Encyclopedias as Topic
Amoxicillin for fever and sore throat due to non-exudative pharyngotonsillitis: beneficial or harmful? (1/59)OBJECTIVES: To determine duration of signs and symptoms and adverse reactions after treatment with amoxicillin of patients with fever and sore throat due to non-exudative pharyngotonsillitis. DESIGN: This was a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Outpatients at four medical centers were enrolled. Patients over 5 years of age presented with fever and sore throat for less than 10 days due to non-exudative pharyngotonsillitis. Cases with any of the following symptoms or illness were excluded: earache, nasal discharge with foul smell, rheumatic fever, valvular heart disease, renal disease, and penicillin hypersensitivity. Amoxicillin or identical placebo at the dosage of 50 mg/ kg per day was given three or four times daily for 7 days. RESULTS: There were 1217 patients enrolled in this study. Some were lost to follow-up, which is the reason for the variability in number of cases in these analyses. After therapy, duration of fever was 2.46 and 2.48 days (P = 0.78) and of sore throat 3.01 and 3.04 days (P = 0.80) in amoxicillin (n = 431) and placebo (n = 436) groups, respectively. Complications were clinically documented in 13 (2.5%) and 16 (3.0%) cases in amoxicillin (n = 527) and placebo (n = 524) groups (P = 0.56). Two cases (0.46% and 0.46%) from each group (n= 433 and 431) were positive by antistreptolysin O antibody determination. The history of carditis and abnormal urinalysis after treatment were not obtained. CONCLUSIONS: Amoxicillin therapy for non-exudative pharyngotonsillitis conferred no beneficial or harmful effect. (+info)
Antinative DNA antibodies as a reaction to pyrazole drugs. (2/59)A case history is presented of the occurrence of a high binding capacity for native DNA in the serum of a patient on phenylbutazone. This reverted to normal on stopping the drug. The patient also had a reversible neutropenia and leucopenia, and it is suggested that the high anti-DNA binding capacity was a feature of a drug-induced lupus-like phenomenon. (+info)
The diagnostic value of streptococcal serology in early arthritis: a prospective cohort study. (3/59)OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic value of streptococcal serology in adult early arthritis patients in discriminating between post-streptococcal reactive arthritis (PSRA) and arthritis with other causes. METHODS: The antistreptolysin-O (ASO) and anti-DNase B tests were performed at baseline in 366 consecutive, newly referred early arthritis patients. After 1 yr of follow-up the patients were classified according to international classification criteria and were evaluated for the presence of persistent arthritis. The outcome measures were the predictive value of streptococcal serology for the diagnosis of PSRA and the ability of this serology to discriminate at the first visit between the self-limiting and persistent forms of arthritis. RESULTS: With a positive serological result, the probability of having PSRA increased from 2 to 9%, whereas the probabilities of having rheumatoid arthritis or undifferentiated arthritis continued to be high (23 and 29%). The serological tests did not discriminate between the self-limiting and persistent forms of arthritis. The major Jones criteria apart from arthritis were not observed. CONCLUSION: Streptococcal serology has no diagnostic value in adult early arthritis patients in whom major Jones criteria other than arthritis are not present. (+info)
Outbreak of idiopathic erysipelas in a psychiatric hospital. (4/59)In an outbreak of idiopathic erysipelas ten women patients, aged 42-74, in a long-stay unit of a psychiatric hospital were simultaneously affected. Group A streptococci M-type 1 were isolated from two isolated from two patients with erysipelas and 18 carriers, but subsequent serological tests for type-specific antibody, antistreptolysin O, and anti-deoxyribonuclease B showed that the infection had been widespread in the unit. Treatment with ampicillin proved ineffective and to prevent relapse it was substituted by a standard course of intramuscular penicillin. This seems to be the first epidemic of this type to be reported and certainly the first outbreak of idiopathic erysipelas to be investigated by modern serological techniques. (+info)
Rheumatic fever in a high incidence population: the importance of monoarthritis and low grade fever. (5/59)AIMS: To describe the clinical features of rheumatic fever and to assess the Jones criteria in a population and setting similar to that in many developing countries. METHODS: The charts of 555 cases of confirmed acute rheumatic fever in 367 patients (97% Aboriginal) and more than 200 possible rheumatic fever cases from the tropical "Top End" of Australia's Northern Territory were reviewed retrospectively. RESULTS: Most clinical features were similar to classic descriptions. However, monoarthritis occurred in 17% of confirmed non-chorea cases and 35% of unconfirmed cases, including up to 27 in whom the diagnosis was missed because monoarthritis is not a major manifestation. Only 71% and 25% of confirmed non-chorea cases would have had fever using cut off values of 38 degrees C and 39 degrees C, respectively. In 17% of confirmed non-chorea cases, anti-DNase B titres were raised but antistreptolysin O titres were normal. Although features of recurrences tended to correlate with initial episodes, there were numerous exceptions. CONCLUSIONS: Monoarthritis and low grade fever are important manifestations of rheumatic fever in this population. Streptococcal serology results may support a possible role for pyoderma in rheumatic fever pathogenesis. When recurrences of rheumatic fever are common, the absence of carditis at the first episode does not reliably predict the absence of carditis with recurrences. (+info)
