Antipsychotic Agents: Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.Clozapine: A tricylic dibenzodiazepine, classified as an atypical antipsychotic agent. It binds several types of central nervous system receptors, and displays a unique pharmacological profile. Clozapine is a serotonin antagonist, with strong binding to 5-HT 2A/2C receptor subtype. It also displays strong affinity to several dopaminergic receptors, but shows only weak antagonism at the dopamine D2 receptor, a receptor commonly thought to modulate neuroleptic activity. Agranulocytosis is a major adverse effect associated with administration of this agent.DibenzothiazepinesRisperidone: A selective blocker of DOPAMINE D2 RECEPTORS and SEROTONIN 5-HT2 RECEPTORS that acts as an atypical antipsychotic agent. It has been shown to improve both positive and negative symptoms in the treatment of SCHIZOPHRENIA.Haloperidol: A phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat SCHIZOPHRENIA and other PSYCHOSES. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, DELUSIONAL DISORDERS, ballism, and TOURETTE SYNDROME (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and the chorea of HUNTINGTON DISEASE. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable HICCUPS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)Benzodiazepines: A group of two-ring heterocyclic compounds consisting of a benzene ring fused to a diazepine ring.Schizophrenia: A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.Butyrophenones: Compounds containing phenyl-1-butanone.Isoindoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number two carbon, in contrast to INDOLES which have the nitrogen adjacent to the six-membered ring.Receptors, Dopamine D2: A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Dopamine Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate DOPAMINE RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine or exogenous agonists. Many drugs used in the treatment of psychotic disorders (ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) are dopamine antagonists, although their therapeutic effects may be due to long-term adjustments of the brain rather than to the acute effects of blocking dopamine receptors. Dopamine antagonists have been used for several other clinical purposes including as ANTIEMETICS, in the treatment of Tourette syndrome, and for hiccup. Dopamine receptor blockade is associated with NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME.Pirenzepine: An antimuscarinic agent that inhibits gastric secretion at lower doses than are required to affect gastrointestinal motility, salivary, central nervous system, cardiovascular, ocular, and urinary function. It promotes the healing of duodenal ulcers and due to its cytoprotective action is beneficial in the prevention of duodenal ulcer recurrence. It also potentiates the effect of other antiulcer agents such as CIMETIDINE and RANITIDINE. It is generally well tolerated by patients.Raclopride: A substituted benzamide that has antipsychotic properties. It is a dopamine D2 receptor (see RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE D2) antagonist.Psychotic Disorders: Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)Apomorphine: A derivative of morphine that is a dopamine D2 agonist. It is a powerful emetic and has been used for that effect in acute poisoning. It has also been used in the diagnosis and treatment of parkinsonism, but its adverse effects limit its use.PiperazinesReceptors, Dopamine D3: A subtype of dopamine D2 receptors that are highly expressed in the LIMBIC SYSTEM of the brain.Receptors, Dopamine: Cell-surface proteins that bind dopamine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Dopamine Agonists: Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.ThiazolesIsoxazoles: Azoles with an OXYGEN and a NITROGEN next to each other at the 1,2 positions, in contrast to OXAZOLES that have nitrogens at the 1,3 positions.Receptors, Serotonin: Cell-surface proteins that bind SEROTONIN and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Several types of serotonin receptors have been recognized which differ in their pharmacology, molecular biology, and mode of action.Serotonin Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate serotonin receptors, thereby blocking the actions of serotonin or SEROTONIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Dopamine: One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.Thioridazine: A phenothiazine antipsychotic used in the management of PHYCOSES, including SCHIZOPHRENIA.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Catalepsy: A condition characterized by inactivity, decreased responsiveness to stimuli, and a tendency to maintain an immobile posture. The limbs tend to remain in whatever position they are placed (waxy flexibility). Catalepsy may be associated with PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS (e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA, CATATONIC), nervous system drug toxicity, and other conditions.Schizophrenic Psychology: Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Basal Ganglia Diseases: Diseases of the BASAL GANGLIA including the PUTAMEN; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; claustrum; AMYGDALA; and CAUDATE NUCLEUS. DYSKINESIAS (most notably involuntary movements and alterations of the rate of movement) represent the primary clinical manifestations of these disorders. Common etiologies include CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES; and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.Chlorpromazine: The prototypical phenothiazine antipsychotic drug. Like the other drugs in this class chlorpromazine's antipsychotic actions are thought to be due to long-term adaptation by the brain to blocking DOPAMINE RECEPTORS. Chlorpromazine has several other actions and therapeutic uses, including as an antiemetic and in the treatment of intractable hiccup.Perphenazine: An antipsychotic phenothiazine derivative with actions and uses similar to those of CHLORPROMAZINE.Polypharmacy: The use of multiple drugs administered to the same patient, most commonly seen in elderly patients. It includes also the administration of excessive medication. Since in the United States most drugs are dispensed as single-agent formulations, polypharmacy, though using many drugs administered to the same patient, must be differentiated from DRUG COMBINATIONS, single preparations containing two or more drugs as a fixed dose, and from DRUG THERAPY, COMBINATION, two or more drugs administered separately for a combined effect. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Dyskinesia, Drug-Induced: Abnormal movements, including HYPERKINESIS; HYPOKINESIA; TREMOR; and DYSTONIA, associated with the use of certain medications or drugs. Muscles of the face, trunk, neck, and extremities are most commonly affected. Tardive dyskinesia refers to abnormal hyperkinetic movements of the muscles of the face, tongue, and neck associated with the use of neuroleptic agents (see ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1199)Fluphenazine: A phenothiazine used in the treatment of PSYCHOSES. Its properties and uses are generally similar to those of CHLORPROMAZINE.Phenothiazines: Compounds containing dibenzo-1,4-thiazine. Some of them are neuroactive.Phencyclidine: A hallucinogen formerly used as a veterinary anesthetic, and briefly as a general anesthetic for humans. Phencyclidine is similar to KETAMINE in structure and in many of its effects. Like ketamine, it can produce a dissociative state. It exerts its pharmacological action through inhibition of NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE). As a drug of abuse, it is known as PCP and Angel Dust.Startle Reaction: A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.Receptor, Serotonin, 5-HT2A: A serotonin receptor subtype found widely distributed in peripheral tissues where it mediates the contractile responses of variety of tissues that contain SMOOTH MUSCLE. Selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonists include KETANSERIN. The 5-HT2A subtype is also located in BASAL GANGLIA and CEREBRAL CORTEX of the BRAIN where it mediates the effects of HALLUCINOGENS such as LSD.Quinolones: A group of derivatives of naphthyridine carboxylic acid, quinoline carboxylic acid, or NALIDIXIC ACID.Off-Label Use: The practice of prescribing or using a drug outside the scope of the drug's official approved label as designated by a regulatory agency concerning the treatment of a particular disease or condition.Akathisia, Drug-Induced: A condition associated with the use of certain medications and characterized by an internal sense of motor restlessness often described as an inability to resist the urge to move.Sulpiride: A dopamine D2-receptor antagonist. It has been used therapeutically as an antidepressant, antipsychotic, and as a digestive aid. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Psychomotor Agitation: A feeling of restlessness associated with increased motor activity. This may occur as a manifestation of nervous system drug toxicity or other conditions.Psychiatric Status Rating Scales: Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.Receptors, Serotonin, 5-HT2: A subclass of G-protein coupled SEROTONIN receptors that couple preferentially to the GQ-G11 G-PROTEINS resulting in increased intracellular levels of INOSITOL PHOSPHATES and free CALCIUM.Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome: A potentially fatal syndrome associated primarily with the use of neuroleptic agents (see ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) which are in turn associated with dopaminergic receptor blockade (see RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) in the BASAL GANGLIA and HYPOTHALAMUS, and sympathetic dysregulation. Clinical features include diffuse MUSCLE RIGIDITY; TREMOR; high FEVER; diaphoresis; labile blood pressure; cognitive dysfunction; and autonomic disturbances. Serum CPK level elevation and a leukocytosis may also be present. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1199; Psychiatr Serv 1998 Sep;49(9):1163-72)Psychotropic Drugs: A loosely defined grouping of drugs that have effects on psychological function. Here the psychotropic agents include the antidepressive agents, hallucinogens, and tranquilizing agents (including the antipsychotics and anti-anxiety agents).Neurotensin: A biologically active tridecapeptide isolated from the hypothalamus. It has been shown to induce hypotension in the rat, to stimulate contraction of guinea pig ileum and rat uterus, and to cause relaxation of rat duodenum. There is also evidence that it acts as both a peripheral and a central nervous system neurotransmitter.

