An analgesic and antipyretic that has been given by mouth and as ear drops. Antipyrine is often used in testing the effects of other drugs or diseases on drug-metabolizing enzymes in the liver. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p29)
The time it takes for a substance (drug, radioactive nuclide, or other) to lose half of its pharmacologic, physiologic, or radiologic activity.
Volume of biological fluid completely cleared of drug metabolites as measured in unit time. Elimination occurs as a result of metabolic processes in the kidney, liver, saliva, sweat, intestine, heart, brain, or other site.
A quinolizidine alkaloid isolated from several FABACEAE including LUPINUS; SPARTIUM; and CYTISUS. It has been used as an oxytocic and an anti-arrhythmia agent. It has also been of interest as an indicator of CYP2D6 genotype.
A sugar acid derived from D-glucose in which both the aldehydic carbon atom and the carbon atom bearing the primary hydroxyl group are oxidized to carboxylic acid groups.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.
An anticonvulsant effective in absence seizures, but generally reserved for refractory cases because of its toxicity. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p378)
A tricarbocyanine dye that is used diagnostically in liver function tests and to determine blood volume and cardiac output.
A barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant. It potentiates GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID action on GABA-A RECEPTORS, and modulates chloride currents through receptor channels. It also inhibits glutamate induced depolarizations.
A barbiturate that is effective as a hypnotic and sedative.
A pyrazolone with analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties but has risk of AGRANULOCYTOSIS. A breath test with 13C-labeled aminopyrine has been used as a non-invasive measure of CYTOCHROME P-450 metabolic activity in LIVER FUNCTION TESTS.
An adrenergic neuron-blocking drug similar in effects to GUANETHIDINE. It is also noteworthy in being a substrate for a polymorphic cytochrome P-450 enzyme. Persons with certain isoforms of this enzyme are unable to properly metabolize this and many other clinically important drugs. They are commonly referred to as having a debrisoquin 4-hydroxylase polymorphism.
A histamine congener, it competitively inhibits HISTAMINE binding to HISTAMINE H2 RECEPTORS. Cimetidine has a range of pharmacological actions. It inhibits GASTRIC ACID secretion, as well as PEPSIN and GASTRIN output.
Heparin derivatives. The term has also been used more loosely to include naturally occurring and synthetic highly-sulphated polysaccharides of similar structure. Heparinoid preparations have been used for a wide range of applications including as anticoagulants and anti-inflammatories and they have been claimed to have hypolipidemic properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th, p232)
Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.
An anticonvulsant that is the active metabolite of TRIMETHADIONE.
Medical specialty concerned with the promotion and maintenance of the physical and mental health of employees in occupational settings.

Early delineation of ischemic tissue in rat brain cryosections by high-contrast staining. (1/491)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: After short periods of ischemia, commonly used staining methods yield only moderate differences in optical contrast between normal and damaged brain tissue when gray-scale images are used for computer-assisted image analysis. We describe a high-contrast silver infarct staining (SIS) method that allows an early delineation of ischemic tissue as soon as 2 hours after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rat brain cryosections. METHODS: Rats were subjected to permanent MCAO for 2, 4, 6, and 48 hours. The optical densities were quantified in nonischemic white and gray matter and in damaged tissue from gray-scale images of serial sections with the use of a video camera-based image analyzing system. SIS, hematoxylin-eosin, Nissl, and nitroblue tetrazolium stainings were performed in cryosections, and 2,3, 5-triphenyltetrazolium hydrochloride (TTC) staining was performed in unfrozen vibratome sections. In addition, the range of reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF) in areas demarcated by SIS was determined in iodo[14C]antipyrine autoradiograms of adjacent cryosections. RESULTS: At all times after MCAO, only SIS showed significantly (P<0.01) lower optical densities in damaged than in normal brain tissue for both white and gray matter. TTC staining was as effective as SIS 6 and 48 hours after MCAO. The tightest correlation between areas of reduced SIS and of reduced CBF was found at a mean ischemic CBF of 22.3 mL/100 g per minute. This corresponds to a CBF range of 0 to 44 mL/100 g per minute in areas of reduced SIS. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to other staining methods, SIS allows a reliable delineation of ischemic brain tissue (core plus penumbra) from nonischemic white and gray matter of rat brain cryosections as soon as 2 hours after MCAO.  (+info)

Cerebral blood flow responses to somatosensory stimulation are unaffected by scopolamine in unanesthetized rat. (2/491)

Studies with positron-emission tomography have indicated that muscarinic acetylcholine receptors may be involved in the mechanism of enhancement of cerebral blood flow (CBF) by neuronal functional activation. We examined the effects of muscarinic receptor blockade by scopolamine on the local CBF responses to vibrissal stimulation in the whisker-to-barrel cortex sensory pathway in unanesthetized rats. Local CBF was measured by the quantitative autoradiographic [(14)C]iodoantipyrine method. Scopolamine (0.4 or 0.8 mg/kg) was injected i.v. 30 min before measurement of local CBF; control rats received equivalent volumes of physiological saline. Vibrissae on the left side of the face were stroked continuously throughout the 1-min period of measurement of CBF. Local CBF was determined bilaterally in four structures of the pathway, i.e., spinal and principal sensory trigeminal nuclei, ventral posteromedial thalamic nucleus, and barrel field of the sensory cortex, as well as in four representative structures unrelated to the pathway. The higher dose of scopolamine raised baseline CBF in the two trigeminal nuclei, but neither dose diminished the percentage of increases in local CBF because of vibrissal stimulation in any of the stations of the pathway. These results do not support involvement of muscarinic receptors in the mechanism of enhancement of local CBF by functional neuronal activation, at least not in the whisker-barrel cortex sensory pathway in the unanesthetized rat.  (+info)

Cerebrovascular reactivity to CO(2) and hypotension after mild cortical impact injury. (3/491)

