J. A. Rainey and J. A. T. Young, "Antitoxins: novel strategies to target agents of bioterrorism," Nature Reviews ... A Simple Model for Assessment of Anti-Toxin Antibodies. Alex Skvortsov and Peter Gray ...
Availability of diphtheria antitoxin through an Investigational New Drug protocol. MMWR 1997;46:380. ... Notice to Readers: Availability of Diphtheria Antitoxin Through an Investigational New Drug Protocol. ... includes early administration of an equine diphtheria antitoxin (DAT). Delay in DAT administration can lead to life-threatening ...
Toxin-antitoxin system toxin HepN family. B, C, D. 133. Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: SO_3166. ... Toxin-antitoxin system antidote Mnt family. A. 139. Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: SO_3165. ... Novel polyadenylylation-dependent neutralization mechanism of the HEPN/MNT toxin/antitoxin system.. Yao, J., Zhen, X., Tang, K. ... The two-gene module HEPN/MNT is predicted to be the most abundant toxin/antitoxin (TA) system in prokaryotes. However, its ...
Antitoxin component of a type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) system. Upon expression in M.smegmatis neutralizes the effect of cognate ...
Diphtheria antitoxin is to be administered only by or under the supervision of your doctor or other health care professional. ... Diphtheria antitoxin is used to prevent and/or treat diphtheria infection in persons exposed to the disease. ...
TOPN: Animal Virus, Serum, Toxin, Antitoxin Act. 0-9 , A , B , C , D , E , F , G , H , I , J , K , L , M , N , O , P , Q , R , ... Animal Virus, Serum, Toxin, Antitoxin Act. Animal Virus, Serum, Toxin, Antitoxin Act ...
... of Fc domain engineering is a feasible strategy to enhance toxin-neutralizing activity and suggest that engineered antitoxin ...
They are classified in five types, depending on the nature and mode of action of the antitoxin. In type I and III, antitoxins ... In type II, IV and V, antitoxins are proteins that either sequester, counterbalance toxin activity or inhibit toxin synthesis. ... In addition to these interactions between the antitoxin and toxin components (RNA-RNA, protein-protein, RNA-protein), TA ... systems are small genetic modules usually composed of a toxin and an antitoxin counteracting the activity of the toxic protein ...
Toxin - antitoxin (TA) genes were first identified on plasmids almost 30 ... Antitoxins presents the first comprehensive overview of an exciting and rapidly expanding research field. ... Type II Toxin-Antitoxin Loci: The ccdAB and parDE Families Marie Deghorain, Nathalie Goeders, Thomas Jové, Laurence Van ... Toxin - antitoxin (TA) genes were first identified on plasmids almost 30 years ago. Since then it has become evident that TA ...
  • Type II toxin-antitoxin systems are unevenly distributed among Escherichia coli phylogroups. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Type II toxin-antitoxin systems (TAs) are bicistronic operons ubiquitous in prokaryotic genomes, displaying multilevel association with cell physiology. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The activity of type II toxin-antitoxin systems (TA), which are responsible for many important features of bacterial cells, is based on the differences between toxin and antitoxin stabilities. (edu.pl)
  • Bacterial toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are formed by potent regulatory or suicide factors (toxins) and their short-lived inhibitors (antitoxins). (nih.gov)
  • Because of repeated infections with bacterial enteropathogens elaborating antigenically related enterotoxins, persons living in less-developed areas even where cholera is not endemic have high prevalence and levels of cholera antitoxin. (elsevier.com)
  • The antitoxin lability results from bacterial protease activity. (edu.pl)
  • It appears as though these antitoxins are so to speak "highly combustible" in the metabolism of animals and their oxidation, therefore can occur at the low oxidative levels which obtain in the sick organism. (williamfkoch.com)
  • Transcriptional cross-activation between toxin-antitoxin systems of Escherichia coli. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we investigated how particular Escherichia coli cytosolic proteases, namely, Lon, ClpAP, ClpXP, and ClpYQ, affect the stability of both the toxin and antitoxin components of the parDE system from the broad host range plasmid RK2. (edu.pl)
  • Furthermore, we find that toxins cleave the TA mRNA in vivo, which is followed by degradation of the antitoxin-encoding fragments and selective accumulation of the toxin-encoding regions. (nih.gov)
  • Sera of 31 North American volunteers who ingested Vibrio cholerae in the course of vaccine development studies were examined for immunoglobulin G (IgG) antitoxin by microtiter enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). (elsevier.com)
