Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active: Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.CD4 Lymphocyte Count: The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.Medication Adherence: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in taking drugs or medicine as prescribed. This includes timing, dosage, and frequency.HIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Patient Compliance: Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.Anti-Retroviral Agents: Agents used to treat RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.Enuresis: Involuntary discharge of URINE after expected age of completed development of urinary control. This can happen during the daytime (DIURNAL ENURESIS) while one is awake or during sleep (NOCTURNAL ENURESIS). Enuresis can be in children or in adults (as persistent primary enuresis and secondary adult-onset enuresis).AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections: Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.HIV Protease Inhibitors: Inhibitors of HIV PROTEASE, an enzyme required for production of proteins needed for viral assembly.Viral Tropism: The specificity of a virus for infecting a particular type of cell or tissue.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Substance Abuse, Intravenous: Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.Eligibility Determination: Criteria to determine eligibility of patients for medical care programs and services.Sarcoma, Kaposi: A multicentric, malignant neoplastic vascular proliferation characterized by the development of bluish-red cutaneous nodules, usually on the lower extremities, most often on the toes or feet, and slowly increasing in size and number and spreading to more proximal areas. The tumors have endothelium-lined channels and vascular spaces admixed with variably sized aggregates of spindle-shaped cells, and often remain confined to the skin and subcutaneous tissue, but widespread visceral involvement may occur. Kaposi's sarcoma occurs spontaneously in Jewish and Italian males in Europe and the United States. An aggressive variant in young children is endemic in some areas of Africa. A third form occurs in about 0.04% of kidney transplant patients. There is also a high incidence in AIDS patients. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, pp2105-7) HHV-8 is the suspected cause.Epidemiologic Studies: Studies designed to examine associations, commonly, hypothesized causal relations. They are usually concerned with identifying or measuring the effects of risk factors or exposures. The common types of analytic study are CASE-CONTROL STUDIES; COHORT STUDIES; and CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES.HIV Seropositivity: Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).HIV: Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.Xanthomatosis: A condition marked by the development of widespread xanthomas, yellow tumor-like structures filled with lipid deposits. Xanthomas can be found in a variety of tissues including the SKIN; TENDONS; joints of KNEES and ELBOWS. Xanthomatosis is associated with disturbance of LIPID METABOLISM and formation of FOAM CELLS.Metatarsophalangeal Joint: The articulation between a metatarsal bone (METATARSAL BONES) and a phalanx.Tendons: Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.Achilles Tendon: A fibrous cord that connects the muscles in the back of the calf to the HEEL BONE.Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II: A group of familial disorders characterized by elevated circulating cholesterol contained in either LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS alone or also in VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS (pre-beta lipoproteins).Metacarpophalangeal Joint: The articulation between a metacarpal bone and a phalanx.Factor XIIIa: Activated form of FACTOR XIII, a transglutaminase, which stabilizes the formation of the fibrin polymer (clot) culminating the blood coagulation cascade.

Influenza in three patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. (1/4193)

Three Japanese outpatients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on anti-retroviral therapy showed evidence of influenza in January 1999. CD4+ T cell counts of these patients prior to the diagnosis of influenza were 72, 248, and 152/mm3, and HIV RNA levels were 19,953, 1,259, and 1,585 copies/ml, respectively. Fever continued 4 to 5 days with no severe complications. One patient showed post-influenzal bronchitis which was effectively treated by antibiotics. None of these patients showed increased serum HIV RNA levels during and after influenza, however, in one patient, a transient reduction of CD4+ and CD8+ cells was seen during the active phase of influenza. Although symptoms of influenza in HIV carriers are generally mild and similar to those in healthy adults, careful follow-up is needed as symptoms of influenza in some HIV-infected patients can be prolonged and serious.  (+info)

The effect of potent antiretroviral therapy and JC virus load in cerebrospinal fluid on clinical outcome of patients with AIDS-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. (2/4193)

A multicenter analysis of 57 consecutive human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) was performed, to identify correlates of longer survival. JC virus (JCV) DNA was quantified in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by polymerase chain reaction. Two months after therapy, 4% of the patients without highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and 26% with HAART showed neurologic improvement or stability (P=.03), and 8% and 57%, respectively, reached undetectable JCV DNA levels in the CSF (P=.04). One-year probability of survival was.04 without HAART and.46 with HAART. HAART and lack of neurologic progression 2 months after diagnosis were independently associated with longer survival. Among HAART-treated patients, a baseline JCV DNA <4.7 log, and reaching undetectable levels after therapy predicted longer survival. Survival of AIDS-related PML is improved by HAART when JCV replication is controlled.  (+info)

Prophylaxis for opportunistic infections in an era of effective antiretroviral therapy. (3/4193)

Potent antiretroviral treatment is associated with dramatic improvements in immune function in many human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. This has led to new US Public Health Service/Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines that suggest that in certain circumstances (primary prophylaxis for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection, and secondary prophylaxis for cytomegalovirus retinitis), antimicrobial prophylaxis can be discontinued for patients whose CD4 T-cell counts rise above threshold levels for at least 3-6 months. The new guidelines are probably too conservative, and effective antiretroviral treatment almost certainly provides protection against all major opportunistic pathogens. Therefore, in the future, specific prophylaxis will be needed only for those patients who do not benefit from or fail to adhere to the current more effective treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection.  (+info)

The relationship between virus load response to highly active antiretroviral therapy and change in CD4 cell counts: A report from the Women's interagency HIV study. (4/4193)

The relationship between the pattern of virus load response to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and CD4 lymphocyte response was assessed in a cohort of 249 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1-infected women at 3 times: 1 before and 2 after initiation of therapy, with follow-up of 6-12 months. Patients with a durable response to HAART (i.e., >1 log decrease in HIV-1 RNA sustained for the study periods) had a continuous and significant increase in CD4 cell counts over time, whereas those with no response (<0.5 log decrease in HIV-1 RNA) had a slight decline. Patients with a mixed response (initial decrease >1 log, followed by a subsequent decrease <0.5 log) had an increase in CD4 cell count, followed by a plateau. The trend in CD4 cell count differed significantly by response to HAART, with those patients who experienced a durable response having significantly higher CD4 cell counts than others.  (+info)

Evaluation of the abbott LCx HIV-1 RNA quantitative, a new assay for quantitative determination of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA. (5/4193)

A new quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assay for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA (Abbott LCx HIV RNA Quantitative assay) has been compared with the Organon NucliSens assay on 521 retrospective samples obtained from HIV-1-positive patients monitored during highly active antiretroviral therapy, 79 of whom were assayed also by the Chiron Quantiplex 3.0 system and on characterized panels. The LCx system showed a moderate correlation (r = 0.795) and gave higher results than the NucliSens system on 245 of 327 concordant positive samples, with similar sensitivity. Correlation with Quantiplex system results was higher (r = 0.943). LCx reproducibility was very good; the procedure was simple, well controlled, and rapid (up to 48 results in 7 h). The HIV RNA quantitative assay on the LCx system is suitable for routine use.  (+info)

Granulomatous amebic encephalitis in a patient with AIDS: isolation of acanthamoeba sp. Group II from brain tissue and successful treatment with sulfadiazine and fluconazole. (6/4193)

A patient with AIDS, treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, presented with confusion, a hemifield defect, and a mass lesion in the right occipital lobe. A brain biopsy confirmed granulomatous amebic encephalitis (GAE) due to Acanthamoeba castellanii. The patient was treated with fluconazole and sulfadiazine, and the lesion was surgically excised. This is the first case of AIDS-associated GAE responding favorably to therapy. The existence of a solitary brain lesion, absence of other sites of infection, and intense cellular response in spite of a very low CD4 count conditioned the favorable outcome. We review and discuss the diagnostic microbiologic options for the laboratory diagnosis of infections due to free-living amebae.  (+info)

Genetic characterization of rebounding HIV-1 after cessation of highly active antiretroviral therapy. (7/4193)

Despite prolonged treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), infectious HIV-1 continues to replicate and to reside latently in resting memory CD4(+) T lymphocytes, creating a major obstacle to HIV-1 eradication. It is therefore not surprising to observe a prompt viral rebound after discontinuation of HAART. The nature of the rebounding virus, however, remains undefined. We now report on the genetic characterization of rebounding viruses in eight patients in whom plasma viremia was undetectable throughout about 3 years of HAART. Taking advantage of the extensive length polymorphism in HIV-1 env, we found that in five patients who did not show HIV-1 replication during treatment, the rebound virus was identical to those isolated from the latent reservoir. In three other patients, two of whom had been free of plasma viremia but had showed some residual viral replication, the rebound virus was genetically different from the latent reservoir virus, corresponding instead to minor viral variants detected during the course of treatment in lymphoid tissues. We conclude that in cases with apparent complete HIV-1 suppression by HAART, viral rebound after cessation of therapy could have originated from the activation of virus from the latent reservoir. In patients with incomplete suppression by chemotherapy, however, the viral rebound is likely triggered by ongoing, low-level replication of HIV-1, perhaps occurring in lymphoid tissues.  (+info)

A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and nucleoside analogue therapy in AIDS. (8/4193)

Preliminary preclinical and clinical data suggest that granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) may decrease viral replication. Therefore, 105 individuals with AIDS who were receiving nucleoside analogue therapy were enrolled in a placebo-controlled, double-blind study and were randomized to receive either 125 microgram/m(2) of yeast-derived, GM-CSF (sargramostim) or placebo subcutaneously twice weekly for 6 months. Subjects were evaluated for toxicity and disease progression. A significant decrease in mean virus load (VL) was observed for the GM-CSF treatment group at 6 months (-0.07 log(10) vs. -0.60 log(10); P=.02). More subjects achieved human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-RNA levels <500 copies/mL at >/=2 evaluations (2% on placebo vs. 11% on GM-CSF; P=.04). Genotypic analysis of 46 subjects demonstrated a lower frequency of zidovudine-resistant mutations among those receiving GM-CSF (80% vs. 50%; P=.04). No difference was observed in the incidence of opportunistic infections (OIs) through 6 months or survival, despite a higher risk for OI among GM-CSF recipients. GM-CSF reduced VL and limited the evolution of zidovudine-resistant genotypes, potentially providing adjunctive therapy in HIV disease.  (+info)

*Deborah Persaud

For the HIV patient, the HAART(Highly active antiretroviral therapy) is used as treatment. The HAART regimen includes some of ... Chichocki, Mark (3 June 2014). "HAART-Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy". About health. Retrieved 3 June 2014. Persaud, ... in HIV-1 infected patients with persistently detectable low-level viremia while receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy ... immunizations in patiens with clinically undetectable viral loads on durable suppressive highly active antiretroviral therapy ...

*Discovery and development of non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors

Drugs in these classes are important components of the HIV combination therapy called highly active antiretroviral therapy, ... The highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was introduced in 1996. The treatment regimen combines three drugs from at ... the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a leading cause of death in the ... Both the HEPT and TIBO compounds were first to be identified as highly specific and potent HIV-1 RT inhibitors, not active ...

*Lipoatrophy

Barbaro G (2007). "Visceral fat as target of highly active antiretroviral therapy-associated metabolic syndrome". Curr. Pharm. ... one cause of which is an adverse drug reaction that is associated with some antiretroviral drugs. A more general term for an ...

*Viral load monitoring for HIV

Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is the current recommended treatment for HIV. HAART entails taking a combination ( ... 2011). "Prevention of HIV-1 Infection with Early Antiretroviral Therapy". New England Journal of Medicine. 365 (6): 493-505. ... "Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy and HIV Transmission Risks: Implications for Test-and-Treat Approaches to HIV Prevention". ... and the course of treatment is called antiretroviral therapy (ART). These potent medicines cannot cure an individual; they can ...

*Economic epidemiology

Crepaz N; Hart T; Marks, G (2004). "Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy and Sexual Risk Behavior: A Meta-analytic Review". ... For example, models suggested that the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), which significantly ... Blower SM, Gershengorn HB, Grant RM (2000). "A tale of two futures: HIV and antiretroviral therapy in San Francisco". Science. ... Blower SM, Schwartz EJ, Mills J (2003). "Forecasting the future of HIV epidemics: the impact of antiretroviral therapies and ...

*Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy

In HIV-infected people, this may mean starting highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). AIDS patients starting HAART after ... "Progressive multifocal leukencephalopathy in patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy: survival and risk factors of ... PML is most common in people with HIV1 infection; prior to the advent of effective antiretroviral therapy, as many as 5% of ... A number of drugs work against JC virus in cell culture, but there is no proven, effective therapy in humans. For example, 1-O- ...