Cerebrovascular reactivity to CO(2) or hypotension was studied in vivo and in vitro [pressurized arteries ( approximately 82 micrometer) and arterioles ( approximately 30 micrometer)] at 1 h after mild controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury in rats. The cortical perfusion response [assessed using laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF)] to altered CO(2) was diminished (up to 81%) after mild CCI injury. The responses to CO(2) alterations in arteries and arterioles isolated from the injured cortex were similar to responses in vessels isolated from sham-injured animals. After mild CCI injury, the autoregulatory response to hypotension (measured using LDF) was maintained or even enhanced, depending on the method used to measure the response. Vessels isolated from the injury site showed a response to changes in pressure similar to that in vessels isolated from sham-injured rats. We conclude that mild CCI injury produces complicated alterations in cerebrovascular control. Whereas the autoregulatory response to hypotension was maintained or even enhanced, the in vivo vascular response to CO(2) was severely compromised. The altered response to CO(2) was not caused by an intrinsic vascular perturbation but rather an altered milieu after mild CCI injury.  (+info)

Direct detection of antipyrine metabolites in rat urine by (13)C labeling and NMR spectroscopy. (4/491)

Antipyrine is a useful probe to evaluate variation of in vivo activities of oxidative hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes. Here we describe a new approach using (13)C labeling and NMR spectroscopy for the direct and simultaneous detection of all phase I and phase II metabolites of antipyrine in rat urine. [C-methyl-(13)C]Antipyrine was synthesized and administered orally to rats (100 mg/kg), and the 0- to 24-h postdose urine was analyzed by 100-MHz (13)C NMR spectroscopy under the conditions of distortionless enhancement by polarization transfer without any pretreatments such as deconjugation, chromatographic separation, and solvent extraction. Consequently, all the major metabolites in urine were successfully detected with favorable signal-to-noise ratios in the limited acquisition time (30 min). The assignments of the resonances were performed by enzymic modification and spiking authentic samples. The reproducibility of the NMR detection was sufficient for the quantitative evaluation of the metabolic profile. Effects of 3-methylcholanthrene on antipyrine metabolism were examined by this approach to evaluate variation of in vivo phase I and phase II metabolism of antipyrine in rats. The present approach is useful and practical to evaluate variation of in vivo activities of conjugation enzymes as well as oxidation enzymes responsible for the formation of antipyrine metabolites in rats. This direct approach would enhance the value of the antipyrine test because of the simplicity and convenience.  (+info)

Decreased antipyrine clearance following endotoxin administration: in vivo evidence of the role of nitric oxide. (5/491)

Klebsiella pneumoniae endotoxin has been found to decrease hepatic P450-mediated drug-metabolizing enzyme activity in a time-dependent manner. In this study, we investigated the role of nitric oxide (NO) in the decrease in hepatic drug-metabolizing enzyme activity caused by endotoxin in vivo. We measured in vivo pharmacokinetic parameters of antipyrine in rats treated with endotoxin and/or a selective inhibitor of inducible NO synthase (iNOS), S-methylisothiourea. Intraperitoneal injection of endotoxin (1 mg/kg of body weight) dramatically decreased the systemic clearance of antipyrine, reflecting reduced hepatic drug-metabolizing enzyme activity, and significantly increased the level of nitrite and nitrate (NOx) in the plasma. S-Methylisothiourea (10 mg/kg) reversed this decreasing antipyrine clearance and reduced the level of NOx in plasma. Repeated injections of an NO donor, (+/-)-(E)-4-ethyl-2-[(E)-hydroxyimino]-5-nitro-3-hexenamide (FK-409; 10 mg/kg), at a dose which maintained plasma NOx at the same levels as those caused by endotoxin injection, also decreased the systemic clearance of antipyrine. These findings suggest that the overproduction of NO observed in this animal model is at least partially responsible for the significant reduction in the hepatic drug-metabolizing enzyme activity that may happen in a gram-negative bacterial infection.  (+info)

Modifications of blood volume alter the disposition of markers of blood volume, extracellular fluid, and total body water. (6/491)

Recirculatory pharmacokinetic models for indocyanine green (ICG), inulin, and antipyrine describe intravascular mixing and tissue distribution after i.v. administration. These models characterized physiologic marker disposition in four awake, splenectomized dogs while they were normovolemic, volume loaded (15% of estimated blood volume added as a starch solution), and mildly and moderately hypovolemic (15 and 30% of estimated blood volume removed). ICG-determined blood volumes increased 20% during volume loading and decreased 9 and 22% during mild and moderate hypovolemia. Dye (ICG) dilution cardiac output (CO) increased 31% during volume loading and decreased 27 and 38% during mild and moderate hypovolemia. ICG-defined central and fast peripheral intravascular circuits accommodated blood volume alterations and the fast peripheral circuit accommodated blood flow changes. Inulin-defined extracellular fluid volume contracted 14 and 21% during hypovolemia. Early inulin disposition changes reflected those of ICG. The ICG and inulin elimination clearances were unaffected by altered blood volume. Neither antipyrine-defined total body water volume nor antipyrine elimination clearance changed with altered blood volume. The fraction of CO not involved in drug distribution had a significant effect on the area under the antipyrine concentration-versus-time relationships (AUC) in the first minutes after drug administration. Hypovolemia increased the fraction of CO represented by nondistributive blood flow and increased the antipyrine AUC up to 60% because nondistributive blood flow did not change, despite decreased CO. Volume loading resulted in a smaller (less than 20%) antipyrine AUC decrease despite increased fast tissue distributive flow because nondistributive flow also increased with increased CO.  (+info)

Ketamine distribution described by a recirculatory pharmacokinetic model is not stereoselective. (7/491)

