Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Agglutination: The clumping together of suspended material resulting from the action of AGGLUTININS.Latex Fixation Tests: Passive agglutination tests in which antigen is adsorbed onto latex particles which then clump in the presence of antibody specific for the adsorbed antigen. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Sperm Agglutination: Agglutination of spermatozoa by antibodies or autoantibodies.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Hemagglutination: The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL).Hemagglutination Tests: Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Leptospirosis: Infections with bacteria of the genus LEPTOSPIRA.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Agglutinins: Substances, usually of biological origin, that cause cells or other organic particles to aggregate and stick to each other. They include those ANTIBODIES which cause aggregation or agglutination of particulate or insoluble ANTIGENS.Leptospira: A genus of aerobic, helical spirochetes, some species of which are pathogenic, others free-living or saprophytic.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Immunodiffusion: Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.Counterimmunoelectrophoresis: Immunoelectrophoresis in which immunoprecipitation occurs when antigen at the cathode is caused to migrate in an electric field through a suitable medium of diffusion against a stream of antibody migrating from the anode as a result of endosmotic flow.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Brucellosis: Infection caused by bacteria of the genus BRUCELLA mainly involving the MONONUCLEAR PHAGOCYTE SYSTEM. This condition is characterized by fever, weakness, malaise, and weight loss.Complement Fixation Tests: Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Lectins: Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Fluorescent Antibody Technique: Test for tissue antigen using either a direct method, by conjugation of antibody with fluorescent dye (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, DIRECT) or an indirect method, by formation of antigen-antibody complex which is then labeled with fluorescein-conjugated anti-immunoglobulin antibody (FLUORESCENT ANTIBODY TECHNIQUE, INDIRECT). The tissue is then examined by fluorescence microscopy.Immunoelectrophoresis: A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.Antigen-Antibody Reactions: The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Hemagglutination, Viral: Agglutination of ERYTHROCYTES by a virus.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Concanavalin A: A MANNOSE/GLUCOSE binding lectin isolated from the jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis). It is a potent mitogen used to stimulate cell proliferation in lymphocytes, primarily T-lymphocyte, cultures.Brucella: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria that causes BRUCELLOSIS. Its cells are nonmotile coccobacilli and are animal parasites and pathogens. The bacterium is transmissible to humans through contact with infected dairy products or tissue.Antigens, Fungal: Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests: Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.False Positive Reactions: Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Antibodies: Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).Weil Disease: A severe form of LEPTOSPIROSIS, usually caused by LEPTOSPIRA INTERROGANS SEROVAR ICTEROHAEMORRHAGIAE and occasionally other serovars. It is transmitted to humans by the rat and is characterized by hemorrhagic and renal symptoms with accompanying JAUNDICE.Antigens: Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.Serology: The study of serum, especially of antigen-antibody reactions in vitro.Brucellosis, Bovine: A disease of cattle caused by bacteria of the genus BRUCELLA leading to abortion in late pregnancy. BRUCELLA ABORTUS is the primary infective agent.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Coombs Test: A test to detect non-agglutinating ANTIBODIES against ERYTHROCYTES by use of anti-antibodies (the Coombs' reagent.) The direct test is applied to freshly drawn blood to detect antibody bound to circulating red cells. The indirect test is applied to serum to detect the presence of antibodies that can bind to red blood cells.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Leptospira interrogans: A genus of question mark-shaped bacteria spirochetes which is found in fresh water that is contaminated by animal urine. It causes LEPTOSPIROSIS.Coagulase: Enzymes that cause coagulation in plasma by forming a complex with human PROTHROMBIN. Coagulases are produced by certain STAPHYLOCOCCUS and YERSINIA PESTIS. Staphylococci produce two types of coagulase: Staphylocoagulase, a free coagulase that produces true clotting of plasma, and Staphylococcal clumping factor, a bound coagulase in the cell wall that induces clumping of cells in the presence of fibrinogen.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Immunologic Techniques: Techniques used to demonstrate or measure an immune response, and to identify or measure antigens using antibodies.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Brucella abortus: A species of the genus BRUCELLA whose natural hosts are cattle and other bovidae. Abortion and placentitis are frequently produced in the pregnant animal. Other mammals, including humans, may be infected.