Antisera from immunized animals that is purified and used as a passive immunizing agent against specific BACTERIAL TOXINS.
An antitoxin used for the treatment of TETANUS.
An antitoxin produced against the toxin of CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE that is used for the treatment of DIPHTHERIA.
Antiserum given therapeutically in BOTULISM.
A localized infection of mucous membranes or skin caused by toxigenic strains of CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE. It is characterized by the presence of a pseudomembrane at the site of infection. DIPHTHERIA TOXIN, produced by C. diphtheriae, can cause myocarditis, polyneuritis, and other systemic toxic effects.
Preparations of pathogenic organisms or their derivatives made nontoxic and intended for active immunologic prophylaxis. They include deactivated toxins. Anatoxin toxoids are distinct from anatoxins that are TROPANES found in CYANOBACTERIA.
A disease caused by tetanospasmin, a powerful protein toxin produced by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI. Tetanus usually occurs after an acute injury, such as a puncture wound or laceration. Generalized tetanus, the most common form, is characterized by tetanic muscular contractions and hyperreflexia. Localized tetanus presents itself as a mild condition with manifestations restricted to muscles near the wound. It may progress to the generalized form.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
Specific, characterizable, poisonous chemicals, often PROTEINS, with specific biological properties, including immunogenicity, produced by microbes, higher plants (PLANTS, TOXIC), or ANIMALS.
A disease caused by potent protein NEUROTOXINS produced by CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM which interfere with the presynaptic release of ACETYLCHOLINE at the NEUROMUSCULAR JUNCTION. Clinical features include abdominal pain, vomiting, acute PARALYSIS (including respiratory paralysis), blurred vision, and DIPLOPIA. Botulism may be classified into several subtypes (e.g., food-borne, infant, wound, and others). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1208)
The formaldehyde-inactivated toxin of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. It is generally used in mixtures with TETANUS TOXOID and PERTUSSIS VACCINE; (DTP); or with tetanus toxoid alone (DT for pediatric use and Td, which contains 5- to 10-fold less diphtheria toxoid, for other use). Diphtheria toxoid is used for the prevention of diphtheria; DIPHTHERIA ANTITOXIN is for treatment.
Originally an island of the Malay Archipelago, the second largest island in the world. It divided, West New Guinea becoming part of Indonesia and East New Guinea becoming Papua New Guinea.
A species of gram-positive, asporogenous bacteria in which three cultural types are recognized. These types (gravis, intermedius, and mitis) were originally given in accordance with the clinical severity of the cases from which the different strains were most frequently isolated. This species is the causative agent of DIPHTHERIA.
An ENTEROTOXIN from VIBRIO CHOLERAE. It consists of two major protomers, the heavy (H) or A subunit and the B protomer which consists of 5 light (L) or B subunits. The catalytic A subunit is proteolytically cleaved into fragments A1 and A2. The A1 fragment is a MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASE. The B protomer binds cholera toxin to intestinal epithelial cells, and facilitates the uptake of the A1 fragment. The A1 catalyzed transfer of ADP-RIBOSE to the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G PROTEINS activates the production of CYCLIC AMP. Increased levels of cyclic AMP are thought to modulate release of fluid and electrolytes from intestinal crypt cells.
Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.
A species of anaerobic, gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae that produces proteins with characteristic neurotoxicity. It is the etiologic agent of BOTULISM in humans, wild fowl, HORSES; and CATTLE. Seven subtypes (sometimes called antigenic types, or strains) exist, each producing a different botulinum toxin (BOTULINUM TOXINS). The organism and its spores are widely distributed in nature.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Toxic proteins produced from the species CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM. The toxins are synthesized as a single peptide chain which is processed into a mature protein consisting of a heavy chain and light chain joined via a disulfide bond. The botulinum toxin light chain is a zinc-dependent protease which is released from the heavy chain upon ENDOCYTOSIS into PRESYNAPTIC NERVE ENDINGS. Once inside the cell the botulinum toxin light chain cleaves specific SNARE proteins which are essential for secretion of ACETYLCHOLINE by SYNAPTIC VESICLES. This inhibition of acetylcholine release results in muscular PARALYSIS.
An ADP-ribosylating polypeptide produced by CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE that causes the signs and symptoms of DIPHTHERIA. It can be broken into two unequal domains: the smaller, catalytic A domain is the lethal moiety and contains MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASES which transfers ADP RIBOSE to PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTOR 2 thereby inhibiting protein synthesis; and the larger B domain that is needed for entry into cells.
The cause of TETANUS in humans and domestic animals. It is a common inhabitant of human and horse intestines as well as soil. Two components make up its potent exotoxin activity, a neurotoxin and a hemolytic toxin.
The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with VIBRIO CHOLERAE. The original cholera vaccine consisted of killed bacteria, but other kinds of vaccines now exist.
A genus of motile or nonmotile gram-positive bacteria of the family Clostridiaceae. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. They occur in water, soil, and in the intestinal tract of humans and lower animals.
An acute diarrheal disease endemic in India and Southeast Asia whose causative agent is VIBRIO CHOLERAE. This condition can lead to severe dehydration in a matter of hours unless quickly treated.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
A combined vaccine used to prevent infection with diphtheria and tetanus toxoid. This is used in place of DTP vaccine (DIPHTHERIA-TETANUS-PERTUSSIS VACCINE) when PERTUSSIS VACCINE is contraindicated.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).
A reaction that severs one of the sugar-phosphate linkages of the phosphodiester backbone of RNA. It is catalyzed enzymatically, chemically, or by radiation. Cleavage may be exonucleolytic, or endonucleolytic.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
The most common etiologic agent of GAS GANGRENE. It is differentiable into several distinct types based on the distribution of twelve different toxins.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A prokaryotic ATP-dependent protease that plays a role in the degradation of many abnormal proteins. It is a tetramer of 87-kDa subunits, each of which contains a proteolytic site and a ATP-binding site.
Protein synthesized by CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI as a single chain of ~150 kDa with 35% sequence identity to BOTULINUM TOXIN that is cleaved to a light and a heavy chain that are linked by a single disulfide bond. Tetanolysin is the hemolytic and tetanospasmin is the neurotoxic principle. The toxin causes disruption of the inhibitory mechanisms of the CNS, thus permitting uncontrolled nervous activity, leading to fatal CONVULSIONS.
A species of temperate bacteriophage in the genus P1-like viruses, family MYOVIRIDAE, which infects E. coli. It is the largest of the COLIPHAGES and consists of double-stranded DNA, terminally redundant, and circularly permuted.
Fluids originating from the epithelial lining of the intestines, adjoining exocrine glands and from organs such as the liver, which empty into the cavity of the intestines.
Drugs which have received FDA approval for human testing but have yet to be approved for commercial marketing. This includes drugs used for treatment while they still are undergoing clinical trials (Treatment IND). The main heading includes drugs under investigation in foreign countries.
A TETRACYCLINE analog isolated from the actinomycete STREPTOMYCES rimosus and used in a wide variety of clinical conditions.
Toxins produced, especially by bacterial or fungal cells, and released into the culture medium or environment.
A severe condition resulting from bacteria invading healthy muscle from adjacent traumatized muscle or soft tissue. The infection originates in a wound contaminated with bacteria of the genus CLOSTRIDIUM. C. perfringens accounts for the majority of cases (over eighty percent), while C. noyvi, C. septicum, and C. histolyticum cause most of the other cases.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
An acute infection caused by the spore-forming bacteria BACILLUS ANTHRACIS. It commonly affects hoofed animals such as sheep and goats. Infection in humans often involves the skin (cutaneous anthrax), the lungs (inhalation anthrax), or the gastrointestinal tract. Anthrax is not contagious and can be treated with antibiotics.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of RNA. It includes EC 3.1.26.-, EC 3.1.27.-, EC 3.1.30.-, and EC 3.1.31.-.
A vaccine consisting of DIPHTHERIA TOXOID; TETANUS TOXOID; and whole-cell PERTUSSIS VACCINE. The vaccine protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and whooping cough.
Diseases of newborn infants present at birth (congenital) or developing within the first month of birth. It does not include hereditary diseases not manifesting at birth or within the first 30 days of life nor does it include inborn errors of metabolism. Both HEREDITARY DISEASES and METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS are available as general concepts.
A suspension of killed Bordetella pertussis organisms, used for immunization against pertussis (WHOOPING COUGH). It is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids (DTP). There is an acellular pertussis vaccine prepared from the purified antigenic components of Bordetella pertussis, which causes fewer adverse reactions than whole-cell vaccine and, like the whole-cell vaccine, is generally used in a mixture with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.

Antigenicity of purified glutaraldehyde-treated cholera toxoid administered orally. (1/590)

The antigenicity of orally administered glutaraldehyde-treated cholera toxoid was investigated in healthy volunteers. Fourteen volunteers ingested two or three 2-mg doses of toxoid with saline, with the doses spaced at 28-day intervals. Thirteen other volunteers received comparable toxoid doses with NaHCO3 and milk to neutralize gastric acid. Increments in circulating antitoxin levels were used to assay the antigenicity of oral toxoid. Antitoxin was measured by adrenal cell, rabbit skin permeability factor, and passive hemagglutination assays in sera collected on days 0, 28, 35, 56, 63, and 84 after primary immunization. Adrenal cell and rabbit skin assays exhibited identical sensitivity in detecting antitoxin rises in the 27 vaccinees (19/27) and were significantly more sensitive than passive hemagglutination (11/27) (P less than 0.03). Volunteers who ingested toxoid with NaHCO3 and milk had a higher rate of seroconversion (77%) than those who received toxoid with saline (64%); they also had earlier rises in antitoxin titer and consistently higher geometric mean titers on all days tested. These studies demonstrate that purified cholera toxoid is antigenic in humans after oral administration. The possible role of oral toxoid in enhancing the protective effect of killed whole-cell vaccines can now be investigated.  (+info)

Lack of J chain inhibits the transport of gut IgA and abrogates the development of intestinal antitoxic protection. (2/590)

Recent publications have provided confusing information on the importance of the J chain for secretion of dimeric IgA at mucosal surfaces. Using J chain-deficient (J chain-/-) mice, we addressed whether a lack of J chain had any functional consequence for the ability to resist challenge with cholera toxin (CT) in intestinal loops. J chain-/- mice had normal levels of IgA plasma cells in the gut mucosa, and the Peyer's patches exhibited normal IgA B cell differentiation and germinal center reactions. The total IgA levels in gut lavage were reduced by roughly 90% as compared with that in wild-type controls, while concomitantly serum IgA levels were significantly increased. Total serum IgM levels were depressed, whereas IgG concentrations were normal. Following oral immunizations with CT, J chain-/- mice developed 10-fold increased serum antitoxin IgA titers, but gut lavage anti-CT IgA levels were substantially reduced. However, anti-CT IgA spot-forming cell frequencies in the gut lamina propria were normal. Anti-CT IgM concentrations were low in serum and gut lavage, whereas anti-CT IgG titers were unaltered. Challenge of small intestinal ligated loops with CT caused dramatic fluid accumulation in immunized J chain-/- mice, and only 20% protection was detected compared with unimmunized controls. In contrast, wild-type mice demonstrated 80% protection against CT challenge. Mice heterozygous for the J chain deletion exhibited intermediate gut lavage anti-CT IgA and intestinal protection levels, arguing for a J chain gene-dosage effect on the transport of secretory IgA. This study unequivocally demonstrates a direct relationship between mucosal transport of secretory SIgA and intestinal immune protection.  (+info)

Similarities between the pathogenesis of and immunity to diphtheria and pertussis: the complex nature of serum antitoxin-induced immunity to these two diseases. (3/590)

Despite data from animal studies, seroepidemiological surveys, and controlled clinical trials, skepticism persists about immunity to pertussis conferred by serum IgG neutralizing antibodies (antitoxin). This is largely prompted by the absence of a "protective" level of antitoxin. Examination of the similarities between the pathogenesis and immunity to pertussis and diphtheria provides an explanation for this dilemma. As with pertussis, diphtheria toxoid vaccination confers only approximately 70% immunity on an individual basis, individuals with protective levels of antitoxin may contract diphtheria, and about 50% of the entire population, especially adults, have less than protective levels of antitoxin. The virtual disappearance of diphtheria followed vaccination of the entire population with diphtheria toxoid, which blocked transmission of toxigenic Corynebacterium diphtheriae and thus reduced the pathogen to almost undetectable levels. The individual and community-based immunity induced by diphtheria toxoid, we hypothesize, is similar to that of pertussis and pertussis toxoid.  (+info)

Shigellosis and Escherichia coli diarrhea: relative importance of invasive and toxigenic mechanisms. (4/590)

Shigellae and dysentery-like Escherichia coli must invade the epithelium of the colon to cause disease which can present as dysentery, diarrhea, or both. This paper addresses the possible role of a Shigella dysenteriae-like (Shiga-like) toxin in the pathogenesis of shigellosis and E. coli diarrheal diseases. The possibility for such a role is suggested by the following observations: 1) diarrhea, considered to be a result of secretion of water by the small bowel, is frequently observed in shigellosis, a large bowel disease. 2) Even though shigellae do not invade the jejunum of monkeys fed Shigella flexneri, jejunal secretion is seen in animals with diarrhea. 3) The Shiga toxin of S. dysenteriae has enterotoxic activity and other serotypes of shigellae produce Shiga-like toxins. 4) E. coli 015 RDEC-1 causes a diarrheal disease and frequently death in young rabbits. This organism neither produces E. coli enterotoxins nor is it invasive, but it may produce low levels of a Shiga-like toxin.  (+info)