The social and economic effects of manic depressive illness and of its treatment in lithium clinics. (1/3659)

Advising about the employment of those who have had manic depressive episodes requires Occupational Health Physicians to obtain, with consent, an objective account of previous episodes and to appreciate the enormous range of manic and depressive manifestations. Familiarity is needed with the likely effects of treatment of episodes and the benefits and problems of prophylaxis--not just in general but in individual cases, for example, where driving is required. This article summarizes research into the effects of lithium preparations on the course of the illness, thyroid and renal function and the risk of suicide. The author found that changing from treatment of episodes to continuous prophylaxis benefited employment and personal relationships without causing body weight problems. Many patients do well in life if supported by an experienced professional team, with 61% requiring no further admissions once on lithium, and with an 86% reduction in admissions achieved in our local clinic.  (+info)

S-16924 [(R)-2-[1-[2-(2,3-dihydro-benzo[1,4]dioxin-5-yloxy)-ethyl]- pyrrolidin-3yl]-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-ethanone], a novel, potential antipsychotic with marked serotonin1A agonist properties: III. Anxiolytic actions in comparison with clozapine and haloperidol. (2/3659)

S-16924 is a potential antipsychotic that displays agonist and antagonist properties at serotonin (5-HT)1A and 5-HT2A/2C receptors, respectively. In a pigeon conflict procedure, the benzodiazepine clorazepate (CLZ) increased punished responses, an action mimicked by S-16924, whereas the atypical antipsychotic clozapine and the neuroleptic haloperidol were inactive. Similarly, in a Vogel conflict paradigm in rats, CLZ increased punished responses, an action shared by S-16924 but not by clozapine or haloperidol. This action of S-16924 was abolished by the 5-HT1A antagonist WAY-100,635. Ultrasonic vocalizations in rats were inhibited by CLZ, S-16924, clozapine, and haloperidol. However, although WAY-100,635 abolished the action of S-16924, it did not affect clozapine and haloperidol. In a rat elevated plus-maze, CLZ, but not S-16924, clozapine, and haloperidol, increased open-arm entries. Like CLZ, S-16924 increased social interaction in rats, whereas clozapine and haloperidol were inactive. WAY-100,635 abolished this action of S-16924. CLZ, S-16924, clozapine, and haloperidol decreased aggressive interactions in isolated mice, but this effect of S-16924 was not blocked by WAY-100, 635. All drugs inhibited motor behavior, but the separation to anxiolytic doses was more pronounced for S-16924 than for CLZ. Finally, in freely moving rats, CLZ and S-16924, but not clozapine and haloperidol, decreased dialysis levels of 5-HT in the nucleus accumbens: this action of S-16924 was blocked by WAY-100,165. In conclusion, in contrast to haloperidol and clozapine, S-16924 possessed a broad-based profile of anxiolytic activity at doses lower than those provoking motor disruption. Its principal mechanism of action was activation of 5-HT1A (auto)receptors.  (+info)

Ergoline derivative LEK-8829-induced turning behavior in rats with unilateral striatal ibotenic acid lesions: interaction with bromocriptine. (3/3659)

LEK-8829 [9,10-didehydro-N-methyl-(2-propynyl)-6-methyl-8- aminomethylergoline bimaleinate] is an antagonist of dopamine D2 receptors and serotonin (5-HT)2 and 5-HT1A receptors in intact animals and a D1 receptor agonist in dopamine-depleted animals. In the present study, we used rats with unilateral striatal lesions with ibotenic acid (IA) to investigate the dopamine receptor activities of LEK-8829 in a model with innervated dopamine receptors. The IA-lesioned rats circled ipsilaterally when challenged with apomorphine, the mixed agonist on D1/D2 receptors. LEK-8829 induced a dose-dependent contralateral turning that was blocked by D1 receptor antagonist SCH-23390. The treatment with D1 receptor agonist SKF-82958 induced ipsilateral turning, whereas the treatment with D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol induced contralateral posture. The combined treatment with SKF-82958 and haloperidol resulted in a weak contralateral turning, indicating the possible receptor mechanism of contralateral turning induced by LEK-8829. Bromocriptine induced a weak ipsilateral turning that was blocked by haloperidol. The ipsilateral turning induced by bromocriptine was significantly potentiated by the coadministration of a low dose but not by a high dose of LEK-8829. The potentiation of turning was blocked either by SCH-23390 or by haloperidol. The potentiation of ipsilateral turning suggests the costimulation of D2 and D1 receptors by bromocriptine and LEK-8829, respectively, whereas the lack of potentiation by the highest dose of LEK-8829 may be explained by the opposing activity of LEK-8829 and bromocriptine at D2 receptors. We propose that the D2 and 5HT2 receptor-blocking and D1 receptor-stimulating profile of LEK-8829 is promising for the treatment of negative symptoms of schizophrenia.  (+info)

Mixed agonist-antagonist properties of clozapine at different human cloned muscarinic receptor subtypes expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. (4/3659)

We recently reported that clozapine behaves as a partial agonist at the cloned human m4 muscarinic receptor subtype. In the present study, we investigated whether the drug could elicit similar effects at the cloned human m1, m2, and m3 muscarinic receptor subtypes expressed in the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Clozapine elicited a concentration-dependent stimulation of [3H]inositol phosphates accumulation in CHO cells expressing either the m1 or the m3 receptor subtype. Moreover, clozapine inhibited forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation and enhanced [35S] GTP gamma S binding to membrane G proteins in CHO cells expressing the m2 receptor. These agonist effects of clozapine were antagonized by atropine. The intrinsic activity of clozapine was lower than that of the full cholinergic agonist carbachol, and, when the compounds were combined, clozapine potently reduced the receptor responses to carbachol. These data indicate that clozapine behaves as a partial agonist at different muscarinic receptor subtypes and may provide new hints for understanding the receptor mechanisms underlying the antipsychotic efficacy of the drug.  (+info)

Low-dose clozapine for the treatment of drug-induced psychosis in Parkinson's disease. The Parkinson Study Group. (5/3659)

BACKGROUND: Drug-induced psychosis is a difficult problem to manage in patients with Parkinson's disease. Multiple open-label studies have reported that treatment with clozapine at low doses ameliorates psychosis without worsening parkinsonism. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of low doses of clozapine (6.25 to 50 mg per day) in 60 patients at six sites over a period of 14 months. The patients (mean age, 72 years) had idiopathic Parkinson's disease and drug-induced psychosis of at least four weeks' duration. All the patients continued to receive fixed doses of antiparkinsonian drugs during the four weeks of the trial. Blood counts were monitored weekly in all the patients. RESULTS: The mean dose of clozapine was 24.7 mg per day. The patients in the clozapine group had significantly more improvement than those in the placebo group in all three of the measures used to determine the severity of psychosis. The mean (+/-SE) scores on the Clinical Global Impression Scale improved by 1.6+/-0.3 points for the patients receiving clozapine, as compared with 0.5+/-0.2 point for those receiving placebo (P<0.001). The score on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale improved by 9.3+/-1.5 points for the patients receiving clozapine, as compared with 2.6+/-1.3 points for those receiving placebo (P=0.002). The score on the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms improved by 11.8+/-2.0 points for the patients receiving clozapine, as compared with 3.8+/-1.9 points for those receiving placebo (P=0.01). Seven patients treated with clozapine had an improvement of at least three on the seven-point Clinical Global Impression Scale, as compared with only one patient given placebo. Clozapine treatment improved tremor and had no deleterious effect on the severity of parkinsonism. In one patient, clozapine was discontinued because of leukopenia. CONCLUSIONS: Clozapine, at daily doses of 50 mg or less, is safe and significantly improves drug-induced psychosis without worsening parkinsonism.  (+info)

