Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.
Agents used to treat RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.
The number of CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD. Determination requires the use of a fluorescence-activated flow cytometer.
The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.
The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.
An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.
Human immunodeficiency virus. A non-taxonomic and historical term referring to any of two species, specifically HIV-1 and/or HIV-2. Prior to 1986, this was called human T-lymphotropic virus type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). From 1986-1990, it was an official species called HIV. Since 1991, HIV was no longer considered an official species name; the two species were designated HIV-1 and HIV-2.
Opportunistic infections found in patients who test positive for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The most common include PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA, Kaposi's sarcoma, cryptosporidiosis, herpes simplex, toxoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, and infections with Mycobacterium avium complex, Microsporidium, and Cytomegalovirus.
Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.
Inhibitors of HIV PROTEASE, an enzyme required for production of proteins needed for viral assembly.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A dideoxynucleoside analog that inhibits reverse transcriptase and has in vitro activity against HIV.
A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by an azido group. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. The compound is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA during reverse transcription. It improves immunologic function, partially reverses the HIV-induced neurological dysfunction, and improves certain other clinical abnormalities associated with AIDS. Its principal toxic effect is dose-dependent suppression of bone marrow, resulting in anemia and leukopenia.
A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.
A potent, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used in combination with nucleoside analogues for treatment of HIV INFECTIONS and AIDS.
Voluntary cooperation of the patient in taking drugs or medicine as prescribed. This includes timing, dosage, and frequency.
OXAZINES with a fused BENZENE ring.
Defective metabolism leading to fat maldistribution in patients infected with HIV. The etiology appears to be multifactorial and probably involves some combination of infection-induced alterations in metabolism, direct effects of antiretroviral therapy, and patient-related factors.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.
Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).
Exuberant inflammatory response towards previously undiagnosed or incubating opportunistic pathogens. It is frequently seen in AIDS patients following HAART.
An HIV protease inhibitor that works by interfering with the reproductive cycle of HIV. It also inhibits CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A.
The presence of viruses in the blood.
Voluntary cooperation of the patient in following a prescribed regimen.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
An HIV protease inhibitor used in a fixed-dose combination with RITONAVIR. It is also an inhibitor of CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A.
A reverse transcriptase inhibitor and ZALCITABINE analog in which a sulfur atom replaces the 3' carbon of the pentose ring. It is used to treat HIV disease.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.
Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.
A measure of the quality of health care by assessment of unsuccessful results of management and procedures used in combating disease, in individual cases or series.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
A potent and specific HIV protease inhibitor that appears to have good oral bioavailability.
A neurologic condition associated with the ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and characterized by impaired concentration and memory, slowness of hand movements, ATAXIA, incontinence, apathy, and gait difficulties associated with HIV-1 viral infection of the central nervous system. Pathologic examination of the brain reveals white matter rarefaction, perivascular infiltrates of lymphocytes, foamy macrophages, and multinucleated giant cells. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp760-1; N Engl J Med, 1995 Apr 6;332(14):934-40)
A republic in southern Africa, between NAMIBIA and ZAMBIA. It was formerly called Bechuanaland. Its capital is Gaborone. The Kalahari Desert is in the west and southwest.
B-cell lymphoid tumors that occur in association with AIDS. Patients often present with an advanced stage of disease and highly malignant subtypes including BURKITT LYMPHOMA; IMMUNOBLASTIC LARGE-CELL LYMPHOMA; PRIMARY EFFUSION LYMPHOMA; and DIFFUSE, LARGE B-CELL, LYMPHOMA. The tumors are often disseminated in unusual extranodal sites and chromosomal abnormalities are frequently present. It is likely that polyclonal B-cell lymphoproliferation in AIDS is a complex result of EBV infection, HIV antigenic stimulation, and T-cell-dependent HIV activation.
The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs simultaneously. This resistance phenotype may be attributed to multiple gene mutation.
Study subjects in COHORT STUDIES whose outcomes are unknown e.g., because they could not or did not wish to attend follow-up visits.(from Dictionary of Epidemiology, 5th ed.)
Infection of the retina by cytomegalovirus characterized by retinal necrosis, hemorrhage, vessel sheathing, and retinal edema. Cytomegalovirus retinitis is a major opportunistic infection in AIDS patients and can cause blindness.
A dideoxynucleoside compound in which the 3'-hydroxy group on the sugar moiety has been replaced by a hydrogen. This modification prevents the formation of phosphodiester linkages which are needed for the completion of nucleic acid chains. Didanosine is a potent inhibitor of HIV replication, acting as a chain-terminator of viral DNA by binding to reverse transcriptase; ddI is then metabolized to dideoxyadenosine triphosphate, its putative active metabolite.
A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.
A potent HIV protease inhibitor. It is used in combination with other antiviral drugs in the treatment of HIV in both adults and children.
Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.
A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A treatment method in which patients are under direct observation when they take their medication or receive their treatment. This method is designed to reduce the risk of treatment interruption and to ensure patient compliance.
The process of observing, recording, or detecting the effects of a chemical substance administered to an individual therapeutically or diagnostically.
A reverse transcriptase encoded by the POL GENE of HIV. It is a heterodimer of 66 kDa and 51 kDa subunits that are derived from a common precursor protein. The heterodimer also includes an RNAse H activity (RIBONUCLEASE H, HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS) that plays an essential role the viral replication process.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Nucleosides that have two hydroxy groups removed from the sugar moiety. The majority of these compounds have broad-spectrum antiretroviral activity due to their action as antimetabolites. The nucleosides are phosphorylated intracellularly to their 5'-triphosphates and act as chain-terminating inhibitors of viral reverse transcription.
Six-membered heterocycles containing an oxygen and a nitrogen.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
A collection of heterogenous conditions resulting from defective LIPID METABOLISM and characterized by ADIPOSE TISSUE atrophy. Often there is redistribution of body fat resulting in peripheral fat wasting and central adiposity. They include generalized, localized, congenital, and acquired lipodystrophy.
All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).
A republic in western Africa, south of MALI and BURKINA FASO, bordered by GHANA on the east. Its administrative capital is Abidjan and Yamoussoukro has been the official capital since 1983. The country was formerly called Ivory Coast.
The geographical area of Africa comprising ANGOLA; BOTSWANA; LESOTHO; MALAWI; MOZAMBIQUE; NAMIBIA; SOUTH AFRICA; SWAZILAND; ZAMBIA; and ZIMBABWE.
A republic in southern Africa, south of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and TANZANIA, and north of ZIMBABWE. Its capital is Lusaka. It was formerly called Northern Rhodesia.
Involuntary weight loss of greater than 10 percent associated with intermittent or constant fever and chronic diarrhea or fatigue for more than 30 days in the absence of a defined cause other than HIV infection. A constant feature is major muscle wasting with scattered myofiber degeneration. A variety of etiologies, which vary among patients, contributes to this syndrome. (From Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 13th ed, p1611).
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
Enzyme of the human immunodeficiency virus that is required for post-translational cleavage of gag and gag-pol precursor polyproteins into functional products needed for viral assembly. HIV protease is an aspartic protease encoded by the amino terminus of the pol gene.
Drugs used in the treatment of tuberculosis. They are divided into two main classes: "first-line" agents, those with the greatest efficacy and acceptable degrees of toxicity used successfully in the great majority of cases; and "second-line" drugs used in drug-resistant cases or those in which some other patient-related condition has compromised the effectiveness of primary therapy.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Ratio of T-LYMPHOCYTES that express the CD4 ANTIGEN to those that express the CD8 ANTIGEN. This value is commonly assessed in the diagnosis and staging of diseases affecting the IMMUNE SYSTEM including HIV INFECTIONS.
Renal syndrome in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients characterized by nephrotic syndrome, severe proteinuria, focal and segmental glomerulosclerosis with distinctive tubular and interstitial changes, enlarged kidneys, and peculiar tubuloreticular structures. The syndrome is distinct from heroin-associated nephropathy as well as other forms of kidney disease seen in HIV-infected patients.
The residual portion of BLOOD that is left after removal of BLOOD CELLS by CENTRIFUGATION without prior BLOOD COAGULATION.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
A critical subpopulation of regulatory T-lymphocytes involved in MHC Class I-restricted interactions. They include both cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and CD8+ suppressor T-lymphocytes.
A multicentric, malignant neoplastic vascular proliferation characterized by the development of bluish-red cutaneous nodules, usually on the lower extremities, most often on the toes or feet, and slowly increasing in size and number and spreading to more proximal areas. The tumors have endothelium-lined channels and vascular spaces admixed with variably sized aggregates of spindle-shaped cells, and often remain confined to the skin and subcutaneous tissue, but widespread visceral involvement may occur. Kaposi's sarcoma occurs spontaneously in Jewish and Italian males in Europe and the United States. An aggressive variant in young children is endemic in some areas of Africa. A third form occurs in about 0.04% of kidney transplant patients. There is also a high incidence in AIDS patients. (From Dorland, 27th ed & Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 3d ed, pp2105-7) HHV-8 is the suspected cause.
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
Persons who have experienced prolonged survival of HIV infection. This includes the full spectrum of untreated, HIV-infected long-term asymptomatics to those with AIDS who have survived due to successful treatment.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
An HIV protease inhibitor which acts as an analog of an HIV protease cleavage site. It is a highly specific inhibitor of HIV-1 and HIV-2 proteases, and also inhibits CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A.
Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.
A republic in southern Africa, east of ZAMBIA and BOTSWANA and west of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Harare. It was formerly called Rhodesia and Southern Rhodesia.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The number of LYMPHOCYTES per unit volume of BLOOD.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
Immune status consisting of non-production of HIV antibodies, as determined by various serological tests.
Acidosis caused by accumulation of lactic acid more rapidly than it can be metabolized. It may occur spontaneously or in association with diseases such as DIABETES MELLITUS; LEUKEMIA; or LIVER FAILURE.
A republic in central Africa lying east of CHAD and the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and west of NIGERIA. The capital is Yaounde.
Patient or client refusal of or resistance to medical, psychological, or psychiatric treatment. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)
Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.
Withholding or withdrawal of a particular treatment or treatments, often (but not necessarily) life-prolonging treatment, from a patient or from a research subject as part of a research protocol. The concept is differentiated from REFUSAL TO TREAT, where the emphasis is on the health professional's or health facility's refusal to treat a patient or group of patients when the patient or the patient's representative requests treatment. Withholding of life-prolonging treatment is usually indexed only with EUTHANASIA, PASSIVE, unless the distinction between withholding and withdrawing treatment, or the issue of withholding palliative rather than curative treatment, is discussed.
Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
A republic in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Port-au-Prince. With the Dominican Republic it forms the island of Hispaniola - Haiti occupying the western third and the Dominican Republic, the eastern two thirds. Haiti belonged to France from 1697 until its rule was challenged by slave insurrections from 1791. It became a republic in 1820. It was virtually an American protectorate from 1915 to 1934. It adopted its present constitution in 1964 and amended it in 1971. The name may represent either of two Caribbean words, haiti, mountain land, or jhaiti, nest. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p481 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p225)
A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Proteins encoded by the POL GENE of the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
A province of Canada on the Pacific coast. Its capital is Victoria. The name given in 1858 derives from the Columbia River which was named by the American captain Robert Gray for his ship Columbia which in turn was named for Columbus. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p178 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p81-2)
Infections of the BRAIN caused by the protozoan TOXOPLASMA gondii that primarily arise in individuals with IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES (see also AIDS-RELATED OPPORTUNISTIC INFECTIONS). The infection may involve the brain diffusely or form discrete abscesses. Clinical manifestations include SEIZURES, altered mentation, headache, focal neurologic deficits, and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch27, pp41-3)
A kingdom in southern Africa, within the republic of SOUTH AFRICA. Its capital is Maseru.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
Meningeal inflammation produced by CRYPTOCOCCUS NEOFORMANS, an encapsulated yeast that tends to infect individuals with ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other immunocompromised states. The organism enters the body through the respiratory tract, but symptomatic infections are usually limited to the lungs and nervous system. The organism may also produce parenchymal brain lesions (torulomas). Clinically, the course is subacute and may feature HEADACHE; NAUSEA; PHOTOPHOBIA; focal neurologic deficits; SEIZURES; cranial neuropathies; and HYDROCEPHALUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp721-2)
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA, east of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, west of TANZANIA. Its capital is Kigali. It was formerly part of the Belgian trust territory of Ruanda-Urund.
A pulmonary disease in humans occurring in immunodeficient or malnourished patients or infants, characterized by DYSPNEA, tachypnea, and HYPOXEMIA. Pneumocystis pneumonia is a frequently seen opportunistic infection in AIDS. It is caused by the fungus PNEUMOCYSTIS JIROVECII. The disease is also found in other MAMMALS where it is caused by related species of Pneumocystis.
The use of chemical compounds to prevent the development of a specific disease.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of oxo-pyrrolidines. A member of this group is 2-oxo pyrrolidine, which is an intermediate in the manufacture of polyvinylpyrrolidone. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Compounds which inhibit or antagonize biosynthesis or actions of proteases (ENDOPEPTIDASES).
An opportunistic viral infection of the central nervous system associated with conditions that impair cell-mediated immunity (e.g., ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME and other IMMUNOLOGIC DEFICIENCY SYNDROMES; HEMATOLOGIC NEOPLASMS; IMMUNOSUPPRESSION; and COLLAGEN DISEASES). The causative organism is JC Polyomavirus (JC VIRUS) which primarily affects oligodendrocytes, resulting in multiple areas of demyelination. Clinical manifestations include DEMENTIA; ATAXIA; visual disturbances; and other focal neurologic deficits, generally progressing to a vegetative state within 6 months. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1996, Ch26, pp36-7)
A republic in southern Africa, south of TANZANIA, east of ZAMBIA and ZIMBABWE, bordered on the west by the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Maputo. It was formerly called Portuguese East Africa.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
This drug combination has proved to be an effective therapeutic agent with broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It is effective in the treatment of many infections, including PNEUMOCYSTIS PNEUMONIA in AIDS.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Duplex DNA sequences in eukaryotic chromosomes, corresponding to the genome of a virus, that are transmitted from one cell generation to the next without causing lysis of the host. Proviruses are often associated with neoplastic cell transformation and are key features of retrovirus biology.
Mature LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES transported by the blood to the body's extravascular space. They are morphologically distinguishable from mature granulocytic leukocytes by their large, non-lobed nuclei and lack of coarse, heavily stained cytoplasmic granules.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.
Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.
The expelling of virus particles from the body. Important routes include the respiratory tract, genital tract, and intestinal tract. Virus shedding is an important means of vertical transmission (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
DNA sequences that form the coding region for retroviral enzymes including reverse transcriptase, protease, and endonuclease/integrase. "pol" is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Acquired defect of cellular immunity that occurs naturally in macaques infected with SRV serotypes, experimentally in monkeys inoculated with SRV or MASON-PFIZER MONKEY VIRUS; (MPMV), or in monkeys infected with SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS.
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
The specificity of a virus for infecting a particular type of cell or tissue.
Abnormalities in the serum levels of LIPIDS, including overproduction or deficiency. Abnormal serum lipid profiles may include high total CHOLESTEROL, high TRIGLYCERIDES, low HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL, and elevated LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEIN CHOLESTEROL.
Those facilities which administer health services to individuals who do not require hospitalization or institutionalization.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
CCR receptors with specificity for CHEMOKINE CCL3; CHEMOKINE CCL4; and CHEMOKINE CCL5. They are expressed at high levels in T-LYMPHOCYTES; B-LYMPHOCYTES; MACROPHAGES; MAST CELLS; and NK CELLS. The CCR5 receptor is used by the HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS to infect cells.
A nontuberculous infection when occurring in humans. It is characterized by pulmonary disease, lymphadenitis in children, and systemic disease in AIDS patients. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare infection of birds and swine results in tuberculosis.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Sexual attraction or relationship between males.
Tumors or cancer of the ANAL CANAL.
Drugs whose drug name is not protected by a trademark. They may be manufactured by several companies.
A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.
An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.
Antibodies reactive with HIV ANTIGENS.
The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).
A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.
Inhibitors of HIV INTEGRASE, an enzyme required for integration of viral DNA into cellular DNA.
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
Based on known statistical data, the number of years which any person of a given age may reasonably expected to live.
Six-carbon alicyclic hydrocarbons.
An HIV species related to HIV-1 but carrying different antigenic components and with differing nucleic acid composition. It shares serologic reactivity and sequence homology with the simian Lentivirus SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and infects only T4-lymphocytes expressing the CD4 phenotypic marker.
Inhibitors of the fusion of HIV to host cells, preventing viral entry. This includes compounds that block attachment of HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GP120 to CD4 RECEPTORS.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A major core protein of the human immunodeficiency virus encoded by the HIV gag gene. HIV-seropositive individuals mount a significant immune response to p24 and thus detection of antibodies to p24 is one basis for determining HIV infection by ELISA and Western blot assays. The protein is also being investigated as a potential HIV immunogen in vaccines.
A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.
People who take drugs for a non-therapeutic or non-medical effect. The drugs may be legal or illegal, but their use often results in adverse medical, legal, or social consequences for the users.
Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated HIV or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent or treat AIDS. Some vaccines containing antigens are recombinantly produced.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
Sexual activities of humans.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Sudden outbreaks of a disease in a country or region not previously recognized in that area, or a rapid increase in the number of new cases of a previous existing endemic disease. Epidemics can also refer to outbreaks of disease in animal or plant populations.
Species of the genus LENTIVIRUS, subgenus primate immunodeficiency viruses (IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUSES, PRIMATE), that induces acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in monkeys and apes (SAIDS). The genetic organization of SIV is virtually identical to HIV.
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.
Disorders related to substance abuse.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
Infection of the mucous membranes of the mouth by a fungus of the genus CANDIDA. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.
A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)
Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Any of a group of malignant tumors of lymphoid tissue that differ from HODGKIN DISEASE, being more heterogeneous with respect to malignant cell lineage, clinical course, prognosis, and therapy. The only common feature among these tumors is the absence of giant REED-STERNBERG CELLS, a characteristic of Hodgkin's disease.
A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.
The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.
A republic in western Africa, lying between GHANA on its west and BENIN on its east. Its capital is Lome.
A perceived attribute that is deeply discrediting and is considered to be a violation of social norms.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
Discontinuance of care received by patient(s) due to reasons other than full recovery from the disease.
Retroviral proteins coded by the pol gene. They are usually synthesized as a protein precursor (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into final products that include reverse transcriptase, endonuclease/integrase, and viral protease. Sometimes they are synthesized as a gag-pol fusion protein (FUSION PROTEINS, GAG-POL). pol is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.
A pteridine derivative present in body fluids; elevated levels result from immune system activation, malignant disease, allograft rejection, and viral infections. (From Stedman, 26th ed) Neopterin also serves as a precursor in the biosynthesis of biopterin.
A bifunctional enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis and HYDROLYSIS of CYCLIC ADP-RIBOSE (cADPR) from NAD+ to ADP-RIBOSE. It is a cell surface molecule which is predominantly expressed on LYMPHOID CELLS and MYELOID CELLS.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)
Penal institutions, or places of confinement for war prisoners.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.

