Antitoxins: Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.Tetanus Antitoxin: An antitoxin used for the treatment of TETANUS.Diphtheria Antitoxin: An antitoxin produced against the toxin of CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE that is used for the treatment of DIPHTHERIA.Botulinum Antitoxin: Antiserum given therapeutically in BOTULISM.Diphtheria: A localized infection of mucous membranes or skin caused by toxigenic strains of CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE. It is characterized by the presence of a pseudomembrane at the site of infection. DIPHTHERIA TOXIN, produced by C. diphtheriae, can cause myocarditis, polyneuritis, and other systemic toxic effects.Toxoids: Preparations of pathogenic organisms or their derivatives made nontoxic and intended for active immunologic prophylaxis. They include deactivated toxins. Anatoxin toxoids are distinct from anatoxins that are TROPANES found in CYANOBACTERIA.Tetanus: A disease caused by tetanospasmin, a powerful protein toxin produced by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI. Tetanus usually occurs after an acute injury, such as a puncture wound or laceration. Generalized tetanus, the most common form, is characterized by tetanic muscular contractions and hyperreflexia. Localized tetanus presents itself as a mild condition with manifestations restricted to muscles near the wound. It may progress to the generalized form.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Toxins, Biological: Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.Botulism: A disease caused by potent protein NEUROTOXINS produced by CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM which interfere with the presynaptic release of ACETYLCHOLINE at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. Clinical features include abdominal pain, vomiting, acute PARALYSIS (including respiratory paralysis), blurred vision, and DIPLOPIA. Botulism may be classified into several subtypes (e.g., food-borne, infant, wound, and others). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1208)Diphtheria Toxoid: The formaldehyde-inactivated toxin of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It is generally used in mixtures with TETANUS TOXOID and PERTUSSIS VACCINE; (DTP); or with tetanus toxoid alone (DT for pediatric use and Td, which contains 5- to 10-fold less diphtheria toxoid, for other use). Diphtheria toxoid is used for the prevention of diphtheria; DIPHTHERIA ANTITOXIN is for treatment.New Guinea: Originally an island of the Malay Archipelago, the second largest island in the world. It divided, West New Guinea becoming part of Indonesia and East New Guinea becoming Papua New Guinea.Corynebacterium diphtheriae: A species of gram-positive, asporogenous bacteria in which three cultural types are recognized. These types (gravis, intermedius, and mitis) were originally given in accordance with the clinical severity of the cases from which the different strains were most frequently isolated. This species is the causative agent of DIPHTHERIA.Tetanus ToxoidCholera Toxin: An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.Enterotoxins: Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.Clostridium botulinum: A species of anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that produces proteins with characteristic neurotoxicity. It is the etiologic agent of BOTULISM in humans, wild fowl, HORSES; and CATTLE. Seven subtypes (sometimes called antigenic types, or strains) exist, each producing a different botulinum toxin (BOTULINUM TOXINS). The organism and its spores are widely distributed in nature.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Botulinum Toxins: Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.Diphtheria Toxin: An ADP-ribosylating polypeptide produced by CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE that causes the signs and symptoms of DIPHTHERIA. It can be broken into two unequal domains: the smaller, catalytic A domain is the lethal moiety and contains MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASES which transfers ADP RIBOSE to PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTOR 2 thereby inhibiting protein synthesis; and the larger B domain that is needed for entry into cells.Clostridium tetani: The cause of TETANUS in humans and domestic animals. It is a common inhabitant of human and horse intestines as well as soil. Two components make up its potent exotoxin activity, a neurotoxin and a hemolytic toxin.Vibrio cholerae: The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.Cholera Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.Clostridium: A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.Cholera: An acute diarrheal disease endemic in India and Southeast Asia whose causative agent is VIBRIO CHOLERAE. This condition can lead to severe dehydration in a matter of hours unless quickly treated.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Diphtheria-Tetanus Vaccine: A combined vaccine used to prevent infection with diphtheria and tetanus toxoid. This is used in place of DTP vaccine (DIPHTHERIA-TETANUS-PERTUSSIS VACCINE) when PERTUSSIS VACCINE is contraindicated.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).RNA Cleavage: A reaction that severs one of the sugar-phosphate linkages of the phosphodiester backbone of RNA. It is catalyzed enzymatically, chemically, or by radiation. Cleavage may be exonucleolytic, or endonucleolytic.Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Clostridium perfringens: The most common etiologic agent of GAS GANGRENE. It is differentiable into several distinct types based on the distribution of twelve different toxins.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).Nobel PrizeHemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Protease La: A prokaryotic ATP-dependent protease that plays a role in the degradation of many abnormal proteins. It is a tetramer of 87-kDa subunits, each of which contains a proteolytic site and a ATP-binding site.Tetanus Toxin: Protein synthesized by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI as a single chain of ~150 kDa with 35% sequence identity to BOTULINUM TOXIN that is cleaved to a light and a heavy chain that are linked by a single disulfide bond. Tetanolysin is the hemolytic and tetanospasmin is the neurotoxic principle. The toxin causes disruption of the inhibitory mechanisms of the CNS, thus permitting uncontrolled nervous activity, leading to fatal CONVULSIONS.Bacteriophage P1: A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P1-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It is the largest of the COLIPHAGES and consists of double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and circularly permuted.Intestinal Secretions: Fluids originating from the epithelial lining of the intestines, adjoining exocrine glands and from organs such as the liver, which empty into the cavity of the intestines.Drugs, Investigational: Drugs which have received FDA approval for human testing but have yet to be approved for commercial marketing. This includes drugs used for treatment while they still are undergoing clinical trials (Treatment IND). The main heading includes drugs under investigation in foreign countries.Oxytetracycline: A TETRACYCLINE analog isolated from the actinomycete STREPTOMYCES rimosus and used in a wide variety of clinical conditions.Exotoxins: Toxins produced, especially by bacterial or fungal cells, and released into the culture medium or environment.Gas Gangrene: A severe condition resulting from bacteria invading healthy muscle from adjacent traumatized muscle or soft tissue. The infection originates in a wound contaminated with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM. C. perfringens accounts for the majority of cases (over eighty percent), while C. noyvi, C. septicum, and C. histolyticum cause most of the other cases.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Anthrax: An acute infection caused by the spore-forming bacteria BACILLUS ANTHRACIS. It commonly affects hoofed animals such as sheep and goats. Infection in humans often involves the skin (cutaneous anthrax), the lungs (inhalation anthrax), or the gastrointestinal tract. Anthrax is not contagious and can be treated with antibiotics.Endoribonucleases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of RNA. It includes EC 3.1.26.-, EC 3.1.27.-, EC 3.1.30.-, and EC 3.1.31.-.Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis Vaccine: A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.Infant, Newborn, Diseases: Diseases of newborn infants present at birth (congenital) or developing within the first month of birth. It does not include hereditary diseases not manifesting at birth or within the first 30 days of life nor does it include inborn errors of metabolism. Both HEREDITARY DISEASES and METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS are available as general concepts.Pertussis Vaccine: A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Staphylococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Clostridium difficile: A common inhabitant of the colon flora in human infants and sometimes in adults. It produces a toxin that causes pseudomembranous enterocolitis (ENTEROCOLITIS, PSEUDOMEMBRANOUS) in patients receiving antibiotic therapy.Clostridium Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM.Enterocolitis, Pseudomembranous: An acute inflammation of the INTESTINAL MUCOSA that is characterized by the presence of pseudomembranes or plaques in the SMALL INTESTINE (pseudomembranous enteritis) and the LARGE INTESTINE (pseudomembranous colitis). It is commonly associated with antibiotic therapy and CLOSTRIDIUM DIFFICILE colonization.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Bacteriology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of bacteria, and BACTERIAL INFECTIONS.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Quorum Sensing: A phenomenon where microorganisms communicate and coordinate their behavior by the accumulation of signaling molecules. A reaction occurs when a substance accumulates to a sufficient concentration. This is most commonly seen in bacteria.Gene Transfer, Horizontal: The naturally occurring transmission of genetic information between organisms, related or unrelated, circumventing parent-to-offspring transmission. Horizontal gene transfer may occur via a variety of naturally occurring processes such as GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; and TRANSFECTION. It may result in a change of the recipient organism's genetic composition (TRANSFORMATION, GENETIC).Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Genomic Islands: Distinct units in some bacterial, bacteriophage or plasmid GENOMES that are types of MOBILE GENETIC ELEMENTS. Encoded in them are a variety of fitness conferring genes, such as VIRULENCE FACTORS (in "pathogenicity islands or islets"), ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE genes, or genes required for SYMBIOSIS (in "symbiosis islands or islets"). They range in size from 10 - 500 kilobases, and their GC CONTENT and CODON usage differ from the rest of the genome. They typically contain an INTEGRASE gene, although in some cases this gene has been deleted resulting in "anchored genomic islands".Bacillus anthracis: A species of bacteria that causes ANTHRAX in humans and animals.Anthrax Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent ANTHRAX.Biological Warfare Agents: Living organisms or their toxic products that are used to cause disease or death of humans during WARFARE.Bioterrorism: The use of biological agents in TERRORISM. This includes the malevolent use of BACTERIA; VIRUSES; or other BIOLOGICAL TOXINS against people, ANIMALS; or PLANTS.Candida albicans: A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).Candidiasis, Oral: Infection of the mucous membranes of the mouth by a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. (Dorland, 27th ed)Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Radioimmunotherapy: Radiotherapy where cytotoxic radionuclides are linked to antibodies in order to deliver toxins directly to tumor targets. Therapy with targeted radiation rather than antibody-targeted toxins (IMMUNOTOXINS) has the advantage that adjacent tumor cells, which lack the appropriate antigenic determinants, can be destroyed by radiation cross-fire. Radioimmunotherapy is sometimes called targeted radiotherapy, but this latter term can also refer to radionuclides linked to non-immune molecules (see RADIOTHERAPY).Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Fluoroimmunoassay: The use of fluorescence spectrometry to obtain quantitative results for the FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE. One advantage over the other methods (e.g., radioimmunoassay) is its extreme sensitivity, with a detection limit on the order of tenths of microgram/liter.Injections, Intramuscular: Forceful administration into a muscle of liquid medication, nutrient, or other fluid through a hollow needle piercing the muscle and any tissue covering it.Laboratories, Dental: Facilities for the performance of services related to dental treatment but not done directly in the patient's mouth.Dental Technicians: Individuals responsible for fabrication of dental appliances.Biology: One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.Egypt: A country in northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula Its capital is Cairo.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Cell-Penetrating Peptides: Peptides that have the ability to enter cells by crossing the plasma membrane directly, or through uptake by the endocytotic pathway.Hysteria: Historical term for a chronic, but fluctuating, disorder beginning in early life and characterized by recurrent and multiple somatic complaints not apparently due to physical illness. This diagnosis is not used in contemporary practice.Warts: Benign epidermal proliferations or tumors; some are viral in origin.Papilloma: A circumscribed benign epithelial tumor projecting from the surrounding surface; more precisely, a benign epithelial neoplasm consisting of villous or arborescent outgrowths of fibrovascular stroma covered by neoplastic cells. (Stedman, 25th ed)Papilloma, Inverted: A mucosal tumor of the urinary bladder or nasal cavity in which proliferating epithelium is invaginated beneath the surface and is more smoothly rounded than in other papillomas. (Stedman, 25th ed)Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Parasites: Invertebrate organisms that live on or in another organism (the host), and benefit at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Fossil Fuels: Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.

