Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.
A tricylic dibenzodiazepine, classified as an atypical antipsychotic agent. It binds several types of central nervous system receptors, and displays a unique pharmacological profile. Clozapine is a serotonin antagonist, with strong binding to 5-HT 2A/2C receptor subtype. It also displays strong affinity to several dopaminergic receptors, but shows only weak antagonism at the dopamine D2 receptor, a receptor commonly thought to modulate neuroleptic activity. Agranulocytosis is a major adverse effect associated with administration of this agent.
A selective blocker of DOPAMINE D2 RECEPTORS and SEROTONIN 5-HT2 RECEPTORS that acts as an atypical antipsychotic agent. It has been shown to improve both positive and negative symptoms in the treatment of SCHIZOPHRENIA.
A phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat SCHIZOPHRENIA and other PSYCHOSES. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, DELUSIONAL DISORDERS, ballism, and TOURETTE SYNDROME (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and the chorea of HUNTINGTON DISEASE. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable HICCUPS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)
A group of two-ring heterocyclic compounds consisting of a benzene ring fused to a diazepine ring.
A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.
Compounds containing phenyl-1-butanone.
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number two carbon, in contrast to INDOLES which have the nitrogen adjacent to the six-membered ring.
A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate DOPAMINE RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine or exogenous agonists. Many drugs used in the treatment of psychotic disorders (ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) are dopamine antagonists, although their therapeutic effects may be due to long-term adjustments of the brain rather than to the acute effects of blocking dopamine receptors. Dopamine antagonists have been used for several other clinical purposes including as ANTIEMETICS, in the treatment of Tourette syndrome, and for hiccup. Dopamine receptor blockade is associated with NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME.
An antimuscarinic agent that inhibits gastric secretion at lower doses than are required to affect gastrointestinal motility, salivary, central nervous system, cardiovascular, ocular, and urinary function. It promotes the healing of duodenal ulcers and due to its cytoprotective action is beneficial in the prevention of duodenal ulcer recurrence. It also potentiates the effect of other antiulcer agents such as CIMETIDINE and RANITIDINE. It is generally well tolerated by patients.
A substituted benzamide that has antipsychotic properties. It is a dopamine D2 receptor (see RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE D2) antagonist.
Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
A derivative of morphine that is a dopamine D2 agonist. It is a powerful emetic and has been used for that effect in acute poisoning. It has also been used in the diagnosis and treatment of parkinsonism, but its adverse effects limit its use.
A subtype of dopamine D2 receptors that are highly expressed in the LIMBIC SYSTEM of the brain.
Cell-surface proteins that bind dopamine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.
Azoles with an OXYGEN and a NITROGEN next to each other at the 1,2 positions, in contrast to OXAZOLES that have nitrogens at the 1,3 positions.
Cell-surface proteins that bind SEROTONIN and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Several types of serotonin receptors have been recognized which differ in their pharmacology, molecular biology, and mode of action.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate serotonin receptors, thereby blocking the actions of serotonin or SEROTONIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
A phenothiazine antipsychotic used in the management of PHYCOSES, including SCHIZOPHRENIA.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A condition characterized by inactivity, decreased responsiveness to stimuli, and a tendency to maintain an immobile posture. The limbs tend to remain in whatever position they are placed (waxy flexibility). Catalepsy may be associated with PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS (e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA, CATATONIC), nervous system drug toxicity, and other conditions.
Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Diseases of the BASAL GANGLIA including the PUTAMEN; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; claustrum; AMYGDALA; and CAUDATE NUCLEUS. DYSKINESIAS (most notably involuntary movements and alterations of the rate of movement) represent the primary clinical manifestations of these disorders. Common etiologies include CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES; and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.
The prototypical phenothiazine antipsychotic drug. Like the other drugs in this class chlorpromazine's antipsychotic actions are thought to be due to long-term adaptation by the brain to blocking DOPAMINE RECEPTORS. Chlorpromazine has several other actions and therapeutic uses, including as an antiemetic and in the treatment of intractable hiccup.
An antipsychotic phenothiazine derivative with actions and uses similar to those of CHLORPROMAZINE.
The use of multiple drugs administered to the same patient, most commonly seen in elderly patients. It includes also the administration of excessive medication. Since in the United States most drugs are dispensed as single-agent formulations, polypharmacy, though using many drugs administered to the same patient, must be differentiated from DRUG COMBINATIONS, single preparations containing two or more drugs as a fixed dose, and from DRUG THERAPY, COMBINATION, two or more drugs administered separately for a combined effect. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Abnormal movements, including HYPERKINESIS; HYPOKINESIA; TREMOR; and DYSTONIA, associated with the use of certain medications or drugs. Muscles of the face, trunk, neck, and extremities are most commonly affected. Tardive dyskinesia refers to abnormal hyperkinetic movements of the muscles of the face, tongue, and neck associated with the use of neuroleptic agents (see ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1199)
A phenothiazine used in the treatment of PSYCHOSES. Its properties and uses are generally similar to those of CHLORPROMAZINE.
Compounds containing dibenzo-1,4-thiazine. Some of them are neuroactive.
A hallucinogen formerly used as a veterinary anesthetic, and briefly as a general anesthetic for humans. Phencyclidine is similar to KETAMINE in structure and in many of its effects. Like ketamine, it can produce a dissociative state. It exerts its pharmacological action through inhibition of NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE). As a drug of abuse, it is known as PCP and Angel Dust.
A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.
A serotonin receptor subtype found widely distributed in peripheral tissues where it mediates the contractile responses of variety of tissues that contain SMOOTH MUSCLE. Selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonists include KETANSERIN. The 5-HT2A subtype is also located in BASAL GANGLIA and CEREBRAL CORTEX of the BRAIN where it mediates the effects of HALLUCINOGENS such as LSD.
A group of derivatives of naphthyridine carboxylic acid, quinoline carboxylic acid, or NALIDIXIC ACID.
The practice of prescribing or using a drug outside the scope of the drug's official approved label as designated by a regulatory agency concerning the treatment of a particular disease or condition.
A condition associated with the use of certain medications and characterized by an internal sense of motor restlessness often described as an inability to resist the urge to move.
A dopamine D2-receptor antagonist. It has been used therapeutically as an antidepressant, antipsychotic, and as a digestive aid. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A feeling of restlessness associated with increased motor activity. This may occur as a manifestation of nervous system drug toxicity or other conditions.
Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.
A subclass of G-protein coupled SEROTONIN receptors that couple preferentially to the GQ-G11 G-PROTEINS resulting in increased intracellular levels of INOSITOL PHOSPHATES and free CALCIUM.
A potentially fatal syndrome associated primarily with the use of neuroleptic agents (see ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) which are in turn associated with dopaminergic receptor blockade (see RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) in the BASAL GANGLIA and HYPOTHALAMUS, and sympathetic dysregulation. Clinical features include diffuse MUSCLE RIGIDITY; TREMOR; high FEVER; diaphoresis; labile blood pressure; cognitive dysfunction; and autonomic disturbances. Serum CPK level elevation and a leukocytosis may also be present. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1199; Psychiatr Serv 1998 Sep;49(9):1163-72)
A loosely defined grouping of drugs that have effects on psychological function. Here the psychotropic agents include the antidepressive agents, hallucinogens, and tranquilizing agents (including the antipsychotics and anti-anxiety agents).
A biologically active tridecapeptide isolated from the hypothalamus. It has been shown to induce hypotension in the rat, to stimulate contraction of guinea pig ileum and rat uterus, and to cause relaxation of rat duodenum. There is also evidence that it acts as both a peripheral and a central nervous system neurotransmitter.

The social and economic effects of manic depressive illness and of its treatment in lithium clinics. (1/3659)

Advising about the employment of those who have had manic depressive episodes requires Occupational Health Physicians to obtain, with consent, an objective account of previous episodes and to appreciate the enormous range of manic and depressive manifestations. Familiarity is needed with the likely effects of treatment of episodes and the benefits and problems of prophylaxis--not just in general but in individual cases, for example, where driving is required. This article summarizes research into the effects of lithium preparations on the course of the illness, thyroid and renal function and the risk of suicide. The author found that changing from treatment of episodes to continuous prophylaxis benefited employment and personal relationships without causing body weight problems. Many patients do well in life if supported by an experienced professional team, with 61% requiring no further admissions once on lithium, and with an 86% reduction in admissions achieved in our local clinic.  (+info)

S-16924 [(R)-2-[1-[2-(2,3-dihydro-benzo[1,4]dioxin-5-yloxy)-ethyl]- pyrrolidin-3yl]-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-ethanone], a novel, potential antipsychotic with marked serotonin1A agonist properties: III. Anxiolytic actions in comparison with clozapine and haloperidol. (2/3659)

