The destruction of germs causing disease.
Substances used on humans and other animals that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. They are distinguished from DISINFECTANTS, which are used on inanimate objects.
An isomer of 1-PROPANOL. It is a colorless liquid having disinfectant properties. It is used in the manufacture of acetone and its derivatives and as a solvent. Topically, it is used as an antiseptic.
A disinfectant and topical anti-infective agent used also as mouthwash to prevent oral plaque.
An iodinated polyvinyl polymer used as topical antiseptic in surgery and for skin and mucous membrane infections, also as aerosol. The iodine may be radiolabeled for research purposes.
Complexes of iodine and non-ionic SURFACE-ACTIVE AGENTS acting as carrier and solubilizing agent for the iodine in water. Iodophors usually enhance bactericidal activity of iodine, reduce vapor pressure and odor, minimize staining, and allow wide dilution with water. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
"The History of Nursing is a field of study that examines the evolution and development of nursing as a profession, including its theories, practices, educators, institutions, and social context from ancient times to the present."
Homogeneous liquid preparations that contain one or more chemical substances dissolved, i.e., molecularly dispersed, in a suitable solvent or mixture of mutually miscible solvents. For reasons of their ingredients, method of preparation, or use, they do not fall into another group of products.
Devices to be inserted into veins or arteries for the purpose of carrying fluids into or from a peripheral or central vascular location. They may include component parts such as catheters, ports, reservoirs, and valves. They may be left in place temporarily for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes.
Biguanides are a class of oral hypoglycemic agents, including metformin, which primarily reduce blood glucose levels by decreasing hepatic gluconeogenesis and increasing insulin sensitivity, but not by stimulating insulin secretion, and they are commonly used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes.
Infection occurring at the site of a surgical incision.
The act of cleansing the hands with water or other liquid, with or without the inclusion of soap or other detergent, for the purpose of destroying infectious microorganisms.
A nonmetallic element of the halogen group that is represented by the atomic symbol I, atomic number 53, and atomic weight of 126.90. It is a nutritionally essential element, especially important in thyroid hormone synthesis. In solution, it has anti-infective properties and is used topically.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
Sodium or potassium salts of long chain fatty acids. These detergent substances are obtained by boiling natural oils or fats with caustic alkali. Sodium soaps are harder and are used as topical anti-infectives and vehicles in pills and liniments; potassium soaps are soft, used as vehicles for ointments and also as topical antimicrobials.
Agents that remove, correct, repress, or mask undesirable ODORS. In personal hygiene, deodorants often contain astringent preparations that reduce SWEATING, referred to as ANTIPERSPIRANTS. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The individuals employed by the hospital.
The practice of prescribing or using a drug outside the scope of the drug's official approved label as designated by a regulatory agency concerning the treatment of a particular disease or condition.
The science dealing with the establishment and maintenance of health in the individual and the group. It includes the conditions and practices conducive to health. (Webster, 3d ed)
Practices involved in preventing the transmission of diseases by hand.
'Medical manuscripts' are written documents that present original research, review articles, case studies, or theoretical discussions in the field of medicine, prepared following specific guidelines and structures for scientific communication, intended for publication in peer-reviewed medical journals.
The distinctly human attributes and attainments of a particular society.
Bodies preserved either by the ancient Egyptian technique or due to chance under favorable climatic conditions.
The study of disease in prehistoric times as revealed in bones, mummies, and archaeologic artifacts.
The period of history before 500 of the common era.
A country in northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula Its capital is Cairo.
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.

An appreciation of A.E. Malloch, MB, MD (1844-1919): a forgotten surgical pioneer. (1/60)

Dr. Archibald Edward Malloch was a surgeon whose life and work were greatly influenced by Joseph Lister and his revolutionary system of antiseptic surgery. This paper describes how a young Canadian medical man came to introduce Lister's system to North America in 1869 and studies his career in the light of Lister's surgical epoch.  (+info)

Expectations and perceptions of Greek patients regarding the quality of dental health care. (2/60)

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the perceptions and expectations of patients regarding the quality of dental health care they received and the criteria they used to select a dentist. DESIGN: Descriptive study. METHODS: Two questionnaires referring to the expectations and the perceptions of dental health care were handed to patients. Likert-type scales were used to evaluate the characteristics examined. These characteristics have been classified in four quality dimensions: 'assurance', 'empathy', 'reliability' and 'responsiveness'. STUDY PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Two hundred consecutive patients who visited the Dental Clinic of the School of Dentistry, University of Athens, Greece, in 1998-1999. RESULTS: The patients' top priority was adherence to the rules of antisepsis and sterilization. Women of the middle and lower socio-economic groups were more demanding than men of the same groups, while men of the upper socio-economic group appeared to be more demanding than women (P = 0.02). Their perceptions of the dental service provided reflected their satisfaction regarding the adherence to the rules of antisepsis and sterilization, but also showed their moderate satisfaction regarding most of the other characteristics and their dissatisfaction regarding information on oral health and hygiene. CONCLUSION: Expectations and demands regarding empathy (approach to the patient) and assurance were placed at the top of the patients' priorities. A highly significant quality gap was observed between the desires of the patients and their perceptions (P< 0.01) and the largest gap was noted concerning information they received about oral health diseases. The largest quality gap was also observed in characteristics regarding responsiveness.  (+info)

Wound infection in colonic surgery. (3/60)

Three hundred forty-one consecutive cases of colonic surgery performed by the Proctology service of our hospital have been reviewed. There was a total of 7 wound infections, constituting an incidence of 2.1%. The infection rate in clean contaminated cases was 0.8% and in contaminated cases, 4.7%. The mortality rate was 2.3%. Parenteral antibiotics were used in less than 50% of the operations. Our impression is that attention to one modality of wound infection prevention with disregard for the others will produce little. However, close attention to all the modalities by which we can hope to reduce wound infection appears to produce strikingly beneficial results.  (+info)

Bacteriology of air-conditioning ducts with special reference to operating rooms. (4/60)