Antagonistic effects of trifluoperazine, imipramine, and chlorpromazine against acetylcholine-induced contractions in isolated rat uterus. (6/3659)

AIM: To examine the effects and affinity of some phenothizines (trifluoperazine, Tri and chlorpromazine, Chl) and antidepressant (imipramine, Imi) drugs on acetylcholine (ACh)-induced uterine contraction. METHODS: Isotonic contractions of rat uterine strips were recorded. ACh was administrated to induce maximal contraction before exchange of nutrient solution. ACh was added 5 min after the testing drugs. The nutrient solution was exchanged 4 times after each agonist (ACh or other agents) to produce maximal contraction. RESULTS: Atropine (Atr, 0.029-2.9 mumol.L-1), 4-DAMP (3.6-360 nmol.L-1), pirenzepine (Pir, 0.23-23.5 mumol.L-1), and AF-DX 116 (0.7-35.6 mumol.L-1) competitively antagonized the muscular uterine concentration induced by ACh (0.068-36068 mumol.L-1). The Schild plot was linear (r = 1.00). The pKB and slopes values (95% confidence limits) were 9.28 +/- 0.12 and 1.00 +/- 0.10 to Atr, 9.06 +/- 0.10 and 1.10 +/- 0.08 to 4-DAMP, 7.03 +/- 0.15 and 0.99 +/- 0.12 to Pir, and 5.60 +/- 0.08 and 1.00 +/- 0.19 to AF-DX 116. Tri 0.01-2 mumol.L-1 (pKB = 8.39 +/- 0.04) and Imi 94-940 nmol.L-1 (pKB = 7.21 +/- 0.10) produced also a competitive antagonism of the muscular uterine contraction induced by ACh (r = 1.00), but the slope was only 0.60 +/- 0.03 to Tri or 0.83 +/- 0.16 to Imi. Chl 2.8-5.6 mumol.L-1 produced a weak antagonism on amplitude of muscular contraction induced by the cholinomimetic. CONCLUSION: The muscarinic receptors on uterus behaved as M3 subtype. Tri and Imi, but not Chl, were competitive antagonist of muscarinic receptors of uterus. Imi behaved a simple competitive antagonist at a single site on myometrium, but Tri was not a simple competitive agent at a single site.  (+info)

The use of atypical antipsychotics in the management of schizophrenia. (7/3659)

Long-term drug treatment of schizophrenia with conventional antipsychotics has limitations: an estimated quarter to one third of patients are treatment-resistant; conventional antipsychotics have only a modest impact upon negative symptoms (poverty of thought, social withdrawal and loss of affect); and adverse effects, particularly extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS). Newer, so-called atypical, antipsychotics such as olanzapine, risperidone, sertindole and clozapine (an old drug which was re-introduced in 1990) are claimed to address these limitations. Atypical agents are, at a minimum, at least as effective as conventional drugs such as haloperidol. They also cause substantially fewer extrapyramidal symptoms. However, some other adverse effects are more common than with conventional drugs. For example, clozapine carries a significant risk of serious blood disorders, for which special monitoring is mandatory; it also causes troublesome drowsiness and increased salivation more often than conventional agents. Some atypical agents cause more weight gain or QT prolongation than older agents. The choice of therapy is, therefore, not straightforward. At present, atypical agents represent an advance for patients with severe or intolerable EPS. Most published evidence exists to support the use of clozapine, which has also been shown to be effective in schizophrenia refractory to conventional agents. However, the need for compliance with blood count monitoring and its sedative properties make careful patient selection important. The extent of any additional direct benefit offered by atypical agents on negative symptoms is not yet clear. The lack of a depot formulation for atypical drugs may pose a significant practical problem. To date, only two double-blind studies in which atypical agents were compared directly have been published. Neither provides compelling evidence for the choice of one agent over another. Atypical agents are many times more expensive than conventional drugs. Although drug treatment constitutes only a small proportion of the costs of managing schizophrenia, the additional annual cost of the use of atypical agents in, say, a quarter of the likely U.K. schizophrenic population would be about 56 M pound sterling. There is only limited evidence of cost-effectiveness. Atypical antipsychotics are not currently licensed for other conditions where conventional antipsychotics are commonly used, such as behaviour disturbance or dementia in the elderly. Their dose, and place in treatment in such cases have yet to be determined.  (+info)

Synergistic interactions between ampakines and antipsychotic drugs. (8/3659)

Tests were made for interactions between antipsychotic drugs and compounds that enhance synaptic currents mediated by alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid-type glutamate receptors ("ampakines"). Typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs decreased methamphetamine-induced hyperactivity in rats; the effects of near or even subthreshold doses of the antipsychotics were greatly enhanced by the ampakines. Interactions between the ampakine CX516 and low doses of different antipsychotics were generally additive and often synergistic. The ampakine did not exacerbate neuroleptic-induced catalepsy, indicating that the interaction between the different pharmacological classes was selective. These results suggest that positive modulators of cortical glutamatergic systems may be useful adjuncts in treating schizophrenia.  (+info)

*Iloperidone

... a novel atypical antipsychotic agent". The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 274 (3): 1404-13. PMID ... similar to other atypical antipsychotics. The older typical antipsychotics are primarily dopamine antagonists. Iloperidone has ... Iloperidone, also known as Fanapt, Fanapta, and previously known as Zomaril, is an atypical antipsychotic for the treatment of ... In a 2013 study in a comparison of 15 antipsychotic drugs in effectivity in treating schizophrenic symptoms, iloperidone was ...

*Clorotepine

March 1994). "Binding of typical and atypical antipsychotic agents to 5-hydroxytryptamine-6 and 5-hydroxytryptamine-7 receptors ... January 2002). "Pyrrolo[1,3]benzothiazepine-based atypical antipsychotic agents. Synthesis, structure-activity relationship, ... C. R Ganellin; D. J Triggle; F.. Macdonald (1997). Dictionary of pharmacological agents. CRC Press. p. 500. ISBN 978-0-412- ... Clorotepine (INN; brand names Clotepin, Clopiben), also known as octoclothepin or octoclothepine, is an antipsychotic of the ...

*Butaperazine

Typical antipsychotic Phenothiazine "Evaluation of a new antipsychotic agent. Butaperazine maleate (repoise maleate)". JAMA: ... Butaperazine (Repoise, Tyrylen) is a typical antipsychotic of the phenothiazine class. ...

*Chlorprothixene

So cotreatment with another, more potent, antipsychotic agent is needed. Chlorprothixene is structurally related to ... "Binding of typical and atypical antipsychotic agents to 5-hydroxytryptamine-6 and 5-hydroxytryptamine-7 receptors". J. ... antipsychotic effects, anxiolysis, weight gain D1, D2, D3: antipsychotic effects, sedation, extrapyramidal side effects, ... Also, like most antipsychotics, chlorprothixene has antiemetic effects. Chlorprothixene has a strong sedative activity with a ...

*Piquindone

Davidson AB, Boff E, MacNeil DA, Wenger J, Cook L (1983). "Pharmacological effects of Ro 22-1319: a new antipsychotic agent". ... Piquindone (Ro 22-1319) is an atypical antipsychotic with a tricyclic structure that was developed in the 1980s but was never ... isoquinoline antipsychotics". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 24 (9): 1026-34. doi:10.1021/jm00141a002. PMID 6116805. ... "Structural requirements of Na+-dependent antidopaminergic agents: Tropapride, Piquindone, Zetidoline, and Metoclopramide. ...

*Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome

Some antipsychotic agents may be more risky during withdrawal than others, especially clozapine, olanzapine or low potency ... Antipsychotics are generally ineffective for benzodiazepine withdrawal-related psychosis. Antipsychotics should be avoided ... "Enhancement of drug withdrawal convulsion by combinations of phenobarbital and antipsychotic agents". The Japanese Journal of ... Bobolakis, Ioannis (2000). "Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome After Antipsychotic Drug Administration During Benzodiazepine ...

*Azapirone

September 1991). "The effects of umespirone as a potential anxiolytic and antipsychotic agent". Pharmacology Biochemistry and ... As a result, further development has commenced to bring more selective of anxiolytic agents to the market. An example of this ... Kato T, Hirose A, Ohno Y, Shimizu H, Tanaka H, Nakamura M (December 1990). "Binding profile of SM-9018, a novel antipsychotic ... Azapirones are a class of drugs used as anxiolytics, antidepressants, and antipsychotics. They are commonly used as add-ons to ...

*Umespirone

September 1991). "The effects of umespirone as a potential anxiolytic and antipsychotic agent". Pharmacology Biochemistry and ... Krähling H, Fuchs A, Ruhland M, Schön U, Mol F, Tulp M (November 1988). "KC 9172 (free base of KC 7218)--an antipsychotic/ ... Umespirone (KC-9172) is a drug of the azapirone class which possesses anxiolytic and antipsychotic properties. It behaves as a ... Ruhland M, Krähling H, Fuchs A, Schön U (November 1988). "KC 9172 (free base of KC 7218)--an antipsychotic/anxiolytic compound ...

*Methdilazine

"Antibacterial property of the antipsychotic agent prochlorperazine, and its synergism with methdilazine". Microbiol Res. 160 (1 ... The ring-contracted analog, methdilazine shows only very weak activity as a tranquilizer; instead, that agent constitutes an ... "Antimicrobial properties of methdilazine and its synergism with antibiotics and some chemotherapeutic agents". ...

*Noyori asymmetric hydrogenation

An antipsychotic agent BMS 181100 is synthesized using BINAP/diamine-Ru catalyst. Midland Alpine Borane Reduction Corey-Itsuno ... and the antipsychotic agent BMS181100. The stoichiometric asymmetric reduction of ketones has long been known, but a practical ...

*Management of schizophrenia

"Effect of the antipsychotic agent amisulpride on glucose lowering and insulin secretion". Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism. 14 (4 ... Most people on antipsychotics get side effects. People on typical antipsychotics tend to have a higher rate of extrapyramidal ... Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) Investigators (2005). "Effectiveness of Antipsychotic Drugs ... Most antipsychotics are thought to take around 7 to 14 days to have their main effect. However, these drugs fail to ...

*R-type calcium channel

"Inhibition of human alpha1E subunit-mediated ca2+ channels by the antipsychotic agent chlorpromazine". Acta Physiol. Scand. 173 ...

*3-HO-PCP

Itzhak Y (1988). "Pharmacological specificity of some psychotomimetic and antipsychotic agents for the sigma and PCP binding ...

*Bifeprunox

"Towards a new generation of potential antipsychotic agents combining D2 and 5-HT1A receptor activities". J. Med. Chem. 50 (4): ... Conventional antipsychotics are classed into typical and atypical. The typical antipsychotics, such as chlorpromazine and ... The atypical antipsychotics started with clozapine, these are classified as multireceptor interacting compounds, acting as an ... Bifeprunox and other novel atypical antipsychotics will instead of antagonizing D2 receptors, will act as partial agonists, as ...

*Perospirone

"Steady-State Pharmacokinetics of a New Antipsychotic Agent Perospirone and Its Active Metabolite, and Its Relationship". ... Has a higher incidence of extrapyramidal side effects than the other atypical antipsychotics, but still less than that seen ... Perospirone (Lullan) is an atypical antipsychotic of the azapirone family. It was introduced in Japan by Dainippon Sumitomo ... Seeman, P; Tallerico, T (March 1998). "Antipsychotic drugs which elicit little or no parkinsonism bind more loosely than ...

*Mazapertine

... (RWJ-37796) is an antipsychotic agent that was developed by Johnson & Johnson but never marketed. It exerts its ... "Orally Active Benzamide Antipsychotic Agents with Affinity for Dopamine D2, Serotonin 5-HT1A, and Adrenergic α1Receptors". ... "Incremental dosage of the new antipsychotic mazapertine induces tolerance to cardiovascular and cognitive effects in healthy ...

*Sonepiprazole

... selective human dopamine D4 receptor antagonists as potential antipsychotic agents". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 40 (17): ... As a result, it was investigated as an antipsychotic for the treatment of schizophrenia in a placebo-controlled clinical trial ...

*Ziprasidone

Schmidt AW, Lebel LA, Howard HR, Zorn SH (2001). "Ziprasidone: a novel antipsychotic agent with a unique human receptor binding ... actions of antiparkinsonian and antipsychotic agents". J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 282 (1): 181-91. PMID 9223553. Bymaster FP, ... Withdrawal of antipsychotic drugs after long-term therapy should always be gradual and closely monitored to avoid the risk of ... Unlike many other antipsychotics, ziprasidone has no significant affinity for the mACh receptors, and as such lacks any ...

*Schizoaffective disorder

Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic that is recognized as being particularly effective when other antipsychotic agents have ... Paliperidone is an antipsychotic with FDA approval for the treatment of schizoaffective disorder. Antipsychotics should be used ... There is no single antipsychotic of choice in treating schizoaffective disorder, but atypical antipsychotics should be ... Atypical antipsychotics carry a risk of metabolic syndrome, including weight gain, increased blood sugar, and increased blood ...

*History of general anesthesia

Janssen synthesized nearly all of the butyrophenone class of antipsychotic agents, beginning with haloperidol (1958) and ... All I will do is to give a hint or two as to names-or the name-to be applied to the state produced and the agent. The state ... Xenon has recently been approved in some jurisdictions as an anaesthetic agent which does not act as a greenhouse gas. History ... Spierdijk J, van Kleef J, Nauta J, Stanley TH, de Lange S (1980). "Alfentanil: a new narcotic induction agent". Anesthesiology ...

*Foster care

... and antipsychotic agents (53.2%). The study also showed that youth in foster care are frequently treated with concomitant ...

*Blonanserin

Suzuki, K; Hiyama, Y; Une, T; Fujiwara, I (November 2002). "Crystal structure of an antipsychotic agent, 2-(4-ethyl-1- ... a novel antipsychotic agent". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 15 (4): 1055-9. doi:10.1016/j.bmcl.2004.12.028. PMID ... The use of atypical antipsychotics as a first-line treatment for schizophrenia is controversial. As with many of the atypical ... Many antipsychotics, such as haloperidol, chlorpromazine, risperidone and olanzapine primarily antagonize serotonin 5-HT2A and ...

*Anti-Hu associated encephalitis

For hallucinations, delusions, and mood disturbances, second generation antipsychotic agents (e.g., olanzapine, clozapine) are ...

*Psychopharmacology revolution

Minor chemical manipulations in the chemical structure of chlorpromazine was used to create novel antipsychotic agents such as ... Blockade of the D2 receptors is thought to underlie the antipsychotic effect of the typical antipsychotics. However, in the ... Nevertheless related agents such as phenelzine and isocarboxazid are still on the market. In addition, tranylcypromine is a non ... A limitation of these agents is their potential to cause hypertension so their safety is not guaranteed. However, it seems that ...

*Cause of obsessive-compulsive disorder

OCD may be treated with antipsychotic agents, however psychostimulants agents have also shown some promise in alleviating the ... Dopaminergic systems are implicated in OCD by the efficacy of dopaminergic agents, the fact that PANDAS may be implicated, and ... and atypical antipsychotics that also have antagonistic effects at this receptor to attenuate the effect of SSRIs. Clinical ... and several studies have shown that atypical antipsychotics augment the effects of SSRIs in refractory OCD patients (Bloch et ...