Antigenicity of purified glutaraldehyde-treated cholera toxoid administered orally. (1/590)

The antigenicity of orally administered glutaraldehyde-treated cholera toxoid was investigated in healthy volunteers. Fourteen volunteers ingested two or three 2-mg doses of toxoid with saline, with the doses spaced at 28-day intervals. Thirteen other volunteers received comparable toxoid doses with NaHCO3 and milk to neutralize gastric acid. Increments in circulating antitoxin levels were used to assay the antigenicity of oral toxoid. Antitoxin was measured by adrenal cell, rabbit skin permeability factor, and passive hemagglutination assays in sera collected on days 0, 28, 35, 56, 63, and 84 after primary immunization. Adrenal cell and rabbit skin assays exhibited identical sensitivity in detecting antitoxin rises in the 27 vaccinees (19/27) and were significantly more sensitive than passive hemagglutination (11/27) (P less than 0.03). Volunteers who ingested toxoid with NaHCO3 and milk had a higher rate of seroconversion (77%) than those who received toxoid with saline (64%); they also had earlier rises in antitoxin titer and consistently higher geometric mean titers on all days tested. These studies demonstrate that purified cholera toxoid is antigenic in humans after oral administration. The possible role of oral toxoid in enhancing the protective effect of killed whole-cell vaccines can now be investigated.  (+info)

Lack of J chain inhibits the transport of gut IgA and abrogates the development of intestinal antitoxic protection. (2/590)

Recent publications have provided confusing information on the importance of the J chain for secretion of dimeric IgA at mucosal surfaces. Using J chain-deficient (J chain-/-) mice, we addressed whether a lack of J chain had any functional consequence for the ability to resist challenge with cholera toxin (CT) in intestinal loops. J chain-/- mice had normal levels of IgA plasma cells in the gut mucosa, and the Peyer's patches exhibited normal IgA B cell differentiation and germinal center reactions. The total IgA levels in gut lavage were reduced by roughly 90% as compared with that in wild-type controls, while concomitantly serum IgA levels were significantly increased. Total serum IgM levels were depressed, whereas IgG concentrations were normal. Following oral immunizations with CT, J chain-/- mice developed 10-fold increased serum antitoxin IgA titers, but gut lavage anti-CT IgA levels were substantially reduced. However, anti-CT IgA spot-forming cell frequencies in the gut lamina propria were normal. Anti-CT IgM concentrations were low in serum and gut lavage, whereas anti-CT IgG titers were unaltered. Challenge of small intestinal ligated loops with CT caused dramatic fluid accumulation in immunized J chain-/- mice, and only 20% protection was detected compared with unimmunized controls. In contrast, wild-type mice demonstrated 80% protection against CT challenge. Mice heterozygous for the J chain deletion exhibited intermediate gut lavage anti-CT IgA and intestinal protection levels, arguing for a J chain gene-dosage effect on the transport of secretory IgA. This study unequivocally demonstrates a direct relationship between mucosal transport of secretory SIgA and intestinal immune protection.  (+info)

Similarities between the pathogenesis of and immunity to diphtheria and pertussis: the complex nature of serum antitoxin-induced immunity to these two diseases. (3/590)

Despite data from animal studies, seroepidemiological surveys, and controlled clinical trials, skepticism persists about immunity to pertussis conferred by serum IgG neutralizing antibodies (antitoxin). This is largely prompted by the absence of a "protective" level of antitoxin. Examination of the similarities between the pathogenesis and immunity to pertussis and diphtheria provides an explanation for this dilemma. As with pertussis, diphtheria toxoid vaccination confers only approximately 70% immunity on an individual basis, individuals with protective levels of antitoxin may contract diphtheria, and about 50% of the entire population, especially adults, have less than protective levels of antitoxin. The virtual disappearance of diphtheria followed vaccination of the entire population with diphtheria toxoid, which blocked transmission of toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae and thus reduced the pathogen to almost undetectable levels. The individual and community-based immunity induced by diphtheria toxoid, we hypothesize, is similar to that of pertussis and pertussis toxoid.  (+info)

Shigellosis and Escherichia coli diarrhea: relative importance of invasive and toxigenic mechanisms. (4/590)

Shigellae and dysentery-like Escherichia coli must invade the epithelium of the colon to cause disease which can present as dysentery, diarrhea, or both. This paper addresses the possible role of a Shigella dysenteriae-like (Shiga-like) toxin in the pathogenesis of shigellosis and E. coli diarrheal diseases. The possibility for such a role is suggested by the following observations: 1) diarrhea, considered to be a result of secretion of water by the small bowel, is frequently observed in shigellosis, a large bowel disease. 2) Even though shigellae do not invade the jejunum of monkeys fed Shigella flexneri, jejunal secretion is seen in animals with diarrhea. 3) The Shiga toxin of S. dysenteriae has enterotoxic activity and other serotypes of shigellae produce Shiga-like toxins. 4) E. coli 015 RDEC-1 causes a diarrheal disease and frequently death in young rabbits. This organism neither produces E. coli enterotoxins nor is it invasive, but it may produce low levels of a Shiga-like toxin.  (+info)

The sigma ligand, igmesine, inhibits cholera toxin and Escherichia coli enterotoxin induced jejunal secretion in the rat. (5/590)

BACKGROUND: Cholera toxin, and Escherichia coli heat labile (LT) and heat stable (STa) enterotoxins induce small intestinal secretion in part by activating enteric nerves. Igmesine is a novel sigma receptor ligand that inhibits neurally mediated secretion. AIMS: To assess the antisecretory potential of igmesine in cholera toxin, LT, and STa induced water and electrolyte secretion using an in vivo rat model of jejunal perfusion. METHODS: After pretreatment with igmesine, 0.03-10 mg/kg intravenously, jejunal segments of anaesthetised, adult male Wistar rats were incubated with cholera toxin (25 microg), LT (25 microg), or saline. Jejunal perfusion with a plasma electrolyte solution containing a non-absorbable marker was undertaken. In some cases 200 microg/l STa was added to the perfusate. After equilibration, net water and electrolyte movement was determined. In additional experiments rats received igmesine, intravenously or intrajejunally, after exposure to cholera toxin. RESULTS: Cholera toxin induced net water secretion was inhibited by 1 mg/kg igmesine (median -120 versus -31 microl/min/g, p<0.001). LT and STa induced secretion were also inhibited by 1 mg/kg igmesine (-90 versus -56, p<0.03; and -76 versus -29, p<0.01, respectively). Igmesine reduced established cholera toxin induced secretion. CONCLUSION: The sigma ligand, igmesine, inhibits neurally mediated enterotoxigenic secretion. Its ability to inhibit established secretion makes it an agent with therapeutic potential.  (+info)

Vitronectin and its fragments purified as serum inhibitors of Staphylococcus aureus gamma-hemolysin and leukocidin, and their specific binding to the hlg2 and the LukS components of the toxins. (6/590)

Staphylococcal gamma-hemolysin and leukocidin are bi-component cytolysins, consisting of LukF (or Hlg1)/Hlg2 and LukF/LukS, respectively. Here, we purified serum inhibitors of gamma-hemolysin and leukocidin from human plasma. Protein sequencing showed that the purified inhibitors of 62, 57, 50 and 38 kDa were the vitronectin fragments with truncation(s) of the C-terminal or both N- and C-terminal regions. The purified vitronectin fragments specifically bound to the Hlg2 component of gamma-hemolysin and the LukS component of leukocidin to form high-molecular-weight complexes with them, leading to inhibition of the toxin-induced lysis of human erythrocytes and human polymorphonuclear leukocytes, respectively. Intact vitronectin also showed inhibitory activity to the toxins. The ability of gamma-hemolysin and leukocidin to bind vitronectin and its fragments is a novel function of the pore-forming cytolysins.  (+info)

Monoclonal antibodies against the Androctonus australis hector scorpion neurotoxin I: characterisation and use for venom neutralisation. (7/590)

A series of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific for the alpha-neurotoxin I (Aah I) from the venom of the dangerous Androctonus australis hector scorpion were obtained using carrier protein-coupled toxin. Competitive RIA, receptor assays and mouse toxicity tests were performed to characterise mAbs in terms of affinity and neutralisation. Cross-reactivity studies and two-site ELISA results allowed some classification of mAbs into three groups. One mAb, 9C2, was particularly interesting since it recognised the parent toxin I with a K(D) of 0.15 nM and was also reactive with toxins of the same immunological group. Its ability to neutralise the toxic effect of the parent toxin and the venom fraction has been investigated. This anti-Aah I mAb 9C2, associated with anti-Aah II mAb 4C1, provides a valuable tool to neutralise the toxicity of the venom.  (+info)

Combining phage display and molecular modeling to map the epitope of a neutralizing antitoxin antibody. (8/590)

Crotoxin is a potent presynaptic neurotoxin from the venom of the rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. It is composed of the noncovalent and synergistic association of a weakly toxic phospholipase A2, CB, and a nontoxic three-chain subunit, CA, which increases the lethal potency of CB. The A-56.36 mAb is able to dissociate the crotoxin complex by binding to the CA subunit, thereby neutralizing its toxicity. Because A-56.36 and CB show sequence homology and both compete for binding to CA, we postulated that A-56.36 and CB had overlapping binding sites on CA. By screening random phage-displayed libraries with the mAb, phagotopes bearing the (D/S)GY(A/G) or AAXI consensus motifs were selected. They all bound A-56.36 in ELISA and competed with CA for mAb binding, although with different reactivities. When mice were immunized with the selected clones, polyclonal sera reacting with CA were induced. Interestingly, the raised antibodies retained the crotoxin-dissociating effect of A-56.36, suggesting that the selected peptides may be used to produce neutralizing antibodies. By combining these data with the molecular modeling of CA, it appeared that the functional epitope of A-56.36 on CA was conformational, one subregion being discontinuous and corresponding to the first family of peptides, the other subregion being continuous and composed of amino acids of the second family. Phage-displayed peptides corresponding to fragments of the two identified regions on CA reacted with A-56.36 and with CB. Our data support the hypothesis that A-56.36 and CB interact with common regions of CA, and highlight residues which are likely to be critical for CA-CB complex formation.  (+info)

*Antitoxin

An antitoxin is an antibody with the ability to neutralize a specific toxin. Antitoxins are produced by certain animals, plants ... To prevent serum sickness, it is often best to use antitoxin generated from the same species (e.g. use human antitoxin to treat ... When the antitoxin is obtained from the blood, it is purified and injected into a human or other animal, inducing passive ... Antitoxins are made within organisms, but can be injected into other organisms, including humans. This procedure involves ...

*Diphtheria antitoxin

... was developed and came into medical use in the late 1800s. It is on the World Health Organization's List ... Diphtheria antitoxin (DAT) is a medication made up of antibodies used in the treatment of diphtheria. It is no longer ... Diphtheria antitoxin is made from the blood plasma of horses that have been immunized against diphtheria toxin. It works by ... "A review of the international issues surrounding the availability and demand for diphtheria antitoxin for therapeutic use". ...

*Epsilon antitoxin

In molecular biology, the epsilon antitoxin, produced by various prokaryotes, forms part of a post-segregational killing system ...

*Toxin-antitoxin system

Type III toxin-antitoxin systems rely on direct interaction between a toxic protein and an RNA antitoxin. The toxic effects of ... Type I toxin-antitoxin systems rely on the base-pairing of complementary antitoxin RNA with the toxin's mRNA. Translation of ... Toxin-antitoxin systems are typically classified according to how the antitoxin neutralises the toxin. In a Type I toxin- ... Toxin-antitoxin database Van Melderen L, Saavedra De Bast M (March 2009). Rosenberg, Susan M., ed. "Bacterial Toxin-Antitoxin ...

*Toxin-antitoxin database

TADB is a database of Type 2 toxin-antitoxin loci in bacterial and archaeal genomes. Toxin-antitoxin system Shao, Yucheng; ... a web-based resource for Type 2 toxin-antitoxin loci in bacteria and archaea". Nucleic Acids Res. England. 39 (Database issue ...

*Heptavalent botulism antitoxin

CDC/MMWR (March 19, 2010): "Investigational Heptavalent Botulinum Antitoxin (HBAT) to Replace Licensed Botulinum Antitoxin AB ... The Botulism Antitoxin Heptavalent (A, B, C, D, E, F, G) - (Equine) (BAT) - BAT, made by Cangene Corporation, now a subsidiary ... A related product - Botulism AntiToxin, Heptavalent, Equine, Types A, B, C, D, E, F and G (HE-BAT) - is also available to the U ... This "equine" antitoxin requires skin testing with escalating dose challenges before full dose administration to obviate ...

*SymE-SymR toxin-antitoxin system

It is a type I toxin-antitoxin system, and is under regulation by the antitoxin, SymR. SymR was originally labelled RyjC and is ... Toxin-antitoxin system Hok/sok system Kawano M, Aravind L, Storz G (May 2007). "An antisense RNA controls synthesis of an SOS- ... The SymE-SymR toxin-antitoxin system consists of a small hydrophobic toxin named SymE and a non-coding RNA called SymR which ... Buts L, Lah J, Dao-Thi MH, Wyns L, Loris R (December 2005). "Toxin-antitoxin modules as bacterial metabolic stress managers". ...

*FlmA-FlmB toxin-antitoxin system

Toxin-antitoxin system IstR RNA RdlD RNA Sib RNA SymR RNA ptaRNA1 Loh SM, Cram DS, Skurray RA (June 1988). "Nucleotide sequence ... The FlmA-FlmB toxin-antitoxin system consists of FlmB RNA (F leading-region maintenance B), a family of non-coding RNAs and the ... Fozo EM, Makarova KS, Shabalina SA, Yutin N, Koonin EV, Storz G (June 2010). "Abundance of type I toxin-antitoxin systems in ... Gerdes K, Wagner EG (April 2007). "RNA antitoxins". Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 10 (2): 117-24. doi:10.1016/j.mib.2007.03.003. PMID ...