The number of bacteria in air, before filtration with five different easily available filters in the low positive-pressure type of airconditioning system of the Winnipeg General Hospital, was between 3 and 4/cu. ft., and after filtration between 1 and 2/cu. ft. with all types of filters. Cl. welchii contributed about 1% and Staph. pyogenes about 0.1% of this total. Sampling the exhaust air from an operating room during an operation showed that the bacterial count fluctuated with the degree of activity in the room and was from two to 10 times as high as in the air delivered to the room.Atlhough every reasonable attempt should be made to diminish the bacterial count of air in hospitals, if much energy and money is to be spent it would probably be wiser to investigate sources of hospital infection other than the type of air-conditioning system described in this report.  (+info)

Enumeration of air-borne bacteria in hospital. (5/60)

An investigation of the "normal" bacterial content of the air of a large general hospital is described. In many different places within five different areas 70 to 200 settle-plate or slit-sampler bacterial counts were carried out. Average counts were most often of the same order as or lower than other published results and were proportional to human activity. The use of the logarithms of the counts showed no advantage, and conventional statistics should be applied with caution in evaluating such studies. Slitsampler and settle-plate counts of all bacteria showed no correlation, whereas those of Staph. aureus were correlated. There is a lack of parallelism between hospital infection and air bacteria counted by current methods, which are, therefore, not suitable for routine use.  (+info)


In the investigation of several blood stream infections following open-heart surgery, sutures and other material that had been exposed and handled in the sterile field were examined bacteriologically. One hundred and seventy-five open-heart operations were carried out during the study period and a high percentage of the specimens cultured yielded viable staphylococci and diphtheroids. Glove powder, textile fibres, and skin squames were found in the dust that collected in the room during the operations and staphylococci were frequently recovered from this source, and from the floor. Although the air supply to the theatre appeared to be of good quality, it is suggested that air currents within the room had caused dissemination of this foreign material and had probably contributed to wound infections.  (+info)


beta-Propiolactone vapor treatment of vaccine production facilities has been shown to be approximately 90% effective in the elimination of large quantities of Simian virus-40 (SV(40)). The use of a rapid fluorescent-antibody assay for the detection of SV(40) was also studied.  (+info)

Preparing the wound bed 2003: focus on infection and inflammation. (8/60)

Wound bed preparation is the promotion of wound closure through diagnosis of the cause, attention to patient-centered concerns, and correction of systemic and local factors that may delay healing. To enhance the evidence base that may be lacking, a review of relevant literature was conducted and combined with input from the International Wound Bed Preparation Advisory Board and the Canadian Chronic Wound Advisory Board to create an updated examination of practices. A template based on expert opinion of the clinical actions corresponding to each step in the paradigm of preparing the wound bed is presented and the effects of local factors (tissue debridement, infection or inflammation, moisture balance, and edge effect [TIME]) are discussed. This review differentiates increased bacterial burden/infection in the superficial and deep wound bed compartments from inflammation and provides a topical approach to treatment. Inflammatory conditions causing leg ulcers, including pyoderma gangrenosum and vasculitis are reviewed. The topical combination of silver with absorptive dressings has led to new therapeutic options for increased bacterial burden in the surface wound compartment. A compilation of the available systematic reviews for the treatment of infection has been included as a background for the expert opinion.  (+info)

Antisepsis is the process of preventing or limiting the growth and reproduction of microorganisms (such as bacteria, fungi, and viruses) that can cause infection or disease. This is typically achieved through the use of antiseptic agents, which are substances that inhibit the growth of microorganisms when applied to living tissue or non-living material like surfaces.

Antiseptics work by either killing the microorganisms outright (bactericidal) or preventing them from reproducing and growing (bacteriostatic). They can be applied topically, in the form of creams, ointments, gels, sprays, or washes, to prevent infection in wounds, cuts, burns, or other types of skin damage. Antiseptics are also used in medical devices and equipment to maintain sterility and prevent cross-contamination during procedures.

Examples of antiseptic agents include alcohol, chlorhexidine, hydrogen peroxide, iodine, and povidone-iodine. The choice of antiseptic depends on the type of microorganism being targeted, the location and severity of the infection, and any potential adverse effects or interactions with other medications or medical conditions.

It's important to note that antisepsis is different from sterilization, which involves the complete destruction of all living organisms, including spores, using methods such as heat, radiation, or chemicals. Sterilization is typically used for surgical instruments and other medical equipment that come into direct contact with sterile tissues or bodily fluids during procedures.

Anti-infective agents, local, are medications that are applied directly to a specific area of the body to prevent or treat infections caused by bacteria, fungi, viruses, or parasites. These agents include topical antibiotics, antifungals, antivirals, and anti-parasitic drugs. They work by killing or inhibiting the growth of the infectious organisms, thereby preventing their spread and reducing the risk of infection. Local anti-infective agents are often used to treat skin infections, eye infections, and other localized infections, and can be administered as creams, ointments, gels, solutions, or drops.

2-Propanol is a type of alcohol, also known as isopropanol or isopropyl alcohol. It is a colorless, flammable liquid with a characteristic odor. 2-Propanol is miscible with water and most organic solvents.

It is commonly used as a solvent and as an antiseptic or disinfectant, due to its ability to denature proteins and disrupt microbial cell membranes. In medical settings, 2-Propanol is often used as a skin sanitizer or hand rub to reduce the number of microorganisms on the skin.

Ingestion or prolonged exposure to 2-Propanol can cause irritation to the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract, and may lead to central nervous system depression, nausea, vomiting, and other symptoms. It is important to handle 2-Propanol with care and follow appropriate safety precautions when using it.

Chlorhexidine is an antimicrobial agent used for its broad-spectrum germicidal properties. It is effective against bacteria, viruses, and fungi. It is commonly used as a surgical scrub, hand sanitizer, and healthcare disinfectant. Chlorhexidine is available in various forms, including solutions, gels, and sprays. It works by disrupting the microbial cell membrane, leading to the death of the organism. It is also used in mouthwashes and skin cleansers for its antimicrobial effects.