BACKGROUND: Differences in the pharmacokinetics of the enantiomers of ketamine have been reported. The authors sought to determine whether these differences extend to pulmonary uptake and peripheral tissue distribution and to test the hypothesis that tissue distribution of the stereoisomers differs because of carrier-mediated drug transport. METHODS: The dispositions of markers of intravascular space and blood flow (indocyanine green, ICG) and total body water and tissue perfusion (antipyrine) were determined along with S-(+)- and R-(-)-ketamine in five mongrel dogs. The dogs were studied while anesthetized with 2.0% halothane. Marker and drug dispositions were described by recirculatory pharmacokinetic models based on frequent early and less-frequent later arterial blood samples. These models characterize pulmonary uptake and the distribution of cardiac output into parallel peripheral circuits. RESULTS: Plasma elimination clearance of the S-(+)-ketamine enantiomer, 29.9 ml x min(-1) x kg(-1), was higher than that of the R-(-)-enantiomer, 22.2 ml x min(-1) x kg(-1). The apparent pulmonary tissue volumes of the ketamine S-(+) and R-(-)-enantiomers (0.31 l) did not differ and was approximately twice that of antipyrine (0.16 l). The peripheral tissue distribution volumes and clearances and the total volume of distribution (2.1 l/kg) were the same for both stereoisomers when elimination clearances were modeled from the rapidly equilibrating peripheral compartment. CONCLUSIONS: Although the elimination clearance of S-(+)-ketamine is 35% greater than that of the R-(-)-enantiomer, there is no difference in the apparent pulmonary tissue volume or peripheral tissue distribution between the stereoisomers, suggesting that physicochemical properties of ketamine other than stereoisomerism determine its perfusion-limited tissue distribution.  (+info)

Evolution of microcirculatory disturbances after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats. (8/491)

Nonischemic brain capillaries show a continuous and heterogeneous plasma perfusion. In the current study, plasma perfusion was investigated in rats during 2 to 168 hours of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion. Perfused capillaries were detected in brain cryosections by fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) dextran after 10 minutes of circulation time. Heterogeneity of capillary perfusion was identified by Evans blue (EB), which circulated for 3 seconds. In this setting, the heterogeneity of intracapillary EB concentrations reflects heterogeneities in capillary flow velocities. The CBF was quantified by simultaneous iodo[14C]antipyrine autoradiography. When moving from normal flow to low-flow areas in the ischemic hemisphere, three states of capillary filling could be distinguished: state 1--fast perfusion, filling by FITC dextran and EB (CBF 0.33 mL x g(-1) x min(-1)); state 2--delayed perfusion, only FITC dextran filling (CBF 0.104 mL x g(-1) x min(-1)); state 3--minimal perfusion, no dye filling (CBF 0.056 mL x g(-1) x min(-1)). In tissue of state 1 at the borderline to ischemic tissue, a higher heterogeneity of intracapillary EB concentration (85.7%) was found than in the contralateral nonischemic hemisphere (76.4%) (P < 0.05), indicating a compromised microcirculation. The adjacent ischemic areas were filled by FITC dextran (state 2) 2 to 4 hours after middle cerebral artery occlusion, indicating a maintained, although slow, perfusion at this time. Later, minimal perfused areas (state 3) progressively replaced the delayed perfused areas (state 2). This study shows, for the first time, the evolution of microvascular disturbances in relation to CBF. In the low-flow areas, an early residual plasma perfusion is later followed by a lack of perfusion or minimal perfusion. In areas of higher, although reduced flow at the border between normal and ischemic tissue, an extreme capillary perfusion heterogeneity indicates permanent microcirculatory abnormalities.  (+info)

Antipyrine is a chemical compound that was commonly used as a fever reducer and pain reliever in the past. It is a type of phenylpyrazole antipyretic and analgesic. However, due to its potential for causing liver damage and other side effects, it has largely been replaced by other medications and is not widely used in modern medicine.

The medical definition of Antipyrine refers to this specific chemical compound with the formula C11H13N3O2, and not to any broader category of drugs or substances. It is a white crystalline powder that is soluble in alcohol, chloroform, and ether, but insoluble in water.

Antipyrine was first synthesized in 1883 and was widely used as a fever reducer and pain reliever until the mid-20th century. However, its use declined due to concerns about its safety profile, including the potential for liver damage, skin reactions, and other side effects.

Today, Antipyrine is still used in some medical applications, such as in the measurement of earwax conductivity as a way to assess hearing function. It may also be used in some topical creams and ointments for pain relief. However, its use as a systemic medication is generally not recommended due to its potential for causing harm.

In the context of pharmacology, "half-life" refers to the time it takes for the concentration or amount of a drug in the body to be reduced by half during its elimination phase. This is typically influenced by factors such as metabolism and excretion rates of the drug. It's a key factor in determining dosage intervals and therapeutic effectiveness of medications, as well as potential side effects or toxicity risks.

Metabolic clearance rate is a term used in pharmacology to describe the volume of blood or plasma from which a drug is completely removed per unit time by metabolic processes. It is a measure of the body's ability to eliminate a particular substance and is usually expressed in units of volume (e.g., milliliters or liters) per time (e.g., minutes, hours, or days).

The metabolic clearance rate can be calculated by dividing the total amount of drug eliminated by the plasma concentration of the drug and the time over which it was eliminated. It provides important information about the pharmacokinetics of a drug, including its rate of elimination and the potential for drug-drug interactions that may affect metabolism.

It is worth noting that there are different types of clearance rates, such as renal clearance rate (which refers to the removal of a drug by the kidneys) or hepatic clearance rate (which refers to the removal of a drug by the liver). Metabolic clearance rate specifically refers to the elimination of a drug through metabolic processes, which can occur in various organs throughout the body.

Sparteine is not typically referred to as a "medical definition" in the context of modern medicine. However, it is a chemical compound with some historical use in medicine and a well-defined chemical structure.

Here's a chemical definition of sparteine:

Sparteine is an alkaloid derived from plants of the genus *Colutea* and *Genista*, but most notably from *Crotalaria sagittalis* (rattlebox) and *Echium plantagineum* (viper's bugloss). Its chemical formula is C15H24N2, and it has a molecular weight of 228.36 g/mol.

Sparteine is a stereoisomer of lupanine and is structurally related to other natural alkaloids such as nicotine and coniine. It is a chiral compound with two stereocenters, existing as four different stereoisomers: (−)-sparteine, (+)-sparteine, (−)-pseudosparteine, and (+)-pseudosparteine.

Historically, sparteine has been used in medicine as a cardiotonic, uterine stimulant, and antispasmodic. However, due to its narrow therapeutic index and the availability of safer alternatives, it is no longer in common clinical use today.