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Ristocetin: An antibiotic mixture of two components, A and B, obtained from Nocardia lurida (or the same substance produced by any other means). It is no longer used clinically because of its toxicity. It causes platelet agglutination and blood coagulation and is used to assay those functions in vitro.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Plant Lectins: Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.Toxoplasmosis: The acquired form of infection by Toxoplasma gondii in animals and man.Toxoplasma: A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.Methods: A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Brucella canis: A species of gram-negative bacteria infecting DOGS, the natural hosts, and causing canine BRUCELLOSIS. It can also cause a mild infection in humans.Leishmaniasis, Visceral: A chronic disease caused by LEISHMANIA DONOVANI and transmitted by the bite of several sandflies of the genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia. It is commonly characterized by fever, chills, vomiting, anemia, hepatosplenomegaly, leukopenia, hypergammaglobulinemia, emaciation, and an earth-gray color of the skin. The disease is classified into three main types according to geographic distribution: Indian, Mediterranean (or infantile), and African.Flocculation Tests: Precipitin tests which occur over a narrow range of antigen-antibody ratio, due chiefly to peculiarities of the antibody (precipitin). (From Stedman, 26th ed)Fimbriae, Bacterial: Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Rheumatoid Factor: Antibodies found in adult RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS patients that are directed against GAMMA-CHAIN IMMUNOGLOBULINS.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Receptors, Concanavalin A: Glycoprotein moieties on the surfaces of cell membranes that bind concanavalin A selectively; the number and location of the sites depends on the type and condition of the cell.gamma-Globulins: Serum globulins that migrate to the gamma region (most positively charged) upon ELECTROPHORESIS. At one time, gamma-globulins came to be used as a synonym for immunoglobulins since most immunoglobulins are gamma globulins and conversely most gamma globulins are immunoglobulins. But since some immunoglobulins exhibit an alpha or beta electrophoretic mobility, that usage is in decline.Oxacillin: An antibiotic similar to FLUCLOXACILLIN used in resistant staphylococci infections.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Staphylococcal Protein A: A protein present in the cell wall of most Staphylococcus aureus strains. The protein selectively binds to the Fc region of human normal and myeloma-derived IMMUNOGLOBULIN G. It elicits antibody activity and may cause hypersensitivity reactions due to histamine release; has also been used as cell surface antigen marker and in the clinical assessment of B lymphocyte function.Neutralization Tests: The measurement of infection-blocking titer of ANTISERA by testing a series of dilutions for a given virus-antiserum interaction end-point, which is generally the dilution at which tissue cultures inoculated with the serum-virus mixtures demonstrate cytopathology (CPE) or the dilution at which 50% of test animals injected with serum-virus mixtures show infectivity (ID50) or die (LD50).Rose Bengal: A bright bluish pink compound that has been used as a dye, biological stain, and diagnostic aid.Salmonella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.Cryptococcus: A mitosporic Tremellales fungal genus whose species usually have a capsule and do not form pseudomycellium. Teleomorphs include Filobasidiella and Fidobasidium.Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Erythrocyte Aggregation: The formation of clumps of RED BLOOD CELLS under low or non-flow conditions, resulting from the attraction forces between the red blood cells. The cells adhere to each other in rouleaux aggregates. Slight mechanical force, such as occurs in the circulation, is enough to disperse these aggregates. Stronger or weaker than normal aggregation may result from a variety of effects in the ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE or in BLOOD PLASMA. The degree of aggregation is affected by ERYTHROCYTE DEFORMABILITY, erythrocyte membrane sialylation, masking of negative surface charge by plasma proteins, etc. BLOOD VISCOSITY and the ERYTHROCYTE SEDIMENTATION RATE are affected by the amount of erythrocyte aggregation and are parameters used to measure the aggregation.Immunochemistry: Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.Hemagglutinins: Agents that cause agglutination of red blood cells. They include antibodies, blood group antigens, lectins, autoimmune factors, bacterial, viral, or parasitic blood agglutinins, etc.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.False Negative Reactions: Negative test results in subjects who possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of diseased persons as healthy when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Blood Group Antigens: Sets of cell surface antigens located on BLOOD CELLS. They are usually membrane GLYCOPROTEINS or GLYCOLIPIDS that are antigenically distinguished by their carbohydrate moieties.Nephelometry and Turbidimetry: Chemical analysis based on the phenomenon whereby light, passing through a medium with dispersed particles of a different refractive index from that of the medium, is attenuated in intensity by scattering. In turbidimetry, the intensity of light transmitted through the medium, the unscattered light, is measured. In nephelometry, the intensity of the scattered light is measured, usually, but not necessarily, at right angles to the incident light beam.