Povidone-Iodine is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent, which is a complex of iodine with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). This complex allows for sustained release of iodine, providing persistent antimicrobial activity. It has been widely used in various clinical settings, including as a surgical scrub, wound disinfection, and skin preparation before invasive procedures. Povidone-Iodine is effective against bacteria, viruses, fungi, and spores. The mechanism of action involves the release of iodine ions, which oxidize cellular components and disrupt microbial membranes, leading to cell death.

Iodophors are antiseptic solutions or preparations that contain iodine complexed with a solubilizing agent, usually a nonionic surfactant. The most common example is povidone-iodine (polyvinylpyrrolidone-iodine). Iodophors are widely used for skin disinfection before surgical procedures and injections, as well as for the treatment of wounds and burns.

The advantage of iodophors over traditional tincture of iodine is that they provide a more sustained release of iodine, which results in a longer-lasting antimicrobial effect while being less irritating to the skin. The complexation with the solubilizing agent also helps to reduce staining of the skin and clothing compared to traditional iodine solutions.

A "History of Nursing" in a medical context generally refers to the documentation of a patient's past experiences with nursing care, including any previous hospitalizations, treatments, medications, and interactions with nursing staff. This information is used by nurses to assess a patient's current health status, identify potential risks or complications, and develop an individualized plan of care.

The history of nursing can include information about the patient's medical history, surgical history, family medical history, social history, and lifestyle factors that may impact their health. It is important for nurses to gather this information accurately and thoroughly, as it can help them provide safe and effective care, communicate with other healthcare providers, and promote positive health outcomes for their patients.

In addition to its clinical importance, the history of nursing also plays a critical role in nursing education and research, helping to inform best practices, advance nursing science, and shape the future of the profession.

"Pharmaceutical solutions" is a term that refers to medications or drugs that are formulated in a liquid state, as opposed to solid forms like tablets or capsules. These solutions are typically created by dissolving the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) in a solvent, such as water or ethanol, along with other excipients that help stabilize and preserve the solution.

Pharmaceutical solutions can be administered to patients through various routes, including oral, intravenous, subcutaneous, or intramuscular injection, depending on the desired site of action and the specific properties of the drug. Some examples of pharmaceutical solutions include antibiotic infusions, pain medications, and electrolyte replacement drinks.

It's important to note that the term "pharmaceutical solutions" can also refer more broadly to the process of developing and manufacturing drugs, as well as to the industry as a whole. However, in a medical context, it most commonly refers to liquid medications.

Vascular access devices (VADs) are medical devices that are used to gain access to a patient's vascular system for the purpose of administering treatments, monitoring vital signs, or obtaining diagnostic samples. These devices can be categorized into short-term and long-term based on their intended duration of use.

Short-term VADs include peripheral intravenous catheters (PIVs), midline catheters, and peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs). PIVs are thin, flexible tubes that are inserted into a vein in the arm or hand for short-term use. Midlines are similar to PIVs but are longer and can be used for up to 4 weeks. PICCs are inserted into a vein in the upper arm and threaded through to the larger veins near the heart, allowing for long-term access.

Long-term VADs include tunneled central venous catheters (CVCs), non-tunneled CVCs, and implanted ports. Tunneled CVCs are inserted into a large vein in the neck or chest and then threaded under the skin to an exit site, reducing the risk of infection. Non-tunneled CVCs are similar but do not have a tunnel, making them more prone to infection. Implanted ports are small devices that are surgically implanted under the skin, usually in the chest or arm, and connected to a catheter that is inserted into a large vein.

VADs can be used for various medical treatments such as chemotherapy, antibiotic therapy, parenteral nutrition, dialysis, and blood transfusions. Proper care and maintenance of VADs are essential to prevent complications such as infection, thrombosis, and catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSI).

Biguanides are a class of oral hypoglycemic agents used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The primary mechanism of action of biguanides is to decrease hepatic glucose production and increase insulin sensitivity, which leads to reduced fasting glucose levels and improved glycemic control.

The most commonly prescribed biguanide is metformin, which has been widely used for several decades due to its efficacy and low risk of hypoglycemia. Other biguanides include phenformin and buformin, but these are rarely used due to their association with a higher risk of lactic acidosis, a potentially life-threatening complication.

In addition to their glucose-lowering effects, biguanides have also been shown to have potential benefits on cardiovascular health and weight management, making them a valuable treatment option for many individuals with type 2 diabetes. However, they should be used with caution in patients with impaired renal function or other underlying medical conditions that may increase the risk of lactic acidosis.

A surgical wound infection, also known as a surgical site infection (SSI), is defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as an infection that occurs within 30 days after surgery (or within one year if an implant is left in place) and involves either:

1. Purulent drainage from the incision;
2. Organisms isolated from an aseptically obtained culture of fluid or tissue from the incision;
3. At least one of the following signs or symptoms of infection: pain or tenderness, localized swelling, redness, or heat; and
4. Diagnosis of surgical site infection by the surgeon or attending physician.

SSIs can be classified as superficial incisional, deep incisional, or organ/space infections, depending on the depth and extent of tissue involvement. They are a common healthcare-associated infection and can lead to increased morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs.

Hand disinfection is the process of eliminating or reducing harmful microorganisms on the hands, using a medically approved product such as an alcohol-based hand sanitizer or soap and water. The goal of hand disinfection is to prevent the spread of infections and maintain a clean and hygienic environment, particularly in healthcare settings. It is an essential component of standard precautions to prevent the transmission of pathogens and ensure patient safety. Proper hand disinfection techniques include applying enough product to cover all surfaces of the hands, rubbing the product over all areas for at least 20-30 seconds, and allowing the product to dry completely before touching anything else.