*HIV associated cardiomyopathy

Impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-positive patients with cardiac involvement. J Infect 2000;40:282-4. ... of HIV associated dilated cardiomyopathy was 15.9/1000 before the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART ... The therapy is similar to therapy for non-ischemic cardiomyopathy: after medical therapy is begun, serial echocardiographic ... Low prevalence of cardiac abnormalities in an HIV-seropositive population on antiretroviral combination therapy. J Acquir ...

*AIDS-related lymphoma

October 2001). "Changes in AIDS-related lymphoma since the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy". Blood. 98 (8): 2339-44 ... Treatment of AIDS patients with antiretroviral drugs reduces the incidence of primary cerebral lymphoma. The incidence of ... The presence of EBV DNA in cerebrospinal fluid is highly suggestive of primary cerebral lymphoma. ...

*HIV and pregnancy

"Mother-to-child transmission of HIV infection in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy". Clinical Infectious Diseases ... "Effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy duration and regimen on risk for mother-to-child transmission of HIV in ... "Highly active antiretroviral therapy and adverse birth outcomes among HIV-infected women in Botswana". The Journal of ... Emerging Problems in the Era of Highly Active Antiretrovirals". Fertility and Sterility. 96 (3): 546-553. doi:10.1016/j. ...

*Virus latency

November 1997). "Identification of a reservoir for HIV-1 in patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy". Science. 278 ( ... Generally these types of viruses have become highly evolved, and have lost the expression of many gene products. Some of the ... A famous event of this actually happening with gene therapy through the use of retroviral vectors is the Necker Hospital in ... While viral latency exhibits no active viral shedding nor causes any pathologies or symptoms, the virus is still able to ...

*HIV/AIDS

Treatment consists of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) which slows progression of the disease. As of 2010 more than ... Adults and adolescents who are living with HIV (even on anti-retroviral therapy) with no evidence of active tuberculosis in ... Guideline on when to start antiretroviral therapy and on pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV (PDF). WHO. 2015. p. 13. ISBN ... The hybrid spreading mechanisms of HIV contribute to the virus's ongoing replication against antiretroviral therapies. Two ...

*HIV set point

The only effective way to lower the set point is through highly active antiretroviral therapy. The set point is not completely ...

*Isosporiasis

February 2008). "Isosporiasis in patients with HIV infection in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era in France". HIV ...

*Anand Reddi

Reddi A et al.Preliminary outcomes of a paediatric highly active antiretroviral therapy cohort from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa ... Reddi A et al.Preliminary outcomes of a paediatric highly active antiretroviral therapy cohort from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa ... Preliminary outcomes of a paediatric highly active antiretroviral therapy cohort from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. BMC Pediatr ... Antiretroviral therapy adherence in children: outcomes from Africa. AIDS. 2008 Apr 23;22(7):906-7. PMID 18427213. Reddi A, ...

*Histoplasma duboisii

Treatment for HIV positive individuals should run in parallel to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Even though ... To ensure clearance of the agent, maintenance therapy of itraconazole at 200-400 mg/day until CD4+ counts remain stable for ... The agent responds to many antifungal drug therapies used to treat serious fungal diseases. Histoplasmosis was first reported ... In contrast, deep lesions and disseminated disease require antifungal drug therapy. To date, no antifungal drug studies have ...

*Hairy leukoplakia

Recurrence of the lesion may also signify that highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is becoming ineffective. The oral ... The condition often resolves rapidly with high dose acyclovir or desiclovir but recurs once this therapy is stopped, or as the ... Antiretroviral drugs such as zidovudine may be effective in producing a significant regression of OHL. ...

*HIV/AIDS in Canada

Mortality has decreased due to medical advances against HIV/AIDS, especially highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). ...

*Douglas Jabs

Risk factors for mortality in patients with AIDS in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Ophthalmology 2005;112:771 ... Overall and cancer related mortality among patients with ocular inflammation treated with immunosuppressive therapy: ... Comparison of antimetabolite drugs as corticosteroid-sparing therapy for noninfectious ocular inflammation. Ophthalmology 2008; ...

*Castleman's disease

"Successful treatment of AIDS-related Castleman disease following the administration of highly active antiretroviral therapy ( ... There is no standard therapy for multicentric Castleman disease. Treatment modalities change based on HHV-8 status, so it is ... and therapy". Blood. 123 (19): 2924-33. doi:10.1182/blood-2013-12-545087. PMID 24622327. Weng, Chien-Hsiang; Joe-Bin Chen; John ... uncommon nature of the condition there are not many large scale research studies from which standardized approaches to therapy ...

*Didanosine

It is used in combination with other medications as part of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). It is of the reverse ... Guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents in HIV-1-infected adults and adolescents (May 4, 2006). (Available for download ... Within the cell, ddI is phosphorylated to the active metabolite of dideoxyadenosine triphosphate, ddATP, by cellular enzymes. ... Mitsuya, H; Yarchoan, R; Broder, S (1990). "Molecular targets for AIDS therapy". Science. 249 (4976): 1533-44. doi:10.1126/ ...

*HIV/AIDS in Taiwan

Decreased HIV transmission after a policy of providing free access to highly active antiretroviral therapy in Taiwan. J Infect ... to distribute highly-active antiretroviral therapy for free has resulted in dramatic decreases in morbidity and mortality from ... Risk of severe hepatotoxicity associated with antiretroviral therapy in the HIV-NAT Cohort, Thailand, 1996-2001. AIDS 2003; 17 ... tested in Taiwan have been identified as having HIV-1 infections and have received antiretroviral therapy to prevent mother-to- ...

*HIV/AIDS in Peru

The initial activities emphasized the provision of highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART), but later projects emphasized ... Overall, the populations these organizations work with have limited access to anti-retroviral therapies, psychosocial support, ... only 48 percent of HIV-infected people in need of antiretroviral therapy (ART) were receiving it in 2007. The activities ... though the Government of Peru is funding most of the costs of procuring antiretroviral drugs. Peru has obtained funding for HIV ...

*Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection

Disseminated disease was previously the common presentation prior to the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART ... Therapy for MAI is typically resistant to standard mycobacterial therapies. Symptoms are similar to tuberculosis (TB), and ... Isoniazid and pyrazinamide are not effective for the therapy of MAC. Therapy should continue for the lifetime of the patient if ... Effective prevention and therapy of MAC has the potential to contribute substantially to improved quality of life and duration ...

*Julio Montaner

He is known for his work on HAART (Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy), the discovery of triple therapy as an effective ... "Association of highly active antiretroviral therapy coverage, population viral load, and yearly new HIV diagnoses in British ... The case for expanding access to highly active antiretroviral therapy to curb the growth of the HIV epidemic. Lancet. 2006; 368 ... "The case for expanding access to highly active antiretroviral therapy to curb the growth of the HIV epidemic". Lancet. 368 ( ...

*Janice E. Clements

Clements has also developed a model of highly active antiretroviral therapy to study viral reservoirs: where HIV conceals ... Virus-Infected Macaque Model To Study Viral Reservoirs That Persist during Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy". Journal of ...