  • Antitoxins are DNA-binding proteins and auto-repress transcription of TA operons. (nih.gov)
  • Cultures of BW25113 contained plasmids for toxin and antitoxin expression. (nih.gov)
  • Glyoxylide' and associated antitoxins act catalytically, yet the substances themselves are readily oxidized because of the unsaturated double bond linkages, and that is what makes them effective. (williamfkoch.com)
  • The microtiter ELISA test for serum IgG cholera antitoxin represents an important tool for seroepidemiologic investigation of cholera in the United States and other industrialized countries. (elsevier.com)
  • Pre-challenge, 7 of 31 volunteers had low levels of antitoxin, i.e., the net optical density (O.D.) of these sera was greater than the mean net O.D. + 3 standard deviations (SD) of a negative control serum pool known to lack antitoxin by two neutralization assays. (elsevier.com)
  • The results of our in vivo and in vitro experiments show that the ParD antitoxin is degraded by the ClpAP protease, and dsDNA stimulates this process. (edu.pl)
  • First Flight was a thoroughbred horse that was transformed by scientists into a living factory to produce botulism antitoxin from the late 1970s through the 1990s. (si.edu)
  • BAT, which was licensed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 2013, is the only botulism antitoxin available in the U.S. for treating naturally occurring, non-infant botulism, and for administering to patients under emergency conditions. (contractpharma.com)
  • BAT is the only botulism antitoxin licensed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and distributed from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for treating naturally occurring, non-infant botulism, and for administration under emergency conditions. (emergentbiosolutions.com)
  • To prevent serum sickness, it is often best to use antitoxin generated from the same species (e.g. use human antitoxin to treat humans). (wikipedia.org)
  • Between 1889 and 1895 Behring developed his pioneering ideas on serum therapy and his theory of antitoxins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Deborah C. Molrine, MD, MPH, deputy director of clinical affairs at MassBiologics and professor of pediatrics, told Science that MassBiologics has identified a human monoclonal antibody that neutralizes the toxin produced by diphtheria-an important advance that could replace the current serum-derived antitoxin. (umassmed.edu)
  • antitoxin is thereupon formed in the blood serum of the horse. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Blood serum containing antitoxin is widely used in prophylaxis and treatment of diphtheria, tetanus, botulism, and other diseases, and it is also used for treatment of persons bitten by poisonous snakes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In the early 1890s, Emil von Behring used serum from a hyperimmune horse (challenged with sublethal dose of Corynebacterium diphtheriae ) to develop equine diphtheria antitoxin (DAT), which seemed to confer passive immunity to patients with diphtheria ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • 1, 2 This case is presented to emphasize that allergic reactions to tetanus antitoxin do occur in spite of apparently adequate testing with horse serum prior to administration of the antitoxin. (annals.org)
  • in general usage, antitoxin refers to whole, or globulin fraction of, serum from people or animals (usually horses) immunized by injections of the specific toxoid. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 2. An animal or human serum containing antitoxins. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It exhibits no Danysz effect, does not fix complement unless very large amounts of serum are used, and can be specifically coprecipitated by addition of precipitating antitoxin and toxin. (rupress.org)
  • A dose of 1500 international units of tetanus antitoxin should be injected subcutaneously or intramuscularly, after testing for serum sensitivity (see below for reactions to horse serum). (vaccinehaffkine.com)
  • Adequate surgical treatment of wounds with the use of suitable antibiotics should be carried out in addition to the prophylactic injection of antitoxin, if the patient is sensitive to serum or has been actively immunised previously with tetanus vaccine (adsorbed) the patient should receive the dose of tetanus vaccine(adsorbed) only and not tetanus antitoxin. (vaccinehaffkine.com)
  • It is recommended that a dose of 10000 to 20000 I.U. of tetanus antitoxin should be injected intramuscularly soon after admission of patient with symptoms of tetanus such as lockjaw, muscular spasms, etc. after taking precautions against possible serum reaction. (vaccinehaffkine.com)