Iodine is an essential trace element that is necessary for the production of thyroid hormones in the body. These hormones play crucial roles in various bodily functions, including growth and development, metabolism, and brain development during pregnancy and infancy. Iodine can be found in various foods such as seaweed, dairy products, and iodized salt. In a medical context, iodine is also used as an antiseptic to disinfect surfaces, wounds, and skin infections due to its ability to kill bacteria, viruses, and fungi.

In medical terms, the skin is the largest organ of the human body. It consists of two main layers: the epidermis (outer layer) and dermis (inner layer), as well as accessory structures like hair follicles, sweat glands, and oil glands. The skin plays a crucial role in protecting us from external factors such as bacteria, viruses, and environmental hazards, while also regulating body temperature and enabling the sense of touch.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Soaps" is not a medical term, but rather refers to cleaning agents that are widely used in daily life for personal and household hygiene.

However, if you're referring to "saponification," it is a chemical process that occurs when fats or oils react with an alkali, resulting in the formation of soap and glycerin. This term can be relevant in medical contexts, such as in the production of medicated soaps used for various skin conditions.

If you meant something else by "Soaps," please clarify your question, and I will do my best to provide an accurate answer.

Deodorants are substances that are applied to the body, usually under the arms, to help prevent or mask body odor caused by the bacterial breakdown of sweat. Deodorants typically contain alcohol and fragrances, which can help to kill bacteria and cover up any remaining odor. Some deodorants also contain antiperspirants, which work by blocking the sweat glands and reducing the amount of sweat that is produced. This can help to further reduce body odor.

It's important to note that while deodorants can help to mask body odor, they do not prevent sweating. If you are looking for a product that can help to control sweating, you may want to consider using an antiperspirant instead. Some products combine both deodorant and antiperspirant in one product.

Deodorants are available in several forms, including sprays, roll-ons, gels, creams, and solid sticks. It's important to choose a deodorant that is right for your skin type and personal preferences. If you have sensitive skin, you may want to look for a deodorant that is labeled as "hypoallergenic" or "unscented."

It's also a good idea to apply deodorant to clean, dry skin, as this can help the product to work more effectively. If you are using an antiperspirant deodorant, it's best to apply it at night before bed, as this can help to reduce sweating and body odor throughout the day.

'Hospital Personnel' is a general term that refers to all individuals who are employed by or provide services on behalf of a hospital. This can include, but is not limited to:

1. Healthcare professionals such as doctors, nurses, pharmacists, therapists, and technicians.
2. Administrative staff who manage the hospital's operations, including human resources, finance, and management.
3. Support services personnel such as maintenance workers, food service workers, housekeeping staff, and volunteers.
4. Medical students, interns, and trainees who are gaining clinical experience in the hospital setting.

All of these individuals play a critical role in ensuring that the hospital runs smoothly and provides high-quality care to its patients.

Off-label use refers to the practice of prescribing or using pharmaceutical drugs for purposes, dosages, patient populations, or routes of administration that are not included in the approved labeling of the drug by the regulatory authority, such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). It is not illegal or unethical for physicians to prescribe medications off-label when they judge that it is medically appropriate for their patients. However, manufacturers are prohibited from promoting their drugs for off-label uses.

Hygiene is the science and practice of maintaining and promoting health and preventing disease through cleanliness in personal and public environments. It includes various measures such as handwashing, bathing, using clean clothes, cleaning and disinfecting surfaces, proper waste disposal, safe food handling, and managing water supplies to prevent the spread of infectious agents like bacteria, viruses, and parasites.

In a medical context, hygiene is crucial in healthcare settings to prevent healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and ensure patient safety. Healthcare professionals are trained in infection control practices, including proper hand hygiene, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), environmental cleaning and disinfection, and safe injection practices.

Overall, maintaining good hygiene is essential for overall health and well-being, reducing the risk of illness and promoting a healthy lifestyle.

Hand hygiene refers to the practices of cleaning hands for the purpose of removing pathogens (disease-causing microorganisms) and preventing their spread. It is an important component of infection prevention and control in healthcare settings as well as in everyday life. The two main techniques for hand hygiene are handwashing with soap and water, and using alcohol-based hand sanitizers. Proper hand hygiene can help prevent the transmission of respiratory and gastrointestinal illnesses, as well as various healthcare-associated infections.

Medical manuscripts are written documents that describe original research, analysis, or experiences in the field of medicine. These can take various forms such as:

1. Research papers: These report on original studies and include an abstract, introduction, methods, results, discussion, and conclusion sections. They may also include tables, figures, and appendices.

2. Review articles: These provide a comprehensive overview of a specific topic in medicine, summarizing recent developments and findings from multiple sources.

3. Case reports: These describe unusual or interesting medical cases, often serving as educational tools for other healthcare professionals.

4. Clinical trials: These are detailed descriptions of clinical research studies involving human subjects, following a standardized format that includes information on the study's design, methods, results, and conclusions.

5. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses: These involve a rigorous evaluation of all available evidence on a specific research question, using systematic methods to identify, select, and critically appraise relevant studies.

6. Letters to the editor: These are brief communications that may comment on previously published articles or raise new issues for discussion in the medical community.

Medical manuscripts must adhere to strict ethical guidelines and should be written in a clear, concise, and well-organized manner, following the standards set by reputable medical journals. They undergo rigorous peer review before publication to ensure their quality, accuracy, and relevance to the field of medicine.

I am not a medical professional, but I can tell you that the term 'civilization' is more commonly used in social sciences and humanities rather than medicine. It refers to a complex human society, usually characterized by the development of agriculture, permanent settlements, and advanced institutions and technology. However, it is not a term that would typically be used in a medical definition. If you have any other questions, I'd be happy to try and help!

In the field of medicine and particularly in forensic pathology, mummies are human or animal bodies that have been preserved naturally or intentionally after death, through processes such as desiccation (drying), freezing, or exposure to chemicals like salt or smoke. The study of mummies, known as mummy science or mummy studies, can provide valuable insights into various aspects including the biological characteristics, health conditions, dietary habits, and cultural practices of past civilizations.