Influenza in three patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. (1/4193)

Three Japanese outpatients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection on anti-retroviral therapy showed evidence of influenza in January 1999. CD4+ T cell counts of these patients prior to the diagnosis of influenza were 72, 248, and 152/mm3, and HIV RNA levels were 19,953, 1,259, and 1,585 copies/ml, respectively. Fever continued 4 to 5 days with no severe complications. One patient showed post-influenzal bronchitis which was effectively treated by antibiotics. None of these patients showed increased serum HIV RNA levels during and after influenza, however, in one patient, a transient reduction of CD4+ and CD8+ cells was seen during the active phase of influenza. Although symptoms of influenza in HIV carriers are generally mild and similar to those in healthy adults, careful follow-up is needed as symptoms of influenza in some HIV-infected patients can be prolonged and serious.  (+info)

The effect of potent antiretroviral therapy and JC virus load in cerebrospinal fluid on clinical outcome of patients with AIDS-associated progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. (2/4193)

A multicenter analysis of 57 consecutive human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) was performed, to identify correlates of longer survival. JC virus (JCV) DNA was quantified in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) by polymerase chain reaction. Two months after therapy, 4% of the patients without highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and 26% with HAART showed neurologic improvement or stability (P=.03), and 8% and 57%, respectively, reached undetectable JCV DNA levels in the CSF (P=.04). One-year probability of survival was.04 without HAART and.46 with HAART. HAART and lack of neurologic progression 2 months after diagnosis were independently associated with longer survival. Among HAART-treated patients, a baseline JCV DNA <4.7 log, and reaching undetectable levels after therapy predicted longer survival. Survival of AIDS-related PML is improved by HAART when JCV replication is controlled.  (+info)

Prophylaxis for opportunistic infections in an era of effective antiretroviral therapy. (3/4193)

Potent antiretroviral treatment is associated with dramatic improvements in immune function in many human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. This has led to new US Public Health Service/Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines that suggest that in certain circumstances (primary prophylaxis for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia and disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection, and secondary prophylaxis for cytomegalovirus retinitis), antimicrobial prophylaxis can be discontinued for patients whose CD4 T-cell counts rise above threshold levels for at least 3-6 months. The new guidelines are probably too conservative, and effective antiretroviral treatment almost certainly provides protection against all major opportunistic pathogens. Therefore, in the future, specific prophylaxis will be needed only for those patients who do not benefit from or fail to adhere to the current more effective treatment of human immunodeficiency virus infection.  (+info)

The relationship between virus load response to highly active antiretroviral therapy and change in CD4 cell counts: A report from the Women's interagency HIV study. (4/4193)

The relationship between the pattern of virus load response to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and CD4 lymphocyte response was assessed in a cohort of 249 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1-infected women at 3 times: 1 before and 2 after initiation of therapy, with follow-up of 6-12 months. Patients with a durable response to HAART (i.e., >1 log decrease in HIV-1 RNA sustained for the study periods) had a continuous and significant increase in CD4 cell counts over time, whereas those with no response (<0.5 log decrease in HIV-1 RNA) had a slight decline. Patients with a mixed response (initial decrease >1 log, followed by a subsequent decrease <0.5 log) had an increase in CD4 cell count, followed by a plateau. The trend in CD4 cell count differed significantly by response to HAART, with those patients who experienced a durable response having significantly higher CD4 cell counts than others.  (+info)

Evaluation of the abbott LCx HIV-1 RNA quantitative, a new assay for quantitative determination of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA. (5/4193)

A new quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR assay for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) RNA (Abbott LCx HIV RNA Quantitative assay) has been compared with the Organon NucliSens assay on 521 retrospective samples obtained from HIV-1-positive patients monitored during highly active antiretroviral therapy, 79 of whom were assayed also by the Chiron Quantiplex 3.0 system and on characterized panels. The LCx system showed a moderate correlation (r = 0.795) and gave higher results than the NucliSens system on 245 of 327 concordant positive samples, with similar sensitivity. Correlation with Quantiplex system results was higher (r = 0.943). LCx reproducibility was very good; the procedure was simple, well controlled, and rapid (up to 48 results in 7 h). The HIV RNA quantitative assay on the LCx system is suitable for routine use.  (+info)

Granulomatous amebic encephalitis in a patient with AIDS: isolation of acanthamoeba sp. Group II from brain tissue and successful treatment with sulfadiazine and fluconazole. (6/4193)

A patient with AIDS, treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, presented with confusion, a hemifield defect, and a mass lesion in the right occipital lobe. A brain biopsy confirmed granulomatous amebic encephalitis (GAE) due to Acanthamoeba castellanii. The patient was treated with fluconazole and sulfadiazine, and the lesion was surgically excised. This is the first case of AIDS-associated GAE responding favorably to therapy. The existence of a solitary brain lesion, absence of other sites of infection, and intense cellular response in spite of a very low CD4 count conditioned the favorable outcome. We review and discuss the diagnostic microbiologic options for the laboratory diagnosis of infections due to free-living amebae.  (+info)

Genetic characterization of rebounding HIV-1 after cessation of highly active antiretroviral therapy. (7/4193)

Despite prolonged treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), infectious HIV-1 continues to replicate and to reside latently in resting memory CD4(+) T lymphocytes, creating a major obstacle to HIV-1 eradication. It is therefore not surprising to observe a prompt viral rebound after discontinuation of HAART. The nature of the rebounding virus, however, remains undefined. We now report on the genetic characterization of rebounding viruses in eight patients in whom plasma viremia was undetectable throughout about 3 years of HAART. Taking advantage of the extensive length polymorphism in HIV-1 env, we found that in five patients who did not show HIV-1 replication during treatment, the rebound virus was identical to those isolated from the latent reservoir. In three other patients, two of whom had been free of plasma viremia but had showed some residual viral replication, the rebound virus was genetically different from the latent reservoir virus, corresponding instead to minor viral variants detected during the course of treatment in lymphoid tissues. We conclude that in cases with apparent complete HIV-1 suppression by HAART, viral rebound after cessation of therapy could have originated from the activation of virus from the latent reservoir. In patients with incomplete suppression by chemotherapy, however, the viral rebound is likely triggered by ongoing, low-level replication of HIV-1, perhaps occurring in lymphoid tissues.  (+info)

A randomized, placebo-controlled trial of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and nucleoside analogue therapy in AIDS. (8/4193)

