Nucleic acids which hybridize to complementary sequences in other target nucleic acids causing the function of the latter to be affected.
RNA molecules which hybridize to complementary sequences in either RNA or DNA altering the function of the latter. Endogenous antisense RNAs function as regulators of gene expression by a variety of mechanisms. Synthetic antisense RNAs are used to effect the functioning of specific genes for investigative or therapeutic purposes.
Short fragments of DNA or RNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.
DNA that is complementary to the sense strand. (The sense strand has the same sequence as the mRNA transcript. The antisense strand is the template for mRNA synthesis.) Synthetic antisense DNAs are used to hybridize to complementary sequences in target RNAs or DNAs to effect the functioning of specific genes for investigative or therapeutic purposes.
Short fragments of DNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.
The branch of science concerned with the means and consequences of transmission and generation of the components of biological inheritance. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
Short fragments of RNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.
Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
The experimental study of the relationship between the genotype of an organism and its behavior. The scope includes the effects of genes on simple sensory processes to complex organization of the nervous system.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A group of chemical elements that are needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of an organism. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.
Substances that comprise all matter. Each element is made up of atoms that are identical in number of electrons and protons and in nuclear charge, but may differ in mass or number of neutrons.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The Alu sequence family (named for the restriction endonuclease cleavage enzyme Alu I) is the most highly repeated interspersed repeat element in humans (over a million copies). It is derived from the 7SL RNA component of the SIGNAL RECOGNITION PARTICLE and contains an RNA polymerase III promoter. Transposition of this element into coding and regulatory regions of genes is responsible for many heritable diseases.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Nucleotides in which the base moiety is substituted with one or more sulfur atoms.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Highly repeated sequences, 6K-8K base pairs in length, which contain RNA polymerase II promoters. They also have an open reading frame that is related to the reverse transcriptase of retroviruses but they do not contain LTRs (long terminal repeats). Copies of the LINE 1 (L1) family form about 15% of the human genome. The jockey elements of Drosophila are LINEs.
Nucleotide sequences of a gene that are involved in the regulation of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
A discipline concerned with studying biological phenomena in terms of the chemical and physical interactions of molecules.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
... antisense elements (genetics) MeSH D27.720.470.530.600.150.200 - dna, antisense MeSH D27.720.470.530.600.150.200.640 - ... antisense MeSH D27.720.470.530.600.150.760.645 - oligoribonucleotides, antisense MeSH D27.720.470.530.600.223 - dna probes MeSH ... antisense MeSH D27.720.470.530.600.150.640.645 - oligoribonucleotides, antisense MeSH D27.720.470.530.600.150.760 - rna, ... oligodeoxyribonucleotides, antisense MeSH D27.720.470.530.600.150.640 - oligonucleotides, antisense MeSH D27.720.470.530. ...
Saberi F, Kamali M, Najafi A, Yazdanparast A, Moghaddam MM (2016-07-28). "Natural antisense RNAs as mRNA regulatory elements in ... focus on natural antisense transcripts". Trends in Genetics. 28 (8): 389-396. doi:10.1016/j.tig.2012.03.013. PMC 3768148. PMID ... Antisense RNA (asRNA), also referred to as antisense transcript, natural antisense transcript (NAT) or antisense ... Cis-natural antisense transcript Pelechano V, Steinmetz LM (December 2013). "Gene regulation by antisense transcription". ...
Genetics. 151 (2): 617-631. doi:10.1093/genetics/151.2.617. PMC 1460491. PMID 9927456. Nicoll M, Akerib CC, Meyer BJ (1997). "X ... These work in combination with Tsix, which is non-coding RNA that is an antisense which downregulates the effects of Xist on ... More recently, Meyer's lab has shown that proteins known as X-linked signal elements (XSEs) operate in concert with SDC-2 to ... Genetics. 177 (3): 1621-37. doi:10.1534/genetics.106.061812. PMC 2147945. PMID 17720939. Carmi, Ilil; Kopczynski, Jennifer B.; ...
doi:10.1534/genetics.106.069484. PMC 1894591. PMID 17409075. Vanhée-Brossollet C, Vaquero C (1998). "Do natural antisense ... It is thought that in malignant cancer cells with activated transposable elements creates a large amount of transcriptional ... The NATsdb or Natural Antisense Transcript database is a rich tool for searching for antisense pairs from multiple organisms. ... Li YY, Qin L, Guo ZM, Liu L, Xu H, Hao P, Su J, Shi Y, He WZ, Li YX (2006). "In silico discovery of human natural antisense ...
Jurka J (December 2004). "Evolutionary impact of human Alu repetitive elements". Current Opinion in Genetics & Development. 14 ... The regions coding miRNA can be independent RNA-genes often being anti-sense to neighboring protein-coding genes, or can be ... Alu elements, short-interspersed nuclear element of about 300 nucleotides, are the most common SINE in humans, with >1,000,000 ... Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are non-autonomous, non-coding transposable elements (TEs) that are about 100 to ...
Summerton J, Weller D (June 1997). "Morpholino antisense oligomers: design, preparation, and properties". Antisense & Nucleic ... Nasevicius A, Ekker SC (October 2000). "Effective targeted gene 'knockdown' in zebrafish". Nature Genetics. 26 (2): 216-20. doi ... "Correction of aberrant FGFR1 alternative RNA splicing through targeting of intronic regulatory elements". Human Molecular ... Penn AC, Balik A, Greger IH (January 2013). "Steric antisense inhibition of AMPA receptor Q/R editing reveals tight coupling to ...
... "elements" (enhancers and silencers) on the pre-mRNA transcript itself. These proteins and their respective binding elements ... Sazani P, Kang SH, Maier MA, Wei C, Dillman J, Summerton J, Manoharan M, Kole R (October 2001). "Nuclear antisense effects of ... Genetics. 7 (3): 211-21. doi:10.1038/nrg1807. PMID 16485020. S2CID 33672491. Clancy S (2008). "RNA Splicing: Introns, Exons and ... such as by bringing together splicing elements or by masking a sequence that would otherwise serve as a binding element for a ...
Lee JT, Davidow LS, Warshawsky D (April 1999). "Tsix, a gene antisense to Xist at the X-inactivation centre". Nature Genetics. ... "A proximal conserved repeat in the Xist gene is essential as a genomic element for X-inactivation in mouse". Development. 136 ( ... Graves JA (1996). "Mammals that break the rules: genetics of marsupials and monotremes". Annual Review of Genetics. 30: 233-60 ... Molecular genetics, Genetics, Epigenetics, Female, Sex-determination systems). ...
... antisense elements (genetics) MeSH D13.444.600.150.200 - dna, antisense MeSH D13.444.600.150.200.640 - ... antisense MeSH D13.444.600.150.640.645 - oligoribonucleotides, antisense MeSH D13.444.600.150.760 - rna, antisense MeSH D13.444 ... MeSH D13.150.200.640 - oligodeoxyribonucleotides, antisense MeSH D13.150.480.640 - oligodeoxyribonucleotides, antisense MeSH ... antisense MeSH D13.444.735.150.319 - micrornas MeSH D13.444.735.150.640 - oligoribonucleotides, antisense MeSH D13.444.735.150. ...
Rodriguez-Jato S, Nicholls RD, Driscoll DJ, Yang TP (2005). "Characterization of cis- and trans-acting elements in the ... Human Molecular Genetics. 5 (4): 517-24. doi:10.1093/hmg/5.4.517. PMC 6057871. PMID 8845846. Poukka H, Aarnisalo P, Santti H, ... "The IC-SNURF-SNRPN transcript serves as a host for multiple small nucleolar RNA species and as an antisense RNA for UBE3A". ... Human Molecular Genetics. 10 (23): 2687-700. doi:10.1093/hmg/10.23.2687. PMID 11726556. Runte M, Kroisel PM, Gillessen-Kaesbach ...
... antisense See template strand. antisense RNA (asRNA) A single-stranded non-coding RNA molecule containing an antisense sequence ... The many types of MGEs include transposable elements, bacterial plasmids, bacteriophage elements which integrate into host ... Contents: Top 0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z ecological genetics The study of genetics as it pertains ... Contents: Top 0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Introduction to genetics Outline of genetics Outline of ...
Antisense RNA, Genetics techniques, All stub articles, Molecular and cellular biology stubs). ... S-element Venkova-Canova, T; Patek M; Nesvera J (2003). "Control of rep gene expression in plasmid pGA1 from Corynebacterium ... In Corynebacterium glutamicum, it achieves this by antisense pairing with the mRNA of RepB, a replication initiation protein. ...