Glucaric acid, also known as saccharic acid, is not a medication or a medical treatment. It is an organic compound that occurs naturally in various fruits and vegetables, such as oranges, apples, and corn. Glucaric acid is a type of dicarboxylic acid, which means it contains two carboxyl groups.

In the human body, glucaric acid is produced as a byproduct of glucose metabolism and can be found in small amounts in urine. It is also produced synthetically for industrial uses, such as in the production of cleaning products, textiles, and plastics.

There has been some research on the potential health benefits of glucaric acid, including its role in detoxification and cancer prevention. However, more studies are needed to confirm these effects and establish recommended intake levels or dosages. Therefore, it is not currently considered a medical treatment for any specific condition.

Saliva is a complex mixture of primarily water, but also electrolytes, enzymes, antibacterial compounds, and various other substances. It is produced by the salivary glands located in the mouth. Saliva plays an essential role in maintaining oral health by moistening the mouth, helping to digest food, and protecting the teeth from decay by neutralizing acids produced by bacteria.

The medical definition of saliva can be stated as:

"A clear, watery, slightly alkaline fluid secreted by the salivary glands, consisting mainly of water, with small amounts of electrolytes, enzymes (such as amylase), mucus, and antibacterial compounds. Saliva aids in digestion, lubrication of oral tissues, and provides an oral barrier against microorganisms."

Trimethadione is a medication that belongs to a class of anticonvulsants called succinimides. It is primarily used for the treatment of seizure disorders, particularly absence seizures (petit mal seizures) that do not respond to other medications.

The medical definition of Trimethadione is:

A succinimide anticonvulsant with a narrow therapeutic index and significant adverse effects, including nystagmus, ataxia, sedation, and teratogenicity. It is used primarily in the management of absence seizures that are refractory to other treatments. Trimethadione has largely been replaced by ethosuximide due to its superior safety profile and efficacy.

Indocyanine green (ICG) is a sterile, water-soluble, tricarbocyanine dye that is used as a diagnostic agent in medical imaging. It is primarily used in ophthalmology for fluorescein angiography to examine blood flow in the retina and choroid, and in cardiac surgery to assess cardiac output and perfusion. When injected into the body, ICG binds to plasma proteins and fluoresces when exposed to near-infrared light, allowing for visualization of various tissues and structures. It is excreted primarily by the liver and has a half-life of approximately 3-4 minutes in the bloodstream.

Phenobarbital is a barbiturate medication that is primarily used for the treatment of seizures and convulsions. It works by suppressing the abnormal electrical activity in the brain that leads to seizures. In addition to its anticonvulsant properties, phenobarbital also has sedative and hypnotic effects, which can be useful for treating anxiety, insomnia, and agitation.

Phenobarbital is available in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and elixirs, and it is typically taken orally. The medication works by binding to specific receptors in the brain called gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors, which help to regulate nerve impulses in the brain. By increasing the activity of GABA, phenobarbital can help to reduce excessive neural activity and prevent seizures.

While phenobarbital is an effective medication for treating seizures and other conditions, it can also be habit-forming and carries a risk of dependence and addiction. Long-term use of the medication can lead to tolerance, meaning that higher doses may be needed to achieve the same effects. Abruptly stopping the medication can also lead to withdrawal symptoms, such as anxiety, restlessness, and seizures.

Like all medications, phenobarbital can have side effects, including dizziness, drowsiness, and impaired coordination. It can also interact with other medications, such as certain antidepressants and sedatives, so it is important to inform your healthcare provider of all medications you are taking before starting phenobarbital.

In summary, phenobarbital is a barbiturate medication used primarily for the treatment of seizures and convulsions. It works by binding to GABA receptors in the brain and increasing their activity, which helps to reduce excessive neural activity and prevent seizures. While phenobarbital can be effective, it carries a risk of dependence and addiction and can have side effects and drug interactions.

Hexobarbital is a medication that belongs to the class of drugs called barbiturates. It is primarily used as a short-acting sedative and hypnotic agent, which means it can help induce sleep and reduce anxiety. Hexobarbital works by depressing the central nervous system, slowing down brain activity and causing relaxation and drowsiness.

It's important to note that hexobarbital is not commonly used in modern medical practice due to the availability of safer and more effective alternatives. Additionally, barbiturates like hexobarbital have a high potential for abuse and dependence, and their use is associated with several risks, including respiratory depression, overdose, and death, particularly when taken in combination with other central nervous system depressants such as alcohol or opioids.

Aminopyrine is a type of medication known as a non-opioid analgesic, which is used to relieve pain and reduce fever. It is an antipyretic and analgesic drug that was widely used in the past, but its use has been limited or discontinued in many countries due to the risk of rare but serious side effects such as agranulocytosis (a severe decrease in white blood cells), which can make individuals more susceptible to infections.

Chemically, aminopyrine is an aromatic heterocyclic compound containing a pyridine ring substituted with an amino group and a phenyl group. It works by inhibiting the enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX), which is involved in the production of prostaglandins, chemicals that mediate pain and inflammation. By reducing prostaglandin levels, aminopyrine helps to alleviate pain and reduce fever.

It's important to note that due to its potential side effects, aminopyrine is not commonly used in modern medical practice, and other safer and more effective medications are available for pain relief and fever reduction.

Debrisoquine is a drug that belongs to a class of medications called non-selective beta blockers. It works by blocking the action of certain natural substances in your body, such as adrenaline, on the heart and blood vessels. This results in a decrease in heart rate and blood pressure, which makes debrisoquine useful in treating certain conditions like hypertension (high blood pressure) and angina (chest pain).

Debrisoquine is no longer commonly used due to its short duration of action and the availability of more effective and safer beta blockers. It was also found that some people have a genetic variation that affects how their body metabolizes debrisoquine, which can lead to unpredictable drug levels and side effects. This discovery led to the development of the concept of "pharmacogenetics," or how genetic factors influence drug response.

It's important to note that debrisoquine should only be taken under the supervision of a healthcare professional, as it can have serious side effects, especially if not used correctly.