*List of investigational anxiolytics

... atypical antipsychotic / 5-HT1A, D2 and D3 receptor partial agonist and 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, 5-HT7, α1-adrenergic, α2-adrenergic, ... serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine releasing agent and 5-HT1 and 5-HT2 receptor agonist Pomaglumetad methionil (DB-103, LY- ... atypical antipsychotic / 5-HT2A, 5-HT6, 5-HT7, D2, D3, D4, and α1-adrenergic receptor antagonist [12] Midomafetamine (MDMA; " ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Second-generation antipsychotic medications in the treatment of mood disorders. T2 - Focus on aripiprazole. AU - Buckley, Peter F.. PY - 2005/1/1. Y1 - 2005/1/1. N2 - Second-generation antipsychotic medications offer a broader range of therapeutic efficacies than first-generation agents. Consequently, our field has witnessed a rapid expansion of the use of second-generation antipsychotic drugs for several conditions beyond psychosis. The use of second-generation antipsychotic medications has been most pronounced in mood disorders, especially in bipolar disorders. Information about the agents clozapine, risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, ziprasidone and aripiprazole in terms of their efficacy and tolerability in bipolar disorder is now available. Aripiprazole, a new agent whose proposed mechanism(s) of action differs from that of other agents, has been shown in placebo-controlled comparative trials in bipolar patients to be an effective and well tolerated treatment option for ...
In psychotic disorders, early intervention with antipsychotic medications increases the likelihood of favourable long-term course. However, the pharmacologic management especially with conventional antipsychotic medications is complicated by a high rate of adverse effects including sexual dysfunction. This study aims to determine the demographic and clinical factors associated with sexual dysfunction among male psychiatric outpatients on conventional antipsychotic medications in South-western Nigeria. Two hundred and seventy five consecutive male outpatients with psychotic disorders on conventional antipsychotic medications were interviewed. Data was collected on demographic characteristics, illness-related and medication-related variables. Illness severity was assessed with the Brief psychiatric rating scale. The International Index of Erectile Function questionnaire was used to assess for sexual dysfunctions. A total of 111 (40.4%) respondents had one or more forms of sexual dysfunction. Sexual desire
Title:Antipsychotic Drugs: From Receptor-binding Profiles to Metabolic Side Effects. VOLUME: 16 ISSUE: 8. Author(s):Spyridon Siafis, Dimitrios Tzachanis, Myrto Samara and Georgios Papazisis*. Affiliation:Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, 3rd Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki. Keywords:Receptor-binding profiles, antipsychotics, metabolic side effects, neurotransmitters, obesity, diabetes, metabolic regulation, feeding behavior.. Abstract:Background: Antipsychotic-induced metabolic side effects are major concerns in psychopharmacology and clinical psychiatry. Their pathogenetic mechanisms are still not elucidated. Methods: Herein, we review the ...
The major finding of this study is that inverse agonism at the h5-HT2C-INI receptor is not a reliable predictor of atypical antipsychotic activity. Additionally, several potent 5-HT2-family antagonists with equivocal (e.g., M100907, ritanserin) or no (isoclozapine, mianserin, amitriptyline) antipsychotic activity were found to be potent and effective inverse agonists at the h5-HT2C-INI receptor. These results indicate that inverse agonist activity at the h5-HT2C-INI receptor does not, by itself, reliably distinguish between typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs.. Several prior studies have described inverse agonist actions of typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs at 5-HT2C and 5-HT2A receptors (Barker et al., 1994; Westphal and Sanders-Bush, 1994; Labrecque et al., 1995; Egan et al., 1998;Herrick-Davis et al., 2000). Thus, Egan et al. (1998) were the first to systematically evaluate a large series of typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs for their inverse agonist actions at h5-HT2A ...
The major finding of this study is that inverse agonism at the h5-HT2C-INI receptor is not a reliable predictor of atypical antipsychotic activity. Additionally, several potent 5-HT2-family antagonists with equivocal (e.g., M100907, ritanserin) or no (isoclozapine, mianserin, amitriptyline) antipsychotic activity were found to be potent and effective inverse agonists at the h5-HT2C-INI receptor. These results indicate that inverse agonist activity at the h5-HT2C-INI receptor does not, by itself, reliably distinguish between typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs.. Several prior studies have described inverse agonist actions of typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs at 5-HT2C and 5-HT2A receptors (Barker et al., 1994; Westphal and Sanders-Bush, 1994; Labrecque et al., 1995; Egan et al., 1998;Herrick-Davis et al., 2000). Thus, Egan et al. (1998) were the first to systematically evaluate a large series of typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs for their inverse agonist actions at h5-HT2A ...
Objective: A recent meta-analysis has indicated that, in patients with dementia, the use of atypical antipsychotics is associated with an excess mortality. Later observational studies have suggested that conventional antipsychotics may pose an even greater risk of death. None of these studies could evaluate the risk associated with single antipsychotics nor could they provide any conclusive evidence concerning the risk among nursing home residents. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to compare the risk of death associated with atypical and conventional antipsychotics in a large population of nursing home residents with dementia.. Method: We identified 6,524 new users of atypical antipsychotics and 3,205 new users of conventional antipsychotics living in 1,581 Medicare- or Medicaid-certified nursing homes in 5 US states during the years 1998-2000. The outcome measure was all-cause mortality, which was determined during 6-months of follow-up.. Results: After adjusting for potential ...
Two main conclusions can be drawn from this review. Firstly, taking the trial results at face value, atypical antipsychotics are slightly more effective and better tolerated in patients with schizophrenia. Atypical antipsychotics also have a significantly lower risk of causing extrapyramidal side effects. We found no reliable evidence of differential effects between atypical antipsychotics and we have therefore grouped them together in this discussion. Secondly, when we controlled for the higher than recommended dose of conventional antipsychotics used in some trials, a modest advantage in favour of atypical antipsychotics in terms of extrapyramidal side effects remains, but the differences in efficacy and overall tolerability disappear, suggesting that many of the perceived benefits of atypical antipsychotics are really due to excessive doses of the comparator drug used in the trials. Taking these points into account, we think it inappropriate to advocate the first line use of a new drug ...
A new study has shown that antipsychotic drugs may be linked to weight gain in kids.. Writing in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), researchers studied the use of name-brand second-generation anti-psychotic drugs, including Abilify, Risperdal, Seroquel and Zyprexa, in 272 kids aged 4 to 19 years.. Children involved in the study had not been previously treated with anti-psychotic drugs.. "First-time second-generation antipsychotic medication use was associated with significant weight gain with each medication," researchers concluded. "Metabolic changes varied among the 4 antipsychotic medications," they added.. Authors of the study noted that children taking the drugs for the first time saw a weight gain ranging from 9.7 pounds to 18.7 pounds after 11 weeks, depending on the drug they were given.. Additionally, they found that 15 participants who didnt take the drugs or who declined to take part in the research gained less than half a pound on average.. "We were able to show ...
The incidence of sudden cardiac death in users of atypical anti-psychotics like clozapine, risperidone, quetiapine and olanzapine is almost twice that of individuals who do not take these drugs. Sudden cardiac death is a sudden pulseless condition that is fatal, precipitated by ventricular tachyarrhythmia in the absence of known non-cardiac cause. This risk of sudden cardiac death increases with increased dose of the anti-psychotic medications.. Of late atypical anti-psychotics are being increasingly prescribed and are replacing the older anti-psychotic drugs. The results were obtained from a retrospective cohort trail that involved 93,300 users of anti-psychotic medications and 18300 matched controls. It is useful to note that typical anti-psychotics like haloperidol and thioridazine can also cause increased incidence of sudden cardiac death. One of the explanations provided is that anti-psychotics through blockade of potassium channels increase the prolongation of the cardiac repolarization, ...