The sigma ligand, igmesine, inhibits cholera toxin and Escherichia coli enterotoxin induced jejunal secretion in the rat. (5/590)

BACKGROUND: Cholera toxin, and Escherichia coli heat labile (LT) and heat stable (STa) enterotoxins induce small intestinal secretion in part by activating enteric nerves. Igmesine is a novel sigma receptor ligand that inhibits neurally mediated secretion. AIMS: To assess the antisecretory potential of igmesine in cholera toxin, LT, and STa induced water and electrolyte secretion using an in vivo rat model of jejunal perfusion. METHODS: After pretreatment with igmesine, 0.03-10 mg/kg intravenously, jejunal segments of anaesthetised, adult male Wistar rats were incubated with cholera toxin (25 microg), LT (25 microg), or saline. Jejunal perfusion with a plasma electrolyte solution containing a non-absorbable marker was undertaken. In some cases 200 microg/l STa was added to the perfusate. After equilibration, net water and electrolyte movement was determined. In additional experiments rats received igmesine, intravenously or intrajejunally, after exposure to cholera toxin. RESULTS: Cholera toxin induced net water secretion was inhibited by 1 mg/kg igmesine (median -120 versus -31 microl/min/g, p<0.001). LT and STa induced secretion were also inhibited by 1 mg/kg igmesine (-90 versus -56, p<0.03; and -76 versus -29, p<0.01, respectively). Igmesine reduced established cholera toxin induced secretion. CONCLUSION: The sigma ligand, igmesine, inhibits neurally mediated enterotoxigenic secretion. Its ability to inhibit established secretion makes it an agent with therapeutic potential.  (+info)

Vitronectin and its fragments purified as serum inhibitors of Staphylococcus aureus gamma-hemolysin and leukocidin, and their specific binding to the hlg2 and the LukS components of the toxins. (6/590)

Staphylococcal gamma-hemolysin and leukocidin are bi-component cytolysins, consisting of LukF (or Hlg1)/Hlg2 and LukF/LukS, respectively. Here, we purified serum inhibitors of gamma-hemolysin and leukocidin from human plasma. Protein sequencing showed that the purified inhibitors of 62, 57, 50 and 38 kDa were the vitronectin fragments with truncation(s) of the C-terminal or both N- and C-terminal regions. The purified vitronectin fragments specifically bound to the Hlg2 component of gamma-hemolysin and the LukS component of leukocidin to form high-molecular-weight complexes with them, leading to inhibition of the toxin-induced lysis of human erythrocytes and human polymorphonuclear leukocytes, respectively. Intact vitronectin also showed inhibitory activity to the toxins. The ability of gamma-hemolysin and leukocidin to bind vitronectin and its fragments is a novel function of the pore-forming cytolysins.  (+info)

Monoclonal antibodies against the Androctonus australis hector scorpion neurotoxin I: characterisation and use for venom neutralisation. (7/590)

A series of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) specific for the alpha-neurotoxin I (Aah I) from the venom of the dangerous Androctonus australis hector scorpion were obtained using carrier protein-coupled toxin. Competitive RIA, receptor assays and mouse toxicity tests were performed to characterise mAbs in terms of affinity and neutralisation. Cross-reactivity studies and two-site ELISA results allowed some classification of mAbs into three groups. One mAb, 9C2, was particularly interesting since it recognised the parent toxin I with a K(D) of 0.15 nM and was also reactive with toxins of the same immunological group. Its ability to neutralise the toxic effect of the parent toxin and the venom fraction has been investigated. This anti-Aah I mAb 9C2, associated with anti-Aah II mAb 4C1, provides a valuable tool to neutralise the toxicity of the venom.  (+info)

Combining phage display and molecular modeling to map the epitope of a neutralizing antitoxin antibody. (8/590)