*Indinavir

... is a protease inhibitor used as a component of highly active antiretroviral therapy to treat HIV/AIDS. It is on the World ... Indinavir is much more powerful than any prior antiretroviral drug; using it with dual NRTIs set a new standard for treatment ... The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved indinavir on March 13, 1996, making it the eighth antiretroviral drug approved ...
Title: Reviewing the Cardiovascular Complications of HIV Infection After the Introduction of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy. VOLUME: 5 ISSUE: 4. Author(s):G. Barbaro. Affiliation:Viale Anicio Gallo 63, 00174 Rome, Italy.. Keywords:human immunodeficiency virus, highly active antiretroviral therapy, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease. Abstract: Studies published before the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) have tracked the incidence and course of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in relation to cardiac disease.The introduction of HAART regimens, by preventing opportunistic infections and reducing the incidence of myocarditis, has reduced the prevalence of HIV-associated cardiomyopathy of about 30% and the prevalence of cardiac involvement of AIDSassociated malignancies of about 50%. However, HAART regimens, especially those including protease inhibitors have been shown to cause, in a high proportion of HIV-infected patients, a metabolic syndrome ...
Title: Metabolic and Cardiovascular Complications of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV Infection. VOLUME: 4 ISSUE: 1. Author(s):Giuseppe Barbaro. Affiliation:Viale Anicio Gallo 63,00174 Rome, Italy.. Keywords:Human immunodeficiency virus, highly active antiretroviral therapy, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, protease inhibitors, metabolic syndome, cardiovascular disease. Abstract: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens, especially those including protease inhibitors have been shown to cause, in a high proportion of HIV-infected patients, a metabolic syndrome (lipodystrophy/lipoatrophy, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance) that may be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. A careful stratification of the cardiovascular risk of HIVinfected patients under HAART is needed according to the most recent clinical guidelines. ...
Results: A total 307 human immunodeficiency virus positive patients, 153 highly active antiretroviral therapy na ve (who didnt take highly active antiretroviral therapy) and 154 on highly active antiretroviral therapy were enrolled in the study. The mean ( SD) age of the participants was 34.69 ( 8.86) years and about 61% were females. The prevalence of renal impairment in highly active antiretroviral therapy na ve and on highly active antiretroviral therapy individuals was 30.1% and 12.9% respectively. Proteinuria was found in 17.9 % of the participant. Low CD4 count (Adjusted odds ratio= 24.11; (95% CI 11.06, 52.56) and being highly active antiretroviral therapy na ve (Adjusted odds ratio = 6.58; 95% CI 2.99, 14.47) showed significant association with the prevalence of renal impairment ...
To identify factors associated with successful treatment of KS with antiretroviral therapy and to determine if highly active antiretroviral therapy improves survival and quality of life for persons with AIDS-KS in Zimbabwe.. A secondary objective is to investigate the durability of HIV-1 suppression by the combination of ABC/3TC/ZDV in persons infected with HIV-1 subtype C and to evaluate the timing and characteristics of mutations in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase in subjects who fail to achieve, or to maintain suppression of HIV-1 replication during treatment with ABC/3TC/ZDV.. An important objective is to assess adherence to a simplified antiretroviral regimen in a resource-limited setting.. The study will evaluate the clinical, immunological, and virological effects of a switch from a twice-daily all-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) antiretroviral regimen to a once-daily regimen of 2 NRTIs plus a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor in persons with AIDS-KS and good virologic ...
To identify factors associated with successful treatment of KS with antiretroviral therapy and to determine if highly active antiretroviral therapy improves survival and quality of life for persons with AIDS-KS in Zimbabwe.. A secondary objective is to investigate the durability of HIV-1 suppression by the combination of ABC/3TC/ZDV in persons infected with HIV-1 subtype C and to evaluate the timing and characteristics of mutations in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase in subjects who fail to achieve, or to maintain suppression of HIV-1 replication during treatment with ABC/3TC/ZDV.. An important objective is to assess adherence to a simplified antiretroviral regimen in a resource-limited setting.. The study will evaluate the clinical, immunological, and virological effects of a switch from a twice-daily all-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) antiretroviral regimen to a once-daily regimen of 2 NRTIs plus a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor in persons with AIDS-KS and good virologic ...
Background: Scale up of paediatric antiretroviral therapy in resource limited settings continues despite limited access to routine laboratory monitoring. We documented the weight and height responses in HIV infected Ugandan children on highly active antiretroviral therapy and determined clinical factors associated with successful treatment outcomes.. Methods: A prospective cohort of HIV infected children were initiated on HAART and followed for 48 weeks. Body mass index for age z scores(BAZ), weight and height-for-age z scores (WAZ & HAZ) were calculated: CD4 cell % and HIV-1 RNA were measured at baseline and every 12 weeks. Treatment outcomes were classified according to; both virological and immunological success (VS/IS), virological failure and immunological success (VF/IS). virological success and immunological failure (VS/IF) and both virological and immunological failure (VF/IF).. Results: From March 2004 until May 2006, 124 HIV infected children were initiated on HAART. The median age ...
Objective:To evaluate HIV-1 transmission trends and the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on newly diagnosed HIV infections in Geneva, Switzerland.Design:Retrospective molecular epidemiology analysis of all newly HIV-diagnosed individuals between 2008 and 2010.Methods:Phylogenet
Objective: To determine whether opportunistic oral infections associated to HIV infection (OOI-HIV) are found in HIV+/AIDS patients with immune reconstitution related to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Methods. From among 1100 HIV+/AIDS patients (Service of Internal Medicine, Carlos Haya Hospital, Malaga, Spain) subjected to review of the oral cavity between January 1996 and May 2007, we identified those examined in 1996 and which were again examined between 1997 and 2007, and were moreover receiving HAART. The following data were collected: age, gender, form of contagion, antiretroviral therapy at the time of review, number of CD4+ lymphocytes/ml, and viral load (from 1997 onwards). We identified those subjects with an increase in CD4+ lymphocytes/ml associated to HAART, and classified them as subjects with quantitative evidence of immune reconstitution (QEIR). Among these individuals with QEIR we moreover identified those with undetectable viral loads (QEIR+VL), and ...
ABSTRACT Objective: Studies have shown that HIV-infected injection drug users (IDUs) are less likely to receive antiretroviral therapy than non-drug users. We assess factors associated with initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-infected IDUs. Methods: A cohort study of IDUs carried out between 1 January 1996 and 30 June 1999 at a community-based study clinic affiliated to the Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland. The participants were a total of 528 HIV-infected IDUs eligible for HAART based on CD4+ cell count. The main outcome measure was the time from treatment eligibility to first self-reported HAART use, as defined by the International AIDS Society USA panel (IAS USA) guidelines. Results: By 30 June 1999, 58.5% of participants had initiated HAART, most of whom switched from mono- or dual-combination therapy to a HAART regimen. Nearly one-third of treatment-eligible IDUs never received antiretroviral therapy. Cox proportional hazards regression showed that ...
Objective: Some HIV patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) do not resolve their plasma viraemia or HIV RNA can reappear after a period of virological control. We investigate whether polymorphisms in cytokine genes affect the control of plasma HIV RNA over 5 years on HAART. Design: The study utilized adult HIV-infected patients in Western Australia. Plasma HIV-RNA levels were assessed from commencement of HAART in patients who had a CD4 T-cell count less than 100 cells/μl before HAART and achieved immune reconstitution assessed by CD4 T-cell counts. Results: Control of plasma viraemia could be predicted from carriage of allele 2 at position -889 in the IL1A gene (IL1A-889*2). This was significant when assessed by the proportion of patients with a plasma HIV-RNA level of 400 copies/ml or less (P = 0.002). At 48 months post-HAART, proportions were approximately 0.76, 0.51 and 0.32 for IL1A (1,1), (1,2) and (2,2) patients, respectively. The outcome was independent of the ...
We analyzed the effect of age on highly active antiretroviral therapy efficacy and tolerance in 639 patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (99 of whom were aged ,50 years, and 540 of whom were aged ,50 years). Late testing, which was more frequent in the older age group, was the only independent factor associated with immunologic and clinical evolution of infection. Age ,50 years was associated with earlier treatment discontinuation.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Trend of CD4+ cell counts at diagnosis and initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). T2 - Korea HIV/AIDS cohort study, 1992-2015. AU - Korea HIV/AIDS Cohort Study. AU - Kim, Min Jung. AU - Chang, Hyun Ha. AU - Kim, Sang Il. AU - Kim, Youn Jeong. AU - Park, Dae Won. AU - Kang, Chun. AU - Kee, Mee Kyung. AU - Choi, Ju yeon. AU - Kim, Soo Min. AU - Choi, Bo Youl. AU - Kim, Woo Joo. AU - Kim, June Myung. AU - Choi, JunYong. AU - Choi, Young Hwa. AU - Lee, Jin Soo. AU - Kim, Shin Woo. AU - Kim, Min Ja. AU - Sohn, Jang Wook. AU - Yoon, Young Kyung. AU - Woo, Jun Hee. AU - Kim, Youn Jeong. AU - Choi, Won Suk. AU - Wie, Seong Heon. AU - Hur, Ji An. AU - Kim, Min Jung. AU - Lee, Sang Ah. AU - Song, Joon Young. AU - Eom, Joong Shik. AU - Lee, Jin Seo. AU - Park, So Yeon. AU - Jeong, Hye Won. AU - Lee, Jin Soo. AU - Baek, Ji Hyeon. AU - Choi, Hee Jung. AU - Choi, Jun Yong. AU - Ku, Nam Su. AU - Kim, Hyo Youl. AU - Choi, Young Hwa. AU - Lee, Eun Jung. AU - Kim, Tae ...
To describe the early response to World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-1-infected Kenyan children unexposed to nevirapine. Observational prospective cohort. HIV-1 RNA level, CD4 lymphocyte count, weight for age z score, and height for age z score were measured before the initiation of HAART and every 3 to 6 months thereafter. Children received no nutritional supplements. Sixty-seven HIV-1-infected children were followed for a median of 9 months between August 2004 and November 2005. Forty-seven (70%) used zidovudine, lamivudine (3TC), and an NNRTI (nevirapine or efavirenz), whereas 25% used stavudine (d4T), 3TC, and an NNRTI. Nevirapine was used as the NNRTI by 46 (69%) children, and individual antiretroviral drug formulations were used by 63 (94%), with only 4 (6%) using a fixed-dose combination of d4T, 3TC, and nevirapine (Triomune; Cipla, Mumbai, India). In 52 ...
Background Men infected with HIV and receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy are at higher risk of metabolic and cardiovascular abnormalities as well as accelerated renal function decline and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Glomerular hyperfiltration, defined as elevated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) to pathologically high levels, is associated with diabetes and hypertension and is a treatable risk factor for CKD. The epidemiology of hyperfiltration has not been described in an HIV population. The purposes of this dissertation is to a) describe the prevalence of elevated GFR using directly measured iohexol GFR, a gold standard; b) describe the incidence of hyperfiltration using the serum creatinine-based CKD-EPI estimated GFR equation, a clinical standard; and c) investigate the effect of hyperfiltration on accelerated GFR decline in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. Methods Data consisted of a nested cross-sectional study within the MACS comprising 241 HIV-uninfected and 367 ...
OBJECTIVES: Current British HIV Association (BHIVA) guidelines recommend that all patients with a CD4 count ,350 cells/μL are offered highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). We identified risk factors for delayed initiation of HAART following a CD4 count ,350 cells/μL.METHODS: All adults under follow-up in 2008 who had a first confirmed CD4 count ,350 cells/μL from 2004 to 2008, who had not initiated treatment and who had ,6 months of follow-up were included in the study. Characteristics at the time of the low CD4 cell count and over follow-up were compared to identify factors associated with delayed HAART uptake. Analyses used proportional hazards regression with fixed (sex/risk group, age, ethnicity, AIDS, baseline CD4 cell count and calendar year) and time-updated (frequency of CD4 cell count measurement, proportion of CD4 counts ,350 cells/μL, latest CD4 cell count, CD4 percentage and viral load) covariates.RESULTS: Of 4871 patients with a confirmed low CD4 cell count, 436 (8.9%) ...
To examine the prognosis of patients who present with very advanced HIV-induced immunodeficiency, and their response to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), a series of 101 treatment naïve patients from the Serbian cohort of HIV infected patients, who presented with a CD4 count of ≤ 50/µL before commencing HAART, was retrospectively analyzed and factors influencing response to HAART and survival investigated. After a mean of three years (range 1-9) of treatment with PI-based and/or NNRTI-based regimens, a favorable response was achieved in 54.5% of the patients, treatment failure occurred in 13.9%, while 31.7% had a dissociative immunological/virological response. The overall estimated survival was eight years. Achievement of undetectable viremia during treatment appeared life saving (OR = 42.5, 95% CI 7.1 - 251.9, P = 0.000, as was a rise in CD4 cell count to over 200/μL (OR = 6.4, 95% CI 1.2- 31.8, P = 0.023). However, undetectable viremia was the single predictor of longer ...
BACKGROUND: Sub-optimal adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) among injection drug users (IDUs) is a significant concern. As such, there is an urgent need to identify psychosocial determinants of adherence that can be incorporated into interventions designed to promote optimal adherence. OBJECTIVE: To identify psychosocial determinants of adherence to HAART, as well as self-reported reasons for missing doses of HAART among HIV-infected IDUs.
Background. Because antiretrovirals are becoming increasingly available in developing countries, we reviewed the findings of studies that have documented highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) use in Africa to identify lessons learned. With the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines used as a frame of reference, we assessed the feasibility of implementing such programs in Africa. Moreover, clinical and laboratory outcomes were compiled to determine the effectiveness of HAART programs.. Methods. We searched academic databases and recent conference abstracts for studies, and we included all studies that documented patients receiving HAART in Africa. In particular, we examined studies for such program features as type of regimen and frequency of monitoring, in addition to evaluations of patient outcomes.. Results. Twenty-eight articles and abstracts involving studies from 14 African countries were reviewed. Overall, 6052 patients (96.4%) were receiving HAART, mainly consisting of 2 ...
The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has had a dramatic impact on the morbidity and mortality of individuals living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In addition to contributing to declines in the incidence of several opportunistic infections, HAART is affecting the incidences of several acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining malignancies. 1
The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has had a dramatic impact on the morbidity and mortality of individuals living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In addition to contributing to declines in the incidence of several opportunistic infections, HAART is affecting the incidences of several acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining malignancies. 1
The intermediate to high grade B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas are now one of three malignant AIDS defining conditions. The others being Kaposis sarcoma and cervical carcinoma. While co-infection with oncogenic agents including the human herpes 8 or Epstein-Barr virus offer targets in preventive treatment strategies for these AIDS defining lymphomas (ADL), administration of highly active antiretroviral therapy leading to immune reconstitution permits use of standard or even high-dose cytotoxic drug regimens with curative intent. It is not certain whether this should be done concomitantly or sequentially. Additional benefit may derive from infusional or high-dose chemotherapy regimens depending on the histological subtype while use of monoclonal antibodies such as rituximab or immunohaematopoietic stem cell transplantation needs to be further evaluated within controlled studies. Socio-economic considerations have an impact especially in resource limited settings while availability of tools for ...
The contents of this dissertation contain three experiments aimed at determining the intracellular mechanisms involved in the induction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-induced skeletal muscle insulin resistance and potential therapeutic approaches to increase insulin sensitivity. ❧ The data from the first study indicate that the insulin sensitizing agent, metformin, activates AMPKα₁ preferentially over AMPKα₂ in skeletal muscle cells. Additionally, the metformin treated groups had decreased rates of FA uptake and oxidation when compared to control cells. Interestingly, in the metformin treated groups, the FA transport protein CD36 was similarly decreased with FA uptake, however, a key regulator of FA oxidation, ACC, did not have reduced phosphorylation with metformin treatment. Furthermore, metformin treatment increased SIRT1 activity and decreased PGC-1α acetylation indicating cross-talk between AMPK and SIRT1. Additional data using genetically modified cells with ...
The contents of this dissertation contain three experiments aimed at determining the intracellular mechanisms involved in the induction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-induced skeletal muscle insulin resistance and potential therapeutic approaches to increase insulin sensitivity. ❧ The data from the first study indicate that the insulin sensitizing agent, metformin, activates AMPKα₁ preferentially over AMPKα₂ in skeletal muscle cells. Additionally, the metformin treated groups had decreased rates of FA uptake and oxidation when compared to control cells. Interestingly, in the metformin treated groups, the FA transport protein CD36 was similarly decreased with FA uptake, however, a key regulator of FA oxidation, ACC, did not have reduced phosphorylation with metformin treatment. Furthermore, metformin treatment increased SIRT1 activity and decreased PGC-1α acetylation indicating cross-talk between AMPK and SIRT1. Additional data using genetically modified cells with ...