S-16924 is a potential antipsychotic that displays agonist and antagonist properties at serotonin (5-HT)1A and 5-HT2A/2C receptors, respectively. In a pigeon conflict procedure, the benzodiazepine clorazepate (CLZ) increased punished responses, an action mimicked by S-16924, whereas the atypical antipsychotic clozapine and the neuroleptic haloperidol were inactive. Similarly, in a Vogel conflict paradigm in rats, CLZ increased punished responses, an action shared by S-16924 but not by clozapine or haloperidol. This action of S-16924 was abolished by the 5-HT1A antagonist WAY-100,635. Ultrasonic vocalizations in rats were inhibited by CLZ, S-16924, clozapine, and haloperidol. However, although WAY-100,635 abolished the action of S-16924, it did not affect clozapine and haloperidol. In a rat elevated plus-maze, CLZ, but not S-16924, clozapine, and haloperidol, increased open-arm entries. Like CLZ, S-16924 increased social interaction in rats, whereas clozapine and haloperidol were inactive. WAY-100,635 abolished this action of S-16924. CLZ, S-16924, clozapine, and haloperidol decreased aggressive interactions in isolated mice, but this effect of S-16924 was not blocked by WAY-100, 635. All drugs inhibited motor behavior, but the separation to anxiolytic doses was more pronounced for S-16924 than for CLZ. Finally, in freely moving rats, CLZ and S-16924, but not clozapine and haloperidol, decreased dialysis levels of 5-HT in the nucleus accumbens: this action of S-16924 was blocked by WAY-100,165. In conclusion, in contrast to haloperidol and clozapine, S-16924 possessed a broad-based profile of anxiolytic activity at doses lower than those provoking motor disruption. Its principal mechanism of action was activation of 5-HT1A (auto)receptors.  (+info)

Ergoline derivative LEK-8829-induced turning behavior in rats with unilateral striatal ibotenic acid lesions: interaction with bromocriptine. (3/3659)

LEK-8829 [9,10-didehydro-N-methyl-(2-propynyl)-6-methyl-8- aminomethylergoline bimaleinate] is an antagonist of dopamine D2 receptors and serotonin (5-HT)2 and 5-HT1A receptors in intact animals and a D1 receptor agonist in dopamine-depleted animals. In the present study, we used rats with unilateral striatal lesions with ibotenic acid (IA) to investigate the dopamine receptor activities of LEK-8829 in a model with innervated dopamine receptors. The IA-lesioned rats circled ipsilaterally when challenged with apomorphine, the mixed agonist on D1/D2 receptors. LEK-8829 induced a dose-dependent contralateral turning that was blocked by D1 receptor antagonist SCH-23390. The treatment with D1 receptor agonist SKF-82958 induced ipsilateral turning, whereas the treatment with D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol induced contralateral posture. The combined treatment with SKF-82958 and haloperidol resulted in a weak contralateral turning, indicating the possible receptor mechanism of contralateral turning induced by LEK-8829. Bromocriptine induced a weak ipsilateral turning that was blocked by haloperidol. The ipsilateral turning induced by bromocriptine was significantly potentiated by the coadministration of a low dose but not by a high dose of LEK-8829. The potentiation of turning was blocked either by SCH-23390 or by haloperidol. The potentiation of ipsilateral turning suggests the costimulation of D2 and D1 receptors by bromocriptine and LEK-8829, respectively, whereas the lack of potentiation by the highest dose of LEK-8829 may be explained by the opposing activity of LEK-8829 and bromocriptine at D2 receptors. We propose that the D2 and 5HT2 receptor-blocking and D1 receptor-stimulating profile of LEK-8829 is promising for the treatment of negative symptoms of schizophrenia.  (+info)

Mixed agonist-antagonist properties of clozapine at different human cloned muscarinic receptor subtypes expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. (4/3659)

We recently reported that clozapine behaves as a partial agonist at the cloned human m4 muscarinic receptor subtype. In the present study, we investigated whether the drug could elicit similar effects at the cloned human m1, m2, and m3 muscarinic receptor subtypes expressed in the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Clozapine elicited a concentration-dependent stimulation of [3H]inositol phosphates accumulation in CHO cells expressing either the m1 or the m3 receptor subtype. Moreover, clozapine inhibited forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation and enhanced [35S] GTP gamma S binding to membrane G proteins in CHO cells expressing the m2 receptor. These agonist effects of clozapine were antagonized by atropine. The intrinsic activity of clozapine was lower than that of the full cholinergic agonist carbachol, and, when the compounds were combined, clozapine potently reduced the receptor responses to carbachol. These data indicate that clozapine behaves as a partial agonist at different muscarinic receptor subtypes and may provide new hints for understanding the receptor mechanisms underlying the antipsychotic efficacy of the drug.  (+info)

Low-dose clozapine for the treatment of drug-induced psychosis in Parkinson's disease. The Parkinson Study Group. (5/3659)

BACKGROUND: Drug-induced psychosis is a difficult problem to manage in patients with Parkinson's disease. Multiple open-label studies have reported that treatment with clozapine at low doses ameliorates psychosis without worsening parkinsonism. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of low doses of clozapine (6.25 to 50 mg per day) in 60 patients at six sites over a period of 14 months. The patients (mean age, 72 years) had idiopathic Parkinson's disease and drug-induced psychosis of at least four weeks' duration. All the patients continued to receive fixed doses of antiparkinsonian drugs during the four weeks of the trial. Blood counts were monitored weekly in all the patients. RESULTS: The mean dose of clozapine was 24.7 mg per day. The patients in the clozapine group had significantly more improvement than those in the placebo group in all three of the measures used to determine the severity of psychosis. The mean (+/-SE) scores on the Clinical Global Impression Scale improved by 1.6+/-0.3 points for the patients receiving clozapine, as compared with 0.5+/-0.2 point for those receiving placebo (P<0.001). The score on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale improved by 9.3+/-1.5 points for the patients receiving clozapine, as compared with 2.6+/-1.3 points for those receiving placebo (P=0.002). The score on the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms improved by 11.8+/-2.0 points for the patients receiving clozapine, as compared with 3.8+/-1.9 points for those receiving placebo (P=0.01). Seven patients treated with clozapine had an improvement of at least three on the seven-point Clinical Global Impression Scale, as compared with only one patient given placebo. Clozapine treatment improved tremor and had no deleterious effect on the severity of parkinsonism. In one patient, clozapine was discontinued because of leukopenia. CONCLUSIONS: Clozapine, at daily doses of 50 mg or less, is safe and significantly improves drug-induced psychosis without worsening parkinsonism.  (+info)

Antagonistic effects of trifluoperazine, imipramine, and chlorpromazine against acetylcholine-induced contractions in isolated rat uterus. (6/3659)

AIM: To examine the effects and affinity of some phenothizines (trifluoperazine, Tri and chlorpromazine, Chl) and antidepressant (imipramine, Imi) drugs on acetylcholine (ACh)-induced uterine contraction. METHODS: Isotonic contractions of rat uterine strips were recorded. ACh was administrated to induce maximal contraction before exchange of nutrient solution. ACh was added 5 min after the testing drugs. The nutrient solution was exchanged 4 times after each agonist (ACh or other agents) to produce maximal contraction. RESULTS: Atropine (Atr, 0.029-2.9 mumol.L-1), 4-DAMP (3.6-360 nmol.L-1), pirenzepine (Pir, 0.23-23.5 mumol.L-1), and AF-DX 116 (0.7-35.6 mumol.L-1) competitively antagonized the muscular uterine concentration induced by ACh (0.068-36068 mumol.L-1). The Schild plot was linear (r = 1.00). The pKB and slopes values (95% confidence limits) were 9.28 +/- 0.12 and 1.00 +/- 0.10 to Atr, 9.06 +/- 0.10 and 1.10 +/- 0.08 to 4-DAMP, 7.03 +/- 0.15 and 0.99 +/- 0.12 to Pir, and 5.60 +/- 0.08 and 1.00 +/- 0.19 to AF-DX 116. Tri 0.01-2 mumol.L-1 (pKB = 8.39 +/- 0.04) and Imi 94-940 nmol.L-1 (pKB = 7.21 +/- 0.10) produced also a competitive antagonism of the muscular uterine contraction induced by ACh (r = 1.00), but the slope was only 0.60 +/- 0.03 to Tri or 0.83 +/- 0.16 to Imi. Chl 2.8-5.6 mumol.L-1 produced a weak antagonism on amplitude of muscular contraction induced by the cholinomimetic. CONCLUSION: The muscarinic receptors on uterus behaved as M3 subtype. Tri and Imi, but not Chl, were competitive antagonist of muscarinic receptors of uterus. Imi behaved a simple competitive antagonist at a single site on myometrium, but Tri was not a simple competitive agent at a single site.  (+info)

The use of atypical antipsychotics in the management of schizophrenia. (7/3659)