Crotoxin is a potent presynaptic neurotoxin from the venom of the rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus. It is composed of the noncovalent and synergistic association of a weakly toxic phospholipase A2, CB, and a nontoxic three-chain subunit, CA, which increases the lethal potency of CB. The A-56.36 mAb is able to dissociate the crotoxin complex by binding to the CA subunit, thereby neutralizing its toxicity. Because A-56.36 and CB show sequence homology and both compete for binding to CA, we postulated that A-56.36 and CB had overlapping binding sites on CA. By screening random phage-displayed libraries with the mAb, phagotopes bearing the (D/S)GY(A/G) or AAXI consensus motifs were selected. They all bound A-56.36 in ELISA and competed with CA for mAb binding, although with different reactivities. When mice were immunized with the selected clones, polyclonal sera reacting with CA were induced. Interestingly, the raised antibodies retained the crotoxin-dissociating effect of A-56.36, suggesting that the selected peptides may be used to produce neutralizing antibodies. By combining these data with the molecular modeling of CA, it appeared that the functional epitope of A-56.36 on CA was conformational, one subregion being discontinuous and corresponding to the first family of peptides, the other subregion being continuous and composed of amino acids of the second family. Phage-displayed peptides corresponding to fragments of the two identified regions on CA reacted with A-56.36 and with CB. Our data support the hypothesis that A-56.36 and CB interact with common regions of CA, and highlight residues which are likely to be critical for CA-CB complex formation.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Duration of serum antitoxin response following Vibrio cholerae infection in North Americans. T2 - Relevance for seroepidemiology. AU - Levine, Myron M.. AU - Young, Charles R.. AU - Hughes, Timothy P.. AU - Odonnell, Sylvia. AU - Black, Robert E.. AU - Clements, Mary Lou. AU - Robins-browne, Roy. AU - Lim, Yu Leong. PY - 1981/9. Y1 - 1981/9. N2 - Because of repeated infections with bacterial enteropathogens elaborating antigenically related enterotoxins, persons living in less-developed areas even where cholera is not endemic have high prevalence and levels of cholera antitoxin. Thus, in less-developed areas, antitoxin is not helpful for the seroepidemiology of cholera. In contrast, since diarrheal infections due to pathogens elaborating cholera-like enterotoxins are rare in industrialized countries, this study reviewed the magnitude and duration of the serum antitoxin response to cholera infections in North Americans to develop guidelines for use of antitoxin as a ...
Type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are most commonly composed of two genes encoding a stable toxin, which harms the cell, and an unstable antitoxin that can inactivate it. TA systems were initially characterized as selfish elements, but have recently gained attention for regulating general stress responses responsible for pathogen virulence, formation of drug-tolerant persister cells and biofilms - all implicated in causing recalcitrant chronic infections. We use a bioinformatics approach to explore the distribution and evolution of type II TA loci of the opportunistic pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, across longitudinally sampled isolates from cystic fibrosis lungs. We identify their location in the genome, mutations, and gain/loss during infection to elucidate their function(s) in stabilising selfish elements and pathogenesis. We found (1) 26 distinct TA systems, where all isolates harbour four in their core genome and a variable number of the remaining 22 on genomic islands; (2) limited mutations
A toxin-antitoxin system is a set of two or more closely linked genes that together encode both a protein poison and a corresponding antidote. When these systems are contained on plasmids - transferable genetic elements - they ensure that only the daughter cells that inherit the plasmid survive after cell division. If the plasmid is absent in a daughter cell, the unstable antitoxin is degraded and the stable toxic protein kills the new cell; this is known as post-segregational killing (PSK). Toxin-antitoxin systems are widely distributed in prokaryotes, and organisms often have them in multiple copies. Toxin-antitoxin systems are typically classified according to how the antitoxin neutralises the toxin. In a Type I toxin-antitoxin system, the translation of messenger RNA (mRNA) that encodes the toxin is inhibited by the binding of a small non-coding RNA antitoxin to the mRNA. The protein toxin in a type II system is inhibited post-translationally by the binding of another protein ...
Bacterial toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are diverse and widespread in the prokaryotic kingdom. They are composed of closely linked genes encoding a stable toxin that can harm the host cell and its cognate labile antitoxin, which protects the host from the toxins deleterious effect. TA systems are thought to invade bacterial genomes through horizontal gene transfer. Some TA systems might behave as selfish elements and favour their own maintenance at the expense of their host. As a consequence, they may contribute to the maintenance of plasmids or genomic islands, such as super-integrons, by post-segregational killing of the cell that loses these genes and so suffers the stable toxins destructive effect. The function of the chromosomally encoded TA systems is less clear and still open to debate. This Review discusses current hypotheses regarding the biological roles of these evolutionarily successful small operons. We consider the various selective forces that could drive the maintenance of TA systems in
Bacterial toxin-antitoxin loci consist of two genes: one encodes a potentially toxic protein, and the second, an antitoxin to repress its function or expression. The antitoxin can either be an RNA or a protein. For type I and type III loci, the antitoxins are RNAs; however, they have very different modes of action. Type I antitoxins repress toxin protein expression through interacting with the toxin mRNA, thereby targeting the mRNA for degradation or preventing its translation or both; type III antitoxins directly bind to the toxin protein, sequestering it. Along with these two very different modes of action for the antitoxin, there are differences in the functions of the toxin proteins and the mobility of these loci between species. Within this review, we discuss the major differences as to how the RNAs repress toxin activity, the potential consequences for utilizing different regulatory strategies, as well as the confirmed and potential biological roles for these loci across bacterial species.
The activity of type II toxin-antitoxin systems (TA), which are responsible for many important features of bacterial cells, is based on the differences between toxin and antitoxin stabilities. The antitoxin lability results from bacterial protease activity. Here, we investigated how particular Escherichia coli cytosolic proteases, namely, Lon, ClpAP, ClpXP, and ClpYQ, affect the stability of both the toxin and antitoxin components of the parDE system from the broad host range plasmid RK2. The results of our in vivo and in vitro experiments show that the ParD antitoxin is degraded by the ClpAP protease, and dsDNA stimulates this process. The ParE toxin is not degraded by any of these proteases and can therefore cause growth inhibition of plasmid-free cells after an unequal plasmid distribution during cell division. We also demonstrate that the ParE toxin interaction with ParD prevents antitoxin proteolysis by ClpAP; however, this interaction does not prevent the ClpAP interaction with ParD. We show that
Many toxin-mediated diseases are treated using antitoxin therapies. Typically, antitoxins are the antisera obtained from large animals immunized with inactivated toxin. More recently, antitoxin therapies for some toxin-mediated diseases, such as our treatment for Shiga toxins, contain antitoxin monoclonal Abs (mAbs). Antisera and mAbs can be difficult to produce economically at scale, usually require long development times and often have problematic quality control, shelf-life and safety issues.. The Department of Infectious Disease and Global Health is developing a novel alternative antitoxin platform employing VHH-based therapeutic agents called VHH-based neutralizing agents (VNAs) that may radically change current approaches to antitoxin therapies. The departments antitoxin strategy should permit rapid development and commercialization of safe, effective antitoxin products with low development and production costs and long shelf lives. VNAs can incorporate multiple different linked VHHs that ...
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Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Krzysztof Fiedoruk, Tamara Daniluk, Izabela Swiecicka, Malgorzata Sciepuk, Katarzyna Leszczynska].
RdlD RNA (regulator detected in LDR-D) is a family of small non-coding RNAs which repress the protein LdrD in a type I toxin-antitoxin system. It was discovered in Escherichia coli strain K-12 in a long direct repeat (LDR) named LDR-D. This locus encodes two products: a 35 amino acid peptide toxin (ldrD) and a 60 nucleotide RNA antitoxin. The 374nt toxin mRNA has a half-life of around 30 minutes while rdlD RNA has a half-life of only 2 minutes. This is in keeping with other type I toxin-antitoxin systems. Northern blots showed that ldrD and rdlD are both transcribed and primer extension analysis showed the rdlD transcript is not translated. Homologues exist in related Enterobacteriaceae such as Salmonella enterica and Shigella boydii. The Ldr peptide genes that have been discovered are thought to have evolved from a common ancestor. Four long direct repeat (LDR) sequences were identified during genetic sequencing of a 718kb segment of the E. coli genome. One of these, LDR-D was studied further ...
Mixed Gas-Gangrene Antitoxin information about active ingredients, pharmaceutical forms and doses, Mixed Gas-Gangrene Antitoxin indications, usages and related health products lists
In a multicellular organisms, it is not only essential to control the rate of cell division but also to control the rate of cell death of cells that are no longer needed. Programmed Cell death (PCD) is a bacterial stress response which leads to cell suicide mediated by an intracellular program and is responsible for eliminating unwanted or potentially harmful cells.. Chromosomal toxin-antitoxin module mazEF. mazEF is one of the toxin-antitoxin systems that have been found on the chromosomes of many bacteria including Escherichial coli that was discovered to play an important part in bacterial programmed cell death to regulate the amount of cells and to assist bacteria on coping with a stressful environment change.. The mazEF module consists of two adjacent genes, mazF and mazE. MazF is a stable, long-lived toxin while MazE is a labile antitoxin that is antagonizes MazF and are degraded in vivo by ClpPA serine protease. These two genes are co-expressed and the mazEF system is negatively ...
How is Antitoxin Containing Cell abbreviated? ACC stands for Antitoxin Containing Cell. ACC is defined as Antitoxin Containing Cell very rarely.
Selection for high-producing cells in a mixed population is of great significance for synthetic biology and metabolic engineering applications. Here, we developed a cell selection mechanism that utilized a product-responsive biosensor to control the expression of E. coli endogenous toxin hipA or antitoxin hipB genes for selective removal of low-performing cells. This approach eliminates the use of exogenous antibiotics as the selection marker and offers a solution to flexibly meet the need of using either downregulating (off-switch) or upregulating (on-switch) biosensors. As a proof-of-concept, we showed that the developed cell selection systems encompassing a tryptophan biosensor (off-switch) and the toxin hipA gene dramatically enhanced the tryptophan production in E. coli, which was mechanistically characterized by monitoring the dynamic expression of the GFP-labelled hipA gene. The cell selection system was also extended for phenylalanine over-production using a phenylalanine biosensor ...
Toxic component of a type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) module, first identified by mutations that increase production of persister cells, a fraction of cells that are phenotypic variants not killed by antibiotics, which lead to multidrug tolerance (PubMed:6348026, PubMed:8021189, PubMed:16707675, PubMed:26222023). Persistence may be ultimately due to global remodeling of the persister cells ribosomes (PubMed:25425348). Phosphorylates Glu-tRNA-ligase (AC P04805, gltX, on Ser-239) in vivo (PubMed:24095282, PubMed:24343429). Phosphorylation of GltX prevents it from being charged, leading to an increase in uncharged tRNA(Glu). This induces amino acid starvation and the stringent response via RelA/SpoT and increased (p)ppGpp levels, which inhibits replication, transcription, translation and cell wall synthesis, reducing growth and leading to persistence and multidrug resistance (PubMed:24095282, PubMed:24343429, PubMed:25848049). Once the level of HipA exceeds a threshold cells become dormant, and the length
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When written, the Professor requested that his name be omitted due to concern for reprisal.. Glyoxylide and associated antitoxins act catalytically, yet the substances themselves are readily oxidized because of the unsaturated double bond linkages, and that is what makes them effective. In this latter respect, the substances differ from true catalysts and enzymes, which are not used up in the process of reaction. It appears as though these antitoxins are so to speak highly combustible in the metabolism of animals and their oxidation, therefore can occur at the low oxidative levels which obtain in the sick organism. By analogy, they would have a lower kindling temperature. And once these metabolites burst into flame, a great release of energy and radiation occurs which spreads like wildfire to toxic substances, which are then burned in their turn. This oxidation then continues from cell to cell in the body in all directions, from many centers of dispersal, operating like a continues ...
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Persisters have traditionally been identified as subpopulations of cells that survive antibiotic treatment via epigenetic means. They were first recognized while treating Staphylococcus with penicillin [1] and were later identified as the source of multidrug tolerance in biofilms [2], making them responsible for 65% to 80% of bacterial infections [3,4]. Persisters have been implicated in the stubborn Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections to which most cystic fibrosis patients eventually succumb [5], as well as the oral Candida albicans infections common in cancer patients [6]. They may also explain the recurrence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections, responsible for 1.6 million deaths each year [7].. Persistence is not the result of a genetic mutation, but rather of a heterogeneous population. Modern single-cell studies have confirmed that persisters are rare, slowly growing cells [8], and that slowly growing cells are less susceptible to antibiotics [9]. More recent evidence suggests that slow ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
DI-fusion, le Dépôt institutionnel numérique de lULB, est loutil de référencementde la production scientifique de lULB.Linterface de recherche DI-fusion permet de consulter les publications des chercheurs de lULB et les thèses qui y ont été défendues.
A BLAST search with the HI0659 protein sequence turns up homologs in only the same species. Some of these are annotated as members of an Xre-family toxin-antitoxin system (I think HI0660 is homologous to the toxin component, and HI0659 to the antitoxin component). HI0660 is also tagged as a member of the Gp49 superfamily (also phage proteins I think). Xre family repressors are known to perform a variety of regulatory functions unrelated to toxin-antitoxin systems (ref). The same paper suggests that the Tad toxin components might be mRNA-cleaving ribonucleases. Maybe thats what HI0660 does, and HI0659 is a repressor that prevents it from acting. If so, and if sxy mRNA was HI0660s target, then the mutant phenotypes would make sense. ...
Before you give that tetanus shot you picked up at the livestock store to your horse, make sure you check the label. It could either be antitoxin or vaccine. Do