The contents of this dissertation contain three experiments aimed at determining the intracellular mechanisms involved in the induction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-induced skeletal muscle insulin resistance and potential therapeutic approaches to increase insulin sensitivity. ❧ The data from the first study indicate that the insulin sensitizing agent, metformin, activates AMPKα₁ preferentially over AMPKα₂ in skeletal muscle cells. Additionally, the metformin treated groups had decreased rates of FA uptake and oxidation when compared to control cells. Interestingly, in the metformin treated groups, the FA transport protein CD36 was similarly decreased with FA uptake, however, a key regulator of FA oxidation, ACC, did not have reduced phosphorylation with metformin treatment. Furthermore, metformin treatment increased SIRT1 activity and decreased PGC-1α acetylation indicating cross-talk between AMPK and SIRT1. Additional data using genetically modified cells with ...
Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy: Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.
NK., Wang YM, Wang B, Dyer WB, Lachireddy K, Peng NK, Saksena (2007) Evidence for predominance of CCR5 HIV-1 strains during highly active antiretroviral therapy. Curr HIV Res., 5(2). 221-34.. Full text not available from this repository ...
Response to: A double-edged sword: does highly active antiretroviral therapy contribute to syphilis incidence by impairing immunity to Treponema pallidum? ...
BACKGROUND:Accurately estimating rates of disease progression is of central importance in developing mathematical models used to project outcomes and guide resource allocation decisions. Our objective was to specify a multivariate regression model to estimate changes in disease progression among individuals on highly active antiretroviral treatment in British Columbia, Canada, 1996-2011.
1. PalmerS, MaldarelliF, WiegandA, BernsteinB, HannaGJ, et al. (2008) Low-level viremia persists for at least 7 years in patients on suppressive antiretroviral therapy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 105: 3879-3884.. 2. MaldarelliF, PalmerS, KingMS, WiegandA, PolisMA, et al. (2007) ART suppresses plasma HIV-1 RNA to a stable set point predicted by pretherapy viremia. PLoS Pathog 3: e46.. 3. CoffinJM (1995) HIV population dynamics in vivo: implications for genetic variation, pathogenesis, and therapy. Science 267: 483-489.. 4. CoffinJM (1996) HIV viral dynamics. Aids 10(Suppl 3): S75-84.. 5. PerelsonAS, EssungerP, CaoY, VesanenM, HurleyA, et al. (1997) Decay characteristics of HIV-1-infected compartments during combination therapy. Nature 387: 188-191.. 6. DinosoJB, KimSY, WiegandAM, PalmerSE, GangeSJ, et al. (2009) Treatment intensification does not reduce residual HIV-1 viremia in patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 106: 9403-9408.. 7. GandhiRT, ZhengL, BoschRJ, ...
Abstract: The manifestation of cardiac involvement in the course of HIV infection has been significantly changed since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy. While in the pre-highly active antiretroviral therapy era the predominant cardiac pathology was represented by localization of opportunistic infection, now new forms of heart involvement are described. Among infectious agents, viruses and bacteria caused the majority of infections. The classic opportunistic agents, such as Toxoplasma, non-tuberculous mycobacteria, cytomegalovirus and Cryptococcus, have virtually disappeared. Endocarditis is still the most frequent infectious disease of the heart in HIV-infected patients, occurring mainly in drug users, and with the improvement in prognosis, the need for cardiac surgery is increasing. Tuberculosis, the incidence of which is still high in poor resources settings where antiretroviral drugs are not available, is a frequent cause of pericarditis, frequently evolving into ...
Clarithromycin, a macrolide antibiotic, and nevirapine, a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, are principally metabolised in the liver by the cytochrome P450 isoenzymes of the CYP3A family. The major presystemic active metabolite of clarithromycin is the R-epimer of 14-OH-6-0-methylerythromycin A. Clarithromycin is an inhibitor of CYP3A and its use in patients concurrently taking drugs metabolised by the cytochrome P450 system may be associated with elevations in their serum levels. Nevirapine acts as a mild to moderate enzyme inducer of CYP3A. It may therefore not only reduce plasma concentrations of other drugs metabolised by the same system but also acts as an autoinducer, with steady state reached after 7-9 days.. The principal side effects of clarithromycin are gastrointestinal; however, less commonly, CNS side effects have been reported, including dizziness, vertigo, anxiety, insomnia, tinnitus, confusion, disorientation, hallucinations, psychosis, and depersonalisation.1 At ...
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BioMed Research International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies covering a wide range of subjects in life sciences and medicine. The journal is divided into 55 subject-specific sections.
Background: New WHO guidelines recommend initiation of antiretroviral therapy for HIV-positive adults with CD4 counts of 500 cells per μL or less, a higher threshold than was previously recommended. Country decision makers have to decide whether to further expand eligibility for antiretroviral therapy accordingly. We aimed to assess the potential health benefits, costs, and cost-effectiveness of various eligibility criteria for adult antiretroviral therapy and expanded treatment coverage.. Methods: We used several independent mathematical models in four settings-South Africa (generalised epidemic, moderate antiretroviral therapy coverage), Zambia (generalised epidemic, high antiretroviral therapy coverage), India (concentrated epidemic, moderate antiretroviral therapy coverage), and Vietnam (concentrated epidemic, low antiretroviral therapy coverage)-to assess the potential health benefits, costs, and cost-effectiveness of various eligibility criteria for adult antiretroviral therapy under ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effect of HIV-1 resistance mutations after first-line virological failure on the possibility to sequence antiretroviral drugs in second-line regimens. AU - Maggiolo, Franco. AU - Ripamonti, Diego. AU - Torti, Carlo. AU - Arici, Claudio. AU - Antinori, Andrea. AU - Quiros-Roldan, Eugenia. AU - Minoli, Lorenzo. AU - Sighinolfi, Laura. AU - Nasta, Paola. AU - Suter, Fredy. PY - 2006. Y1 - 2006. N2 - Background: One of the more vigorous debates in the field of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is how to start it and what the optimal drug sequence is. Methods: A retrospective cohort analysis was performed. The aim was to evaluate which variables could influence the virological response to second-line genotypic-based HAART in patients with virological documented first-line HAART failure. A positive response was defined as a confirmed HIV RNA level AB - Background: One of the more vigorous debates in the field of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is how to ...
One-pill once-a-day HAART: a simplification strategy that improves adherence and quality of life of HIV-infected subjects Monica Airoldi1,6, Mauro Zaccarelli2, Luca Bisi3, Teresa Bini4, Andrea Antinori2, Cristina Mussini3, Francesca Bai4, Giancarlo Orofino5, Laura Sighinolfi7, Andrea Gori6, Fredy Suter1, Franco Maggiolo11Division of Infectious Diseases, Ospedali Riuniti, Bergamo; 2Clinical Department, INMI L Spallanzani, Roma; 3Division of Infectious Diseases, Università, Modena; 4Division of Infectious Diseases, Ospedale San Paolo, Milano; 5Division of Infectious Diseases, Ospedale Amedeo di Savoia, Torino; 6Division of Infectious Diseases, Ospedale San Gerardo, Monza; 7Division of Infectious Diseases, Ospedale Sant’Anna, Ferrara, ItalyObjective: The aim of the ADONE (ADherence to ONE pill) study was to verify the effect of a reduced number of pills on adherence and quality of life (QoL) in HIV-infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).Design: Prospective,
TY - JOUR. T1 - Approach to management of clinically localized prostate cancer in patients with human immunodeficiency virus. AU - Levinson, Adam. AU - Nagler, Eli A.. AU - Lowe, Franklin C.. PY - 2005/1/1. Y1 - 2005/1/1. N2 - To evaluate the approach to management of localized prostate cancer (PCa) in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era. A retrospective analysis was performed on 10 HIV-positive patients who recently presented with elevated prostate-specific antigen levels and clinically localized PCa. At the diagnosis of PCa, the average patient was 54.0 years old, had been HIV positive for 8.75 years, had a CD4 count of 417, a prostate-specific antigen level of 9.2 ng/mL, and a Gleason score of 6. Eight of the patients had risk factors for PCa - either African-American descent (n = 6) or a positive family history (n = 2). The treatment was laparoscopic radical prostatectomy in 1, potency-preserving androgen deprivation in 1, ...
Brazilian AIDS and HIV-1-seropositive patients have had free access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) since November 1996. Although secondary data based on official mortality statistics indicate a sharp decrease in AIDS mortality, few if any studies tried to estimate the prognosis for patients with HIV who have been followed from the beginning of the HAART era. An observational study, with retrospective and prospective components, was done in 233 adult HIV-1-infected subjects who were recruited in the last 10 years at the outpatient sector of the Secondary Immunodeficiencies Clinic of the Department of Dermatology, Hospital das Clinicas da FMUSP, Sao Paulo, Brazil. The definition of AIDS followed the guidelines issued by the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) in 1987. One hundred sixty patients were asymptomatic, 46 had AIDS, 24 had AIDS-related complex, and 3 presented with acute infection at study entry. Twenty-nine (18%) of the asymptomatic subjects developed AIDS during follow-up, with
Objective To evaluate differences in glucose uptake by skeletal muscle tissue and subcutaneous fat in HIV patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) presenting with and without lipodystrophy as well as in drug-naive HIV patients using F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Experience of pain among women with advanced HIV disease. AU - Richardson, Jean L.. AU - Heikes, Bonnie. AU - Karim, Roksanna. AU - Weber, Kathleen. AU - Anastos, Kathryn. AU - Young, Mary. PY - 2009/7/1. Y1 - 2009/7/1. N2 - We evaluated pain frequency and severity in 339 women enrolled in the Womens Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). Among these, 63% were 39 years of age or younger, 17% were white, 54% African American, and 29% Hispanic; 32% did not complete high school; 58% had a CD4 less than 200; 65% had clinical AIDS; 60% were on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART); and 32% had a viral load of 50,000 or more. Data were collected between 1996 and 1998. Within the past 6 months 190 (56%) women experienced pain 6 or more days and 168 (50%) women indicated pain severity scores of 4 or 5 (5-point scale). Pain frequency and pain severity were not associated with age, education, ethnicity, current therapy, or location of the WIHS site. Pain frequency and severity were related ...
We report the emergence of HIV-1 mutated strains after long-term viral suppression in four patients who interrupted highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). In two cases, mutations pre-existed in proviral DNA before HAART interruption. All mutations were associated with resistance to nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and three of the four patients had prolonged periods of monotherapy or dual therapy. Resistant strains may re-emerge rapidly even in patients harbouring a majority of wild-type virus in proviral DNA before treatment interruption.. In patients with undetectable viral loads and high CD4 T-cell counts, the objectives of structured treatment interruptions are to reduce the toxicity and cost of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). However, in such interruptions, the risk of the re-emergence of HIV-1 mutated strains is not well established. Our objective was to study the emergence of mutated strains in HIV-1 chronically infected patients with undetectable viraemia ...
Figure 1 Ectopic Fat Deposition and LV Dysfunction in HIV-Infected Patients Receiving HAART. (A) Representative illustration of a typical cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) image, showing all 4 chambers of the heart. The white box over the intraventricular septum illustrates the voxel position during spectroscopy. The green line illustrates a representative cardiac spectra, showing a large area of resonance for myocardial water and a small area of resonance for myocardial triglyceride content; magnified directly above for a representative human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive (+) subject (pink line) and a representative HIV-negative (-) subject (green line). The summary data demonstrate a 3-fold elevation in myocardial triglyceride content in HIV-positive subjects (pink bar) versus well-matched HIV-negative control subjects (green bar). (B, i to iv) Representative illustration of a mid-short-axis image of the LV, with tissue tagging applied at end diastole (i) and progressing to end systole ...
Cytopenias are the most common HIV-associated hematological abnormality. Cytopenias have been associated with several factors including sex, race/ethnicity, geographical location and comorbidities such as tuberculosis, hepatitis B infection, fever and oral candidiasis. Cytopenias become more prevalent as HIV progresses and are often fatal. Data from resource-limited settings about the prevalence and correlates of cytopenia are limited. Therefore we conducted this cross-sectional study to assess the prevalence and correlates of cytopenia among adult AIDS patients at initiation of HAART in Uganda. 400 HIV-infected subjects who were HAART-naïve or on HAART for ≤ 6 months were enrolled into the Multivitamins, HAART and HIV/AIDS Trial. Anemia was defined according to WHO guidelines as any hemoglobin concentration < 12 g/dl for non-pregnant females and < 13 g/dl for males. Leucopenia and thrombocytopenia were defined using study site laboratory reference ranges for lack of generally accepted definitions
CD4RT : Evaluating thymic reconstitution in patients following hematopoietic cell transplantation, chemotherapy, immunomodulatory therapy, and immunosuppression   Evaluating thymic recovery in HIV-positive patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy   Evaluating thymic output in patients with DiGeorge syndrome or other cellular immunodeficiencies   Assessing the naive T-cell compartment in a variety of immunological contexts (autoimmunity, cancer, immunodeficiency, and transplantation)   Identification of thymic remnants postthymectomy for malignant thymoma or as an indicator of relapse of disease (malignant thymoma) or other contexts of thymectomy
A 39 year old HIV positive patient on HAART followed up by the authors, administered to the clinical ward of the Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology in Ege University Medical School with high fever, malaise, nausea and severe diarrheae. He had administered to the State Hospital the day before and was transferred to our hospital upon the detection of highly elevated liver enzymes (ALT 1558 U/L, AST 4288 U/L).. The patient was diagnosed as HIV positive one month ago and has been using HAART including zidovudine+lamivudine (2 × 1/day) and nevirapine (2 × 200 mg/day, following dose escalation) for 22 days. He was also under psychiatric control due to severe depression and has been using sertralin and diazepam for 12 days and lithium for 10 days. His baseline plasma viral RNA was ,75.000 copies/mL, baseline CD4+ T cell count 277/mm3, and liver function tests were normal. He had been asked to refer to the hospital weekly during the first month of HAART for routine tests; but ...
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate factors associated with use of HIV specialist care by women, and to determine whether medical indications for therapy validate lower rates of antiretroviral use in women not using HIV specialty care. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of the 1998 interview from the HIV Epidemiology Research Study (HERS) cohort. METHODS: Data from 273 HIV-infected women in the HERS were analyzed by multiple logistic regression to calculate predictors of the use of HIV specialist care providers.
In this study we have analyzed the relationship between T-cell turnover, thymic function, and immune activation in HIV-1-infected patients, focusing on naïve CD4+ and naïve CD8+ T cells, to better understand the contribution of these various parameters to the immunologic changes seen during HIV infection and therapy. We specifically targeted a broad range of baseline viral load and CD4+ T-cell counts in order to highlight the dynamics across the spectrum of HIV infection. At baseline, naive T-cell numbers were lower in the CD4 pool compared to the CD8 pool, but no difference between the two groups was observed in the percentages of proliferating naïve T cells or in the number of TRECs. Even though a dramatic decrease in proliferation is observed for both naïve CD4+ and CD8+ T cells after the first 6 months of therapy, we found that naïve CD4+ T-cell numbers significantly increased after initiation of HAART, but naïve CD8+ T-cell numbers were only marginally affected. Baseline naïve T-cell ...
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H. H. pylori Helicobacter pylori. A type of bacteria that causes inflammation and ulcers in the stomach or small intestine. People with H. pylori infections may be more likely to develop cancer in the stomach, including MALT (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue) lymphoma. Also called Helicobacter pylori.. hA20 A monoclonal antibody that is being studied in the treatment of refractory B-cell non-Hodgkins lymphoma. Monoclonal antibodies are made in the laboratory and can locate and bind to cancer cells. hA20 binds to the protein CD20, which is found on B cells (a type of immune system cell), and some types of lymphoma cells. Also called IMMU-106 and HCD20.. HAART Highly active antiretroviral therapy. Treatment for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection that uses a combination of several antiretroviral drugs. The drugs inhibit the ability of the virus to multiply in the body, and they slow down the development of AIDS. Also called highly active antiretroviral therapy.. hair follicle A shaft or ...
Our findings suggest that approximately one-third (34.4%) of children were reported to have missed one or more doses during the previous week. This level of non-adherence is relatively low compared to findings in some studies in children [5,12].One study reported 42% non-adherence based on a retrospective review of pharmacy records during the first 180 days of HAART [5]. Similarly, another study reported that 43% of caregivers had missed one or more doses in the week preceding the interview-based study [12]. Possible explanations for the greater adherence in the present study may be ascribed to the higher use of the more patient-friendly, twice-daily dosing schedule (e.g. Zidovudine/Lamivudine/Nevirapine combinations). It may also be partly attributed to the hospitals policy of giving comprehensive pre-treatment adherence counselling sessions in which the need for strict adherence to ART instructions are emphasised. The majority of caregivers (90.2%) in the present study believed in the ...