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.ABO Blood-Group System: The major human blood type system which depends on the presence or absence of two antigens A and B. Type O occurs when neither A nor B is present and AB when both are present. A and B are genetic factors that determine the presence of enzymes for the synthesis of certain glycoproteins mainly in the red cell membrane.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Precipitins: Antibodies which elicit IMMUNOPRECIPITATION when combined with antigen.Binding Sites, Antibody: Local surface sites on antibodies which react with antigen determinant sites on antigens (EPITOPES.) They are formed from parts of the variable regions of FAB FRAGMENTS.Streptococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Antigen-Antibody Complex: The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.Streptococcus agalactiae: A bacterium which causes mastitis in cattle and occasionally in man.Goats: Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.Pronase: A proteolytic enzyme obtained from Streptomyces griseus.Antibodies, Fungal: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.Blood Grouping and Crossmatching: Testing erythrocytes to determine presence or absence of blood-group antigens, testing of serum to determine the presence or absence of antibodies to these antigens, and selecting biocompatible blood by crossmatching samples from the donor against samples from the recipient. Crossmatching is performed prior to transfusion.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Antigens, Surface: Antigens on surfaces of cells, including infectious or foreign cells or viruses. They are usually protein-containing groups on cell membranes or walls and may be isolated.Glutaral: One of the protein CROSS-LINKING REAGENTS that is used as a disinfectant for sterilization of heat-sensitive equipment and as a laboratory reagent, especially as a fixative.Precipitin Tests: Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.MercaptoethanolImmunosorbent Techniques: Techniques for removal by adsorption and subsequent elution of a specific antibody or antigen using an immunosorbent containing the homologous antigen or antibody.Neisseria meningitidis: A species of gram-negative, aerobic BACTERIA. It is a commensal and pathogen only of humans, and can be carried asymptomatically in the NASOPHARYNX. When found in cerebrospinal fluid it is the causative agent of cerebrospinal meningitis (MENINGITIS, MENINGOCOCCAL). It is also found in venereal discharges and blood. There are at least 13 serogroups based on antigenic differences in the capsular polysaccharides; the ones causing most meningitis infections being A, B, C, Y, and W-135. Each serogroup can be further classified by serotype, serosubtype, and immunotype.Immunoblotting: Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.Leishmania donovani: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). The sandfly genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia are the vectors.Legionella: Gram-negative aerobic rods, isolated from surface water or thermally polluted lakes or streams. Member are pathogenic for man. Legionella pneumophila is the causative agent for LEGIONNAIRES' DISEASE.Trypanosoma lewisi: A trypanosome found in the blood of adult rats and transmitted by the rat flea. It is generally non-pathogenic in adult rats but can cause lethal infection in suckling rats.Immunoelectrophoresis, Two-Dimensional: Immunoelectrophoresis in which a second electrophoretic transport is performed on the initially separated antigen fragments into an antibody-containing medium in a direction perpendicular to the first electrophoresis.Edetic Acid: A chelating agent that sequesters a variety of polyvalent cations such as CALCIUM. It is used in pharmaceutical manufacturing and as a food additive.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Dog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Campylobacter fetus: A species of bacteria present in man and many kinds of animals and birds, often causing infertility and/or abortion.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Rubella virus: The type (and only) species of RUBIVIRUS causing acute infection in humans, primarily children and young adults. Humans are the only natural host. A live, attenuated vaccine is available for prophylaxis.Meningitis: Inflammation of the coverings of the brain and/or spinal cord, which consist of the PIA MATER; ARACHNOID; and DURA MATER. Infections (viral, bacterial, and fungal) are the most common causes of this condition, but subarachnoid hemorrhage (HEMORRHAGES, SUBARACHNOID), chemical irritation (chemical MENINGITIS), granulomatous conditions, neoplastic conditions (CARCINOMATOUS MENINGITIS), and other inflammatory conditions may produce this syndrome. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1994, Ch24, p6)Horses: Large, hoofed mammals of the family EQUIDAE. Horses are active day and night with most of the day spent seeking and consuming food. Feeding peaks occur in the early morning and late afternoon, and there are several daily periods of rest.Periodic Acid: A strong oxidizing agent.Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Neuraminidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Platelet Aggregation: The attachment of PLATELETS to one another. This clumping together can be induced by a number of agents (e.g., THROMBIN; COLLAGEN) and is part of the mechanism leading to the formation of a THROMBUS.von Willebrand Factor: A high-molecular-weight plasma protein, produced by endothelial cells and megakaryocytes, that is part of the factor VIII/von Willebrand factor complex. The von Willebrand factor has receptors for collagen, platelets, and ristocetin activity as well as the immunologically distinct antigenic determinants. It functions in adhesion of platelets to collagen and hemostatic plug formation. The prolonged bleeding time in VON WILLEBRAND DISEASES is due to the deficiency of this factor.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Haemophilus influenzae: A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.Antigens, Protozoan: Any part or derivative of any protozoan that elicits immunity; malaria (Plasmodium) and trypanosome antigens are presently the most frequently encountered.Mannose: A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Abortion, Veterinary: Premature expulsion of the FETUS in animals.Cryptococcosis: Infection with a fungus of the species CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS.DextranaseImmunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).PolysaccharidesChickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Heterophile: Antibodies elicited in a different species from which the antigen originated. These antibodies are directed against a wide variety of interspecies-specific antigens, the best known of which are Forssman, Hanganutziu-Deicher (H-D), and Paul-Bunnell (P-B). Incidence of antibodies to these antigens--i.e., the phenomenon of heterophile antibody response--is useful in the serodiagnosis, pathogenesis, and prognosis of infection and latent infectious states as well as in cancer classification.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Cell Aggregation: The phenomenon by which dissociated cells intermixed in vitro tend to group themselves with cells of their own type.Latex: A milky, product excreted from the latex canals of a variety of plant species that contain cauotchouc. Latex is composed of 25-35% caoutchouc, 60-75% water, 2% protein, 2% resin, 1.5% sugar & 1% ash. RUBBER is made by the removal of water from latex.(From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed). Hevein proteins are responsible for LATEX HYPERSENSITIVITY. Latexes are used as inert vehicles to carry antibodies or antigens in LATEX FIXATION TESTS.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Pasteurella: The oldest recognized genus of the family PASTEURELLACEAE. It consists of several species. Its organisms occur most frequently as coccobacillus or rod-shaped and are gram-negative, nonmotile, facultative anaerobes. Species of this genus are found in both animals and humans.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Enterotoxins: Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Salmonella typhi: A serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA which is the etiologic agent of TYPHOID FEVER.Methylmannosides: Mannosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of mannose with methyl alcohol. They include both alpha- and beta-methylmannosides.Meningitis, Meningococcal: A fulminant infection of the meninges and subarachnoid fluid by the bacterium NEISSERIA MENINGITIDIS, producing diffuse inflammation and peri-meningeal venous thromboses. Clinical manifestations include FEVER, nuchal rigidity, SEIZURES, severe HEADACHE, petechial rash, stupor, focal neurologic deficits, HYDROCEPHALUS, and COMA. The organism is usually transmitted via nasopharyngeal secretions and is a leading cause of meningitis in children and young adults. Organisms from Neisseria meningitidis serogroups A, B, C, Y, and W-135 have been reported to cause meningitis. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp689-701; Curr Opin Pediatr 1998 Feb;10(1):13-8)Shigella boydii: One of the SHIGELLA species that produces bacillary dysentery (DYSENTERY, BACILLARY).HistoplasminCulture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Mannans: Polysaccharides consisting of mannose units.Antibodies, Anti-Idiotypic: Antibodies which react with the individual structural determinants (idiotopes) on the variable region of other antibodies.Typhoid Fever: An acute systemic febrile infection caused by SALMONELLA TYPHI, a serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Toxoplasmosis, Animal: Acquired infection of non-human animals by organisms of the genus TOXOPLASMA.Rh-Hr Blood-Group System: Erythrocyte isoantigens of the Rh (Rhesus) blood group system, the most complex of all human blood groups. The major antigen Rh or D is the most common cause of erythroblastosis fetalis.Cerebrospinal Fluid: A watery fluid that is continuously produced in the CHOROID PLEXUS and circulates around the surface of the BRAIN; SPINAL CORD; and in the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES.Mycoplasma: A genus of gram-negative, mostly facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family MYCOPLASMATACEAE. The cells are bounded by a PLASMA MEMBRANE and lack a true CELL WALL. Its organisms are pathogens found on the MUCOUS MEMBRANES of humans, ANIMALS, and BIRDS.