Cimetidine is a histamine-2 (H2) receptor antagonist, which is a type of medication that reduces the production of stomach acid. It works by blocking the action of histamine on the H2 receptors in the stomach, which are responsible for stimulating the release of stomach acid. By blocking these receptors, cimetidine reduces the amount of stomach acid produced and can help to relieve symptoms such as heartburn, indigestion, and stomach ulcers.

Cimetidine is available by prescription in various forms, including tablets, capsules, and liquid. It is typically taken two or three times a day, depending on the specific condition being treated. Common side effects of cimetidine may include headache, dizziness, diarrhea, and constipation.

In addition to its use in treating stomach acid-related conditions, cimetidine has also been studied for its potential anti-cancer properties. Some research suggests that it may help to enhance the immune system's response to cancer cells and reduce the growth of certain types of tumors. However, more research is needed to confirm these effects and determine the optimal dosage and duration of treatment.

Heparinoids are a group of substances that have similar properties to heparin, a highly sulfated glycosaminoglycan found in mast cells and basophils. Heparin is a powerful anticoagulant that works by accelerating the action of an enzyme called antithrombin III, which inhibits the formation of blood clots.

Heparinoids are often used as alternative anticoagulants to heparin in clinical settings. They have similar mechanisms of action and can also inhibit the coagulation cascade, preventing the formation of blood clots. However, heparinoids have a lower anticoagulant activity than heparin and may have different side effect profiles.

Examples of heparinoids include low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs), fondaparinux, and danaparoid. LMWHs are derived from standard heparin by chemical or enzymatic depolymerization and have a lower molecular weight than heparin. They have a more predictable anticoagulant response and longer half-life than standard heparin, making them useful for outpatient treatment of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism.

Fondaparinux is a synthetic pentasaccharide that selectively binds to antithrombin III and enhances its inhibitory activity against factor Xa, a key enzyme in the coagulation cascade. It has a long half-life and predictable pharmacokinetics, making it useful for the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism.

Danaparoid is a mixture of heparan sulfate, dermatan sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate derived from pig intestinal mucosa. It has a lower anticoagulant activity than heparin but a longer half-life and less frequent dosing requirements. Danaparoid is used for the prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism, as well as for the management of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), a rare but serious complication of heparin therapy.

Liver function tests (LFTs) are a group of blood tests that are used to assess the functioning and health of the liver. These tests measure the levels of various enzymes, proteins, and waste products that are produced or metabolized by the liver. Some common LFTs include:

1. Alanine aminotransferase (ALT): An enzyme found primarily in the liver, ALT is released into the bloodstream in response to liver cell damage. Elevated levels of ALT may indicate liver injury or disease.
2. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST): Another enzyme found in various tissues, including the liver, heart, and muscles. Like ALT, AST is released into the bloodstream following tissue damage. High AST levels can be a sign of liver damage or other medical conditions.
3. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP): An enzyme found in several organs, including the liver, bile ducts, and bones. Elevated ALP levels may indicate a blockage in the bile ducts, liver disease, or bone disorders.
4. Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT): An enzyme found mainly in the liver, pancreas, and biliary system. Increased GGT levels can suggest liver disease, alcohol consumption, or the use of certain medications.
5. Bilirubin: A yellowish pigment produced when hemoglobin from red blood cells is broken down. Bilirubin is processed by the liver and excreted through bile. High bilirubin levels can indicate liver dysfunction, bile duct obstruction, or certain types of anemia.
6. Albumin: A protein produced by the liver that helps maintain fluid balance in the body and transports various substances in the blood. Low albumin levels may suggest liver damage, malnutrition, or kidney disease.
7. Total protein: A measure of all proteins present in the blood, including albumin and other types of proteins produced by the liver. Decreased total protein levels can indicate liver dysfunction or other medical conditions.

These tests are often ordered together as part of a routine health checkup or when evaluating symptoms related to liver function or disease. The results should be interpreted in conjunction with clinical findings, medical history, and other diagnostic tests.

Dimethadione is a central nervous system stimulant and an anticonvulsant drug. It is a derivative of methadone and is used in the treatment of seizure disorders, such as epilepsy. The drug works by decreasing abnormal electrical activity in the brain, which can help to prevent or reduce the frequency of seizures.

Dimethadione is no longer commonly used due to its potential for serious side effects, including kidney damage and blood disorders. It should only be used under the close supervision of a healthcare provider, and patients should be closely monitored for signs of toxicity while taking this medication.

It's important to note that dimethadione is not approved by the FDA for use in the United States, but it may still be available in other countries with different regulatory agencies. As always, it's essential to consult a healthcare professional before using any medication.

Occupational medicine is a branch of clinical medicine that deals with the prevention and management of diseases and injuries that may arise in the workplace or as a result of work-related activities. It involves evaluating the health risks associated with various jobs, recommending measures to reduce these risks, providing medical care for workers who become ill or injured on the job, and promoting overall health and wellness in the workplace. Occupational medicine physicians may also be involved in developing policies and procedures related to workplace safety, disability management, and return-to-work programs. The ultimate goal of occupational medicine is to help ensure that workers are able to perform their jobs safely and effectively while maintaining their overall health and well-being.