Long-term drug treatment of schizophrenia with conventional antipsychotics has limitations: an estimated quarter to one third of patients are treatment-resistant; conventional antipsychotics have only a modest impact upon negative symptoms (poverty of thought, social withdrawal and loss of affect); and adverse effects, particularly extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS). Newer, so-called atypical, antipsychotics such as olanzapine, risperidone, sertindole and clozapine (an old drug which was re-introduced in 1990) are claimed to address these limitations. Atypical agents are, at a minimum, at least as effective as conventional drugs such as haloperidol. They also cause substantially fewer extrapyramidal symptoms. However, some other adverse effects are more common than with conventional drugs. For example, clozapine carries a significant risk of serious blood disorders, for which special monitoring is mandatory; it also causes troublesome drowsiness and increased salivation more often than conventional agents. Some atypical agents cause more weight gain or QT prolongation than older agents. The choice of therapy is, therefore, not straightforward. At present, atypical agents represent an advance for patients with severe or intolerable EPS. Most published evidence exists to support the use of clozapine, which has also been shown to be effective in schizophrenia refractory to conventional agents. However, the need for compliance with blood count monitoring and its sedative properties make careful patient selection important. The extent of any additional direct benefit offered by atypical agents on negative symptoms is not yet clear. The lack of a depot formulation for atypical drugs may pose a significant practical problem. To date, only two double-blind studies in which atypical agents were compared directly have been published. Neither provides compelling evidence for the choice of one agent over another. Atypical agents are many times more expensive than conventional drugs. Although drug treatment constitutes only a small proportion of the costs of managing schizophrenia, the additional annual cost of the use of atypical agents in, say, a quarter of the likely U.K. schizophrenic population would be about 56 M pound sterling. There is only limited evidence of cost-effectiveness. Atypical antipsychotics are not currently licensed for other conditions where conventional antipsychotics are commonly used, such as behaviour disturbance or dementia in the elderly. Their dose, and place in treatment in such cases have yet to be determined.  (+info)

Synergistic interactions between ampakines and antipsychotic drugs. (8/3659)

Tests were made for interactions between antipsychotic drugs and compounds that enhance synaptic currents mediated by alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid-type glutamate receptors ("ampakines"). Typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs decreased methamphetamine-induced hyperactivity in rats; the effects of near or even subthreshold doses of the antipsychotics were greatly enhanced by the ampakines. Interactions between the ampakine CX516 and low doses of different antipsychotics were generally additive and often synergistic. The ampakine did not exacerbate neuroleptic-induced catalepsy, indicating that the interaction between the different pharmacological classes was selective. These results suggest that positive modulators of cortical glutamatergic systems may be useful adjuncts in treating schizophrenia.  (+info)

The term "schizophrenia" was first used by the Swiss psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler in 1908 to describe the splitting of mental functions, which he believed was a key feature of the disorder. The word is derived from the Greek words "schizein," meaning "to split," and "phrenos," meaning "mind."

There are several subtypes of schizophrenia, including:

1. Paranoid Schizophrenia: Characterized by delusions of persecution and suspicion, and a tendency to be hostile and defensive.
2. Hallucinatory Schizophrenia: Characterized by hearing voices or seeing things that are not there.
3. Disorganized Schizophrenia: Characterized by disorganized thinking and behavior, and a lack of motivation or interest in activities.
4. Catatonic Schizophrenia: Characterized by immobility, mutism, and other unusual movements or postures.
5. Undifferentiated Schizophrenia: Characterized by a combination of symptoms from the above subtypes.

The exact cause of schizophrenia is still not fully understood, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic, environmental, and neurochemical factors. It is important to note that schizophrenia is not caused by poor parenting or a person's upbringing.

There are several risk factors for developing schizophrenia, including:

1. Genetics: A person with a family history of schizophrenia is more likely to develop the disorder.
2. Brain chemistry: Imbalances in neurotransmitters such as dopamine and serotonin have been linked to schizophrenia.
3. Prenatal factors: Factors such as maternal malnutrition or exposure to certain viruses during pregnancy may increase the risk of schizophrenia in offspring.
4. Childhood trauma: Traumatic events during childhood, such as abuse or neglect, have been linked to an increased risk of developing schizophrenia.
5. Substance use: Substance use has been linked to an increased risk of developing schizophrenia, particularly cannabis and other psychotic substances.

There is no cure for schizophrenia, but treatment can help manage symptoms and improve quality of life. Treatment options include:

1. Medications: Antipsychotic medications are the primary treatment for schizophrenia. They can help reduce positive symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions, and negative symptoms such as a lack of motivation or interest in activities.
2. Therapy: Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and other forms of talk therapy can help individuals with schizophrenia manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.
3. Social support: Support from family, friends, and support groups can be an important part of the treatment plan for individuals with schizophrenia.
4. Self-care: Engaging in activities that bring pleasure and fulfillment, such as hobbies or exercise, can help individuals with schizophrenia improve their overall well-being.

It is important to note that schizophrenia is a complex condition, and treatment should be tailored to the individual's specific needs and circumstances. With appropriate treatment and support, many people with schizophrenia are able to lead fulfilling lives and achieve their goals.

Some common types of psychotic disorders include:

1. Schizophrenia: A chronic and severe mental disorder that affects how a person thinks, feels, and behaves. It can cause hallucinations, delusions, and disorganized thinking.
2. Bipolar Disorder: A mood disorder that causes extreme changes in mood, energy, and behavior. It can lead to manic or hypomanic episodes, as well as depression.
3. Schizoaffective Disorder: A mental disorder that combines symptoms of schizophrenia and a mood disorder. It can cause hallucinations, delusions, and mood swings.
4. Brief Psychotic Disorder: A short-term episode of psychosis that can be triggered by a stressful event. It can cause hallucinations, delusions, and a break from reality.
5. Postpartum Psychosis: A rare condition that occurs in some new mothers after childbirth. It can cause hallucinations, delusions, and a break from reality.
6. Drug-Induced Psychosis: A psychotic episode caused by taking certain medications or drugs. It can cause hallucinations, delusions, and a break from reality.
7. Alcohol-Related Psychosis: A psychotic episode caused by alcohol use disorder. It can cause hallucinations, delusions, and a break from reality.
8. Trauma-Related Psychosis: A psychotic episode caused by a traumatic event. It can cause hallucinations, delusions, and a break from reality.
9. Psychotic Disorder Not Otherwise Specified (NOS): A catch-all diagnosis for psychotic episodes that do not meet the criteria for any other specific psychotic disorder.

Symptoms of psychotic disorders can vary depending on the individual and the specific disorder. Common symptoms include:

1. Hallucinations: Seeing, hearing, or feeling things that are not there.
2. Delusions: False beliefs that are not based in reality.
3. Disorganized thinking and speech: Difficulty organizing thoughts and expressing them in a clear and logical manner.
4. Disorganized behavior: Incoherent or bizarre behavior, such as dressing inappropriately for the weather or neglecting personal hygiene.
5. Catatonia: A state of immobility or abnormal movement, such as rigidity or agitation.
6. Negative symptoms: A decrease in emotional expression or motivation, such as a flat affect or a lack of interest in activities.
7. Cognitive impairment: Difficulty with attention, memory, and other cognitive functions.
8. Social withdrawal: Avoidance of social interactions and relationships.
9. Lack of self-care: Neglecting personal hygiene, nutrition, and other basic needs.
10. Suicidal or homicidal ideation: Thoughts of harming oneself or others.

It's important to note that not everyone with schizophrenia will experience all of these symptoms, and some people may experience additional symptoms not listed here. Additionally, the severity and frequency of symptoms can vary widely from person to person. With proper treatment and support, many people with schizophrenia are able to manage their symptoms and lead fulfilling lives.

It is important to note that catalepsy is not the same as catatonia, which is a more specific condition characterized by a wide range of symptoms, including immobility, mutism, negativism, and emotional dysregulation. However, catalepsy and catatonia do share some similarities, and the terms are often used interchangeably in clinical practice.

The exact cause of catalepsy is not fully understood, but it is thought to be related to dysfunction in certain areas of the brain, such as the neocortex and basal ganglia. In some cases, catalepsy may be a side effect of medication or drug intoxication.

Treatment for catalepsy typically focuses on addressing the underlying cause, such as managing seizures or withdrawing from drugs. In some cases, medications such as benzodiazepines or antipsychotics may be used to help manage symptoms. Other approaches, such as physical therapy and behavioral interventions, may also be helpful in improving mobility and function.

Some examples of basal ganglia diseases include:

1. Parkinson's disease: A neurodegenerative disorder characterized by tremors, rigidity, bradykinesia (slow movement), and postural instability.
2. Huntington's disease: An autosomal dominant disorder that causes progressive degeneration of the basal ganglia and a decline in cognitive, motor, and psychiatric functions.
3. Dystonia: A movement disorder characterized by sustained or intermittent muscle contractions that cause abnormal postures or movements.
4. Tourette's syndrome: A neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by multiple motor tics and at least one vocal tic, such as repeated sounds or words.
5. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): An anxiety disorder characterized by recurring thoughts or compulsions to perform repetitive behaviors.
6. Schizophrenia: A psychotic disorder characterized by hallucinations, delusions, and cognitive impairments.
7. Kleine-Levin syndrome: A rare sleep disorder characterized by recurring periods of excessive sleepiness and automatic behaviors.
8. Wilson's disease: A rare genetic disorder caused by copper accumulation in the basal ganglia, leading to cognitive and motor impairments.
9. Hemiballism: A rare movement disorder characterized by unilateral or bilateral involuntary movements of the upper limbs.
10. Chorea-acanthocytosis: A rare genetic disorder characterized by chorea (involuntary movements), acanthocytosis (abnormal red blood cell shape), and cognitive decline.

These conditions are often challenging to diagnose and manage, and may require a comprehensive evaluation by a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals, including neurologists, psychiatrists, geneticists, and other specialists. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment can help improve outcomes for individuals with these conditions.