Preliminary preclinical and clinical data suggest that granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) may decrease viral replication. Therefore, 105 individuals with AIDS who were receiving nucleoside analogue therapy were enrolled in a placebo-controlled, double-blind study and were randomized to receive either 125 microgram/m(2) of yeast-derived, GM-CSF (sargramostim) or placebo subcutaneously twice weekly for 6 months. Subjects were evaluated for toxicity and disease progression. A significant decrease in mean virus load (VL) was observed for the GM-CSF treatment group at 6 months (-0.07 log(10) vs. -0.60 log(10); P=.02). More subjects achieved human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-RNA levels <500 copies/mL at >/=2 evaluations (2% on placebo vs. 11% on GM-CSF; P=.04). Genotypic analysis of 46 subjects demonstrated a lower frequency of zidovudine-resistant mutations among those receiving GM-CSF (80% vs. 50%; P=.04). No difference was observed in the incidence of opportunistic infections (OIs) through 6 months or survival, despite a higher risk for OI among GM-CSF recipients. GM-CSF reduced VL and limited the evolution of zidovudine-resistant genotypes, potentially providing adjunctive therapy in HIV disease.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - The effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy on albuminuria in HIV-infected persons. T2 - Results from a randomized trial. AU - Gupta, Samir K.. AU - Parker, Robert A.. AU - Robbins, Gregory K.. AU - Dubé, Michael P.. PY - 2005/10/1. Y1 - 2005/10/1. N2 - Background. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens, especially those containing protease inhibitors (PIs), are at increased risk for cardiovascular events. Albuminuria is a known independent predictor for the development of cardiovascular disease and may potentially increase in patients receiving PIs. Alternatively, albuminuria may improve with HAART as a result of treating renal parenchymal HIV infection. Longitudinal studies have not been performed previously addressing the effects of HAART on albuminuria. Methods. We evaluated the effects of HAART on albumin to creatinine ratios (ACRs) during the initial 64 weeks of therapy in 68 previously ...
Title: Metabolic and Cardiovascular Complications of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV Infection. VOLUME: 4 ISSUE: 1. Author(s):Giuseppe Barbaro. Affiliation:Viale Anicio Gallo 63,00174 Rome, Italy.. Keywords:Human immunodeficiency virus, highly active antiretroviral therapy, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, protease inhibitors, metabolic syndome, cardiovascular disease. Abstract: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens, especially those including protease inhibitors have been shown to cause, in a high proportion of HIV-infected patients, a metabolic syndrome (lipodystrophy/lipoatrophy, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance) that may be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. A careful stratification of the cardiovascular risk of HIVinfected patients under HAART is needed according to the most recent clinical guidelines. ...
Results: A total 307 human immunodeficiency virus positive patients, 153 highly active antiretroviral therapy na ve (who didnt take highly active antiretroviral therapy) and 154 on highly active antiretroviral therapy were enrolled in the study. The mean ( SD) age of the participants was 34.69 ( 8.86) years and about 61% were females. The prevalence of renal impairment in highly active antiretroviral therapy na ve and on highly active antiretroviral therapy individuals was 30.1% and 12.9% respectively. Proteinuria was found in 17.9 % of the participant. Low CD4 count (Adjusted odds ratio= 24.11; (95% CI 11.06, 52.56) and being highly active antiretroviral therapy na ve (Adjusted odds ratio = 6.58; 95% CI 2.99, 14.47) showed significant association with the prevalence of renal impairment ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A comparison of viral loads between HIV-1-infected elite suppressors and individuals who receive suppressive highly active antiretroviral therapy. AU - Dinoso, Jason B.. AU - Kim, Scott Y.. AU - Siliciano, Robert F.. AU - Blankson, Joel N.. PY - 2008/7/1. Y1 - 2008/7/1. N2 - Elite suppressors are untreated individuals with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection who maintain viral loads ,50 copies/mL. Using a single-copy assay, we show that there is no statistically significant difference between the proportions of elite suppressors and patients receiving suppressive highly active antiretroviral therapy who have viral loads of ,1 copy/mL.. AB - Elite suppressors are untreated individuals with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection who maintain viral loads ,50 copies/mL. Using a single-copy assay, we show that there is no statistically significant difference between the proportions of elite suppressors and patients receiving suppressive highly active ...
Primary HIV-associated thrombocytopenia (PHAT) typically improves with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART); however, cases continue to occur. Data comparing the epidemiology of PHAT between the pre-HAART and HAART eras are limited. We retrospectively examined the incidence of PHAT over 28 years in the US Military HIV Natural History Study (NHS) from 1986 to 2013. Subjects had a nadir platelet count |100 × 109/l with no other identifiable cause. Time periods were categorized as pre-HAART (1986-1995), early HAART (1996-2001), and later HAART (2002-2013). Incidence, demographic data, and CD4 count were compared across the three eras. A generalized estimating equations model was used to assess any association of platelet count and HIV viral load in cases diagnosed during the HAART eras. 218 participants met the case definition. 86.2 % of cases occurred prior to 2002. The incidence of PHAT per 1000 person-years of follow-up was 16.3, 4.6, and 1.9 during pre-HAART, early HAART and later HAART eras
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy on time to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or death using marginal structural models. AU - Cole, Stephen R.. AU - Hernán, Miguel A.. AU - Robins, James M.. AU - Anastos, Kathryn. AU - Chmiel, Joan. AU - Detels, Roger. AU - Ervin, Carolyn. AU - Feldman, Joseph. AU - Greenblatt, Ruth. AU - Kingsley, Lawrence. AU - Lai, Shenghan. AU - Young, Mary. AU - Cohen, Mardge. AU - Muñoz, Alvaro. N1 - Funding Information: The Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study is funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, with additional supplemental funding from the National Cancer Institute (grants UO1-AI-35042, 5-MO1-RR-00722 (General Clinical Research Center), UO1-AI-35043, UO1-AI-37984, UO1-AI-35039, UO1-AI-35040, UO1-AI-37613, and UO1-AI-35041). The Womens Interagency HIV Study is funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, with supplemental funding from the National Cancer Institute, the National ...
Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia after cessation of secondary prophylaxis in a patient on highly active antiretroviral therapy with a CD4 cell count greater than 200/mm3 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Clinical and imaging study of human immunodeficiency virus-1-infected youth receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. T2 - Pilot study using magnetic resonance spectroscopy. AU - Gabis, Lidia. AU - Belman, Anita. AU - Huang, Wei. AU - Milazzo, Maria. AU - Nachman, Sharon. PY - 2006/6/1. Y1 - 2006/6/1. N2 - The objective of this study was to correlate clinical and neuropsychologic findings with neuroimaging studies to assess the value of magnetic resonance spectroscopy in detection and monitoring of central nervous system disease of children vertically infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 and receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. Eight children (four boys) with vertically transmitted stable HIV infection had a neurologic examination, neuropsychologic testing, and a neuroimaging study. The structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and metabolic changes (magnetic resonance spectroscopy) were compared with the cognitive, clinical, and laboratory ...
To identify factors associated with successful treatment of KS with antiretroviral therapy and to determine if highly active antiretroviral therapy improves survival and quality of life for persons with AIDS-KS in Zimbabwe.. A secondary objective is to investigate the durability of HIV-1 suppression by the combination of ABC/3TC/ZDV in persons infected with HIV-1 subtype C and to evaluate the timing and characteristics of mutations in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase in subjects who fail to achieve, or to maintain suppression of HIV-1 replication during treatment with ABC/3TC/ZDV.. An important objective is to assess adherence to a simplified antiretroviral regimen in a resource-limited setting.. The study will evaluate the clinical, immunological, and virological effects of a switch from a twice-daily all-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) antiretroviral regimen to a once-daily regimen of 2 NRTIs plus a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor in persons with AIDS-KS and good virologic ...
To identify factors associated with successful treatment of KS with antiretroviral therapy and to determine if highly active antiretroviral therapy improves survival and quality of life for persons with AIDS-KS in Zimbabwe.. A secondary objective is to investigate the durability of HIV-1 suppression by the combination of ABC/3TC/ZDV in persons infected with HIV-1 subtype C and to evaluate the timing and characteristics of mutations in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase in subjects who fail to achieve, or to maintain suppression of HIV-1 replication during treatment with ABC/3TC/ZDV.. An important objective is to assess adherence to a simplified antiretroviral regimen in a resource-limited setting.. The study will evaluate the clinical, immunological, and virological effects of a switch from a twice-daily all-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) antiretroviral regimen to a once-daily regimen of 2 NRTIs plus a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor in persons with AIDS-KS and good virologic ...
Objective:To evaluate HIV-1 transmission trends and the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on newly diagnosed HIV infections in Geneva, Switzerland.Design:Retrospective molecular epidemiology analysis of all newly HIV-diagnosed individuals between 2008 and 2010.Methods:Phylogenet
Objective: To determine whether opportunistic oral infections associated to HIV infection (OOI-HIV) are found in HIV+/AIDS patients with immune reconstitution related to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Methods. From among 1100 HIV+/AIDS patients (Service of Internal Medicine, Carlos Haya Hospital, Malaga, Spain) subjected to review of the oral cavity between January 1996 and May 2007, we identified those examined in 1996 and which were again examined between 1997 and 2007, and were moreover receiving HAART. The following data were collected: age, gender, form of contagion, antiretroviral therapy at the time of review, number of CD4+ lymphocytes/ml, and viral load (from 1997 onwards). We identified those subjects with an increase in CD4+ lymphocytes/ml associated to HAART, and classified them as subjects with quantitative evidence of immune reconstitution (QEIR). Among these individuals with QEIR we moreover identified those with undetectable viral loads (QEIR+VL), and ...
ABSTRACT Objective: Studies have shown that HIV-infected injection drug users (IDUs) are less likely to receive antiretroviral therapy than non-drug users. We assess factors associated with initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-infected IDUs. Methods: A cohort study of IDUs carried out between 1 January 1996 and 30 June 1999 at a community-based study clinic affiliated to the Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland. The participants were a total of 528 HIV-infected IDUs eligible for HAART based on CD4+ cell count. The main outcome measure was the time from treatment eligibility to first self-reported HAART use, as defined by the International AIDS Society USA panel (IAS USA) guidelines. Results: By 30 June 1999, 58.5% of participants had initiated HAART, most of whom switched from mono- or dual-combination therapy to a HAART regimen. Nearly one-third of treatment-eligible IDUs never received antiretroviral therapy. Cox proportional hazards regression showed that ...
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) can suppress HIV-1 replication and normalize the chronic immune activation associated with infection, yet restoration of na?ve Compact disc4+ Capital t cell populations is definitely sluggish and usually incomplete for factors that possess yet to end up being determined. degree of reduction of the FRC network and collagen deposit anticipate the degree of repair of the na?velizabeth T cell population after 6 GSK1838705A month of HAART, and that repair of FRC systems correlates with the stage of disease at which the therapy is initiated. Because repair of the FRC network and reconstitution of na?velizabeth T cell populations are just optimal when therapy is initiated in the early/extreme stage of infection, our results strongly suggest that HAART should end up being initiated while soon while feasible. Furthermore, our results also stage to the Rabbit Polyclonal to ANKRD1 potential make use of of adjunctive anti-fibrotic therapies to avert or moderate ...
Objective: Some HIV patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) do not resolve their plasma viraemia or HIV RNA can reappear after a period of virological control. We investigate whether polymorphisms in cytokine genes affect the control of plasma HIV RNA over 5 years on HAART. Design: The study utilized adult HIV-infected patients in Western Australia. Plasma HIV-RNA levels were assessed from commencement of HAART in patients who had a CD4 T-cell count less than 100 cells/μl before HAART and achieved immune reconstitution assessed by CD4 T-cell counts. Results: Control of plasma viraemia could be predicted from carriage of allele 2 at position -889 in the IL1A gene (IL1A-889*2). This was significant when assessed by the proportion of patients with a plasma HIV-RNA level of 400 copies/ml or less (P = 0.002). At 48 months post-HAART, proportions were approximately 0.76, 0.51 and 0.32 for IL1A (1,1), (1,2) and (2,2) patients, respectively. The outcome was independent of the ...
We analyzed the effect of age on highly active antiretroviral therapy efficacy and tolerance in 639 patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (99 of whom were aged ,50 years, and 540 of whom were aged ,50 years). Late testing, which was more frequent in the older age group, was the only independent factor associated with immunologic and clinical evolution of infection. Age ,50 years was associated with earlier treatment discontinuation.. ...
PubMed journal article: CD4+ cell count, viral load, and highly active antiretroviral therapy use are independent predictors of body composition alterations in HIV-infected adults: a longitudinal study. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
We next isolated highly purified populations of resting CD4+ T cells from the peripheral blood of these donors. After depletion of monocytes by adherence, negative selection with monoclonal antibodies and magnetic beads was used to remove CD8+ T cells, B cells, monocytes, and natural killer cells. In addition, activated CD4+ T cells, which represented an average of 10% of the CD4+ T cell populations in these individuals (Table 1), were removed by bead depletion with antibodies to CD25, CD69, and human lymphocyte antigen (HLA)-DR. Additional purification was achieved by flow cytometric sorting of small lymphocytes expressing CD4 but not HLA-DR, which is expressed on all activated T cells. This multistep purification gave populations of resting CD4+ HLA-DR− T cells that were, on average, 97% pure (Table 1). Most importantly, the sorted populations were typically contaminated with ,1% activated CD4+ T cells.. Specialized PCR approaches have shown that a low frequency of resting CD4+ T cells from ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Trend of CD4+ cell counts at diagnosis and initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). T2 - Korea HIV/AIDS cohort study, 1992-2015. AU - Korea HIV/AIDS Cohort Study. AU - Kim, Min Jung. AU - Chang, Hyun Ha. AU - Kim, Sang Il. AU - Kim, Youn Jeong. AU - Park, Dae Won. AU - Kang, Chun. AU - Kee, Mee Kyung. AU - Choi, Ju yeon. AU - Kim, Soo Min. AU - Choi, Bo Youl. AU - Kim, Woo Joo. AU - Kim, June Myung. AU - Choi, JunYong. AU - Choi, Young Hwa. AU - Lee, Jin Soo. AU - Kim, Shin Woo. AU - Kim, Min Ja. AU - Sohn, Jang Wook. AU - Yoon, Young Kyung. AU - Woo, Jun Hee. AU - Kim, Youn Jeong. AU - Choi, Won Suk. AU - Wie, Seong Heon. AU - Hur, Ji An. AU - Kim, Min Jung. AU - Lee, Sang Ah. AU - Song, Joon Young. AU - Eom, Joong Shik. AU - Lee, Jin Seo. AU - Park, So Yeon. AU - Jeong, Hye Won. AU - Lee, Jin Soo. AU - Baek, Ji Hyeon. AU - Choi, Hee Jung. AU - Choi, Jun Yong. AU - Ku, Nam Su. AU - Kim, Hyo Youl. AU - Choi, Young Hwa. AU - Lee, Eun Jung. AU - Kim, Tae ...
To describe the early response to World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based first-line highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-1-infected Kenyan children unexposed to nevirapine. Observational prospective cohort. HIV-1 RNA level, CD4 lymphocyte count, weight for age z score, and height for age z score were measured before the initiation of HAART and every 3 to 6 months thereafter. Children received no nutritional supplements. Sixty-seven HIV-1-infected children were followed for a median of 9 months between August 2004 and November 2005. Forty-seven (70%) used zidovudine, lamivudine (3TC), and an NNRTI (nevirapine or efavirenz), whereas 25% used stavudine (d4T), 3TC, and an NNRTI. Nevirapine was used as the NNRTI by 46 (69%) children, and individual antiretroviral drug formulations were used by 63 (94%), with only 4 (6%) using a fixed-dose combination of d4T, 3TC, and nevirapine (Triomune; Cipla, Mumbai, India). In 52 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Improvement in lipoatrophy associated with highly active antiretroviral therapy in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients switched from stavudine to abacavir or zidovudine. T2 - The results of the TARHEEL study. AU - Bartlett, John. PY - 2004/1/1. Y1 - 2004/1/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85026137152&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85026137152&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1097/01.idc.0000130889.35482.ee. DO - 10.1097/01.idc.0000130889.35482.ee. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:85026137152. VL - 12. JO - Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice. JF - Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice. SN - 1056-9103. IS - 4. ER - ...
Background Men infected with HIV and receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy are at higher risk of metabolic and cardiovascular abnormalities as well as accelerated renal function decline and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Glomerular hyperfiltration, defined as elevated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) to pathologically high levels, is associated with diabetes and hypertension and is a treatable risk factor for CKD. The epidemiology of hyperfiltration has not been described in an HIV population. The purposes of this dissertation is to a) describe the prevalence of elevated GFR using directly measured iohexol GFR, a gold standard; b) describe the incidence of hyperfiltration using the serum creatinine-based CKD-EPI estimated GFR equation, a clinical standard; and c) investigate the effect of hyperfiltration on accelerated GFR decline in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study. Methods Data consisted of a nested cross-sectional study within the MACS comprising 241 HIV-uninfected and 367 ...
OBJECTIVES: Current British HIV Association (BHIVA) guidelines recommend that all patients with a CD4 count ,350 cells/μL are offered highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). We identified risk factors for delayed initiation of HAART following a CD4 count ,350 cells/μL.METHODS: All adults under follow-up in 2008 who had a first confirmed CD4 count ,350 cells/μL from 2004 to 2008, who had not initiated treatment and who had ,6 months of follow-up were included in the study. Characteristics at the time of the low CD4 cell count and over follow-up were compared to identify factors associated with delayed HAART uptake. Analyses used proportional hazards regression with fixed (sex/risk group, age, ethnicity, AIDS, baseline CD4 cell count and calendar year) and time-updated (frequency of CD4 cell count measurement, proportion of CD4 counts ,350 cells/μL, latest CD4 cell count, CD4 percentage and viral load) covariates.RESULTS: Of 4871 patients with a confirmed low CD4 cell count, 436 (8.9%) ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - HIV infection and cancer in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (Review). AU - Barbaro, Giuseppe. AU - Barbarini, Giorgio. PY - 2007/5. Y1 - 2007/5. N2 - The majority of cancers affecting HIV-infected subjects are those established as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining: Kaposis sarcoma (KS), non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL), and invasive cervical cancer (ICC). However, other types of cancer, such as Hodgkins disease (HD), anal cancer, lung cancer and testicular germ cell tumors appear to be more common among HIV-infected subjects compared to the general population. While not classified as AIDS-defining, these malignancies have been referred to as AIDS-associated malignancies. The mechanisms by which depressed immunity could increase the risk for cancer are unclear, except for in KS and most subtypes of NHL, where it is strictly associated with a low CD4 count. Although it remains unclear whether HIV-1 acts directly as an oncogenic agent, it may ...
To examine the prognosis of patients who present with very advanced HIV-induced immunodeficiency, and their response to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), a series of 101 treatment naïve patients from the Serbian cohort of HIV infected patients, who presented with a CD4 count of ≤ 50/µL before commencing HAART, was retrospectively analyzed and factors influencing response to HAART and survival investigated. After a mean of three years (range 1-9) of treatment with PI-based and/or NNRTI-based regimens, a favorable response was achieved in 54.5% of the patients, treatment failure occurred in 13.9%, while 31.7% had a dissociative immunological/virological response. The overall estimated survival was eight years. Achievement of undetectable viremia during treatment appeared life saving (OR = 42.5, 95% CI 7.1 - 251.9, P = 0.000, as was a rise in CD4 cell count to over 200/μL (OR = 6.4, 95% CI 1.2- 31.8, P = 0.023). However, undetectable viremia was the single predictor of longer ...