"ANTIPYRINE WITH BENZOCAINE - OTIC". MedicineNet.com. "Auralgan (Antipyrine, Benzocaine, and Glygerin dehydrated) Drug ... Antipyrine 54 mg Benzocaine 14 mg Glycerin and Hydroxyquinoline Sulfate USP A/B otic drops are effective because antipyrine ... Antipyrine and benzocaine ear drops is a medication for the treatment of ear pain caused by otitis media. It combines ... In 2008, Auralgan was reformulated to include acetic acid and U-polycosanol 410, in addition to antipyrine and benzocaine. Due ...
Antipyrine. 2016 ISBN 978-87-93108-63-9 Anu Ramdas; Christian Danielewitz. White City / Black Desert - Black City / White ...
"Antipyrine drugs and health products". sDrugs.com. Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Antipyrine" . Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 2 ( ... Ludwig Knorr was the first to synthesize phenazone, then called antipyrine, in the early 1880s. Sources disagree on the exact ... Phenazone (INN and BAN; also known as phenazon, antipyrine (USAN), antipyrin, or analgesine) is an analgesic (pain reducing), ...
Fruitnight, J. Henry (1886). "Kairine and Antipyrine". Medical Record. 29 (23): 646-648. Bockmuhl M, Dorzbach E. Antipyretics ...
Copenhagen: Antipyrine and Billedkunstskolernes Forlag. p. 227. ISBN 978-87-7945-108-7. "Om Ovartaci". Museum Ovartaci. ...
Antipyrine, Fire Extinguisher. Collins's early work with ERS was presented at downtown New York City venues such as Nada, Here ... Antipyrine, Fire Extinguisher (Nada, 1991). Shuffle (New York Public Library, 2011), (Prague Quadrennial, 2011) A Sort of Joy ( ...
"Antipyrine-Benzocaine Otic: MedlinePlus Drug Information". medlineplus.gov. Retrieved 2022-07-26. "Regulations.gov". www. ... A common over-the-counter product sold as Auralgan contained antipyrine (analgesic) and benzocaine (anesthetic). It was ...
Murthy, V. L. R.; Lakshman, S. V. J. (1981). "Electronic absorption spectrum of cobalt antipyrine complex". Solid State ...
La Première Aventure céleste de monsieur Antipyrine (The First Celestial Adventure of Mr. Antipyrine; 1916) with colour wood ... Sur le champ (1937). La Deuxième Aventure céleste de monsieur Antipyrine (1938). Midis gagnés (1939), with drawings by Henri ...
Vesell, Elliot S. (September 1979). "The antipyrine test in clinical pharmacology: Conceptions and misconceptions". Clinical ...
Antipyrine-benzocaine otic consists of antipyrine and benzocaine, and is used to relieve ear pain and remove earwax. Cepacol ... It is combined with antipyrine to form A/B ear drops. In the US, products containing benzocaine for oral application are ... Benzocaine topical "Antipyrine-Benzocaine Otic: MedlinePlus Drug Information". medlineplus.gov. Retrieved March 28, 2023. " ...
Ueber das Antipyrin, ein neues Antipyreticum, 1884 - On antipyrine, a new antipyretic. Lehrbuch der Arzneimittellehre und ... Ueber das Pyramidon, ein Antipyrinderivat, 1896 - On Pyramidon, an antipyrine derivative. The Search for Anti-Inflammatory ...
... is a 1:2 mixture of antipyrine with chloral hydrate. In combination with paracetamol and isometheptene, it ...
Topical agents shown to be effective include antipyrine and benzocaine ear drops. Decongestants and antihistamines, either ...
... made another derivative called pyramidon which was three times more active than antipyrine. In 1893, a derivative of antipyrine ... also called antipyrine, which has been called "the 'mother' of all modern antipyretic analgesics.": 26-27 Sales of that drug ... sodium antipyrine aminomethanesulfonate), which was introduced in 1913; finally in 1920, metamizole was synthesized. Metamizole ...
As early as 1895, the first pharmaceutical substance called antipyrine was produced to reduce fever. In 1899 they started ...
... differential disposition of antipyrine and theophylline in humans". The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. ...
... s are amongst the oldest synthetic pharmaceuticals, starting with the introduction of antipyrine (phenazone) in 1880s ...
The synthesis in 1883 of the analgesic drug antipyrine, now called phenazone, was a commercial success. Antipyrine was the ... antipyrine, is not to be changed. (German: Antipyrin bleibt!). In 1885 Knorr married Elisabeth Piloty, the sister of his ...
He conducted various ink experiments with many different chemical solutions, including potassium permanganate, antipyrine and ...
W. Clegg, G. Bourhill and I. Sage (April 2002). "Hexakis(antipyrine-O)terbium(III) triiodide at 160 K: confirmation of a ... antipyrine)terbium iodide. It is thought that these materials contain impurities, which make the substance locally asymmetric. ...
ISBN 0-521-43415-7 "Sims Reed Rare Books, la deuxième aventure céleste de monsieur Antipyrine, by Tristan Tzara". Books. ...
... antipyrine, caffeine, alkaloids and others. In 1938, in MITHT under the leadership of academic A. N. Nesmeyanov (later ...
He conducted extensive studies of various drugs, being an advocate of antipyrine as a general analgesic, and sodium salicylate ...
... was actually discovered in 2002, and been found to be selectively inhibited by paracetamol, phenacetin, antipyrine, ...
Antipyrine, having already created the props for its theatrical production. As early as 1917, Marcel Janco began taking his ...
... as well as antipyrine, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that works to decrease inflammation. Isometheptene is a ...
... and the other enzyme-inducing anticonvulsants can cut the half-life of antipyrine roughly in half (6.2 ± 1.9 h vs. ...
... antipyrine MeSH D03.383.129.539.850.777 - phenylbutazone MeSH D03.383.129.539.850.777.640 - oxyphenbutazone MeSH D03.383. ...
Acetophenetidin Acetaminosalol Cocaine Heroin Aspirin Aconitine Anaesthesin Antimony potassium tartrate Antipyrine Apomorphine ...
"ANTIPYRINE WITH BENZOCAINE - OTIC". MedicineNet.com. "Auralgan (Antipyrine, Benzocaine, and Glygerin dehydrated) Drug ... Antipyrine 54 mg Benzocaine 14 mg Glycerin and Hydroxyquinoline Sulfate USP A/B otic drops are effective because antipyrine ... Antipyrine and benzocaine ear drops is a medication for the treatment of ear pain caused by otitis media. It combines ... In 2008, Auralgan was reformulated to include acetic acid and U-polycosanol 410, in addition to antipyrine and benzocaine. Due ...