Dyskinesias can be caused by a variety of drugs, including:

1. Antipsychotic medications: These drugs are commonly used to treat conditions such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
2. Antidepressant medications: Certain antidepressants, such as selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), can cause dyskinesias.
3. Anti-anxiety medications: Benzodiazepines can cause dyskinesias, especially at high doses or with long-term use.
4. Opioids: These drugs can cause dyskinesias as a side effect, particularly when taken in high doses or for prolonged periods.
5. Antihistamines: Some antihistamines can cause dyskinesias, especially in older adults.
6. Anticonvulsants: Certain anticonvulsant medications, such as valproate and carbamazepine, can cause dyskinesias.
7. Corticosteroids: Long-term use of corticosteroids can lead to dyskinesias, especially in the face and limbs.

The symptoms of drug-induced dyskinesias can vary depending on the type of medication being taken and the individual's response to it. Common symptoms include:

1. Involuntary movements of the face, arms, legs, or trunk
2. Jerky or twitching movements
3. Tremors or shaking
4. Slow, rigid movements
5. Lack of coordination and balance
6. Difficulty with speech and swallowing
7. Fatigue and weakness

If you are experiencing dyskinesias as a result of medication, it is important to speak with your healthcare provider. They may be able to adjust your medication regimen or recommend alternative treatments to help manage the symptoms. In some cases, discontinuing the medication that is causing the dyskinesias may be necessary. Additionally, your healthcare provider may recommend other therapies, such as physical therapy or speech therapy, to help improve your mobility and communication skills.

The exact mechanism by which drugs can cause akathisia is not fully understood, but it is believed to involve changes in the levels of certain neurotransmitters (such as dopamine and serotonin) in the brain. These changes can affect the normal functioning of the nervous system, leading to symptoms such as agitation, restlessness, and an excessive desire to move about.

Drug-induced akathisia can occur with a wide range of medications and drugs, including antipsychotic medications, antidepressants, stimulants, and certain illegal substances. It is important for healthcare professionals to be aware of the potential for drug-induced akathisia when prescribing these medications, as it can be a serious side effect that can negatively impact a person's quality of life.

Treatment for drug-induced akathisia typically involves stopping or reducing the medication that is causing the symptoms. In some cases, additional medications may be prescribed to help manage the symptoms and reduce discomfort. It is important for individuals experiencing drug-induced akathisia to work closely with their healthcare provider to find the best course of treatment.

Psychomotor agitation is a common symptom of many mental health disorders, including bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and major depressive disorder. It can also be caused by medications such as stimulants, antipsychotics, and benzodiazepines.

Some common signs and symptoms of psychomotor agitation include:

* Fidgeting or restlessness
* Purposeless movement of limbs (e.g., pacing, fiddling with objects)
* Increased muscle tension
* Difficulty sitting still
* Excessive talking or movement
* Increased heart rate and blood pressure
* Agitation or irritability

Psychomotor agitation can be assessed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests. Treatment options for psychomotor agitation depend on the underlying cause, but may include medication adjustments, behavioral interventions, or hospitalization in severe cases.

It is important to note that psychomotor agitation can be a symptom of an underlying medical condition, so it is essential to seek professional medical attention if you or someone you know is experiencing these symptoms. A healthcare professional can diagnose and treat the underlying cause of psychomotor agitation, reducing the risk of complications and improving quality of life.

The exact cause of NMS is not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to an immune-mediated response to the neuroleptic drug. The syndrome typically develops within 1 to 2 weeks of starting or increasing the dose of the medication, and it can progress rapidly if left untreated.

The symptoms of NMS can include:

* Fever (usually above 38°C)
* Muscle rigidity and stiffness
* Altered mental status, such as confusion, disorientation, or agitation
* Autonomic dysfunction, such as changes in heart rate, blood pressure, or respiration
* Delirium or coma
* Seizures or convulsions

The diagnosis of NMS is based on a combination of clinical findings and laboratory tests, such as electrolyte imbalances, liver function tests, and muscle enzymes. Treatment typically involves stopping the neuroleptic medication and providing supportive care, such as intravenous fluids, oxygen therapy, and sedation to manage agitation or seizures. In severe cases, hospitalization in an intensive care unit may be necessary.

Preventing NMS is important, and it involves careful monitoring of patients who are taking neuroleptic medications, particularly during the early stages of treatment. Regular check-ups with a healthcare provider can help identify any potential problems before they become severe. Additionally, it is essential to report any new or worsening symptoms promptly, as early intervention can improve outcomes.

Overall, neuroleptic malignant syndrome is a rare but potentially life-threatening side effect of neuroleptic medications. Prompt recognition and treatment are crucial to preventing serious complications and improving outcomes for affected individuals.