"PLOS Genetics: Search Results FANTOM3". journals.plos.org. de Hoon, Michiel; Hayashizaki, Yoshihide (April 2008). "Deep cap ... The non-coding RNA were identified as antisense RNA and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNA), poorly understood classes of regulatory ... Kazazian, H. H. (12 March 2004). "Mobile Elements: Drivers of Genome Evolution". Science. 303 (5664): 1626-1632. Bibcode: ... A jointly released publication found that many of the transcripts in these forests show antisense transcription, and that most ...
"Prader Willi Syndrome". Genetics Home Reference. US National Library of Medicine. April 2008. "Angelman Syndrome". Genetics ... Airn is the antisense gene of Ifg2r, so if Airn is being transcribed, the transcriptional machinery may cover a part of or the ... Trans acting elements, however, are gene products from one location that act on a different chromosome, either the other in a ... Recent research has shown that a repeat element in the RNA of Xist causes PRC2 to bind to the RNA. Another part of the RNA ...
The many types of MGEs include transposable elements, bacterial plasmids, bacteriophage elements which integrate into host ... It is the antisense/template strand which is actually used as the template for transcription; the sense/coding strand merely ... This glossary of genetics is a list of definitions of terms and concepts commonly used in the study of genetics and related ... molecular genetics A branch of genetics that employs methods and techniques of molecular biology to study the structure and ...
"Chromosome 10". Genetics Home Reference. Archived from the original on 2010-04-08. Retrieved 2017-05-06. "Chromosome 10". Human ... VIM antisense RNA 1 WASHC2C: WASH complex subunit 2C WBP1L: WW domain binding protein 1-like ZNF37A: zinc finger protein 37A ... non-SMC element 4 homolog A OTUD1: encoding protein OTU deubiquitinase 1 PAPSS2: encoding enzyme bifunctional 3'- ... Tom Strachan; Andrew Read (2 April 2010). Human Molecular Genetics. Garland Science. p. 45. ISBN 978-1-136-84407-2. Genome ...
Alu elements in humans and analogous B1 and B2 elements in mice have succeeded in becoming the most abundant mobile elements ... Intronic antisense ncRNAs with expression correlated to the degree of tumor differentiation in prostate cancer samples have ... Palazzo AF, Lee ES (2015-01-26). "Non-coding RNA: what is functional and what is junk?". Frontiers in Genetics. 6: 2. doi: ... The abundance and distribution of Alu elements and similar repetitive elements throughout the mammalian genome may be partly ...
A typical L1 element is approximately 6,000 base pairs (bp) long and consists of two non-overlapping open reading frames (ORFs ... The massive antisense expression of the RT domain of ORF2 has been reported in the primitive eukaryote Entamoeba histolytica, ... Ostertag EM, Kazazian HH (December 2001). "Biology of mammalian L1 retrotransposons". Annual Review of Genetics. 35 (1): 501-38 ... LINE1 (also L1 and LINE-1) is a family of related class I transposable elements in the DNA of some organisms, classified with ...
doi:10.1534/genetics.105.042895. PMC 1456228. PMID 16299387. Retrieved 2010-08-13. Page for RNA anti-toxin A at Rfam (Antisense ... Genes ratA and txpA are found within a 48kb phage-like element called skin. This element interrupts a gene for the sigma factor ... Lee JM, Zhang S, Saha S, Santa Anna S, Jiang C, Perkins J (December 2001). "RNA expression analysis using an antisense Bacillus ... The toxin-antitoxin system contained within skin forces the inheritance of this element, which is acting as a selfish gene. The ...
Genetics. 166 (3): 1437-50. doi:10.1534/genetics.166.3.1437. PMC 1470764. PMID 15082561. Podlevsky JD, Bley CJ, Omana RV, Qi X ... This antisense-based process involves steps that first process the RNA so that it can base-pair with a region of its target ... Yu Q, Morrow CD (May 2001). "Identification of critical elements in the tRNA acceptor stem and T(Psi)C loop necessary for human ... 2015). "Small RNAs in bacteria and archaea: who they are, what they do, and how they do it". Advances in genetics (Vol. 90, pp ...
... including cancer genetics research, phylogenetic research, and human genetics. For example, using the 16S rRNA gene, which is ... The loci of Alu element insertion is selected, amplified and evaluated in terms of size of the fragment. The sex assay utilizes ... and two for the antisense strand. The primers bind adjacent to one another, forming a segment of double stranded DNA that once ... Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, DNA, Genetics techniques, Molecular biology, ...
Antisense Antisense RNA Antisense strand Antisense therapy AP endonuclease AP site Apert syndrome Apoptosis Applied genetics ... site P element P1 P53 Palindrome Panmictic Paralogous genes Paramecin Parameters Parental Parental ditype Parental imprinting ... 2000), Chapter 1 (Genetics and the Organism): Introduction List of genetics research organizations List of geneticists & ... Genetic testing Genetic variance Genetic variation Geneticist Genetics Genetics and archaeogenetics of South Asia Genetics ...
Antisense therapy utilizes antisense oligonucleotides that bind to DUX4 messenger RNA, inducing its degradation and preventing ... Genetics partially predicts prognosis. Those with large D4Z4 repeat deletions (with a remaining D4Z4 repeat array size of 10-20 ... Some transcripts that originate centromeric to the D4Z4 repeat array at the non-deleted element (NDE), termed D4Z4 regulatory ... The genetics of FSHD is complex. FSHD and the myotonic dystrophies have unique genetic mechanisms that differ substantially ...
... (for HOX transcript antisense RNA) is a human gene located between HOXC11 and HOXC12 on chromosome 12. It is the first ... A subsequent study identified HOTAIR has 32 nucleotide long conserved noncoding element (CNE) that has a paralogous copy in ... Petherick A (August 2008). "Genetics: The production line". Nature. 454 (7208): 1042-5. doi:10.1038/4541042a. PMID 18756228. ... April 2020). "Ancestrally Duplicated Conserved Noncoding Element Suggests Dual Regulatory Roles of HOTAIR in cis and trans". ...
"A unified classification system for eukaryotic transposable elements". Nature Reviews. Genetics. 8 (12): 973-82. doi:10.1038/ ... Liang KH, Yeh CT (May 2013). "A gene expression restriction network mediated by sense and antisense Alu sequences located on ... SVA elements are present at lower levels than SINES and LINEs in humans. The starts of SVA and Alu elements are similar, ... SVA elements are the exception between the two as they share similarities with both LINEs and SINEs, containing Alu elements ...
This subunit has been shown to interact with and suppress the transcriptional activity of the cAMP responsive element binding ... Tortora G, Clair T, Cho-Chung YS (Jan 1990). "An antisense oligodeoxynucleotide targeted against the type II beta regulatory ... Cytogenetics and Cell Genetics. 45 (3-4): 237-9. doi:10.1159/000132461. PMID 3691190. Budillon A, Cereseto A, Kondrashin A, ... Luo Z, Singh IS, Fujihira T, Erlichman J (Dec 1992). "Characterization of a minimal promoter element required for transcription ...
Maeda T, Sepe P, Lahousse S, Tamaki S, Enjoji M, Wands JR, de la Monte SM (May 2003). "Antisense oligodeoxynucleotides directed ... August 2004). "Junctate is a key element in calcium entry induced by activation of InsP3 receptors and/or calcium store ... Molecular Genetics and Metabolism. 69 (3): 252-8. doi:10.1006/mgme.2000.2966. PMID 10767180. Dinchuk JE, Henderson NL, Burn TC ... August 2002). "Antisense oligonucleotides selectively regulate aspartyl beta-hydroxylase and its truncated protein isoform in ...
SymR is an antisense RNA meaning its secondary structure has characteristic stem-and-loop elements as well as unpaired regions ... Encyclopedia of genetics. San Diego. ISBN 0-12-227080-0. OCLC 48655705. Buts L, Lah J, Dao-Thi MH, Wyns L, Loris R (December ... The SymR antisense RNA is transcribed 3 nt behind the SymE start codon which is why the SymR promoter is considered embedded ... RyjC was found to overlap the yjiW open reading frame on the opposite strand by 6 nt, and was characterized as an antisense RNA ...