Poststreptococcal nephritis--a rare disease?. (6/59)Forty-three children presenting with acute nephritis were studied for evidence of preceeding steptococcal infection. They were compared with a group of control children of similar age. Two-thirds of those with nephritis gave a history of a preceeding respiratory infection (compared with one-third of the controls). A significant rise of antistreptolysin O tire occurred in only 16 children with nephritis and within this minority several did not show a fall of serum C3 level. It is probable that only one-third of the children with acute nephritis had poststreptoccoccal glomerulonephritis. Poststreptococcal glomerulo-nephritis is no longer the main cause of childhood acute nephritis in the Leeds area. There may be many different aetiological factors and this diversity calls for more rigorous investigations and a more guarded prognosis. (+info)
Uric acid, joint morbidity, and streptococcal antibodies in Maori and European teenagers. Rotorua Lakes study 3. (7/59)Two hundred and ninety-four New Zealand secondary school students were examined by questionnaire, and physical and biochemical methods. The sample contained almost equal numbers of Maoris and Europeans. The findings related to joint conditions are presented. Past injury and rheumatic disease accounted for some of the reported morbidity, but no important sex or race differences in these factors emerged. There were, however, significant differences in serum uric acid levels with the Maori having higher levels than the Europeans. A significant correlation with body mass was present in both race and sex groups but a correlation with haemoglobin was present only in the European females. While hyperuricaemia was not associated with morbidity in this young sample, ethnic differences anticipated the higher prevalence of gout already observed in Maori men. (+info)
New Haven survey of joint diseases. XVII. Relationship between some systemic characteristics and osteoarthrosis in a general population. (8/59)In a survey of the general population the presence or absence of osteoarthrosis of the hand was determined radiologically in 685 adults (300 males and 385 females). Of these, 261 (124 males and 137 females), chosen randomly, were given a complete clinical examination of the musculoskeletal system which included x-ray of joints elsewhere in the body. Osteoarthrosis (OA) scores for the hand and for all body sites were computed for each subject by summing the number of affected joints. For all subjects soical class, height, weight, total serum protein, serum uric acid, haemoglobin, antistreptolysin O, (ASO), C-reactive protein (CRP), and rheumatoid factor were also measured. Analyses were carried out by simple comparison of means and by calculating multiple regressions and correlations. (+info)
Antistreptolysin (ASO) is a type of antibody that the body produces in response to an infection caused by Streptococcus pyogenes, a species of bacteria commonly known as group A streptococcus. This bacterium produces a toxin called streptolysin O, which can damage tissues and cells in the body. The ASO antibodies are produced by the immune system to help neutralize the effects of this toxin and protect against further tissue damage.
ASO titers, or levels of these antibodies in the blood, can be measured through a laboratory test called an antistreptolysin O titer test. This test is often used to help diagnose recent streptococcal infections, such as strep throat, and to monitor the effectiveness of treatment. Elevated ASO titers may indicate a recent or ongoing infection with group A streptococcus, while normal or decreasing titers suggest that the infection has resolved.
It's important to note that a positive ASO test does not necessarily mean that a person is currently infected with group A streptococcus, as these antibodies can persist in the blood for several months after an infection has cleared. Therefore, the test should be interpreted in conjunction with other clinical findings and laboratory results.
Streptolysins are exotoxins produced by certain strains of Streptococcus bacteria, primarily Group A Streptococcus (GAS). These toxins are classified into two types: streptolysin O (SLO) and streptolysin S (SLS).
1. Streptolysin O (SLO): It is a protein exotoxin that exhibits oxygen-labile hemolytic activity, meaning it can lyse or destroy red blood cells in the presence of oxygen. SLO is capable of entering host cells and causing various cellular damages, including inhibition of phagocytosis, modulation of immune responses, and induction of apoptosis (programmed cell death).