Harbert CA, Welch MW (1 September 1974). "Antipsychotic and Antianxiety Agents". In Henzelmann RV, Gordon M (eds.). Annual ...
Katzung, BG; Kruidering-Hall, M; Trevor, AJ (eds.). "Chapter 29: Antipsychotic Agents & Lithium". Katzung & Trevor's ... in an oral antipsychotic regimen or 3 months for long-acting injectable antipsychotics 2. Tolerance to antipsychotic effects ( ... which should occur when antipsychotics are withdrawn, and improve or disappear when antipsychotics are restarted) It may ... The antagonizing or "blockade" of D2 by antipsychotics may cause neurons, a type of cell within the brain, to undergo ...
de Paulis T (1983). "3. Antipsychotic Agents and Dopamine Agonists". Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry. Academic Press. p. ... Flumezapine is an antipsychotic, due to its antagonism of dopamine receptors in the brain. However, like other antipsychotics, ... Flumezapine is structurally related to the common antipsychotic olanzapine-a point that was used against its manufacturer, Eli ... Flumezapine is an abandoned, investigational antipsychotic drug that was studied for the treatment of schizophrenia. ...
Related early antipsychotic agents include declenperone and milenperone. Lenperone was never approved by the FDA for use in ... Butyrophenone antipsychotics, Fluoroarenes, Piperidines, Typical antipsychotics, Veterinary drugs, All stub articles, Nervous ... Lenperone (Elanone-V) is a typical antipsychotic of the butyrophenone chemical class. It was first reported as an anti-emetic ... Booth NJ (1982). "Psychotropic Agents". In Booth NH, McDonald LE (ed.). Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics (5th ed.). ...
Frankenburg FR, Baldessarini RJ (2008). "Neurosyphilis, malaria, and the discovery of antipsychotic agents". Harv Rev ... doi:10.1001/jama.1901.52470070017001f. Sutter PS (2007). "Nature's agents or agents of empire? Entomological workers and ... 1881). "El mosquito hipotéticamente considerado como agent de transmision de la fiebre amarilla". Anales de la Real Academia de ... Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 50 (6): 1927-30. doi:10.1128/AAC.01472-05. PMC 1479118. PMID 16723547. Weiyuan C (2009). "Ancient ...
March 1994). "Binding of typical and atypical antipsychotic agents to 5-hydroxytryptamine-6 and 5-hydroxytryptamine-7 receptors ... January 2002). "Pyrrolo[1,3]benzothiazepine-based atypical antipsychotic agents. Synthesis, structure-activity relationship, ... Neurotropic and psychotropic agents. 8. 10-(4-Methylpiperazion)-10,11-dihydrodibenzo(b,f)thiepine and analogs; a new group of ... Ganellin CR, Triggle DJ, Macdonald F (1997). Dictionary of pharmacological agents. CRC Press. p. 500. ISBN 978-0-412-46630-4. ...
Tohen, Mauricio; Vieta, Eduard (2009). "Antipsychotic agents in the treatment of bipolar mania". Bipolar Disorders. 11 (s2): 45 ... The use of antipsychotic agents in the treatment of acute mania was reviewed by Tohen and Vieta in 2009. When the manic ... Various lines of evidence from post-mortem studies and the putative mechanisms of anti-manic agents point to abnormalities in ... Other medication possibly include glutaminergic agents and drugs that alter the HPA axis. Lifestyle triggers include irregular ...
Haloperidol, an antipsychotic medication, was a preferred agent. See Diagnosis.[circular reference] Furthermore, patients were ... page needed] Another antipsychotic medication, chlorpromazine (trade name Thorazine™), was also used to induce grogginess, ... as part of a 1950s secret program run by the US army that tested chemical warfare agents on US citizens. A few cases of ... apparently with anti-psychotic drugs. The Legal Resources Centre, a non-governmental organization, is representing 13 clients ...
Typical antipsychotic Phenothiazine "Evaluation of a new antipsychotic agent. Butaperazine maleate (repoise maleate)". JAMA. ... Butaperazine (Repoise, Tyrylen) is a typical antipsychotic of the phenothiazine class. It was approved in 1967, and possibly ... Typical antipsychotics, All stub articles, Nervous system drug stubs). ...
Morin AK (March 2014). "Off-label use of atypical antipsychotic agents for treatment of insomnia". Mental Health Clinician. 4 ( ... August 2008). "Identification of a butyrophenone analog as a potential atypical antipsychotic agent: 4-[4-(4-chlorophenyl)-1,4- ... January 1997). "Disposition and biotransformation of the antipsychotic agent olanzapine in humans". Drug Metabolism and ... which is a common property of most atypical antipsychotics, aside from the benzamide antipsychotics such as amisulpride along ...
So cotreatment with another, more potent, antipsychotic agent is needed. Chlorprothixene is structurally related to ... "Binding of typical and atypical antipsychotic agents to 5-hydroxytryptamine-6 and 5-hydroxytryptamine-7 receptors". J. ... antipsychotic effects, sedation/anxiolysis, antidepressant effect, weight gain D1, D2, D3, D4, D5: antipsychotic effects, ... Also, like most antipsychotics, chlorprothixene has antiemetic effects. Chlorprothixene has a strong sedative activity with a ...
Davidson AB, Boff E, MacNeil DA, Wenger J, Cook L (1983). "Pharmacological effects of Ro 22-1319: a new antipsychotic agent". ... Piquindone (Ro 22-1319) is an atypical antipsychotic with a tricyclic structure that was developed in the 1980s but was never ... isoquinoline antipsychotics". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 24 (9): 1026-34. doi:10.1021/jm00141a002. PMID 6116805. ... "Structural requirements of Na+-dependent antidopaminergic agents: Tropapride, Piquindone, Zetidoline, and Metoclopramide. ...
532-. ISBN 978-0-19-162675-3. Psychotropic Agents: Part I: Antipsychotics and Antidepressants. Springer Science & Business ... 836-. ISBN 978-0-7817-2845-4. I.K. Morton; Judith M. Hall (6 December 2012). Concise Dictionary of Pharmacological Agents: ...
396-. ISBN 978-94-011-5913-5. Psychotropic Agents: Part I: Antipsychotics and Antidepressants. Springer Science & Business ... Prothipendyl is said to not possess antipsychotic effects, and in accordance, appears to be a weaker dopamine receptor ...
Psychotropic Agents: Part I: Antipsychotics and Antidepressants. Springer Science & Business Media. 2012-12-06. ISBN ... Pipamperone is considered to have been a forerunner to the atypical antipsychotics, if not an atypical antipsychotic itself, ... Prinssen EP, Koek W, Kleven MS (January 2000). "The effects of antipsychotics with 5-HT(2C) receptor affinity in behavioral ... 88-. ISBN 978-1-4200-4177-4. Awouters FH, Lewi PJ (2007). "Forty years of antipsychotic Drug research--from haloperidol to ...
... the potential impact of antipsychotic agents". Psychoneuroendocrinology. 28: 97-108. doi:10.1016/S0306-4530(02)00129-4. ISSN ...
Morin AK (1 March 2014). "Off-label use of atypical antipsychotic agents for treatment of insomnia". Mental Health Clinician. 4 ... Certain atypical antipsychotics, particularly quetiapine, olanzapine, and risperidone, are used in the treatment of insomnia. ... However, while common, use of antipsychotics for this indication is not recommended as the evidence does not demonstrate a ... Thompson W, Quay TA, Rojas-Fernandez C, Farrell B, Bjerre LM (June 2016). "Atypical antipsychotics for insomnia: a systematic ...
September 1991). "The effects of umespirone as a potential anxiolytic and antipsychotic agent". Pharmacology Biochemistry and ... As a result, further development has commenced to bring more selective of anxiolytic agents to the market. An example of this ... Kato T, Hirose A, Ohno Y, Shimizu H, Tanaka H, Nakamura M (December 1990). "Binding profile of SM-9018, a novel antipsychotic ... Azapirones are a class of drugs used as anxiolytics, antidepressants, and antipsychotics. They are commonly used as add-ons to ...
... the potential impact of antipsychotic agents". Psychoneuroendocrinology. 28 Suppl 2: 97-108. doi:10.1016/s0306-4530(02)00129-4 ... Typical antipsychotics have been shown to induce significant, dose-dependent increases in prolactin levels up to 10-fold the ... Particularly, antipsychotics have been linked to a majority of non-tumor related hyperprolactinemia cases due to their ... Atypical antipsychotics vary in their ability to elevate prolactin levels, however, medications in this class such as ...
The use of the antipsychotic agent clozapine is associated with neutropenia. An increased risk of this side effect has been ...
September 1991). "The effects of umespirone as a potential anxiolytic and antipsychotic agent". Pharmacology Biochemistry and ... Krähling H, Fuchs A, Ruhland M, Schön U, Mol F, Tulp M (November 1988). "KC 9172 (free base of KC 7218)--an antipsychotic/ ... Umespirone (KC-9172) is a drug of the azapirone class which possesses anxiolytic and antipsychotic properties. It behaves as a ... Ruhland M, Krähling H, Fuchs A, Schön U (November 1988). "KC 9172 (free base of KC 7218)--an antipsychotic/anxiolytic compound ...
Other medications can be added to SSRIs if a partial response is achieved and further improvement is needed; these agents ... antipsychotics, anti‐attention‐deficit/hyperactivity medications and mood stabilizers in children and adolescents with ... include lithium, bupropion and atypical antipsychotics. These options are medications that work in different ways. Bupropion ( ...
Schmidt AW, Lebel LA, Howard HR, Zorn SH (2001). "Ziprasidone: a novel antipsychotic agent with a unique human receptor binding ... actions of antiparkinsonian and antipsychotic agents". J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 282 (1): 181-91. PMID 9223553. Bymaster FP, ... Unlike many other antipsychotics, ziprasidone has no significant affinity for the mACh receptors, and as such lacks any ... Although it can also cause weight gain, the risk is much lower than for other atypical antipsychotics. How it works is not ...
"Enhancement of drug withdrawal convulsion by combinations of phenobarbital and antipsychotic agents". Japanese Journal of ... Antipsychotics increase the severity of benzodiazepine withdrawal effects with an increase in the intensity and severity of ... phenothiazines and other antipsychotics, skeletal muscle relaxants, antihistamines, and anaesthetics. Administration of ...
"Antibacterial property of the antipsychotic agent prochlorperazine, and its synergism with methdilazine". Microbiol Res. 160 (1 ... The ring-contracted analog, methdilazine shows only very weak activity as a tranquilizer; instead, that agent constitutes an ... "Antimicrobial properties of methdilazine and its synergism with antibiotics and some chemotherapeutic agents". ...
An antipsychotic agent BMS 181100 is synthesized using BINAP/diamine-Ru catalyst. Midland Alpine Borane Reduction Corey-Itsuno ... and the antipsychotic agent BMS181100. The stoichiometric asymmetric reduction of ketones has long been known, e.g., using ...