  • In contrast, since diarrheal infections due to pathogens elaborating cholera-like enterotoxins are rare in industrialized countries, this study reviewed the magnitude and duration of the serum antitoxin response to cholera infections in North Americans to develop guidelines for use of antitoxin as a seroepidemiologic tool to investigate endemic cholera in the United States. (elsevier.com)
  • Pre-challenge, 7 of 31 volunteers had low levels of antitoxin, i.e., the net optical density (O.D.) of these sera was greater than the mean net O.D. + 3 standard deviations (SD) of a negative control serum pool known to lack antitoxin by two neutralization assays. (elsevier.com)
  • The microtiter ELISA test for serum IgG cholera antitoxin represents an important tool for seroepidemiologic investigation of cholera in the United States and other industrialized countries. (elsevier.com)
  • This lesson plan uses the "Living Factories" section of the From DNA to Beer site, so that students learn about how horses and other animals were used to develop and produce antitoxin serum in order to prevent children with diphtheria from dying of suffocation. (nih.gov)
  • Students learn about and define acquired and passive immunity in animals, as they explore the horse's immune response to the diphtheria toxin injection and the horse's antitoxin serum that could prevent death in diphtheria patients. (nih.gov)
  • Jiangxi Institute of biological products Inc is a biopharmaceutical company specializing in the production and research of antitoxin Serum biological products The main product is tetanus antitoxin with two domestic registered dosage 1500IU ampoule and 10000IU ampoule It is one of the most prominent manufacturers of. (jxinstitute.com)
  • Inject less than 40 ml of botulinal antitoxin so as to minimize serum sickness. (phadia.com)
  • Antitoxin sera are used to treat and prevent bacterial diseases such as tetanus and diphtheria . (encyclopedia.com)
  • 2011). Diversity of bacterial type II toxin-antitoxin systems: A comprehensive search and functional analysis of novel families. (springer.com)
  • Bacterial toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are formed by potent regulatory or suicide factors (toxins) and their short-lived inhibitors (antitoxins). (nih.gov)
  • Bacterial toxin-antitoxin loci consist of two genes: one encodes a potentially toxic protein, and the second, an antitoxin to repress its function or expression. (mdpi.com)
  • Here, using a Salmonella enterica serovar Agona clonal bacterial population as model, we demonstrate that a Toxin-Antitoxin (TA) system encoded by SGI1 plays a critical role in its stable host maintenance when an IncA/C plasmid is concomitantly present. (nature.com)
  • Specific interaction between MazF seq and the putative cognate antitoxin MazE seq was demonstrated by bacterial two-hybrid analyses. (asm.org)
  • Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are commonly found in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and comprise a stable toxin able to stall bacterial replication and an antitoxin that neutralises the activity of the toxin. (findaphd.com)
  • When under stress conditions, such as nutrient limitation, temperature shock, contact with host cells or exposure to antimicrobials, the antitoxins are degraded leaving the toxin free to arrest bacterial growth. (findaphd.com)
  • 1. Lobato-Marquez D, Diaz-Orejas R, Garcia-Del Portillo F. Toxin-antitoxins and bacterial virulence. (findaphd.com)
  • Toxin-antitoxin systems are prevalent in different bacterial organisms and are encoded in the chromosomal or plasmid DNA. (iastate.edu)
  • equine antitoxin an antitoxin derived from the blood of healthy horses immunized against a specific bacterial toxin. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Of the ~80 putative toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules encoded by the bacterial pathogen M. tuberculosis (Mtb), 3 contain antitoxins essential for bacterial viability. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Because of repeated infections with bacterial enteropathogens elaborating antigenically related enterotoxins, persons living in less-developed areas even where cholera is not endemic have high prevalence and levels of cholera antitoxin. (elsevier.com)
  • RNA‑based regulation in type I toxin-antitoxin systems and its implication for bacterial persistence Bork A. Berghoff 0 1 E. Gerhart H. Wagner 0 0 Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Uppsala University , 75124 Uppsala , Sweden 1 Institut für Mikrobiologie und Molekularbiologie, Justus-Liebig-Universität , 35392 Giessen , Germany 2 E. Gerhart H. Wagner Bacterial dormancy is a valuable survival strategy upon challenging environmental conditions. (paperity.org)
  • n antitoxin Specifically: The antibody to a toxin of bacterial or related origin which is produced as the result of immunization with the corresponding toxin. (finedictionary.com)