"Antisense Long Non-Coding RNAs Are Deregulated in Skin Tissue of Patients with Systemic Sclerosis". The Journal of ... AC with 0 elements, Mauritian scientists, Dutch women scientists, Year of birth missing (living people), Living people, Dutch ... American Journal of Human Genetics. 88 (1): 57-69. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2010.12.007. ISSN 1537-6605. PMC 3014362. PMID 21211616. ...
P elements are a family of transposons that recently proliferated within the genome of Drosophila melanogaster. The P elements ... Most piRNAs are antisense to mRNAs transcribed from the silenced transposons, generally associating with Piwi and Aubergine ( ... PLOS Genetics. 3 (9): 1633-43. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.0030158. PMC 1976332. PMID 17941712. Johnson, L (2008). "Transposon ... Just two P elements in the telomere are enough to suppress over 80 other copies of the P element in the genome. The cytoplasmic ...
Summerton, J; Weller D (1997). "Morpholino Antisense Oligomers: Design, Preparation and Properties.". Antisense & Nucleic Acid ... "Genesis : The Journal of Genetics and Development (en inglés) 30 (3 (special issue)): 89-200. xullo 2001. ISSN 1526-954X. doi: ... "Correction of aberrant FGFR1 alternative RNA splicing through targeting of intronic regulatory elements.". Hum Mol Genet 3 (20 ... 16,0 16,1 Morpholino Antisense Oligos , Gene Tools, LLC Morpholino Antisense Oligos ...
A Dictionary of Genetics, Seventh Edition. [s.l.]: Oxford University Press, 2006.. ... antisense RNA (aRNA). *CRISPR RNA. *dlouhá nekódující RNA (lncRNA). *mikroRNA (miRNA). *RNA interagující s PIWI (piRNA) ...
Genetics. 14 (9): 609-17. doi:10.1038/nrg3543. PMC 3926806. PMID 23917626. de Koning DJ, Rattink AP, Harlizius B, van Arendonk ... The grouping of imprinted genes within clusters allows them to share common regulatory elements, such as non-coding RNAs and ... such as antisense Igf2r RNA (Air) on mouse chromosome 17 and KCNQ1OT1 on human chromosome 11p15.5, have been shown to be ... These models will show classic quantitative genetics and the effects of dominance of the imprinted genes. Imprinting may cause ...
"The activity of a highly promiscuous AP-1 element can be confined to neurons by a tissue-selective repressive element". The ... NLM Genecards Atlas of Genetics (CS1: long volume value, Articles with short description, Short description is different from ... Simantov R (August 1995). "Neurotransporters: regulation, involvement in neurotoxicity, and the usefulness of antisense nucleic ... AP-1 was first discovered as a TPA-activated transcription factor that bound to a cis-regulatory element of the human ...
Many noncoding and natural antisense RNA have been identified using tiling arrays. Methyl-DNA immunoprecipitation followed by ... These hypersensitive sites have been shown to accurately predict regulatory elements such as promoter regions, enhancers and ... PLOS Genetics. 3 (6): e89. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.0030089. PMC 1885280. PMID 17542650. Bertone, P; Gerstein, M; Snyder, M ( ... Cis-regulatory element annotation system and Galaxy are used. Tiling arrays provide an unbiased tool to investigate protein ...
Gelfand MS, Mironov AA, Jomantas J, Kozlov YI, Perumov DA (November 1999). "A conserved RNA structure element involved in the ... Trends in Genetics. 20 (1): 44-50. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.312.9100. doi:10.1016/j.tig.2003.11.008. PMID 14698618. Batey RT (June 2006 ... "S-box and T-box riboswitches and antisense RNA control a sulfur metabolic operon of Clostridium acetobutylicum". Nucleic Acids ... Tucker BJ, Breaker RR (June 2005). "Riboswitches as versatile gene control elements". Current Opinion in Structural Biology. 15 ...
Genetics. 5 (7): 522-531. doi:10.1038/nrg1379. Li LC (2008). "Small RNA-Mediated Gene Activation". In Morris KV (ed.). RNA and ... For example, miR16 contains a sequence complementary to the AU-rich element found in the 3'UTR of many unstable mRNAs, such as ... In the past, this distinction was also made with "s" (sense) and "as" (antisense)). However, the mature microRNA found from one ... Lee RC, Feinbaum RL, Ambros V (December 1993). "The C. elegans heterochronic gene lin-4 encodes small RNAs with antisense ...
"SRY Gene". Genetics Home Reference. Vihervaara A, Sistonen L (2014). "HSF1 at a glance". Journal of Cell Science. 127 (2): 261- ... ERICH4, on the sense strand, is located within DMAC2 and next PCAT19 and B3NT8 which are all on the antisense strand. The ... "A comparative encyclopedia of DNA elements in the mouse genome". Nature. 515 (7527): 355-364. Bibcode:2014Natur.515..355.. doi: ... Human Molecular Genetics. 14 (21): 3219-3225. doi:10.1093/hmg/ddi352. PMID 16203743.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names ...
Genetics. 118 (1): 75-86. doi:10.1093/genetics/118.1.75. PMC 1203268. PMID 8608934. Kenyon, C.; Chang, J.; Gensch, E.; Rudner, ... Deletion of these elements relieves the normal late stage-specific repression of LIN-14 protein production, and lin-4 is ... Lee, R. C.; Feinbaum, R. L.; Ambros, V. (1993). "The C. Elegans heterochronic gene lin-4 encodes small RNAs with antisense ... Genetics. 121 (3): 501-516. doi:10.1093/genetics/121.3.501. PMC 1203636. PMID 2565854. Ruvkun, G.; Wightman, B.; Ha, I. (2004 ...
Genetics. 12 (3): 167-178. doi:10.1038/nrg2933. PMC 3086810. PMID 21331089. van den Boogaard MJ, Dorland M, Beemer FA, van ... "Endogenous Msx1 antisense transcript: in vivo and in vitro evidences, structure, and potential involvement in skeleton ... Sp1 and cAMP-response-element-binding protein-binding protein (CBP/p300)". The Biochemical Journal. 339 (3): 751-758. doi: ... Human Molecular Genetics. 1 (6): 407-410. doi:10.1093/hmg/1.6.407. PMID 1284527. Hewitt JE, Clark LN, Ivens A, Williamson R ( ...
A hypoxia response element (HRE) is present within a SLC39A12 intron, which can increase ZIP12 expression under hypoxic ... To study how ZIP12 is necessary for Xenopus tropicalis embryo development, the researchers injected embryos with antisense ... June 2015). "Excess of rare, inherited truncating mutations in autism". Nature Genetics. 47 (6): 582-8. doi:10.1038/ng.3303. ... The ZIP12 protein contains many elements that are conserved across other ZIP transporters in vertebrates (including mammals and ...
2007 - she was awarded the Genetics Society Medal 2008 - the United States National Academy of Sciences elected her a foreign ... FLC regulation involves an antisense-mediated chromatin mechanism that coordinately influences transcription initiation and ... "Patterns of gene action in plant development revealed by enhancer trap and gene trap transposable elements". Genes & ... Gitschier, J. (2013). "How Cool is That: An Interview with Caroline Dean". PLOS Genetics. 9 (6): e1003593. doi:10.1371/journal. ...
GcvB regulates genes by acting as an antisense binding partner of the mRNAs for each regulated gene. This binding is dependent ... PLOS Genetics. 10 (1): e1004026. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1004026. PMC 3879156. PMID 24391513. Page for GcvB RNA at Rfam (All ... "A small RNA regulates multiple ABC transporter mRNAs by targeting C/A-rich elements inside and upstream of ribosome-binding ... PLOS Genetics. 9 (1): e1003156. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1003156. PMC 3536696. PMID 23300478. Busi F, Cayrol B, Lavelle C, ...
Forrest MD (December 2014). "The sodium-potassium pump is an information processing element in brain computation". Frontiers in ... Novel therapies target the RNA defects associated with cerebellar disorders, using in particular anti-sense oligonucleotides. ... American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A. 188 (6): 1909-1914. doi:10.1002/ajmg.a.62701. PMID 35195341. S2CID 247058153. ... but could be a computational element in the cerebellum and the brain. Indeed, an ouabain block of Na+ -K+ pumps in the ...