... a new type of antipsychotic agent?". Progress in Medicinal Chemistry. 33: 185-232. doi:10.1016/s0079-6468(08)70306-0. ISBN ... Barnes TR (22 October 2013). Antipsychotic Drugs and Their Side-Effects. Elsevier Science. pp. 28, 34. ISBN 978-1-4832-8810-9. ... is said to be ineffective as an antipsychotic. However, it retains higher affinity for the dopamine D1 receptor (IC50 = 198 nM ... Alkylation of the intermediate with N-methylpiperazine affords the hypnotic agent perlapine (5). Note: Patented method is from ...
"Effect of topiramate on weight gain in patients receiving atypical antipsychotic agents". Journal of Clinical ... Other uses include treatment of obesity, binge eating disorder, and off-setting weight gain induced by taking antipsychotic ...
Some antipsychotic agents may be riskier than others during withdrawal, especially clozapine, olanzapine or low potency ... Antipsychotics are generally ineffective for benzodiazepine withdrawal-related psychosis. Antipsychotics should be avoided ... "Enhancement of drug withdrawal convulsion by combinations of phenobarbital and antipsychotic agents". The Japanese Journal of ... Bobolakis, Ioannis (2000). "Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome After Antipsychotic Drug Administration During Benzodiazepine ...
Roix JJ, DeCrescenzo GA, Cheung PH, Ciallella JR, Sulpice T, Saha S, Halse R (April 2012). "Effect of the antipsychotic agent ... The mainstay of treatment for schizophrenia is an antipsychotic medication. Most antipsychotics can take around 7 to 14 days to ... the effects of smoking on the disposition of two commonly used antipsychotic agents, olanzapine and clozapine". BMJ Open. 4 (3 ... Most people on antipsychotics get side effects. People on typical antipsychotics tend to have a higher rate of extrapyramidal ...
... atypical antipsychotic / 5-HT1A, D2 and D3 receptor partial agonist and 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, 5-HT7, α1-adrenergic, α2-adrenergic, ... serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine releasing agent and 5-HT1 and 5-HT2 receptor agonist - specifically under development as an ... and H1 receptor antagonist [12] Iloperidone (HP-873, ILO-522; Fanapt, Fiapta, Zomaril) - atypical antipsychotic / 5-HT2A, 5-HT6 ...
"Inhibition of human alpha1E subunit-mediated ca2+ channels by the antipsychotic agent chlorpromazine". Acta Physiologica ...
Bittaker was prescribed anti-psychotic medication. A year later, he was again released into society.: 251-252 A month after his ... Described by FBI Special Agent John E. Douglas as the most disturbing individual for whom he has ever created a criminal ... this recording was used to train and desensitize FBI agents to the raw reality of torture and murder. The 2012 documentary film ...
However, many other agents can be responsible as well, including general anesthesia and alcohol. Bacterial colonization: Poor ... Others: Age, male gender, diabetes mellitus, malnutrition, use of antipsychotic drugs, proton pump inhibitors, and angiotensin- ... agents, such as proton pump inhibitors, that decrease the acidity of the stomach, may favor the growth of bacteria and increase ...
1984). "Antipsychotic efficacy of fluperlapine. An open multicenter trial". Neuropsychobiology. 11 (2): 116-20. doi:10.1159/ ... Dictionary of pharmacological agents. CRC Press. p. 916. ISBN 978-0-412-46630-4. Retrieved 15 September 2011. Fischer- ... Fluperlapine (NB 106-689), also known as fluoroperlapine, is a morphanthridine (11H-dibenzo[b,e]azepine) atypical antipsychotic ... Antipsychotics, Dibenzazepines, Muscarinic antagonists, Piperazines, Sedatives, Tricyclic antidepressants, Substances ...
Sympathomimetic agents may have their effects potentiated by TCAs like doxepin. Doxepin also may potentiate the adverse effects ... and H4R receptors with 34 antidepressants and antipsychotics". Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology. 385 (2): 145-70 ... Antiarrhythmic agents may be an appropriate measure to treat cardiac arrhythmias resulting from doxepin overdose. Slow ... Antihypertensive agents may have their effects mitigated by doxepin. Cotreatment with CNS depressants such as the ...
... caution is required in the use of antipsychotic medication in people with DLB because of their sensitivity to these agents. ... Antipsychotic sensitivity "The most fraught decision in the management of DLB relates to the use of antipsychotic medications ... Antipsychotics are usually avoided, even for hallucinations, because severe reactions occur in almost half of people with DLB, ... "The use of antipsychotics ... comes with attendant mortality risks ... and they should be avoided whenever possible, given the ...
The teratogenic risks of antipsychotic agents are small, but are higher with lithium and anti-convulsant agents. Carbamazepine ... Given late in pregnancy, antipsychotic agents and lithium can have adverse effects on the infant. Stopping mood-stabilisers has ... These mothers require sedation with anti-psychotic (neuroleptic) agents, but are liable to extrapyramidal symptoms, including ... Since the link with bipolar disorder was recognized (about 1970), treatment with mood-stabilizing agents, such as lithium and ...
Haim's agent stated that the doctor was reluctant to drop Haim from his current level to zero pills, fearing a seizure, and ... an antipsychotic) were retrieved. It emerged that Haim had used illegal aliases to procure over 553 prescription pills in the ... Haim's agent discounted the possibility of an overdose, citing his recent drive toward clean living and affirming that he had ... He was seen compiling a promotional clip reel for casting agents, and a pawnbroker recalled his begging for $3 to buy a slice ...
... selective human dopamine D4 receptor antagonists as potential antipsychotic agents". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 40 (17): ... As a result, it was investigated as an antipsychotic for the treatment of schizophrenia in a placebo-controlled clinical trial ...
According to several defense lawyers working with the immigrants, in many cases the Border Patrol agents lie to the parents in ... children who had previously been held at the Shiloh Treatment Center said they had been forcibly treated with antipsychotic ... The previous day, a veteran flight attendant for a major airline recounted an episode in which an ICE agent initially told ... Beginning in May 2017, the Trump administration directed U.S. Border Patrol agents in the Yuma, Arizona Border Patrol Sector to ...
July 2004). "Discovery of 2-(4-pyridin-2-ylpiperazin-1-ylmethyl)-1H-benzimidazole (ABT-724), a dopaminergic agent with a novel ... "Agonist and antagonist properties of antipsychotics at human dopamine D4.4 receptors: G-protein activation and K+ channel ...
He was noncompliant with taking his antipsychotics. Brown recounted to his sister that during his imprisonment, he was raped by ... During a May, 14, 2021 federal hearing to determine further compensation for McCollum and Brown, an attorney for NSCBI agents ... several NCSBI agents including lead investigators Leroy Allen and Ken Snead, the town of Red Springs, the Red Springs Police ...
Agents. 31 (3): 189-92. doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2007.11.010. PMID 18248798. Abraham EP (1987). "Cephalosporins 1945-1986". ... One involved Eli Lilly's antipsychotic Zyprexa, and the other involved Bextra, an anti-inflammatory medication used for ... Approximately 400 tons of these agents are manufactured each year; this is enough to put approximately 9,000,000 people to ... Lv J, Perkovic V, Foote CV, Craig ME, Craig JC, Strippoli GF (2012). "Antihypertensive agents for preventing diabetic kidney ...
Vallejos, Ximena; Wu, Christine (2017-04-01). "Flibanserin: A Novel, Nonhormonal Agent for the Treatment of Hypoactive Sexual ... Antipsychotic drugs Anticonvulsants Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (e.g. Antihistamine) Opioid Medical marijuana ...
Lithium is recommended for the treatment of schizophrenic disorders only after other antipsychotics have failed; it has limited ... often as an augmentation agent. ...
It is of interest that cigarette smoking affects liver function such that the antipsychotic drugs used to treat schizophrenia ... Raloxifene as an adjunctive agent has shown positive results. Findings have supported the hypothesis that schizophrenia is ... Consequently, smokers with schizophrenia need slightly higher doses of antipsychotic drugs in order to attain therapeutic ... A 1997 study showed that antipsychotic-induced akathisia was significantly reduced upon administration of nicotine. This ...
Like other serotonergic agents, SNRIs have the potential to cause serotonin syndrome, a potentially fatal systemic response to ... atypical antipsychotic studied as an adjunctive measure in adults and geriatric patients) Antihistamines Hydroxyzine (H1 ... Overdose of an SSRI or concomitant use with another agent that causes increased levels of serotonin can result in serotonin ... Tiagabine Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) Olanzapine (evidence of effectiveness is merely a trend) Ziprasidone ...
Nelson LH, Flomenbaum N, Goldfrank LR, Hoffman RL, Howland MD, Neal AL (2006). "Sedative-hypnotic agents". Goldfrank's ... or sedating antipsychotics, anticonvulsants, or antihistamines are particularly dangerous. Additionally, emergency department ...
This was followed in the inter-war period by the development of the first anti-bacterial agents such as the sulpha antibiotics ... In the 1950s new psychiatric drugs, notably the antipsychotic chlorpromazine, were designed in laboratories and slowly came ... the use of plants as healing agents, as well as clays and soils is ancient. Over time, through emulation of the behavior of ... Kitasato confirmed Yersin's discovery that the bacterium Yersinia pestis is the agent of the plague. In 1897 he isolated and ...
Isoniazid, an antitubercular agent with MAOI properties, has been known to strongly inhibit the metabolism of primidone. Like ... In 1965, Monroe and Wise reported using primidone along with a phenothiazine derivative antipsychotic and chlordiazepoxide in ... Other pharmacological agents include alprazolam, clonazepam, atenolol, sotalol, nadolol, clozapine, nimodipine, and botulinum ... Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 45 (2): 382-92. doi:10.1128/AAC.45.2.382-392.2001. PMC 90302. PMID 11158730. Theis JG, ...
A New Hypoglycemic Agent". J Am Chem Soc. 81 (9): 2220-25. doi:10.1021/ja01518a052. "Procédé de préparation de chlorhydrate de ... It is sometimes used as an off-label adjunct to lessen the risk of metabolic syndrome in people who take antipsychotics. ... Nicholson W, Bolen S, Witkop CT, Neale D, Wilson L, Bass E (January 2009). "Benefits and risks of oral diabetes agents compared ... It is also used as a second-line agent for infertility in those with polycystic ovary syndrome. The American Diabetes ...
Antipsychotic medications, such as haloperidol, have also been used for this purpose. Midazolam is known to cause respiratory ... At higher doses during the last weeks of life, midazolam is considered a first line agent in palliative continuous deep ... Midazolam, in combination with an antipsychotic drug, is indicated for the acute management of schizophrenia when it is ... is on the Schedule IV list of the Controlled Substances Act as a non-narcotic agent with low potential for abuse. In 2011, the ...