Direct Detection of Antipyrine Metabolites in Rat Urine by13C Labeling and NMR Spectroscopy. Kazuki Akira, Eiji Negishi, ... Direct Detection of Antipyrine Metabolites in Rat Urine by13C Labeling and NMR Spectroscopy. Kazuki Akira, Eiji Negishi, ... Direct Detection of Antipyrine Metabolites in Rat Urine by13C Labeling and NMR Spectroscopy. Kazuki Akira, Eiji Negishi, ... Antipyrine is a useful probe to evaluate variation of in vivo activities of oxidative hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes. Here ...
The deuterated version, 4-Dimethylamino Antipyrine-d6, is used in research as a reference s... ... a derivative of antipyrine, which is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with analgesic and antipyretic properties. ... 4-Dimethylamino Antipyrine-d6 is a deuterated form of 4-Dimethylamino Antipyrine, ... 4-Dimethylamino Antipyrine-d6 is a deuterated form of 4-Dimethylamino Antipyrine, a derivative of antipyrine, which is a non- ...
La première aventure céléste de Mr Antipyrine Shelfmark: DADA I:24 Cite and reuse Here you will find download options and ... La Première Aventure Céléste De Mr Antipyrine. Zürich: Collection Dada, 1916. Print. ...
Antipyrine, 2024. Tilrettelagt af Mathias Kokholm. Korrektur af Cille Hvass Holm. Trykt hos Specialtrykkeriet, Skive, Danmark. ...
Kappas, A, Anderson, KE, Conney, AH & Alvares, AP 1976, Influence of dietary protein and carbohydrate on antipyrine and ... Influence of dietary protein and carbohydrate on antipyrine and theophylline metabolism in man. In: Clinical Pharmacology and ... Influence of dietary protein and carbohydrate on antipyrine and theophylline metabolism in man. / Kappas, Attallah; Anderson, ... Influence of dietary protein and carbohydrate on antipyrine and theophylline metabolism in man. Clinical Pharmacology and ...
A/B Otic Drops (as a combination product containing Antipyrine, Benzocaine)see Antipyrine-Benzocaine Otic ... Auralgan® (as a combination product containing Antipyrine, Benzocaine)see Antipyrine-Benzocaine Otic ... Aurodex® (as a combination product containing Antipyrine, Benzocaine)see Antipyrine-Benzocaine Otic ...
Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is one of the porphyrias, a group of diseases involving defects in heme metabolism and that results in excessive secretion of porphyrins and porphyrin precursors. AIP manifests itself by abdomen pain, neuropathies, and constipation, but, unlike most types of porphyria, patients with AIP do not have a rash.
Antipyrine 1.2 g single dose. ↑3.0%↑1.6%↑Less than 1%. Not Reported. ...
Person who does not affect the linguist of antipyrine, interactions with other proteins that trigger attack, speculates Zamvil. ... What would you like to find? ATORVASTATIN may affect the pharmacokinetics of antipyrine, interactions with other drugs that ...
antipyrine. Minor (1)peginterferon alfa 2a will increase the level or effect of antipyrine by affecting hepatic enzyme CYP1A2 ... antipyrine. peginterferon alfa 2a will increase the level or effect of antipyrine by affecting hepatic enzyme CYP1A2 metabolism ...
... antipyrine, ketoconazole, erythromycin and azithromycin. In a multiple dose study of theophylline (400 mg once daily for 3 days ...
Antipyrine, 2019. Callahan, William A. Sensible Politics: Visualizing International Relations. Oxford University Press, 2020. ...
Antioxidant supplementation and exercise-induced oxidative stress in the 60-year-old as measured by antipyrine hydroxylates. Br ...
Estimation of impurities in antipyrine. 1950, Vol. 15, pp. 937-945 [Abstract] ...
A fatal intoxication with phenazone (antipyrine). Forensic Sci Int, 248, e13-5. DOI 10.1016/j.forsciint.2015.01.001, PubMed ...
ANTIPYRINE 50330 ANTIRABIES SERUM 50335 ANTISEPTIC SOLUTION 50338 ANTIVENIN BEE STING 50360 APOMORPHINE 50365 APROBARBITAL ...
Antipyrine -- pharmacology 8. Analisis de la belladona cultivada en México: tésis que para el examen profesional de farmacia ...
Weve compiled a list of natural approaches that may help lower inflammation and decrease granulocytes. Uncover them here.
Antipyrine. Red-brown. Azuresin. Blue or green. Chloroquine. Rust yellow to brown. Chlorzoxazone. Orange or purplish red. ...
List of words that start with An. Here you can find complete list of 700+ important words starting with an.
Hereditary coproporphyria is one of the porphyrias, a group of diseases that involves defects in heme metabolism and that results in excessive secretion of porphyrins and porphyrin precursors. Inheritance is autosomal (usually autosomal dominant, but sometimes autosomal recessive).
Acute intermittent porphyria (AIP) is one of the porphyrias, a group of diseases involving defects in heme metabolism and that results in excessive secretion of porphyrins and porphyrin precursors. AIP manifests itself by abdomen pain, neuropathies, and constipation, but, unlike most types of porphyria, patients with AIP do not have a rash.
Diminazene Diaceturate + Antipyrine Granules. Diminazene Diaceturate for Injection. Dimpylate Solution. Diphenhydramine HCL ...
In addition to other prohibitions as set forth in the Terms of Service, you are prohibited from using the site or its content: (a) for any unlawful purpose; (b) to solicit others to perform or participate in any unlawful acts; (c) to violate any international, federal, provincial or state regulations, rules, laws, or local ordinances; (d) to infringe upon or violate our intellectual property rights or the intellectual property rights of others; (e) to harass, abuse, insult, harm, defame, slander, disparage, intimidate, or discriminate based on gender, sexual orientation, religion, ethnicity, race, age, national origin, or disability; (f) to submit false or misleading information; (g) to upload or transmit viruses or any other type of malicious code that will or may be used in any way that will affect the functionality or operation of the Service or of any related website, other websites, or the Internet; (h) to collect or track the personal information of others; (i) to spam, phish, pharm, ...
Ear drops that contain pain relievers (such as antipyrine/benzocaine combinations) are generally not very effective but can be ...
Good quality Lead Oxide CAS 1314-41-6, find complete details about Lead Oxide CAS 1314-41-6 from MOSINTER.
  • Antipyrine and benzocaine ear drops is a medication for the treatment of ear pain caused by otitis media. (wikipedia.org)