BACKGROUND: Sub-optimal adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) among injection drug users (IDUs) is a significant concern. As such, there is an urgent need to identify psychosocial determinants of adherence that can be incorporated into interventions designed to promote optimal adherence. OBJECTIVE: To identify psychosocial determinants of adherence to HAART, as well as self-reported reasons for missing doses of HAART among HIV-infected IDUs.
Background. Because antiretrovirals are becoming increasingly available in developing countries, we reviewed the findings of studies that have documented highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) use in Africa to identify lessons learned. With the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines used as a frame of reference, we assessed the feasibility of implementing such programs in Africa. Moreover, clinical and laboratory outcomes were compiled to determine the effectiveness of HAART programs.. Methods. We searched academic databases and recent conference abstracts for studies, and we included all studies that documented patients receiving HAART in Africa. In particular, we examined studies for such program features as type of regimen and frequency of monitoring, in addition to evaluations of patient outcomes.. Results. Twenty-eight articles and abstracts involving studies from 14 African countries were reviewed. Overall, 6052 patients (96.4%) were receiving HAART, mainly consisting of 2 ...
The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has had a dramatic impact on the morbidity and mortality of individuals living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In addition to contributing to declines in the incidence of several opportunistic infections, HAART is affecting the incidences of several acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining malignancies. 1
The intermediate to high grade B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas are now one of three malignant AIDS defining conditions. The others being Kaposis sarcoma and cervical carcinoma. While co-infection with oncogenic agents including the human herpes 8 or Epstein-Barr virus offer targets in preventive treatment strategies for these AIDS defining lymphomas (ADL), administration of highly active antiretroviral therapy leading to immune reconstitution permits use of standard or even high-dose cytotoxic drug regimens with curative intent. It is not certain whether this should be done concomitantly or sequentially. Additional benefit may derive from infusional or high-dose chemotherapy regimens depending on the histological subtype while use of monoclonal antibodies such as rituximab or immunohaematopoietic stem cell transplantation needs to be further evaluated within controlled studies. Socio-economic considerations have an impact especially in resource limited settings while availability of tools for ...
The contents of this dissertation contain three experiments aimed at determining the intracellular mechanisms involved in the induction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-induced skeletal muscle insulin resistance and potential therapeutic approaches to increase insulin sensitivity. ❧ The data from the first study indicate that the insulin sensitizing agent, metformin, activates AMPKα₁ preferentially over AMPKα₂ in skeletal muscle cells. Additionally, the metformin treated groups had decreased rates of FA uptake and oxidation when compared to control cells. Interestingly, in the metformin treated groups, the FA transport protein CD36 was similarly decreased with FA uptake, however, a key regulator of FA oxidation, ACC, did not have reduced phosphorylation with metformin treatment. Furthermore, metformin treatment increased SIRT1 activity and decreased PGC-1α acetylation indicating cross-talk between AMPK and SIRT1. Additional data using genetically modified cells with ...
The contents of this dissertation contain three experiments aimed at determining the intracellular mechanisms involved in the induction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-induced skeletal muscle insulin resistance and potential therapeutic approaches to increase insulin sensitivity. ❧ The data from the first study indicate that the insulin sensitizing agent, metformin, activates AMPKα₁ preferentially over AMPKα₂ in skeletal muscle cells. Additionally, the metformin treated groups had decreased rates of FA uptake and oxidation when compared to control cells. Interestingly, in the metformin treated groups, the FA transport protein CD36 was similarly decreased with FA uptake, however, a key regulator of FA oxidation, ACC, did not have reduced phosphorylation with metformin treatment. Furthermore, metformin treatment increased SIRT1 activity and decreased PGC-1α acetylation indicating cross-talk between AMPK and SIRT1. Additional data using genetically modified cells with ...
Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy: Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV replication. The regimens usually involve administration of three or more different drugs including a protease inhibitor.
We investigated whether therapeutic vaccination in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-treated patients with a modified vaccinia virus Ankara-vectored HIV-1 vaccine, with or without therapy interruption, induced the production of interleukin (IL)-10. Plasma IL-10 levels were not significantly increased postvaccination, but increased in parallel with viraemia in patients who interrupted therapy. Surprisingly, IL-10 blockade augmented HIV-specific T cell proliferative responses in HAART-suppressed patients but had no effect once virological control was lost. Modulation of IL-10 might enhance vaccine-induced immune responses.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Predicting Viral Failure in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Perinatally Infected Youth with Persistent Low-Level Viremia on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy. AU - Pereira, Ruth. AU - Ludwig, David A.. AU - Mathew, Sunil. AU - Flores, Claudia. AU - Dominguez, Sady. AU - Gonzalez, Ivan. AU - Rivera-Hernandez, Delia. AU - Scott, Gwendolyn B.. AU - Mitchell, Charles D.. PY - 2019/1/18. Y1 - 2019/1/18. N2 - Background: Less than optimal adherence with antiretroviral therapy occurs commonly among human immunodeficiency virus HIV)-infected youth. In this study, our object was to identify patterns in the prefailure measurement of viral load (VL) that can reliably predict virological failure (VF) in HIV perinatally infected youth on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of HIV-infected youth with low-level viremia (LLV), defined as an HIV VL between the lower limits of detection (20-75 copies/mL) and 1000 copies/mL. All patients ...
Effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy in reducing heterosexual transmission of HIV. Genetic analysis of HIV-1 samples from Spain
NK., Wang YM, Wang B, Dyer WB, Lachireddy K, Peng NK, Saksena (2007) Evidence for predominance of CCR5 HIV-1 strains during highly active antiretroviral therapy. Curr HIV Res., 5(2). 221-34.. Full text not available from this repository ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neurobehavioral effects in HIV-Positive individuals receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in Gaborone, Botswana. AU - Lawler, Kathy. AU - Jeremiah, Kealeboga. AU - Mosepele, Mosepele. AU - Ratcliffe, Sarah J.. AU - Cherry, Catherine. AU - Seloilwe, Esther. AU - Steenhoff, Andrew P.. PY - 2011/2/18. Y1 - 2011/2/18. N2 - Objective: To explore the prevalence and features of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HANDS) in Botswana, a sub-Saharan country at the center of the HIV epidemic. Design and Methods: A cross sectional study of 60 HIV-positive individuals, all receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), and 80 demographically matched HIV-seronegative control subjects. We administered a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery and structured psychiatric interview. The lowest 10th percentile of results achieved by control subjects was used to define the lower limit of normal performance on cognitive measures. Subjects who scored abnormal on ...
Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndromes (IRIS) are exaggerated pathological inflammatory reactions occurring after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) due to exuberant immune responses to occult or apparent opportunistic infections or cancers. In view of paucity of studies from Nigeria, we report 3 cases of IRIS presenting as disseminated infections in HIV-1 infected patients initiating HAART. The first case was a previously healthy female who developed disseminated tuberculosis after 4 weeks of regular HAART. Her HAART regimen was continued and she improved after commencement of anti-tuberculosis drugs, with evidence of progressive increase in CD4 cell count. The second case was a HAART-experienced female who stopped her drugs for 4months. Two months after recommencement of her previous HAART regimen, she developed features of disseminated herpes zoster infection, despite evidence of decrease in viral load by 95%. HAART was continued and she recovered completely after
Bepe N, Madanhi N, Mudzviti T, et al. The impact of herbal remedies on adverse effects and quality of life in HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy. J Infect Dev Ctries. 2011;5(1):48-53.. Bope ET, Kellerman RD, eds. Conns Current Therapy 2014. 1st ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014.. Brown J, Hanson JE, Schmotzer B, et al. Spirituality and optimism: a holistic approach to component-based, self-management treatment for HIV. J Relig Health. 2014;53(5):1317-28.. Calvert C, Ronsmans C. The contributions of HIV to pregnancy-related mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis. AIDS. 2013;27(10):1631-9.. Catalfamo M, Le Saout C, Lane HC. The role of cytokines in the pathogenesis and treatment of HIV infections. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2012;23(4-5):207-14.. Chang BH, Sommers E. Acupuncture and the relaxation response for treating gastrointestinal symptoms in HIV patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy. Acupunct Med. 2011;29(3):180-7.. Chu Y, Liu H. Advances of ...
In the post-HAART era, we found that HCV status was clearly associated with an increased risk of both death and hospitalization but not of opportunistic infection. The lack of an observed effect of HCV status on the risk of opportunistic infection raises the possibility that HCV status does not influence HIV-related outcomes so much as other health events (i.e., other infections, liver disease). The use of prophylactic medications by the majority of subjects at risk in both the HCV+ and referent groups may also have reduced any difference between the cohorts. The reasons for increased rates of death and hospitalization observed among HCV-seropositive subjects are likely multifactorial. Although unexpected, and in contrast to the Johns Hopkins Cohort, we found that HCV+ subjects were prescribed HAART as often as HCV- subjects, suggesting that HCV infection itself did not appear to hinder physicians from using these therapies. Immune responses experienced by HCV+ subjects to therapy may have been ...
Surrogate markers including CD4 T cell, viral load estimation and activated immune markers have been identified as having significance in the pathogenesis and prognosis of the HIV infection. But there is limited data on the utility of serum neopterin estimation in HIV infection. This study was aimed at evaluating serum neopterin levels as a marker of predicting the progression of HIV infection and to monitor patients response to antiretroviral therapy. In all one hundred and ninety two (192) HIV infected patients constituting one hundred and four highly active antiretroviral therapy patients (104) and eighty eight (88) highly active antiretroviral therapy naïve patients were recruited from the HIV clinic at the Bomso specialist hospital in the Kumasi metropolis. Venous blood samples were taken and assayed for haematological parameters (Haemoglobin, White blood cell, Red blood cell, Mean cell haemoglobin, Mean cell volume, Haematocrit and Mean cell haemoglobin concentration) , Biochemical ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pulmonary Kaposi sarcoma with osseous metastases in an human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patient. T2 - A remarkable response to highly active antiretroviral therapy. AU - Dirweesh, Ahmed. AU - Khan, Muhammad Yasir. AU - Hamiz, Shaikh Fawad. AU - Karabulut, Nigahus. PY - 2017/2/20. Y1 - 2017/2/20. N2 - Objective: Rare disease Background: Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is known to involve the mucocutaneous tissues and the aero-digestive tracts. In acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients, KS has an aggressive course and carries poor prognosis. We present a case of pulmonary KS with osseous metastases as the first presentation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in a young male. The lesions impressively decreased in size and numbers following initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Case Report: A 34-year-old heterosexual male presented with a one month history of cough and 15-20 pound weight loss within six months. Examination revealed oral thrush, ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Cutaneous manifestations of deep fungal infections in HIV disease. AU - Kamalpour, Julia. AU - Calame, Antoanella. AU - Cockerell, Clay J. PY - 2012/1/1. Y1 - 2012/1/1. N2 - While the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has led to a fall in the incidence of deep fungal infection in HIV patients in the US and Europe, no such decline has been witnessed in countries with limited funds and access to such therapy. In the HIV-infected population, the occurrence of fungal infections is largely dependent upon the degree of CD4+ T-lymphocyte depletion as well as exposure to endemic dimorphic fungi.1.. AB - While the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has led to a fall in the incidence of deep fungal infection in HIV patients in the US and Europe, no such decline has been witnessed in countries with limited funds and access to such therapy. In the HIV-infected population, the occurrence of fungal infections is largely dependent upon the degree of CD4+ ...
Background. No data are available on HIV/hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus coinfection in Togo, and patients are not routinelytested for HBV infection. Objectives. To determine the prevalence of HBV and the risk of HBV drug resistance during antiretroviral treatment in HIV-coinfected patients in Togo. Method. This cross-sectional study was carried out in Lomé, Togo, from January 2010 to December 2011 among HIV-infected patients who had been on antiretroviral therapy (ART) for at least 6 months. Results. In total, 1 212 patients (74.9% female) living with HIV/AIDS and treated with ART were included in the study. The seroprevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was 9.7% (117/1 212; 95% confidence interval (CI) 8.04 - 11.45). Of these 117 HBsAg-positive patients, 16 (13.7%) were hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg)-positive, and 115 (98.3%) were on lamivudine. The HBV DNA load was <10 IU/mL in 33/117 patients overall (38%), and in 87.5% of 16 HBeAg-positive patients (p<0.0001). In
Improved Uptake of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Also Leads to Decrease in Community HIV Plasma Viral LoadVancouver - A comprehensive population-based study, conducted by the BC Centre for Excellence in HIV/AIDS (BC-CfE) and presented at the 17th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections in San Francisco, shows that expanded highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) coverage was associated with a 50% decrease in new yearly HIV infections among injection drug users.
Author(s): Gingo, Matthew R; Balasubramani, GK; Kingsley, Lawrence; Rinaldo, Charles R; Alden, Christine B; Detels, Roger; Greenblatt, Ruth M; Hessol, Nancy A; Holman, Susan; Huang, Laurence; Kleerup, Eric C; Phair, John; Sutton, Sarah H; Seaberg, Eric C; Margolick, Joseph B; Wisniewski, Stephen R; Morris, Alison | Abstract: OBJECTIVE:To review the incidence of respiratory conditions and their effect on mortality in HIV-infected and uninfected individuals prior to and during the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). DESIGN:Two large observational cohorts of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected men (Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study [MACS]) and women (Womens Interagency HIV Study [WIHS]), followed since 1984 and 1994, respectively. METHODS:Adjusted odds or hazards ratios for incident respiratory infections or non-infectious respiratory diagnoses, respectively, in HIV-infected compared to HIV-uninfected individuals in both the pre-HAART (MACS only) and HAART eras; and adjusted Cox proportional
Mosam A, Shaik F, Uldrick TS, et al. A randomized controlled trial of highly active antiretroviral therapy versus highly active antiretroviral therapy and chemotherapy in therapy-naive patients with HIV-associated Kaposi sarcoma in South Africa. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2012;60:1507 ...
OBJETIVO: Descrever as características e evolução clínica de pacientes com retinite por citomegalovírus relacionada à AIDS após o advento da terapia antirretroviral potente. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo dos prontuários de 30 pacientes consecutivos (44 olhos) com AIDS e retinite por citomegalovírus ativa recém-diagnosticada, atendidos entre janeiro de 2005 e dezembro de 2007. RESULTADOS: A idade média dos pacientes foi de 34,8 anos, 18 pacientes (60,0%) eram do sexo masculino e a mediana do tempo de diagnóstico de AIDS era 90 meses. Dezenove pacientes (63,3%) apresentavam evidência de falência da terapia antirretroviral potente e a mediana da contagem de linfócitos T CD4+ era 12,5 células/µl. A acuidade visual inicial era melhor ou igual a 20/40 em 27 olhos (61,4%). A retinite acometia a Zona 1 em 13 olhos (39,5%). Apesar da terapia antirretinite por citomegalovírus específica, 16 olhos (36,4%) apresentaram recidiva da retinite e 10 olhos (22,7%) perderam pelo menos três ...
In our patient, lesions were first noted approximately 12 months after HAART (stavudine, 80 mg/d; lamivudine, 300 mg/d; saquinavir, 2400 mg/d; and ritonavir, 1200 mg/d) was started; they progressed rapidly over the next 18 months. The patient had a history of combined dyslipidemia (total cholesterol level, 7.5 mmol/L [290 mg/dL]; triglyceride level, 3.1 mmol/L [274 mg/dL]) that predated treatment for HIV infection. On physical examination, large tendon xanthomas were noted over the metacarpophalangeal and metatarsophalangeal joints, elbows, and patellae (Figure). The Achilles tendons were markedly thickened. Two small periorbital xanthelasmas were noted. Biopsy of a lesion showed a xanthomatous reaction, with spindle and foamy cells staining strongly positive for the macrophage marker CD68 and the fibrohistiocytic cell marker factor XIIIa ...
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The lung compartment HIV infection is characterized by chronic inflammation and severe immunologic derangements. While improvement is seen on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), these patients still are susceptible to lung disease, especially those mediated by chronic inflammation. Furthermore, immune reconstitution is frequently characterized by poorly functioning lymphocytes due to a phenomenon called immunosenescence, or accelerated aging. Immunosenescence is caused by chronic antigenic stimulation, usually by viruses. In this regard, we have shown that HIV can persist in the lung in patients on HAART. Importantly, immunosenescence is associated with a chronic inflammatory state. Thus in this project we hypothesize that persistent antigenic stimulation by whole HIV or HIV proteins leads to an immunosenescent lung phenotype and chronic lung inflammation which contribute to the late complications associated with HIV infection.. To address this hypothesis we will make use of two well ...
A 30-year-old Chinese man presented in April 2003 to a public hospital in Hong Kong for suspected severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). He had been living with HIV (currently at stage CIII) for 5 years and was on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) comprising abacavir 300 mg twice a day, efavirenz 600 mg at night, Kaletra 4 capsules (each capsule contains lopinavir 133.3 mg and ritonavir 33.3 mg) and tenofovir 300 mg twice a day, plus standard Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia prophylaxis. He had been on the present HAART regimen since November 2002 and had good drug adherence. His CD4 cell count and viral load were 134 cells/μl and 470 copies/ml [by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Roche Amplicor], respectively, in February 2003.. The patient gave a one-week history of right-sided chest pain and chills, followed by fever, increasing dry cough and malaise. On admission, he had a fever of 38°C, was mildly tachypnoeic; and his blood pressure was 155/77 mmHg, with ...
Currently, neuropsychological impairment among HIV+ patients on antiretroviral therapy leads to a reduction in the quality of life and it is an important challenge due to the high prevalence of HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders and its concomitant consequences in relation to morbidity and mortality- including those HIV+ patients with adequate immunological and virological status. The fact that the virus is established in CNS in the early stages and its persistence within the CNS can help us to understand HIV-related brain injury even when highly active antiretroviral therapy is effective. The rising interest in HIV associated neurocognitive disorders has let to development new diagnostic tools, improvement of the neuropsychological tests, and the use of new biomarkers and new neuroimaging techniques that can help the diagnosis. Standardization and homogenization of neurocognitive tests as well as normalizing and simplification of easily accessible tools that can identify patients with ...
HIV-1 infection is associated with B cell dysregulation and dysfunction. In HIV-1-infected patients, we previously reported preservation of intestinal lymphoid structures and dendritic cell maturation pathways after early combination antiretroviral therapy (e-ART), started during the acute phase of the infection, compared with late combination antiretroviral therapy started during the chronic phase. In this study, we investigated whether the timing of combination antiretroviral therapy initiation was associated with the development of the HIV-1-specific humoral response in the gut. The results showed that e-ART was associated with higher frequencies of functional resting memory B cells in the gut. These frequencies correlated strongly with those of follicular Th cells in the gut. Importantly, frequencies of HIV-1 Env gp140-reactive B cells were higher in patients given e-ART, in whom gp140-reactive IgG production by mucosal B cells increased after stimulation. Moreover, IL-21 release by PBMCs stimulated