Results Fifty-three patients [46 (87%) male, average age 46 (SD: 5.9 years] were included. A total of 28 (53%) had anaemia (haemoglobin ≤11 g/dL) and 31 (58%) were considered adherent. Median baseline haemoglobin, CD4 cell count, HCV-RNA levels and length of HCV treatment were 14.8 (IQR [interquartile range]: 13.5-16) g/dL, 453 (IQR: 284-634) cells/mm3, 28 (53%) ,800,000 IU/mL and 33 (IQR: 24-50.5) weeks, respectively. Adherence to HAART was significantly (P = 0.04) associated with anaemia. However, anaemia was not associated with sex, age or HCV-RNA levels. On logistic regression, both adherence to HAART OR = 3.18 [95% CI 1.01-9.93] and baseline haemoglobin OR = 0.24[0.11-0.51] were significantly associated with anaemia. This association remained significant after controlling independently for sex, age and HCV-RNA levels but not after baseline haemoglobin, CD4 cell count or creatinine.. ...
Background and aims: Patients with HIV and hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection are at increased risk of developing hepatic steatosis. The aims of this study were to assess the prevalence of steatosis in a cohort with HIV-HCV coinfection, and to determine an association, if any, between steatosis, antiretroviral therapy (ART), and advanced hepatic fibrosis. Patients and methods: HIV-HCV coinfected patients were retrospectively identified from the HIV clinic. ART was classified as none, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) only, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) only, and sequential therapy (initial NRTIs followed by HAART). Fibrosis stage and necroinflammation grade were assessed by the modified HAI (Ishak) scoring method. Steatosis was graded as 0-3. Results: Sixty patients were identified. The overall prevalence of hepatic steatosis was 58%. Those that received HAART only had a lower prevalence of steatosis (41%) compared to those on NRTIs only (70%) or sequential ...
This chapter focuses on the available molecular tests for diagnosis, monitoring, and management of HIV-1-infected individuals. It also focuses on molecular methods as they apply to the diagnosis and management of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV- 1). The guidelines for initiation of therapy based on viral load have changed as one's understanding of disease progression at higher CD4 cell counts has improved. Combination therapy using drugs from multiple classes has been the most effective approach to controlling viral replication. There are several FDA-approved assays for the detection, quantification, and characterization of HIV-1, and this field has expanded recently with the approval of real-time RTPCR viral load tests. A section covers conventional and real-time viral load tests, RNA and proviral DNA tests for the detection of HIV-1, resistance testing, and the tropism assay. The Amplicor monitor test was modified in a study comparing viral load values between the conventional ...
Acknowledgments: The authors thank Bonnie Devlin, Elizabeth Ferris, Nada Gataric, Kelly Hsu, Myrna Reginaldo, Chandra Lips, and Peter Vann for their research and administrative assistance and Kathy Li, Kevin Craib, and Martin Schechter for their advice on the statistical methods.. Grant Support: Evan Wood is supported by the Michael Smith Foundation for Health Research. Robert Hogg is supported by the Michael Smith Foundation for Health Research through a Career Investigator Award and by Canadian Institutes of Health Research through an Investigator Award.. Potential Financial Conflicts of Interest:Honoraria: R.S. Hogg (AIDS Research Program, St. Pauls Hospital); Grants received: J.S.G. Montaner (Abbott Laboratories, Agouron Pharmaceuticals, Shire Biochem, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Belgium International GmbH, Bristol-Myers Squibb, DuPont Pharma, Gilead Sciences, Glaxo Wellcome, Hoffman-LaRoche, Kucera Pharmaceutical Co., Merck Frosst Laboratories, Pharmacia & Upjohn, Trimeris); ...
Cryptococcosis remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among HIV-infected patients, especially in sub-Saharan Africa where it causes up to 20 % of AIDS-related deaths in HIV programs. A new, highly sensitive, and affordable point of care diagnostic test for cryptococcal infection, the lateral flow assay, can detect early sub-clinical cryptococcosis especially in areas with limited laboratory infrastructure. With a prevalence of detectable sub-clinical cryptococcal infection averaging 7.2 % (95 % CI 6.8-7.6 %) among 36 cohorts with CD4 ...
HIV-positive children on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) may need to be revaccinated to maintain their immunity against preventable ...
Univ Oxford, Wellcome Trust Ctr Epidemiol Infect Dis, Oxford OX1 3PS, England, Univ Amsterdam, Div Infect Dis Trop Med & AIDS, Dept Human Retrovirol, NL-1105 AZ Amsterdam, Netherlands, Univ Amsterdam, Div Infect Dis Trop Med & AIDS, Dept Internal Med, NL-1105 AZ Amsterdam, Netherlands. ...
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The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has led to increased survival among HIV-infected patients and improved the quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA).1 However, tuberculosis (TB) remains the most common opportunistic infection and a leading cause of death among patients with HIV, particularly in sub-Saharan African and Asian countries, where it is highly prevalent.2,3 Worldwide, it is estimated that there were 9.0 million new TB cases in 2013, 13% of whom were PLWHA.2 In Brazil, 73,000 new TB cases were detected, and 4577 deaths occurred in 2013.4 In Bahia, a northeastern state of Brazil, the incidence of TB is decreasing slowly, and it is the state with the fourth largest number of TB cases in Brazil.5. An estimated 36.7 million people are living with HIV worldwide and of these, 17 million are using antiretroviral therapy (ART).1 In Brazil, it is estimated that approximately 798,000 people were living with HIV in 2014, a prevalence of 0.39%. Of ...
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) was assessed by Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of 13 perinatally-HIV-infected pediatric patients, who underwent planned treatment interruption (PTI). MtDNA was measured at the time of PTI and 12 months later. A sequence of a highly conserved mtND2 gene and a fragment of the nuclear-coded housekeeping 18SrRNA gene were amplified separately. Changes in mtDNA amount were expressed as the ratio of ND2 mtDNA with respect to 18SrRNAnDNA. ...
Gag-specific CD4 proliferative responses correlate inversely with HIV-1 RNA levels in infected adults, and robust responses are characteristic of long-term nonprogressive infection. However, strong responses are seldom detected in adult subjects with progressive infection and are not generally reconstituted on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). To date, the role of HIV-1-specific Th responses in children has not been thoroughly examined. We characterized Gag-specific CD4 responses among 35 perinatally infected subjects, including 2 children who spontaneously control viremia without antiretroviral therapy, 21 children with viral loads (VL) of |400 on HAART, and 12 viremic children. Gag-specific Th activity was assessed by lymphoproliferative assay, and responses were mapped using overlapping Gag peptides in an IFN-gamma ELISPOT. Robust proliferative responses were detected in the children exhibiting spontaneous control of viremia, and mapping of targeted Gag regions in one such subject
in PLoS ONE (2009), 4(6), 6093. The persistence of transcriptionally silent but replication-competent HIV-1 reservoirs in Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART)-treated infected individuals, represents a major hurdle to virus ... [more ▼]. The persistence of transcriptionally silent but replication-competent HIV-1 reservoirs in Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy (HAART)-treated infected individuals, represents a major hurdle to virus eradication. Activation of HIV-1 gene expression in these cells together with an efficient HAART has been proposed as an adjuvant therapy aimed at decreasing the pool of latent viral reservoirs. Using the latently-infected U1 monocytic cell line and latently-infected J-Lat T-cell clones, we here demonstrated a strong synergistic activation of HIV-1 production by clinically used histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) combined with prostratin, a non-tumor-promoting nuclear factor (NF)- kappaB inducer. In J-Lat cells, we showed that this synergism was due, ...
The proportion of perinatally HIV (PHIV)-infected youth on antiretroviral therapy (ART) has increased, leading to decreases in rates of viremia and advanced immunosuppression in recent years.
A 42-year-old MSM black male was admitted due to vigorous perianal bleeding. Physical examination revealed a 14×8 cm exophytic erythematous perianal tumour with a moist verrucous surface (figure 1, right). The lesion had its origin on the right anal verge, extending over 3 cm on the anal canal, as seen by anuscopy. There was no loco-regional lymphadenopathy upon palpation. Laboratory data revealed microcytic anaemia (Hg 3.9 g/dl) and pelvic MRI showed abnormalities on the external anal sphincter, right isquiorectal fossa fat and thickening of perianal skin. On histopathology, there was a papillomatous epithelial proliferation with viral cytopathic effect and no signs of atypia, in keeping with condyloma acuminatum (figure 2). Patients history was remarkable for a 4-year HIV-1 positive serology (current viral load ,50 copies/ml and CD4+ count 123 cells/mm3), diabetes mellitus and chronic renal disease. He was on highly active antiretroviral therapy, insulinotherapy and dialysis. He had had a ...
Prevalence of HIV-1 drug resistance after failure of a first highly active antiretroviral therapy regimen in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa ...
Prevalence of HIV-1 drug resistance after failure of a first highly active antiretroviral therapy regimen in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa ...
During the past three decades, over thirty-five anti-HIV-1 therapies have been developed for use in humans and the progression from monotherapeutic treatment regimens to today’s highly active combination antiretroviral therapies has had a dramatic impact on disease progression in HIV-1-infected individuals. In spite of the success of AIDS therapies and the existence of inhibitors of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase, protease, entry and fusion, and integrase, HIV-1 therapies still have a variety of problems which require continued development efforts to improve efficacy and reduce toxicity, while making drugs that can be used throughout both the developed and developing world, in pediatric populations, and in pregnant women. Highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAARTs) have significantly delayed the progression to AIDS, and in the developed world HIV-1-infected individuals might be expected to live normal life spans while on lifelong therapies. However, the difficult treatment regimens, the presence
Background When to initiate antiretroviral therapy in HIV infected patients is a difficult clinical decision. Actually, it is still a matter of discussion whether early highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) during primary HIV infection may influence the dynamics of the viral rebound, in case of therapy interruption, and overall the main disease course. Methods In…
Novel source of HIV-1 viremia in patients on HAART Posted on 09/16/2009 Even though highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) can reduce HIV-1 virus load to clinically undetectable levels, the virus never completely disappears and ultrasensitive assays can detect small quantities of virus in all patients on HAART. The exact origin of this virus is unknown. Many researchers assume that it is produced by latently infected CD4+ T cells that reactivate. We analyzed HIV-1 sequences isolated from resting CD4+ T cells, activated CD4+ T cells, and blood plasma using a population-genetics approach. Our analysis showed that sequences from resting and activated CD4+ T cells formed a single population, whereas some of the virus in the blood plasma seemed genetically distinct from the virus in CD4+ T cells. This result shows that circulating CD4+ T cells are not the only source of residual viremia, and it suggests that a novel cellular source may contribute significantly to ongoing virus production under ...
Objective: To describe the short-term outcome of critically ill HIV-infected children with access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in a developing region.. Methods: Prospective observational study conducted in a paediatric teaching hospital in Cape Town, South Africa. All children admitted to the paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) with suspected HIV infection were screened. Data are n (%) with 95% confidence intervals.. Results: Sixty eight of 96 HIV antibody-positive children, median age 3 months, were confirmed HIV-infected. Predicted PICU mortality was 0.42. Fifty one children (75%; 95% CI 65 to 85%) survived to PICU discharge, but hospital survival was only 51% (95% CI 40 to 63%). Limitation of intervention (LOI) decisions were a factor in the majority of PICU and ward deaths. Twenty one PICU survivors (31%; 95% CI 20 to 42%) commenced HAART, and two children were already on treatment. Nineteen children (28%) were considered to be established on HAART after 1 month. ...
Introduction The use of highly active antiretroviral therapy resulted in significant improvement of mortality, morbidity and quality of life indicators of children infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1).1-3 The decision of starting antiretroviral therapy is based on clinical and laboratory parameters.4-7 Laboratory parameters, CD4+ T-lymphocytes count (CD4+TL) and plasma viral count of HIV, require sophisticated and expensive technology that is not easily available in developing countries. However, approximately 90% of the individuals infected with HIV live in these countries. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends starting the antiretroviral therapy at clinical stages 3 and 4 for all children older than 1 year in settings where laboratory tests are not available.8 Inexpensive markers of progression derived from easily obtained parameters, such as blood test or nutritional assessment, can be useful for the follow-up of HIV-infected children living in regions where the ...
The use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients has reduced the number of acquired immune deficiency syndrome-related deaths worldwide. This study assessed the impact of HAART on the survival and death rates of vertically HIV-infected children and adolescents in Belo Horizonte, Brazil. Data were obtained from a historic cohort of vertically HIV-infected children and adolescents aged zero-19 years old who were admitted from March 1989-December 2004 and were followed until June 2006. Patients who used HAART were included if they were treated for at least 12 weeks. Of 359 patients, 320 patients met the inclusion criteria. The overall mortality rate was 9.7% [31/320; 95% confidence interval (CI): 6.0-13%]. The median survival for the non-HAART and HAART groups was 31.5 and 55.9 months, respectively (log rank = 22.11, p < 0.0001). In the multivariate analysis, the statistically significant variables were HAART and the weight-for-age z ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy and the risk of an adverse outcome. AU - Tuomala, Ruth E.. AU - Shapiro, David E.. AU - Mofenson, Lynne M.. AU - Bryson, Yvonne. AU - Culnane, Mary. AU - Hughes, Michael D.. AU - OSullivan, M. J.. AU - Scott, Gwendolyn. AU - Stek, Alice M.. AU - Wara, Diane. AU - Bulterys, Marc. PY - 2002/6/13. Y1 - 2002/6/13. N2 - Background: Some studies suggest that combination antiretroviral therapy in pregnant women with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection increases the risk of premature birth and other adverse outcomes of pregnancy. Methods: We studied pregnant women with HIV-1 infection who were enrolled in seven clinical studies and delivered their infants from 1990 through 1998. The cohort comprised 2123 women who received antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy (monotherapy in 1590, combination therapy without protease inhibitors in 396, and combination therapy with protease inhibitors in 137) and 1143 women who did not receive ...
It is anticipated that demands on ambulatory HIV services will increase in coming years as a consequence of the increased life expectancy of HIV patients on highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). Accurate cost data are needed to enable evidence based policy decisions be made about new models of service delivery, new technologies and new medications. A micro-costing study was carried out in an HIV outpatient clinic in a single regional centre in the south of Ireland. The costs of individual appointment types were estimated based on staff grade and time. Hospital resources used by HIV patients who attended the ambulatory care service in 2012 were identified and extracted from existing hospital systems. Associations between patient characteristics and costs per patient month, in 2012 euros, were examined using univariate and multivariate analyses. The average cost of providing ambulatory HIV care was found to be €973 (95% confidence interval €938 - €1008) per patient month in 2012.
The use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has served to significantly reduce the mortality of HIV-infected persons. However, this treatment is associated with a host of adverse effects:...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cardiovascular outcomes of pediatric seroreverters perinatally exposed to HAART. T2 - Design of a longitudinal clinical study. AU - Lavigne, Jill E.. AU - Shearer, William T.. AU - Thompson, Bruce. AU - Orav, E. John. AU - Starc, Thomas J.. AU - Colan, Steven D.. AU - Pignatelli, Ricardo. AU - OBrien, Sharon E.. AU - Bezold, Louis. AU - LaRusa, Phillip. AU - Easley, Kirk A.. AU - Cheng, Irene. AU - Duffy, Sarah A.. AU - Lipshultz, Steven E. PY - 2004/10/14. Y1 - 2004/10/14. N2 - Seroreverters (uninfected children of HIV-infected mothers) have exhibited left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. Mitochondrial toxicity associated with in utero of postnatal exposure to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is a possible mechanism. Adult and animal models have demonstrated associations between LV abnormalities, cardiomyopathy, and components of HAART. Yet, outcomes in children are poorly understood. In this study, we explore HAART-associated LV abnormalities in seroreverters exposed ...
In the HAART era, emerging data suggest that echocardiographic abnormalities may not be improved by HAART or immune reconstitution. The large, prospective P2C2 multi-center study involving HIV-infected children found a high prevalence (18%) of mild left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and progressive increase in LV mass over the course of the study, leading to a 12% 5-year cumulative incidence of congestive heart failure and overall higher risk of all-cause mortality in subjects with even mild cardiac abnormalities [10]. Case reports have linked nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) use to adverse cardiac function, possibly from mitochondrial toxicity [11-13]. Protease inhibitors (PIs) have also been implicated in adversely affecting cardiac function [6, 14]. One small study comparing HIV-infected persons receiving a PI-containing regimen with patients receiving a non-PI-containing regimen found a significant increase in LV hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction in the group exposed to ...
HIV-infected children treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) have better cardiac function than untreated children.