  • It combines antipyrine, an NSAID, and benzocaine, a local anaesthetic in order to treat ear pain, alongside hydroxyquinoline sulfate, an antiseptic and preservative. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each 1 ml of A/B otic drops contains: Antipyrine 54 mg Benzocaine 14 mg Glycerin and Hydroxyquinoline Sulfate USP A/B otic drops are effective because antipyrine reduces pain and inflammation and benzocaine numbs the ear. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2008, Auralgan was reformulated to include acetic acid and U-polycosanol 410, in addition to antipyrine and benzocaine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Auralgan (Antipyrine, Benzocaine, and Glygerin dehydrated) Drug information. (wikipedia.org)
  • Topical antipyrine + benzocaine (auralgan) has been discontinued and is not recommended, and would also be a problem if there was a potential perforated tympanic membrane. (pemsource.org)
  • 4-Dimethylamino Antipyrine-d6 is a deuterated form of 4-Dimethylamino Antipyrine, a derivative of antipyrine, which is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) with analgesic and antipyretic properties. (clearsynth.com)
  • La publication se penche sur l'absurde dans le théâtre Dada et présurréaliste français, en interrogeant le potentiel scénique de cet absurde dans trois textes qui restent à ce jour pratiquement inexplorés : tout court (A. Breton - P. Soupault : S'il vous plaît), ou du point de vue de leur théâtralité (T. Tzara : La Première aventure céleste de Mr. Antipyrine, R. Vitrac : Les Mystères de l'amour). (muni.cz)
  • In two of them, scenical potential has not been evaluated (T. Tzara: La Première aventure céleste de Mr. Antipyrine, R. Vitrac: Les Mystères de l'amour), the last one has almost not been studied as such (A. Breton - P. Soupault: S'il vous plaît). (muni.cz)
  • Advertisement for Dr. Clin's Solution or Capsules of Antipyrine. (nih.gov)
  • Antipyrine and benzocaine otic is used to relieve ear pain and swelling caused by middle ear infections. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Antipyrine and benzocaine otic comes as a solution (liquid) to place into the ear. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Use antipyrine and benzocaine otic exactly as directed. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Antipyrine and benzocaine otic is for use only in the ears. (medlineplus.gov)
  • tell your doctor and pharmacist what other prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking or plan to take while using antipyrine and benzocaine otic. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you become pregnant while using antipyrine and benzocaine otic, call your doctor. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If your doctor has told you to use antipyrine and benzocaine otic regularly, use the missed dose as soon as you remember it. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Antipyrine and benzocaine otic may cause side effects. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Antipyrine and benzocaine otic should be disposed of 6 months after the bottle is opened. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Berlin CM Jr, Vesell S. Antipyrine disposition in milk and saliva of lactating women. (nih.gov)
  • In two women in whom antipyrine was measured at 10-min intervals during the first hour, peak concentrations in both milk and saliva were attained by 10 min after antipyrine. (nih.gov)
  • Antipyrine and benzocaine are in a class of medications called analgesics. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Topical analgesics (eg, benzocaine , antipyrine) may also be beneficial and should be given before myringotomy. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Two of the women who were studied before and after pregnancy indicated that antipyrine clearance might be increased by about two-fold during lactation. (nih.gov)
  • No special precautions are required during maternal use of antipyrine-containing ear drops. (nih.gov)
  • The authors estimated that a fully breastfed infant would ingest 6.4 mg of antipyrine after this maternal dose or 0.59% of the maternal dose (not weight-adjusted). (nih.gov)
  • The amount of antipyrine available to each nursing infant was estimated by assuming the the infant nursed 3 ounces every 4 hr for 24 hr after maternal antipyrine administration. (nih.gov)
  • The amount of antipyrine available to the nursing infant was calculated to range from 3.0 to 11.1 mg (mean +/- SD = 6.4 +/- 2.9 mg) or from 0.25% to 1.07% (mean +/- SD = 0.59 +/- 0.29%) of the maternal dose. (nih.gov)
  • Each woman drank a single oral dose of 18 mg/kg of antipyrine in solution. (nih.gov)
  • Widely used to study hepatic drug metabolism, antipyrine rapidly distributes in total body water. (nih.gov)
  • Arterial concentration-time curves of markers of the vascular space [indocyanine green (ICG)], extracellular fluid (inulin), and total body water (antipyrine) measured in awake dogs under control conditions and during phenylephrine or isoproterenol infusion were analyzed by a recirculatory model to estimate the relative dispersions of transit times across the systemic and pulmonary circulation. (northwestern.edu)
  • Peak milk levels usually occurred 10 minutes after ingestion and ranged from about 10 to 30 mg/L. The antipyrine half-life in milk averaged 11.6 hours (range 5.7 to 21.7 hours). (nih.gov)
  • Antipyrine half-life (t1/2) varied from 5.6 to 20.3 hr for saliva (mean +/- SD = 11.5 +/- 4.8) and from 5.7 to 21.7 hr for milk (mean +/- SD = 11.6 +/- 5.4). (nih.gov)
  • Antipyrine is considered unlikely to harm the infant. (nih.gov)
  • The corresponding decrease in antipyrine clearance was 0.93 to 0.55 and 1.41 to 0.60 ml/min/kg. (nih.gov)
  • The time course for antipyrine disappearance from milk paralleled that from saliva for each subject. (nih.gov)
  • The relative dispersion of the flow-limited indicator antipyrine exceeded that of ICG (as a measure of intravascular mixing) only slightly and was consistent with a diffusional equilibration time in the extravascular space of ∼10 min, except during phenylephrine infusion, which led to an anomalously high relative dispersion. (northwestern.edu)
  • Antipyrine distribution was studied in seven lactating women. (nih.gov)
  • In the two women with the shortest salivary antipyrine t1/2 (5.6 and 7.5 hr), antipyrine was readministered many months later, after they had stopped lactating. (nih.gov)