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Cryptococcus neoformans: A species of the fungus CRYPTOCOCCUS. Its teleomorph is Filobasidiella neoformans.Immunoglobulin A: Represents 15-20% of the human serum immunoglobulins, mostly as the 4-chain polymer in humans or dimer in other mammals. Secretory IgA (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A, SECRETORY) is the main immunoglobulin in secretions.Trypanosoma brucei gambiense: A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes Gambian or West African sleeping sickness in humans. The vector host is usually the tsetse fly (Glossina).Treponema pallidum: The causative agent of venereal and non-venereal syphilis as well as yaws.Haemophilus: A genus of PASTEURELLACEAE that consists of several species occurring in animals and humans. Its organisms are described as gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, coccobacillus or rod-shaped, and nonmotile.Blood Platelets: Non-nucleated disk-shaped cells formed in the megakaryocyte and found in the blood of all mammals. They are mainly involved in blood coagulation.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Rotavirus: A genus of REOVIRIDAE, causing acute gastroenteritis in BIRDS and MAMMALS, including humans. Transmission is horizontal and by environmental contamination. Seven species (Rotaviruses A thru G) are recognized.Agar: A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.Lipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Flagella: A whiplike motility appendage present on the surface cells. Prokaryote flagella are composed of a protein called FLAGELLIN. Bacteria can have a single flagellum, a tuft at one pole, or multiple flagella covering the entire surface. In eukaryotes, flagella are threadlike protoplasmic extensions used to propel flagellates and sperm. Flagella have the same basic structure as CILIA but are longer in proportion to the cell bearing them and present in much smaller numbers. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Hemolysis: The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Swine Diseases: Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Isoantibodies: Antibodies from an individual that react with ISOANTIGENS of another individual of the same species.Bacterial Capsules: An envelope of loose gel surrounding a bacterial cell which is associated with the virulence of pathogenic bacteria. Some capsules have a well-defined border, whereas others form a slime layer that trails off into the medium. Most capsules consist of relatively simple polysaccharides but there are some bacteria whose capsules are made of polypeptides.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.P Blood-Group System: A blood group related to the ABO, Lewis and I systems. At least five different erythrocyte antigens are possible, some very rare, others almost universal. Multiple alleles are involved in this blood group.Streptococcus pyogenes: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from skin lesions, blood, inflammatory exudates, and the upper respiratory tract of humans. It is a group A hemolytic Streptococcus that can cause SCARLET FEVER and RHEUMATIC FEVER.Methicillin Resistance: Non-susceptibility of a microbe to the action of METHICILLIN, a semi-synthetic penicillin derivative.
"An antiserum to ovarian mucinous cyst fluid with colon cancer specificity". Cancer Research 1969;29(8):1535-40. Wentz MW, Scott ... "Latex agglutination test for detection of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii". J Clin Microbiol 1988;26(11):2444-46. McNeil C, ...
Slide agglutination test using specific antiserum is needed for a confirmative identification of the microorganism (Romalde, ...
The agglutination between the antigen and the antibody is made with a specific antisera, which reacts with the antigen to ... First of all, the use of the agglutination method on slides is required in order to get the antigen formula. ... The scheme is used to classify the serovar depending on its antigen formula obtained with the reaction of the agglutination. ... "Determining the serotype of isolated Salmonella strains in the veterinary sector using the rapid slide agglutination test". ...
... causing agglutination. Complement fixation assay. The complement fixation test was modified to assay Antiserum mediated RBC ... For example, an antiserum may react with patterns (on a given tissue): A1, A2, A7, A12 A1, A3, A7, A8 A1, A11, A8, A5 A1, A8 ... The antisera that is produced by the recipient is most likely to be A3, but if the direction of transplant is reversed A2 is ... An antiserum specific for HLA-A3 will then agglutinate HLA-A3 bearing red blood cells if the concentration of IgM in the ...
... to blood agar plates and GBS like colonies are identified by the CAMP test or using latex agglutination with GBS antisera. ... that can be detected directly in intact bacteria using latex agglutination tests. The CAMP test is also another important test ...
... to blood agar plates and GBS-like colonies are identified by the CAMP test or using latex agglutination with GBS antiserum. In ... that can be detected directly in intact bacteria using latex agglutination tests. The CAMP test is also another important test ...