There was the discovery of AZT [or zidovudine, the first antiretroviral approved for the treatment of HIV] in 1987, then single and double combination of drugs the next couple of years, and then, in 1996, came highly active antiretroviral therapy. That was truly a transforming phase in the history of HIV. Now, we had patients, destined to going to hospice, who were all getting well. We went from 28 weeks median survival to now, in 2011, where the mathematical modeling of a 20-something-year-old person with recently diagnosed HIV who is put on antiretroviral therapy will live at least another 50 - thats five zero - years. That is one of the most profound accomplishments in the relationship of biomedical research and drug development and clinical outcome.. The other historical issues for me personally were the interactions I had with various presidents and various members of Congress. I had the experience of all the differences on HIV/AIDS from Reagan to George H.W. Bush, who took a significant ...
Further Detail Abstract Text:. The use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has resulted in marked reductions in AIDS incidence, mortality and hospitalization. Unfortunately, these successes have not been uniform among all groups of people living with HIV, particularly among HIV infected injecting drug users (IDUs). The stunning benefits of HAART have been blunted and limited by difficulties in access and adherence to therapy. Despite the impressive successes of directly observed therapy (DOT) for tuberculosis control, only a few pilot studies of this intervention have been implemented for the treatment of HIV disease. Most of these studies of DOT using HAART have been accomplished in the controlled setting of either methadone maintenance or prisons, yet as few as 15-20 percent of IDUs are likely to be in these settings. For those who are in these settings, relapse to active drug use is common. Thus, in order to accomplish increased access to and utilization of HAART by HIV infected ...
Summary HIV/AIDS is one of the most destructive pandemics in human history, responsible for more than 25 million deaths. More than 30 million people live with limited or no access to therapeutic treatments, mainly due to the high cost of highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAART) and current diagnostic tests as well as due to the lack of basic infrastructure (e.g. lack of electricity, no trained personnel) that can support these tests. The need for innovative, inexpensive diagnostic instrumentation technology that can be used in resource-limited settings is immediate. While programs that offer free HAART are being implemented in resource-limited settings, no diagnostic tests are available for evaluating the efficacy of HAART provided for the reasons mentioned above. Efficient management of HAART requires monitoring the course of HIV infection over time. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the CD4 T-cell count test for monitoring the clinical status of HIV individuals in ...
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common disorder affecting individuals of all ages. Similar to general population, DM can also be seen in HIV infected cases. The prevalence of insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and diabetes in the HIV-infected population has increased dramatically following the widespread use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). HIV disease being an important global problem, increasing prevalence of DM among these patients in the HAART era can be expected. Primary care for HIV-infected with reference to DM and follow up for related complications is therefore important ...
Sixty-three patients were included. Mean age was 5.3±4.27 years; 55.6% were females. AKI was observed in 33 (52.3%) children. Patients on HAART presented lower levels of potassium (3.9±0.8 vs. 4.5±0.7mEq/L, p=0.019) and bicarbonate (19.1±4.9 vs. 23.5±2.2mEq/L, p=0.013) and had a higher estimated glomerular filtration rate (102.2±36.7 vs. 77.0±32.8mL/min/1.73m(2), p=0.011) than those not on HAART. In the multivariate analysis, the use of HAART prior to the admission was a protective factor for AKI (p=0.036; OR=0.30; 95% CI=0.097-0.926).. CONCLUSION ...
cognitive impairment remains a common complication of late-stage human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. Before the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), most virus-infected individuals demonstrated neuropathological abnormalities at autopsy, and a quarter had had neurological manifestations of the disease including cognitive, behavioral, and motor abnormalities, ranging from discrete deficits to HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD) (25, 38). Despite the decrease in the incidence of HAD (27), the greater life expectancy of HAART-treated infected individuals suggests that its prevalence may increase. Moreover, a less severe form of neurological attack, called minor cognitive/motor disorder (MCMD), emerged since the introduction of HAART, that may be more prevalent than dementia (27). Altogether, it appears that neuroAIDS is indeed sensitive to HAART although it remains a significant independent risk factor for AIDS mortality (13).. The best histopathological ...
Abstract Despite antiretroviral therapy, proviral latency of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) remains a principal obstacle to curing the infection. Inducing the expressi..
The 2006 Thailand national prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) guidelines recommended antiretroviral (ARV) regimen use during antenatal care (ANC) be based on CD4 results: highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) should be used for a CD4 , 200 cells/mm(3) and zidovudine/single-dose nevirapine should be used for a CD4 count , or = 200 cell/mm(3). We evaluated compliance with and outcomes of these guidelines. We conducted a retrospective chart review of HIV-infected women and their infants born during October 2006 - December 2007 at 27 hospitals in 11 provinces of Thailand. The infant HIV-infection status was determined using laboratory test results and death reports. Mother-infant pairs were classified as fully, partially, or non-compliant with PMTCT guidelines based on CD4 testing history and ARV received. Factors associated with compliance were analyzed using univariate and multivariate generalized estimating equations (GEE). Among 875 mother-infant pairs reviewed, 387 ...
HIV-infected persons were classified into 3 immunologic categories: no evidence of immune suppression (CD4+ ,500 cells/µL; n = 38), moderate suppression (CD4+ 200-499 cells/µL; n = 13), and severe suppression (CD4+ ,200 cells/µL; n = 9). HPyV was more frequently detected among children with severe immunosuppression (n = 7; p,0.001). However, no significant correlation was observed between the frequency of HPyV DNA detection and the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) (p = 0.156).. Because the immunosuppressed population is increasing around the world, the role of HPyVs as opportunistic pathogens in these persons has become a great concern (2-6). In this study, we found that the frequency of HPyV infections was higher among HIV-infected children than among the general pediatric population, although infection was not associated with the persons CD4+ cell count. The viral loads were similar in both groups, suggesting that efficiency of viral replication is not related to the ...
DURHAM, N.C. -- A new cost-effectiveness analysis has led researchers from Duke University Medical Center and the Veterans Affairs (VA) Palo Alto Health Care System to recommend that routine voluntary screening for HIV, the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), should be expanded well beyond current guidelines to include health care settings where the incidence of the virus would be expected to be low.. These include such settings as outpatient clinics, urgent care clinics or emergency rooms in areas that have in the past been deemed low-risk for HIV. The researchers recommended expanded testing because of the success over the past decade of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in prolonging the quantity and quality of lives of patients infected with AIDS, as well as decreasing the rate at which those infected with the virus can transmit the disease to others.. HAART therapy involves using multiple drugs, all of which block replication of HIV genes. For most ...
Background. Since the advent of antiretrovirals, HIV disease has largely come to be considered a chronic disease for those able to access treatment. As such, the concept of 'living well' with HIV is important. Increasing evidence suggests a high symptom burden in HIV that persists in the presence of treatment. Objectives. Our study aimed to measure the prevalence and burden of pain and other physical and psychological symptoms among South African HIV-positive patients attending highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) clinics. Methods. The study design was a cross-sectional survey. Simple random sampling was used to recruit 385 adult participants. Results. The sample had a median age of 40 years (Q1 - Q3=33 - 46) and 98.4% were receiving HAART. The mean latest CD4 count for the participants was 355.06±219/mm3. The mean number of symptoms of the 32 symptoms on the MSAS-SF experienced by participants was 10.24±5.71 (range 1 - 28). All 4 psychological symptoms were in the top 10 most
Researchers have used radioimmunotherapy (RIT) to destroy remaining HIV-infected cells in the blood samples of patients treated with antiretroviral therapy. The approach could provide a strategy for curing HIV infection, according to research presented at RSNA 2013. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has transformed the outlook for patients infected with HIV by suppressing the replication of the virus in the …. Read More. ...
US Pharm. 2011;36(6):8. Gaithersburg, MD-The FDA has approved Edurant (rilpivirine) in combination with other antiretroviral drugs for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in adults who are treatment-naïve. The drug is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) that is to be used as part of a highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimen designed to suppress viral load in the blood. Edurant showed efficacy similar to efavirenz, another FDA-approved NNRTI. In two phase III trials of 1,368 patients with HIV, 83% had undetectable amounts of HIV in their blood after 48 weeks of treatment. The most common side effects were depression, insomnia, headache, and rash. The drug is manufactured by Tibotec Therapeutics, a division of Centocor Ortho Biotech Inc ...
Introduction: Activation of T-lymphocytes, a hallmark of HIV infection, reaches a set point early in HIV infection and persists even after viral suppression with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Early T-cell activation predicts subsequent CD4 depletion, progression to AIDS and survival. HIV-infected subjects are at high risk for premature atherosclerosis. Little is known regarding the impact of early T cell activation on arterial stiffness. While Kaplan et al. (2011) were the first and only group to show a cross-sectional association, we investigate here if early T cell activation can predict future arterial stiffness.. Hypothesis: High early T cell activation will predict increased arterial stiffness, measured 5.5 (IQR=2.5-7.5) years later, in HIV and HCV co-infected women.. Methods: A longitudinal study nested within the WIHS, an ongoing prospective cohort study. Percentages of CD4 and CD8 T cell activation, assessed by CD38 and HLA-DR co-expression using 3-color flow cytometry, ...
Jacobson, Denise L., Patel, Kunjal, Siberry, George K., Van Dyke, Russell B., Dimeglio, Linda A., Geffner, Mitchell E., Chen, Janet S., McFarland, Elizabeth J., Borkowsky, William, Silio, Margarita, Fielding, Roger A., Siminski, Suzanne, Miller, Tracie L. Body fat distribution in perinatally HIV-infected and HIV-exposed but uninfected children in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy: Outcomes from the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neurobehavioral effects in HIV-Positive individuals receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in Gaborone, Botswana. AU - Lawler, Kathy. AU - Jeremiah, Kealeboga. AU - Mosepele, Mosepele. AU - Ratcliffe, Sarah J.. AU - Cherry, Catherine. AU - Seloilwe, Esther. AU - Steenhoff, Andrew P.. PY - 2011/2/18. Y1 - 2011/2/18. N2 - Objective: To explore the prevalence and features of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDS) in Botswana, a sub-Saharan country at the center of the HIV epidemic. Design and Methods: A cross sectional study of 60 HIV-positive individuals, all receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), and 80 demographically matched HIV-seronegative control subjects. We administered a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery and structured psychiatric interview. The lowest 10th percentile of results achieved by control subjects was used to define the lower limit of normal performance on cognitive measures. Subjects who scored abnormal on ...
Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a demyelinating disease of the brain caused by the polyomavirus JC (JCV) in immunosuppressed people. There is no cure for PML but 1-year survival has increased from 10% to 50% in HIV-infected individuals treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy. We describe herein the clinical outcome of 24 PML patients whose survival exceeded 5 years, with a mean follow-up of 94.2 months (range, 60-188 months). Of all patients, only two were females including one who had non-Hodgkins lymphoma and was HIV negative. All 23 HIV-positive patients received highly active antiretroviral therapy, and additional experimental therapies were not associated with a better clinical outcome.. Marked neurological improvement occurred in 4/24 (17%) of patients, while 11/24 (46%) had partial improvement and 9/24 (37%) remained stable. By the end of the period of observation, 8/24 (33%) of patients had no significant disability despite persistent symptoms (modified ...
No drugs effectively inhibit or cure the virus infection without toxicity. Therefore, treatment aims at reversing the immune deficiency to slow or stop the disease progress. In patients on immunosuppression, this means stopping the drugs or using plasma exchange to accelerate the removal of the biologic agent that put the person at risk for PML.[1]. In HIV-infected people, this may mean starting highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). AIDS patients starting HAART after being diagnosed with PML tend to have a slightly longer survival time than patients who were already on HAART and then develop PML.[12] Some AIDS patients with PML have been able to survive for several years, with HAART.[13] A rare complication of effective HAART is immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), in which increased immune system activity actually increases the damage caused by the JCV infection; although IRIS can often be managed with medication, it is extremely dangerous in PML.[14]. Cidofovir was ...
Radiology. 1. Rudnick, J., Naor, R., Moser, F. & S. Phuphanich "A Dramatic and Prolonged Response to Meningeal Gliomatosis " presented at the 62nd American Academy of Neurology Annual Meeting, Toronto, ON, Canada, 2010.. 2. Witkosky, M. & F.G. Moser" Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome After Initiation of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in a Patient with Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy." presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Society of Neuroradiology, Boston Mass 2010.. 3. Moser, F. G.,Izadi, K., Binesh, N.,Saidian, L.,Prasad, R.,Pressman, B. D.,Cohen R.M."Can a Statins Effects on the Brain Be Measured by Perfusion and Spectroscopy?" presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Society of Neuroradiology, Seattle, Washington 2011.. 4. Anaya, C. A.•Maya, M. M.•Moser, F.•Schievink, W."Digital Subtraction Myelography in the Evaluation of Cerebrospinal Fluid Leaks: Preliminary Results in 20 Patients with Spontaneous Intracranial Hypotension" presented at ...
OBJECTIVES. We designed two different studies to evaluate two different combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) stopping strategies namely a staggered stop approach (STOP 1 study) and a protected stop approach (STOP 2 study) to find the best universal stop strategy.. PATIENTS AND METHODS. Patients who stopped cART for any reason were recruited. In STOP 1, 10 patients on efavirenz continued dual nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) for 1 week after discontinuing efavirenz. Efavirenz concentrations were measured weekly for up to 3 weeks. In STOP 2, 20 patients stopped their cART and replaced it with two tablets of lopinavir/ritonavir (Kaletra) (100/50 mg) twice daily for 4 weeks. Lopinavir, efavirenz, nevirapine and tenofovir concentrations were measured weekly for up to 4 weeks. Virological and resistance testing were performed.. RESULTS. In STOP 1 five patients still had efavirenz present (median t(1/2)=148.4 h) 3 weeks after stopping. In STOP 2, 15/20 patients had a ...
We report a case of osteomyelitis due to Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare complex (MAC) in an AIDS patient shortly after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy with subsequent immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS).
PRINCETON, N.J. & FOSTER CITY, Calif.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--April 27, 2006--Bristol-Myers Squibb Company (NYSE:BMY) and Gilead Sciences, Inc. (Nasdaq:GILD) today announced the submission of a New Drug Application (NDA) to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for approval of a product that combines the anti-HIV medications Sustiva(R) (efavirenz), manufactured by Bristol-Myers Squibb, and Truvada(R) (emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate), manufactured by Gilead Sciences, in a once-daily single tablet regimen. Truvada itself is a fixed-dose product that contains two of Gileads anti-HIV medications, Viread(R) (tenofovir disoproxil fumarate) and Emtriva(R) (emtricitabine), in a single once-daily tablet. If approved by the FDA, the new single tablet regimen would be the first and only product that contains a complete Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) regimen in a single once-daily tablet, intended for the treatment of HIV-1 infection in adults as a complete regimen or in ...
Valproic Acid is an anticonvulsant and mood-stabilizing drug used primarily in the treatment of epilepsy and bipolar disorder. It is also used to treat migraine headaches and schizophrenia. In epileptics, valproic acid is used to control absence seizures, tonic-clonic seizures (grand mal), complex partial seizures, and the seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome. Valproic Acid is believed to affect the function of the neurotransmitter GABA (as a GABA transaminase inhibitor) in the human brain. Valproic Acid dissociates to the valproate ion in the gastrointestinal tract. Valproic acid has also been shown to be an inhibitor of an enzyme called histone deacetylase 1 (HDAC1). HDAC1 is needed for HIV to remain in infected cells. A study published in August 2005 revealed that patients treated with valproic acid in addition to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) showed a 75% reduction in latent HIV infection ...
BACKGROUND: The OCTANE trial reports superior outcomes of lopinavir/ritonavir vs. nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) among women previously exposed to single-dose nevirapine to prevent mother-to-child HIV transmission. However, lopinavir/ritonavir is 12 times costlier than nevirapine.. METHODS: We used a computer model, with OCTANE and local data, to simulate HIV-infected, single-dose nevirapine-exposed women in South Africa. Outcomes of three alternative ART sequences were projected: no ART (for comparison), first-line nevirapine, and first-line lopinavir/ritonavir. OCTANE data included mean age (31 years) and CD4 cell count (135/μl); median time since single-dose nevirapine (17 months); and 24-week viral suppression efficacy for first-line ART (nevirapine: 85%, lopinavir/ritonavir: 97%). Outcomes included life expectancy, per-person costs (2008 US$), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratios.. RESULTS: With no ART, projected life expectancy was 1.6 years and per-person cost was ...