2. Streptolysin S (SLS): It is a non-protein, oxygen-stable hemolysin that can also lyse red blood cells but does so independently of oxygen presence. SLS is more heat-resistant than SLO and has a stronger ability to penetrate host cell membranes.
Both streptolysins contribute to the virulence of Streptococcus pyogenes, which can cause various clinical infections such as pharyngitis (strep throat), impetigo, scarlet fever, and invasive diseases like necrotizing fasciitis and toxic shock syndrome.
The detection of streptolysin O antibodies (ASO titer) is often used as a diagnostic marker for past or recent GAS infections, particularly in cases of rheumatic fever, where elevated ASO titers indicate ongoing or previous streptococcal infection.
Rheumatic fever is a systemic inflammatory disease that may occur following an untreated Group A streptococcal infection, such as strep throat. It primarily affects children between the ages of 5 and 15, but it can occur at any age. The condition is characterized by inflammation in various parts of the body, including the heart (carditis), joints (arthritis), skin (erythema marginatum, subcutaneous nodules), and brain (Sydenham's chorea).
The onset of rheumatic fever usually occurs 2-4 weeks after a streptococcal infection. The exact cause of the immune system's overreaction leading to rheumatic fever is not fully understood, but it involves molecular mimicry between streptococcal antigens and host tissues.
The Jones Criteria are used to diagnose rheumatic fever, which include:
1. Evidence of a preceding streptococcal infection (e.g., positive throat culture or rapid strep test, elevated or rising anti-streptolysin O titer)
2. Carditis (heart inflammation), including new murmurs or changes in existing murmurs, electrocardiogram abnormalities, or evidence of heart failure
3. Polyarthritis (inflammation of multiple joints) – typically large joints like the knees and ankles, migratory, and may be associated with warmth, swelling, and pain
4. Erythema marginatum (a skin rash characterized by pink or red, irregularly shaped macules or rings that blanch in the center and spread outward)
5. Subcutaneous nodules (firm, round, mobile lumps under the skin, usually over bony prominences)
6. Sydenham's chorea (involuntary, rapid, irregular movements, often affecting the face, hands, and feet)
Treatment of rheumatic fever typically involves antibiotics to eliminate any residual streptococcal infection, anti-inflammatory medications like corticosteroids or nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) to manage symptoms and prevent long-term heart complications, and secondary prophylaxis with regular antibiotic administration to prevent recurrent streptococcal infections.
Streptococcal infections are a type of infection caused by group A Streptococcus bacteria (Streptococcus pyogenes). These bacteria can cause a variety of illnesses, ranging from mild skin infections to serious and potentially life-threatening conditions such as sepsis, pneumonia, and necrotizing fasciitis (flesh-eating disease).
Some common types of streptococcal infections include:
* Streptococcal pharyngitis (strep throat) - an infection of the throat and tonsils that can cause sore throat, fever, and swollen lymph nodes.
* Impetigo - a highly contagious skin infection that causes sores or blisters on the skin.
* Cellulitis - a bacterial infection of the deeper layers of the skin and underlying tissue that can cause redness, swelling, pain, and warmth in the affected area.
* Scarlet fever - a streptococcal infection that causes a bright red rash on the body, high fever, and sore throat.
* Necrotizing fasciitis - a rare but serious bacterial infection that can cause tissue death and destruction of the muscles and fascia (the tissue that covers the muscles).
Treatment for streptococcal infections typically involves antibiotics to kill the bacteria causing the infection. It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect a streptococcal infection, as prompt treatment can help prevent serious complications.
Deoxyribonucleases (DNases) are a group of enzymes that cleave, or cut, the phosphodiester bonds in the backbone of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules. DNases are classified based on their mechanism of action into two main categories: double-stranded DNases and single-stranded DNases.
Double-stranded DNases cleave both strands of the DNA duplex, while single-stranded DNases cleave only one strand. These enzymes play important roles in various biological processes, such as DNA replication, repair, recombination, and degradation. They are also used in research and clinical settings for applications such as DNA fragmentation analysis, DNA sequencing, and treatment of cystic fibrosis.
It's worth noting that there are many different types of DNases with varying specificities and activities, and the medical definition may vary depending on the context.
Scarlet Fever is a bacterial illness that mainly affects children and is characterized by a bright red rash on the body, high fever, and a sore throat. It's caused by Group A Streptococcus bacteria (Strep throat) and is treatable with antibiotics. The distinctive red rash associated with Scarlet Fever is due to toxins produced by the bacteria, which can also cause other symptoms such as flushed face, strawberry tongue, and a pale ring around the mouth. If left untreated, Scarlet Fever can lead to serious complications like kidney damage or rheumatic fever.