Paleopathology is the study of ancient diseases and injuries as recorded in bones, mummies, and other archaeological remains. It is an interdisciplinary field that combines knowledge from pathology, epidemiology, anthropology, and archaeology to understand the health and disease patterns of past populations. The findings of paleopathology can provide valuable insights into the evolution of diseases, the effectiveness of ancient medical practices, and the impact of environmental and social factors on human health over time. Examples of conditions that may be studied in paleopathology include infectious diseases (such as tuberculosis or leprosy), nutritional deficiencies, trauma, cancer, and genetic disorders.

I'm not a medical professional, but the term "History, Ancient" is not a medical term per se. However, in a broader context, it could refer to the study of ancient medical practices, theories, and beliefs that existed in civilizations prior to the Middle Ages or Classical Antiquity. This might include the examination of ancient texts, artifacts, and archaeological evidence to understand how illnesses were treated and viewed in these historical periods. It forms an essential part of the evolution of medical knowledge and practices over time.

I am not aware of any medical definition for the term "Egypt." Egypt is a country located in the northeastern corner of Africa, known for its rich history and cultural heritage. It is home to various ancient artifacts and monuments, including the Pyramids of Giza and the Sphinx.

If you have any specific medical or health-related questions related to Egypt, such as information about diseases prevalent in the country or healthcare practices there, I would be happy to try to help answer those for you.

Wound healing is a complex and dynamic process that occurs after tissue injury, aiming to restore the integrity and functionality of the damaged tissue. It involves a series of overlapping phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling.

1. Hemostasis: This initial phase begins immediately after injury and involves the activation of the coagulation cascade to form a clot, which stabilizes the wound and prevents excessive blood loss.
2. Inflammation: Activated inflammatory cells, such as neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages, infiltrate the wound site to eliminate pathogens, remove debris, and release growth factors that promote healing. This phase typically lasts for 2-5 days post-injury.
3. Proliferation: In this phase, various cell types, including fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and keratinocytes, proliferate and migrate to the wound site to synthesize extracellular matrix (ECM) components, form new blood vessels (angiogenesis), and re-epithelialize the wounded area. This phase can last up to several weeks depending on the size and severity of the wound.
4. Remodeling: The final phase of wound healing involves the maturation and realignment of collagen fibers, leading to the restoration of tensile strength in the healed tissue. This process can continue for months to years after injury, although the tissue may never fully regain its original structure and function.

It is important to note that wound healing can be compromised by several factors, including age, nutrition, comorbidities (e.g., diabetes, vascular disease), and infection, which can result in delayed healing or non-healing chronic wounds.