Toxin-antitoxin (TA) loci, which are widely distributed in prokaryotes, are organized in small operons, consisting of genes encoding toxins and antitoxins. Transcription from the promoter is regulated by the TA protein complex. Activation of the toxin occurs when the toxin is in excess of the antitoxin, for example during nutritional stress when the labile antitoxins are rapidly degraded by cellular proteases. The biological function of TA systems is debated and several different models have been proposed. Several of the TA loci encode messenger RNA interferases (mls) that inhibit translation by cleaving mRNA. Two types are known: those that cleave mRNA codons at the ribosomal A-site and those that cleave any RNA site-specifically. In this work, it was shown that the ml, YoeB cleaved mRNA strictly dependent on translation in vivo. Furthermore, it was shown that site-specific mRNA cleavage by MazF occurs independently of translation but that translation can seriously influence MazF cleavage ...
What if it read, The antitoxin for human slothfulness?. The more people ignore this, the more people will ignore this.. Why?. Because we can hide behind, Look around, Im just like everyone else.. Next Blog. ...
This grouping is largely consistent with the evolutionary division of prokaryotic organisms based on 16S rRNA sequences. Furthermore, the evolutionary relationship within the subgroups agrees well with the evolutionary grouping of the corresponding organisms (Fig. 3). However, the significant number of exceptions to regular grouping could reflect lateral gene transfer. Lateral interkingdom gene transfer is consistent with the finding that the deep-branching members of the domainBacteria such as Aquifex aeolicus andThermotoga maritima contain many genes like archaeal genes (16 and 24%, respectively) (61). Alternatively, irregular grouping of the homologues could reflect statistical fluctuations caused by the small size of the RelE proteins, rather than a true evolutionary relationship.. One striking finding is that several chromosomes contain two or morerelBE homologues (paralogues). The complex relationship between multiple paralogues and orthologues as described by Tatusov et al. (89) is not ...
This grouping is largely consistent with the evolutionary division of prokaryotic organisms based on 16S rRNA sequences. Furthermore, the evolutionary relationship within the subgroups agrees well with the evolutionary grouping of the corresponding organisms (Fig. 3). However, the significant number of exceptions to regular grouping could reflect lateral gene transfer. Lateral interkingdom gene transfer is consistent with the finding that the deep-branching members of the domainBacteria such as Aquifex aeolicus andThermotoga maritima contain many genes like archaeal genes (16 and 24%, respectively) (61). Alternatively, irregular grouping of the homologues could reflect statistical fluctuations caused by the small size of the RelE proteins, rather than a true evolutionary relationship.. One striking finding is that several chromosomes contain two or morerelBE homologues (paralogues). The complex relationship between multiple paralogues and orthologues as described by Tatusov et al. (89) is not ...
Looking for antitoxic? Find out information about antitoxic. any of a group of antibodies formed in the body as a response to the introduction of poisonous products, or toxins toxin, poison produced by living... Explanation of antitoxic
The emergence, resurgence and spread of human food-borne pathogenic Vibrios are one of the major contributors to disease burden and mortality particularly in developing countries with disputable sanitary conditions. Previous research on pathogenic Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolitycus derived from clinical samples has proposed links between acquisition of virulence and multiple drug resistance traits and intercellular transmissibility of mobile genetic elements in the environment. To date, very few information is available on environmental Vibrio isolates. In this study, we characterized eleven Vibrio strains bearing the SXT/R391-like integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) derived from aquatic products and environment in the Yangtze River Estuary, China. The eleven Vibrio strains were isolated in 2010 to 2011, and taxonomically identified, which included six Vibrio cholerae, three Vibrio parahaemolyticus, one Vibrio alginolyticus and one Vibrio natriegens. Most of the strains displayed strong
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MegaIgG2000 - Total Immune Defense - a dairy-free immunoglobulin concentrate that supports healthy digestion and maintains a healthy gut barrier function.
Extra-chromosomal bits of DNA known as plasmids are to blame for the bodys resistance to antibiotics, according to Tom Wood, Biotechnology Endowed Chair...
✅ Answered - [interferon] [antitoxins] [antigens] [Both a and b] are the options of mcq question Proteins which are synthesized by blood to protect body from nucleic acids and toxins of invading organism realted topics topics with 0 Attempts, 0 % Average Score, 0 Topic Tagged and 0 People Bookmarked this question which was asked on May 03, 2019 05:36
The best 24 synonyms for serum, including: antitoxin, antiserum, immunotoxin, blood-serum, plasma, agglutinogen, agglutinoid, albumin, ferritin, oestradiol, fibrinogen and more... Find another word for serum at YourDictionary.
Sterckx, Y. G. J., A. Volkov, W. F. Vranken, J. Kragelj, M. Ringkjøbi Jensen, L. Buts, A. Garcia-Pino, T. Jové, L. Van Melderen, M. Blackledge, et al., Small-angle X-ray scattering- and nuclear magnetic resonance-derived conformational ensemble of the highly flexible antitoxin PaaA2., Structure, vol. 22, issue 6, pp. 854-65, 2014 Jun 10. ...
Looking for the definition of WESR? Find out what is the full meaning of WESR on Abbreviations.com! AM-1330. FM-103.3, Onley, Virginia is one option -- get in to view more @ The Webs largest and most authoritative acronyms and abbreviations resource.
Looking for online definition of normal antitoxin in the Medical Dictionary? normal antitoxin explanation free. What is normal antitoxin? Meaning of normal antitoxin medical term. What does normal antitoxin mean?
Antibiotic persistence is a transient phenotypic state during which a bacterium can withstand otherwise lethal antibiotic exposure or environmental stresses. In Escherichia coli, persistence is promoted by the HipBA toxin-antitoxin system. The HipA toxin functions as a serine/threonine kinase that inhibits cell growth, while the HipB antitoxin neutralizes the toxin. E. coli HipA inactivates the glutamyl-tRNA synthetase GltX, which inhibits translation and triggers the highly conserved stringent response. Although hipBA operons are widespread in bacterial genomes, it is unknown if this mechanism is conserved in other species. Here we describe the functions of three hipBA modules in the alpha-proteobacterium Caulobacter crescentus. The HipA toxins have different effects on growth and macromolecular syntheses, and they phosphorylate distinct substrates. HipA1 and HipA2 contribute to antibiotic persistence during stationary phase by phosphorylating the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases GltX and TrpS. The stringent
This is the first comprehensive report of serologic responses to the oral ETEC-rCTB vaccine in subjects living in an area where ETEC is endemic. We consider the pediatric data presented herein especially relevant, since children and infants in Egypt and other developing countries represent important targets for ETEC immunization. Several of our findings bear importance for future evaluations of the ETEC-rCTB vaccine. First, the vaccine elicited pronounced antitoxin antibody responses of both IgA and IgG isotypes in all three age groups as reported here and elsewhere (15). Second, a high proportion of vaccinated children achieved seroconversion to each of the four vaccine-shared CF antigens studied, and the magnitude of antibody elevations, particularly of IgA isotype, was substantial. Third, both age and preimmunization titer were independently and inversely associated with the magnitude of IgA antibody responses to the vaccine. Last, IgG antibodies to CF antigens appeared to reflect a ...
Background: Adults with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have a high prevalence of Clostridium difficile carriage, but little data exist regarding pediatric patients with IBD. Serum antibody responses to C. difficile toxins in correlation with organism carriage are not described in IBD. This study determines the prevalence of C. difficile carriage and compares serum antibody responses to C. difficile toxins in pediatric outpatients with IBD and controls. Methods: Fecal and serum samples were prospectively collected from pediatric outpatients with IBD (n = 85) and age-matched controls (n = 78). Initial and follow-up stool samples were tested using cytotoxigenic C. difficile culture and PCR to detect the toxin B gene. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis determined the strain type. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay determined serum immunoglobulin responses to C. difficile toxins. Results: Asymptomatic C. difficile carriage was significantly greater in IBD (17%) versus controls (3%) (P = 0.012). IBD type,
TY - JOUR. T1 - Conjunctival immunity. T2 - Compared effects of ocular or intestinal immunization in rats. AU - Pu, Z.. AU - Pierce, N. F.. AU - Silverstein, A. M.. AU - Prendergast, R. A.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2004 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1983. Y1 - 1983. N2 - The ability to induce a conjunctival antitoxin response by conjunctival or enteric administration of cholera toxin antigen was studied in rats. Repeated enteric immunization caused a vigorous jejunal antitoxin response, but none in the conjunctiva. Enteric immunization did, however, prime for a conjunctival antitoxin response to locally applied antigen, as did direct ocular administration of cholera toxin. Vigorous conjunctival antitoxin responses occurred only after ocular challenge, and were localized to the challenged eye. These results agree with the notions that (1) specific memory cells migrate to the conjunctiva after enteric immunization, or arise locally after ocular immunization; and (2) specific ...
Bacteria are constantly faced by phage predation and various environmental stresses. In response, bacteria have amassed diverse genetic systems enabling their survival in ecological niches. Abortive infection (Abi) systems are altruistic cell death modules activated in a phage-infected bacterium and provide protection to the clonal bacterial population. Previously, our analysis of ToxIN from Pectobacterium atrosepticum provided the first direct link between Abi and toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems and revealed a new type (type III) of TA mechanism. Here, we tested the functional overlaps between TA and Abi systems. We discovered that Lactococcus lactis AbiE system and a homologue situated in a genomic island in Streptococcus agalactiae function as TA systems. These TA systems have non-interacting protein components (i.e. are type IV TA systems) and are found in archaeal and bacterial genomes, plasmids and mobile genetic elements. The antitoxin has a winged-helix-turn-helix domain that binds a ...
Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are small genetic elements that are ubiquitous in prokaryotes. Most studies on TA systems have focused on commensal and pathogenic bacteria; yet very few studies have focused on TAs in marine bacteria, especially those isolated from a deep sea environment. Here, we characterized a type II VapC/VapB TA system from the deep-sea derived Streptomyces sp. SCSIO 02999. The VapC (virulence-associated protein) protein belongs to the PIN (PilT N-terminal) superfamily. Overproduction of VapC strongly inhibited cell growth and resulted in a bleb-containing morphology in E. coli. The toxicity of VapC was neutralized through direct protein-protein interaction by a small protein antitoxin VapB encoded by a neighboring gene. Antitoxin VapB alone or the VapB/VapC complex negatively regulated the vapBC promoter activity. We further revealed that three conserved Asp residues in the PIN domain were essential for the toxic effect of VapC. Additionally, the VapC/VapB TA system stabilized plasmid
Induced Lethality Induced lethality is a biocontainment strategy in which GMOs are contained by the induction of toxic genes upon leaving the lab setting. The toxin/antitoxin systems of bacteria have been used in many papers examining the use of induced lethality. This induction is typically controlled by the presence or absence of an induction molecule, but theoretically any inducible promoter can be adapted to this purpose. More recently, the idea of induced lethality that has been engineered to cause death after a certain number of cell cycles has been proposed [3]. A study was able to count events in a cell using a a riboregulated transcriptional cascade and a recombinase-based cascade and by coupling [7]. These counters could count cell cycle events and a toxin gene could be induced upon a certain number of cell cycles [3]. The 2012 synthetic biology class went into toxin/antitoxin systems in greater detail (http://openwetware.org/wiki/CH391L/S12/ToxinAntitoxins). Examples of Induced ...
Under Objective 1, progress was made towards examining Xylella fastidiosa genomic and phenotypic diversity through next generation sequencing (NGS) and cell membrane fatty acid profiling approaches, respectively. A single copy plasmid with two toxin-antitoxin systems was discovered and plasmid variation was detected between Xylella fastidiosa grown in vitro versus in planta. In addition, NGS analysis revealed that two different subspecies of Xylella fastidiosa are associated with pecan leaf scorch disease in Georgia. Eight distinct isolates of Xylella fastidiosa were analyzed by profiling the fatty acid membrane composition to allow bacterial characterization at the subspecies, strain, and host plant association levels. Progress was made towards the identification and characterization of genes involved in pathogenicity of Xylella fastidiosa in grapevines. Xylella fastidiosa knockout-mutant strains in several toxin-antitoxin gene systems were evaluated for growth, survival, and altered gene ...
21 Rabbits 1, 3, and 4 had been given a series of four weekly injections, which were apparently insufficient to demonstrate an appreciable antitoxin titer. All were bred; no offspring showed any antitoxin titer. Five months later, another series of injections was begun, in the above quantities, the three rabbits receiv-ing 0.4, 0.05, and 0.2 ml., respectively, each time. These were given naught, three, eight, ten, fourteen, fif-teen, seventeen, twenty-two, and twenty-four days after the first injection, with the intention of producing as high as possible an hyperimmune state in the three experi-mental rabbits. Bleedings from the marginal vein of the ear were made before the first injection, and seven, thirty-nine, and sixty-three days later. The blood specimens were allowed to clot, centrifuged, and serum removed and frozen until they were ready to be titrated. Additional inoculations of toxoid were given sixty-eight, sixty-nine, seventy, eighty-four, and eighty-eight days after the original ...
We were going to use the wild type promoters of the Toxin-Antitoxin modules; however the deterministic model gave us feedback which established that inducible promoters were much more likely to give us the results we were looking for. For the construction of our inducible parts, we first tried to build the toxins under the control of the Lac promoter and the antitoxins under the tetR promoter. We succeeded in the construction of the parts containing the HipB and istR antitoxins and the MqsR toxin. But due to the leakage of lac promoter and even that of the tetR promoter (has less leakage that lac) we were unable to construct the remaining toxin parts using both of those promoters. To overcome this inconvenience we decided to use the pmr promoter which is inducible by the CI lambda phage protein. So far we have constructed the inducible HipA7 part with the aforementioned promoter. In order to assess the functionality of these parts, we cloned hipB under the control of lac promoter in an ...
We were going to use the wild type promoters of the Toxin-Antitoxin modules; however the deterministic model gave us feedback which established that inducible promoters were much more likely to give us the results we were looking for. For the construction of our inducible parts, we first tried to build the toxins under the control of the Lac promoter and the antitoxins under the tetR promoter. We succeeded in the construction of the parts containing the HipB and istR antitoxins and the MqsR toxin. But due to the leakage of lac promoter and even that of the tetR promoter (has less leakage that lac) we were unable to construct the remaining toxin parts using both of those promoters. To overcome this inconvenience we decided to use the pmr promoter which is inducible by the CI lambda phage protein. So far we have constructed the inducible HipA7 part with the aforementioned promoter. In order to assess the functionality of these parts, we cloned hipB under the control of lac promoter in an ...