Bacteriological water analysis Contamination control Nosocomial infection NrsZ small RNA AsponA antisense RNA Repression of ... PLOS Genetics. 9 (9): e1003741. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1003741. PMC 3764201. PMID 24039595. Wee BA, Tai AS, Sherrard LJ, et ... heat shock gene expression (ROSE) element Pseudomon-1 RNA motif (ErsA sRNA) PrrF RNA Pseudomonas sRNA P16 (RgsA sRNA) "UK ... PLOS Genetics. 8 (9): e1002928. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1002928. PMC 3441735. PMID 23028345. Zhang YF, Han K, Chandler CE, et ...
ISBN 978-0-8153-4072-0. (Web Edition, Free access) Turnpenny & Ellard: Emery's Elements of Medical Genetics 13E (http://www. ... Lee, J. T.; Davidow, L. S.; Warshawsky, D. (1999). "Tisx, a gene antisense to Xist at the X-inactivation centre". Nat. Genet. ... Indian Journal of Human Genetics. 14 (1): 7-8. doi:10.4103/0971-6866.42320. ISSN 0971-6866. PMC 2840782. PMID 20300284. Alberts ...
This small structural element (HelixC) caps the C-terminal end of the ARM domain, shielding its hydrophobic residues. HelixC is ... Inhibition of GSK-3 translation by injection of antisense mRNA may cause a second blastopore and a superfluous body axis to ... Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press & The Genetics Society. 16 (10): 1167-1181. doi:10.1101/gad.976502. PMID 12023297. S2CID ... Termed armadillo repeats, all these elements fold together into a single, rigid protein domain with an elongated shape - called ...
Cotten M, Schaffner G, Birnstiel ML (1989). "Ribozyme, antisense RNA, and antisense DNA inhibition of U7 small nuclear ... Southgate C, Busslinger M (1989). "In vivo and in vitro expression of U7 snRNA genes: cis- and trans-acting elements required ... Nature Reviews Genetics. 9 (11): 843-854. doi:10.1038/nrg2438. PMC 2715827. PMID 18927579. Page for U7 small nuclear RNA at ... Madocsai C, Lim SR, Geib T, Lam BJ, Hertel KJ (2005). "Correction of SMN2 Pre-mRNA splicing by antisense U7 small nuclear RNAs ...
Antisense knockdown of perlecan in fibrosarcoma cell lines led to increased growth and migration both in vitro and in vivo. ... They relate this to the fact that many genes elevated in response to hypoxia contain a cAMP response element (CRE) in their ... Nature Genetics. 9 (3): 321-8. doi:10.1038/ng0395-321. PMID 7773297. S2CID 10050610. Smith SM, West LA, Govindraj P, Zhang X, ... Antisense in colon carcinoma cells blocks perlecan translation, leading to decreased tumor growth and angiogenesis. A similar ...
American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics. 156B (6): 700-8. doi:10.1002/ajmg.b.31212. PMC 3292872 ... Nr3c1 is a transcription factor that encodes a glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and contains many GR response elements. Npas4 is ... Another option is to inhibit the miRNAs in order to reduce their effects, potentially using antisense oligonucleotides or ... American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics. 165B (7): 541-54. doi:10.1002/ajmg.b.32265. PMC ...
Andrews RJ, Roche J, Moss WN (2018). "ScanFold: an approach for genome-wide discovery of local RNA structural elements- ... Taneda A (2012). "Multi-objective genetic algorithm for pseudoknotted RNA sequence design". Frontiers in Genetics. 3: 36. doi: ... RNA bind to each other forming part of the spliceosome and many small bacterial RNAs regulate gene expression by antisense ... May 2005). "Combinatorial microRNA target predictions". Nature Genetics. 37 (5): 495-500. doi:10.1038/ng1536. PMID 15806104. ...
Genetics. 179 (1): 487-496. doi:10.1534/genetics.107.084491. PMC 2390625. PMID 18493065. Li L, Foster CM, Gan Q, Nettleton D, ... were recently acquired from integrative elements (or mobile genetic elements) from non-cellular sources such as viruses and ... January 2014). "NCYM, a Cis-antisense gene of MYCN, encodes a de novo evolved protein that inhibits GSK3β resulting in the ... doi:10.1534/genetics.118.301249. PMC 6116962. PMID 30026186. Bungard D, Copple JS, Yan J, Chhun JJ, Kumirov VK, Foy SG, et al ...
Advances in Genetics. Vol. 63. pp. 25-55. doi:10.1016/S0065-2660(08)01002-X. ISBN 9780123745279. PMID 19185184. Grimaldi R, ... encoding protein WEE2 antisense RNA 1 XKR5: encoding protein XK, Kell blood group complex subunit-related family, member 5 ... purine-rich element binding protein B PVRIG: encoding protein Poliovirus receptor related immunoglobulin domain containing ... "Chromosome 7". Genetics Home Reference. Archived from the original on August 3, 2004. Retrieved 2017-05-06. "Chromosome 7". ...
Antisense Elements (Genetics)* * Bacterial Proteins / genetics * Mycobacterium tuberculosis / genetics* * Superoxide Dismutase ... Mycobacterial genetics: the sensibility of antisense Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2002 Feb 1;165(3):318-9. doi: 10.1164/ajrccm. ...
Antisense Elements (Genetics) - Preferred Concept UI. M0025053. Scope note. Nucleic acids which hybridize to complementary ... Anti Sense Elements. Anti Sense Probes. Anti-Sense Elements. Anti-Sense Probes. Antisense Probes. Elements, Anti-Sense. Probes ... Antisense Elements (Genetics) Entry term(s). Anti Sense Elements Anti-Sense Elements Elements, Anti-Sense ... GE genetics. HI history. IM immunology. IP isolation & purification. ME metabolism. PD pharmacology. PH physiology. PK ...
Antisense Elements (Genetics), Gene Expression Regulation, Genetic Therapy, Humans, Mental Disorders, Models, Genetic ...
Antisense Elements (Genetics). *Apoptosis. *Axons. *Azacitidine. *Base Pairing. *Base Sequence. *Behavior, Addictive ...
Antisense Elements (Genetics), Autoradiography, DNA, Complementary:biosynthesis, Male, RNA, Messenger:biosynthesis, Rats, Rats ...
Antisense Elements (Genetics) [D13.150] Antisense Elements (Genetics) * Nucleic Acid Precursors [D13.400] Nucleic Acid ... GE genetics. HI history. IM immunology. IP isolation & purification. ME metabolism. PD pharmacology. PH physiology. PK ...
Antisense Elements (Genetics). *Nucleic Acid Precursors. *Nucleic Acids. *Nucleosides. *Nucleotides. publications Timeline , ...
Antisense Elements (Genetics). *Nucleic Acid Precursors. *Nucleic Acids. *Nucleosides. *Nucleotides. Below are MeSH descriptors ...
The launch element realizes sense as well as antisense codons, and also possesses several domain names, consisting of a domain ... Termination of translation happens when a polypeptide chain quits formation of a genetics item, which is actually the end ...
... in an antisense orientation within the 5 untranslated agouti exon 1C. This retrovirus-like element is responsible for ... A brief description of mouse-coat-color genetics is then followed by a discussion of human MC1-R variants, which are present in ... Coat color genetics, when successfully adapted and applied to different mammalian species, provides a good demonstration of the ... Although the genetics of pigmentation is broadly conserved across most mammalian species, pigment type-switching in domestic ...
The release element PRIS, which is an antimicrobial, hinders P-site tRNA hydrolysis and also peptide bond formation. It ties ... The launch factor identifies feeling and also antisense codons, as well as has multiple domains, consisting of a domain that ... Discontinuation of interpretation takes place when a polypeptide establishment ceases synthesis of a genetics product, which is ... This method is triggered by a stop codon, which is actually realized by a class I release element. ...
The launch element acknowledges sense and antisense codons, and has a number of domain names, consisting of a domain name that ... Termination of interpretation develops when a polypeptide establishment quits synthesis of a genetics item, which is actually ...
PU.1 expression is modulated by the balance of functional sense and antisense RNAs regulated by a shared cis-regulatory element ... Ledford, H. Circular RNAs throw genetics for a loop. Nature 2013, 494, 415. [Google Scholar] ... HOXA-AS2:HOXA Cluster Antisense RNA 2 (HOXA-AS2) lncRNA is antisense to HOX3 and HOX4 coding genes. In an acute promyelocytic ... Antisense Non-coding RNA in the INK4 Locus (ANRIL) or CDKN2B-AS1 is transcribed antisense to the p15INK4b-p14ARF-p16INK4a ...