The atypical antipsychotics risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, ziprasidone, and aripiprazole have become first-line treatment for schizophrenia because they reduce the positive symptoms of psychosis but do not have a high incidence of extrapyramidal symptoms. However, these agents, like other antipsychotics, may take as long as 16 or more weeks to produce a response, and even with prolonged treatment are unlikely to evoke responses greater than 50% improvement in symptoms. This has led to the experimental use of high atypical antipsychotic doses, antipsychotic polypharmacy, and augmentation with other psychotropic drugs, all of which occur commonly in clinical practice. This article reviews the current evidence for these increasingly common means of treating schizophrenia and psychosis, with particular emphasis on polypharmacy and augmentation. To date, there are only two controlled studies of antipsychotic polypharmacy involving an atypical antipsychotic; the rest of the data are uncontrolled ...
The new Metabolic Monitoring for Children and Adolescents on Antipsychotics (APM) HEDIS measure calculates the percentage of children ages 1-17 who have had two or more antipsychotic prescriptions filled and at least one metabolic test for blood glucose HbA1c, and at least one test for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LCL-C) or total cholesterol each year. Examples of first and second-generation antipsychotic medications included in this measure are chlorpromazine, aripiprazole, clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone, haloperidol, and trifluoperazine. As you know, while antipsychotic medications are effective in treating certain mental illnesses in children, their side effects can lead to or exacerbate other health problems. Children taking antipsychotics are prone to significant weight gain and obesity-related complications such as cardiovascular issues, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and insulin-resistant type 2 diabetes. Consequently, it is important that patients on antipsychotic ...
Preface ix Acknowledgements x. Notes on using The Maudsley Prescribing Guidelines xi. Notes on inclusion of drugs xi. List of abbreviations xii. Chapter 1 Plasma level monitoring of psychotropic drugs and anticonvulsants 1. Interpreting sample results 2. Chapter 2 Schizophrenia 11. Antipsychotic drugs 11. Antipsychotic drugs: equivalent doses 13. Antipsychotic drugs: minimum effective doses 14. Antipsychotic drugs: licensed maximum doses 16. New antipsychotic drugs 17. Antipsychotic drugs: general principles of prescribing 21. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guidelines for the treatment of schizophrenia 22. Treatment algorithms for schizophrenia 24. Antipsychotic drugs: monitoring of metabolic effects 26. Switching antipsychotic drugs because of poor tolerability 31. Antipsychotic response: to increase the dose, to switch, to add or just wait - what is the right move? 33. Speed and onset of antipsychotic drug action 36. First-generation antipsychotic drugs: place in therapy ...
This proposal aims to use a well-characterized procedure, the modified Frequently Sampled Intravenous Glucose Tolerance Test (FSIGTT), to characterize the glucoregulatory effects of the two most commonly prescribed atypical antipsychotic medications, ziprasidone and olanzapine, in comparison to the conventional antipsychotic haloperidol. Abnormalities in peripheral glucose regulation and type 2 diabetes can occur more commonly in individuals with schizophrenia than in healthy subjects or in other psychiatric conditions. While abnormalities in glucose regulation were first reported in schizophrenia prior to the introduction of antipsychotic medications, antipsychotic treatment may contribute significantly to abnormalities in glucose regulation.. Recently, the adverse effect of antipsychotic medications on systemic glucose regulation has received increased attention as investigators noted prominent adverse glucoregulatory effects associated with certain newer antipsychotic medications. Abnormal ...
Schizophrenia is a severely debilitating mental illness that affects approximately 1% of the world population. Hallucinations and delusions are the most striking characteristic positive symptoms of schizophrenia; however, more subtle negative symptoms (eg, social withdrawal and lack of emotion, energy, and motivation) may also be present. The first antipsychotics developed for the treatment of schizophrenia were effective against positive symptoms, but showed little efficacy for negative symptoms and were also associated with a high incidence of side effects. Second generation antipsychotics, represent a significant advancement in the treatment of psychotic disorders because they are effective and at the same time exhibit fewer side effects than first generation antipsychotics. Although generally safer than first generation antipsychotics, the second-generation antipsychotics are not devoid of undesirable side effects such as Hyperprolactinemia and weight gain. In addition, the safety of these ...
Evid Based Mental Health doi:10.1136/ebmental-2012-100740 Aetiology Atypical antipsychotics are associated with incident diabetes in older adults without schizophrenia or bipolar disorder Question Question Is atypical antipsychotic use associated with incident diabetes or hyperlipidaemia in older people without schizophrenia or bipolar disorder? People Medicare advantage or commercial managed healthcare plan enrolees aged 65 and above with no…
Objectives: Given the concern that mortality rates may be increased in geriatric patients exposed to atypical antipsychotic agents, we assessed mortality rates for adult patients with schizophrenia assigned to an investigational antipsychotic (olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, or ziprasidone), a control antipsychotic (haloperidol or chlorpromazine), or placebo in preapproval clinical development programs to assess relative risk with atypical antipsychotics as compared to typical antipsychotics or placebo.. Method: We reviewed safety data (from clinical trials conducted from approximately 1982 to 2002) for 16,791 adult patients with schizophrenia (DSM-III or DSM-IV criteria) in U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Summary Basis of Approval (SBA) reports for 6 antipsychotic drugs. Mortality rates were calculated for each treatment group (investigational agent, active control, orplacebo) on the basis of patient exposure years (PEY) and gross mortality. We compared the differences in mortality ...
A group of nine neuroleptic drug free schizophrenic patients (seven men, two women; ages 30-45 years) were compared with a group of nine schizophrenic patients (seven men, two women; ages 29-42 years) established on antipsychotic medication. All the patients met DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia.12 Seven of the neuroleptic drug free patients were antipsychotic naïve and the remaining two had not received antipsychotic medication for at least six months. Andreasans rating scales were used to assess the predominance of positive (SAPS) and negative (SANS) symptoms in drug naïve and medicated patients. The mean (SD) SAPS score was 35.2 (15.9) in the medicated patients and 41.0 (22.2) in the drug naïve patients. The mean SANS (SD) score was 15.0 (16.9) in the medicated patients and 17.6 (15.7) in the drug naïve patients. There was no significant difference (independent t test; P,0.05) for either score between the two groups of patients. There was no difference (Mann-Whitney rank sum test; ...
Weight gain and its related metabolic disorders are major side-effects associated with second generation antipsychotic drug (SGA) treatment. The dorsal vagal complex (DVC) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) are implicated in the regulation of food intake and body weight. Blocking the histamine H1 receptor (H1R) contributes to antipsychotic-induced weight gain. The present study investigated the time-dependent effect of olanzapine treatment (8, 16 and 36 days) on DVC AMPK signaling in olanzapine-induced weight gain, and whether these changes are associated with olanzapine-induced H1 receptor antagonism. During the 8-day olanzapine treatment the rats were hyperphagic and rapidly gained weight. The phosphorylation of AMPK (pAMPK: activated AMPK) as well as its directly downstream phospho-Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (pACC) was significantly increased. The pAMPK/AMPK ratio, an indicator of AMPK activity, was significantly positively correlated with feeding efficiency and weight gain. As treatment was
Schizophrenia is a severe and heterogeneous brain disease with a prevalence of approximately 0.5% in the world population [1]. Antipsychotics constitute the cornerstone in the treatment of schizophrenia. At the same time, much of the excess mortality in patients with schizophrenia may be attributed to metabolic side effects induced by antipsychotics [2]. The prevalence of overweight (body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2) and obesity (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) has been estimated at approximately 60% among schizophrenia patients [3] compared to less than 20 to 30% in the general population [4-7]. Accordingly, patients with schizophrenia may lose 25 or more years of life expectancy, with the majority of this excess in premature deaths being attributed to obesity-related cardiovascular disease and not to suicide [2, 8].. Both genetic and environmental factors are contributing to this pronounced co-morbidity between schizophrenia and overweight [9, 10]. Among the latter, antipsychotic drugs and, especially, ...