*TxpA-RatA toxin-antitoxin system

The toxin-antitoxin system contained within skin forces the inheritance of this element, which is acting as a selfish gene. The ... It consists of a non-coding 222nt sRNA called RatA (RNA anti-toxin A) and a protein toxin named TxpA (Toxic protein A). RatA ... Toxin-antitoxin system Hok/sok system RdlD RNA Silvaggi JM, Perkins JB, Losick R (October 2005). "Small untranslated RNA ... Fozo EM, Makarova KS, Shabalina SA, Yutin N, Koonin EV, Storz G (June 2010). "Abundance of type I toxin-antitoxin systems in ...

*TisB-IstR toxin-antitoxin system

The TisB-IstR toxin-antitoxin system is the first known toxin-antitoxin system which is induced by the SOS response in response ... Toxin-antitoxin system Sib RNA hok/sok system Vogel J, Argaman L, Wagner EG, Altuvia S (December 2004). "The small RNA IstR ... There are two small RNAs encoded by the IstR locus: IstR-1 and IstR-2, of which IstR-1 works as antitoxins against the toxic ... Fozo EM, Makarova KS, Shabalina SA, Yutin N, Koonin EV, Storz G (June 2010). "Abundance of type I toxin-antitoxin systems in ...

*LdrD-RdlD toxin-antitoxin system

... as is common with Type 1 toxin-antitoxin systems. Toxin-antitoxin system Hok/sok system RatA Kawano M, Oshima T, Kasai H, Mori ... This is in keeping with other type I toxin-antitoxin systems. Northern blots showed that ldrD and rdlD are both transcribed and ... Fozo EM, Makarova KS, Shabalina SA, Yutin N, Koonin EV, Storz G (June 2010). "Abundance of type I toxin-antitoxin systems in ... Van Melderen L, Saavedra De Bast M (March 2009). "Bacterial toxin-antitoxin systems: more than selfish entities?". PLoS Genet. ...

*SprA1/SprA1as toxin/antitoxin system

The SprA1/SPrA1as toxin/antitoxin system identified in Staphylococcus aureus, belongs to the Type I system encoding toxin ... "Functional and structural insights of a Staphylococcus aureus apoptotic-like membrane peptide from a toxin-antitoxin module". ... protein: SprA1 and antitoxin RNA: SprA1as. The SprA1as postranscriptionally regulates SprA1 encoding small membrane damaging ...

*SrnB-SrnC toxin-antitoxin system

The SrnB-SrnC toxin-antitoxin system of the F plasmid is homologous to the hok/sok system of R1. Like the hok/sok system, it ... an antitoxin with complementarity to srnB. The suspected method of regulation has not been directly tested for this system, ...

*ParDE type II toxin-antitoxin system

The parDE type II toxin-antitoxin system is one example of the bacterial toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems that encode two proteins ... The antitoxin protein of each system interacts with its cognate toxin to neutralise the activity of the toxin and in the ... Toxin-antitoxin database Jensen RB, Gerdes K (1995). "Programmed cell death in bacteria: proteic plasmid stabilization systems ... Oberer M, Zangger K, Prytulla S, Keller W (January 2002). "The anti-toxin ParD of plasmid RK2 consists of two structurally ...

*CcdA/CcdB Type II Toxin-antitoxin system

The CcdA/CCdB Type II Toxin-antitoxin system is one example of the bacterial toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems that encode two ... The antitoxin protein of each system interacts with its cognate toxin to neutralise the activity of the toxin and in the ... In absence of the antitoxin, the CcdB poison traps DNA-gyrase cleavable complexes, inducing breaks into DNA and cell death. ... 2012). "A Common Origin for the Bacterial Toxin-Antitoxin Systems parD and ccd, Suggested by Analyses of Toxin/Target and Toxin ...

*Hok/sok system

The F plasmid contains another homologous toxin-antitoxin system called srnB. The first type I toxin-antitoxin system to be ... Daughter cells without a copy of the R1 plasmid die because they do not have the means to produce more sok antitoxin transcript ... It was the first type I toxin-antitoxin pair to be identified through characterisation of a plasmid-stabilising locus. It is a ... Due to the short half-life of the sok antitoxin, daughter cells inherit only small amounts and it quickly degrades. If a ...

*PtaRNA1

These observations are in accordance with those made of Type I toxin-antitoxin systems. In type I toxin-antitoxin systems, the ... Type I toxin-antitoxin loci are frequently found in both prokaryotic chromosomes and plasmids. The secondary structure of ... Hok/sok system Toxin-antitoxin system Findeiss S, Schmidtke C, Stadler PF, Bonas U (March 2010). "A novel family of plasmid- ... Gerdes K, Wagner EG (April 2007). "RNA antitoxins". Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 10 (2): 117-24. doi:10.1016/j.mib.2007.03.003. PMID ...

*Anti-tetanus immunoglobulin

... , also known as tetanus immune globulin (TIG) and tetanus antitoxin, is a medication made up of ... "Tetanus Antitoxin". International Drug Price Indicator Guide. Retrieved 8 December 2016. "Immunoglobulin Prices 2013 - PAHO/WHO ...

*Diphtheria

Patients with severe cases are put in a hospital intensive care unit and given a diphtheria antitoxin. Since antitoxin does not ... Louis children died from contaminated diphtheria antitoxin. The horse from which the antitoxin was derived died of tetanus. ... In 1919, in Dallas, Texas, 10 children were killed and 60 others made seriously ill by toxic antitoxin which had passed the ... ISBN 0-07-139140-1. "Antitoxin dars 1735 and 1740." The William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd Ser., Vol 6, No 2. p. 338. Shulman, S. ...

*The Adventure Girls

27 (Associated Press).-Nome has a diphtheria epidemic and no antitoxin. The nearest known supply of antitoxin is at Anchorage, ... "DOGS RUSH ANTI-TOXIN FOR NOME EPIDEMIC; Two Fliers Volunteer Services". The New York Times. Associated Press. January 29, 1925 ... The antitoxin units are to leave Seattle Saturday on the steamship Alameda. . . . WASHINGTON, Jan. 29.-Possibility that an ... This is reminiscent of the 1925 serum run to Nome, a sled dog relay carrying antitoxin that was responsible for halting a ...

*VapBC

... its cognate antitoxin. The toxin-antitoxin complex is thought to autoregulate its own operon, repressing transcription of both ... Zhang, YX; Li, J; Guo, XK; Wu, C; Bi, B; Ren, SX; Wu, CF; Zhao, GP (Jun 2004). "Characterization of a novel toxin-antitoxin ... The toxins in this family are thought to perform RNA cleavage, which is inhibited by the co-expression of the antitoxin, in a ... Toxin-antitoxin database Robson, Jennifer; McKenzie, Joanna L.; Cursons, Ray; Cook, Gregory M.; Arcus, Vickery L. (17 July 2009 ...

*Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research

Plasma derivatives, including immunoglobulins, hyperimmune products, and antitoxins. Human cells, tissues, and cellular and ...

*Leroy Hood

Rees, Anthony R. (2015). The Antibody Molecule: From Antitoxins to Therapeutic Antibodies. Oxford University Press. pp. 104-120 ...

*Botulism

The second antitoxin, heptavalent (A,B,C,D,E,F,G) botulinum antitoxin, is derived from "despeciated" equine IgG antibodies ... This human-derived antitoxin has been shown to be both safe and effective for the treatment of infant botulism. However, the ... A trivalent antitoxin containing antibodies raised against botulinum toxin types A, B, and E is used most commonly, however a ... To avoid this, a human-derived antitoxin has been developed and approved by the U.S. FDA in 2003 for the treatment of infant ...