A survey sent to medical and radiation oncologists to identify factors contributing to observed disparities in cancer treatment between patients infected with HIV and those not infected found that a substantial proportion of physicians (21%) would alter their treatment recommendations based on HIV status, Gita Suneja, MD, of the University of Salt Lake City, Utah, and colleagues reported in the Journal of Oncology Practice. The likelihood of offering standard treatment was associated with concerns about toxicity, efficacy, and comfort level with discussing cancer treatment adverse effects and prognosis, the investigators stated.. Before the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy improved survival in HIV-infected individuals, cancers in HIV-infected individuals were largely AIDS-defining cancers related to severe immunosuppression, such as Kaposi sarcoma, the researchers wrote. With improved survival in HIV-infected individuals, cancers considered non-AIDS-defining cancers, such as ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A programme of symptom management for improving quality of life and drug adherence in AIDS/HIV patients. AU - Chiou, Piao Yi. AU - Kuo, Benjamin Ing Tiau. AU - Lee, Ming Been. AU - Chen, Yi Ming. AU - Chuang, Peing. AU - Lin, Li Chan. PY - 2006/7/1. Y1 - 2006/7/1. N2 - Aim. This paper reports an evaluation of the effect of symptom management programmed on drug adherence, CD4 count and virus load and the quality of life of patients with HIV/AIDS. Background. Patients with HIV/AIDS have to face the long-term side effects caused by highly active antiretroviral therapy regimens. There has been little research to evaluate the influence of drug intervention side effects on self-care. Methods. Sixty-seven patients with HIV/AIDS were randomly assigned to one-on-one teaching, group teaching, or control groups. All those in the one-on-one and group teaching groups attended a symptom management programme once a week, followed by 3 weeks of continuity and telephone counselling. Those in the ...
The advent in 1996 of potent combination antiretroviral therapy (ART), sometimes called HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy) or cART (effective combination antiretroviral therapy), changed the course of the HIV epidemic. These cocktails of three or more antiretroviral drugs used in combination gave patients and scientists new hope for fighting the epidemic and have significantly improved life expectancy-to decades rather than months. For many years, scientists believed that treating HIV-infected persons also significantly reduced their risk of transmitting the infection to sexual and drug-using partners who did not have the virus. The circumstantial evidence was substantial, but no one had conducted a randomized clinical trial--the gold standard for proving an intervention works. That changed in 2011 with the publication of findings from_the HIV Prevention Trials Network (HPTN) 052 study, a randomized clinical trial designed in part to evaluate whether the early initiation of ART can ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Amplification of low-frequency antiviral CD8 T cell responses using autologous dendritic cells. AU - Larsson, Marie. AU - Wilkens, David T.. AU - Fonteneau, Jean François. AU - Beadle, Thomas J.. AU - Merritt, Melissa J.. AU - Kost, Rhonda G.. AU - Haslett, Patrick A J. AU - Cu-Uvin, Susan. AU - Bhardwaj, Nina. AU - Nixon, Douglas F.. AU - Shacklett, Barbara L.. PY - 2002/1/25. Y1 - 2002/1/25. N2 - Objective: To utilize the potent antigen-presenting capacity of mature dendritic cells (MDC) in order to develop a rapid, sensitive method for quantifying antigen-specific CD8 T cells present at low frequency in peripheral blood. Design: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were obtained from seven HIV-1-positive individuals with low to moderate CD8 T cell responses, including five on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). IFN-γ ELISPOT assays were performed using either monocytes or MDC to present antigens expressed by recombinant vaccinia viruses (r-VV). Methods: ...
BACKGROUND: The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in 1996 led to a decrease in the incidence of Kaposis sarcoma (KS) and non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL), but not of other cancers, among people with HIV or AIDS (PWHA). It also led to marked increases in their life expectancy. METHODS: We conducted a record-linkage study between the Swiss HIV Cohort Study and nine Swiss cantonal cancer registries. In total, 9429 PWHA provided 20,615, 17,690, and 15,410 person-years in the pre-, early-, and late-HAART periods, respectively. Standardised incidence ratios in PWHA vs the general population, as well as age-standardised, and age-specific incidence rates were computed for different periods. RESULTS: Incidence of KS and NHL decreased by several fold between the pre- and early-HAART periods, and additionally declined from the early- to the late-HAART period. Incidence of cancers of the anus, liver, non-melanomatous skin, and Hodgkins lymphoma increased in the early- compared with the ...
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection is a major health problem around worldwide. One-third of the HIV-infected patients suffer from chronic hepatitis (HCV). The risk factors of coinfected patients are very high while compared to the monoinfected patients; they are having higher HCV viral load is associated with a severe liver damage. The use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) dramatically increases the survival of HIV/HCV-coinfected patients by preventing the depletion of CD4 cell counts and delaying the progression of fibrosis which reduces the complications related to end-stage liver damage. Reverse-transcriptase inhibitors and protease inhibitors are very commonly used drugs for the treatment of coinfection. Combination drugs and synthetic drugs are playing a pivotal role in the coinfection therapy. Under HAART, the coinfected patients are affected by many adverse effects such as mitochondrial toxicity, hypersensitivity, and lipodystrophy ...
DISCUSSION. The Joint United Nations Program on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) reports the feminization of HIV, and in sub-Saharan Africa, six in 10 adults living with HIV are currently woman18. However, this characteristic was not supported by the findings of the present study, which may be explained by the advanced degree of infection in the patients analyzed, as women are generally more concerned with their health and consequently more likely to adhere to HAART. Moreover, with the introduction of erectile dysfunction medications and the aging of the population worldwide, there has been an increase in the incidence of AIDS among elderly individuals. However, the present sample was composed mainly of young, sexually active, promiscuous individuals.. The findings revealed a malnourished sample with important clinical and biochemical alterations. Despite the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy, these characteristics have also been reported by other studies2,3,19. The mean BMI in the present ...
Antiretroviral (ART) regimen switch is a common occurrence in resource-limited settings where patients present late for care or with an AIDS-defining event. ART regimen switch can be attributed to several factors emanating from either the individual, program or facility level. This retrospective study was carried out in a resource-limited comprehensive facility in North-central Nigeria. Treatment records of 4,206 Adult HIV/AIDS patients initiated on first line ART regimen from 2006 to 2013 were extracted and examined for switch to second line ART regimen for the purpose of this study after ethical clearance had been sought. Absolute CD4 count, World Health Organisation (WHO) clinical stage and viral load results at treatment initiation, point of switch to second line and at the end of 2014 (end-point for the study) were obtained. About 75% of the 4,206 patients initiated on first line highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) were retained in care and were still on first line HAART at the end of
MUKANSI, SS and RAMASUVHA, BE. The challenges facing the orthopaedic surgeon today in managing femoral neck fractures in HIV-positive patients. SA orthop. j. [online]. 2013, vol.12, n.3, pp.49-53. ISSN 2309-8309.. The use of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) in treating HIV-positive patients has led to a reversal of complications such as HIV-related mortality and morbidity. The lifespan of HIV-positive patients on HAART especially if started early (CD4 ± 350 cells per microlitre) as is done in developed countries, is as good as is in non-reactive cohorts. However age-related complications such as decreased bone mineral density (BMD) are emerging early, resulting in fragility fractures. We present a case of bilateral neck femur fractures in a 53-year-old female patient on HAART.. Keywords : HAART; BMD; internal fixation; fatigue fractures. ...
For the HIV patient, the HAART(Highly active antiretroviral therapy) is used as treatment. The HAART regimen includes some ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Chichocki, Mark (3 June 2014). "HAART-Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy". About ... in HIV-1 infected patients with persistently detectable low-level viremia while receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy ... immunizations in patients with clinically undetectable viral loads on durable suppressive highly active antiretroviral therapy ...
Reddi A et al.Preliminary outcomes of a paediatric highly active antiretroviral therapy cohort from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa ... Preliminary outcomes of a paediatric highly active antiretroviral therapy cohort from KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. BMC Pediatr ... bayareaglobalhealth.org/leadership Reddi A et al.Preliminary outcomes of a paediatric highly active antiretroviral therapy ... Antiretroviral therapy adherence in children: outcomes from Africa. AIDS. 2008 Apr 23;22(7):906-7. PMID 18427213. Reddi A, ...
Drugs in these classes are important components of the HIV combination therapy called highly active antiretroviral therapy, ... The highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was introduced in 1996. The treatment regimen combines three drugs from at ... the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a leading cause of death in the ... Both the HEPT and TIBO compounds were first to be identified as highly specific and potent HIV-1 RT inhibitors, not active ...
2003). "Long-Term HIV/AIDS Survival Estimation in the Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Era". Medical Decision Making. 23 (1 ... Penanganan infeksi HIV terkini adalah terapi antiretrovirus yang sangat aktif (highly active antiretroviral therapy, disingkat ... 2001). "Limited Patient Adherence to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV-1 Infection in an Observational Cohort Study ... "The impact of host genetics on HIV infection and disease progression in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy". AIDS ...
"Variations in Patterns of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) Adherence". AIDS and Behavior. 9 (3): 355-362. doi: ... In the Fall of 2010, she starred in the Bravo series "Thintervention," where she led group therapy sessions to help six ... I strongly believed in the power of therapy to promote wellness, growth, and give people a nonjudgmental, structured space in ... Therapy can help understand the narcissist". Times Colonist. Archived from the original on April 12, 2020. Retrieved April 12, ...
This combination treatment is known as highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Often a low dose is used with other ... The CDC, in its Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, ascribes this to "highly active antiretroviral therapy", without mention ... "highly active antiretroviral thearap[ies]"-of which the protease inhibitors ritonavir and saquinavir were critical[citation ... Ritonavir (RTV), sold under the brand name Norvir, is an antiretroviral medication used along with other medications to treat ...
Impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-positive patients with cardiac involvement. J Infect 2000;40:282-4. ... of HIV associated dilated cardiomyopathy was 15.9/1000 before the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART ... The therapy is similar to therapy for non-ischemic cardiomyopathy: after medical therapy is begun, serial echocardiographic ... Low prevalence of cardiac abnormalities in an HIV-seropositive population on antiretroviral combination therapy. J Acquir ...
Barbaro G (2007). "Visceral fat as target of highly active antiretroviral therapy-associated metabolic syndrome". Curr. Pharm. ... one cause of which is an adverse drug reaction that is associated with some antiretroviral medications. A more general term for ...
Crepaz N; Hart T; Marks, G (2004). "Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy and Sexual Risk Behavior: A Meta-analytic Review". ... For example, models suggested that the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), which significantly ... Blower SM, Gershengorn HB, Grant RM (2000). "A tale of two futures: HIV and antiretroviral therapy in San Francisco". Science. ... Blower SM, Schwartz EJ, Mills J (2003). "Forecasting the future of HIV epidemics: the impact of antiretroviral therapies and ...
In HIV-infected people, this may mean starting highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). AIDS patients starting HAART after ... "Progressive multifocal leukencephalopathy in patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy: survival and risk factors of ... prior to the advent of effective antiretroviral therapy, as many as 5% of people with AIDS eventually developed PML. It is ... A number of drugs work against JC virus in cell culture, but no proven, effective therapy is known in humans. For example, 1-O- ...
... this type of therapy is known as HAART (Highly Active Anti Retroviral Therapy). AZT is a thymidine analogue. AZT works by ... This approach is referred to as Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) and is used to prevent the likelihood of HIV ... AZT is usually dosed twice a day in combination with other antiretroviral therapies. ... Early long-term higher-dose therapy with AZT was initially associated with side effects that sometimes limited therapy, ...
... and highly active anti-retroviral therapy used in the treatment of HIV/AIDS. Of these, amoxicillin-clavulanate is the most ... longer therapy may be required, and certain patients require indefinite long-term therapy. Due to a less robust response in ... First-line therapy for GT1 is a combination of sofosbuvir and ledipasvir (SOF/LDV) for 12 weeks for most patients, including ... Tenofovir is a nucleotide analogue and an antiretroviral drug that is also used to treat HIV infection. It is preferred to ...
October 2001). "Changes in AIDS-related lymphoma since the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy". Blood. 98 (8): 2339-44 ... The presence of EBV DNA in cerebrospinal fluid is highly suggestive of primary cerebral lymphoma.[citation needed] Treatment of ... AIDS patients with antiretroviral drugs reduces the incidence of primary cerebral lymphoma.[citation needed] The incidence of ...
Treatment and management of HIV is based around highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). HAART has been proven to ... "Oral manifestations of HIV infection in children and adults receiving highly active anti-retroviral therapy [HAART] in Dar es ... Godara, Navneet; Godara, Ramya; Khullar, Megha (2011). "Impact of inhalation therapy on oral health". Lung India. 28 (4): 272- ...
Other names for ART include highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), triple ... directly observed therapy with highly active antiretroviral therapy)". Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 79 (12): 1145 ... "Cost-Effectiveness of Screening for HIV in the Era of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy". New England Journal of Medicine. ... In relation to HIV, antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a three or more drug combination therapy that is used to decrease the viral ...
"Incidence and risk factors for immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome during highly active antiretroviral therapy". AIDS. ... In paradoxical IRIS reactions, the events will usually spontaneously get better with time without any additional therapy. In ... A Call for Better Disease Recognition and Evaluation of Adjuncts to Antifungal Therapy". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 42 (10 ... reconstitution of antigen-specific T cell-mediated immunity with activation of the immune system following HIV therapy against ...
An example is the reduction in cachexia from AIDS by highly active antiretroviral therapy. However this is often not possible ... Approaches to mitigate muscle loss include exercise, nutritional therapies, and medications. Therapy that includes regular ... Argilés JM, Busquets S, López-Soriano FJ (September 2011). "Anti-inflammatory therapies in cancer cachexia". European Journal ... traditional therapies and novel molecular mechanism-based approaches to treatment". Current Treatment Options in Oncology. 11 ( ...
November 1997). "Identification of a reservoir for HIV-1 in patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy". Science. 278 ( ... Generally these types of viruses have become highly evolved, and have lost the expression of many gene products. Some of the ... In a notable event, this actually happened during gene therapy through the use of retroviral vectors at the Necker Hospital in ... While viral latency exhibits no active viral shedding nor causes any pathologies or symptoms, the virus is still able to ...
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is the current recommended treatment for HIV. HAART entails taking a combination ( ... 2011). "Prevention of HIV-1 Infection with Early Antiretroviral Therapy". New England Journal of Medicine. 365 (6): 493-505. ... on antiretroviral therapy, 2) with a viral load under 40 copies per mL, and 3) with no other sexually transmitted diseases ... "Adherence to Antiretroviral Therapy and HIV Transmission Risks: Implications for Test-and-Treat Approaches to HIV Prevention". ...
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) medication adherence and survival are cited as two improved health outcomes.[58] ... Against other measures the Sydney MSIC's overdose rate is highly disproportionate. Estimates of the number of dependent heroin ... Of the 3,871 referrals to treatment 1,292 were to detox and 434 to abstinence-based rehabilitation or therapy.[30] The ...
highly active antiretroviral therapy = HAART).[46] Uvedena je bila leta 1996, ko so predstavili prvo visoko aktivno ... "Antiretroviral therapy for prevention of HIV transmission in HIV-discordant couples". Cochrane database of systematic reviews ( ... Department of Health and Human Services Working Group on Antiretroviral Therapy and Medical Management of HIV-Infected Children ... "Optimal time for initiation of antiretroviral therapy in asymptomatic, HIV-infected, treatment-naive adults". Cochrane database ...
In 1996, things dramatically changed, when highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) made it possible to manage AIDS like ... Mayer, Kenneth H.; Stone, Valerie E. (2001-09-15). "Strategies for Optimizing Adherence to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy ... Whilst working at Harvard, Stone was an active primary care physician and a senior scientist at the Stoeckle Center for Primary ...
The only effective way to lower the set point is through highly active antiretroviral therapy. The set point is not completely ...
February 2008). "Isosporiasis in patients with HIV infection in the highly active antiretroviral therapy era in France". HIV ...
Treatment for HIV positive individuals should run in parallel to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Even though ... To ensure clearance of the agent, maintenance therapy of itraconazole at 200-400 mg/day until CD4+ counts remain stable for ... The agent responds to many antifungal drug therapies used to treat serious fungal diseases. Histoplasmosis was first reported ... In contrast, deep lesions and disseminated disease require antifungal drug therapy. To date, no antifungal drug studies have ...
The initial activities emphasized the provision of highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART), but later projects emphasized ... Overall, the populations these organizations work with have limited access to anti-retroviral therapies, psychosocial support, ... only 48 percent of HIV-infected people in need of antiretroviral therapy (ART) were receiving it in 2007.[1] ... though the Government of Peru is funding most of the costs of procuring antiretroviral drugs. Peru has obtained funding for HIV ...
Recurrence of the lesion may also signify that highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is becoming ineffective. The oral ... The condition often resolves rapidly with high dose acyclovir or desiclovir but recurs once this therapy is stopped, or as the ... Antiretroviral drugs such as zidovudine may be effective in producing a significant regression of OHL. ...
"Effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy duration and regimen on risk for mother-to-child transmission of HIV in ... "Mother-to-child transmission of HIV infection in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy" (PDF). Clinical Infectious ... emerging problems in the era of highly active antiretrovirals". Fertility and Sterility. 96 (3): 546-53. doi:10.1016/j. ... Antiretroviral therapy is most importantly used at the following times in pregnancy to reduce the risk of mother-to-child ...
"Risk factors for mortality in patients with AIDS in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy". Ophthalmology. 112 (5): ... "Overall and cancer related mortality among patients with ocular inflammation treated with immunosuppressive therapy: ... "Comparison of antimetabolite drugs as corticosteroid-sparing therapy for noninfectious ocular inflammation". Ophthalmology. 115 ...
It is used in combination with other medications as part of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). It is of the reverse- ... DHHS Panel (May 4, 2006). "Guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents in HIV-1-infected adults and adolescents". AIDSInfo ... Moyle GJ (August 1996). "Use of viral resistance patterns to antiretroviral drugs in optimising selection of drug combinations ... ISBN 978-0-8053-9612-6. Mitsuya H, Yarchoan R, Broder S (September 1990). "Molecular targets for AIDS therapy". Science. 249 ( ...