... - Thousands of extra deaths among schizophrenia patients worldwide may have resulted because of the restrictions imposed by authorities on the use of antipsychotic drug clozapine over safety concerns, suggests a new piece of research. - AndhraNews.net
Anti-psychotic drugs are widely used within psychiatric services as a first-line treatment of schizophrenia. A review is presented of the short-term and long-term effectiveness of anti-psychotics in reducing the distress associated with hallucinations and delusions, together with a discussion about the means by which they achieve their outcomes. The wide range of negative side-effects is also listed. It is concluded that anti-psychotic drugs achieve their impact by means of a general slowing of
Risperidone is a benzisoxazole derivative with antagonistic activity, primarily at dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors. The higher binding affinity of risperidone for 5-HT2A than for D2 receptors, along with the mesolimbic specificity of action, is thought to account for the reduced incidence of EPS relative to conventional antipsychotic drugs. It also has affinity for α1-adenergic receptors and lower affinity for α2-adrenergic and H1-histaminergic receptors. Unlike clozapine, it has no affinity for cholinergic receptors. The first two large, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials examining the efficacy and tolerability of an atypical antipsychotic drug for patients with BPSD was using risperidone (De Deyn et al, 1999; Katz et al, 1999).. Katz et al (1999) randomised 625 nursing home patients to receive risperidone at 3 possible doses (0.5, 1 or 2 mg daily) or placebo in 2 divided doses for 12 weeks. Treatment response at end-point was defined as a greater than 50% reduction in total ...
BACKGROUND: The concept of dose equivalence is important for many purposes. The classical approach published by Davis in 1974 subsequently dominated textbooks for several decades. It was based on the assumption that the mean doses found in flexible-dose trials reflect the average optimum dose which can be used for the calculation of dose equivalence. We are the first to apply the method to second-generation antipsychotics. METHODS: We searched for randomized, double-blind, flexible-dose trials in acutely ill patients with schizophrenia that examined 13 oral second-generation antipsychotics, haloperidol, and chlorpromazine (last search June 2014). We calculated the mean doses of each drug weighted by sample size and divided them by the weighted mean olanzapine dose to obtain olanzapine equivalents. RESULTS: We included 75 studies with 16 555 participants. The doses equivalent to 1 mg/d olanzapine were: amisulpride 38.3 mg/d, aripiprazole 1.4 mg/d, asenapine 0.9 mg/d, chlorpromazine 38.9 mg/d, clozapine
Chicago Soaring numbers of American children are being prescribed anti-psychotic drugs. And in many cases, theyre being prescribed for attention deficit disorder or other behavioral problems for which these medications have not been proven to work, a study found.. The annual number of children prescribed anti-psychotic drugs jumped fivefold between 1995 and 2002, to an estimated 2.5 million, the study said. That is an increase from 8.6 out of every 1,000 children in the mid-1990s to nearly 40 out of 1,000.. But more than half of the prescriptions were for attention deficit and other nonpsychotic conditions, the researchers said.. The findings are worrisome "because it looks like these medications are being used for large numbers of children in a setting where we dont know if they work," said lead author Dr. William Cooper, a pediatrician at Vanderbilt Childrens Hospital.. The increasing use of anti-psychotics since the mid-1990s corresponds with the introduction of costly and heavily marketed ...
Clinical obervations indicate that antipsychotic action starts early and increases in magnitude with repeated treatment. Animal models that faithfully capture this time course of action are few. Inhibition of hyperlocomotion induced by amphetamine or phencyclidine has been widely used as a screening tool for the antipsychotic activity of a drug. We thus investigated whether repeated antipsychotic treatment could produce an early-onset and progressively increased antagonistic effect on amphetamine or phencyclidine-induced hyperlocomotion as a way of assessing the validity of such models in capturing time course of antipsychotic action. One each of the five consecutive test days, different groups of rats (n = 6-7/group) received an initial injection of either haloperidol (0.01-0.10 mg/kg, sc), clozapine (5-20.0 mg/kg, sc), olanzapine (1.0 mg/kg, sc), chlordiazepoxide (10.0 mg/kg, ip) or vehicle (sterile water, sc) 30 min prior to a second injection of either amphetamine (1.5 mg/kg, sc) or phencyclidine (3
By applying genetic analysis to the NIMH-funded Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness, we show that variants in a specific gene, RGS4, predict the effectiveness of different antipsychotic treatments. Our results also indicate that the predictive power of the RGS4 genetic variants differed between patients of self-reported African and European ancestry, and thus emphasize the importance of including multiple ethnic groups in a study." The authors importantly note that their results will require replication, but the findings indicate that RGS4 contributes to both the severity of schizophrenia symptoms and the response to antipsychotic treatment. Dr. Krystal adds, "While this type of information is not yet ready to guide clinical practice, since the RGS4 variants explain only a small component of overall patterns of treatment response, these data provide an example of "pharmacogenomics", the approach that will very likely ultimately guide treatment.". ...
Title: Partial Dopamine Receptor Agonists as Newer Atypical Antipsychotics:Intrinsic Activity Appropriate for Treatment of Schizophrenic Patients. VOLUME: 7 ISSUE: 3. Author(s):Yuji Odagaki. Affiliation:Department of Psychiatry,Faculty of Medicine, Saitama Medical University, 38 Morohongo,Moroyama-achi, Iruma-gun, Saitama 350-0495, Japan.. Keywords:Atypical antipsychotics, aripiprazole, dopamine receptor, partial agonist, intrinsic activity, presynaptic autoreceptor, schizophrenia, dopamine system stabilizer. Abstract: Conventional antipsychotic drugs, which have been used for a half century to treat a range of major psychiatric disorders like schizophrenia, are being replaced by modern "atypical antipsychotics". Although the term "atypical" has been applied broadly to antipsychotic drugs marketed in the past decade, these newer drugs are strikingly heterogeneous in chemical, pharmacological, and clinical points of view. Recently, much attention has been directed to partial dopamine receptor ...
Available evidence suggests that second-generation atypical antipsychotics are broadly similar to first-generation agents in terms of their efficacy, but may have a more favourable tolerability profile, primarily by being less likely to cause extrapyramidal symptoms. However, atypical antipsychotics are variably associated with disturbances in the cardiometabolic arena, including increased body weight and the development of metabolic syndrome, which may reflect differences in their receptor binding profiles. Effective management of schizophrenia must ensure that the physical health of patients is addressed together with their mental health. This should therefore involve consideration of the specific tolerability profiles of available agents and individualization of treatment to minimize the likelihood of adverse metabolic sequelae, thereby improving long-term adherence and optimizing overall treatment outcomes. Alongside this, modifiable risk factors (such as exercise, diet, obesity/body weight ...
By Dr. Mercola Thanks to aggressive marketing techniques, pharmaceutical companies are raking in profits from atypical antipsychotic medications -
Antipsychotic medications are effective drugs for schizophrenia, and have in recent years also been used for bipolar disorder. The medications are not equally effective for all patients, and have a limited effect on the core symptoms for approximately 20 % of those treated. Side effects are problematic and in some cases serious, such as for instance cardiovascular risk factors (blodlipids, diabetes, weight gain etc).. Research at NORMENT has a particular focus on immune and lipid systems. We use animal models to enhance our knowledge about the mechanisms of action of antipsychotic medication. We aim to optimize antipsychotic treatment by contributing to increasing the desired effect of medication and reducing side effects.. ...
The findings, which are published in the February issue of the Archives of General Psychiatry, suggest that physicians should consider using the lowest effective dose of antipsychotics when treating patients with schizophrenia. However, lead study author Beng-Choon Ho, M.D., associate professor of psychiatry in the UI Carver College of Medicine, notes that the study does not mean that patients with schizophrenia should not be treated with antipsychotic medications.. "Antipsychotic medications are still the most important and effective form of treatment for schizophrenia patients," Ho said. "These medications reduce psychiatric symptoms and prevent relapse in patients. What our study suggests is that careful review of risks and benefits of dosage and duration is very important.". Schizophrenia affects 1 percent of the worlds population and is a leading cause of chronic disability among young adults. On average, progressive loss of brain tissue occurs at a faster rate in patients with ...