Asepsis and antisepsis. Sterilization (Operative) 92-97.8....................................Emergency surgery. Wounds and ...
Bashford, Henry (April 1951). "The Coming of Antisepsis". History Today. 1 (4): 37-41. Eming SA, Krieg T, Davidson JM (2007). " ... Eberlein T, Assadian O (2010). "Clinical use of polihexanide on acute and chronic wounds for antisepsis and decontamination". ... "Chlorhexidine versus povidone-iodine skin antisepsis before upper limb surgery (CIPHUR): an international multicentre ...
Nakayama, Don (2018). "Antisepsis and Asepsis and How They Shaped Modern Surgery". The American Surgeon. Atlanta, Georgia: ... Glass, Graeme E. (September 2014). "Beyond antisepsis: Examining the relevance of the works of Joseph Baron Lister to the ... Schlich, Thomas (20 September 2013). "Farmer to industrialist: Lister's antisepsis and the making of modern surgery in Germany ... Simmons, John Galbraith (2002). "Joseph Lister Antisepsis and Modern Surgery". Doctors and discoveries: lives that created ...
Tait was suspicious of the prevailing practice of antisepsis, advocated for by Joseph Lister. The two doctors agreed that it ... Due to his lifelong history of advocating for new techniques and against common practices (e.g. vivisection and antisepsis), ... First cholecystotomy (gallbladder surgery). Asepsis in lieu of Lister's antisepsis; he avoided the use of carbolic acid. ... with whom Tait would later have significant disputes over the rival practices of Antisepsis and Asepsis. Another influence from ...
... and antisepsis: An overview". American Journal of Infection Control. 47S: A3-A9. doi:10.1016/j.ajic.2019.01.018. PMID 31146848 ...
Chen S, Chen JW, Guo B, Xu CS (May 2020). "Preoperative Antisepsis with Chlorhexidine Versus Povidone-Iodine for the Prevention ... Fleischer W, Reimer K (1997). "Povidone-iodine in antisepsis--state of the art". Dermatology. 195 (Suppl 2): 3-9. doi:10.1159/ ... 2018). "Consensus on Wound Antisepsis: Update 2018". Skin Pharmacology and Physiology. 31 (1): 28-58. doi:10.1159/000481545. ...
Schede was a pioneer of antisepsis in Germany. In 1890 he introduced a surgical procedure called thoracoplasty, an operation ...
Among healthcare workers, it is generally more effective for hand antisepsis, and better tolerated than soap and water. Hand ... Boyce JM (July 2000). "Using alcohol for hand antisepsis: dispelling old myths". Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology. ... soap-and-water hand washing versus hand antisepsis with an alcoholic hand gel". Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology. 21 ...
There is no evidence that one type of hand antisepsis is better than the other in preventing surgical site infection. There is ... Cochrane Wounds Group) (January 2016). "Surgical hand antisepsis to reduce surgical site infection". The Cochrane Database of ...
... "not an active substance for hand antisepsis." Glycerol is added as a humectant. Social distancing (also known as physical ...
Edouard, Lindsay (2011). "Antisepsis with Argyrol, Acrimony, and Advocacy for African Art". African Journal of Reproductive ...
Wright-St Clair, Rex E. (1999). "J Rutherford Ryley: Pioneer of Antisepsis in New Zealand". Journal of Medical Biography. 7 (1 ... Wright-St Clair, Rex E. (1999). "J Rutherford Ryley: Pioneer of Antisepsis in New Zealand". Journal of Medical Biography. 7 (1 ... In January 1868, while working at Hokitika Hospital, Ryley successfully used Lister's newly described method of antisepsis in ... where he learned about Listerian antisepsis from Joseph Lister. He emigrated to New Zealand and introduced antiseptic surgery ...
Larson, E (1989). "Innovations in health care: antisepsis as a case study". American Journal of Public Health. 79 (1): 92-99. ...
"Skin antisepsis for reducing central venous catheter-related infections". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2016 (7): ...
Edouard, Lindsay (2011). "Antisepsis with Argyrol, Acrimony, and Advocacy for African Art". African Journal of Reproductive ...
His work Die große Wundarzney is a forerunner of antisepsis. This specific empirical knowledge originated from his personal ...
Antisepsis in surgery invented by Joseph Lister (1827-1912). 1867: Clinical thermometer devised by Thomas Clifford Allbutt ( ...
The design implemented anti-sepsis techniques developed by Joseph Lister, who visited the room in 1897 and was favourably ... It would implement the anti-sepsis techniques developed by Joseph Lister, which Davie had studied during a sabbatical in Europe ... Humphreys, Danda (15 January 2008). "Historic operating room a monument to the advent of antisepsis". Canadian Medical ...
Selvaggi G, Monstrey S, Van Landuyt K, Hamdi M, Blondeel P (June 2003). "The role of iodine in antisepsis and wound management ...
With James Gray) From Witchcraft to Antisepsis, a Study in Antithesis. Lawrence: University of Kansas Press, 1955. Medical and ...
Schuppert was influential in introducing antisepsis into New Orleans from his studies in Germany. Schuppert became a leading ... Gariepy, Thomas P. (1994). "The Introduction and Acceptance of Listerian Antisepsis in the United States". Journal of the ... Moritz Schuppert (1817 - May 2, 1887) was an American surgeon, anti-vaccinationist and early advocate of antisepsis. Schuppert ...
Chavasse remained an ardent exponent of Listerian antisepsis throughout his career. He also acted as Consulting Surgeon at the ... He furthered his knowledge of antisepsis, without offending his chief, by regularly attending Lister's Sunday afternoon clinic ... which meant that Chavasse had to be diplomatic about his enthusiasm for Listerian antisepsis. ...
Larson EL (August 1995). "APIC guideline for handwashing and hand antisepsis in health care settings". American Journal of ...
The line between antisepsis and asepsis is interpreted differently, depending on context and time. In the past, antiseptic ... Procedures for implementing antisepsis varied among physicians and experienced constant changes. Until the late 19th century, ... At the end of the 19th century, Joseph Lister and his followers expanded the term "antisepsis" and coined "asepsis," with the ... Lawson Tait shifted the movement then from antisepsis to asepsis, instilling practices such as a strict no-talking policy ...
Asepsie et antisepsie chirurgicales (with Henri Chaput), 1894 - Surgical asepsis and antisepsis. Salpingites et ovarites, 1891 ...
Asepsie et antisepsie chirurgicales, 1893 (with Octave Terrillon) - Surgical asepsis and antisepsis. Les fractures malléolaires ...
In Germany, hexetidine vaginal suppositories branded Vagi-Hex are available to be used for vaginal antisepsis. They are also ... The advantage of preventive vaginal antisepsis with hexetidine in obstetrics and gynecology]". Geburtshilfe Frauenheilkd (in ...
Both Koch and Pasteur played a role in improving antisepsis in medical treatment. In 1870-1885 the modern methods of ...
Guthery E, Seal LA, Anderson EL (February 2005). "Zinc pyrithione in alcohol-based products for skin antisepsis: persistence of ...
He also used steam sterilized dressing material, demonstrating its superiority to chemical antisepsis. He was also an early ...
Disinfectant Antisepsis for hands without rinsing. Ingrédients dorigine naturelle 99,80%. Fragrance-free, dye-free. Quality ...
Asepsis and Antisepsis: Fundaments based on Lab. by: Alejandro Hernandez. Slot: 5 / Room 05/06 - Fri. 9am-10:30am ...