As experience with these agents has grown, several studies have questioned the utility of broadly characterizing antipsychotic ... July 2010). "Pharmacological profile of lurasidone, a novel antipsychotic agent with potent 5-hydroxytryptamine 7 (5-HT7) and 5 ... The atypical anti-psychotic paliperidone was approved by the FDA in late 2006.[citation needed] The atypical antipsychotics ... Although atypical antipsychotics are thought to be safer than typical antipsychotics, they still have severe side effects, ...
... atypical antipsychotics, lithium, alpha-2 agonists, traditional antipsychotics, SSRIs, and anticonvulsant mood- stabilizers. ... and is additionally the only agent known to affect suicide directly and specifically; this treatment effect is independent from ...
Kim SF, Huang AS, Snowman AM, Teuscher C, Snyder SH (February 2007). "From the Cover: Antipsychotic drug-induced weight gain ... with nicotine as the single causal agent. Arsenic is a metalloid (i.e., an element with some metallic properties) found in and ... The mechanisms behind SSRI, tricyclic antidepressants, and atypical antipsychotics function allow them all to have potential ... and atypical antipsychotics (e.g. clozapine) are all neuropharmaceuticals that target neurotransmitter receptors that are ...
For a time, the pharmaco-EEG profiles of different classes of drugs were actively used to identify active psychotropic agents. ... Fink M and Irwin P. EEG and behavioral profile of flutroline (CP-36,584), a novel antipsychotic drug. Psychopharmacology 72: 67 ... When no systematic changes were recorded, the agents were considered not to have a clinical use. Dosing schedules were ... Pharmaco-EEG studies were economically useful in clinically classifying new agents, dosage ranges and durations of effects, and ...
These agents work to lower LDL-C levels and are also associated with a decrease in CVD mortality, CVD morbidity, and total ... atypical antipsychotics (clozapine, olanzapine), corticosteroids, tacrolimus, and cyclosporine. Other non-hereditary factors ... This agent consists of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), an omega-3 fatty acid from fish oil and works to lower the hepatic ... Statins are considered the first-line agents but other drugs can be substituted if the lipid targets are not achieved with ...
... without anaesthetic or muscle-relaxing agents, often several times a week. As an unfortunate consequence, many of the patients ... With the addition of multiple antidepressants and antipsychotics to treat mental disorders, ECT is not widely implemented in ... with psychotherapy for at least 6-8 weeks or no clinical response to one or two courses of an antidepressant/antipsychotic ...
Antipsychotic Agents. Class Summary. Antipsychotics, such as haloperidol, olanzapine, and risperidone, have been used with some ... Lithium is an antipsychotic agent that is indicated for bipolar disorder. It influences the reuptake of serotonin and/or ... Haloperidol is an antipsychotic agent that exerts its effects through blocking dopamine receptors. It has been used to augment ... Antianxiety Agents. Class Summary. Augmentation with antianxiety agents such as buspirone may be beneficial in patients with ...
... but until recently none of these agents had marketing authorisation for this indication. Medicines regulators have recognised ... The use of antipsychotic drugs is common in the care of the elderly with dementia and associated behavioural problems, ... New warnings on the use of antipsychotic agents in the elderly with dementia ... The use of antipsychotic drugs is common in the care of the elderly with dementia and associated behavioural problems, but ...
Task Force on Late Neurological Effects of Antipsychotic Drugs.. Series: Task force report ; 18Material type: Text; Format: ... Tardive dyskinesia : report of the American Psychiatric Association Task Force on Late Neurological Effects of Antipsychotic ...
... but has more recently been associated with atypical antipsychotics especially clozapine and olanzapine. This article examines ... The management of hyperglycaemia depends on the causative agent. With clozapine, treatment with oral hypoglycaemics has been ... Atypical antipsychotics and hyperglycaemia Int Clin Psychopharmacol. 2001 Mar;16(2):63-73. doi: 10.1097/00004850-200103000- ... With olanzapine, other atypical antipsychotics may be considered. Blood glucose monitoring is essential for all patients ...
Because there is no published experience with molindone during breastfeeding, other antipsychotic agents are preferred. ... Prolactin elevation with antipsychotic medications: Mechanisms of action and clinical consequences. J Clin Psychiatry. 2002;63 ...
Although they are associated with the use of neuroleptics, TDs apparently existed before the development of these agents. ... 13, 14] but in general, newer atypical antipsychotic agents, including olanzapine and risperidone (and its metabolite ... When TD is diagnosed, reduce or discontinue the causative agent if possible. [33, 34, 42, 43, 41, 49, 35, 36, 37, 38] The risk ... Other therapeutic agents for which there is some anecdotal support include vitamin E, levodopa (see carbidopa/levodopa), ...
Reserve long-term antipsychotic treatment for patients with chronic illness known to respond to antipsychotic agents, and for ... Geriatric patients with dementia-related psychosis treated with antipsychotic agents are at an increased risk of death. ... Antipsychotic agents, including prochlorperazine, are not approved for the treatment of dementia-related psychosis. (See ... Antipsychotic agents, including prochlorperazine, are not approved for the treatment of dementia-related psychosis. ...
Miscellaneous Antipsychotic Agents. By the end-users/application, the market report covers the following segments: ... We are not an agent for these third parties nor do we endorse or guarantee their products. We make no representation or ...
Antipsychotic Agents. Memory, Short-Term. Piperazines. Quinolones. Receptors, Dopamine D2. Biliary Tract. Positron-Emission ...
Atypical antipsychotic agents (aripiprazole, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone*, ziprasidone). SSRIs (citalopram, ... Atypical antipsychotic agents (aripiprazole [Abilify], olanzapine [Zyprexa], quetiapine [Seroquel], risperidone [Risperdal]*, ... Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), atypical antipsychotic agents, stimulants, and alpha2 agonists are the most ... Atypical antipsychotic agents (aripiprazole, olanzapine*, quetiapine, risperidone*, ziprasidone) Stimulants (dextroamphetamine ...
Antipsychotic Agents. en. dc.subject.other. Alcoholism and Drug Abuse. en. dc.title. Tardive dyskinesia / Hans Haag, Eckart Ru ...
Antipsychotics were used as secondary agents when benzodiazepine sedation was ineffective.. Of three patients who revisited the ... The PCC was designated as an agent of the state so it could receive case reports directly, allowing for mandatory reporting 24 ... The PCC was designated as an agent of the state to receive mandated reports supporting joint reporting and provision of medical ...
Unlike conventional antipsychotic agents, atypical antipsychotics also exert activity at other receptors, and it is generally ... aConsider previous antipsychotic withdrawal after switching antipsychotic agents and use antihistaminic or anticholinergic drug ... When compared with conventional antipsychotic agents in clinical trials, it is acknowledged that atypical agents are associated ... are cause for concern with some agents.[13,14] Additionally, some atypical anti- psychotic agents are associated with ...
Drug/Important Bio-Agent (IBA). 1. Immunoglobulins (Immunoglobulin)IBA 01/2014. 1. Antipsychotic Agents (Antipsychotics)IBA 06/ ...
Antipsychotic drugs. Atypical antipsychotics were more preferred than the typical agents (Table 2). The most commonly used ... Until then, khat abstinence would be the mainstay of treatment, in addition to antipsychotic agents, psychological therapy, ... We included all patients with newly diagnosed schizophrenia on antipsychotic monotherapy. The antipsychotic medications were ... The atypical antipsychotic agents, which are potent serotonin (5HT2A) receptor antagonists with less effect on D2 receptors, ...
Risperidone is an atypical antipsychotic agent that displays 5-HT2A receptor antagonism. Also displays high affinity at D2 ...
Pandurangi, A.K.; Buckley, P.F. Inflammation, antipsychotic drugs, and evidence for effectiveness of anti-inflammatory agents ... Sommer, I.E.; van Westrhenen, R.; Begemann, M.J.; de Witte, L.D.; Leucht, S.; Kahn, R.S. Efficacy of anti-inflammatory agents ... These findings imply that ginger may be useful as a cholesterol-lowering, antithrombotic, and anti-inflammatory agent [56] ( ... The majority of constituents in an ultra-processed food consist of preservatives, stabilizers, emulsifiers, bulking agents, ...
FANAPT is an atypical antipsychotic agent indicated for the treatment of schizophrenia in adults. (1) Efficacy was established ... Disruption of the bodys ability to reduce core body temperature has been attributed to antipsychotic agents. Appropriate care ... Observational studies suggest that, similar to atypical antipsychotic drugs, treatment with conventional antipsychotic drugs ... events of leukopenia/neutropenia have been reported temporally related to antipsychotic agents. Agranulocytosis (including ...
Antidepressants and antipsychotics. Individuals taking antidepressants or antipsychotics should be observed during the initial ... antiparkinsonian agents, antispasmotics, and antiemetics. ...
... an antipsychotic; Funguard, a candin antifungal agent; and Micardis, a long-acting angiotensin I receptor antagonist. In ... a pharmacologic stress imaging agent; AmBisome, a systemic antifungal agent; Micafungin, an injectable antifungal agent; and ...
Almost $1 million was spent on antithrombotic agents, followed by $563,000 for antipsychotics and $465,000 for opioids. ... For more information on medications prescribed to people with dementia, in particular antipsychotics, see Antipsychotics and ... 205,000 for dopaminergic agents (to treat symptoms of Parkinsons disease).. The percentage of funding which was out-of-pocket ... Out-of-pocket costs ranged between $5-$7. Anti-thrombotic agents had the highest average cost per script, followed by ...
Benzodiazepines, other anti-psychotics and dexmedetomidine were other frequently used agents. Haloperidol use was not ... Agents intervening against Delirium in the ICU (AID-ICU) is an international, multicentre, randomised, blinded, placebo- ... In our study, haloperidol was the main pharmacological agent used for delirium in adult patients regardless of delirium subtype ...
REalist Synthesis Of non-pharmacologicaL interVEntions for antipsychotic-induced weight gain (RESOLVE) in people living with ...