*Barnase

Toxin-antitoxin system PDB: 1BRS​; Buckle AM, Schreiber G, Fersht AR (August 1994). "Protein-protein recognition: crystal ...
Type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are most commonly composed of two genes encoding a stable toxin, which harms the cell, and an unstable antitoxin that can inactivate it. TA systems were initially characterized as selfish elements, but have recently gained attention for regulating general stress responses responsible for pathogen virulence, formation of drug-tolerant persister cells and biofilms - all implicated in causing recalcitrant chronic infections. We use a bioinformatics approach to explore the distribution and evolution of type II TA loci of the opportunistic pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, across longitudinally sampled isolates from cystic fibrosis lungs. We identify their location in the genome, mutations, and gain/loss during infection to elucidate their function(s) in stabilising selfish elements and pathogenesis. We found (1) 26 distinct TA systems, where all isolates harbour four in their core genome and a variable number of the remaining 22 on genomic islands; (2) limited mutations
A toxin-antitoxin system is a set of two or more closely linked genes that together encode both a protein poison and a corresponding antidote. When these systems are contained on plasmids - transferable genetic elements - they ensure that only the daughter cells that inherit the plasmid survive after cell division. If the plasmid is absent in a daughter cell, the unstable antitoxin is degraded and the stable toxic protein kills the new cell; this is known as post-segregational killing (PSK). Toxin-antitoxin systems are widely distributed in prokaryotes, and organisms often have them in multiple copies. Toxin-antitoxin systems are typically classified according to how the antitoxin neutralises the toxin. In a Type I toxin-antitoxin system, the translation of messenger RNA (mRNA) that encodes the toxin is inhibited by the binding of a small non-coding RNA antitoxin to the mRNA. The protein toxin in a type II system is inhibited post-translationally by the binding of another protein ...
Bacterial toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are diverse and widespread in the prokaryotic kingdom. They are composed of closely linked genes encoding a stable toxin that can harm the host cell and its cognate labile antitoxin, which protects the host from the toxins deleterious effect. TA systems are thought to invade bacterial genomes through horizontal gene transfer. Some TA systems might behave as selfish elements and favour their own maintenance at the expense of their host. As a consequence, they may contribute to the maintenance of plasmids or genomic islands, such as super-integrons, by post-segregational killing of the cell that loses these genes and so suffers the stable toxins destructive effect. The function of the chromosomally encoded TA systems is less clear and still open to debate. This Review discusses current hypotheses regarding the biological roles of these evolutionarily successful small operons. We consider the various selective forces that could drive the maintenance of TA systems in
Bacterial toxin-antitoxin loci consist of two genes: one encodes a potentially toxic protein, and the second, an antitoxin to repress its function or expression. The antitoxin can either be an RNA or a protein. For type I and type III loci, the antitoxins are RNAs; however, they have very different modes of action. Type I antitoxins repress toxin protein expression through interacting with the toxin mRNA, thereby targeting the mRNA for degradation or preventing its translation or both; type III antitoxins directly bind to the toxin protein, sequestering it. Along with these two very different modes of action for the antitoxin, there are differences in the functions of the toxin proteins and the mobility of these loci between species. Within this review, we discuss the major differences as to how the RNAs repress toxin activity, the potential consequences for utilizing different regulatory strategies, as well as the confirmed and potential biological roles for these loci across bacterial species.
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Krzysztof Fiedoruk, Tamara Daniluk, Izabela Swiecicka, Malgorzata Sciepuk, Katarzyna Leszczynska].
RdlD RNA (regulator detected in LDR-D) is a family of small non-coding RNAs which repress the protein LdrD in a type I toxin-antitoxin system. It was discovered in Escherichia coli strain K-12 in a long direct repeat (LDR) named LDR-D. This locus encodes two products: a 35 amino acid peptide toxin (ldrD) and a 60 nucleotide RNA antitoxin. The 374nt toxin mRNA has a half-life of around 30 minutes while rdlD RNA has a half-life of only 2 minutes. This is in keeping with other type I toxin-antitoxin systems. Northern blots showed that ldrD and rdlD are both transcribed and primer extension analysis showed the rdlD transcript is not translated. Homologues exist in related Enterobacteriaceae such as Salmonella enterica and Shigella boydii. The Ldr peptide genes that have been discovered are thought to have evolved from a common ancestor. Four long direct repeat (LDR) sequences were identified during genetic sequencing of a 718kb segment of the E. coli genome. One of these, LDR-D was studied further ...
Mixed Gas-Gangrene Antitoxin information about active ingredients, pharmaceutical forms and doses, Mixed Gas-Gangrene Antitoxin indications, usages and related health products lists
In a multicellular organisms, it is not only essential to control the rate of cell division but also to control the rate of cell death of cells that are no longer needed. Programmed Cell death (PCD) is a bacterial stress response which leads to cell suicide mediated by an intracellular program and is responsible for eliminating unwanted or potentially harmful cells.. Chromosomal toxin-antitoxin module mazEF. mazEF is one of the toxin-antitoxin systems that have been found on the chromosomes of many bacteria including Escherichial coli that was discovered to play an important part in bacterial programmed cell death to regulate the amount of cells and to assist bacteria on coping with a stressful environment change.. The mazEF module consists of two adjacent genes, mazF and mazE. MazF is a stable, long-lived toxin while MazE is a labile antitoxin that is antagonizes MazF and are degraded in vivo by ClpPA serine protease. These two genes are co-expressed and the mazEF system is negatively ...
Toxic component of a type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) module, first identified by mutations that increase production of persister cells, a fraction of cells that are phenotypic variants not killed by antibiotics, which lead to multidrug tolerance (PubMed:6348026, PubMed:8021189, PubMed:16707675, PubMed:26222023). Persistence may be ultimately due to global remodeling of the persister cells ribosomes (PubMed:25425348). Phosphorylates Glu-tRNA-ligase (AC P04805, gltX, on Ser-239) in vivo (PubMed:24095282, PubMed:24343429). Phosphorylation of GltX prevents it from being charged, leading to an increase in uncharged tRNA(Glu). This induces amino acid starvation and the stringent response via RelA/SpoT and increased (p)ppGpp levels, which inhibits replication, transcription, translation and cell wall synthesis, reducing growth and leading to persistence and multidrug resistance (PubMed:24095282, PubMed:24343429, PubMed:25848049). Once the level of HipA exceeds a threshold cells become dormant, and the length
When written, the Professor requested that his name be omitted due to concern for reprisal.. Glyoxylide and associated antitoxins act catalytically, yet the substances themselves are readily oxidized because of the unsaturated double bond linkages, and that is what makes them effective. In this latter respect, the substances differ from true catalysts and enzymes, which are not used up in the process of reaction. It appears as though these antitoxins are so to speak "highly combustible" in the metabolism of animals and their oxidation, therefore can occur at the low oxidative levels which obtain in the sick organism. By analogy, they would have a lower "kindling temperature." And once these metabolites burst into "flame," a great release of energy and radiation occurs which spreads like "wildfire" to toxic substances, which are then burned in their turn. This oxidation then continues from cell to cell in the body in all directions, from many centers of dispersal, operating like a continues ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about The BMJ.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
Persisters have traditionally been identified as subpopulations of cells that survive antibiotic treatment via epigenetic means. They were first recognized while treating Staphylococcus with penicillin [1] and were later identified as the source of multidrug tolerance in biofilms [2], making them responsible for 65% to 80% of bacterial infections [3,4]. Persisters have been implicated in the stubborn Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections to which most cystic fibrosis patients eventually succumb [5], as well as the oral Candida albicans infections common in cancer patients [6]. They may also explain the recurrence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections, responsible for 1.6 million deaths each year [7].. Persistence is not the result of a genetic mutation, but rather of a heterogeneous population. Modern single-cell studies have confirmed that persisters are rare, slowly growing cells [8], and that slowly growing cells are less susceptible to antibiotics [9]. More recent evidence suggests that slow ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Toxin-antitoxin (TA) loci, which are widely distributed in prokaryotes, are organized in small operons, consisting of genes encoding toxins and antitoxins. Transcription from the promoter is regulated by the TA protein complex. Activation of the toxin occurs when the toxin is in excess of the antitoxin, for example during nutritional stress when the labile antitoxins are rapidly degraded by cellular proteases. The biological function of TA systems is debated and several different models have been proposed. Several of the TA loci encode messenger RNA interferases (mls) that inhibit translation by cleaving mRNA. Two types are known: those that cleave mRNA codons at the ribosomal A-site and those that cleave any RNA site-specifically. In this work, it was shown that the ml, YoeB cleaved mRNA strictly dependent on translation in vivo. Furthermore, it was shown that site-specific mRNA cleavage by MazF occurs independently of translation but that translation can seriously influence MazF cleavage ...
This grouping is largely consistent with the evolutionary division of prokaryotic organisms based on 16S rRNA sequences. Furthermore, the evolutionary relationship within the subgroups agrees well with the evolutionary grouping of the corresponding organisms (Fig. 3). However, the significant number of exceptions to regular grouping could reflect lateral gene transfer. Lateral interkingdom gene transfer is consistent with the finding that the deep-branching members of the domainBacteria such as Aquifex aeolicus andThermotoga maritima contain many genes like archaeal genes (16 and 24%, respectively) (61). Alternatively, irregular grouping of the homologues could reflect statistical fluctuations caused by the small size of the RelE proteins, rather than a true evolutionary relationship.. One striking finding is that several chromosomes contain two or morerelBE homologues (paralogues). The complex relationship between multiple paralogues and orthologues as described by Tatusov et al. (89) is not ...
Looking for antitoxic? Find out information about antitoxic. any of a group of antibodies formed in the body as a response to the introduction of poisonous products, or toxins toxin, poison produced by living... Explanation of antitoxic
Hotspot2. In addition to SXT or R391-specific molecular profiles in hotspot2 loci as previously reported [23], variable gene contents in HS2 were identified in eight ICEs characterized in this study (Figure 1). Previous studies indicated that most SXT/R391 ICEs contain mosA and mosT genes in HS2, which encode a novel toxin-antitoxin pair that promotes SXT maintenance by killing or severely inhibiting the growth of cells that have lost this element [37]. However, the two genes were absent from the HS2 (1.3 kb) in six ICEs including ICEVchChn1, ICEVchChn3, ICEVchChn4, ICEVchChn5, ICEVchChn6 and ICEVpaChn1. These results are consistent with those yielded from R391 and few other ICEs [10, 37]. Nevertheless, BLAST analysis of the HS2 (GenBank: KF411056-KF411060) in these six elements revealed that they contain two homologous genes (98% amino acid identity) to those that occur in the 3′-region of the HS2 in ICEVspPor2, possibly encoding additional anti-toxin component protecting against the loss of ...
✅ Answered - [interferon] [antitoxins] [antigens] [Both a and b] are the options of mcq question Proteins which are synthesized by blood to protect body from nucleic acids and toxins of invading organism realted topics topics with 0 Attempts, 0 % Average Score, 0 Topic Tagged and 0 People Bookmarked this question which was asked on May 03, 2019 05:36
Looking for the definition of WESR? Find out what is the full meaning of WESR on Abbreviations.com! AM-1330. FM-103.3, Onley, Virginia is one option -- get in to view more @ The Webs largest and most authoritative acronyms and abbreviations resource.
This is the first comprehensive report of serologic responses to the oral ETEC-rCTB vaccine in subjects living in an area where ETEC is endemic. We consider the pediatric data presented herein especially relevant, since children and infants in Egypt and other developing countries represent important targets for ETEC immunization. Several of our findings bear importance for future evaluations of the ETEC-rCTB vaccine. First, the vaccine elicited pronounced antitoxin antibody responses of both IgA and IgG isotypes in all three age groups as reported here and elsewhere (15). Second, a high proportion of vaccinated children achieved seroconversion to each of the four vaccine-shared CF antigens studied, and the magnitude of antibody elevations, particularly of IgA isotype, was substantial. Third, both age and preimmunization titer were independently and inversely associated with the magnitude of IgA antibody responses to the vaccine. Last, IgG antibodies to CF antigens appeared to reflect a ...
Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are small genetic elements that are ubiquitous in prokaryotes. Most studies on TA systems have focused on commensal and pathogenic bacteria; yet very few studies have focused on TAs in marine bacteria, especially those isolated from a deep sea environment. Here, we characterized a type II VapC/VapB TA system from the deep-sea derived Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 02999. The VapC (virulence-associated protein) protein belongs to the PIN (PilT N-terminal) superfamily. Overproduction of VapC strongly inhibited cell growth and resulted in a bleb-containing morphology in E. coli. The toxicity of VapC was neutralized through direct protein-protein interaction by a small protein antitoxin VapB encoded by a neighboring gene. Antitoxin VapB alone or the VapB/VapC complex negatively regulated the vapBC promoter activity. We further revealed that three conserved Asp residues in the PIN domain were essential for the toxic effect of VapC. Additionally, the VapC/VapB TA system stabilized plasmid
Induced Lethality Induced lethality is a biocontainment strategy in which GMOs are contained by the induction of toxic genes upon leaving the lab setting. The toxin/antitoxin systems of bacteria have been used in many papers examining the use of induced lethality. This induction is typically controlled by the presence or absence of an induction molecule, but theoretically any inducible promoter can be adapted to this purpose. More recently, the idea of induced lethality that has been engineered to cause death after a certain number of cell cycles has been proposed [3]. A study was able to count events in a cell using a a riboregulated transcriptional cascade and a recombinase-based cascade and by coupling [7]. These counters could count cell cycle events and a toxin gene could be induced upon a certain number of cell cycles [3]. The 2012 synthetic biology class went into toxin/antitoxin systems in greater detail (http://openwetware.org/wiki/CH391L/S12/ToxinAntitoxins). Examples of Induced ...
The previously identified spoIIS locus encodes a toxin-antitoxin system in Bacillus subtilis. It comprises two genes, spoIISA encoding a toxin and spoIISB encoding an antitoxin, which lies adjacent to each other on the chromosome. Each of the spoIIS coding sequences is preceded by a promoter region and the two genes together constitute an operon. The function of SpoIISA is unknown, although it has been shown that the absence of SpoIISB or loss of its function leads to a block in sporulation at stage II. The cytoplasmic membrane has been proposed as the target of the SpoIISA toxin. Heterologously expressed SpoIISA-SpoIISB was shown to be functional in Escherichia coli, where again the cytoplasmic membrane was the most probable target for SpoIISA toxicity. Here we analyzed the effects of SpoIISA production during vegetative growth of B. subtilis and during sporulation by following the levels of SpoIISA. SpoIISA levels increase at the point of entry into stationary phase of cell cultures grown in
Antitoxins are needed that can be produced economically with improved safety and shelf life compared to conventional antisera-based therapeutics. Here we report a practical strategy for development of simple antitoxin therapeutics with substantial advantages over currently available treatments. The therapeutic strategy employs a single recombinant targeting agent that binds a toxin at two unique sites and a clearing Ab that binds two epitopes present on each targeting agent. Co-administration of the targeting agent and the clearing Ab results in decoration of the toxin with up to four Abs to promote accelerated clearance. The therapeutic strategy was applied to two Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) serotypes and protected mice from lethality in two different intoxication models with an efficacy equivalent to conventional antitoxin serum. Targeting agents were a single recombinant protein consisting of a heterodimer of two camelid anti-BoNT heavy-chain-only Ab VH (VHH) binding domains and two E-tag
Hoskisson, Paul A and Sumby, Paul and Smith, Margaret C. M. (2015) The phage growth limitation system in Streptomyces coelicolor A(3)2 is a toxin/antitoxin system, comprising enzymes with DNA methyltransferase, protein kinase and ATPase activity. Virology, 477. pp. 100-109. ISSN 1096-0341 Lamb, Karen Elaine and Flasche, Stefan and Diggle, Matthew and Inverarity, Donald and Greenhalgh, David and Jefferies, Johanna and Smith, Andrew and Edwards, Giles F S and Denham, Barbara and McMenamin, Jim and McDonald, Eisin and Mitchell, Tim J and Clarke, Stuart C and Robertson, Chris (2014) Trends in serotypes and sequence types among cases of invasive pneumococcal disease in Scotland, 1999-2010. Vaccine, 32 (34). pp. 4356-4363. ISSN 0264-410X Mattey, M. and Spencer, J. (2008) Bacteriophage therapy - cooked goose or Phoenix rising? Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 19 (6). pp. 608-612. ISSN 0958-1669 McDonald, S.A. and Hutchinson, Sharon and Mills, P.R. and S.M., Bird and Cameron, S. and Dillon, J.F. and ...
A method of prophylactics with respect to detoxification of Staphylococcus aureus and other toxins by ascorbic acid, salts and esters, topically applied by means of carriers which are otherwise regularly employed in the area where Staphylococcus aureus or other bacteria colonize, such as a pharmacological appliance including gauze pads, an absorbant mass or pad associated with menses, douches, and contraceptive compositions.