... in Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia rates in patients receiving haemodialysis following alteration of skin antisepsis ...
Preoperative skin antisepsis using antiseptics is performed to reduce the risk of SSIs by removing soil and transient organisms ... Performing preoperative skin antisepsis to remove soil and microorganisms at the surgical site may help prevent patients from ... Surgical hand antisepsis-a pilot study comparing povidone iodine hand scrub and alcohol-based chlorhexidine gluconate hand rub. ... The effect of axillary hair on surgical antisepsis around the shoulder.. Geoffrey S Marecek, Brian M Weatherford, Eric B Fuller ...
... used for hand antisepsis before and after patient care in clinical areas and to products used for surgical hand antisepsis by ... Hand antisepsis. Refers to either antiseptic handwash or antiseptic hand rub. Hand hygiene. A general term that applies to ... Surgical Hand Antisepsis Since the late 1800s, when Lister promoted the application of carbolic acid to the hands of surgeons ... Evaluation of hand antisepsis. Arch Environ Health 1969;18:781--3. *Loeb MB, Wilcox L, Smaill F, Walter S, Duff Z. A randomized ...
Accredited online continuing education course Hand Hygiene and Skin Antisepsis ... Surgical Site Antisepsis. The Surgical Team. Section 5: Clinical Vignette. Knowledge Check. Section 6: Conclusion. Summary. ... Skin Antisepsis. Antiseptic Solutions. Section 4: Causes and Prevention of Infections. Physiologic Factors in Asepsis. ... It provides historical context and explains proper glove use and skin antisepsis, surgical scrubs, and pre-op cleansing. The ...
Pengeluar Antisepsis, Kilang, Pembekal Dari China, Kami amat mengalu-alukan semua tetamu untuk menjalin hubungan perniagaan ... Antisepsis. * Pelindung Skrin Tepi-ke-Tepi, Anti-Mikrob Anti-Statik , Aplikasi Mudah , Tanpa Gelembung . ...
... I.B. Ulasi1, A.I. Michael2, O.O. Ayandipo3. * ... Skin antisepsis, the process wherein chemical agents are used to destroy or inhibit the growth of microorganisms in or on ... The aim of this survey therefore was to describe what surgeons in Nigeria practice with respect to skin antisepsis before. skin ... Objective: To describe the pattern of practice of skin antisepsis prior to skin incision among surgeons in select tertiary ...
Ethanol-based antisepsis results in unexpected high levels of skin flora, which can be transmitted into the wound during ... Ethanol-based antisepsis results in unexpected high levels of skin flora, which can be transmitted into the wound during ... Ethanol-based antisepsis results in unexpected high levels of skin flora, which can be transmitted into the wound during ... Ethanol-based antisepsis results in unexpected high levels of skin flora, which can be transmitted into the wound during ...
... PIAZZA, MATTEO;Yu, L;Teghanemt, A; ... Evidence of a specific interaction between new synthetic antisepsis agents and CD14. BIOCHEMISTRY, 48(51), 12337-12344 [10.1021 ... Evidence of a specific interaction between new synthetic antisepsis agents and CD14. BIOCHEMISTRY, 48(51), 12337-12344 [10.1021 ...
Asepsis and antisepsis. Sterilization (Operative) 92-97.8....................................Emergency surgery. Wounds and ...
Wire mesh Antisepsis basket is mainly used to do some sterilizations and hold something., ... The applications of Wire mesh Antisepsis basket. 1. Wire mesh Antisepsis basket is mainly used to do some sterilizations and ... 3. Wire mesh Antisepsis basket is wearing resistant and corrosion resistant.. 4. Wire mesh Antisepsis basket has beautiful ... 2. Wire mesh Antisepsis basket is used for ultrasonic, storage used and medical apparatus and surgical instrument. ...
Skin antisepsis occurs in every healthcare environment. From basic hand hygiene, to antiseptic bathing and pre surgical care ... Targeting antisepsis. Targeted antisepsis could be accomplished in many different ways, and if under the authority of ... Skin antisepsis in healthcare has a long and storied history, from the intense skepticism that Semmelweis met after suggesting ... However, the goal of skin antisepsis is to reduce the bioburden of all organisms on the skin [20]. If this occurs as planned, ...
1. Relating to antisepsis. 2. An agent or substance capable of effecting antisepsis. antiserum (an-te-se′rum). Serum that ... antisepsis (an-te-sep′sis). Prevention of infection by inhibiting the growth of infectious agents. SEE ALSO: disinfection. [ ...
Pre-operative skin antisepsis with chlorhexidine gluconate baths and wipes does not prevent postoperative surgical site ... In the present study, pre-operative antisepsis with CHG baths/wipes is not associated with a reduction in SSI and carries ... Conclusions: To the authors knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the use of pre-operative antisepsis with CHG baths/ ... Pre-operative skin antisepsis with chlorhexidine gluconate baths and wipes does not prevent postoperative surgical site ...
Paré & Wounds; Anaesthesia; Antisepsis & Asepsis; Blood Transfusion; Neurosurgery; Cataract Surgery; Caesarean Section; Cardiac ...
Pre-Op Intestinal Antisepsis. 1 g PO at 19, 18, and 9 hours pre-op OR ...
The centenary of Lister (1827-1927). A tale of sepsis and antisepsis. Ann Med Hist. 1927;9:205-11. ... After this early example of infection control through antisepsis, the next step was inevitable: when chemicals with ...
Wound antisepsis has undergone a renaissance due to the introduction of highly effective wound-compatible antimicrobial agents ...
Disinfection, Sterilization and Antisepsis: Principles and Practices in Healthcare Facilities. Washington, DC: Association for ...
Lister recognized that antisepsis could prevent infection. [4] In 1867, he placed carbolic acid into open fractures to ...
Antibacterial-agents; Antibiotics; Antifungals; Antigens; Antisepsis; Bactericides; Biochemical-analysis; Biocides; Biological- ...
Sterilization, disinfection, and antisepsis. In: Ballows A, Hausler WJ, Herrmann KL, Isenberg HO, Shadomy HJ, eds. Manual of ... APIC guideline for handwashing and hand antisepsis in health care settings. Am J Infect Control 1995;23:251-269. * Paulssen J, ... Bland soap handwash or hand antisepsis? The pressing need for clarity. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1992;13:299-301. * Larson ...
The Foundations of Modern Surgery II: The Coming of Antisepsis Henry Bashford looks back at the birth of one of modern ...
2020). Pharyngeal antisepsis to reduce COVID-19 pneumonia.. ...
Categories: Antisepsis Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted 2 images ...
Surgical scrub for hands and forearms antisepsis. *Scrub arms and hands with antiseptic solution, for 2-5 minutes before the ... Applying basic principles of antisepsis in the OR should be a priority for every member of the surgical team. Every OR ... Preoperative skin antisepsis using chlorhexidine may reduce surgical wound infections in lower limb trauma surgery when ... Tanner J, Dumville JC, Norman G, Fortnam M. Surgical Hand Antisepsis to Reduce Surgical Site Infection. Cochrane Database of ...
I had been attacked in the "Therapeutic Quarterly" upon my famous theory of Antisepsis. Perhaps I may add the circumstance that ...
Skin antisepsis is critical to accurate test results. blood culture. often requires serial collections of blood specimens at ...
  • The aim of this study was to elucidate the possible role of skin flora surviving preoperative antisepsis as a possible cause of SSI. (