Since agglutination is not linked to infectivity, attenuated viruses can therefore be used in assays while an additional assay ... By using a standard amount of virus, a standard amount of blood cells, and serially diluting the antiserum, one can identify ... For example, if antibodies that bind the A blood group are added and agglutination occurs, the blood is either type A or type ... To determine between type A or type AB, antibodies that bind the B group are added and if agglutination does not occur, the ...
No single experiment was carried forward to confirmation by other observers, so the entire field of "para agglutination" was in ... He purified human C-reactive protein through crystallization, produced a highly specific antiserum, and, using this much ... and β-N-acetyl-glucosamine ovalbumin and showing that only the second reacted with group A antisera. A similar analytical ... was known that phenotypic differentiation of pneumoccocal groups could be diagnosed by their reactions with specific antisera, ...
This leads to cell fusion since PEG induces cell agglutination and cell-to-cell contact. Though this type of cell fusion is the ... The second stage, which is 20 minutes, is pH dependent and an addition of viral antiserum can still inhibit ultimate fusion. In ...
ISBN 0-7817-8215-5. Neufeld, F. (1902). "Ueber die Agglutination der Pneumokokken und uber die Theorien der Agglutination". ... advent of serum therapy to treat certain types of pneumococcal pneumonia in the 1920s because selection of the proper antiserum ... but in recent years it has been challenged by the latex agglutination method, and further by molecular typing techniques such ... both as microscopic capsular swelling and macroscopic agglutination (clumping visible with the naked eye). It was initially an ...
Neufeld F. Über die Agglutination der Pneumokokken und über die Theorieen der Agglutination. Zeitschrift fur Hygiene ... In the presence of type I antiserum type I pneumococci would swell, likewise types II and III in the presence of their specific ... antisera. Neufeld called this the Quellung reaction, after the German word for swelling. The Quellung reaction allowed for easy ...
The medium contains antiserum specific to the antigen of interest and the antigen is placed in the center of the disc. As the ... erythrocyte solution for one hour and the virus dilution at which agglutination first occurs is visually determined. The assay ...
The HI assay is generally performed by creating a dilution series of antiserum across the rows of a 96-well microtiter plate. ... For example, molecules in the sample other than virus-specific antibodies can inhibit agglutination between virus and RBC's, as ... The goal is to characterize the concentration of antibodies in the antiserum or other samples containing antibodies. ... similar to the mechanism viruses use to cause agglutination of erythrocytes. The RBC's used in HA and HI assays are typically ...
Cold-type AIHA usually reacts with antisera to complement and occasionally to the above antibodies. This is the case in both ... This technique demonstrated that a rabbit antibody against human globulin would induce agglutination of human red cells "coated ... Warm-type AIHA shows a positive reaction with antisera to IgG antibodies with or without complement activation. Cases may also ... Mixed-type can, like the others, present unusually with positive reactions to other antisera. Diagnosis is made by first ruling ...
In 1906, antiserum was produced in horses; this was developed further by the American scientist Simon Flexner and markedly ... A latex agglutination test may be positive in meningitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Neisseria meningitidis, ...
Daum, RS; Siber, GR; Kamon, JS; Russell, RR (Apr 1982). "Evaluation of a commercial latex particle agglutination test for rapid ... Warren, HS; Novitsky, TJ; Bucklin, A; Kania, SA; Siber, GR (Jul 1987). "Endotoxin neutralization with rabbit antisera to ... Scheifele, DW; Ward, JI; Siber, GR (Dec 1981). "Advantage of latex agglutination over countercurrent immunoelectrophoresis in ... Hemophilus influenzae pneumonia: A prospective study demonstrating the utility of latex agglutination for diagnosis. Pediatric ...
Possible class effects of antibodies include: Opsonisation, agglutination, haemolysis, complement activation, mast cell ... which can now be called antiserum. Antigens are also injected into chickens for generation of polyclonal antibodies in egg yolk ... neutralizing antibodies block parts of the surface of a bacterial cell or virion to render its attack ineffective Agglutination ...
The direct method is a one-step staining method and involves a labeled antibody (e.g. FITC-conjugated antiserum) reacting ...