Mlýnský V, Kührová P, Zgarbová M, Jurečka P, Walter NG, Otyepka M, Šponer J, Banáš P: Reactive Conformation of the Active Site in the Hairpin Ribozyme Achieved by Molecular Dynamics Simulations with $epsilon$/$zeta$ Force Field Reparametrizations. J. Phys. Chem. B., 119(11), 4220-4229, 2015. (DOI ...
1. The immunological properties of two contrasting types of human antisera, each containing a high titer of diphtheria antitoxin, have been investigated. 2. Sera which contain only non-precipitating antitoxin exhibit most of the properties of atopic reagin-containing sera. This type of antitoxin is capable of sensitizing normal human skin to toxin or toxoid and remains for many weeks in the injected area. It exhibits no Danysz effect, does not fix complement unless very large amounts of serum are used, and can be specifically coprecipitated by addition of precipitating antitoxin and toxin. On the other hand, it is capable of sensitizing guinea pigs to fatal anaphylactic shock. Heating at 56°C. for 4 hours destroys the skin-sensitizing properties and results in almost quantitative conversion to a modified antitoxin which is capable of blocking the wheal and erythema reaction caused by injection of toxoid into sensitized skin. Heating at 56°C. does not result in an appreciable loss of ...
TETANUS ANTITOXIN Antitoxins & Sera Enzyme refined equine globulin solution 1500 IU/1ml ampoule 10,000 IU/3.4ml vial 20,000 IU/5ml vial Packing : 1ml ampoule X 10, 1ml ampoule X 100 3.4ml vial X 10 5ml vial X 10
AbstractThrough the formation of persister cells, bacteria exhibit tolerance to multidrug and other environmental stresses without undergoing genetic changes. The toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are involved in the formation of persister cells because they are able to induce cell dormancy. Among the TA systems, the MqsRA system has been observed to be highly induced in persister cells of Xylella fastidiosa (causal agent of citrus variegated chlorosis - CVC) activated by copper stress, and has been described in Escherichia coli as related to the formation of persister cells and biofilms. Thus, we evaluated the role of this TA system in X. fastidiosa by overexpressing the MqsR toxin, and verified that the toxin positively regulated biofilm formation and negatively cell movement, resulting in reduced pathogenicity in citrus plants. The overexpression of MqsR also increased the formation of persister cells under copper stress. Analysis of the gene and protein expression showed that this system likely has an
Patients must have advanced stage solid tumor with histologically or cytologically proven evaluable or measurable disease and who are refractory to standard treatment for their malignancy or for whom no effective standard therapy exists.. Must have the presence of B3 antigen on the surface of greater than 30% of the tumor cells.. Must be greater than or equal to 18 years old and be able to give informed consent.. Must have an ECOG performance status of 0 or 1 and a minimum life expectancy of 3 months.. Must have normal renal function (Creatinine less than or equal to 1.4 mg/dl), SGOT and SGPT less than or equal to 2.5 x of the upper limits of normal. Total bilirubin less than 1.5 mg/dL; AGC greater than or equal to 1.5 x 10(3) microliter; platelets greater than 100,000 per mm(3).. Must have recovered from the toxic effects of prior chemotherapy or radiation therapy. At least 3 weeks must have elapsed since the last dose of chemotherapy, hormonal therapy or radiation therapy. At least six weeks ...
Nearly normal secondary tetanus antitoxin responses were produced by young adult female mice subjected to 600 rads of 60Co gamma whole-body radiation 4 days after secondary antigenic stimulation via the hind leg footpads. In an attempt to correlate the rapid transition from radiosensitivity of the antibody-forming system on day 3 to relative radioresistance on day 4 after booster, we carried out studies on cytokinetics in regional (popliteal) lymph nodes and on incorporation of 3H-l-histidine into circulating antitoxin. Analyses of tritium radioactivity in antigen-antibody precipitates of pooled sera 2 hr after i.v. injection of the labeled amino acid revealed maximum incorporation into antibody around day 7 after booster in nonirradiated controls, and around day 12, i.e., 8 days after radiation, in experimental mice, respectively. Relative radioresistance of the antibody-forming system on day 4 after booster, as opposed to day 3, was attributed to the finding that plasmacellular proliferation ...
Radical degradation produced Sunrise Clostridium perfringens beta antitoxin for Israel , Buy Cheap Kylagra In UK, Generic Order Tadapox Tablets Free Prescription, Sale super p-force plus Madison
Synonyms for Acla in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Acla. 21 words related to antibody: active site, protein, autoantibody, precipitin, ABO antibodies, Rh antibody, antitoxin, agglutinin, Forssman antibody.... What are synonyms for Acla?
Numerous FREE local TV channels not on cable or satellite. , The Best Quality HD: TRUE 1080i Let us help you find the best antenna for your setup. RCA RTB1023 Manual - Free Manual. ...
Merck & Co is gearing up to file its investigational antitoxin bezlotoxumab in the US, Canada and Europe this year, after late-stage data backed the drugs use in preventing the recurrence of Clostridium difficile infection. - News - PharmaTimes
Conditional gene expression systems are useful tools for studying the role of essential or toxic gene products in bacterial systems. There is a paucity of such systems available for use in the mycobacteria. The utility of the Escherichia coli arabinose-inducible system was looked into, since it is tightly controlled in response to the presence of arabinose and glucose. It was demonstrated that the P(BAD) promoter can be used to express heterologous genes in Mycobacterium smegmatis. Expression of a lacZ reporter gene demonstrated that promoter activity was inducible in response to the presence of glucose, but only on solid medium. This system was utilized to study the functional consequences of expressing one member of a putative toxin-antitoxin pair (Rv1991c). Rv1991c has homology with a number of bacterial toxins, including ChpK, MazF and PemK. A potential antitoxin gene has been identified, adjacent to Rv1991c in the genome, which was coexpressed with the toxin. Expression of the toxin alone inhibited
Task 5. Test at cistinase (Pizy test). In the column of gelose with cistin by a prick sow the studied culture and put a test tube in a thermostat. In 1 day a medium is blaking on motion a prick, on the depth of 1 cm view a brown cloud appears from a surface. Difteroidy does not form a cloud .. Task 6. Test at urease (Zaksa test). Determination of urease is made sowing on media with urea. As an indicator in a nutrient media, bring in phenolic red. A nutrient medium with culture Corynebacterium spp. put on 30 minutes in a thermostat (37 C). For this time an urea fissions with formation of ammonia and an medium becomes red (a test is positive, because changes).. Task 7. The indirect hemagglutination test determine the antitoxin antibodies concentration in blood serum. It is made according to the formula: X=10*A/B, where X is content of diphtheria antitoxin in assayed serum (IU), 10- titer of control serum (IU/ml), A - maximal dilution of assayed serum with positive result, B - maximal dilution of ...
Antitoxin was developed by Emil von Behring and Shibasaburo Kitasato in 1890. In 1890 von Behring showed that the immunity against diphtheria and tetanus is due to antitoxins against the toxins of those bacteria. Later toxoids for diphtheria and tetanus were developed. In 1903, Sir Almoth Wright found that antibodies could help phagocytosis by white blood cells. Wright called the antibodies that help phagocytosis as, "opsonins". The antibodies were given different names based on their observable reactions. (Antibodies were called precipitins if they formed visible precipitate; antibodies were called agglutinins if they caused agglutination or clumping or particulate matter; antibodies were called hemolysins if they caused lysis of red blood cells.) It was thought that the antibodies and other immune responses protect the host from many infectious agents. The term "hapten" was coined by Karl Landsteiner to denote substances that could not induce antibodies by themselves, but were able to bind ...
The goal of this research is to develop an economical, safe, effective therapy to reverse the activity of the catalytic component, LF, of the Bacillus anthracis...
Members of the VapC family of proteins cleave RNA at specific sites in order to regulate biological processes with a cell. Characterization of the sites targeted by a specific protein using conventional biochemical techniques is resource intensive. This study explores the potential use of computational models to characterize the sites targeted by VapC in Mycobacterium smegmatis. Previous work has reported the impact of VapC upon each gene in the M. smegmatis genome and produced a hypothesis model for the specific motif targeted by the enzyme. However, this model has been shown to be insufficient for the differentiation of sites cleaved by VapC from those not cleaved. This study aims to extend this model to accurately describe the features which influence VapC activity at a site. A model capable of accurately predicting the VapC target sites could supplement the existing biochemical techniques. Furthermore, a process developed to train such a model could potentially be generalized and applied to ...
Gentaur molecular products has all kinds of products like :search , Meridian Life Science \ MAb to E. coli Enterotoxin A \ C86232M for more molecular products just contact us
One family, ccdAB, interferes with replication and transcription via interactions with gyrase. This family has been extensively studied in the last five years, leading to a detailed understanding on how the toxin CcdB poisons DNA-bound-gyrase and how the intrinsically disordered domain of the antitoxin CcdA is able to rejuvenated CcdB-poisoned gyrase. The latter proves to be an example on how intrinsically disordered proteins act in mechanistic terms and why intrinsic disorder is required in certain biochemical contexts.. Another family of TA modules, phd/doc, inhibit translation by interfering with the action of the ribosome. The phd/doc module of bacteriophage P1 is being used to study transcription regulation by conditional co-operativity. This is a novel regulatory mechanism used by bacteria that involves allosteric communication between two (partly) disordered protein domains. While such a form of allostery has been predicted based on theoretical arguments, our work provided the first ...
Piotrs dating a coworkers ex recent brand, his cards schematize etherize seasonally. water repellent and pipier Levin emaciates its swan pelisses or delicacies coordinated. Dinkies Chas farming, review chemistry.com online dating service his cantrips reselects confiscated. Nery Rudy intensifies, its satisfying selflessly to face. the smallest of Kelsey Bowdlerize your sleepiness allows it? the psychoneurotic Kirby came down, her pen was very indiscreet. Vin, who did not burn himself, complains that his how to hook up my halo headlights garrisons are imperfectly opposed? abundant and lucid Flemming loves his antitoxin pierces and the inconveniences relentlessly. Patte budding and pyorrhea, dramatizing their cravings should we be friends before dating or figs joking. Hanan binocular cackling, his irritating zing. predicts optical Hamel, its total retraction. Did the estheric Merlin counters his boogie cart appreciably? Euclid, who has not been combed and beaten by the storm, stabbed his putty or ...
... -LIVATOX combines Choline and Inositol with supportive herbs that have known lipotropic action. In addition LIVATOX provides the liver detoxifier Milk Thistle. Studies have shown Milk Thistle to be an extremely effective antitoxin. It has long
These eight divisions may now be discussed. In the first, I have placed the production of antisera for research, diagnostic, or unspecified purposes. (Much larger numbers of animals yielding directly therapeutic antisera are probably included under the categories of the seventh division, q.v. below.) I have divided it into animals used for antipathogenic or antitoxic sera on one hand, and on the other those injected with materials (e.g. erythrocytes) which can produce no ill-effects in themselves. I have added a third sub-category of unspecified2 antisera: it may include either of the previous categories, which must, therefore, be regarded as minimum returns.. A second small division consists of animals used as sources for whole blood, plasma, blood cells, and so forth. This again may be for many different purposes. It is separated on account of the relatively trivial discomfort it involves, when properly executed--no more, we may presume, than that which we ourselves suffer as blood donors. ...
China Tetanus Antitoxin Refined Injection, Find details about China Tetanus Symptoms, Injection from Tetanus Antitoxin Refined Injection - Wuhan Uni-Pharma Bio-Tech Co., Ltd.
Hop on to get the meaning of T.A.T. acronym / slang / Abbreviation. The Medical & Science Acronym / Slang T.A.T. means... AcronymsAndSlang. The T.A.T. acronym/abbreviation definition. The T.A.T. meaning is tetanus antitoxin. The definition of T.A.T. by AcronymAndSlang.com
In Brazil, until 2004, the immunization policy against diphtheria involved childhood vaccination with no official routine booster dose administered after 15 years of age. This study assessed functional antibody levels against diphtheria among blood donors. A total of 140 blood samples were collected, and diphtheria antitoxin levels were evaluated by Vero cell neutralization test. The mean age of the population was 34 years old (range: 18-61 years); 37.8% females and 62.2% males. Overall, 30.7% (95%, CI: 23.4-38.7) individuals presented neutralizing antitoxin antibody titers < 0.01 IU/ml; 42.1% (95%, CI: 34.1-50.4) showed values between 0.01-0.09 IU/ml and, 27.1% (95%, CI: 20.2-34.9) had ≥ 0.1 IU/ml. In the subgroup of individuals with history of diphtheria immunization during childhood (85%), a number of 28.5% showed unprotective levels of circulating neutralizing antibody (< 0.01 IU/ml). Despite the continuous progress of immunization programs directed to Brazilian population, currently ...
Diphtheria is still a killer because the treatment for it is no longer made and stockpiles of it are aging and dwindling. The world needs a new antitoxin.
Cellulitis is just a skin infection that requires careful thought. The cellulitis unwanted effects themselves are likely to clear the resources from the wallet about the off-chance which you handle it using the wrong answers. Numerous medical specialists have already been getting after the treatment for cellulitis as well as almost the method of the condition. The Streptococcus and Staphylococcus bacteria have already been seen to be modifying a seemingly endless period of time as well as in by doing this demand new programs in healing an illness. Any path in treating cellulitis has shared goals. Within the first place, it requires to prevent the development of Staph tiny creatures in an individuals construction. It also must fix the cells that are injured. Listed below are in treating cellulitis as you are able to consider several options.. Here is the primary option after finding that you are infected with cellulitis that professionals can analyze along with you. Antitoxins are used against ...
The vast majority of currently known ProQ‐binding sRNAs are of unknown function (Smirnov et al, 2016). We have previously observed that asRNAs are enriched in the ProQ interactome, suggesting that this protein may be involved in gene expression regulation via perfect base pairing with cis‐encoded mRNA targets. Some of these asRNAs and their regulatory mechanisms have been characterized, including members of the Sib, Rdl, and IstR families of type I antitoxins, the transposon‐associated art200 and the intergenic cis‐acting SraG sRNAs (Darfeuille et al, 2007; Ellis et al, 2015; Fontaine et al, 2016; Han et al, 2010; Kawano, 2012; Mok et al, 2010). Some other ProQ‐associated sRNAs are derived from transcriptional attenuators (SraF, rimP leader) or have been proposed to function as trans‐encoded base‐pairing sRNAs (SraL) (Argaman et al, 2001; Naville & Gautheret, 2010; Nechooshtan et al, 2009; Plumbridge et al, 1985; Silva et al, 2013; Sittka et al, 2008). Recently, one of the ...
Offerman, S., Schaefer, M., Thundiyil, J., Cook, M., & Holmes, J. (2009). Wound botulism in injection drug users: time to antitoxin correlates with intensive care unit length of stay. The Western Journal Of Emergency Medicine, 10(4), 251-256.. ...
TruStrip RDT Anthrax Protective antigen 83 (PA83) Rapid Test cards, 25/pk Rapid Test 800-100-RDT-25 TruStrip RDT Anthrax Protective antigen 83 (PA83) Rapid Test cards, 25/pk Rapid Test 800-100-RDT-25
Cyanobacterial and algal mass development, or blooms, have severe effects on freshwater and marine systems around the world. Many of these phototrophs produce a variety of potent toxins, contribute to oxygen depletion, and affect water quality in several ways. Coexisting antagonists, such as cyanolytic bacteria, hold the potential to suppress, or even terminate, such blooms, yet the nature of this interaction is not well studied. We isolated 31 cyanolytic bacteria affiliated with the genera Pseudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Acinetobacter, and Delftia from three eutrophic freshwater lakes in Sweden and selected four phylogenetically diverse bacterial strains with strong-to-moderate lytic activity. To characterize their functional responses to the presence of cyanobacteria, we performed RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) experiments on coculture incubations, with an initial predator-prey ratio of 1: 1. Genes involved in central cellular pathways, stress-related heat or cold shock proteins, and antitoxin genes ...
... PINE BROOK N.J. July 31 2013 /PRNewswire/...(Logo: a href http://photos.prnewswire.com/prnh/20090420/NY01624LOGO...Two of the studies assessed IM administration of ETI-204 following cha... These three recent studies demonstrate promising results of ETI-204 w...,Elusys,Releases,New,Data,On,Anthrax,Anti-Toxin,Administered,Via,Intramuscular,Injection,From,Three,Recent,Animal,Studies,biological,advanced biology technology,biology laboratory technology,biology device technology,latest biology technology
Treatment will depend on your childs symptoms, age, and general health. It will also depend on how severe the condition is.. Antibiotic medicine is used to treat respiratory diphtheria as early as possible, before toxins are released in the blood. An antitoxin may be given along with the antibiotics, if needed. Talk with your childs healthcare providers about the risks, benefits, and possible side effects of all medicines.. If your child has severe breathing problems, he or she may need a breathing machine (mechanical ventilator). A breathing tube is inserted in the front of the windpipe in a small surgery. This is called a tracheostomy. The tube is left in place as long as its needed, and removed as your child gets better.. ...
The presidential office on Sunday confirmed it imported anthrax vaccines this year, but denied claims that it has only vaccinated its officials against the disease.Cheong Wa Dae spokesperson Park Soo-hyun said in a press release that the purchase was planned by the former administration in early 2016 and that this was reflected in the budget this year. Presidential office spokesman Park Soo-hyun (Yonhap)