... is a protease inhibitor used as a component of highly active antiretroviral therapy to treat HIV/AIDS. It is soluble white ... and lamivudine in adults with human immunodeficiency virus infection and prior antiretroviral therapy". The New England Journal ... and had no prior antiretroviral therapy with protease inhibitor or lamivudine.[12] ... Patients had to have CD4 cell counts less than 200 and at least 3 months of AZT therapy before the trials. 1156 patients with a ...
After their transplant procedures, both were put on antiretroviral therapies, during which neither showed traces of HIV in ... that have aggressive highly active MS, "in the absence of chronic treatment with disease-modifying agents".[66] ... Over three years after the initial transplant, and despite discontinuing antiretroviral therapy, researchers cannot detect HIV ... Lunzen, J.; Fehse, B.; Hauber, J. (2011). "Gene Therapy Strategies: Can We Eradicate HIV?". Current HIV/AIDS Reports. 8 (2): 78 ...
... highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) - histocompatibility testing - histoplasmosis - HIV disease - HIV prevention ... GAG - gamma globulin - gamma interferon - ganglion - GART - gastrointestinal (GI) - gene - gene therapy - genetic engineering ... safe sex - safer sex - salmonella - salvage therapy - SAMHSA - sarcoma - seborrheic dermatitis - secondary prophylaxis - sepsis ... AACTG - acquired immunity - acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) - ACT UP/Golden Gate - active immunity - acupuncture - ...
Combination of several (typically three or four) antiretroviral drugs is known as highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART ... Gene therapy[edit]. Gammaretroviral and lentiviral vectors for gene therapy have been developed that mediate stable genetic ... Antiretroviral drugs are medications for the treatment of infection by retroviruses, primarily HIV. Different classes of ... This technology is of use, not only for research purposes, but also for clinical gene therapy aiming at the long-term ...
... is typically charged for public health services except for sexual reproductive health services and antiretroviral therapy ... Finland has a highly decentralized three-level public system of health care and alongside this, a much smaller private health- ... The insurance companies have failed to develop as active, informed purchasers of health care services. Most are passive ... treatment of chronic diseases and paramedical services such as physiotherapy and occupational therapy.[76] ...
"Long-Term HIV/AIDS Survival Estimation in the Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Era". Medical Decision Making 23 (1): 9-20. ... "The impact of host genetics on HIV infection and disease progression in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy". AIDS ... "Limited Patient Adherence to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV-1 Infection in an Observational Cohort Study". Arch. ... "Prolongation and quality of life for HIV-infected adults treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART): a balancing ...
... emerging challenges in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy". The oncologist 10 (6): 412-26. PMID 15967835. doi: ... "The impact of host genetics on HIV infection and disease progression in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy". AIDS ... Antiretroviral Therapy Cohort Collaboration (2008). "Life expectancy of individuals on combination antiretroviral therapy in ... "Prolongation and quality of life for HIV-infected adults treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART): a balancing ...
Of course, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is critical for prolonged survival in any AIDS patient, so compliance ... perhaps the most important factor with respect to treatment is the use of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), which ... Leucovorin is often given for the duration of the therapy. Standard chemotherapeutic regimens for lymphoma such as CHOP are ... Primary CNS lymphoma is highly associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection (, 90%) in immunodeficient patients (such as ...
... of adverse drug reactions in human immune deficiency virus-positive patients using highly active antiretroviral therapy PMC ... Drug therapy. In: Haslett C, Chilvers ER, Boon NA, Colledge NR, Hunter JAA, eds. Davidson's principles and practice of medicine ...
Symptomatic infections are apparent and clinical, whereas an infection that is active but does not produce noticeable symptoms ... Serological methods are highly sensitive, specific and often extremely rapid tests used to identify microorganisms. These tests ... of molecular diagnostic tools have enabled physicians and researchers to monitor the efficacy of treatment with anti-retroviral ... Gene therapy. *History of medicine. *Hospital-acquired infection. *Eradication of infectious diseases ...
"Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in HIV-1-Infected Adults and Adolescents. Department of Health and Human ... Intelence therapy should be immediately discontinued when signs and symptoms of severe skin or hypersensitivity reactions ... Etravirine is a second-generation non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI), designed to be active against HIV ... and related non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors that are highly potent and effective against wild-type and drug- ...
... review of weight loss and wasting in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy from the nutrition for healthy living ... review of weight loss and wasting in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy from the nutrition for healthy living ... "International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy. 10 (1): 125-62.. *^ Maunder, Alison; Bessell, Erica; Lauche, ... Therapy-related. Medical treatment can directly or indirectly cause weight loss, impairing treatment effectiveness and recovery ...
... even in antiretroviral therapy. HIV-negative MSM has a higher incidence than the general population.[49] Men with HIV are also ... "MSM in Africa: highly stigmatized, vulnerable and in need of urgent HIV prevention". Archived from the original on July 13, ... Genital human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common virus that most sexually active people in the U.S. will have at some time in ... because a man who self-identifies as gay or bisexual is not necessarily sexually active with men, and someone who identifies as ...
For patients with AIDS-KS, the most effective therapy is highly active antiretroviral therapy to reduce HIV infection.[34] AIDS ... "Therapy insight: AIDS-related malignancies--the influence of antiviral therapy on pathogenesis and management". Nature ... "Increasing Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus seroprevalence with age in a highly Kaposi's sarcoma endemic region, Zambia ... infection by human herpesvirus 8 in Zambia and the role of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 coinfection in a highly endemic ...
Chigwedere P, Seage GR, Gruskin S, Lee TH, Essex M (October 2008). "Estimating the Lost Benefits of Antiretroviral Drug Use in ... Armenian 'counter-evidence' such as highly comprehensive and also poignant consular reports and dispatches are to be omitted ... promoting unproven medical therapies. Harriet Hall sees a spectrum of "statin denialism" ranging from pseudoscientific claims ... Dezinformatsia: Active Measures in Soviet Strategy. *The KGB and Soviet Disinformation. *Who's Who in the CIA ...
"Time from HIV-1 seroconversion to AIDS and death before widespread use of highly-active antiretroviral therapy: a collaborative ... "Patterns of the hazard of death after AIDS through the evolution of antiretroviral therapy: 1984-2004". 》AIDS》 19 (17): 2009-18 ... Coovadia H (2004). "Antiretroviral agents-how best to protect infants from HIV and save their mothers from AIDS". 》N. Engl. J. ... "Antiretroviral postexposure prophylaxis after sexual, injection-drug use, or other nonoccupational exposure to HIV in the ...
The impact of host genetics on HIV infection and disease progression in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. AIDS ... Montessori, V., Press, N., Harris, M., Akagi, L., Montaner, J. S. (2004) Adverse effects of antiretroviral therapy for HIV ... Patterns of the hazard of death after AIDS through the evolution of antiretroviral therapy: 1984-2004. AIDS 19, 2009-2018 PMID ... 2002) Guidelines for using antiretroviral agents among HIV-infected adults and adolescents. Ann Intern Med. 137, 381-433 PMID ...
... active physical education (Active PE) policies, and early care and education (ECE) policies.[80] They each have similar goals ... The term especially applies to use the of condoms,[34] which are highly effective at preventing disease,[35] but also to other ... Studies have shown long term success rates (,1 year) of 20% for hypnosis and 10%-20% for group therapy.[39] ... regularly taking prophylactic antiretroviral drugs, such as Truvada. Post-exposure prophylaxis, started within 72 hours ( ...
The use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), in conjunction with the established pyrimethamine-based maintenance ... Rozenberg, F; Deback C; Agut H (June 2011). "Herpes simplex encephalitis: from virus to therapy". Infectious Disorders Drug ... Pyrimethamine-based maintenance therapy is often used to treat Toxoplasmic Encephalitis (TE), which is caused by Toxoplasma ... therapy, decreases the chance of relapse in patients with HIV and TE from approximately 18% to 11%.[27] This is a significant ...
HAART: Highly active antiretroviral therapy. STI/STD: Sexually transmitted infection/disease এইডছ (AIDS) সম্পূৰ্ণ নাম Acquired ...
High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program HAART - (a) Highly Active Anti-Retroviral Therapy HAI - (i) Human Awareness ... Highly Optimised Tolerance HOTAS - (a) Hands on throttle-and-stick HOTT or HotT - (i) Hordes of the Things (miniature fantasy ... Highly Enriched Uranium Hewitts - (a) Hills in England, Wales and Ireland over Two Thousand feet (with topographic prominence ... Hormone Replacement Therapy hrv - (s) Croatian language (ISO 639-2 code) HRV (s) Croatia (ISO 3166 trigram) (i) High Resolution ...
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been highly beneficial to many HIV-infected individuals since its introduction ... There is current active research into the virus' effects on the immune system in patients coinfected with GBV-C and HIV. A ... First, HIV is highly mutable. Because of the virus' ability to rapidly respond to selective pressures imposed by the immune ... The study determined the extent to which Ugandan volunteers have CTL that are active against the subtypes of HIV prevalent in ...
Therapy[edit]. Immunosuppressive drugs are used in immunosuppressive therapy to: *Prevent the rejection of transplanted organs ... These drugs may raise the risk of contracting tuberculosis or inducing a latent infection to become active. Infliximab and ... It is possible to diminish their toxicity by using highly purified serum fractions and intravenous administration in the ... Are Immunosuppressive Drugs a Useful Adjuvant to Treatment of HIV with Antiretrovirals?. Hivandhepatitis.com. Accessed on 21 ...
They are used in immunosuppressive therapy to: *Prevent the rejection of transplanted organs and tissues (e.g., bone marrow, ... These drugs may raise the risk of contracting tuberculosis or inducing a latent infection to become active. Infliximab and ... It is possible to diminish their toxicity by using highly purified serum fractions and intravenous administration in the ... Are Immunosuppressive Drugs a Useful Adjuvant to Treatment of HIV with Antiretrovirals?. Hivandhepatitis.com. Accessed on 21 ...
... review of weight loss and wasting in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy from the nutrition for healthy living ... review of weight loss and wasting in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy from the nutrition for healthy living ... "International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy. 10 (1): 125-62.. *^ Mann, T; Tomiyama, AJ; Westling, E; Lew, AM ... Therapy-related. Medical treatment can directly or indirectly cause weight loss, impairing treatment effectiveness and recovery ...
The natural protease inhibitors are not to be confused with the protease inhibitors used in antiretroviral therapy. Some ... Some proteases are less active after autolysis (e.g. TEV protease) whilst others are more active (e.g. trypsinogen). ... Proteolysis can be highly promiscuous such that a wide range of protein substrates are hydrolysed. This is the case for ... Conversely some proteases are highly specific and only cleave substrates with a certain sequence. Blood clotting (such as ...
Sa kabilan ng tagumpay ng mataas na aktibong terapiyang antiretroviral (highly active antiretroviral therapy o HAART) sa ... "The impact of host genetics on HIV infection and disease progression in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy". AIDS ... "Prolongation and quality of life for HIV-infected adults treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART): a balancing ... "Guidelines for the Use of Antiretroviral Agents in Pediatric HIV Infection" (PDF). The Panel on Antiretroviral Therapy and ...
Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) Adherence Interventions. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) Adherence Interventions. Official Title ICMJE HAART Adherence Interventions in ... highly active antiretroviral therapy) for the first time. Patients who are eligible to be initiated on HAART at the UW/Coptic ... Active Comparator: Counseling and alarm Participants in this arm will receive both education counseling and a pocket alarm ...
highly active antiretroviral therapy synonyms, highly active antiretroviral therapy pronunciation, highly active antiretroviral ... English dictionary definition of highly active antiretroviral therapy. n. Abbr. HAART The use of three or more antiretroviral ... Related to highly active antiretroviral therapy: HAART. highly active antiretroviral therapy. n. Abbr. HAART. The use of three ... Highly active antiretroviral therapy - definition of highly active antiretroviral therapy by The Free Dictionary https://www. ...
Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) Adherence Interventions. This study has been completed. ... highly active antiretroviral therapy) for the first time. Patients who are eligible to be initiated on HAART at the UW/Coptic ... Active Comparator: Alarm device Device: Alarm device This pocket alarm device will be set to ring at designated times during ... Active Comparator: Counseling and alarm Participants in this arm will receive both education counseling and a pocket alarm ...
Risk factors for severe hepatic injury after introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy.. Núñez M1, Lana R, Mendoza ... Treatment of HIV infection with highly antiretroviral therapy (HAART) may be limited by liver toxicity. Its incidence and risk ... Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/adverse effects*. *Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood. *Chemical and Drug Induced Liver ...
Highly active antiretroviral therapy has increased survival with HIV infection. Euro Surveill. 2000;4(14):pii=1630. https://doi ... Highly active antiretroviral therapy has increased survival with HIV infection * By K Porter ...
Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active*. HIV Infections / blood*, drug therapy*, metabolism. HIV Seropositivity / blood, drug ... 16218797 - Reasons for stopping antiretrovirals used in an initial highly active antiretroviral re.... 20814447 - How hiv ... delay HIV disease progression and reduce mortality in HIV-positive persons not receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy ( ...
HAART is the acronym for highly active antiretroviral therapy and is used to describe the effectiveness of combination drug ... What Is HAART (Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy)? How Triple Therapy Turned the HIV Epidemic Around By Mark Cichocki, RN ... HAART is the acronym for highly active antiretroviral therapy, a term coined in the late 1990s to describe the effectiveness ... combination antiretroviral therapy) or, even more simply, ART (antiretroviral therapy). ...
Highly active antiretroviral therapy decreases mortality and morbidity in patients with advanced HIV disease. Ann Intern Med ... Cost effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected patients. Swiss HIV Cohort Study. AIDS 1999; 13: ... Last year marked the 10-year anniversary of the widespread use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for treating HIV ... Health-related quality of life after 1 year of highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 2003; 32: 38- ...
With the significant increase in life expectancy for HIV-infected patients in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy, ... This syndrome has been related to the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy, especially protease inhibitors, and would ... Bone mineral loss through increased bone turnover in HIV-infected children treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy. ... Adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder in human deficiency virus-positive patients during highly active antiretroviral therapy. J ...
To determine if infectious disease events in HIV-infected patients treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) ... restoration disease after the treatment of immunodeficient HIV-infected patients with highly active antiretroviral therapy.. ... Baseline and post-therapy changes in CD4 T-cell counts and HIV RNA were compared in patients with and without disease and ... 50/uL and occurred most often during the first 2 months of therapy and when CD4 T-cell counts were increasing. Mycobacteria- ...
Monitoring Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in HIV-infected Parents in Thailand. The safety and scientific validity of this ... Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy. Monitoring. Viral load. CD4. Thailand. Future Drug Options. Resistance. Developing ... Implementation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has led to a substantial decrease in HIV-related mortality and ... Willingness to modify antiretroviral therapy in accordance with the randomized switching scheme assignment ...
Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active*Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active. *Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy ... Highly Active" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active" was a major ... "Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active" by people in Profiles. ...
... ... Supplements > Addressing Adherence Challenges Associated With Antiretroviral Therapy: Focus on Noninfectious Diarr - Published ... Participating Faculty: Addressing Adherence Challenges Associated With Antiretroviral Therapy: Focus on Noninfectious Diarrhea ... Supplements Addressing Adherence Challenges Associated With Antiretroviral Therapy: Focus on Noninfectious Diarr ...
Changes in AIDS-related lymphoma since the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Caroline Besson, Aicha Goubar, Jean ... Highly active antiretroviral therapy and incidence of cancer in human immunodeficiency virus-infected adults. J Natl Cancer ... Changes in AIDS-related lymphoma since the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Blood, 98(8), 2339-2344. Accessed June ... Changes in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related lymphoma since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy. ...
... therapy than non-drug users. We assess factors associated with initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV- ... Time to initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected injection drug users ... A comparison of exposure groups in the EuroSIDA study: starting highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), response to HAART ... Clinical progression and virological failure on highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1 patients: a prospective cohort ...
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has shown great efficacy in reducing human immunodeficiency virus levels, ... Highly Active. Antiretroviral Therapy. Dual drug therapies also came into wide use in the early 1990s,. and since 1996, triple- ... The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy. (HAART) for persons with AIDS presents the opportunity for examining this. ... Highly active antiretroviral therapy and incidence of cancer in human. immunodeficiency virus-infected adults. J Natl Cancer ...
Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy: Drug regimens, for patients with HIV INFECTIONS, that aggressively suppress HIV ... Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART). Subscribe to New Research on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy ... Drug Therapy: 178671*Combination Drug Therapy: 9625*Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy: 7338 ... after the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in developed countries. ". 03/01/2015 - "Because highly active ...
... Blood Disorders (Anemia etc.) HAART can be toxic to blood because ...
Treatment With Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Infected Children Is Associated With ... Treatment With Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Infected Children Is Associated With ... Treatment With Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Infected Children Is Associated With ... Treatment With Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1-Infected Children Is Associated With ...
... for CD4 Lymphopenia in Patients Treated With a Tenofovir/Didanosine High Dose-containing Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy ...
Major oral aphtous ulceration in HIV-1 infection: successful response after highly active antiretroviral therapy. Authors. *. J ...
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) may induce dyslipidemia and thus increase the risk of future cardiovascular heart ... Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) may induce dyslipidemia and thus increase the risk of future cardiovascular heart ... Elevated Framingham risk score in HIV-positive patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy: results from a Norwegian study ... with abacavir-based triple nucleoside therapy versus continued protease inhibitor-based highly active antiretroviral therapy in ...
Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has had a dramatic impact on the health of individuals infected with HIV ... Treatment exhaustion of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) among individuals infected with HIV in the United Kingdom ... Treatment exhaustion of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) among individuals infected with HIV in the United Kingdom ... Treatment exhaustion of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) among individuals infected with HIV in the United Kingdom ...