HAART (Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy)HAART (Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy)

HAART is the acronym for highly active antiretroviral therapy and is used to describe the effectiveness of combination drug ... What Is HAART (Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy)? How Triple Therapy Turned the HIV Epidemic Around By Mark Cichocki, RN ... HAART is the acronym for highly active antiretroviral therapy, a term coined in the late 1990s to describe the effectiveness ... combination antiretroviral therapy) or, even more simply, ART (antiretroviral therapy). ...
more infohttps://www.verywell.com/haart-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-48967

Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) Adherence Interventions - Tabular View - ClinicalTrials.govHighly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) Adherence Interventions - Tabular View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) Adherence Interventions. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) Adherence Interventions. Official Title ICMJE HAART Adherence Interventions in ... highly active antiretroviral therapy) for the first time. Patients who are eligible to be initiated on HAART at the UW/Coptic ... Active Comparator: Counseling and alarm Participants in this arm will receive both education counseling and a pocket alarm ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/record/NCT00273780?term=NCT00273780&rank=1

Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) Adherence Interventions - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govHighly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) Adherence Interventions - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) Adherence Interventions. This study has been completed. ... highly active antiretroviral therapy) for the first time. Patients who are eligible to be initiated on HAART at the UW/Coptic ... Active Comparator: Alarm device Device: Alarm device This pocket alarm device will be set to ring at designated times during ... Active Comparator: Counseling and alarm Participants in this arm will receive both education counseling and a pocket alarm ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00273780?order=547

Micronutrients in HIV-positive persons receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy.Micronutrients in HIV-positive persons receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy.

Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active*. HIV Infections / blood*, drug therapy*, metabolism. HIV Seropositivity / blood, drug ... 16218797 - Reasons for stopping antiretrovirals used in an initial highly active antiretroviral re.... 20814447 - How hiv ... delay HIV disease progression and reduce mortality in HIV-positive persons not receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy ( ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Micronutrients-in-HIV-positive-persons/17284727.html

Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy
      - HAART
     Summary Report | CureHunterHighly Active Antiretroviral Therapy - HAART Summary Report | CureHunter

Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy: Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV ... Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART). Subscribe to New Research on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy ... Drug Therapy: 178671*Combination Drug Therapy: 9625*Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy: 7338 ... after the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in developed countries. ". 03/01/2015 - "Because highly active ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryD023241.do

HAART (Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy)HAART (Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy)

HAART is the acronym for highly active antiretroviral therapy and is used to describe the effectiveness of combination drug ... HAART (Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy) How Triple Therapy Turned the HIV Epidemic Around Print By Mark Cichocki, RN ... HAART is the acronym for highly active antiretroviral therapy, a term coined in the late 1990s to describe the effectiveness ... combination antiretroviral therapy) or, even more simply, ART (antiretroviral therapy). ...
more infohttps://www.verywellhealth.com/haart-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-48967

Osteoarticular complications related to HIV infection and highly active antiretroviral therapyOsteoarticular complications related to HIV infection and highly active antiretroviral therapy

With the significant increase in life expectancy for HIV-infected patients in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy, ... This syndrome has been related to the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy, especially protease inhibitors, and would ... Bone mineral loss through increased bone turnover in HIV-infected children treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy. ... Adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder in human deficiency virus-positive patients during highly active antiretroviral therapy. J ...
more infohttp://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1413-86702007000400012&lng=en&nrm=iso

Risk factors for severe hepatic injury after introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy.  - PubMed - NCBIRisk factors for severe hepatic injury after introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy. - PubMed - NCBI

Risk factors for severe hepatic injury after introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy.. Núñez M1, Lana R, Mendoza ... Treatment of HIV infection with highly antiretroviral therapy (HAART) may be limited by liver toxicity. Its incidence and risk ... Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/adverse effects*. *Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood. *Chemical and Drug Induced Liver ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11511818?dopt=Abstract

highly active antiretroviral therapy | Tabers Medical Dictionaryhighly active antiretroviral therapy | Taber's Medical Dictionary

highly active antiretroviral therapy answers are found in the Tabers Medical Dictionary powered by Unbound Medicine. Available ... antiretroviral_therapy. Highly active antiretroviral therapy. In: Venes D, ed. Tabers Medical Dictionary. 23rd ed. F.A. Davis ... antiretroviral_therapy. Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy [Internet]. In: Venes D, editors. Tabers Medical Dictionary. F.A ... antiretroviral_therapy. Accessed March 19, 2019.. Highly active antiretroviral therapy. (2017). In Venes, D. (Ed.), Tabers ...
more infohttps://www.tabers.com/tabersonline/view/Tabers-Dictionary/730387/all/highly_active_antiretroviral_therapy

Management of Noninfectious Diarrhea Associated With HIV and Highly Active Antiretroviral TherapyManagement of Noninfectious Diarrhea Associated With HIV and Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

... ... Supplements > Addressing Adherence Challenges Associated With Antiretroviral Therapy: Focus on Noninfectious Diarr - Published ... Participating Faculty: Addressing Adherence Challenges Associated With Antiretroviral Therapy: Focus on Noninfectious Diarrhea ... Supplements Addressing Adherence Challenges Associated With Antiretroviral Therapy: Focus on Noninfectious Diarr ...
more infohttps://www.ajmc.com/journals/supplement/2013/a472_sep13_hiv/a472_sep13_macarthur_s238?p=2

Prolonged Treatment Interruption after Immunologic Response to Highly Active Antiretroviral TherapyProlonged Treatment Interruption after Immunologic Response to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

Home » Prolonged Treatment Interruption after Immunologic Response to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy ... "infected patients whose antiretroviral therapy was interrupted with the intention to resume therapy on the basis of clinical or ... Patients with lower CD4 cell counts at therapy initiation were more likely to resume therapy than were those with counts of > ... Initiation of antiretroviral therapy during acute infection to protect... ...
more infohttp://connection.ebscohost.com/c/articles/11472190/prolonged-treatment-interruption-after-immunologic-response-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy

Genetic characterization of rebounding HIV-1 after cessation of highly active antiretroviral therapy.  - PubMed - NCBIGenetic characterization of rebounding HIV-1 after cessation of highly active antiretroviral therapy. - PubMed - NCBI

Genetic characterization of rebounding HIV-1 after cessation of highly active antiretroviral therapy.. Zhang L1, Chung C, Hu BS ... Despite prolonged treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), infectious HIV-1 continues to replicate and to ... Genetic characterization of rebounding HIV-1 after cessation of highly active antiretroviral therapy ... Genetic characterization of rebounding HIV-1 after cessation of highly active antiretroviral therapy ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11018071?dopt=Abstract

AIDS-Related Cancers in the Era of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy | Cancer NetworkAIDS-Related Cancers in the Era of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy | Cancer Network

Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has shown great efficacy in reducing human immunodeficiency virus levels, ... Highly Active. Antiretroviral Therapy. Dual drug therapies also came into wide use in the early 1990s,. and since 1996, triple- ... The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy. (HAART) for persons with AIDS presents the opportunity for examining this. ... Highly active antiretroviral therapy and incidence of cancer in human. immunodeficiency virus-infected adults. J Natl Cancer ...
more infohttp://www.cancernetwork.com/review-article/aids-related-cancers-era-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy

Ten years of highly active antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection | The Medical Journal of AustraliaTen years of highly active antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection | The Medical Journal of Australia

Highly active antiretroviral therapy decreases mortality and morbidity in patients with advanced HIV disease. Ann Intern Med ... Cost effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected patients. Swiss HIV Cohort Study. AIDS 1999; 13: ... Last year marked the 10-year anniversary of the widespread use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for treating HIV ... Health-related quality of life after 1 year of highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2003; 32: 38- ...
more infohttps://www.mja.com.au/journal/2007/186/3/ten-years-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-hiv-infection

ASMscience | Highly Active Antiretroviral TherapyASMscience | Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy

Current approaches to therapy include having optimal highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for HIV-infected patients, ... of HIV-1 with cellular DNA underlies the notoriously incurable nature of AIDS despite highly active antiretroviral therapy ( ... effective treatment and prophylaxis for cryptosporidiosis in AIDS patients is the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy ( ... Home / Concepts / Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy. More general concepts than this:. ...
more infohttp://www.asmscience.org/content/concept/Entity/ASM/Microbiology/Clinical_and_Public_Health/Therapeutics/Drug_Therapy/Combination_Therapy/Highly_Active_Antiretroviral_Therapy

Time to initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected injection 
  drug usersTime to initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected injection drug users

... therapy than non-drug users. We assess factors associated with initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV- ... Time to initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected injection drug users ... A comparison of exposure groups in the EuroSIDA study: starting highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), response to HAART ... Clinical progression and virological failure on highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1 patients: a prospective cohort ...
more infohttp://www.natap.org/2001/oct/ivdus_1008.htm

Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy and Viral Response in HIV Type 2 InfectionHighly Active Antiretroviral Therapy and Viral Response in HIV Type 2 Infection

Highly active antiretroviral drug therapy has led to a dramatic reduction of viral load in many... ... Home » Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy and Viral Response in HIV Type 2 Infection ... Physicians applied the principles of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), normally used in treating HIV type 1, with ... The combined use of inhibitors of reverse transcriptase and protease as highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) provided ...
more infohttp://connection.ebscohost.com/c/articles/13282112/highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-viral-response-hiv-type-2-infection

Monitoring of highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV infection - GOV.UKMonitoring of highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV infection - GOV.UK

Walker, A.S.; Gibb, D.M. Monitoring of highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV infection. Current Opinion in Infectious ... Purpose of review: Patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in high-income countries have routine laboratory tests to monitor ...
more infohttps://www.gov.uk/dfid-research-outputs/monitoring-of-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-in-hiv-infection

Robert S Hoggs Research on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART)
     | CureHunterRobert S Hogg's Research on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) | CureHunter

Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART). 4/2015. Suicide mortality among people accessing highly active antiretroviral ... Factors predictive of 30-day postoperative mortality in HIV/AIDS patients in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.. ... Factors associated with late initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy among young HIV-positive men and women aged 18 ... HIV-1 disease progression during highly active antiretroviral therapy: an application using population-level data in British ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/authorSummary-Hogg,%20Robert%20S.do?keywordId=D023241

Changes in AIDS-related lymphoma since the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy | Blood JournalChanges in AIDS-related lymphoma since the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy | Blood Journal

Changes in AIDS-related lymphoma since the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Caroline Besson, Aicha Goubar, Jean ... Highly active antiretroviral therapy and incidence of cancer in human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults. J Natl Cancer ... Changes in AIDS-related lymphoma since the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Blood, 98(8), 2339-2344. Accessed June ... Changes in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related lymphoma since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy. ...
more infohttp://www.bloodjournal.org/content/98/8/2339?ijkey=1a276520b98afff8996e77e81b1836bde39904e6&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha&sso-checked=true

AIDS Malignancies in the Era of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy | Cancer Network | The Oncology JournalAIDS Malignancies in the Era of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy | Cancer Network | The Oncology Journal

The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has had a dramatic impact on the morbidity and mortality of ... treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Whether such patients. truly recover normal immune function is ... Bower M, Fox P, Fife K, et al: Highly active anti-retroviral. therapy (HAART) prolongs time to treatment failure in Kaposis ... Grulich A: AIDS-associated NHL in the era of highly active. antiretroviral therapy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 21:S27-S30, ...
more infohttp://www.cancernetwork.com/review-article/aids-malignancies-era-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-2

Use of highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected women: impact of HIV specialist care | RTIUse of highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected women: impact of HIV specialist care | RTI

... and to determine whether medical indications for therapy validate lower rates of antiretroviral use in women not using HIV ... Although medical indications for therapy in the two groups were comparable, the rate of highly active antiretroviral therapy ( ... Use of highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected women: impact of HIV specialist care. ... Use of highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected women: impact of HIV specialist care. Journal of Acquired Immune ...
more infohttps://www.rti.org/publication/use-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-hiv-infected-women-impact-hiv-specialist-care

Bezafibrate for the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia in HIV1-infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapyBezafibrate for the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia in HIV1-infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy

The use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-infected patients has been associated with the development of ... Bezafibrate for the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia in HIV1-infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy. Braz J ...
more infohttp://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_abstract&pid=S1413-86702006000300001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en
  • 3 - 7 The goal of combination ARV therapy is firstly to suppress HIV viral load in plasma to below the limit of detection and secondly to restore immune function, as demonstrated by an increased number of CD4 + T cells. (mja.com.au)
  • Length polymorphism of the rebounding plasma virus in comparison with those isolated from the latent reservoir during therapy and those in the plasma before therapy. (nih.gov)
  • It is now evident that host cells have evolved a remarkable variety of antiretroviral activities to defend themselves against viral invaders and in return viruses have developed ingenious ways to circumvent these defences and, in some cases, actually hijack cellular proteins in order to. (ebscohost.com)