A crucial element of the code is actually accountability. Members have to be actually responsible for the job they perform. ... The release variable recognizes sense as well as antisense codons, and also has various domain names, featuring a domain that ... Termination of interpretation takes place when a polypeptide chain ceases synthesis of a genetics item, which is actually ... The release element PRIS, which is actually an antimicrobial, hinders P-site tRNA hydrolysis as well as peptide connect ...
... which is actually the end result of genetics expression. The release factor identifies feeling and also antisense codons, as ... Yet another launch element is Api137, which is an 18-residue antimicrobial peptide that is a particular prevention of firing. ...
Although a few reports have discussed cis-regulatory elements in new genes, knowledge of the characteristics of these elements ... Their short evolution time and lack of parent genes provide a chance to study the evolution of cis-regulatory elements in the ... Here, we conducted a comprehensive investigation to depict the emergence and establishment of cis-regulatory elements in de ... A de novo originated gene depresses budding yeast mating pathway and is repressed by the protein encoded by its antisense ...
A unified classification system for eukaryotic transposable elements in NATURE REVIEWS GENETICS ... Cold-induced silencing by long antisense transcripts of an Arabidopsis Polycomb target in NATURE ... The Cancer Genome Atlas Pan-Cancer analysis project in NATURE GENETICS. *2012-11-17. Integrating cereal genomics to support ... DNA fingerprinting in botany: past, present, future in INVESTIGATIVE GENETICS. *2013-12-03. Epistasis and quantitative traits: ...
In contrast, the in vivo inhibition of this enzyme in mice by using anti-sense RNA molecules supplied by an AAV vector ... This work was published in the journal Human Molecular Genetics on September 10, 2015. ... and monitoring elements) to demonstrate the efficacy and tolerance of the strategy, in order to apply for clinical trial ... the cholesterol efflux out of the brain by overexpressing the enzyme CYP46A1 could have a beneficial effect on elements of the ...
Nature Reviews Genetics , vol. 8, no. 12, pp. 973-982, 2007. R. K. Slotkin and R. Martienssen, " Transposable elements and the ... In some cases, the reduction of the sense expression of the gene was correlated with the production of the antisense strand ... As opposed to retrotransposons, class 2 elements (DNA elements) displayed completely different patterns in synthetic ... As opposed to retrotransposons, class 2 elements (DNA elements) displayed completely different patterns in synthetic ...
Common elements in the Latin American mechanisms in cooperation in the peaceful exploration and use of outer space. Aoki, S., ... Comparative expression analysis uncovers novel features of endogenous antisense transcription. Okada, Y., Tashiro, C., Numata, ... Human molecular genetics. 17, 11, p. 1631-1640 10 p.. 研究成果: Article › 査読 ... Comparative evaluation of viewing elements by visibility heat map of 3D isovist. Lee, J., Ikeda, Y. & Hotta, K., 2019, ...
Human Molecular Genetics. 22(21):4318-28, 2013.. Imprinting in the CNS and neurodevelopment disorders. Powell W, LaSalle JM. ... Topotecan treatment stabilizes the formation of RNA:DNA hybrids (R-loops) at G-skewed repeat elements within paternal SNORD116 ... R-loop formation at Snord116 mediates topotecan inhibition of Ube3a-antisense and allele-specific chromatin decondensation. ... Mendiola A.J.P., LaSalle J.M. Frontiers in Genetics, 2021. DOI:10.3389/fgene.2021.624581 ...
Interviews bring genetics to life in new book. 09/16/2010. COLD SPRING HARBOR, N.Y. (Sept. 16, 2010) - A new book, Speaking of ... The Human Initiator is a Distinct and Abundant Element that is Precisely Positioned in Focused Core Promoters ... Making Sense of Antisense microRNAs. 01/01/2008. Three independent papers in the January 1st issue of G&D report on the ... Genetics of Aging and Cancer Resistance. 11/15/2008. In the November 15th issue of G&D, Dr. Kenneth Dorshkind and colleagues at ...
Interviews bring genetics to life in new book. 09/16/2010. COLD SPRING HARBOR, N.Y. (Sept. 16, 2010) - A new book, Speaking of ... The Human Initiator is a Distinct and Abundant Element that is Precisely Positioned in Focused Core Promoters ... Making Sense of Antisense microRNAs. 01/01/2008. Three independent papers in the January 1st issue of G&D report on the ... Genetics of Aging and Cancer Resistance. 11/15/2008. In the November 15th issue of G&D, Dr. Kenneth Dorshkind and colleagues at ...
Gene expression analysis further suggests that antisense transcripts generated from the oppositely oriented overlapping genes ... Tamura K, Dudley J, Nei M, Kumar S: MEGA4: Molecular Evolutionary Genetics Analysis (MEGA) software version 4.0. Mol Biol Evol ... Osato N, Suzuki Y, Ikeo K, Gojobori T: Transcriptional interferences in cis natural antisense transcripts of humans and mice. ... Lim JK, Simmons MJ: Gross chromosome rearrangements mediated by transposable elements in Drosophila melanogaster. Bioessays. ...
These elements govern the self-assembly of these amphiphilic elements in option, with unimers produced below the CMT and CMC ... Linear and X-shaped stop copolymers, which possess been reported to deliver genetics cells works with its incapability to ... its interruption by homologous antisense and recombination RNA benefits in the failing of changed Ax-3 cellular material to ... these elements provides not yet been translated to application in individuals because of low transfection toxicity and ...
Other novel SECIS elements provided by the invention are chimeric SECIS elements comprising a canonical SECIS element that ... Trends in Genetics, Vol. 15, Issue 9, p. 358-363. * https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-9525(99)01818-1 ... C12N2310/11 - Antisense. C12N15/8218 - {Antisense, co-suppression, viral induced gene silencing [VIGS], post-transcriptional ... The nucleic acid constructs comprise novel selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS) elements. Certain novel SECIS elements of ...
Testing novel generation antisense oligonucleotides for potential therapeutic use in COVID-19 infections.. ... Developing genomic visualization tools to understand the pandemic from a genetics perspective. ... spatial properties and distribution characteristics of the macromolecular elements on the membrane. This information is ... Valerio Orlandos lab is exploring the possibility of using novel generation antisense oligonucleotides as an adjuvant in ...
Genetics. 2009;. 182. :343-353. DOI: 10.1534 / genetics. 108. 100289. *61. Ashraf M. Inducing drought tolerance in plants: ... Antisense-mediated depletion of tomato endoplasmic reticulum omega-3 fatty acid desaturase enhances thermal tolerance. Journal ... GmDREB2A; 2, a canonical DEHYDRATION-RESPONSIVE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN 2-type transcription factor in soybean, is post ... Molecular and General Genetics. 1998;258:269-278. *64. Nieto-Sotelo J, Martınez LM, Ponce G, Cassab GI, Alagon A, Meeley RB, et ...
4. Dual regulation of a heat shock promoter during embryogenesis: stage-dependent role of heat shock elements ... Tobacco mosaic virus; protein synthesis; antisense RNA; open reading frames; enzymes; transgenic plants; Potato virus X; strain ... epigenetics; Zea mays; methylation; enzymes; transcription (genetics); binding sites; promoter regions; transposons. Abstract: ... Transgenic tobacco expression was analysed of chimeric genes with point mutations in the heat shock element (HSE) arrays of ...