Streptococcus pyogenes is a Gram-positive, beta-hemolytic streptococcus bacterium that causes various suppurative (pus-forming) and nonsuppurative infections in humans. It is also known as group A Streptococcus (GAS) due to its ability to produce the M protein, which confers type-specific antigenicity and allows for serological classification into more than 200 distinct Lancefield groups.
S. pyogenes is responsible for a wide range of clinical manifestations, including pharyngitis (strep throat), impetigo, cellulitis, erysipelas, scarlet fever, rheumatic fever, and acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis. In rare cases, it can lead to invasive diseases such as necrotizing fasciitis (flesh-eating disease) and streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS).
The bacterium is typically transmitted through respiratory droplets or direct contact with infected skin lesions. Effective prevention strategies include good hygiene practices, such as frequent handwashing and avoiding sharing personal items, as well as prompt recognition and treatment of infections to prevent spread.
An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.
Hemolysis is the destruction or breakdown of red blood cells, resulting in the release of hemoglobin into the surrounding fluid (plasma). This process can occur due to various reasons such as chemical agents, infections, autoimmune disorders, mechanical trauma, or genetic abnormalities. Hemolysis may lead to anemia and jaundice, among other complications. It is essential to monitor hemolysis levels in patients undergoing medical treatments that might cause this condition.
Pharyngitis is the medical term for inflammation of the pharynx, which is the back portion of the throat. This condition is often characterized by symptoms such as sore throat, difficulty swallowing, and scratchiness in the throat. Pharyngitis can be caused by a variety of factors, including viral infections (such as the common cold), bacterial infections (such as strep throat), and irritants (such as smoke or chemical fumes). Treatment for pharyngitis depends on the underlying cause of the condition, but may include medications to relieve symptoms or antibiotics to treat a bacterial infection.
Streptococcus is a genus of Gram-positive, spherical bacteria that typically form pairs or chains when clustered together. These bacteria are facultative anaerobes, meaning they can grow in the presence or absence of oxygen. They are non-motile and do not produce spores.
Streptococcus species are commonly found on the skin and mucous membranes of humans and animals. Some strains are part of the normal flora of the body, while others can cause a variety of infections, ranging from mild skin infections to severe and life-threatening diseases such as sepsis, meningitis, and toxic shock syndrome.
The pathogenicity of Streptococcus species depends on various virulence factors, including the production of enzymes and toxins that damage tissues and evade the host's immune response. One of the most well-known Streptococcus species is Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as group A streptococcus (GAS), which is responsible for a wide range of clinical manifestations, including pharyngitis (strep throat), impetigo, cellulitis, necrotizing fasciitis, and rheumatic fever.
It's important to note that the classification of Streptococcus species has evolved over time, with many former members now classified as different genera within the family Streptococcaceae. The current classification system is based on a combination of phenotypic characteristics (such as hemolysis patterns and sugar fermentation) and genotypic methods (such as 16S rRNA sequencing and multilocus sequence typing).
The pharynx is a part of the digestive and respiratory systems that serves as a conduit for food and air. It is a musculo-membranous tube extending from the base of the skull to the level of the sixth cervical vertebra where it becomes continuous with the esophagus.
The pharynx has three regions: the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx. The nasopharynx is the uppermost region, which lies above the soft palate and is connected to the nasal cavity. The oropharynx is the middle region, which includes the area between the soft palate and the hyoid bone, including the tonsils and base of the tongue. The laryngopharynx is the lowest region, which lies below the hyoid bone and connects to the larynx.
The primary function of the pharynx is to convey food from the oral cavity to the esophagus during swallowing and to allow air to pass from the nasal cavity to the larynx during breathing. It also plays a role in speech, taste, and immune defense.
Streptococcal vaccines are immunizations designed to protect against infections caused by Streptococcus bacteria. These vaccines contain antigens, which are substances that trigger an immune response and help the body recognize and fight off specific types of Streptococcus bacteria. There are several different types of streptococcal vaccines available or in development, including:
1. Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV): This vaccine protects against Streptococcus pneumoniae, a type of bacteria that can cause pneumonia, meningitis, and other serious infections. PCV is recommended for all children under 2 years old, as well as older children and adults with certain medical conditions.
2. Pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV): This vaccine also protects against Streptococcus pneumoniae, but it is recommended for adults 65 and older, as well as younger people with certain medical conditions.