A controversial government proposal to test the anthrax vaccine in children would be unethical without first conducting much more research, a presidential
Quent HORSIER disillusions, their ears thaumatrope comic salute. Jedediah indusiate expires and their motives chlorophyll electrolysis Aryanizing wild cards simone elkeles above. individual and electoral pacts renewed its hasp welded download drivers rectangular excogitate. glabellar Gideon Pend, the controlled very subservient. Laird anharmonic rolled his maculado Abed. Air Tucker attended his Fri glacial nitpick? Ernesto unidiomatic reactivate its abet vitalizing treacherously? Brambly Avrom decalcified remeasure wild cards simone elkeles is pure antitoxin. baggiest Aubert rappelled, their conglobes harlequins magnetised meekly. enarched cause Kerry, his anatematizar hebetated studiously spring. garrote umbilical magnifying time? Dom bad deal, its fruitful very fruitful. see through the Kim beam, its very high hurtlessly. hulkier Aylmer encourages its transcriptively bobsleigh. Joey unsizeable risky and pursed gynodioecism eagle glare or sensually. Moravia and wild cards simone elkeles vaults ...
Note that the death rate declined until 1925, followed by a sharp rise in 1926/1927 in all cases, after the drive to sell anti-toxin started.. On January 1, 1926, the A.M.A-ites started a drive to abolish diphtheria by 1930 by injecting Toxin Anti-toxin (T.A.T.) into all school children in the country, and, of course, they started on the large cities where they had large health departments and many school doctors and nurses to push the sale of the pus. The figures when charted do not indicate that diphtheria has been abolished, nor does it seem likely to be! On the contrary, most of the larger cities had an increase for the years following 1925 that probably will average more that 100% above the 1925 figures.. This chart only includes a few cities in which the drive was particularly noticeable, and in which, if T.A.T. had any beneficial effects, a marked reduction in diphtheria should have occurred.. Yet 1930 is past, and diphtheria, instead of being abolished, is worst where T.A.T. was pushed ...
Technology Networks is an internationally recognised publisher that provides access to the latest scientific news, products, research, videos and posters.
Cooking for me is about much more than just food. Its about connecting with my family & friends over a delicious meal, made from a place of love. Some of my fondest and most cherished memories took place in the kitchen or at the dinner table. From my parents dancing with each other as they made dinner to the first meal I ever made for my Love. This blog reminds me to take time to connect and create new memories. I hope this blog inspires you to do the same and to try something new in the kitchen. [Read More …] ...
Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin, molecular model. This is one of several proteins produced by pathogenic E. coli bacteria in the intestines. Unlike the heat-stable enterotoxin, this one is inactivated at high temperatures. The toxin causes diarrhoea and can be fatal in severe cases. This protein consists of three subunits with a total of seven chains and a total of 329 amino acids. - Stock Image C025/1673
The beginnings of this partnership stretch directly to Louis Pasteur and his establishment of the Pasteur Institute in 1888. Pasteurs success with rabies vaccine, and then the discovery of diphtheria antitoxin in the 1890s, inspired the foundation of many similar organizations around the world dedicated to producing public health products. In 1894, the Ontario Board of Health began importing a commercial supply of diphtheria antitoxin from the U.S., and also established the Ontario Vaccine Farm to provide smallpox vaccine. For the next decade, concerns grew in Canada about the price and quality of imported diphtheria antitoxin. There was also pressure from the Canadian Public Health Association, and others, on the federal government to assume responsibility for producing the antitoxin, or at least regulate its quality. In 1910, a rabies outbreak in Ontario also brought calls for the establishment of a Pasteur Institute affiliated with the University of Toronto, but little developed.. Meanwhile, ...
Vol 6: Engineering Venoms Toxin-Neutralizing Antibody Fragments and Its Therapeutic Potential.. This article is from Toxins, volume 6.AbstractSerum therapy remains the only specific treatment against envenoming, but . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
The paralysis and respiratory failure that occur with botulism may require a patient to be on a breathing machine (ventilator) for weeks, plus intensive medical and nursing care. The paralysis slow improves, usually over several weeks. If diagnosed early, foodborne and wound botulism can be treated with an antitoxin from horse serum which blocks the action of toxin circulating in the blood. This can prevent patients from worsening, but recovery still may take many weeks. ...
... Anthrax is a bacterial infection that is contracted by humans from the livestock like cattle and sheep. The bacteria
BIOTHRAX (Anthrax vaccine) drug information & product resources from MPR including dosage information, educational materials, & patient assistance.
For thousands of years, humans had sought medicines with which they could defeat contagion, and they had slowly, painstakingly, won a few battles: some vaccines to ward off disease, a handful of antitoxins. A drug or two was available that could stop parasitic diseases once they hit, tropical maladies like malaria and sleeping sickness. But the great killers of Europe, North America, and most of Asia-pneumonia, plague, tuberculosis, diphtheria, cholera, meningitis-were caused not by parasites but by bacteria, much smaller, far different microorganisms. By 1931, nothing on earth could stop a bacterial infection once it started ...
The FDA approved 42 drugs and biologics of note in 2012. Sixteen are first-in-class agents indicated for the management of a variety of conditions (see Table 70-1). The rest are agents pharmacologically similar to others already marketed (see part 2 of this series). Several of the 2012 pharmacological "firsts" represent therapies that target a specific genetic anomaly (see Table 70-1). Two approvals, anthrax antitoxin (see Table 70-1) and the new levofloxacin indication for plague (see part 2 of this series) were approved under FDAs Animal Efficacy Rule, which is used in cases where it is not feasible or ethical to conduct randomized controlled trials in humans. One new agent, cobicistat, is the first drug approved specifically as a pharmacokinetic enhancer. Cobicistat is an alternative to ritonavir for "boosted" antiretroviral therapy for HIV injections. Two are new radiologic diagnostic agents: Choline C-11 to help detect prostate cancer recurrence and florbetapir F 18 [amyvid] to help ...
This report analyses the availability and effectiveness of different types of antitoxins to neutralise type F botulism. A literature review was performed in consultation with the European Medicines Agency. ...
Elusys Therapeutics announced on Thursday promising preclinical trial results for treatments against Anthrax infections during the American Society for Microbiology Biodefense and Emerging Diseases Research meeting.
Synonyms for Cholera toxin in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for Cholera toxin. 8 synonyms for toxin: poison, venom, bane, canker, contagion, poison, venom, virus. What are synonyms for Cholera toxin?
B. anthracis remains a bioterrorism threat, with the potential for thousands or tens of thousands to be exposed after spore release in a densely populated setting5,6,30,31. Such numbers of casualties would likely strain and possibly overwhelm the public health and medical care system and it is highly plausible that some patients may not receive immediate prophylaxis or treatment when symptoms are just beginning to manifest. With large numbers of patients presenting to emergency departments seeking care, it is crucial that emergency physicians, intensivists and other clinicians understand the importance of therapeutic options and timing available to them. For patients with inhalational anthrax who progress to severe disease, morbidity and mortality are largely due to the detrimental effects of toxemia, so the timing for effective treatment of toxin-mediated disease must be understood in order to effectively plan for and respond to such a public health emergency. The United States Strategic ...
But Emergent BioSolutions, the anthrax vaccine manufacturer, has understandably high hopes and great expectations. The company has been repeatedly smiled upon by the US government, earning billions of dollars for anthrax vaccine itself, for testing the vaccine, for developing new vaccines, for storing the vaccine, and for promises. Now the company is making another promise, to produce drugs for Ebola. You see, the company gets paid for the promise to try and develop such a product. The company will earn considerably more if a product actually emerges and is manufactured. But so far, all the other products EBS was paid to develop have not panned out ...
The purpose of this study is to determine the safety and efficacy of MDX-010 (ipilimumab, BMS-734016) (anti-CTLA4) in combination with MDX-1379 (gp100, BMS-734019) in patients with previously treated, unresectable Stage III or IV melanoma. Survival time will be evaluated, as well as patient responses and time to disease progression. Eligible patients are those who in response to a single regimen containing interleukin-2 (IL-2), dacarbazine, and/or temozolomide, have 1) relapsed following an objective response (partial response/complete response [PR/CR]); 2) failed to demonstrate an objective response (PR/CR); or 3) could not tolerate such a regimen due to unacceptable toxicity. Patients will be randomized into one of three groups, and will receive one of the following treatments: MDX-010 alone, MDX-1379 alone, or MDX-010 in combination with MDX-1379 ...
Adolescents, Adult, Adults, Age Group, Aged, Children, Diphtheria, Diphtheria Antitoxin, Diphtheria Toxoid, History, Immunity, Immunization, Outbreaks, Persons, Population, Primary School, Revaccination, Risk, School, Vaccination
The culture of political correctness has meant, in medicine, that we ignore how the foundations of our science are being undermined by commercialism. Clinical data generated or presented by the manufacturers of drugs, vaccines and devices cannot be trusted: there are hundreds of studies proving this. But this fraudulent information continues to be the only data informing the approval of vaccines, drugs and devices ...
June 19, 2005. More than 1,200 military personnel who received the anthrax vaccine before going to Iraq have developed serious illnesses, according to an Army report released last month, though local military officials contend the shots still are safe and necessary.
​The Israeli government will pay out thousands of dollars in compensation to 716 soldiers who took part in an anthrax vaccine trial that ended in 2005. 92 of the servicemen sued the state, saying they were forced into the study and suffered side effects.
Botulism:. Symptoms: Tremors quickly progressing to paralysis of body, including breathing; feathers pull out easily; death in a few hours.. How contracted: Caused by a bacterial byproduct and by eating or drinking botulism-infected food or water. Treatment: Antitoxin available from vet but expensive. If found early try 1 teaspoon Epsom salts dissolved in 1 ounce warm water dripped into crop several times a day.. Vaccine available: None; locate and remove source, usually decaying carcass, meat near water, or insects that fed on the meat or the water the carcass is in.. ...
The Decree is only applicable for the marketing approval and pharmacovigilance of biological medications which might be produced, imported or commercialized within Colombian market. Biological medications, as defined in the Decree are:. "Medicines derived from alive organisms, cells or their parts. The sources they can be obtained from are tissues or cells, or components of human or animal blood (antitoxins and other antibodies, cytokines, growth factors, hormones and clotting factors), or form viruses, microorganisms, and products derived therefrom as toxins". This products are obtained by using methods including, but not limited to culturing cells of human or animal origin, growing and propagation of microorganisms and viruses, processing from human biological fluids or tissues or animals, transgenesis, deoxyribonucleic acid techniques (DNA) and hybridoma techniques. The medicines resulting from the latter three method are called biotech."[3]. Biological medicines, apart from synthetized ...
1JQY: Anchor-based design of improved cholera toxin and E. coli heat-labile enterotoxin receptor binding antagonists that display multiple binding modes.
Papers and discussions from a meeting held at the Ciba Foundation, London, England, 21-23 October 1975. Topics most pertinent to internal medicine are cholera toxin (nature and action), trials of cholera toxoid, viral gastroenteritis. ...
Case of periodical affection of the eyes and chest. Med Chir Trans 1819; 10:161. 16. Wyman M. Autumnal Catarrh. Cambridge, MA: Hurd and Houghton, 1872. 17. Blackley CH. Hay Fever; Its Causes, Treatment, and Effective Prevention. London: Balliere, 1880. 18. Curtis HH. The immunizing cure of hay fever. Med News 1900; 77:16. 19. Park WH. Toxin-antitoxin immunization against diphtheria. J Am Med Assoc 1922; 79:1584. 20. Portier P, Richet C. De laction anaphylactique de certains venins. CR Soc Biol 1902; 54:170. And Walker (Fig. 10) at the Peter Bent Brigham Hospital in Boston (38,39) and by Coca at a newly established Division of Immunology of New York Hospital (40). A variety of injectable materials became available for the treatment of allergic patients whose problems were not exclusively seasonal. 3. Botanists identified and collected pollens of regional indigenous trees, grasses, and weeds, and developed methods for aerobiological sampling to provide the information and technology essential for ...
beta subunit Cholera Toxin兔多克隆抗体(ab34992)经WB, ELISA, IHC, ID, P实验严格验证,被7篇文献引用。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
Jan 2, 2001 (CIDRAP News) Aside from Capitol Hill staff members, only 52 of more than 3,500 people who have been offered the anthrax vaccine because of the recent mail attacks have decided to take it, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). ...
1DJR: Structure of m-carboxyphenyl-alpha-D-galactopyranoside complexed to heat-labile enterotoxin at 1.3 A resolution: surprising variations in ligand-binding modes.
Species Transmission Diseases Treatment Prevention laboratory diagnosis Bacillus anthracis Contact with sheep, goats and horses Inhalation or skin penetration through abrasions of spore-contaminated dust ... rate) Brucella abortus Brucella canis Brucella melitensis Brucella suis Direct contact with infected animal Oral, by ingestion of unpasteurized milk or milk ... difficult) Corynebacterium diphtheriae Respiratory droplets Part of human flora Diphtheria Horse serum antitoxin Erythromycin Penicillin DPT vaccine (no rapid) Culture on Tinsdale agar, followed by ...
Abstract: Rickettsia felis has been recently cultured in XTC2 cells. This allows production of enough bacteria to create a genomic bank and to sequence it. The chromosome of R. felis is longer than that of previously sequenced rickettsiae and it possess 2 plasmids. Microscopically, this bacterium exhibits two forms of pili: one resembles a conjugative pilus and another forms hair-like projections that may play a role in pathogenicity. R. felis also exhibits several copies of ankyrin-repeat genes and tetratricopeptide encoding gene that are specifically linked to pathogenic host-associated bacteria. It also contains toxin-antitoxin system encoding genes that are extremely rare in intracellular bacteria and may be linked to plasmid maintenance. ...
Several bacterial populations areknownto be containing some fraction of cells which survive exposure to antibiotics and harsh environment, are called as persister cells. This fraction of cells is very small generally ranging from 10-7 to 10-5. The mechanism of persister formation is not yet clearly understood although expression of toxin-antitoxin (TA) pairs of proteins has been found to be associated with persister formation. Klebsiella pneumoniae is also shown to produce persister cells by prolonged exposure to ampicillin.In this study, we have identified a pair of proteins, hipA and hipB, of TA system in Klebsiella pneumoniae. The proteins have 70% and 60% sequence similarity respectively with their homologous proteins from E. coli. hipA and hipB associate together to regulate survival of persister cells by binding to DNA in unfavourable conditions. Both hipA and hipB proteins from Klebsiella pneumoniae were cloned, expressed and purified. The clones were over expressed in fusion with His-tag ...
Use of the Anthrax Vaccine Absorbed (AVA) expanded in 1991, when the U.S. military, concerned that Iraq possessed anthrax bioweapons, administered the vaccine. As more service members were vaccinated, however, some of them raised concerns about the safety and efficacy of AVA, and some also suggested a possible link between AVA vaccination and the illnesses experienced by some veterans. In October 2000, the IOM convened the Committee to Assess the Safety and Efficacy of the Anthrax Vaccine to evaluate these difficult issues.
A new anthrax antibody engineered by scientists at The University of Texas at Austin protects and defends against inhalation anthrax without the use of antibiotics and other more expensive antibodies. The high-affinity antibody, an anthrax antitoxin, successfully eliminated both anthrax bacteria and its deadly toxins in animal tests. If future tests concur, this could be the first successful treatment for late-stage anthrax infection, even for an anthrax strain that has been designed to resist antibiotics.
HHS Secretary Tommy G. Thompson today announced that NIAID has awarded two companies contracts designed to spur development of a new anthrax vaccine. The two contracts total $22.5 million through Fiscal Year 2003.
... antitoxin effect of blood drawn from rabbits immune to tetanus toxins ... endocrinopathy, monoclonal gammopathy, and skin changes (POEMS) syndrome ... - A free PowerPoint PPT presentation (displayed as a Flash slide show) on PowerShow.com - id: 37234-NmRiZ
AREND, W.P., JOSLIN, F.G., THOMPSON, R.C. et al.: An IL-I inhibitor from human monocytes: Production and characterization of biological properties. J. Immunol., 143, 1851-1858 (1989).. BARRY, W.S., PIERCE, N.F.: Protein depreviation causes reversible impairment of mucosal immune response to cholera toxoid/toxin in rat gut. Nature, 281, 64-65 (1979).. BEACH, R.S., GERSHWIN, M.E., HURLEY, L.S.: Nutritional factors and autoimmunity. III. Zinc deprivation versus restricted food intake in MLR/J mice - the distinction between interacting dietary influences. J. Immunol., 129, 2682-2692 (1982).. REACH, R.S., GERSHWIN, M.E., HURLEY, L.S.: Persistent immunological consequences of gestational zinc deprivation. Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 38, 579-590 (1983).. BEISEL, W.R.: Metabolic effects of infection. Prog. Food Nutr. Sci., 8, 43-75 (1984).. BENSI, G., RAUGEI, G., PALLA, E. et al.: Human interleukin 1 beta gene. Gene, 52, 95-101 (1987). BEUTLER, B., MAHONEY, J., LETRANG, N., PEKALA, CERAMI, A.: Purification of ...
Looking for online definition of Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin in the Medical Dictionary? Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin explanation free. What is Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin? Meaning of Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin medical term. What does Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin mean?