thema, hemorrhages in the skin, pain in the joints sitory in character. According to the most san(with or without swelling), albuminuria, hematuria, guine, the immunity lasts from about two to four rise of temperature, heart-weakness, and arhythmic weeks. Now, if, as we are taught, the serum has no pulse, which have so often been noticed after the effect upon the Klebs-Löffler bacillus, and this administration of antitoxin, were induced by the organism may live in the fauces for as long a period injection of a heterogeneous serum. However, as two months, a single dose of antitoxin is utterly these conditions are sometimes seen in diphtheria useless; for, if this organism causes the disease, without the use of antitoxin. As to paralyses, we what is to prevent an attack after the immunizing remember none proved to be due to transfusion of effect has passed away? Experiments on animals serum; but Huebner (loc. cit.) states that 7# per show that antitoxin lowers vitality, and if several cent. of ...
The previously identified spoIIS locus encodes a toxin-antitoxin system in Bacillus subtilis. It comprises two genes, spoIISA encoding a toxin and spoIISB encoding an antitoxin, which lies adjacent to each other on the chromosome. Each of the spoIIS coding sequences is preceded by a promoter region and the two genes together constitute an operon. The function of SpoIISA is unknown, although it has been shown that the absence of SpoIISB or loss of its function leads to a block in sporulation at stage II. The cytoplasmic membrane has been proposed as the target of the SpoIISA toxin. Heterologously expressed SpoIISA-SpoIISB was shown to be functional in Escherichia coli, where again the cytoplasmic membrane was the most probable target for SpoIISA toxicity. Here we analyzed the effects of SpoIISA production during vegetative growth of B. subtilis and during sporulation by following the levels of SpoIISA. SpoIISA levels increase at the point of entry into stationary phase of cell cultures grown in
Antitoxins are needed that can be produced economically with improved safety and shelf life compared to conventional antisera-based therapeutics. Here we report a practical strategy for development of simple antitoxin therapeutics with substantial advantages over currently available treatments. The therapeutic strategy employs a single recombinant targeting agent that binds a toxin at two unique sites and a clearing Ab that binds two epitopes present on each targeting agent. Co-administration of the targeting agent and the clearing Ab results in decoration of the toxin with up to four Abs to promote accelerated clearance. The therapeutic strategy was applied to two Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) serotypes and protected mice from lethality in two different intoxication models with an efficacy equivalent to conventional antitoxin serum. Targeting agents were a single recombinant protein consisting of a heterodimer of two camelid anti-BoNT heavy-chain-only Ab VH (VHH) binding domains and two E-tag
ALS, a specific, reliable, and accurate immunoassay, was developed for the evaluation of fresh antibody production from circulating mucosal secreting B lymphocytes. In the human trial described here, the ALS assay detected the significant antitoxin increases induced by either formulation of the oral vaccine. The ALS results indicated a peak booster antitoxin response at day 21, which is 7 days after the second dose, that started to decrease at day 24. (Complete results for this clinical trial will be reported separately.). By assaying only antibodies secreted by circulating cells, the ALS method controlled the confounding effect of accumulative antibody in the serum samples, which contain both recent and preexistent soluble antibodies. Since the serum portion of the blood sample has been removed in the ALS assay, this assay measures only the secreting antibodies. When the ALS assay was performed, antibody titers from prevaccination samples were barely detectable, but background titers in serum ...
Hoskisson, Paul A and Sumby, Paul and Smith, Margaret C. M. (2015) The phage growth limitation system in Streptomyces coelicolor A(3)2 is a toxin/antitoxin system, comprising enzymes with DNA methyltransferase, protein kinase and ATPase activity. Virology, 477. pp. 100-109. ISSN 1096-0341 Lamb, Karen Elaine and Flasche, Stefan and Diggle, Matthew and Inverarity, Donald and Greenhalgh, David and Jefferies, Johanna and Smith, Andrew and Edwards, Giles F S and Denham, Barbara and McMenamin, Jim and McDonald, Eisin and Mitchell, Tim J and Clarke, Stuart C and Robertson, Chris (2014) Trends in serotypes and sequence types among cases of invasive pneumococcal disease in Scotland, 1999-2010. Vaccine, 32 (34). pp. 4356-4363. ISSN 0264-410X Mattey, M. and Spencer, J. (2008) Bacteriophage therapy - cooked goose or Phoenix rising? Current Opinion in Biotechnology, 19 (6). pp. 608-612. ISSN 0958-1669 McDonald, S.A. and Hutchinson, Sharon and Mills, P.R. and S.M., Bird and Cameron, S. and Dillon, J.F. and ...
A method of prophylactics with respect to detoxification of Staphylococcus aureus and other toxins by ascorbic acid, salts and esters, topically applied by means of carriers which are otherwise regularly employed in the area where Staphylococcus aureus or other bacteria colonize, such as a pharmacological appliance including gauze pads, an absorbant mass or pad associated with menses, douches, and contraceptive compositions.
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Mlýnský V, Kührová P, Zgarbová M, Jurečka P, Walter NG, Otyepka M, Šponer J, Banáš P: Reactive Conformation of the Active Site in the Hairpin Ribozyme Achieved by Molecular Dynamics Simulations with $epsilon$/$zeta$ Force Field Reparametrizations. J. Phys. Chem. B., 119(11), 4220-4229, 2015. (DOI ...
De Gieter, S., A. Konijnenberg, A. Talavera, A. Butterer, S. Haesaerts, H. De Greve, F. Sobott, R. Loris, and A. Garcia-Pino, The intrinsically disordered domain of the antitoxin Phd chaperones the toxin Doc against irreversible inactivation and misfolding., J Biol Chem, vol. 289, issue 49, pp. 34013-23, 2014 Dec 05. ...
These observations are in accordance with those made of Type I toxin-antitoxin systems. In type I toxin-antitoxin systems, the ... Type I toxin-antitoxin loci are frequently found in both prokaryotic chromosomes and plasmids. The secondary structure of ... Hok/sok system Toxin-antitoxin system Findeiss S, Schmidtke C, Stadler PF, Bonas U (March 2010). "A novel family of plasmid- ... Gerdes K, Wagner EG (April 2007). "RNA antitoxins". Curr. Opin. Microbiol. 10 (2): 117-124. doi:10.1016/j.mib.2007.03.003. PMID ...
Antitoxins. Substances in the serum that can neutralize. the activity of toxins, enabling passive immunization. von Behring and ... went on to develop the diphtheria antitoxin, which became the first major success of modern immunotherapy.[3] The presence and ... were used to vaccinate animals in an attempt to demonstrate that immunized serum contained an antitoxin that could neutralize ...
... -antitoxin system. References[edit]. *^ "toxin" at Dorland's Medical Dictionary *^ "toxin - Definition from the Merriam- ...
Louis children died from contaminated diphtheria antitoxin. The horse from which the antitoxin was derived died of tetanus. ... Behring used this antitoxin (now known to consist of antibodies that neutralize the toxin produced by C. diphtheriae) for human ... They also immunized goats and horses in the same way and showed that an "antitoxin" made from serum of immunized animals could ... Protection can be verified by measuring the antitoxin level in the blood. Diphtheria can be prevented in those exposed as well ...
27 (Associated Press).-Nome has a diphtheria epidemic and no antitoxin. The nearest known supply of antitoxin is at Anchorage, ... "DOGS RUSH ANTI-TOXIN FOR NOME EPIDEMIC; Two Fliers Volunteer Services". The New York Times. Associated Press. January 29, 1925 ... The antitoxin units are to leave Seattle Saturday on the steamship Alameda. . . . WASHINGTON, Jan. 29.-Possibility that an ... This is reminiscent of the 1925 serum run to Nome, a sled dog relay carrying antitoxin that was responsible for halting a ...
The products included diagnostic reagents and procedures, drugs, vaccines, toxoids, and antitoxins. Emphasis is placed on ... Antitoxins for diseases such as botulism; Human immune globulin preparations (passive antibody protection) against various ...
VapC is strongly inhibited by direct protein interaction with VapB, its cognate antitoxin. The toxin-antitoxin complex is ... Zhang, YX; Li, J; Guo, XK; Wu, C; Bi, B; Ren, SX; Wu, CF; Zhao, GP (Jun 2004). "Characterization of a novel toxin-antitoxin ... The toxins in this family are thought to perform RNA cleavage, which is inhibited by the co-expression of the antitoxin, in a ... Toxin-antitoxin database Robson, Jennifer; McKenzie, Joanna L.; Cursons, Ray; Cook, Gregory M.; Arcus, Vickery L. (17 July 2009 ...
Discovered the diphtheria antitoxin. It was the world's first cure for a disease (1891). He was awarded history's first Nobel ... Emil von Behring: Discovery of diphtheria antitoxin Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen: Navigator and explorer. Discovered the ...
Lee, Elmer (August 1896). "Diphtheria and its antitoxin". The Laryngoscope. 1 (2): 105-106. doi:10.1288/00005537-189608000- ...
Hall, F. D. (1894). "Antitoxin Treatment of Diphtheria". British Medical Journal. 2 (1757): 513. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.1757.513. ...
"Tetanus Antitoxin Successfully Administered". Reading Times. 1898-10-20. p. 2. Retrieved 2017-10-27. "General Hospital May ...
"Antitoxin and Serum Therapy". The History of Vaccines. Philadelphia: The College of Physicians of Philadelphia. 2020. Retrieved ... serum antitoxin) by Emil von Behring 1896 - First vaccine for typhoid fever by Almroth Edward Wright, Richard Pfeiffer, and ...
Rees, Anthony R. (2015). The Antibody Molecule: From Antitoxins to Therapeutic Antibodies. Oxford University Press. pp. 104-120 ...
The second antitoxin, heptavalent (A,B,C,D,E,F,G) botulinum antitoxin, is derived from "despeciated" equine IgG antibodies ... This human-derived antitoxin has been shown to be both safe and effective for the treatment of infant botulism. However, the ... To avoid this, a human-derived antitoxin has been developed and approved by the U.S. FDA in 2003 for the treatment of infant ... 2018). "Efficacy of Antitoxin Therapy in Treating Patients With Foodborne Botulism: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of ...
Toxin-antitoxin system PDB: 1BRS​; Buckle AM, Schreiber G, Fersht AR (August 1994). "Protein-protein recognition: crystal ...
J06AA01 Diphtheria antitoxin. J06AA02 Tetanus antitoxin. J06AA03 Snake venom antiserum. J06AA04 Botulinum antitoxin. J06AA05 ...
Tetanus antitoxin - can be delivered sub-conjunctivally. Contains macroglobulins with anti-collagenase effects. ...
He also worked on antitoxins for diphtheria and anthrax. Kitasato and Behring demonstrated the value of antitoxin in preventing ... Sri Kantha, S. A Centennial review; the 1890 Tetanus antitoxin paper of von Behring and Kitasato and the related developments. ... Kitasato and Emil von Behring, working together in Berlin in 1890, announced the discovery of diphtheria antitoxin serum. Von ...
An antitoxin for scarlet fever was developed in 1924. The first toxin which causes this disease was cloned and sequenced in ... An antitoxin was produced before antibiotics; however, it was never made in sufficient quantities, and could not be used to ... These toxin-producing strains cause scarlet fever in people who do not already have antitoxin antibodies. Streptococcal ... and George Frederick Dick developed an antitoxin and vaccine for scarlet fever in 1924 which were later eclipsed by penicillin ...
The majority of PIN-domain proteins found in prokaryotes are the toxic components of toxin-antitoxin operons. These loci ... Gerdes K, Christensen SK, Løbner-Olesen A (May 2005). "Prokaryotic toxin-antitoxin stress response loci". Nature Reviews. ... "The PIN-domain ribonucleases and the prokaryotic VapBC toxin-antitoxin array". Protein Engineering, Design & Selection. 24 (1-2 ...
Gerdes K, Christensen SK and Lobner-Olesen A (2005). "Prokaryotic toxin-antitoxin stress response loci". Nat. Rev. Microbiol. ( ... Many stress-response toxins of prokaryotic toxin-antitoxin systems have been shown to have RNase activity and homology. EC 3.1. ... "Comprehensive functional analysis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis toxin-antitoxin systems: implications for pathogenesis, stress ...
... method of toxin neutralization by the antitoxin, and autoregulation of the addiction module by the antitoxin or toxin:antitoxin ... Once the antitoxin has bound to the toxin, the toxin prevents the proteases normally responsible for degrading antitoxin to do ... In addition, the transcription of the antitoxin RNA is heavily upregulated by a strong promoter which ensures excess antitoxin ... so that the antitoxin is available to immediately neutralize the toxin. This upstream placement of the antitoxin gene is found ...
Magnuson, Roy David (1 September 2007). "Hypothetical Functions of Toxin-Antitoxin Systems". Journal of Bacteriology. 189 (17 ...
... immunoglobulin (TIG),[1] also called tetanus antibodies or tetanus antitoxin.[31] It can be given as intravenous ... In such cases, it can be given with or without tetanus immunoglobulin (also called tetanus antibodies or tetanus antitoxin[31] ... In 1897, Edmond Nocard showed that tetanus antitoxin induced passive immunity in humans, and could be used for prophylaxis and ... Porter, J. D., Perkin, M. A., Corbel, M. J., Farrington, C. P., Watkins, J. T., Begg, N. T. (1992). "Lack of early antitoxin ...
In the last few years there are some new developments to create an antitoxin or a vaccine for the toxic snake bites. In 2005 a ... Rediocides A and G are found to be a possible antitoxin for α-cobratoxin. These rediocides bind at the same nicotinic ... Utsintong M, Kaewnoi A, Leelamanit W, Olson AJ, Vajragupta O (2009). "Rediocides A and G as potential antitoxins against cobra ...
The institute remained an important manufacturer of vaccines and antitoxins. It produced the 'triple vaccine' for diphtheria, ...
As part of a $450 million contract with BARDA for the SNS, Emergent also developed the only FDA-licensed botulinum antitoxin, ... BARDA also supported the development of the antitoxins Anthrasil of Cangene (March 2015 FDA approval) and Anthim of Elusys ... BARDA maintains a supply of botulism antitoxins through the Strategic National Stockpile (SNS). As of June, seven companies had ... "Health Canada approves Emergent BioSolutions' botulism antitoxin". Homeland Preparedness News. 2016-12-13. Retrieved 2017-01-19 ...
Sponsored Successful Search for Scarlet Fever Antitoxin. A Supporter of Opera". New York Times. October 17, 1941. Retrieved ...
Sponsored Successful Search for Scarlet Fever Antitoxin. A Supporter of Opera". New York Times. October 17, 1941. Retrieved ...
Used toxin/antitoxin as a vaccine for diphtheria (1909).. *In the process of investigating an epidemic of infectious abortions ...
Diphtheria Antitoxin (DAT). Use of DAT, requesting DAT, how to return unused DAT, DAT forms and worksheets ... If the clinician revises the patients diagnosis after the release of DAT and the diphtheria antitoxin is not given, then it ... The Food and Drug Administration has not licensed diphtheria antitoxin (DAT) for use in the United States. However, CDC is ...
Antitoxins. Class Summary. Diphtheria antitoxin was first used in the United States in 1891, derived from a horse serum, it ... Diphtheria antitoxin. Neutralizes toxin before it enters cells. Dose given depends on site of infection and length of time ... Diphtheria antitoxin can be obtained only from the CDC. For more information regarding acquisition, see the CDC website for ... The horse serum antitoxin is given to anyone suspected to have diphtheria and can be administered without confirmation from ...
An antitoxin is an antibody with the ability to neutralize a specific toxin. Antitoxins are produced by certain animals, plants ... To prevent serum sickness, it is often best to use an antitoxin obtained from the same species (e.g. use human antitoxin to ... 4 December 2018). "Medical definition of antitoxin". medterms.com. 2289. Antitoxins at the US National Library of Medicine ... When the antitoxin is obtained from the blood, it is purified and injected into a human or other animal, inducing temporary ...
Diphtheria antitoxin was developed and came into medical use in the late 1800s. It is on the World Health Organizations List ... Diphtheria antitoxin (DAT) is a medication made up of antibodies used in the treatment of diphtheria. It is no longer ... Diphtheria antitoxin is made from the blood plasma of horses that have been immunized against diphtheria toxin. It works by ... Diphtheria Antitoxin at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Medicine portal. ...