OBSERVATIONS ON THE AGGLUTINATION OF POLYSACCHARIDE-TREATED ERYTHROCYTES BY TULAREMIA ANTISERA. Mary M. Alexander, George G. ... OBSERVATIONS ON THE AGGLUTINATION OF POLYSACCHARIDE-TREATED ERYTHROCYTES BY TULAREMIA ANTISERA. Mary M. Alexander, George G. ... but not with the bacterial agglutination titer. The meaning of the results is discussed. ...
Antisera Agglutination. Simultaneous identification of 85% of most commonly encountered Salmonella serotypes. Iterations of ... Comparing xMAP SSA with Antisera Agglutination. xMAP SSA. ... Lengthy individual antisera lab validation due to lot to lot ... individual antisera agglutination tests plus phase inversion. Can serotype rough and problematic isolates. Cannot serotype ...
"An antiserum to ovarian mucinous cyst fluid with colon cancer specificity". Cancer Research 1969;29(8):1535-40. Wentz MW, Scott ... "Latex agglutination test for detection of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii". J Clin Microbiol 1988;26(11):2444-46. McNeil C, ...
Antiserum agglutination assay.Clones grown to mid-logarithmic phase on LB plates were picked up with a toothpick and mixed ... the corresponding deletion mutants had the smooth colony phenotype and agglutination with anti-O1 antiserum restored, and their ... It could also be agglutinated with serogroup O1 antiserum, showing that its LPS structure could bind effectively to VP4 and the ... 2), and this strain still agglutinates with O1 antiserum. These observations suggest that small modifications or other changes ...
BD Difco™ Listeria O Antisera. Used as positive control in identification of Listeria monocytogenes in the slide agglutination ... BD Difco™ Haemophilus influenzae Serotyping Antisera. Use in slide agglutination tests for serotyping Haemophilus influenzae ... BD Difco™ Salmonella H Antiserum 1 Complex. Qualitative tube agglutination tests for serological differentiation of Salmonella ... BD Difco™ Salmonella H Antiserum EN Complex. Qualitative tube agglutination tests for serological differentiation of Salmonella ...
Serotypes were established by agglutination (Listeria-O-antisera, Difco; BD Diagnostics, Sparks, MD, USA) and by multiplex-PCR ...
We used serotype A antisera in agglutination assays to determine if our mutant strains could be agglutinated. No agglutination ... Agglutination was determined by visual clumping of the cells. Sterile PBS was used in place of antiserum as a negative control. ... Slide agglutination assays were performed as described previously (23). Serotype A antiserum contains antibodies directed ... We performed an ELISA with MT2 antiserum to detect the serotype C antigenic determinant (23). MT2 antiserum has been shown to ...
Nonrelated antisera did not cause any agglutination of the coated erythrocytes.. For experiments with the modified ... Antisera against the CEA(1-11) peptide were obtained by immunizing rabbits with CEA(1-11) as the free peptide and with the two ... In inhibition experiments serial dilutions of the respective inhibitor were allowed to react for 30 min with the antisera (at ... Whereas immunization with the free peptide CEA(1-11) led to antisera of low titer, both macromolecular conjugates produced anti ...
Slide agglutination test using specific antiserum is needed for a confirmative identification of the microorganism (Romalde, ...
All Type A erythrocytes react with their specific antiserum causing agglutination; all Type B erythrocytes react similarly; all ... If the agglutination in one of the wells is greater than that in the auto-agglutination well, the cat is likely positive for ... It may be possible to determine if the cat is Type A or B despite the auto-agglutination if the auto-agglutination is light. ... If agglutination is observed, STOP the test and perform normal cell washing procedures before proceeding. If no agglutination ...
Suspect Shigella colonies were identified by biochemical tests and agglutination with antisera. Shigella isolates were shipped ...
1. Specific antisera can cause an agglutination reaction.. 2. Measured by dilutional factors.. 3. Fourfold rise is considered ...
Agglutination with more than one serogroup-specific antisera in the absence of agglutination in saline characterizes the ... Rating the intensity of the agglutination reactionAgglutination occurs when the antisera bind to the bacterial cells causing ... The intensity of the agglutination reaction may vary according to the density of the cell suspension or the antisera used. A ... No agglutination with any of the antisera or the saline characterizes the strain as non-reactive. ...