  • Comparative genomic analysis of the pVir45 and pVir46 genes in C. jejuni indicates that they encode a putative toxin-antitoxin system that belongs to the RelE/StbE family. (iastate.edu)
  • Heating at 56°C. for 4 hours destroys the skin-sensitizing properties and results in almost quantitative conversion to a modified antitoxin which is capable of blocking the wheal and erythema reaction caused by injection of toxoid into sensitized skin. (rupress.org)
  • Tetanus Toxoid is administered to the animal to help build an immunity to Tetanus After the injection the Toxoid will start to take effect approximately 10 to 25 days which is the time it takes tetanus to show up in the animal if present The injection will stay in the system up to 2 to 3 months Tetanus Antitoxin is. (jxinstitute.com)
  • One method of management is injection of an equine botulinal antitoxin. (phadia.com)
  • This route is sometimes selected for the induction of spinal anaesthesia, and for the injection of antitoxin in cases of tetanus. (finedictionary.com)
  • But the injection of antitoxin is a "surgical operation" and therefore not provided for by the annual fee. (finedictionary.com)
  • Merck & Co is gearing up to file its investigational antitoxin bezlotoxumab in the US, Canada and Europe this year, after late-stage data backed the drug's use in preventing the recurrence of Clostridium difficile infection. (pharmatimes.com)
  • KENILWORTH, N.J.--( BUSINESS WIRE )--Merck (NYSE:MRK), known as MSD outside the United States and Canada, today announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has accepted for review the Biologics License Application (BLA) for bezlotoxumab, an investigational antitoxin for prevention of Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) infection recurrence. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • The antitoxin has the specific power of neutralising the toxin secreted by Clostridium tetani , the causative organism of tetanus. (vaccinehaffkine.com)
  • Depletion of the DarG antitoxin in Mycobacterium tuberculosis triggers the DNA-damage response and leads to cell death. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • The chromosome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) encodes forty seven toxin-antitoxin modules belonging to the VapBC family. (waikato.ac.nz)
  • Here, we discovered that the MntA antitoxin (MNT-domain protein) acts as an adenylyltransferase and chemically modifies the HepT toxin (HEPN-domain protein) to block its toxicity as an RNase. (rcsb.org)
  • The antitoxin can either be an RNA or a protein. (mdpi.com)
  • type III antitoxins directly bind to the toxin protein, sequestering it. (mdpi.com)
  • Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are small genetic modules usually composed of a toxin and an antitoxin counteracting the activity of the toxic protein. (mdpi.com)
  • In addition to these interactions between the antitoxin and toxin components (RNA-RNA, protein-protein, RNA-protein), TA systems interact with a variety of cellular factors, e.g., toxins target essential cellular components, antitoxins are degraded by RNAses or ATP-dependent proteases. (mdpi.com)
  • Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems encoded in prokaryotic genomes fall into five types, typically composed of two distinct small molecules, an endotoxic protein and a cis -encoded antitoxin of ribonucleic or proteinaceous nature. (asm.org)
  • TA systems typically consist of a small and stable toxic protein that can interfere with vital cellular functions and an unstable antitoxin, capable of inhibiting toxin activity ( 2 ). (asm.org)
  • This strain was transformed with an expression plasmid harbouring both the antitoxin gene and the gene encoding the protein of interest. (csic.es)
  • Analysis of the gene and protein expression showed that this system likely has an autoregulation mechanism to express the toxin and antitoxin in the most beneficial ratio for the cell to oppose stress. (frontiersin.org)
  • Also known as Antitoxin CcdA (LynA) (Protein H) (Protein LetA). (mybiosource.com)
  • Also known as Antitoxin FitA (Trafficking protein A). Antitoxin component of a toxin-antitoxin (TA) module. (mybiosource.com)
  • This type of antitoxin is capable of sensitizing normal human skin to toxin or toxoid and remains for many weeks in the injected area. (rupress.org)
  • 3. Precipitating antitoxin is incapable of sensitizing normal skin to toxin or toxoid and disappears rapidly from the injected sites. (rupress.org)
  • It was possible to demonstrate inhibition of the wheal and erythema reaction in sensitized skin by injecting certain mixtures of precipitating antitoxin and toxoid. (rupress.org)
  • Many persons immunized with toxoid developed both precipitating and nonprecipitating antitoxin simultaneously. (rupress.org)
  • For the production of tetanus toxoid are used international standards of antitoxins gotten in equines, however, these antisera are not available for their routine use in Cuba. (journalcra.com)