An oxygen-sensitive toxin-antitoxin system.. Marimon O1, Teixeira JM1, Cordeiro TN1, Soo VW2, Wood TL2, Mayzel M3, Amata I1, ... The Hha and TomB proteins from Escherichia coli form an oxygen-dependent toxin-antitoxin (TA) system. Here we show that YmoB, ... the Yersinia orthologue of TomB, and its single cysteine variant [C117S]YmoB can replace TomB as antitoxins in E. coli. In ...
Treatment of Diphtheria with Refined Antitoxin Br Med J 1939; 1 :384 ... Treatment of Diphtheria with Refined Antitoxin. Br Med J 1939; 1 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.1.4077.384 (Published 25 ...
Definition of tetanus antitoxin unit. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and ...
The antitoxin antibody is in development for biodefense applications. Three studies assessing the pharmacokinetics and safety ... "Advancing the development of both IV and IM administration of our antitoxin could provide two important options in the ... which Elusys says will facilitate rapid administration of antitoxin therapy to large numbers of people in an emergency ...
History of antitoxinEdit. Antitoxins to diphtheria and tetanus toxins were produced by Emil Adolf von Behring and his ... An antitoxin is an antibody with the ability to neutralize a specific toxin. Antitoxins are produced by certain animals, plants ... To prevent serum sickness, it is often best to use antitoxin generated from the same species (e.g. use human antitoxin to treat ... An antitoxin for scarlet fever was developed in 1924 simultaneously by Raymond Dochez and Gladys and George Frederick Dick.[4] ...
Make research projects and school reports about antitoxin easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and ... antitoxin Antibody produced by the body in response to a toxin. It is specific in action and neutralizes the toxin. Antitoxin ... antitoxin An antibody produced in response to a bacterial toxin.. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for ... antitoxin (anti-toks-in) n. an antibody produced by the body to counteract a toxin formed by invading bacteria or from any ...
... such as pyruvic acid and maleic acid were not effective antitoxins at 1 mg. Thus, the antitoxin activity of ascorbic acid is ...
Species: Transcriptional regulator, AbiEi antitoxin (IPR025159). Key Species. This entry matches no proteins from key species. ...
Investigational antitoxin indicated for naturally occurring noninfant botulism. Equine-derived antitoxin that elicits passive ... Replaces licensed bivalent botulinum antitoxin AB (BAT-AB) and investigational monovalent botulinum antitoxin E (BAT-E). To ... Antitoxin therapy. Class Summary. Therapy consists of antibodies against toxin types A, B, C, D, E, F, and G to neutralize ... Pediatric Botulism and Use of Equine Botulinum Antitoxin in Children: A Systematic Review. Clin Infect Dis. 2017 Dec 27. 66 ( ...
... locus of Escherichia coliK-12 codes for a translation-independent GCU site-specific endoribonuclease MqsR and an antitoxin MqsA ... 2011). Toxin-antitoxin systems in bacteria and archaea. Annual Review of Genetics, 45, 61-79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar ... 2011). Antitoxin MqsA helps mediate the bacterial general stress response. Nature Chemical Biology, 7(6), 359-366.PubMed ... 2010). Escherichia coli toxin/antitoxin pair MqsR/MqsA regulate toxin CspD. Environmental Microbiology, 12(5), 1105-1121.PubMed ...
Detailed drug Information for botulism antitoxin Intravenous. Includes common brand names, drug descriptions, warnings, side ... Botulism Antitoxin Heptavalent ABCDEFG Equine. Uses for botulism antitoxin. Botulism antitoxin is used to treat symptoms of ... Botulism antitoxin (Intravenous). Generic Name: botulism antitoxin (BOT-ue-lizm EE-kwyne hep-ta-VAY-lent an-ti-TOX-in ABCDEFG) ... Detailed Botulism antitoxin dosage information. Precautions while using botulism antitoxin. Your doctor will check your ...
Some side effects may occur that usually do not need medical attention. These side effects may go away during treatment as your body adjusts to the medicine. Also, your health care professional may be able to tell you about ways to prevent or reduce some of these side effects. Check with your health care professional if any of the following side effects continue or are bothersome or if you have any questions about them:. ...
Scientists are ready to transform the production of anti-venom after mapping the DNA of the Indian cobra for the first time.. Snake bites kill more than 120,000 people a year, more than a third of them in India. About 400,000 lose limbs after amputations become necessary to prevent the spread of the venom.. The National reports that even as the number of people bitten by snakes is increasing as a result of more people living near areas which are snake habitats, the production of venom antidotes has not changed much since anti-venom was first produced in 1896.. for more than a hundred years.. The antiquated technique - involving injecting a horse with venom, then harvesting the horses blood after antibodies have been produced - is costly and imprecise. It also produces anti-venom in quantities which are insufficient for coping with the growing need for it.. A study published Monday in the journal Nature Genetics promises to help transform the process after a researchteam created a detailed map ...
Scarlet fever antitoxin definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. ... scarlet fever antitoxin, solid angle, solid fuel, solid geometry, solid injection, solid of revolution ... The antitoxin for the toxins produced by the bacteria that cause scarlet fever. ...
They are part of the type I toxin antitoxin (TA) system, where expression of the proteinaceous toxin is controlled by an ... Type I toxin-antitoxin system, toxin Ldr (IPR025253). Short name: Toxin_Ldr ... For example, LdrD expression is inhibited by the antisense RNA RdlD, which functions as an antitoxin [PMID: 12123448]. ...
PROFESSOR DUNBARS ANTITOXIN TREATMENT OF HAY FEVER: A DISCLAIMER Br Med J 1903; 1 :1235 ... PROFESSOR DUNBARS ANTITOXIN TREATMENT OF HAY FEVER: A DISCLAIMER. Br Med J 1903; 1 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.1.2212. ...
G. J. A. Rainey and J. A. T. Young, "Antitoxins: novel strategies to target agents of bioterrorism," Nature Reviews ... A Simple Model for Assessment of Anti-Toxin Antibodies. Alex Skvortsov and Peter Gray ...
Availability of diphtheria antitoxin through an Investigational New Drug protocol. MMWR 1997;46:380. ... Notice to Readers: Availability of Diphtheria Antitoxin Through an Investigational New Drug Protocol. ... includes early administration of an equine diphtheria antitoxin (DAT). Delay in DAT administration can lead to life-threatening ...
Toxin-antitoxin systems are subject to both auto- and cross-regulation. Cognate regulatory interactions are in red and non- ... antitoxins). Antitoxins are DNA-binding proteins and auto-repress transcription of TA operons. Transcription of multiple TA ... form a tight complex and antitoxin inhibits the toxin through direct protein-protein interaction. Antitoxin, both alone and in ... Transcriptional cross-activation between toxin-antitoxin systems of Escherichia coli.. Kasari V1, Mets T, Tenson T, Kaldalu N. ...
Toxin-antitoxin system toxin HepN family. B, C, D. 133. Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: SO_3166. ... Toxin-antitoxin system antidote Mnt family. A. 139. Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. Mutation(s): 0 Gene Names: SO_3165. ... Novel polyadenylylation-dependent neutralization mechanism of the HEPN/MNT toxin/antitoxin system.. Yao, J., Zhen, X., Tang, K. ... The two-gene module HEPN/MNT is predicted to be the most abundant toxin/antitoxin (TA) system in prokaryotes. However, its ...
New study reveals potential for developing novel antibody-based antitoxins against botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), including the ... Bifunctional nanobodies with antitoxin potencies could protect against botulinum neurotoxins. *Download PDF Copy ... In a nutshell, we establish a platform for structure-based rational design of bifunctional antitoxins against BoNTs. BoNTs can ... Lam, K., et al. (2020) Structural Insights into Rational Design of Single-Domain Antibody-Based Antitoxins against Botulinum ...
Botulism Antitoxin Heptavalent ABCDEFG Equine. Descriptions. Botulism antitoxin is used to treat symptoms of botulism in ... Appropriate studies have not been performed on the relationship of age to the effects of botulism antitoxin in the pediatric ... Appropriate studies have not been performed on the relationship of age to the effects of botulism antitoxin in the geriatric ... Original article: https://www.mayoclinic.org/drugs-supplements/botulism-antitoxin-intravenous-route/description/drg-20060934 ...
Antitoxin component of a type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) system. Upon expression in M.smegmatis neutralizes the effect of cognate ...
The antitoxin can either be an RNA or a protein. For type I and type III loci, the antitoxins are RNAs; however, they have very ... Type I antitoxins repress toxin protein expression through interacting with the toxin mRNA, thereby targeting the mRNA for ... Along with these two very different modes of action for the antitoxin, there are differences in the functions of the toxin ... an antitoxin to repress its function or expression. ... type III antitoxins directly bind to the toxin protein, ...
  • The Food and Drug Administration has not licensed diphtheria antitoxin (DAT) for use in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • The horse serum antitoxin is given to anyone suspected to have diphtheria and can be administered without confirmation from cultures, as it is most efficacious early during the course of the disease. (medscape.com)
  • Diphtheria antitoxin can be obtained only from the CDC. (medscape.com)
  • For more information regarding acquisition, see the CDC website for diphtheria antitoxin . (medscape.com)
  • Diphtheria antitoxin was first used in the United States in 1891, derived from a horse serum, it neutralizes unbound exotoxin. (medscape.com)
  • In United States, diphtheria antitoxin (DAT) is available from the CDC. (medscape.com)
  • Antitoxins to diphtheria and tetanus toxins were produced by Emil Adolf von Behring and his colleagues from 1890 onwards. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diphtheria antitoxin (DAT) is a medication made up of antibodies used in the treatment of diphtheria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diphtheria antitoxin is made from the blood plasma of horses that have been immunized against diphtheria toxin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diphtheria antitoxin was developed and came into medical use in the late 1800s. (wikipedia.org)
  • A vintage 1895 vial of diphtheria antitoxin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antitoxin sera are used to treat and prevent bacterial diseases such as tetanus and diphtheria . (encyclopedia.com)
  • Effective treatment of respiratory diphtheria includes early administration of an equine diphtheria antitoxin (DAT). (cdc.gov)
  • Deborah C. Molrine, MD, MPH, deputy director of clinical affairs at MassBiologics and professor of pediatrics, told Science that MassBiologics has identified a human monoclonal antibody that neutralizes the toxin produced by diphtheria-an important advance that could replace the current serum-derived antitoxin. (umassmed.edu)
  • it renders harmless (neutralizes) only that toxin under the influence of which it was formed (for example, only the toxin secreted by the causative agent of diphtheria is neutralized by diphtheria antitoxin), and it has no neutralizing effect on other toxins. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Blood serum containing antitoxin is widely used in prophylaxis and treatment of diphtheria, tetanus, botulism, and other diseases, and it is also used for treatment of persons bitten by poisonous snakes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • But even more important and most original are Ehrlich's views on the origin of antitoxins (antibodies), his determination of the strength of the serum against diphtheria in 1897 which he expanded to tetanus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Diphtheria antitoxin for therapeutic use is in limited supply. (cdc.gov)
  • In the early 1890s, Emil von Behring used serum from a hyperimmune horse (challenged with sublethal dose of Corynebacterium diphtheriae ) to develop equine diphtheria antitoxin (DAT), which seemed to confer passive immunity to patients with diphtheria ( 2 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Antitoxins from horse serum are used to fight toxins associated with diphtheria, gas gangrene, botulism (food poisoning), and other disorders. (britannica.com)
  • In the case of diphtheria, for example, being immunized by an antitoxin prevents reinfection. (britannica.com)
  • Access to diphtheria antitoxin for therapy and diagnostics. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Use of diphtheria antitoxin (DAT) for suspected diphtheria cases [cited 2015 Aug 19]. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 1. The immunological properties of two contrasting types of human antisera, each containing a high titer of diphtheria antitoxin, have been investigated. (rupress.org)
  • diphtheria antitoxin is a topic covered in the Taber's Medical Dictionary . (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Nursing Central , nursing.unboundmedicine.com/nursingcentral/view/Tabers-Dictionary/758724/all/diphtheria_antitoxin. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The treatment of diphtheria can be divided into two main approaches: the use of antibiotics to eradicate the diphtheria infection and the use of diphtheria antitoxin to neutralize the effects of the bacteria's toxins. (news-medical.net)
  • The diphtheria antitoxin is given to neutralize the effects of the toxin produced by the diphtheria bacteria, which can cause paralysis of muscles in the eye, lungs , throat and neck. (news-medical.net)
  • To prevent serum sickness, it is often best to use an antitoxin obtained from the same species (e.g. use human antitoxin to treat humans). (wikipedia.org)
  • Between 1889 and 1895, Behring developed his pioneering ideas on serum therapy and his theory of antitoxins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Currently, the only available antitoxin remedies are polyclonal antibodies from horse or human serum, which have known health risks and are in limited supply. (news-medical.net)
  • These antibodies, contained in his blood plasma, made up the key ingredient in antitoxin serum. (si.edu)
  • Tetanus antitoxin is made from the blood/serum of horses vaccinated against tetanus. (equisearch.com)
  • antitoxin is thereupon formed in the blood serum of the horse. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 1, 2 This case is presented to emphasize that allergic reactions to tetanus antitoxin do occur in spite of apparently adequate testing with horse serum prior to administration of the antitoxin. (annals.org)
  • A small quantity of blood is taken from the animal, and from the serum an antitoxin for human use is isolated. (britannica.com)
  • Sometimes a patient is slowly given very small amounts of an antitoxin until the allergic reaction to the serum is no longer seen. (britannica.com)
  • These antitoxins are carried in the serum of the blood and are called gamma globulins. (britannica.com)
  • in general usage, antitoxin refers to whole, or globulin fraction of, serum from people or animals (usually horses) immunized by injections of the specific toxoid. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • 2. An animal or human serum containing antitoxins. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Intravenous administration of one vial of botulism antitoxin results in serum levels of type A, B, and E antibodies capable of neutralizing serum toxin concentrations in excess of those reported for botulism patients. (medscape.com)
  • It exhibits no Danysz effect, does not fix complement unless very large amounts of serum are used, and can be specifically coprecipitated by addition of precipitating antitoxin and toxin. (rupress.org)
  • A dose of 1500 international units of tetanus antitoxin should be injected subcutaneously or intramuscularly, after testing for serum sensitivity (see below for reactions to horse serum). (vaccinehaffkine.com)
  • Adequate surgical treatment of wounds with the use of suitable antibiotics should be carried out in addition to the prophylactic injection of antitoxin, if the patient is sensitive to serum or has been actively immunised previously with tetanus vaccine (adsorbed) the patient should receive the dose of tetanus vaccine(adsorbed) only and not tetanus antitoxin. (vaccinehaffkine.com)