3. Streptococcus pyogenes vaccine: This vaccine is being developed to protect against Group A Streptococcus (GAS), which can cause a variety of infections, including strep throat, skin infections, and serious diseases like rheumatic fever and toxic shock syndrome. There are several different GAS vaccine candidates in various stages of development.
4. Streptococcus agalactiae vaccine: This vaccine is being developed to protect against Group B Streptococcus (GBS), which can cause serious infections in newborns, pregnant women, and older adults with certain medical conditions. There are several different GBS vaccine candidates in various stages of development.
Overall, streptococcal vaccines play an important role in preventing bacterial infections and reducing the burden of disease caused by Streptococcus bacteria.
In medical terms, gases refer to the state of matter that has no fixed shape or volume and expands to fill any container it is placed in. Gases in the body can be normal, such as the oxygen, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen that are present in the lungs and blood, or abnormal, such as gas that accumulates in the digestive tract due to conditions like bloating or swallowing air.
Gases can also be used medically for therapeutic purposes, such as in the administration of anesthesia or in the treatment of certain respiratory conditions with oxygen therapy. Additionally, measuring the amount of gas in the body, such as through imaging studies like X-rays or CT scans, can help diagnose various medical conditions.
Acute proliferative glomerulonephritis
Endocapillary proliferative glomerulonephritis
List of MeSH codes (D12.776)
List of MeSH codes (D12.776.124)
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- Antistreptolysin O Titer Archived 2013-03-21 at the Wayback Machine - medterms.com. (wikipedia.org)
- Antistreptolysin O (ASO) titer is a blood test to measure antibodies against streptolysin O, a substance produced by group A streptococcus bacteria. (medlineplus.gov)
- The antistreptolysin O titer measures the level of antistreptolysin O antibodies in the blood plasma. (medscape.com)
- The highest titer reached were antistreptolysin O 2000 unit , DnasB 1900 unit, and antihyaluronidase 1024 unit. (pediatriconcall.com)
- 3) The diagnosis of isolated rheumatic fever was considered in our patient because of finding of very high anti-streptolysin O titre and lack of evidence of either viral disease, infection with group C and G streptococci or other cause of spuriously high titer of antistreptolysin O. (4). (pediatriconcall.com)
- The erythrocyte sedimentation rate was 19 mm/h (normal range: 1-10 mm/h) and the antistreptolysin-titer was 352 IU/ml (normal value: −200 IU/ml). (hindawi.com)
- Blood Test - The antistreptolysin O (ASO) titer blood test is done to check the presence of strep fighting antibodies to determine the presence of streptococci bacteria. (metrohospitals.com)
- The rheumatoid factor (RF), antistreptolysin (ASO) and DAS28 scores of RA patients were derived from clinical sources. (biomedcentral.com)
- When the body is infected with one of the above groups (C, G, or A), it produces antibodies to the streptolysin O toxin, called antistreptolysin O or ASO. (medscape.com)
- Supporting evidence to confirm streptococcal infection includes increased antistreptolysin-O or other streptococcal antibodies, throat culture positive for group A streptococcus, or recent scarlet fever. (cdc.gov)
- tion rate, C reactive protein level, Rheumatic valvular heart disease, an antistreptolysin O titre, throat swab cul- important sequel to rheumatic fever, is the ture, chest radiography and electrocardio- most common acquired heart disease graphy. (who.int)
- Als Antistreptolysin O, kurz ASLO, ASO oder ASL werden Antikörper gegen Streptolysin O bezeichnet. (firebaseapp.com)
- 2 The antistreptolysin-O test (ASO) was frequently ordered, and since a slightly elevated result was considered to be specific for rheumatic fever, long-term penicillin injections may have been erroneously administered to thousands of children in the hope of preventing rheumatic heart disease. (the-rheumatologist.org)
- Streptococcal antibody tests (eg, antideoxyribonuclease B [ADB] and antistreptolysin O [ASO] titers) are used to confirm previous group A streptococcal infection. (medscape.com)
- Antistreptolysin O titers ranged from 500-2,500 Todd units, and corrected erythrocyte sedimentation rates were 55-129 mm. (cdc.gov)
- All six patients had positive sputum cultures, radiographic evidence of pneumonia, elevated white blood cell counts, and elevated antistreptolysin O titers. (cdc.gov)
- Nursing Central , nursing.unboundmedicine.com/nursingcentral/view/Davis-Lab-and-Diagnostic-Tests/425036/all/Antistreptolysin_O_Antibody. (unboundmedicine.com)