Home » Prolonged Treatment Interruption after Immunologic Response to Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy ... "infected patients whose antiretroviral therapy was interrupted with the intention to resume therapy on the basis of clinical or ... Patients with lower CD4 cell counts at therapy initiation were more likely to resume therapy than were those with counts of > ... Initiation of antiretroviral therapy during acute infection to protect... ...
... and to determine whether medical indications for therapy validate lower rates of antiretroviral use in women not using HIV ... Although medical indications for therapy in the two groups were comparable, the rate of highly active antiretroviral therapy ( ... Use of highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected women: impact of HIV specialist care. ... Use of highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected women: impact of HIV specialist care. Journal of Acquired Immune ...
Evaluation for two-year highly active antiretroviral therapy in Chinese HIV-1 infection patients]. Download Prime PubMed App to ... Long-term assessment of nevirapine-containing highly active antiretroviral therapy in antiretroviral-naive HIV-infected ... Evaluation for Two-year Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in Chinese HIV-1 Infection Patients]." Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi, vol ... Evaluation for Two-year Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in Chinese HIV-1 Infection Patients]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2007 ...
Highly active antiretroviral drug therapy has led to a dramatic reduction of viral load in many... ... Home » Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy and Viral Response in HIV Type 2 Infection ... Physicians applied the principles of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), normally used in treating HIV type 1, with ... The combined use of inhibitors of reverse transcriptase and protease as highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) provided ...
We examined expenditures for the care of HIV-infected patients since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy. ... Use of highly active antiretroviral therapy was independently associated with a reduction in expenditures. After adjustments ... 2001). Expenditures for the care of HIV-infected patients in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. New England ... We examined expenditures for the care of HIV-infected patients since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy. ...
The use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-infected patients has been associated with the development of ... Bezafibrate for the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia in HIV1-infected patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy. Braz J ...
The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has had a dramatic impact on the morbidity and mortality of ... treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Whether such patients. truly recover normal immune function is ... Bower M, Fox P, Fife K, et al: Highly active anti-retroviral. therapy (HAART) prolongs time to treatment failure in Kaposis ... Grulich A: AIDS-associated NHL in the era of highly active. antiretroviral therapy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 21:S27-S30, ...
  • The study will be a prospective randomized clinical control trial among HIV-1 seropositive adult participants beginning HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy) for the first time. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) can prove helpful in preventing mother-to-child transmission of HIV in poor countries, according to an editorial in response to a research study in the August 15 issue of JAIDS: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The studies focused on characteristics of antiretroviral-naive patients at the start of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) as well as their response to therapy and disease progression. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • HIV-infected teenagers may need help in adhering to regimens of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In-patient hospitalizations diminished and the insurance companies began to pay for the combination "cocktail" therapy known as highly active antiretroviral therapy or HAART. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Treatment of HIV infection with highly antiretroviral therapy (HAART) may be limited by liver toxicity. (nih.gov)
  • Micronutrient supplements can delay HIV disease progression and reduce mortality in HIV-positive persons not receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). (biomedsearch.com)
  • HAART is the acronym for 'highly active antiretroviral therapy,' a term coined in the late 1990s to describe the effectiveness of combination drug therapies used to treat HIV. (verywell.com)
  • Prior to HAART, the use of one or two antiretroviral drugs had generally limited success in patients with HIV, resulting in rapid treatment failure as well as the inability to fully suppress viral activity. (verywell.com)
  • In addition to HAART, the multi-drug approach was also popularly known as 'triple therapy' or a 'triple drug cocktail. (verywell.com)
  • It is why pre-HAART therapies tended to fail so quickly: smaller mutant populations were allowed to persist and eventually increase in number to become the predominant viral strain. (verywell.com)
  • The concept of HAART is also likely to change with the development of long-lasting antiretroviral drug agents (potentially allowing for monthly or quarterly injections) and next-generation drugs which aim to lower the traditional triple drug cocktail to as few as two drugs. (verywell.com)
  • L ast year marked the 10-year anniversary of the widespread use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for treating HIV infection. (mja.com.au)
  • HAART - a combination of three antiretrovirals (ARVs) from at least two drug classes 1 , 2 - has led to significant reductions in HIV-related morbidity and mortality and is a highly cost-effective medical intervention. (mja.com.au)
  • Despite prolonged treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), infectious HIV-1 continues to replicate and to reside latently in resting memory CD4(+) T lymphocytes, creating a major obstacle to HIV-1 eradication. (nih.gov)
  • We conclude that in cases with apparent complete HIV-1 suppression by HAART, viral rebound after cessation of therapy could have originated from the activation of virus from the latent reservoir. (nih.gov)
  • Implementation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has led to a substantial decrease in HIV-related mortality and morbidity. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Since the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the incidence of AIDS-defining illnesses has decreased, leading to a significant improvement in survival of HIV-infected patients. (bloodjournal.org)
  • 2 Since the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the incidence of opportunistic infections has decreased, so lymphoma is now by far the most lethal complication of AIDS. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Patients with intermittent drug use were more likely to start HAART sooner but initiation of therapy was still deferred. (natap.org)
  • We assess factors associated with initiating highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-infected IDUs. (natap.org)
  • Results: By 30 June 1999, 58.5% of participants had initiated HAART, most of whom switched from mono- or dual-combination therapy to a HAART regimen. (natap.org)
  • Cox proportional hazards regression showed that initiating HAART was independently associated with not injecting drugs, methadone treatment among men, having health insurance and a regular source of care, lower CD4+ cell count and a history of antiretroviral therapy. (natap.org)
  • ABSTRACT: Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has shown great efficacy in reducing human immunodeficiency virus levels, increasing immunity, and prolonging the survival of persons with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). (cancernetwork.com)
  • This high risk may be related to the fact that HAART therapy does not restore the immune system to normalcy. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Most reports have insufficient data to analyze the impact of HAART therapy on incidence of central nervous system lymphomas, but recent data (from 1997 to 1999) showed a significant reduction in that risk. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) may induce dyslipidemia and thus increase the risk of future cardiovascular heart disease (CHD). (springer.com)
  • The widespread use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has had a big impact on the prognosis of HIV infected individuals. (bmj.com)
  • 1 2 Although most people starting HAART will experience good virological responses to treatment, imperfect adherence, tolerability problems, inadequate drug concentrations, and pre-existing or newly developed antiretroviral resistance may mean that in some patients, virological responses on their first treatment combination will fail within the first few years. (bmj.com)
  • To observe that antiretroviral efficacy, immune reconstitution of two-year HAART, and evaluate its side effect in Chinese HIV-1-infected patients. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Physicians applied the principles of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), normally used in treating HIV type 1, with modifications considered appropriate for treating HIV- 2. (ebscohost.com)
  • The use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-infected patients has been associated with the development of risk factors for cardiovascular diseases (CD) including dyslipidemia and insulin resistance, hypertriglyceridemia being the most frequent metabolic disturbance in these patients. (scielo.br)
  • ABSTRACT: The introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has had a dramatic impact on the morbidity and mortality of individuals living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). (cancernetwork.com)
  • Whether the combination of HAART and standard therapy results in improved survival remains uncertain. (cancernetwork.com)
  • The phenomenon of immune reconstitution has been observed in many individuals treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). (cancernetwork.com)
  • To determine whether attitudes towards highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) are associated with unprotected anal sex among sexually active homosexual men. (nih.gov)
  • Among sexually active homosexual men, lessened concern about HIV transmission due to HAART was strongly associated with sexual risk taking, as was safer sex fatigue among HIV-positive men. (nih.gov)
  • Hyperlipidemia, lipodystrophy, insulin resistance, and hyperglycemia are well-described side effects of HIV treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) (1-3) . (annals.org)
  • To compare the impact of hepatitis C virus (HCV) coinfection on progression of HIV infection in the eras before and after the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the authors conducted a retrospective cohort study. (natap.org)
  • HCV+ subjects remained at increased risk for death and hospitalization post-HAART even after additional adjustment for antiretroviral use and time-updated CD4 cell and viral load measures. (natap.org)
  • Most studies, conducted in the era before highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), suggest that HCV has a limited effect on the progression or severity of HIV disease. (natap.org)
  • Predictors of 5-years mortality in HIV-infected adults starting highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in Thailand. (biomedsearch.com)
  • OBJECTIVE: To estimate early and long-term mortality and associated risk factors in adults receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in Thailand. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Clinical presentation and outcome of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related histoplasmosis are unknown in non-endemic areas with wide access to highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). (ajtmh.org)
  • Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens, especially those including protease inhibitors have been shown to cause, in a high proportion of HIV-infected patients, a metabolic syndrome (lipodystrophy/lipoatrophy, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance) that may be associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Out of the 223 subjects on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the study, 153 were females (68. (academicjournals.org)
  • OBJECTIVE To determine the change of incidence and prevalence of neurological disorders caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and opportunistic infections in HIV positive patients under treatment since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). (bmj.com)
  • Recent studies have shown the beneficial effect of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in AIDS-related progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). (ajnr.org)
  • Recent studies have shown that potent highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) may improve survival, clinical status, and radiologic findings in AIDS patients with PML (6-10) . (ajnr.org)
  • A HAART regimen, using different antiretroviral drugs, was initiated in all patients. (ajnr.org)
  • We compared the health-related quality of life (HRQL) of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal HIV patients after they started highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in Edmonton, Alberta and investigated whether clinical status (CD4 cell count and viral load) might explain any observed differences. (springer.com)
  • To evaluate HIV-1 transmission trends and the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) on newly diagnosed HIV infections in Geneva, Switzerland. (ovid.com)
  • Before the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the rate of ophthalmic manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was very high. (arvojournals.org)
  • Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been associated with lipodystrophy (LD) in adults but data are more limited for children. (eurekamag.com)
  • To prospectively observe the efficacy, tolerability, immune reconstitution and toxicity of long-term highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in Chinese patients infected HIV. (eurekaselect.com)
  • BACKGROUND: Sub-optimal adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) among injection drug users (IDUs) is a significant concern. (ubc.ca)
  • many are taking highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for HIV-1 infection. (bmj.com)
  • METHODS: A population-based analysis of antiretroviral-naive adults who started highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) between 1 August 1996 and 31 July 2000, and who were followed until 31 March 2002. (ubc.ca)
  • Analysis of their dynamics prior to and after highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) could reveal possible mechanisms of depletion. (asm.org)
  • The mechanisms leading to CD4 + T-cell depletion during human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and CD4 + T-cell restoration during therapy with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) remain undefined. (asm.org)
  • Patients were treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for a median of 78 weeks (range, 34 to 121 weeks). (asm.org)
  • Despite the undeniable benefits of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), treatment with HAART results in both diminished cellular and humoral HIV-specific responses. (asm.org)
  • Several studies have described improved outcomes for HIV‐infected patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • While the number of new HIV infections diagnosed annually continues to rise to more than 7400 per year, the number of HIV‐related deaths has remained constant since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in 1996. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We examined highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) era and pre-HAART era hospitalization rates among 604 HIV-infected drug users in a prospective study in Bronx, New York. (ovid.com)
  • To examine changes in individuals' experiences of symptoms over the first six months of taking highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) and to assess the impact of symptom experiences and attributions on adherence to HAART. (soton.ac.uk)
  • The implementation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) among HIV-positive patients results in immune reconstitution, slower progression of HIV disease, and a decrease in the occurrence of opportunistic infections. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The paper presents the results of 12 years surveillance on the prevalence of HIV-1 associated transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in Victoria following the first availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in 1996. (health.gov.au)
  • The availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has produced significant decreases in the morbidity and mortality of patients infected with HIV. (health.gov.au)
  • Mycobacterium xenopi osteomyelitis in a patient on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). (semanticscholar.org)
  • BACKGROUND Limited information exists about effects of different highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens and duration of regimens on mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV among women in Africa who start treatment for advanced immunosuppression. (semanticscholar.org)
  • One hundred and eighty HIV patients that met HAART criteria were recruited before the commencement of therapy. (endocrine-abstracts.org)
  • A randomized control trial of peer-delivered modified directly observed therapy for HAART in Mozambique. (isrctn.com)
  • Our hypothesis is that modified Directly Observed Therapy (mDOT) during the initial six weeks of HAART, supervised primarily by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positive lay activists, will improve adherence and clinical outcomes compared with those that do not have supervised mDOT. (isrctn.com)
  • The project is a randomized controlled trial among a sample of HIV positive antiretroviral-naive patients newly starting HAART, randomized to either receive six weeks of modified DOT in addition to standard clinical and adherence support, or standard care only. (isrctn.com)
  • Pre-HAART adherence assessment, with a social worker, during which AntiRetroViral (ARV) treatment is explained, expectations clarified, and barriers to adherence identified and addressed. (isrctn.com)
  • Introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has been proved to be very effective against HIV infection and AIDS progression. (alliedacademies.org)
  • Currently, treatment of HIV still heavily relies on the combined administration of different drugs which is named as the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). (alliedacademies.org)
  • BACKGROUND: The recording of outcomes from large-scale, simplified HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy) programmes in sub-Saharan Africa is critical. (msf.org)
  • Conflicting evidence regarding the impact of baseline plasma HIV RNA and CD4 cell count on survival after the initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-infected patients has resulted in wide variability in the expert recommendations regarding the when to start therapy. (scielo.org.mx)
  • Early initiation of HAART may result in avoidable toxicities and premature evolution of resistance, whereas delaying HAART may increase the risk of opportunistic infections and/or preclude a worse virological and clinical response to therapy. (scielo.org.mx)
  • The following review examines the evidence in support of delaying the initiation of HAART to a CD4 cell count of 0.200 x 10 9 cells/L regardless of plasma HIV RNA levels and outlines supporting data from a Canadian prospective cohort study of antiretroviral naïve patients treated with HAART. (scielo.org.mx)
  • The benefits of triple drug highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in the management of HIV disease are well established. (scielo.org.mx)
  • As such, persons undergoing treatment for HIV disease must take a daily regimen of at least three antiretroviral drugs (i.e., highly active antiretroviral therapy, or HAART), and follow a scheduled dosing protocol that often involves coordination of dietary intake. (scielo.org.mx)
  • Most recent papers with the keyword highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). (readbyqxmd.com)
  • The treatment options are limited by drug antitubercular treatment highly active antiretroviral therapy (ATT and HAART)-induced thrombocytopenia. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Advancements in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has led to increased survival, approaching that of the general population. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Nevirapine, a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) is one of the frequently used components of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). (readbyqxmd.com)
  • HIV infection and the AIDS pandemic are still matters of great concern, especially in less developed countries where the access to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) is limited. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Sustained high levels of adherence (95% or more) are essential for the success of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). (uwc.ac.za)
  • This study investigated adherence to HAART among patients in the Keetmanshoop antiretroviral therapy (ART)clinic and the factors that affect adherence.Aim of the research The aim of the research was to describe adherence to HAART and factors influencing adherence among patients in Keetmanshoop ART clinic, Namibia.Objectives: 1. (uwc.ac.za)
  • The association of different CD4 + cell counts with the same disease risk in treated and untreated populations reflects the effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). (oup.com)
  • We conclude that the incidence of CMVR at this institution has decreased significantly with the recent use of HAART therapy. (elsevier.com)
  • Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has greatly improved health parameters of HIV infected individuals. (sun.ac.za)
  • Design and Methods: A cross sectional study of 60 HIV-positive individuals, all receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), and 80 demographically matched HIV-seronegative control subjects. (monash.edu)