B) Agglutination assay for antisera. Ag agglutination was detected in serially diluted antisera. (C) SEM analysis of RRBCs and ... Cytolytic and agglutination effects of lamprey antisera. We generated lamprey antisera by immunizing animals with RRBCs, SRBCs ... Agglutination assay. The antisera were first heated at 56°C for 30 min to inactivate the complement components and then ... The prepared serum was used as the antiserum. For ease of referencing, the antisera obtained with the Ags E. coli, B. proteus, ...
Blood grouping antisera (American Dade). Experimental: Resuspended blood (40 μl) was mixed with antiserum (40 μl) and 40 μl of ... Agglutination of red blood cells at the leading edge of the blood caused clogging of the track and flow stop. All the blood ... Agglutination of red blood cells caused a significant reduction in flow rates. EXAMPLE 6: Use of filters to modify sample ... 1 chart division {0.01 full scale} peak-peak). Agglutination of the latex caused by the presence of the analyte (cross-linked ...
Immunology, Issue 91, Antisera, pneumococci, polysaccharide capsule, slide agglutination. 51747. Play Button ... Many anti-sera to LPS contain antibodies that cross-react with outer membrane proteins or other antigenic targets that can ... Latex agglutination is a relatively simple, quick and inexpensive method; and is therefore suitable for resource-poor settings ... Latex agglutination reagents can be prepared in-house utilizing commercially-sourced antibodies that are passively attached to ...
IgG, IgM & C3 antiserum (direct antiglobulin test). False positive and negative reactions may occur ... If acute IMHA suspected - agglutination + osmotic fragility tests performed. Antibodies associated with surface of RBCs ...
Immunology, Issue 91, Antisera, pneumococci, polysaccharide capsule, slide agglutination. 51747. Play Button ... Latex agglutination is a relatively simple, quick and inexpensive method; and is therefore suitable for resource-poor settings ... Latex agglutination reagents can be prepared in-house utilizing commercially-sourced antibodies that are passively attached to ... The protocol has three main steps: 1) preparation of a bacterial cell suspension, 2) mixing of cells and antisera on a glass ...
i) Slide agglutination serogrouping.N. meningitidis isolates were serogrouped by SASG assays using commercial antisera (Difco, ... Serogroup identification of Neisseria meningitidis: comparison of an antiserum agar method with bacterial slide agglutination. ... Use of real-time PCR to resolve slide agglutination discrepancies in serogroup identification of Neisseria meningitidis. J Clin ... The slide was observed for evidence of clumping, indicating a positive agglutination reaction. A saline control was used to ...
Strain and antiserum controls were always used in order to control agglutination specificity. ... and this pattern was distinct from the patterns of strains reacting either only with K21 antisera or only with K31 antisera. ... Three strains that reacted with both the K1 and the K58 antisera had pattern C1a. Strain 607, which reacted with both the K21 ... 2). The two isolates with pattern CNEW-3 were nontypeable (no reaction with any antisera) and possibly represent a new serotype ...
Diagnosis based on presence of seeds, RBC agglutination, precipitin test. Specific antiserum, ideal antidote; sedatives, ...
Evidence for cross-reactivity between trichinella antisera and typhoid antigens was shown with agglutination reactions. ... Evidence for cross-reactivity between trichinella antisera and typhoid antigens was shown with agglutination reactions. ...
Representative colonies were confirmed positive by plate agglutination using specific Group D1 antisera (Difco). ...
The page below is a sample from the LabCE course Introduction to the ABO Blood Group System. Access the complete course and earn ASCLS P.A.C.E.-approved continuing education credits by subscribing online ...
  • Colonies may be tested with antisera directly from the plate, or subcultured to another nonselective medium (blood agar, for example) and tested the next day. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition, stools were grown on sorbitol McConkey agar and sorbitol non-fermenting organisms were serotyped with O157 antiserum by slide agglutination. (nih.gov)
  • Only two strains (isolated from two different patients, 0.1% of specimens tested) were agglutinated by O157 antiserum and both were non-motile (H-). However, both strains produced verotoxin and expressed other virulence markers, suggesting that they were responsible for the diarrhoea. (nih.gov)
  • Although it is more labor-intensive and delays results by a day, subculturmg to another medium and testing the next day offers the advantage of providing more bacterial growth on which to perform the O157 agglutination assay. (cdc.gov)
  • Sera of a number of cancer patients were tested for their capacity to inhibit the inactivation of CEA(1-11)-coated phage by means of anti-CEA(1-11) antiserum. (google.es)