May enhance the effects of other psychotropic agents (e.g. antipsychotics, MAO inhibitors, antidepressants, benzodiazepines). ... Valproic acid and its salt forms (Na valproate, valproate semisodium) are anticonvulsant agents that dissociate in the ... and women of childbearing potential unless other agents failed to provide adequate symptom control or are otherwise ... 2 years who are clinically suspected of having hereditary mitochondrial disease only after other anticonvulsant agents have ...
... used to treat severe mental illnesses are not covered by Health Canada unless the patient has tried other antipsychotic agents ... The drugs benefit list includes four antipsychotic drugs that can be used only under limited conditions and require pre- ...
Currently, treatment options are limited to counselling as antipsychotic agents are linked to QT interval prolongation (the ...
Antipsychotic Agents, Lithium, Neuropsychology, Mental Health, Mental Disorders, Mood Disorders, Affective Disorders, Psychotic ...
... prolonging action of antipsychotic agents), or to improve absorption (bioavailability) by making the drug more lipophilic. ...
  • Hyperglycaemia is known occasionally to occur with conventional neuroleptics, but has more recently been associated with atypical antipsychotics especially clozapine and olanzapine. (
  • People with schizophrenia and other neuropsychiatric disorders are especially vulnerable to the development of TDs after exposure to conventional neuroleptics, anticholinergics, toxins, substances of abuse, and other agents. (
  • TDs are most common in patients with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder who have been treated with antipsychotic medication for long periods, but they occasionally occur in other patients as well. (
  • In order to alleviate the positive symptoms of schizophrenia, all antipsychotic agents act on the dopaminergic system. (
  • The novel atypical antipsychotic agent aripiprazole is a partial agonist at D 2 receptors that has been shown in clinical trials to be effective in treating both the positive and the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, and to be well tolerated, with a low propensity for EPS and no clinically significant weight gain, hyperprolactinaemia or corrected QT-interval prolongation. (
  • We tested the hypothesis that patients with schizophrenia who are using khat will fail to respond to standard antipsychotic treatment. (
  • Patients with newly diagnosed schizophrenia on antipsychotic monotherapy (n = 1007, 817 men) were included and categorized into khat and non-khat users. (
  • Khat use hinders an individual's response to initial antipsychotic drug treatment for schizophrenia. (
  • FANAPT is an atypical antipsychotic agent indicated for the treatment of schizophrenia in adults. (
  • Although and response to antipsychotic treatment in schizophrenia limited use may not be accompanied by serious conse- patients. (
  • Switching to aripiprazole from maintenance therapy with another antipsychotic also works well, provided the change is made gradually, involving tapering of the original medication. (
  • The use of antipsychotic drugs is common in the care of the elderly with dementia and associated behavioural problems, but until recently none of these agents had marketing authorisation for this indication. (
  • Tardive dyskinesia : report of the American Psychiatric Association Task Force on Late Neurological Effects of Antipsychotic Drugs. (
  • Task Force on Late Neurological Effects of Antipsychotic Drugs. (
  • Elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis treated with antipsychotic drugs are at an increased risk of death. (
  • Elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis who are treated with atypical antipsychotic drugs are at an increased risk of death and cerebrovascular-related adverse events, including stroke. (
  • Atypical antipsychotic drugs have been associated with metabolic changes that may increase cardiovascular/cerebrovascular risk. (
  • The drugs benefit list includes four antipsychotic drugs that can be used only under limited conditions and require pre-approval from Health Canada. (
  • These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. (
  • However, other adverse effects such as weight gain and metabolic changes are cause for concern with some atypical antipsychotics. (
  • Association of antipsychotic agent-induced weight gain with a polymorphism of the promotor region of the 5-HT2C receptor gene]. (
  • Association of HTR2C-759C/T and -697G/C polymorphisms with antipsychotic agent-induced weight gain]. (
  • Genetic predictors of antipsychotic-induced weight gain: a case-matched multi-gene study. (
  • Maguire GA. Prolactin elevation with antipsychotic medications: Mechanisms of action and clinical consequences. (
  • Antipsychotic medications were reviewed to determine their potential and the cause of substitution in association with khat use. (
  • The National Pregnancy Registry for Atypical Antipsychotics was created in order to evaluate the safety of atypical antipsychotic medications taken by women during pregnancy. (
  • While the preliminary data from this study is reassuring, larger numbers of participants are needed to provide more complete data regarding the reproductive safety of atypical antipsychotics as a class of medications. (
  • The National Pregnancy Registry for Atypical Antipsychotics continues to recruit pregnant women taking atypical antipsychotic medications. (
  • Antipsychotics, such as haloperidol, olanzapine, and risperidone, have been used with some success in augmenting SSRIs in patients with OCD, particularly in patients with comorbid Tourette disorder or other tic disorders. (
  • With olanzapine, other atypical antipsychotics may be considered. (
  • Because of the risks of toxicity, use only as an alternative to other less toxic anxiolytic agents (e.g., benzodiazepines) in most patients. (
  • Une recherche documentaire a été effectuée dans PubMed de 1980 à 2021 en utilisant diverses combinaisons de termes MeSH comme tabac, diabète, hypertension, dyslipidémie, trouble dépressif majeur, trouble bipolaire, schizophrénie. (
  • Risperidone is an atypical antipsychotic agent that displays 5-HT2A receptor antagonism. (
  • Geriatric patients with dementia-related psychosis treated with antipsychotic agents are at an increased risk of death. (
  • Antipsychotic agents, including prochlorperazine, are not approved for the treatment of dementia-related psychosis. (
  • The newer atypical or second-generation antipsychotic agents are used to treat a spectrum of psychiatric disorders, including psychotic disorders, bipolar disorder, major depression, PTSD and other anxiety disorders. (
  • Analyses of 17 placebo-controlled trials in geriatric patients mainly receiving atypical antipsychotic agents revealed an approximate 1.6- to 1.7-fold increase in mortality compared with that in patients receiving placebo. (
  • Observational studies suggest that conventional or first-generation antipsychotic agents also may increase mortality in such patients. (
  • Undesirable alterations have been observed in patients treated with atypical antipsychotics. (
  • Agents intervening against Delirium in the ICU (AID-ICU) is an international, multicentre, randomised, blinded, placebo-controlled trial investigates benefits and harms of treatment with haloperidol in patients with ICU-acquired delirium. (
  • said some prescriptions used to treat severe mental illnesses are not covered by Health Canada unless the patient has tried other antipsychotic agents first and experienced no improvement or suffered adverse reactions. (
  • Unlike conventional antipsychotic agents, atypical antipsychotics also exert activity at other receptors, and it is generally acknowledged that, compared with conventional antipsychotics, atypical agents are associated with a broader spectrum of clinical efficacy and are better tolerated. (
  • When compared with conventional antipsychotic agents in clinical trials, it is acknowledged that atypical agents are associated with a broader spectrum of efficacy, including effects on both positive and negative symptoms and, possibly, cognitive function, and that they are better tolerated, particularly in relation to EPS. (
  • Although they are associated with the use of neuroleptics, TDs apparently existed before the development of these agents. (
  • The management of hyperglycaemia depends on the causative agent. (
  • For example, people with fetal alcohol syndrome, other developmental disabilities, and other brain disorders are vulnerable to the development of TDs, even after receiving only 1 dose of the causative agent. (
  • conventional (prototypical, first-generation) antipsychotic and antiemetic agent. (
  • [ 16 ] There has also been some concern regarding corrected QT (QTc) prolongation observed with certain atypical anti- psychotic agents, although these agents may not be as arrhythmogenic as some conventional agents. (
  • Currently, treatment options are limited to counselling as antipsychotic agents are linked to QT interval prolongation (the prolongation of time between the heart contracting and relaxing) and sudden death if the user is also taking cocaine. (
  • however, optimum antipsychotic effect usually requires prolonged administration of the drug. (
  • Prodrugs are used typically to reduce toxicity caused by functional groups such as the carboxylate ion, to alter release properties (e.g., prolonging action of antipsychotic agents), or to improve absorption (bioavailability) by making the drug more lipophilic. (
  • Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. (
  • 64367] In rare cases, when another antihypertensive agent cannot be used to treat a pregnant patient, serial ultrasound examinations should be performed to assess the intraamniotic environment. (
  • The National Pregnancy Registry for Atypical Antipsychotics is a prospective pharmacovigilance program in which pregnant women between the ages of 18 and 45 are enrolled and interviewed during pregnancy. (
  • Initially confined to new-generation atypical antipsychotics in which an approximately 1.6-1.7-fold increase in mortality has been demonstrated, recent evidence points to a risk of at least similar magnitude with older-generation typical agents, prompting warnings by UK and US medicines regulators about an increased risk of death associated with the entire class, atypical and typical. (
  • No studies thus far have demonstrated an increase in risk of malformations in children exposed to atypical antipsychotics. (
  • These findings, taken together with other studies , suggest that prenatal exposure to atypical antipsychotics does not appear to significantly increase the risk for congenital malformations, although we have very few documented exposures to some of the newest atypicals, including lurasidone (Latuda), iloperidone (Fanapt), brexpiprazole (Rexulti), and cariprazine (Vraylar). (
  • Individuals taking antidepressants or antipsychotics should be observed during the initial phase of dose adjustment and advised not to drive if they show any evidence of drowsiness or hypotension. (