  • The presence of HIV-1 preintegration reservoir was assessed in an in vitro experimental model of latent HIV-1 infection, and in patients treated or not with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Background: Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) has substantially declined morbidity and mortality related to Human immunodeficiency virus/Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). (researchsquare.com)
  • The impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in HIV-infected patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) remains controversial. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Prescription of HAART during ICU was associated with a trend to lower incidence of new AIDS-related events at 6 months (respectively 17% and 34% with and without HAART, p = 0.07), and with higher incidence of antiretroviral resistance after ICU stay (respectively 25% and 7% with and without HAART, p = 0.02). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has increased the life expectancy of patients who are infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and has reduced the incidence of illnesses associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Advancements in research led to the use of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) for treatment, however this does not cure the patient of HIV but it suppresses the viral replication of HIV-1 to very low levels2. (bartleby.com)
  • While the overall incidence of opportunistic infections has decreased since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in 1996, HIV-associated pneumonias remain a significant source of illness, and any respiratory complaint that may be due to pneumonia must be taken seriously. (thebody.com)
  • To prevent progression to AIDS, persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) must remain on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) indefinitely since this modality does not eradicate the virus. (elsevier.com)
  • For the HIV patient, the HAART(Highly active antiretroviral therapy) is used as treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • After that, she suggested the induction therapy by using protease-inhibitors has influenced the effect of NNRTI (non-Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors) resistance on virologic response to nevirapine-based HAART in children patients of HIV. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to develop the therapy, she has been explained about the mechanism using the NNRTI of HAART. (wikipedia.org)
  • The use of three or more antiretroviral drugs, typically including a combination of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors and a protease inhibitor, to suppress HIV and prevent the development of treatment-resistant infection. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Prevention of HIV-1 infection with early antiretroviral therapy. (verywell.com)
  • Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy in Early Asymptomatic HIV Infection . (verywell.com)
  • Tenofovir (TDF) is a nucleotide NRTI that is also highly effective against HBV, although it is currently not licensed for treatment of HBV in the absence of HIV infection. (mja.com.au)
  • With the significant increase in life expectancy for HIV-infected patients in the era of high potency antiretroviral therapy, major metabolic changes have been observed due to the prolonged period of the viral infection and the treatment itself. (scielo.br)
  • With the significant increase in life expectancy for HIV-infected patients in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy, a few consequences have been observed concerning the extended time to viral infection and therapy. (scielo.br)
  • Complex metabolic changes in chronic HIV infection and its treatment include the decrease of bone mineralization in a high proportion of patients, as a result of various factors present in the host itself, the virus and the antiretroviral agents. (scielo.br)
  • Poor knowledge about HIV infection and treatment and the lack of belief in the efficacy of antiretroviral therapy, and biases against the medical establishment and the government, and conspiracy theories all contribute to IVDUs having less incentive to get care. (natap.org)
  • Initiation of antiretroviral therapy during acute infection to protect. (ebscohost.com)
  • Conclusions: The total cost of care for adults with HIV infection has declined since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy. (rti.org)
  • Gibb, D.M. Monitoring of highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV infection. (www.gov.uk)
  • Giuseppe Barbaro, " Metabolic and Cardiovascular Complications of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV Infection", Current HIV Research (2006) 4: 79. (eurekaselect.com)
  • Charts were reviewed for diagnoses of active ophthalmic manifestations of HIV infection, including HIV retinopathy, opportunistic infections, uveitis, and neoplasms. (arvojournals.org)
  • Progressive symptoms and signs following institution of highly active antiretroviral therapy and subsequent antituberculosis therapy: immune reconstitution syndrome or infection? (bmj.com)
  • To understand the concurrent effects of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, the immune system, and antiretroviral therapy on body composition alterations, we examined annualized composition changes in HIV-infected adults who were receiving stable antiretroviral therapy. (calpoly.edu)
  • Among the 233 (82%) patients with known HIV infection before ICU admission, 64% were on highly active ART. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A new, highly sensitive, and affordable point of care diagnostic test for cryptococcal infection, the lateral flow assay, can detect early sub-clinical cryptococcosis especially in areas with limited laboratory infrastructure. (cdc.gov)
  • Recent improvements in access to Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART) have radically reduced hospitalizations and deaths associated with HIV infection in both developed countries and sub-Saharan Africa. (panafrican-med-journal.com)
  • In untreated patients, there is an active viral replication with continual infection of resting T cells, leading to a labile pool of cells in the preintegration phase of latency. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The regimen with ddI, d4T and NVP foe 24 months showed a good antiretroviral effect and immune reconstitution on the HIV-1 infected persons. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • In patients with virologic suppression who were receiving other PIs, switching to a once-per-day regimen containing atazanavir provided better maintenance of virologic suppression (as demonstrated by significantly lower rates of virologic rebound and treatment failure than those observed with continued unmodified therapy), a comparable safety profile, and improved lipid parameters, compared with those for patients who continued their prior PI-based regimen through 48 weeks. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Instead, each pediatrician administered the appropriate antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen and changed the drugs according to his/her interpretation of the child's data and following international guidelines. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Effects of highly active antiretroviral therapy duration and regimen on risk for mother-to-child transmission of HIV in Johannesburg, South Africa. (semanticscholar.org)
  • He relates that physicians are expected to design, implement and monitor antiretroviral regimens for effectiveness and potential complications, and cites factors that cause nonadherence to. (ebscohost.com)
  • Purpose of review: Patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in high-income countries have routine laboratory tests to monitor ART efficacy/toxicity. (www.gov.uk)
  • Psychological constructs derived from self-efficacy theory are highly germane to the understanding of adherence behaviour, and interventions that address these constructs should be developed and tested among HIV-infected drug users. (ubc.ca)
  • Studies on the influence of antiretroviral treatment show that the relative risk is higher when protease inhibitors are used, and indinavir is known to inhibit bone formation, while ritonavir inhibits osteoclast differentiation and function [1,6,7,9-11]. (scielo.br)
  • 6,7 TDR has been regularly demonstrated for 3 antiretroviral drug classes, the nucleoside and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs and NNRTIs, respectively) and protease inhibitors (PIs). (health.gov.au)
  • A pilot longitudinal study was conducted for 3 months on HIV positive and AIDS patients on antiretroviral therapy, at a day care clinic at the Yaoundé Central Hospital, Cameroon, between April and July 2008. (academicjournals.org)
  • Introduction: HIV infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) are at risk of developing nephropathy and therefore require monitoring of renal function. (scirp.org)
  • This study was designed to determine the incidence of nephropathy in HIV infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) at Newlands Clinic and to determine the associated risk factors. (scirp.org)
  • A double-edged sword: does highly active antiretroviral therapy contribute to syphilis incidence by impairing immunity to Treponema pallidum? (bmj.com)
  • 2017. https://www.tabers.com/tabersonline/view/Tabers-Dictionary/730387/all/highly_active_antiretroviral_therapy. (tabers.com)
  • We report a case of retinal toxoplasmosis that occurred in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome who had a previous diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis, despite the patient having had a robust immune response to highly active antiretroviral therapy. (oup.com)
  • Factors associated with late initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy among young HIV-positive men and women aged 18 to 29 years in Canada. (curehunter.com)
  • Carr A, Miller J, Law M, Cooper DA (2000) A syndrome of lipoatrophy, lactic acidaemia and liver dysfunction associated with HIV nucleoside analogue therapy: contribution to protease inhibitor-related lipodystrophy syndrome. (springer.com)
  • Drug resistance testing prior to commencement of antiretroviral (ARV) drug therapy is now incorporated in the HIV treatment guidelines of many countries including Australia, where it is recommended as a baseline test even if treatment is not being considered immediately. (health.gov.au)
  • Paradoxical Effects of Clinician Emphasis on Adherence to Combination Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV/AIDS. (ebscohost.com)
  • Federal HIV/AIDS Prevention and Control Office and Federal Ministry of Health, Guide for Implementation of the Antiretroviral Therapy Programme in Ethiopia , 2007. (hindawi.com)
  • Suicide mortality among people accessing highly active antiretroviral therapy for HIV/AIDS in British Columbia: a retrospective analysis. (curehunter.com)
  • Factors predictive of 30-day postoperative mortality in HIV/AIDS patients in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. (curehunter.com)
  • As potent antiretroviral therapy for HIV has decreased AIDS-associated morbidity and mortality, chronic HCV has become a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in this population. (natap.org)
  • Monitoring the full spectrum of causes of death among persons with AIDS is increasingly important as survival improves because of highly active antiretroviral therapy. (nih.gov)
  • Several covariates-age, sex, combined HIV exposure category, CD4 cell counts, antiretroviral treatment and AIDS-defining illnesses-were included in the parametric model to predict factors associated with future mortality. (who.int)
  • AIDS Research and Therapy. (unisa.ac.za)
  • There is need to evaluate interactions between commonly used medicinal plant extracts and antiretroviral drugs used against HIV/AIDS. (sun.ac.za)
  • Today, the term has largely been supplanted other monikers, including cART (combination antiretroviral therapy) or, even more simply, ART (antiretroviral therapy). (verywell.com)
  • As opposed to single-drug or dual-drug therapies, the combination of three or more antiretroviral can work as a tag team, effectively suppress a wide variety of HIV that can exist within a single viral population. (verywell.com)
  • 3 - 7 The goal of combination ARV therapy is firstly to suppress HIV viral load in plasma to below the limit of detection and secondly to restore immune function, as demonstrated by an increased number of CD4 + T cells. (mja.com.au)
  • Most of them were previously on zidovudine monotherapy or dual combination therapy, and as many as 34% remained on this suboptimal therapy, which is an unacceptable number of patients, taking into account that this modality of treatment is unable to suppress viral replication, and can lead to drug resistance and the limitation of future options. (natap.org)
  • The Data Collection on Adverse Events of Anti-HIV Drugs (DAD) Study Group (2003) Combination antiretroviral therapy and the risk of myocardial infarction. (springer.com)
  • Generic fixed-dose combination antiretroviral treatment in resource-poor settings: multicentric observational cohort. (msf.org)
  • Early initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected newborns can achieve sustained virologic suppression with low frequency of CD4+ T cells carrying HIV in peripheral blood. (sickkids.ca)
  • Viremia copy-years and mortality among combination antiretroviral therapy-initiating HIV-positive individuals: how much viral load history is enough? (uams.edu)
  • If active opportunistic infections, apparent side effects or virological failure appeared, appropriate treatment would be taken immediately. (eurekaselect.com)
  • 2001). Expenditures for the care of HIV-infected patients in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. (rti.org)
  • Kaplan-Meier probability of survival was estimated up to 5 years of therapy. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Our objective was to assess whether highly active ART was associated with improved survival in critically ill HIV-infected patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • ICU survival increased significantly in the highly active ART era, although disease severity remained unchanged. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Subsequently, the major benefits of ART therapy prompted several groups to compare ICU admission patterns and survival in the pre-ART and post-ART eras. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The main outcomes measured were the prevalence by year of TDR to any antiretroviral drug class, the numbers of infected individuals with TDR involving multiple drug classes, and the resistance mutations implicated in all cases. (health.gov.au)
  • Long-term virological, immunological and mortality outcomes in a cohort of HIV-infected female sex workers treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy in Africa. (msf.org)
  • Bonnet F, Morlat P, Chene G, Mercie P, Neau D, Chossat I et al (2002) Causes of death among HIV-infected patients in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy, Bordeaux, France, 1998-1999. (springer.com)
  • By 2002, 3060 (38%) of patients who had ever been treated with antiretroviral therapy had experienced all three main classes. (bmj.com)
  • We investigated the prevalence of HIV-1-associated transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in Victoria from the time of first availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy. (health.gov.au)
  • To determine the prevalence of HBV and the risk of HBV drug resistance during antiretroviral treatment in HIV-coinfected patients in Togo. (journals.co.za)
  • Duration of treatment interruption (TI) was investigated in 105 human immunodeficiency virusâ€"infected patients whose antiretroviral therapy was interrupted with the intention to resume therapy on the basis of clinical or laboratory indicators. (ebscohost.com)
  • CD4+ cell count, HIV-2 virus load, and clinical status were found to correlate well, providing evidence that HIV-2 virus load is useful in managing treatment of patients with HIV-2 who are receiving therapy. (ebscohost.com)
  • While a large clinical study has shown the clinical impact of TDR to be subtle during first-line therapy, 11 a number of reports suggest it limits treatment options and clinical response is improved by genotype-directed therapy. (health.gov.au)
  • Bartlett, J 2004, ' Improvement in lipoatrophy associated with highly active antiretroviral therapy in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients switched from stavudine to abacavir or zidovudine: The results of the TARHEEL study ', Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice , vol. 12, no. 4. (elsevier.com)
  • Other classes of antiretrovirals are being investigated, while newer-generation drugs aim to improve tolerability, reduce adverse effects and simplify dosing for those on therapy. (verywell.com)
  • Main outcome measures Exposure to individual antiretroviral drugs and drug classes, CD4 count, plasma HIV RNA burden. (bmj.com)
  • Benefits of delaying therapy include avoiding the negative side effects and toxicities associated with the drugs, delaying selective pressures that induce the development of resistant. (ebscohost.com)
  • Antiretroviral drugs are available which prolong the. (ebscohost.com)
  • At present, there is no efficacious therapy for PML, although regression of the disease with or without various drugs has been described in several reports (2-5) . (ajnr.org)
  • Persaud's research team tried to find a novel culture assay that can stimulate the virus production during their latent, integrated HIV-1 in resting CD4+ T cells with the antiretroviral drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Should highly active antiretroviral therapy be prescribed in critically ill HIV-infected patients during the ICU stay? (biomedcentral.com)
  • HIV-1 RNA plasma viral load and self-reported adherence were assessed on a subsample of patients, and antiretroviral resistance mutations were analysed in plasma with viral loads greater than 1000 copies per mL. (msf.org)
  • Cost-effectiveness of integrating postpartum antiretroviral therapy and infant care into maternal & child health services in South Africa. (harvard.edu)
  • Scaling up of highly active antiretroviral therapy in a rural district of Malawi: an effectiveness assessment. (msf.org)
  • The use of dual anti-platelet therapy (DAPT) along with aspirin significantly lowers the risk of complications such as platelet-mediated thrombosis with ACS (Wiviott & Steg, 2015). (bartleby.com)
  • The widespread use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART) has reduced HIV-related life-threatening infectious complications. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, while the goal of therapy is the restoration of immunity, treatment failure is usually defined as the inability to maintain undetectable viral load, without regard to immune function. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Seven of eight patients maintained an undetectable viral load for the duration of therapy. (asm.org)
  • In the parent trial, 30 HIV-infected individuals with incomplete CD4+ T cell recovery despite undetectable plasma HIV RNA levels for at least one year are randomized to either 12 weeks of mesalamine or placebo therapy followed by crossover into the other arm of the study for 12 weeks. (ucsf.edu)
  • Length polymorphism of the rebounding plasma virus in comparison with those isolated from the latent reservoir during therapy and those in the plasma before therapy. (nih.gov)
  • The antiretroviral treatment programme in Keetmanshoop started in October 2003. (uwc.ac.za)
  • His research in collaboration with Sarah Leeper resulted in one of the first studies that demonstrated that pediatric antiretroviral therapy is effective despite the challenges of a resource limited setting. (wikipedia.org)
  • Objective: Studies have shown that HIV-infected injection drug users (IDUs) are less likely to receive antiretroviral therapy than non-drug users. (natap.org)
  • Two sessions will occur prior to initiation of antiretroviral medications and one session will be given one month after drug administration. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • National guidelines recommend that practitioners assess and reinforce patient adherence when prescribing antiretroviral (ART) medications, but the extent to which physicians do this routinely is unknown. (ebscohost.com)
  • New combinations of effective therapies, however, contribute to the clinician's arduous task of prescribing antiretroviral medications and educating patients about these therapies. (continuingeducation.com)
  • The various combinations and the multitude of possible drug interactions - both between active antiretroviral therapy medications and any medications used to treat comorbid conditions - contribute to the complexity of care for the patient with HIV. (continuingeducation.com)
  • This lower rate of decay suggests that in chronically infected individuals, interventions to boost the CD8 + T-cell response may not be necessary until later in therapy than previously thought. (asm.org)
  • Seven of these eight patients maintained maximal viral suppression for a median period of 78 weeks of therapy. (asm.org)
  • With modern antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV-infected individuals can now achieve durable viral suppression. (ucsf.edu)
  • HIV-1 disease progression during highly active antiretroviral therapy: an application using population-level data in British Columbia: 1996-2011. (curehunter.com)
  • Osteoarticular changes resulting from these processes are mainly reported in long term HIV-infected patients receiving high potency antiretroviral therapy and include osteopenia/osteoporosis, osteonecrosis, carpal tunnel syndrome and adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder. (scielo.br)
  • Long-term mortality was associated with persistent anemia, CD4 and virologic response at 6 months of therapy over baseline characteristics, highlighting the importance of laboratory monitoring. (biomedsearch.com)
  • HIV-1 p24 may persist during long-term highly active antiretroviral therapy, increases little during short treatment breaks, and its rebound after treatment stop correlates with CD4(+) T cell loss. (uzh.ch)
  • Antiretroviral-treated HIV-infected women have similar long-term kidney function trajectories as HIV-uninfected women. (sickkids.ca)
  • Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • Background Men infected with HIV and receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy are at higher risk of metabolic and cardiovascular abnormalities as well as accelerated renal function decline and chronic kidney disease (CKD). (jhu.edu)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Having insurance, not being an injection drug user, and being depressed all increased the likelihood of women receiving HIV specialty care, which, in turn, increased the likelihood of receiving recommended therapies. (rti.org)