  • When talking about hygiene, two concepts should be kept in mind: asepsis and antisepsis. (
  • Performing preoperative skin antisepsis to remove soil and microorganisms at the surgical site may help prevent patients from developing a surgical site infection. (
  • The purpose of this article is to begin the discussion of the importance of targeting use of skin antiseptic products in hospitalized patients to reduce the likelihood of infection, and also introduce the salient concepts surrounding infection, skin antisepsis, and contamination of antiseptic products. (
  • After this early example of infection control through antisepsis, the next step was inevitable: when chemicals with antibacterial activity were discovered, they were soon used in the treatment of infected patients. (
  • Lister recognized that antisepsis could prevent infection. (
  • Hence wound infection remained one of the major obstacles to progress in surgery until the development and general acceptance of antisepsis and aseptic surgical techniques. (
  • Anesthesia dated back only a generation and, while Joseph Lister's antiseptic technique was gaining a following among European surgeons, antisepsis and the germ theory underlying it were widely dismissed among American physicians of the day. (
  • The majority use 3 antiseptic agents for skin antisepsis although most of the procedures performed were clean surgeries. (
  • Reduction in Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia rates in patients receiving haemodialysis following alteration of skin antisepsis procedures. (
  • New strategies for preoperative skin antisepsis. (
  • However, as SSI still occur today, strategic prevention measures such as standardized skin antisepsis must be implemented and rigorously promoted. (
  • Guideline implementation: preoperative patient skin antisepsis. (
  • The updated AORN "Guideline for preoperative skin antisepsis" addresses the topics of preoperative patient bathing and hair removal, selection and application of skin antiseptics, and safe handling, storage, and disposal of skin antiseptics. (
  • This article focuses on key points of the guideline to help perioperative personnel develop protocols for patient skin antisepsis. (
  • It provides historical context and explains proper glove use and skin antisepsis, surgical scrubs, and pre-op cleansing. (
  • Although studies are rife on preoperative skin antisepsis, little is known about what surgeons in Nigeria practice. (
  • To describe the pattern of practice of skin antisepsis prior to skin incision among surgeons in select tertiary hospitals in Nigeria. (
  • The practice of pre-incision skin antisepsis varies widely among Nigerian surgeons. (
  • Skin antisepsis, the process wherein chemical agents are used to destroy or inhibit the growth of microorganisms in or on living tissue 6 , is traditionally carried out before surgical skin incision to reduce microbial load and ultimately the burden of SSI. (
  • Only 65.5 % of patients showed a 100 % reduction of the skin flora after antisepsis. (
  • Ethanol-based antisepsis results in unexpected high levels of skin flora, which can be transmitted into the wound during surgery causing yet unexplained SSI. (
  • Skin antisepsis occurs in every healthcare environment. (
  • When it comes to skin antisepsis, much of the discussion in practice is centered around which active ingredient(s) to use, largely for pre-surgical care [ 15 ], as uses and contraindications vary by ingredient. (
  • This document has been produced to encourage health care professionals to use skin antisepsis preparation more effectively to improve the safety and quality of care that patients receive. (
  • When Dr. Joseph Lister, an influential British surgeon, came to Philadelphia during his 1876 tour of America, Keen heard his views on antisepsis in surgery and was one of the first American surgeons to adopt Lister's system. (
  • Introduction: To reduce surgical site infections (SSI), many institutions utilize pre-operative antisepsis with chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) baths and/or wipes. (
  • He played a key role in the birth of bacteriology, neurology, use of antisepsis, sterile surgical techniques, brain surgery, and the breakthrough discovery that insects carry and spread diseases. (
  • The Guideline for Hand Hygiene in Health-Care Settings provides health-care workers (HCWs) with a review of data regarding handwashing and hand antisepsis in health-care settings. (
  • APIC guideline for handwashing and hand antisepsis in health care settings. (
  • however, the use of towelettes is not an acceptable alternative to hand antisepsis or surgical hand antisepsis. (
  • Antisepsis is a set of procedures or activities that aim to prevent or destroy potentially pathogenic micro-organisms. (
  • Dr. Pelletier emphasized, "Nasal antisepsis and oral rinses are an important part of transmission reduction with masks, just like handwashing is important with gloves. (
  • The introduction of antisepsis and analgesia and the anatomic studies of the foot improved surgical treatment. (
  • Physical disinfection -- Chemical disinfection -- Antiseptics and antisepsis -- Physical sterilization -- Chemical sterilization -- Mechanisms of action -- Mechanisms of microbial resistance. (
  • Reprocessing of single-use medical devices" Invited lecture at the postgraduate course, `Anti-infectious measures: Antisepsis, disinfection and sterilization`, Faculty of Nursing, Federal University of Goiás. (
  • So far, we have implemented irradiation systems that are used for plant growth, water and surface disinfection, and skin-tolerant UV antisepsis. (
  • Surgical Hand Antisepsis-A Pilot Study comparing Povidone Iodine Hand Scrub and. (
  • Recommended practices for surgical hand antisepsis/hand scrubs. (
  • Following the introduction of antisepsis, surgical intervention for spinal infections became feasible. (
  • 1. Perioperative Topical Antisepsis and Surgical Site Infection in Patients Undergoing Upper Aerodigestive Tract Reconstruction. (
  • 6. Surgical hand antisepsis to reduce surgical site infection. (
  • Based on AORN's Guidelines for Perioperative Practice - Guideline Update: Preoperative Patient Skin Antisepsis 2021. (
  • and 5) using antiseptic/antibiotic impregnated short-term central venous catheters if the rate of infection is high despite adherence to other strategies (i.e., education and training, maximal sterile barrier precautions, and 2% chlorhexidine for skin antisepsis). (
  • 3. immediately after antisepsis with both betadine and chlorhexidine, a culture of the skin will be performed to assess antiseptic efficacy. (
  • Therefore, the purpose of this research was to determine the best solution of nasal antisepsis to use in my nursing capstone preoperative unit in order to eliminate the colonies of nasal bacteria in patients undergoing surgeries involving implants. (
  • Although the risk of full blown infection with CFNB has been poorly defined, the rate of catheter colonization after antisepsis with povidone-iodine has been demonstrated to be high (Cuivillion et al. (
  • Antisepsis in surgery invented by Joseph Lister (1827-1912). (
  • Regardless of vaccination status, health care workers were protected with daily and regular hydrogen peroxide antisepsis. (
  • Antisepsis wasn't the only way to prevent illness. (