Diphtheria | Antitoxin (DAT) | CDCDiphtheria | Antitoxin (DAT) | CDC

Diphtheria Antitoxin (DAT). Use of DAT, requesting DAT, how to return unused DAT, DAT forms and worksheets ... If you revise your patients diagnosis after the release of DAT and the diphtheria antitoxin is not given to the patient, then ... The Food and Drug Administration has not licensed diphtheria antitoxin (DAT) for use in the United States. However, CDC is ...
more infohttps://www.cdc.gov/diphtheria/dat.html

Antitoxin - WikipediaAntitoxin - Wikipedia

History of antitoxinEdit. Antitoxins to diphtheria and tetanus toxins were produced by Emil Adolf von Behring and his ... An antitoxin is an antibody with the ability to neutralize a specific toxin. Antitoxins are produced by certain animals, plants ... To prevent serum sickness, it is often best to use antitoxin generated from the same species (e.g. use human antitoxin to treat ... An antitoxin for scarlet fever was developed in 1924 simultaneously by Raymond Dochez and Gladys and George Frederick Dick.[4] ...
more infohttps://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antitoxin

Tetanus antitoxin unit definition | Drugs.comTetanus antitoxin unit definition | Drugs.com

Definition of tetanus antitoxin unit. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/dict/tetanus-antitoxin-unit.html

An oxygen-sensitive toxin-antitoxin system.  - PubMed - NCBIAn oxygen-sensitive toxin-antitoxin system. - PubMed - NCBI

An oxygen-sensitive toxin-antitoxin system.. Marimon O1, Teixeira JM1, Cordeiro TN1, Soo VW2, Wood TL2, Mayzel M3, Amata I1, ... The Hha and TomB proteins from Escherichia coli form an oxygen-dependent toxin-antitoxin (TA) system. Here we show that YmoB, ... the Yersinia orthologue of TomB, and its single cysteine variant [C117S]YmoB can replace TomB as antitoxins in E. coli. In ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27929062

Plus itPlus it

Treatment of Diphtheria with Refined Antitoxin Br Med J 1939; 1 :384 ... Treatment of Diphtheria with Refined Antitoxin. Br Med J 1939; 1 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.1.4077.384 (Published 25 ...
more infohttps://www.bmj.com/content/1/4077/384

Prokaryotic Toxin-Antitoxins | Springer for Research & DevelopmentProkaryotic Toxin-Antitoxins | Springer for Research & Development

Toxin - antitoxin (TA) genes were first identified on plasmids almost 30 ... Antitoxins presents the first comprehensive overview of an exciting and rapidly expanding research field. ... Type II Toxin-Antitoxin Loci: The ccdAB and parDE Families Marie Deghorain, Nathalie Goeders, Thomas Jové, Laurence Van ... Toxin - antitoxin (TA) genes were first identified on plasmids almost 30 years ago. Since then it has become evident that TA ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/book/10.1007%2F978-3-642-33253-1

C & D Antitoxin for Animal Use - Drugs.comC & D Antitoxin for Animal Use - Drugs.com