  • Along with these two very different modes of action for the antitoxin, there are differences in the functions of the toxin proteins and the mobility of these loci between species. (mdpi.com)
  • In the most common TA genes, called type II TA loci, the antitoxins are proteins that combine with and neutralize the toxins. (springer.com)
  • Prokaryotic chromosomes code for toxin-antitoxin (TA) loci, often in multiple copies. (nih.gov)
  • The antitoxin cannot neutralize toxin that is already bound to tissues but can neutralize circulating (unbound) toxin. (news-medical.net)
  • The two-gene module HEPN/MNT is predicted to be the most abundant toxin/antitoxin (TA) system in prokaryotes. (rcsb.org)
  • Antibiotic resistance, virulence, and other plasmids in bacteria use toxin-antitoxin gene pairs to ensure their persistence during host replication. (sciencemag.org)
  • In fact, the first gene tied to persistence was hipA [ 24 ], later identified as the toxic half of a toxin-antitoxin pair. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Results]: In order to use the yefM/yoeBsl system to stabilize expression plasmids in Streptomyces, a S. lividans mutant strain that contained only the toxin gene (yoeBsl) in its genome and the antitoxin gene (yefMsl) located in a temperature-sensitive plasmid was constructed and used as host. (csic.es)
  • The first gene in a TA operon codes for an antitoxin that combines with and neutralizes a regulatory 'toxin', encoded by the second gene. (nih.gov)
  • The plasmid stability assay in C. jejuni showed that the toxin-antitoxin system is necessary for maintaining the stability of pVir because deletion of the pVir46 gene resulted in loss of the plasmid during passage in conventional media. (iastate.edu)
  • The antitoxin for the toxins produced by the bacteria that cause scarlet fever. (dictionary.com)
  • Intaramat A, Puthsorn P, Kittikajhon S, Eamrod H, Ratanabanangkoon K, (2015) Simple Devices to Facilitate the Immunization of Horse for Antivenom/Antitoxin Production. (omicsonline.org)
  • A multi-dose injector to facilitate the immunization of horse by the 'low dose, low volume multi-site' protocol in antivenom/antitoxin production is described. (omicsonline.org)
  • These devices have been found to be very useful to the investigator and in reducing the pain and suffering of the horses during immunization for the production high potency antivenom/ antitoxin. (omicsonline.org)
  • This study covers the latent demand outlook for antitoxins, antivenoms, immune globulins, and therapeutic immune serums for therapeutic use and passive immunization excluding diagnostics across the states and cities of the United States. (reportlinker.com)
  • Using econometric models which project fundamental economic dynamics within each state and city, latent demand estimates are created for antitoxins, antivenoms, immune globulins, and therapeutic immune serums for therapeutic use and passive immunization excluding diagnostics. (reportlinker.com)
  • This study gives, however, my estimates for the latent demand, or potential industry earnings (P.I.E.), for antitoxins, antivenoms, immune globulins, and therapeutic immune serums for therapeutic use and passive immunization excluding diagnostics in the United States. (reportlinker.com)
  • In order to estimate the latent demand for antitoxins, antivenoms, immune globulins, and therapeutic immune serums for therapeutic use and passive immunization excluding diagnostics across the states and cities of the United States, I used a multi-stage approach. (reportlinker.com)
  • diphtheria antitoxin is available from CDC's Child Vaccine Preventable Disease Branch, Epidemiology and Surveillance Division, National Immunization Program, telephone (404) 639-8255, Monday-Friday, 8:00 a.m.-4:30 p.m. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • It is also adviced that simultanously with the administration of the prophylactic dose of tetanus antitoxin active immunization should be started. (vaccinehaffkine.com)
  • Prokaryotic Toxins - Antitoxins presents the first comprehensive overview of an exciting and rapidly expanding research field. (springer.com)
  • Type II toxin-antitoxin systems (TAs) are bicistronic operons ubiquitous in prokaryotic genomes, displaying multilevel association with cell physiology. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • 2. Chan WT, Espinosa M, Yeo CC. Keeping the Wolves at Bay: Antitoxins of prokaryotic type II toxin-antitoxin systems. (findaphd.com)