  • The launch element realizes sense as well as antisense codons, and also possesses several domain names, consisting of a domain that ties the cease codon. (directxscreensavers.com)
  • The launch factor identifies feeling and also antisense codons, as well as has multiple domains, consisting of a domain that ties the stop codon. (realestatebynili.com)
  • The launch element acknowledges sense and antisense codons, and has a number of domain names, consisting of a domain name that binds the deter codon. (admiralbaileytransportationservicesjamaica.com)
  • The release variable recognizes sense as well as antisense codons, and also has various domain names, featuring a domain that binds the stop codon. (goodwatermusic.com)
  • The release factor identifies feeling and also antisense codons, as well as possesses various domain names, including a domain that ties the deter codon. (interiordesignschoolguys.com)
  • The launch variable recognizes sense and antisense codons, and has multiple domain names, consisting of a domain name that ties the deter codon. (postcardsfromthefunnyfarm.com)
  • The launch variable identifies feeling and antisense codons, and also has a number of domains, including a domain name that ties the cease codon. (swvanwtf.com)
  • This work was published in the journal Human Molecular Genetics on September 10, 2015. (cea.fr)
  • Human Molecular Genetics. (fpwr.org)
  • Denise made many contributions to our understanding of mammalian molecular genetics, but her studies on the epigenetic control of genome function and, in particular, her contributions to genomic imprinting were the most estimable and can best be illustrated in three remarkable discoveries. (biologists.com)
  • Their short evolution time and lack of parent genes provide a chance to study the evolution of cis -regulatory elements in the initial stage of gene emergence. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Although a few reports have discussed cis -regulatory elements in new genes, knowledge of the characteristics of these elements in de novo genes is lacking. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we conducted a comprehensive investigation to depict the emergence and establishment of cis -regulatory elements in de novo yeast genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Gene expression analysis further suggests that antisense transcripts generated from the oppositely oriented overlapping genes are differentially regulated and may have important regulatory functions in these mosquitoes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • MicroRNAs are non-coding, regulatory elements approximately 22 nucleotides long, with the ability to control post-transcriptional expression of genes(3). (pharmaceuticalintelligence.com)
  • We transformed native tobacco (Nicotiana attenuata) with a consensus fragment of its two putrescine N-methyl transferase (pmt) genes in either antisense or inverted-repeat (IR pmt ) orientations. (plos.org)
  • Using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans they show that the inheritance of small RNAs antisense to histone genes adversely affect the fertility of worms across generations until they become sterile. (pasteur.fr)
  • We show that the transgenerational loss of fertility in piRNA mutants is not caused by de-repression of repetitive elements, as previously thought, but rather by the epigenetic silencing of all the replicative histone genes. (pasteur.fr)
  • In addition, they have demonstrated that the transmission of a pool of small RNAs antisense to histone genes into wild-type worms epigenetically affects their fertility. (pasteur.fr)
  • Finally, they have dissected the molecular mechanism by which small RNAs antisense to histone genes are generated and transmitted across generations in piRNA mutants. (pasteur.fr)
  • Abstract Transposable elements (TEs) constitute over 90% of the wheat genome. (deepdyve.com)
  • 1. Introduction Some DNA sequences possess the unique ability to move from one place in the genome to another, these sequences are usually termed transposable elements (TEs). (deepdyve.com)
  • PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) are considered to be the "guardian of the genome" given their ability to repress transposable elements and preserve genome integrity in animal germlines. (pasteur.fr)
  • Termination of translation happens when a polypeptide chain quits formation of a genetics item, which is actually the end result of gene articulation. (directxscreensavers.com)
  • The insertion of a full-length Bos taurus LINE element is responsible for a transcriptional deregulation of the Normande Agouti gene. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • We have found a previously undescribed full-length L1-BT element inserted in the 5'-genomic sequence of the Agouti gene in Normande cattle which promotes the over-expression of alternative transcripts. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • Discontinuation of interpretation takes place when a polypeptide establishment ceases synthesis of a genetics product, which is the end outcome of gene expression. (realestatebynili.com)
  • Termination of interpretation develops when a polypeptide establishment quits synthesis of a genetics item, which is actually the end outcome of gene expression. (admiralbaileytransportationservicesjamaica.com)
  • Termination of interpretation takes place when a polypeptide chain ceases synthesis of a genetics item, which is actually completion result of gene articulation. (goodwatermusic.com)
  • Given its role in regulating brain development and activity, BDNF represents a potentially relevant gene for schizophrenia , and indeed BDNF and its non-synonymous functional variant, rs6265 (C → T, Val → Met) have been widely studied in psychiatric genetics. (lww.com)
  • Firing of interpretation occurs when a polypeptide chain ceases formation of a genetics item, which is completion outcome of gene articulation. (postcardsfromthefunnyfarm.com)
  • Here we describe new larger isoforms of the Mest mRNA, referred to as MestXL, that are generated via alternative polyadenylation and transcribed more than 10kb into the adjacent antisense gene Copg2 exclusively in the developing central nervous system. (ubc.ca)
  • Our results therefore establish the Mest DMR as an IC and propose a new mechanism to regulate allelic usage and imprinting at sense-antisense gene pairs in mammalian genomes, via tissue-specific alternative polyadenylation and transcriptional interference. (ubc.ca)
  • The experiment hypothesized that an ASO (antisense oligonucleotide) drug, which Huynh designed with Ionis Pharmaceuticals, would target and reduce the ApoE gene, thus diminishing the amount of Abeta protein in the brain and reducing plaques. (wustl.edu)
  • Topotecan treatment stabilizes the formation of RNA:DNA hybrids (R-loops) at G-skewed repeat elements within paternal SNORD116, resulting in increased chromatin decondensation and inhibition of Ube3a-ATS expression. (fpwr.org)
  • R-loop formation at Snord116 mediates topotecan inhibition of Ube3a-antisense and allele-specific chromatin decondensation. (fpwr.org)
  • Mendiola A.J.P., LaSalle J.M. Frontiers in Genetics, 2021. (fpwr.org)
  • Discontinuation of interpretation occurs when a polypeptide establishment quits formation of a genetics product, which is the end outcome of genetics articulation. (swvanwtf.com)
  • Further examination of miR-148 established that Liver-X-Receptor (LXR) activation of the Sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP1c), the transcription factor responsible for controlling fatty acid production and glucose metabolism, also mediates the expression of miR-148a(4,5) That the promoter region of miR-148 contained binding sites for SREBP1c was shown by chromatin immunoprecipitation combined with massively parallel sequencing (ChIP-seq)(4). (pharmaceuticalintelligence.com)
  • New and emerging therapies are now available through promising clinical trials including antisense oligomers that show improvements in the 6-min walk test compared with historical controls. (cdc.gov)
  • The genetics of BWS are complex, but evidence for genomic imprinting effects is present for each of the 3 major subgroups of patients (familial, sporadic, and those with chromosome anomalies) (see ref. 3 and references cited therein). (jci.org)
  • Antisense as an explanatory, experimental and therapeutic tool for psychiatric disorders. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Thought you might appreciate this item(s) I saw in Psychiatric Genetics. (lww.com)
  • same epub Zen of rearrangements with plants: antisense of data and their estimate into developments and elements. (kaminbau-altmann.de)
  • The variable expression of the alternative transcript directed by the long interspersed nuclear element promoter may be the origin of the brindle coat color pattern of the Normande breed. (embl-heidelberg.de)
  • More specifically, SREBP1c attaches to the E-box2, E-box3 and E-box4 elements on miR-148-1a promoter sites to control its expression(4). (pharmaceuticalintelligence.com)
  • Therefore, this study helps to change the current dogma that upregulation of repetitive elements underlies the sterility in piRNA mutants. (pasteur.fr)
  • The release element PRIS, which is an antimicrobial, hinders P-site tRNA hydrolysis and also peptide bond formation. (realestatebynili.com)
  • This method is triggered by a stop codon, which is actually realized by a class I release element. (realestatebynili.com)
  • Study record managers: refer to the Data Element Definitions if submitting registration or results information. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • If preimplantation genetic diagnosis has its desired effect - reducing the number of children born with disabling conditions - "it could change the way society views the disabled," says a 2004 report by the Genetics and Public Policy Center at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore. (mda.org)
  • Earlier, the same researchers- Andres Naars and his team had found another microRNA called miR-33 to block HDL generation, and this blockage to reverse upon antisense targeting of miR-33(6). (pharmaceuticalintelligence.com)
  • Paracrine elements, transdifferentiation and cell blend are the three generally approved ideas detailing the helpful results of come cell grafting. (informationalwebs.com)