  • It is recommended that a dose of 10000 to 20000 I.U. of tetanus antitoxin should be injected intramuscularly soon after admission of patient with symptoms of tetanus such as lockjaw, muscular spasms, etc. after taking precautions against possible serum reaction. (vaccinehaffkine.com)
  • In contrast, since diarrheal infections due to pathogens elaborating cholera-like enterotoxins are rare in industrialized countries, this study reviewed the magnitude and duration of the serum antitoxin response to cholera infections in North Americans to develop guidelines for use of antitoxin as a seroepidemiologic tool to investigate endemic cholera in the United States. (elsevier.com)
  • Pre-challenge, 7 of 31 volunteers had low levels of antitoxin, i.e., the net optical density (O.D.) of these sera was greater than the mean net O.D. + 3 standard deviations (SD) of a negative control serum pool known to lack antitoxin by two neutralization assays. (elsevier.com)
  • The microtiter ELISA test for serum IgG cholera antitoxin represents an important tool for seroepidemiologic investigation of cholera in the United States and other industrialized countries. (elsevier.com)
  • antitoxin, any of a group of antibodies formed in the body as a response to the introduction of poisonous products, or toxins . (encyclopedia.com)
  • These findings indicate that the application of Fc domain engineering is a feasible strategy to enhance toxin-neutralizing activity and suggest that engineered antitoxin antibodies will have improved therapeutic efficacy. (jci.org)
  • Antitoxin is exactly what it sounds like, a substance (preformed antibodies) that can itself directly neutralize the toxin. (equisearch.com)
  • This is a phase II clinical and pharmacokinetic study of suppression of human antimouse (HAMA) and antitoxin antibodies (HATA) to immunotoxin LMB-1 by Rituximab (anti-CD20). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • For determination of neutralizing antibodies (antitoxin), twofold dilutions of 25 microliters of antiserum are first made directly in the culture microplate. (nih.gov)
  • Mechanisms of protection against Clostridium difficile infection by the monoclonal antitoxin antibodies actoxumab and bezlotoxumab. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Giving the whole bottle of antitoxin might not be neccessary, but it wouldn't hurt anything--all that's in it is antibodies. (thegoatspot.net)
  • In a unanimous decision announced last week, the 18-member Blood Products Advisory Committee voted to recommend the heptavalent botulinum antitoxin (HBAT), developed by a Canadian pharmaceutical company, to the federal agency for approval. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • HBAT is the only botulinum antitoxin currently available for use in the U.S. It is currently an investigational product controlled by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (foodsafetynews.com)
  • All of them were admitted to the ICU and treated with polyvalent botulinum antitoxin and conservative management. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The only currently approved therapy for botulism is postsymptomatic administration of botulinum antitoxin and, in severe cases, intensive supportive care by means of mechanical ventilation. (biologists.org)
  • Question 1: In infant botulism, is equine-derived botulinum antitoxin (EqBA) an effective alternative therapy to human-derived botulinum immune globulin (BIG)? (bmj.com)
  • They also described the effects of botulinum antitoxin in the pediatric population. (hhs.gov)
  • An antitoxin is an antibody with the ability to neutralize a specific toxin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most antitoxin preparations are prepared from donors with high titers of antibody against the toxin, making them hyperimmune globulins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The antitoxin antibody is in development for biodefense applications. (genengnews.com)
  • antitoxin Antibody produced by the body in response to a toxin . (encyclopedia.com)
  • New study reveals potential for developing novel antibody-based antitoxins against botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), including the most commonly used, yet most toxic one, Botox. (news-medical.net)
  • Published in Cell Reports , the paper is titled, 'Structural insights into rational design of single-domain antibody-based antitoxins against botulinum neurotoxins. (news-medical.net)
  • 2020) Structural Insights into Rational Design of Single-Domain Antibody-Based Antitoxins against Botulinum Neurotoxins. (news-medical.net)
  • The VNA antitoxin platform can be enhanced by co-administration of an anti-tag effector antibody (efAb) to promote toxin clearance. (tufts.edu)
  • The neutralizing antibody titre of tetanus antitoxin could be elevated 3.19 times by the purification of the antitoxin with pepsin digestion method, which is superior to ammonium sulfate salting out method by 1.5 times. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The antitoxin antibody titers varied significantly from an immunization protocol to another according to the studied parameters. (journalcra.com)
  • We could conclude that the antitoxin antibody concentration increases with the time and the repetition of the immunogenic stimulus, and it is demonstrated that immunization protocols more lingering produce better outputs of antitoxins. (journalcra.com)
  • 2011). Diversity of bacterial type II toxin-antitoxin systems: A comprehensive search and functional analysis of novel families. (springer.com)
  • Bacterial toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are formed by potent regulatory or suicide factors (toxins) and their short-lived inhibitors (antitoxins). (nih.gov)
  • Bacterial toxin-antitoxin loci consist of two genes: one encodes a potentially toxic protein, and the second, an antitoxin to repress its function or expression. (mdpi.com)
  • Here, using a Salmonella enterica serovar Agona clonal bacterial population as model, we demonstrate that a Toxin-Antitoxin (TA) system encoded by SGI1 plays a critical role in its stable host maintenance when an IncA/C plasmid is concomitantly present. (nature.com)
  • Specific interaction between MazF seq and the putative cognate antitoxin MazE seq was demonstrated by bacterial two-hybrid analyses. (asm.org)
  • Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are commonly found in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and comprise a stable toxin able to stall bacterial replication and an antitoxin that neutralises the activity of the toxin. (findaphd.com)
  • When under stress conditions, such as nutrient limitation, temperature shock, contact with host cells or exposure to antimicrobials, the antitoxins are degraded leaving the toxin free to arrest bacterial growth. (findaphd.com)
  • 1. Lobato-Marquez D, Diaz-Orejas R, Garcia-Del Portillo F. Toxin-antitoxins and bacterial virulence. (findaphd.com)
  • Toxin-antitoxin systems are prevalent in different bacterial organisms and are encoded in the chromosomal or plasmid DNA. (iastate.edu)
  • equine antitoxin an antitoxin derived from the blood of healthy horses immunized against a specific bacterial toxin. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Of the ~80 putative toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules encoded by the bacterial pathogen M. tuberculosis (Mtb), 3 contain antitoxins essential for bacterial viability. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Because of repeated infections with bacterial enteropathogens elaborating antigenically related enterotoxins, persons living in less-developed areas even where cholera is not endemic have high prevalence and levels of cholera antitoxin. (elsevier.com)
  • This is followed by detailed chapters on toxin-antitoxin systems which explain their role in the bacterial pathogenesis with reference to P. aeruginosa. (benthambooks.com)
  • The Hha and TomB proteins from Escherichia coli form an oxygen-dependent toxin-antitoxin (TA) system. (nih.gov)
  • Antitoxins are DNA-binding proteins and auto-repress transcription of TA operons. (nih.gov)
  • Along with these two very different modes of action for the antitoxin, there are differences in the functions of the toxin proteins and the mobility of these loci between species. (mdpi.com)
  • In type II, IV and V, antitoxins are proteins that either sequester, counterbalance toxin activity or inhibit toxin synthesis. (mdpi.com)
  • In the most common TA genes, called type II TA loci, the antitoxins are proteins that combine with and neutralize the toxins. (springer.com)
  • The theory is that the horse reacts to the foreign proteins in the antitoxin and his own tissues are similar enough that he also starts to attack his own liver. (equisearch.com)
  • A stable heterotetramer is formed by the binding of two toxin proteins and two antitoxin proteins, forming a harmless and inactive complex in the cell cytosol. (kenyon.edu)
  • pSM19035 plasmid is not carried by a daughter cell, proteases will degrade the existing toxin and antitoxin proteins. (kenyon.edu)
  • Antitoxins are proteins. (britannica.com)
  • The antitoxin, DarG , forms a cytosolic complex with DNA-repair proteins that assembles independently of either DarT or interaction with DNA. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • The mqsRA locus of Escherichia coli K-12 codes for a translation-independent GCU site-specific endoribonuclease MqsR and an antitoxin MqsA, which has an additional function as a transcriptional regulator of other genes. (springer.com)
  • 2011). Structure of the Escherichia coli antitoxin MqsA (YgiT/b3021) bound to its gene promoter reveals extensive domain rearrangements and the specificity of transcriptional regulation. (springer.com)
  • 2010). The Escherichia coli mqsR and ygiT genes encode a new toxin-antitoxin pair. (springer.com)
  • 2009). Toxin-antitoxin systems in Escherichia coli influence biofilm formation through YjgK (TabA) and fimbriae. (springer.com)
  • 2010). Escherichia coli toxin/antitoxin pair MqsR/MqsA regulate toxin CspD. (springer.com)
  • Transcriptional cross-activation between toxin-antitoxin systems of Escherichia coli. (nih.gov)
  • Type II toxin-antitoxin systems are unevenly distributed among Escherichia coli phylogroups. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Toxin-antitoxin systems are genetic modules, commonly found in free-living bacteria, that generally consist of two co-produced and co-regulated components: a relatively stable toxin that inhibits cell growth and a more labile antitoxin that specifically neutralizes the toxin. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Labile antitoxin with a half-life of about 1 hour in the presence of CcdB. (mybiosource.com)
  • A labile antitoxin that counteracts the effect of the YafQ toxin. (mybiosource.com)
  • By continuously and excessively producing antitoxin, the system's toxic effects are counteracted as long as the plasmid is maintained. (kenyon.edu)
  • The toxin-antitoxin system eliminates plasmid-free cells that emerge as a result of segregation or replication defects and contributes to intra- and interspecies plasmid dissemination. (sciencemag.org)
  • This system, designated sgiAT for Salmonella genomic island 1 Antitoxin and Toxin respectively, thus seems to play a stabilizing role in a situation where SGI1 is susceptible to be lost through plasmid IncA/C-mediated excision. (nature.com)
  • In this report, we describe the use of the S. lividans yefM/yoeBsl toxin-antitoxin system to develop a stable plasmid expression system. (csic.es)
  • Results]: In order to use the yefM/yoeBsl system to stabilize expression plasmids in Streptomyces, a S. lividans mutant strain that contained only the toxin gene (yoeBsl) in its genome and the antitoxin gene (yefMsl) located in a temperature-sensitive plasmid was constructed and used as host. (csic.es)
  • This strain was transformed with an expression plasmid harbouring both the antitoxin gene and the gene encoding the protein of interest. (csic.es)
  • The primary function of a plasmid toxin-antitoxin module is to stabilize the plasmid by eliminating plasmid-free daughter cells through a post segregation killing mechanism. (iastate.edu)
  • In this study, a toxin-antitoxin system is identified and characterized in the pVir plasmid of C. jejuni IA 3902. (iastate.edu)
  • The plasmid stability assay in C. jejuni showed that the toxin-antitoxin system is necessary for maintaining the stability of pVir because deletion of the pVir46 gene resulted in loss of the plasmid during passage in conventional media. (iastate.edu)
  • Together these results establish that pVir45-46 encode a functional toxin-antitoxin system in C. jejuni, which is required for ensuring the stability of the pVir plasmid. (iastate.edu)
  • Antitoxin component of a toxin-antitoxin (TA) module which inhibits the post-segregational killing (PSK) of plasmid-free cells, also referred to as a plasmid addiction system. (mybiosource.com)
  • Restriction sites BamHI and XhoI were added at 5' and 3' end of PCR amplification of antitoxin gene (252 bp) product from genomic DNA using primer sets 1 and 5, respectively, for the directional cloning in pET28(a) vector to produce plasmid pJSL2. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are now known to negatively control plasmid replication, according to Thomas Wood, Biotechnology Endowed Chair and professor of chemical engineering in the Penn State College of Engineering. (miragenews.com)
  • The antitoxin acts as an unexpected player in the negative control of plasmid replication," Wood said. (miragenews.com)
  • Merck & Co is gearing up to file its investigational antitoxin bezlotoxumab in the US, Canada and Europe this year, after late-stage data backed the drug's use in preventing the recurrence of Clostridium difficile infection. (pharmatimes.com)
  • KENILWORTH, N.J.--( BUSINESS WIRE )--Merck (NYSE:MRK), known as MSD outside the United States and Canada, today announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has accepted for review the Biologics License Application (BLA) for bezlotoxumab, an investigational antitoxin for prevention of Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) infection recurrence. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • The antitoxin has the specific power of neutralising the toxin secreted by Clostridium tetani , the causative organism of tetanus. (vaccinehaffkine.com)
  • Hill SE, Iqbal R, Cadiz CL, Le J. Foodborne botulism treated with heptavalent botulism antitoxin. (medscape.com)
  • Our previous work provided a mechanistic link between the two by showing how multiple toxin-antitoxin systems, which are present in nearly all bacteria, can cooperate to induce bistable toxin concentrations that result in a heterogeneous population of slow- and fast-growing cells. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Conversely, multiple toxin-antitoxin systems are upregulated in persister-enriched samples [ 21 , 23 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Here, we discovered that the MntA antitoxin (MNT-domain protein) acts as an adenylyltransferase and chemically modifies the HepT toxin (HEPN-domain protein) to block its toxicity as an RNase. (rcsb.org)
  • The antitoxin can either be an RNA or a protein. (mdpi.com)
  • type III antitoxins directly bind to the toxin protein, sequestering it. (mdpi.com)
  • Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are small genetic modules usually composed of a toxin and an antitoxin counteracting the activity of the toxic protein. (mdpi.com)
  • In addition to these interactions between the antitoxin and toxin components (RNA-RNA, protein-protein, RNA-protein), TA systems interact with a variety of cellular factors, e.g., toxins target essential cellular components, antitoxins are degraded by RNAses or ATP-dependent proteases. (mdpi.com)
  • Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems encoded in prokaryotic genomes fall into five types, typically composed of two distinct small molecules, an endotoxic protein and a cis -encoded antitoxin of ribonucleic or proteinaceous nature. (asm.org)
  • TA systems typically consist of a small and stable toxic protein that can interfere with vital cellular functions and an unstable antitoxin, capable of inhibiting toxin activity ( 2 ). (asm.org)
  • Analysis of the gene and protein expression showed that this system likely has an autoregulation mechanism to express the toxin and antitoxin in the most beneficial ratio for the cell to oppose stress. (frontiersin.org)
  • Also known as Antitoxin CcdA (LynA) (Protein H) (Protein LetA). (mybiosource.com)
  • Also known as Antitoxin FitA (Trafficking protein A). Antitoxin component of a toxin-antitoxin (TA) module. (mybiosource.com)
  • The two-gene module HEPN/MNT is predicted to be the most abundant toxin/antitoxin (TA) system in prokaryotes. (rcsb.org)