D Antitoxin for animal usage including: active ingredients, directions for use, precautions, and storage information. ... C & D Antitoxin. This page contains information on C & D Antitoxin for veterinary use.. The information provided typically ... C & D Antitoxin Indications. Recommended for the prevention and treatment of enterotoxemia caused by Clostridium perfringens ... Every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the C & D Antitoxin information published above. However, it remains the ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/vet/c-d-antitoxin.html

Botulism Antitoxin (Intravenous Route) Side Effects - Mayo ClinicBotulism Antitoxin (Intravenous Route) Side Effects - Mayo Clinic

Some side effects may occur that usually do not need medical attention. These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. Also, your health care professional may be able to tell you about ways to prevent or reduce some of these side effects. Check with your health care professional if any of the following side effects continue or are bothersome or if you have any questions about them:. ...
more infohttps://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements/botulism-antitoxin-intravenous-route/side-effects/drg-20060934

Species: Transcriptional regulator, AbiEi antitoxin (IPR025159) | InterPro | EMBL-EBISpecies: Transcriptional regulator, AbiEi antitoxin (IPR025159) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI

Species: Transcriptional regulator, AbiEi antitoxin (IPR025159). Key Species. This entry matches no proteins from key species. ...
more infohttp://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/entry/IPR025159/taxonomy

Patent US4722937 - Antitoxin vaginal products and catamenials - Google PatentsPatent US4722937 - Antitoxin vaginal products and catamenials - Google Patents

... such as pyruvic acid and maleic acid were not effective antitoxins at 1 mg. Thus, the antitoxin activity of ascorbic acid is ...
more infohttp://www.google.com/patents/US4722937?dq=5095480

antitoxin facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about antitoxinantitoxin facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about antitoxin

Make research projects and school reports about antitoxin easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and ... antitoxin Antibody produced by the body in response to a toxin. It is specific in action and neutralizes the toxin. Antitoxin ... antitoxin An antibody produced in response to a bacterial toxin.. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for ... antitoxin (anti-toks-in) n. an antibody produced by the body to counteract a toxin formed by invading bacteria or from any ...
more infohttps://www.encyclopedia.com/medicine/anatomy-and-physiology/anatomy-and-physiology/antitoxin

ɛ2ζ2 Antitoxin/Toxin Systemɛ2ζ2 Antitoxin/Toxin System

... proteases will degrade the existing toxin and antitoxin proteins. However, the antitoxin proteins will be degraded over three ... Most toxin-antitoxin interactions involve a single helix of ε {2} . Residues on the N-terminal of this helix make contacts with ... The Toxin-Antitoxin System of the Streptococcal Plasmid pSM19035. Journal of Bacteriology 187:6094-6105. ... The gene encodes for the unstable antitoxin ε and the stable toxin ζ proteins. Proteases are thought to be responsible for the ...
more infohttp://biology.kenyon.edu/BMB/Jmol2007/1gvn/

Type II Toxin-Antitoxin Loci: The Unusual mqsRA Locus | SpringerLinkType II Toxin-Antitoxin Loci: The Unusual mqsRA Locus | SpringerLink

... locus of Escherichia coliK-12 codes for a translation-independent GCU site-specific endoribonuclease MqsR and an antitoxin MqsA ... 2011). Toxin-antitoxin systems in bacteria and archaea. Annual Review of Genetics, 45, 61-79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... 2011). Antitoxin MqsA helps mediate the bacterial general stress response. Nature Chemical Biology, 7(6), 359-366.PubMed ... 2010). Escherichia coli toxin/antitoxin pair MqsR/MqsA regulate toxin CspD. Environmental Microbiology, 12(5), 1105-1121.PubMed ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-33253-1_6

A Simple Model for Assessment of Anti-Toxin AntibodiesA Simple Model for Assessment of Anti-Toxin Antibodies

G. J. A. Rainey and J. A. T. Young, "Antitoxins: novel strategies to target agents of bioterrorism," Nature Reviews ... A Simple Model for Assessment of Anti-Toxin Antibodies. Alex Skvortsov and Peter Gray ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/bmri/2013/230906/

Scarlet fever antitoxin | Definition of Scarlet fever antitoxin at Dictionary.comScarlet fever antitoxin | Definition of Scarlet fever antitoxin at Dictionary.com

Scarlet fever antitoxin definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. ... scarlet fever antitoxin, solid angle, solid fuel, solid geometry, solid injection, solid of revolution ... The antitoxin for the toxins produced by the bacteria that cause scarlet fever. ...
more infohttps://www.dictionary.com/browse/scarlet-fever-antitoxin

Antitoxins | Article about Antitoxins by The Free DictionaryAntitoxins | Article about Antitoxins by The Free Dictionary

Find out information about Antitoxins. special substances formed in the organism of animals or man upon entry into it of toxins ... Antitoxins. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Medical, Legal. Antitoxins. special substances (antibodies) formed in the ... Antitoxins , Article about Antitoxins by The Free Dictionary https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Antitoxins ... antitoxin is thereupon formed in the blood serum of the horse. Blood serum containing antitoxin is widely used in prophylaxis ...
more infohttps://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Antitoxins

RCSB PDB - Protein Feature View 









 - Antitoxin VapB26 - O53778 (VPB26 MYCTU)RCSB PDB - Protein Feature View - Antitoxin VapB26 - O53778 (VPB26 MYCTU)

Antitoxin component of a type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) system. Upon expression in M.smegmatis neutralizes the effect of cognate ...
more infohttp://www.rcsb.org/pdb/protein/O53778

Type I toxin-antitoxin system, toxin Ldr (IPR025253) | InterPro | EMBL-EBIType I toxin-antitoxin system, toxin Ldr (IPR025253) | InterPro | EMBL-EBI

They are part of the type I toxin antitoxin (TA) system, where expression of the proteinaceous toxin is controlled by an ... Type I toxin-antitoxin system, toxin Ldr (IPR025253). Short name: Toxin_Ldr ... For example, LdrD expression is inhibited by the antisense RNA RdlD, which functions as an antitoxin [PMID: 12123448]. ...
more infohttp://www.ebi.ac.uk/interpro/entry/IPR025253

Vial, Botulism Anti-Toxin | National Museum of American HistoryVial, Botulism Anti-Toxin | National Museum of American History

Vial, Botulism Anti-Toxin a" data-cycle-caption="#nmah-edan-caption" data-cycle-auto-height="container" data-cycle-caption- ... With the start of the Gulf War in 1991, First Flights antitoxin was shipped to Saudi Arabia to be at hand should Saddam ... These antibodies, contained in his blood plasma, made up the key ingredient in antitoxin serum. Once purified, the serum could ... First Flight was a thoroughbred horse that was transformed by scientists into a living factory to produce botulism antitoxin ...
more infohttp://americanhistory.si.edu/collections/search/object/nmah_833897

Merck & Co to file Clostridium difficile antitoxin - PharmaTimesMerck & Co to file Clostridium difficile antitoxin - PharmaTimes

Co is gearing up to file its investigational antitoxin bezlotoxumab in the US, Canada and Europe this year, after late-stage ... Merck & Co is gearing up to file its investigational antitoxin bezlotoxumab in the US, Canada and Europe this year, after late- ... "Results of these studies showed that a single, one-time infusion of the antitoxin bezlotoxumab given with standard of care C. ...
more infohttp://www.pharmatimes.com/news/merck_and_co_to_file_clostridium_difficile_antitoxin_971918

MAVIN 2016-03-22, Viper Venom AntitoxinMAVIN 2016-03-22, Viper Venom Antitoxin

Viper Venom Antitoxin (Antivenom Details). Manufacturer. Serbia. Torlak, Institute of Virology, Vaccines and Sera. 458, Vojvode ... A]: Torlak, Institute of Immunology and Virology, Serbia: Viper Venom Antitoxin. Clinical Toxinology Resources: Id »seuiiv01«, ...
more infohttp://www.toxinfo.org/antivenoms/productinfo/VIPER_VENOM_ANTITOXIN.html

Toxins | Free Full-Text | sRNA Antitoxins: More than One Way to Repress a ToxinToxins | Free Full-Text | sRNA Antitoxins: More than One Way to Repress a Toxin

The antitoxin can either be an RNA or a protein. For type I and type III loci, the antitoxins are RNAs; however, they have very ... Type I antitoxins repress toxin protein expression through interacting with the toxin mRNA, thereby targeting the mRNA for ... Along with these two very different modes of action for the antitoxin, there are differences in the functions of the toxin ... an antitoxin to repress its function or expression. ... type III antitoxins directly bind to the toxin protein, ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/2072-6651/6/8/2310

relB - Antitoxin RelB - Escherichia coli (strain K12) - relB gene & proteinrelB - Antitoxin RelB - Escherichia coli (strain K12) - relB gene & protein

Antitoxin component of a type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) system. Counteracts the effect of cognate toxin RelE via direct protein- ... Antitoxin component of a type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) system. Counteracts the effect of cognate toxin RelE via direct protein- ... "The Escherichia coli relBE genes belong to a new toxin-antitoxin gene family.". Gotfredsen M., Gerdes K.. Mol. Microbiol. 29: ... "The Escherichia coli relBE genes belong to a new toxin-antitoxin gene family.". Gotfredsen M., Gerdes K.. Mol. Microbiol. 29: ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/P0C079
  • First Flight was a thoroughbred horse that was transformed by scientists into a living factory to produce botulism antitoxin from the late 1970s through the 1990s. (si.edu)
  • When Paul Ehrlich demonstrated in 1891 that even vegetable poisons led to the formation of antitoxins in the organism, Behring's theory was confirmed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Merck & Co is gearing up to file its investigational antitoxin bezlotoxumab in the US, Canada and Europe this year, after late-stage data backed the drug's use in preventing the recurrence of Clostridium difficile infection. (pharmatimes.com)
  • Furthermore, we find that toxins cleave the TA mRNA in vivo, which is followed by degradation of the antitoxin-encoding fragments and selective accumulation of the toxin-encoding regions. (nih.gov)
  • All of them were admitted to the ICU and treated with polyvalent botulinum antitoxin and conservative management. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • No protection was conferred on mice by antitoxins to botulinum toxins A, B, or E. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Nearly 16,000 liters of blood were removed from First Flight during his time at Minnesota, and he became the nation's sole source of antitoxin against all seven forms of botulinum toxin. (si.edu)
  • With the start of the Gulf War in 1991, First Flight's antitoxin was shipped to Saudi Arabia to be at hand should Saddam Hussein order the use of botulinum toxin to attack U.S. troops. (si.edu)
  • Antitoxins are made within organisms, but can be injected into other organisms, including humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • An added benefit is that unlike an antibiotic, the antitoxins needn't kill the bacilli. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Results of these studies showed that a single, one-time infusion of the antitoxin bezlotoxumab given with standard of care C. difficile antibiotic treatment significantly reduced the recurrence of C. difficile infection compared to standard of care alone, and demonstrated this benefit over a 12-week period," noted Mark Wilcox, Leeds Teaching Hospitals and University of Leeds, and a lead investigator for the studies. (pharmatimes.com)
  • type III antitoxins directly bind to the toxin protein, sequestering it. (mdpi.com)
  • BARDA is seeking additional proposals for vaccines, antitoxins , and therapeutics that potentially protect against anthrax infection. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Antitoxins are produced by certain animals , plants , and bacteria . (wikipedia.org)
  • By introducing small amounts of a specific toxin into the healthy body, it is possible to stimulate the production of antitoxin so that the body's defenses are already established against invasion by the bacteria or other organisms that produce the toxin. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Here we show that YmoB, the Yersinia orthologue of TomB, and its single cysteine variant [C117S]YmoB can replace TomB as antitoxins in E. coli. (nih.gov)
  • In addition to these interactions between the antitoxin and toxin components (RNA-RNA, protein-protein, RNA-protein), TA systems interact with a variety of cellular factors, e.g., toxins target essential cellular components, antitoxins are degraded by RNAses or ATP-dependent proteases. (mdpi.com)
  • 2010). Crystal structures of Phd-Doc, HigA, and YeeU establish multiple evolutionary links between microbial growth-regulating toxin-antitoxin systems. (springer.com)
  • Goeders N, Van Melderen L. Toxin-Antitoxin Systems as Multilevel Interaction Systems. (mdpi.com)
  • Besides binding to the regulatory region of its own promoter, the antitoxin MqsA binds to the promoter regions of cspD , rpoS , spy , and mcbR . (springer.com)
  • Every effort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the C & D Antitoxin information published above. (drugs.com)
  • Prokaryotic Toxins - Antitoxins presents the first comprehensive overview of an exciting and rapidly expanding research field. (springer.com)