  • Paracrine elements through different results, such as improved angiogenesis or modulation of postinfarct redesigning, may represent an essential factor of the benefits [10,11]. (informationalwebs.com)
  • Considering that DNA demethylation or hypermethylation of transposable element sequences is associated with their activation or silencing, respectively. (deepdyve.com)
  • Primary cultures of murine neurons were treated with antisense oligonucleotides to down-regulate APP. (nih.gov)
  • Oligonucleotides, Antisense" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (wakehealth.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Oligonucleotides, Antisense" by people in this website by year, and whether "Oligonucleotides, Antisense" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (wakehealth.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Oligonucleotides, Antisense" by people in Profiles. (wakehealth.edu)
  • We possess proven that in cultured parathyroid cells, menin exhaustion attained by antisense oligonucleotides led to reduction of TGF- inhibition of parathyroid cell growth and parathyroid hormone (PTH) release (29). (johnstoncassel.com)
  • Splice-switching antisense oligonucleotides reduce LRRK2 kinase activity in human LRRK2 transgenic mice. (harvard.edu)
  • Oligonucleotide therapeutics - the emerging medicine class - are harnessing the therapeutic benefit of targeting genetic material utilising oligonucleotide conjugates, antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs), mRNA and RNAi. (smgconferences.com)
  • New research at RML has shown that synthetic compounds called antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) can be targeted to stop production of normal prion protein without adverse side effects. (nih.gov)
  • The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. (uams.edu)
  • After the identification of the molecular players in this RNA-based control: regulatory RNAs, the RNA chaperone protein Hfq and specific ribonucleases, we will look at the dynamics of expression of these regulatory elements during C. difficile infection cycle and their role for the C. difficile interactions with other components of gut communities including numerous bacteriophages. (paris-saclay.fr)
  • The goal of this study was to perform a comprehensive analysis of long noncoding (lncRNAs) and antisense (asRNAs) RNAs expressed in mouse retinal photoreceptors. (nih.gov)
  • The lin-4 and let-7 antisense RNAs are temporal regulators that control the timing of developmental events inCaenorhabditis elegans by inhibiting translation of target mRNAs. (semanticscholar.org)
  • 285:1935-1950 (1999)), combinations of sense and antisense (Waterhouse et al. (justia.com)
  • Based on deep GRO-seq studies of mouse and human B lineage cells activated for CSR or SHM, we report that most robust AID off-target translocations occur within highly focal regions of target genes in which sense and antisense transcription converge. (nih.gov)
  • Small 5'-capped RNA sequencing (Start-seq) originally developed for the detection of promoter-proximal Pol II pausing has helped improve annotation of Transcription Start Sites (TSSs) of genes as well as identification of non-genic regulatory elements. (nih.gov)
  • Over 48 million uniquely mappable reads from two independent biological replicates allowed us to define the TSSs of 7365 known genes in the rn6 genome, reannotating 2503 TSSs by more than 5 base pairs, characterize promoter-associated antisense transcription, and profile Pol II pausing. (nih.gov)
  • Menin interacts with many transcription elements, including JunD (16), NF-B (17), and Smads (18C20), and modulates their actions. (johnstoncassel.com)
  • 1. Promoter hypomethylation of the LINE-1 retrotransposable elements activates sense/antisense transcription and marks the progression of chronic myeloid leukemia. (nih.gov)
  • Transcriptome and accessibility analyses suggest reduced expression of B lineage transcription factors (TFs) and targets and loss of D and V antisense transcription in IL-7Rα B cells. (babraham.ac.uk)
  • Moreover, we found that such AID-targeting "convergent" transcription arises from antisense transcription that emanates from super-enhancers within sense transcribed gene bodies. (nih.gov)
  • Complementary tendencies in the use of regulatory elements (transcription factors, sigma factors, and riboswitches) in Bacteria and Archaea Journal of Bacteriology, 203, e00413-20. (unam.mx)
  • The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). (wikigenes.org)
  • For many years, the 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) of the TP53 mRNA has been a widely studied element of p53 expression regulation. (elifesciences.org)
  • With this study, the particular Genetics methylation reputation regarding PR-HTR1A and also the Peptide 17 in vivo amount of HTR1A mRNA had been detected in the PBLC regarding SLE individuals and HC. (fgfrinhibitors.com)
  • Antisense lncRNAs overlap with mRNA gene body, and divergent lncRNAs share promoter with nearby coding genes but extend in an opposite orientation [ 7 ]. (oncotarget.com)
  • MicroRNA and siRNA also differ in the anticipated function: microRNAs are considered to alter gene expression, stabilise mRNA and protein level and repress stochastic fluctuations of the gene expression level between different cells while siRNAs predominantly target exogenous nucleic acids such as mobile genetic elements and viral mRNA [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Antisense oligonucleotide therapy in a humanized mouse model of MECP2 duplication syndrome. (viictr.org)
  • Armed with this discovery about how the repeat functions normally, the team worked with Ionis Pharmaceuticals to develop an antisense oligonucleotide (ASO), a short strand of modified DNA that can specifically target the transcripts of a defective gene to correct an abnormality. (newswise.com)
  • The purpose of this session is to introduce the SUD Genomics field to strategies that assess the parts of the genome that are typical y not included in GWAS studies: transposable elements and structural variations. (nih.gov)
  • Current functional genomics studies focus on the role of selected TCS elements on barley endosperm and grain development. (ipk-gatersleben.de)
  • From 1989-1998, he served as Senior Research Officer in genetics and genomics at the Biotechnology Research Institute, National Research Council of Canada, Montreal. (smgconferences.com)
  • She came to NIH as a human genetics fellow in the NICHD, and was subsequently promoted to head of the Section on Human Iron Metabolism, and then to head of the Metals Biology and Molecular Medicine Branch. (nih.gov)
  • Cathy was a post-doctoral fellow at the University of California, Berkeley prior to her research in the Departments of Genetics and Biochemistry at Stanford University School of Medicine. (agbt.org)
  • Her poster, titled "Fishing for Factors in Self-organization of Biological Systems: Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans Regulate FGF Signaling in the Zebrafish Lateral Line," received one of two best poster awards in the Biochemistry/Genetics/Cell & Molecular Biology category. (nih.gov)
  • By combining TSS data with polyA-selected RNA sequencing, we also identified thousands of potential new genes producing stable RNA as well as non-genic transcripts representing possible regulatory elements. (nih.gov)
  • In iron-depleted cells, the proteins bind to RNA stem-loops in transcripts known as iron-responsive elements (IRE). (nih.gov)
  • IRPs bind to RNA stem-loops known as iron-responsive elements (IREs) in transcripts that encode iron metabolism genes, including ferritin, transferrin receptor 1, ferroportin, HIF2 alpha, and several other transcripts. (nih.gov)
  • Further characterization of lncRNA candidates led to the discovery of an intriguing family of lncRNA telomere-associated repetitive element transcripts, termed lncRNA-TARE. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A high ratio of ribosomal footprints per transcript (ribosomal coverage value, RCV) is expected to indicate a translated RNA, while a low RCV should point to a non-translated RNA.ResultsBased on their low RCV, 150 novel non-translated EHEC transcripts were identified as putative ncRNAs, representing both antisense and intergenic transcripts, 74 of which had expressed homologs in E. coli MG1655. (springernature.com)
  • 1. Chenais B, Caruso A, Hiard S, Casse N. The impact of transposable elements on eukaryotic genomes: from genome size increase to genetic adaptation to stressful environments. (prolekare.cz)
  • Influenced by the 1941-1942 lectures and laboratory course by Prof. Adolf Joszt [the Chairman of the Department of Industrial Fermentation and Biotechnology, Division of Chemical Engineering, Lwow Institute of Technology (Politechnika Lwowska), Lwow, Poland], Dr. W. Szybalski's scientific interest shifted from chemistry to microbial genetics, and he carried out pedigree analysis of the genetic crosses between Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces chevalieri. (fpws.pl)
  • In the current work we used marked P -element insertions as dominant markers to efficiently locate one genetic factor causing a severe reduction in fertility in hybrid males of Drosophila simulans and D. mauritiana . (biomedcentral.com)
  • This review aims to provide an overview of current knowledge relating to the genetics of PWS and PWLS, with an emphasis on identification of patients that may benefit from further investigation and genetic screening. (e-apem.org)
  • I introduced the term in a review that I wrote in 1952 called, "The Cell Genetics and Hereditary Symbiosis (ref 50 in Genetic Recombination paper). (nih.gov)
  • However, we are at the very earliest stages of understanding how mobile element insertions influence specific phenotypes and to the extent to which they contribute to genetic diversity and human disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Of all mobile element families, only the retrotransposons remain actively mobile in the human and primate genomes and serve as ongoing sources of genetic variation by generating new transposon insertions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The collection comprehensively covers the many facets of Cohen's career from his early work in artificial intelligence medical diagnosis, his discovery of recombinant DNA technology, the development of laboratory safety standards, the promotion of public knowledge about science, and the ongoing focus of his lab in the areas of plasmid inheritance, cell growth, mobile genetic elements. (nih.gov)