  • antitoxin specific for the toxin of Corynebacterium diphtheriae . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Plasma from vaccinated persons is used to produce horse (challenged with sublethal dose of Corynebacterium Anthrasil (Cangene Corporation, Winnipeg, Manitoba, diphtheriae ) to develop equine diphtheria antitoxin (DAT), Canada), a fully human polyclonal antianthrax intrave- which seemed to confer passive immunity to patients with nous immunoglobulin (IVIG) licensed in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • Bezlotoxumab is an investigational antitoxin given in conjunction with standard of care antibiotics that are used in the treatment of C. difficile infection. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • Diphtheria antitoxin for therapeutic use is in limited supply. (cdc.gov)
  • Production of therapeutic antivenoms or antitoxins in horses has been carried out for decades but it is still plagued with problems and improvements are needed [ 1 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • 2. Sera which contain only non-precipitating antitoxin exhibit most of the properties of atopic reagin-containing sera. (rupress.org)
  • Sera of 31 North American volunteers who ingested Vibrio cholerae in the course of vaccine development studies were examined for immunoglobulin G (IgG) antitoxin by microtiter enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). (elsevier.com)
  • Familiar examples of these are, of the former diphtheria antitoxin, of the latter anti-plague and anti-typhoid sera. (finedictionary.com)
  • Results of these studies showed that a single, one-time infusion of the antitoxin bezlotoxumab given with standard of care C. difficile antibiotic treatment significantly reduced the recurrence of C. difficile infection compared to standard of care alone, and demonstrated this benefit over a 12-week period," noted Mark Wilcox, Leeds Teaching Hospitals and University of Leeds, and a lead investigator for the studies. (pharmatimes.com)
  • 2009). Three dimensional structure of the MqsR:MqsA complex: A novel TA pair comprised of a toxin homologous to RelE and an antitoxin with unique properties. (springer.com)
  • Cultures of BW25113 contained plasmids for toxin and antitoxin expression. (nih.gov)
  • Toxin - antitoxin (TA) genes were first identified on plasmids almost 30 years ago. (springer.com)
  • Conclusions]: This is the first report that describes the use of a toxin-antitoxin system to maintain high -copy plasmids in Streptomyces. (csic.es)
  • In Campylobacter jejuni, a pathogen that causes human gastroenteritis, multiple plasmids have been identified, but there have not been any reports on toxin-antitoxin systems. (iastate.edu)
  • Specifically, the new vaccine-antitoxin combination is based on the multivalent display (180 copies) of the PA-binding von Willebrand A (VWA) domain of the ANTXR2 cellular receptor on the Flock House virus. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • P.T.A.P.) since adsorbed tetanus vaccine is able to actively immunize against tetanus even in the presence of tetanus antitoxin (B.J.Vakil et al Ind. (vaccinehaffkine.com)
  • Death rates from diphtheria and typhoid fever have been greatly reduced by the use of antitoxin and antityphoid vaccine. (finedictionary.com)
  • The mechanisms that provide the antibiotic tolerance are not fully understood, but one common path to persistence appears to be through the pervasive and varied toxin-antitoxin systems [ 11 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Cushing, H. B. Results of the Use of Scarlet Fever Antitoxin * . (wikipedia.org)
  • Their generation often depends on toxins from chromosomal toxin-antitoxin systems. (paperity.org)
  • In type I and III, antitoxins are RNAs that either inhibit the synthesis of the toxin or sequester it. (mdpi.com)
  • However, a recent meta-analysis of antitoxin efficacy in human botulism cases over the past century concluded that a statistically significant reduction in mortality is associated with the use of type E and type A antitoxin, but not with type B antitoxin. (biologists.org)
  • Antitoxin component of an atypical, type II toxin-antitoxin chaperone (TAC) module. (mybiosource.com)
  • Toxin-antitoxin or TA systems are operons encoding a stable toxin and a labile antidote. (ac.be)
  • Antitoxin neutralizes the pharmacologic effects of its specific toxin in vitro, and also in vivo if the toxin is not already fixed to the tissue cells. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Antitoxin neutralizes the pharmacologic effects of its specific toxin. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This family has been extensively studied in the last five years, leading to a detailed understanding on how the toxin CcdB poisons DNA-bound-gyrase and how the intrinsically disordered domain of the antitoxin CcdA is able to rejuvenated CcdB-poisoned gyrase. (ac.be)
  • 2012). Antitoxin DinJ influences the general stress response through transcript stabilizer CspE. (springer.com)
  • The primary function of a plasmid toxin-antitoxin module is to stabilize the plasmid by eliminating plasmid-free daughter cells through a post segregation killing mechanism. (iastate.edu)