  • Antibiotic resistance, virulence, and other plasmids in bacteria use toxin-antitoxin gene pairs to ensure their persistence during host replication. (sciencemag.org)
  • In fact, the first gene tied to persistence was hipA [ 24 ], later identified as the toxic half of a toxin-antitoxin pair. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The first gene in a TA operon codes for an antitoxin that combines with and neutralizes a regulatory 'toxin', encoded by the second gene. (nih.gov)
  • The cell selection system was also extended for phenylalanine over-production using a phenylalanine biosensor (on-switch) and the antitoxin gene hipB. (usda.gov)
  • Administer immunization toxoid booster, as the antitoxin does not influence immunity. (medscape.com)
  • Both toxoid (vaccine) and antitoxin are widely available in stores and usually stocked side by side. (equisearch.com)
  • This type of antitoxin is capable of sensitizing normal human skin to toxin or toxoid and remains for many weeks in the injected area. (rupress.org)
  • Heating at 56°C. for 4 hours destroys the skin-sensitizing properties and results in almost quantitative conversion to a modified antitoxin which is capable of blocking the wheal and erythema reaction caused by injection of toxoid into sensitized skin. (rupress.org)
  • 3. Precipitating antitoxin is incapable of sensitizing normal skin to toxin or toxoid and disappears rapidly from the injected sites. (rupress.org)
  • It was possible to demonstrate inhibition of the wheal and erythema reaction in sensitized skin by injecting certain mixtures of precipitating antitoxin and toxoid. (rupress.org)
  • Many persons immunized with toxoid developed both precipitating and nonprecipitating antitoxin simultaneously. (rupress.org)
  • For the production of tetanus toxoid are used international standards of antitoxins gotten in equines, however, these antisera are not available for their routine use in Cuba. (journalcra.com)
  • When Paul Ehrlich demonstrated in 1891 that even vegetable poisons led to the formation of antitoxins in an organism, Behring's theory was confirmed. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is known that the frequency of persisters in a population is correlated with the number of toxin-antitoxin systems in the organism. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Animal models could be highly valuable in studying postsymptom antitoxin efficacy (PSAE). (biologists.org)
  • A Novel Running Wheel Mouse Model for Botulism and Its Use for the Evaluation of Postsymptom Antitoxin Efficacy. (wroc.pl)
  • Depletion of the DarG antitoxin in Mycobacterium tuberculosis triggers the DNA-damage response and leads to cell death. (physiciansweekly.com)
  • Cultures of BW25113 contained plasmids for toxin and antitoxin expression. (nih.gov)
  • Toxin - antitoxin (TA) genes were first identified on plasmids almost 30 years ago. (springer.com)
  • Conclusions]: This is the first report that describes the use of a toxin-antitoxin system to maintain high -copy plasmids in Streptomyces. (csic.es)
  • In Campylobacter jejuni, a pathogen that causes human gastroenteritis, multiple plasmids have been identified, but there have not been any reports on toxin-antitoxin systems. (iastate.edu)
  • The antitoxin, PrpA, prevents plasmids from replicating too many or too few copies, which then leads the bacterium to resist antibiotics at the cellular level. (miragenews.com)
  • Structure, biology, and therapeutic application of toxin-antitoxin systems in pathogenic bacteria. (findaphd.com)
  • Production of therapeutic antivenoms or antitoxins in horses has been carried out for decades but it is still plagued with problems and improvements are needed [ 1 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • This study covers the latent demand outlook for antitoxins, antivenoms, immune globulins, and therapeutic immune serums for therapeutic use and passive immunization excluding diagnostics across the states and cities of the United States. (reportlinker.com)
  • Using econometric models which project fundamental economic dynamics within each state and city, latent demand estimates are created for antitoxins, antivenoms, immune globulins, and therapeutic immune serums for therapeutic use and passive immunization excluding diagnostics. (reportlinker.com)
  • This study gives, however, my estimates for the latent demand, or potential industry earnings (P.I.E.), for antitoxins, antivenoms, immune globulins, and therapeutic immune serums for therapeutic use and passive immunization excluding diagnostics in the United States. (reportlinker.com)
  • In order to estimate the latent demand for antitoxins, antivenoms, immune globulins, and therapeutic immune serums for therapeutic use and passive immunization excluding diagnostics across the states and cities of the United States, I used a multi-stage approach. (reportlinker.com)
  • The Department of Infectious Disease and Global Health is developing a novel alternative antitoxin platform employing VHH-based therapeutic agents called VHH-based neutralizing agents (VNAs) that may radically change current approaches to antitoxin therapies. (tufts.edu)
  • Prokaryotic chromosomes code for toxin-antitoxin (TA) loci, often in multiple copies. (nih.gov)
  • TA genes come in three variants, depending on how the antitoxin works. (springer.com)
  • Chromosomal homologs of toxin-antitoxin genes are widely distributed in pathogenic and other bacteria and induce reversible cell cycle arrest or programmed cell death in response to starvation or other adverse conditions. (sciencemag.org)
  • Previous reports have indicated that the antitoxin is able to inhibit toxin activity and modulate the expression of the operon as well as other target genes involved in oxidative stress and mobility. (frontiersin.org)
  • Comparative genomic analysis of the pVir45 and pVir46 genes in C. jejuni indicates that they encode a putative toxin-antitoxin system that belongs to the RelE/StbE family. (iastate.edu)
  • Type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are most commonly composed of two genes encoding a stable toxin, which harms the cell, and an unstable antitoxin that can inactivate it. (dtu.dk)
  • Here, we developed a cell selection mechanism that utilized a product-responsive biosensor to control the expression of E. coli endogenous toxin hipA or antitoxin hipB genes for selective removal of low-performing cells. (usda.gov)
  • The antitoxin for the toxins produced by the bacteria that cause scarlet fever. (dictionary.com)
  • Characterization of DinJ-YafQ toxin-antitoxin module in Tetragenococcus halophilus: activity, interplay, and evolution. (wroc.pl)
  • The animal's body then makes the antitoxin needed to neutralize the toxin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The antitoxin cannot neutralize toxin that is already bound to tissues but can neutralize circulating (unbound) toxin. (news-medical.net)
  • Prokaryotic Toxins - Antitoxins presents the first comprehensive overview of an exciting and rapidly expanding research field. (springer.com)
  • Type II toxin-antitoxin systems (TAs) are bicistronic operons ubiquitous in prokaryotic genomes, displaying multilevel association with cell physiology. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • 2. Chan WT, Espinosa M, Yeo CC. Keeping the Wolves at Bay: Antitoxins of prokaryotic type II toxin-antitoxin systems. (findaphd.com)
  • This operon is composed of a toxin with RNAse activity and its cognate antitoxin. (frontiersin.org)
  • Investigational antitoxin indicated for naturally occurring noninfant botulism. (medscape.com)
  • Bezlotoxumab is an investigational antitoxin given in conjunction with standard of care antibiotics that are used in the treatment of C. difficile infection. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • Advancing the development of both IV and IM administration of our antitoxin could provide two important options in the prevention and treatment of inhalational anthrax following a biowarfare attack. (genengnews.com)
  • BARDA is seeking additional proposals for vaccines, antitoxins , and therapeutics that potentially protect against anthrax infection. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Concerns about anthrax-a potentially fatal disease caused by the spore-forming, gram-positive bacterium Bacillus anthracis-as a weapon of bioterrorism has prompted increased efforts to develop better antitoxins and vaccines. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • The antitoxin strategy arose from the discovery of the anthrax toxin receptor, ANTXR2, in the Young lab. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • According to the announcement, this compound is the only antitoxin against anthrax in the advanced stages of development. (bioprepwatch.com)
  • Antitoxins are produced by certain animals, plants, and bacteria in response to toxin exposure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antitoxins are produced by certain animals , plants , and bacteria . (wikipedia.org)
  • By introducing small amounts of a specific toxin into the healthy body, it is possible to stimulate the production of antitoxin so that the body's defenses are already established against invasion by the bacteria or other organisms that produce the toxin. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are small episomally or chromosomally encoded genetic modules found in bacteria or archaea ( 1 ). (asm.org)
  • The genome of Vibrio cholerae encodes two higBA toxin-antitoxin (TA) modules that are activated by amino-acid starvation. (ac.be)
  • An oxygen-sensitive toxin-antitoxin system. (nih.gov)
  • They are part of the type I toxin antitoxin (TA) system, where expression of the proteinaceous toxin is controlled by an antisense sRNA. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Antitoxin component of a type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) system. (rcsb.org)
  • Researchers harnessed the power of First Flight's immune system to produce the antitoxin. (si.edu)
  • In this study, we characterize a toxin-antitoxin system consisting of XfMqsR and XfYgiT, respectively, from X. fastidiosa subsp. (frontiersin.org)
  • The rabbit spirometry system might be useful in the evaluation toolkit of botulism therapeutics, including those under development and intended to act when antitoxin is no longer effective. (biologists.org)
  • Intaramat A, Puthsorn P, Kittikajhon S, Eamrod H, Ratanabanangkoon K, (2015) Simple Devices to Facilitate the Immunization of Horse for Antivenom/Antitoxin Production. (omicsonline.org)
  • A multi-dose injector to facilitate the immunization of horse by the 'low dose, low volume multi-site' protocol in antivenom/antitoxin production is described. (omicsonline.org)
  • These devices have been found to be very useful to the investigator and in reducing the pain and suffering of the horses during immunization for the production high potency antivenom/ antitoxin. (omicsonline.org)
  • It is also adviced that simultanously with the administration of the prophylactic dose of tetanus antitoxin active immunization should be started. (vaccinehaffkine.com)
  • Results of these studies showed that a single, one-time infusion of the antitoxin bezlotoxumab given with standard of care C. difficile antibiotic treatment significantly reduced the recurrence of C. difficile infection compared to standard of care alone, and demonstrated this benefit over a 12-week period," noted Mark Wilcox, Leeds Teaching Hospitals and University of Leeds, and a lead investigator for the studies. (pharmatimes.com)
  • 2009). Three dimensional structure of the MqsR:MqsA complex: A novel TA pair comprised of a toxin homologous to RelE and an antitoxin with unique properties. (springer.com)
  • Tell your doctor if you have ever had any unusual or allergic reaction to botulism antitoxin or any other medicines. (drugs.com)
  • Botulism antitoxin may cause serious allergic reactions, including anaphylaxis. (drugs.com)
  • Because of allergic sensitivity to animal antitoxins ( see allergy ), these substances are used with great care. (britannica.com)
  • When antitoxins produced from human blood can be used, allergic reactions seldom take place. (britannica.com)
  • Allergic individuals need to be desensitized to the antitoxin which is achieved through the administration of initial small doses that are increased over time. (news-medical.net)
  • However, a recent meta-analysis of antitoxin efficacy in human botulism cases over the past century concluded that a statistically significant reduction in mortality is associated with the use of type E and type A antitoxin, but not with type B antitoxin. (biologists.org)
  • It could either be antitoxin or vaccine. (equisearch.com)
  • This side effect occurs only with antitoxin, not the tetanus vaccine. (equisearch.com)
  • Specifically, the new vaccine-antitoxin combination is based on the multivalent display (180 copies) of the PA-binding von Willebrand A (VWA) domain of the ANTXR2 cellular receptor on the Flock House virus. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • P.T.A.P.) since adsorbed tetanus vaccine is able to actively immunize against tetanus even in the presence of tetanus antitoxin (B.J.Vakil et al Ind. (vaccinehaffkine.com)
  • Sera of 31 North American volunteers who ingested Vibrio cholerae in the course of vaccine development studies were examined for immunoglobulin G (IgG) antitoxin by microtiter enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). (elsevier.com)
  • Because the tetanus toxin has a very high affinity for tissue, the antitoxin is not effective against the toxin unless it is floating free in the blood stream. (equisearch.com)
  • Tetanus antitoxin is prepared by hyperimmunising horses with tetanus toxin. (vaccinehaffkine.com)
  • The purpose of this study was to obtain a potent antitoxin against tetanus toxin. (journalcra.com)
  • Several investigations have shown that the toxin-antitoxin (TA) operon is related to biofilm formation. (frontiersin.org)
  • Antitoxins must be administered once a day throughout the duration of the illness at a cost of Cr20 per injection. (travellerrpg.com)
  • Appropriate studies have not been performed on the relationship of age to the effects of botulism antitoxin in the pediatric population. (drugs.com)
  • 2010). Crystal structures of Phd-Doc, HigA, and YeeU establish multiple evolutionary links between microbial growth-regulating toxin-antitoxin systems. (springer.com)
  • Diabetes-Botulism antitoxin contains maltose, which can interfere with some types of blood glucose monitoring systems. (drugs.com)
  • Goeders N, Van Melderen L. Toxin-Antitoxin Systems as Multilevel Interaction Systems. (mdpi.com)
  • These toxin-antitoxin (TA) mechanisms, also known as postsegregational cell killing and addiction systems, attack cells from within. (sciencemag.org)
  • For technical reasons, the model assumed that the kinetic parameters of the various toxin-antitoxin systems in the cell are identical, but experimental data indicate that they differ, sometimes dramatically. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Thus, a critical question remains: whether toxin-antitoxin systems from the diverse families, often found together in a cell, with significantly different kinetics, can cooperate in a similar manner. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Here, we characterize the interaction of toxin-antitoxin systems from many families that are unrelated and kinetically diverse, and identify the essential determinant for their cooperation. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The generic architecture of toxin-antitoxin systems provides the potential for bistability, and our results show that even when they do not exhibit bistability alone, unrelated systems can be coupled by the growth rate to create a strongly bistable, hysteretic switch between normal (fast-growing) and persistent (slow-growing) states. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Stochastic fluctuations can spontaneously switch all of the toxin-antitoxin systems in a cell at once. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The mechanisms that provide the antibiotic tolerance are not fully understood, but one common path to persistence appears to be through the pervasive and varied toxin-antitoxin systems [ 11 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are involved in the formation of persister cells because they are able to induce cell dormancy. (frontiersin.org)
  • Toxin-Antitoxin Systems in Pseudomonas aeruginosa describes one of the most important antimicrobial targets in the bacterium species. (benthambooks.com)
  • In type I and III, antitoxins are RNAs that either inhibit the synthesis of the toxin or sequester it. (mdpi.com)
  • Antitoxin component of an atypical, type II toxin-antitoxin chaperone (TAC) module. (mybiosource.com)
  • 2. Sera which contain only non-precipitating antitoxin exhibit most of the properties of atopic reagin-containing sera. (rupress.org)