  • There are multiple theories about lncRNA origins and evolution, such as gene duplication and generation by mobile genetic element insertion. (cd-genomics.com)
  • She is known for developing the first molecular genetic map of rice and for her key and sustained role in turning rice into a model for genetics and breeding research. (agbt.org)
  • A total of 42 NTS isolates were subjected to WGS and explored for virulence-related traits and the corresponding genetic elements. (preprints.org)
  • In contrast, antisense lncRNAs and divergent lncRNAs originate from the non-template strand. (oncotarget.com)
  • Various techniques have been developed for targeting cancer cells: gene therapy, monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), antibody toxin conjugates, small-molecule inhibitors, antisense molecules, and tumor vaccines. (medscape.com)
  • If our L1 hypothesis is supported, novel therapeutic options are conceivable, including antisense RNA therapy directed against retrotransposon expression or nucleoside inhibitors against ORF2 reverse transcriptase activity. (grantome.com)
  • Insertion of mobile DNA sequences typically has deleterious effects on host fitness, and thus diverse mechanisms have evolved to control mobile element proliferation. (prolekare.cz)
  • In this study, we have developed 11 different U7 small-nuclear RNA, to shuttle antisense sequences designed to mask key elements involved in the splicing of exons 45 to 55. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In these cases, mobile element sequences have been co-opted by the host genome for a new purpose. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Antisense-mediated exon skipping is one of the most promising approaches for the treatment of DMD but still faces personalized medicine challenges as different mutations found in DMD patients require skipping of different exons. (ox.ac.uk)
  • 2007). Discovery of functional elements in 12 Drosophila genomes using evolutionary signatures. (scirp.org)
  • Smad2, -3, and -4 are regarded to end up being growth suppressors, and mutations in many elements 1201898-17-0 supplier of the TGF- signaling path lead to a wide range of malignancies. (johnstoncassel.com)
  • Antisense as an explanatory, experimental and therapeutic tool for psychiatric disorders. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Francesca Sofia briefly presented the highlights of her full landscape report of RDH12 RDs (see Supplementary Material ), from the current understanding of genetics, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, therapeutic approaches, and research precedents from other clinical trials, including the development of Luxturna for RPE65 -associated RD. (arvojournals.org)
  • NIEHS research uses state-of-the-art science and technology to investigate the interplay between environmental exposures, human biology, genetics, and common diseases to help prevent disease and improve human health. (nih.gov)
  • Genomic demography: a life-history analysis of transposable element evolution. (prolekare.cz)
  • DNA transposons, referred to as Class II elements, mobilize by a 'cut-and-paste' mechanism in which the transposon is excised from a donor site before inserting into a new genomic location. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Retrotransposons, also known as Class I elements, mobilize by a 'copy-and-paste' mechanism of transposition in which RNA intermediates are reverse transcribed and inserted into new genomic locations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It was proven that siRNAs targeted at mRNAs of the previous , , and genetics effectively quiet the focus on genetics and possess an antiproliferative impact on human being tumor cells for 5?times following transfection [41]. (gpr109a.info)
  • We proven that siRNAs that are homologous to mRNAs of the , 26833-85-2 , and genetics quiet these Rabbit Polyclonal to PEX3 genetics, obtaining optimum impact (up to 4C22% of the control level) 72?l after transfection. (gpr109a.info)
  • The data acquired enable the fair presumption that the and and genetics in SK-N-MC cells can provide as potential effective focuses on for the real estate agents targeted at neuroblastoma, including siRNAs. (gpr109a.info)
  • Evidence for the role of recombination in the regulatory evolution of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ty elements. (prolekare.cz)
  • Multimodal regulatory elements within a hormone-specific super enhancer control a heterogeneous transcriptional response. (nih.gov)
  • Identification and characterization of conserved noncoding cis-regulatory elements that impact Mecp2 expression and neurological functions. (viictr.org)
  • We identify 25 frequently mutated regulatory elements, including an enhancer at 6p22.1 which associates with differential expression of ZSCAN16 (P = 6.6 × 10-4) and ZSCAN12 (P = 0.02). (escholarship.org)
  • Transposable elements and genome organization: a comprehensive survey of retrotransposons revealed by the complete Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome sequence. (prolekare.cz)
  • Tempo and mode of Ty element evolution in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (prolekare.cz)
  • The NF-B family members of transcriptional government bodies activates the genetics for development 1201898-17-0 supplier elements 1201898-17-0 supplier and their mobile receptors. (johnstoncassel.com)
  • Expression patterns were determined with in situ hybridization using whole or sectioned X. laevis embryos and digoxigenin- or fluorescein-labeled antisense riboprobes. (molvis.org)
  • The human kallikrein DNA constructs were placed under the control of the metallothionein metal response element, the cytomegalovirus promoter/enhancer or the Rous sarcoma virus 3'-LTR. (nih.gov)
  • LINEs (long interspersed nucleotide elements) represent the most abundant autonomous retrotransposons in humans, accounting for approximately 18% of human DNA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • encodes a transmembrane glycoprotein possessing tyrosine kinase activity and owed to the family members of human being epidermal development element receptors, which play a significant part in the legislation of the expansion, difference, and flexibility of human being epitelial cells [33, 34]. (gpr109a.info)
  • Abrogation of cisplatin-induced programmed cell death in human breast cancer cells by epidermal growth factor antisense RNA. (vanderbilt.edu)
  • The known level of amplification and appearance of these genetics in breasts or ovarian tumor cells, or tumor cells in additional human being body organs, can be substantially higher than that in the regular cells of these body organs [14, 17C32]. (gpr109a.info)
  • [ 32 ] It is thought that this region mediates irreversible anchoring of HlyA to the plasma membrane, contributes structural elements for pore assembly and confers a degree of target cell specificity. (medscape.com)
  • A Heterocyst-Specific Antisense RNA Contributes to Metabolic Reprogramming in Nostoc sp. (us.es)
  • Transposable elements constitute a large fraction of most eukaryotic genomes. (prolekare.cz)
  • Transposable elements (TEs) comprise a large fraction of mammalian genomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A number of these elements are actively jumping in our genomes today. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Yet, the extent to which these elements impact their host genomes is not completely understood. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Newswise - Over half of our genomes are made of repeating elements within DNA. (newswise.com)
  • Most transposable element insertions are expected to have few consequences for the host genome and, therefore, have little to no impact on gene function [ 10 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 70 participants will meet in beautiful Solstrand Hotel to discussion various topics related to mitochondrial function, genetics and disease. (uib.no)
  • In vivo RNA antisense purification (iRAP) of UCA1 interacting proteins identified angiomotin (AMOT), a known YAP regulator, as a direct binding partner. (escholarship.org)
  • The fundamental flaw, however, in this argument is that conservation is relative, and its estimation in the human genome is largely based on the questionable proposition that transposable elements, which provide the major source of evolutionary plasticity and novelty (Brosius 1999 ), are largely non-functional. (springeropen.com)
  • The lab is actively engaged in trying to treat diseases using antisense strategies. (nih.gov)
  • 2 However, this technology does not efficiently detect complex structural rearrangements such as inversions and mobile element insertions. (bmj.com)
  • Evolutionary paradigms dictate that useless elements and harmful TE insertions events should be selected against, while beneficial insertions should gain a selective advantage and thus be retained. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we present xTea (x-Transposable element analyzer), a tool for identifying TE insertions in whole-genome sequencing data. (harvard.edu)
  • By contrast, 45% of the human genome is composed of retroposed elements, many of which were inserted in the primate lineage. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Together, SINEs and SVA elements occupy ~13% of the human genome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Transposable elements (TEs) help shape the structure and function of the human genome. (harvard.edu)
  • To get more insight into the role of Sl-ERF.B.3 in plant response to separate salinity and cold, a comparative study between wild type and two Sl-ERF.B.3 antisense transgenic tomato lines was achieved. (hindawi.com)
  • Compared with wild type, Sl-ERF.B.3 antisense transgenic plants exhibited a salt stress dependent growth inhibition. (hindawi.com)
  • Furthermore, the cold stress essay clearly revealed that introducing antisense Sl-ERF.B.3 in transgenic tomato plants reduces their cell injury and enhances their tolerance against 14 d of cold stress. (hindawi.com)
  • 1-4 According to the 2016 World Health Organization classification guidelines, clinical practice integrates cell morphology, immunophenotype, genetics, and cytogenetics to diagnose and prognose leukemia. (lww.com)
  • These include long terminal repeat (LTR) elements such as endogenous retroviruses, and non-LTR retrotransposons. (biomedcentral.com)