Previous work has shown that withdrawal from chronic antipsychotic treatment leads to a supersensitive psychomotor response to dopamine agonists (Gianutsos et al., 1974; Sayers et al., 1975; Smith and Davis, 1975, 1976; Clow et al., 1979; Montanaro et al., 1982; Rebec et al., 1982; Meng et al., 1998). We show here that behavioral dopamine supersensitivity is not just evident on withdrawal, but develops early during antipsychotic exposure and significantly undermines the efficacy of ongoing treatment. The loss of efficacy was seen with typical or atypical antipsychotics in two widely used tests of antipsychotic-like effects in animals and occurred despite ongoing, clinically relevant, levels of striatal D2-receptor blockade. Thus, the effects were not likely caused by pharmacokinetic or peripheral factors, but by compensatory neurobiological changes in response to ongoing treatment.. One possible explanation for the progressive loss in the ability of antipsychotics to suppress amphetamine-induced ...
Health,...Among patients with schizophrenia whose medication is changed because ...For almost 50 years antipsychotic medications have been the primary m...Peter B. Jones M.D. Ph.D. University of Cambridge and Cambridgeshir...,Second-generation,antipsychotic,medications,appear,to,offer,little,advantage,over,older,drugs,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
While the comparative efficacy of second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) vs. first generation antipsychotics (FGAs) has been well documented, the treatment effect of SGAs in bipolar disorder has not been directly evaluated in a real-world setting. Panel data fixed effects models provide a simple yet powerful tool in measuring treatment effects. The objectives of this study were to investigate the treatment effect of SGAs in bipolar patients enrolled in the fee-for-service (FFS) Medi-Cal program using panel data fixed effect models. The retrospective paid claims files from the Medi-Cal program was used. Patients were included if they had at least 1) one claim(s) for any bipolar medications and 2) one medical claim(s) with ICD-9 codes 296.40-296.99. The population was further defined as: 1) patients who initiated a new antipsychotic therapy between 2000 and 2001 (index date); 2) were 18 ≤ age at the index date; and 3) were continuously eligible for Medi-Cal during the 2-year pre- and post-index ...
Define first-generation antipsychotic. first-generation antipsychotic synonyms, first-generation antipsychotic pronunciation, first-generation antipsychotic translation, English dictionary definition of first-generation antipsychotic. adj. Counteracting or diminishing the symptoms of psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia. n. An antipsychotic drug. adj preventing or treating psychosis...
Side effects vary among the various agents in this class of medications, but common side effects include: dry mouth, muscle stiffness, muscle cramping, tremors, EPS and weight gain. EPS refers to a cluster of symptoms consisting of akathisia, parkinsonism, and dystonia. Anticholinergics such as benztropine and diphenhydramine are commonly prescribed to treat the EPS. 4% of patients develop the Rabbit syndrome while on typical antipsychotics.[5]. There is a significant risk of the serious condition tardive dyskinesia developing as a side effect of typical antipsychotics. The risk of developing tardive dyskinesia after chronic typical antipsychotic usage varies on several factors, such as age and gender, as well as the specific antipsychotic used. The commonly reported incidence of TD among younger patients is about 5% per year. Among older patients incidence rates as high as 20% per year have been reported. The average prevalence is approximately 30%.[6] There are no treatments that have ...
During the four decades that research has been carried out on antipsychotic drugs, a variety of methods have been used to study the effects of these compounds on dopamine neurotransmission. An important issue in this research was to find an explanation for the difference between "typical" and "atypical" antipsychotic drugs. The hypothesis that the beneficial properties and the motor side effects of antipsychotic drugs result from their effects on different groups of dopamine neurons has received considerable attention. Numerous researchers have tried to discover regiospecific actions of antipsychotic drugs in mesolimbic and in mesocortical dopamine neurons. An overview of these research attempts is presented here. Electrophysiological studies showed a selective action of atypical antipsychotic drugs on A10 dopamine neurons. It was found that chronic treatment with these compounds induced a preferential depolarisation block of the A10 neurons that project to the mesolimbic areas. The model ...
Iloperidone, also known as Fanapt, Fanapta, and previously known as Zomaril, is an atypical antipsychotic for the treatment of schizophrenia. Iloperidone is used for the treatment of schizophrenia. In a 2013 study in a comparison of 15 antipsychotic drugs in effectivity in treating schizophrenic symptoms, iloperidone was found to be almost as effective as ziprasidone, chlorpromazine, and asenapine, and as effective as lurasidone. It was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in the United States on May 6, 2009. Iloperidone is a monoamine directed towards acting upon and antagonizing specific neurotransmitters, particularly multiple dopamine and serotonin receptor subtypes. It is considered an atypical antipsychotic because it displays serotonin receptor antagonism, similar to other atypical antipsychotics. The older typical antipsychotics are primarily dopamine antagonists. Iloperidone has been shown to act as an antagonist at all tested receptors. It exhibits high ...
This page includes the following topics and synonyms: Antipsychotic Medication, Antipsychotic, Anti-Psychotic, Neuroleptic, Atypical Antipsychotic.
Introduction: In spite of recent pharmacologic advances, psychopharmacological treatment of patients with severe mental illness has remained a challenging task. Despite limited supporting evidence, the use of polypharmacy (prescription of more than one antipsychotic drug for an individual patient) has become a frequent approach. Polypharmacy has been associated with an increased incidence of adverse effects. Objective: To explore patterns of prescribing antipsychotic agents in a long-term inpatient facility. To examine the prevalence of polypharmacy and its association with age, sex, ethnicity and legal status in a sample of individuals with diverse psychiatric diagnoses. To determine the association of antipsychotic agents (single agent and polypharmacy use) and increased body mass index (BMI). Method: We examined the prescribing of antipsychotic drugs in a sample of 234 in-patients, during a 2-month period in a long term in-patient facility in Central Massachusetts during 2013. We performed a
Amisulpride warrants particular attention because its pharmacological profile is clearly distinct from other currently available atypicals. Other atypicals have greater serotonin 5-HT2 versus dopamine D2 antagonism,1 whereas amisulpride has no effects on the serotonin 5-HT2 system.. Amisulpride, like risperidone, has a risk of EPS that is dose dependent and evident at high therapeutic doses. Another similarity to risperidone is the risk of elevated prolactin. Amisulprides superiority in acute psychosis for global and negative symptoms when compared with conventional antipsychotics must be qualified. These studies have routinely used conventional antipsychotic doses equivalent to ≥12 mg/day of haloperidol. Another meta-analysis showed that differences can be eliminated when comparisons with more appropriate doses are made.2 This caution in interpreting differences is relevant not only for negative symptoms but also for total scores. Again, this critique is not just levelled at amisulpride but ...
Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were eligible for inclusion if they compared antipsychotic monotherapy with combination treatment of the same antipsychotic plus a second antipsychotic, in patients with schizophrenia or a related disorder. The primary outcomes were a clinically significant response, dropout rate, and relapse rate. A clinically significant response was defined as at least a 50% reduction in score on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale or the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, or a categorisation of "much better" on the Clinical Global Impressions scale. Several secondary outcomes including adverse effects were also of interest.. The mean age of participants in the included trials was 33.4 years (range 16 to 65), the majority were male (62.3%) and had schizophrenia. The majority of participants were in-patients in the chronic illness phase; there were a small number of trials of patients with acute illness. The RCTs were most commonly conducted in China and the USA. The ...
Instead of using mood stabilizers, people suffering from acute mania could be treated more effectively by using anti-psychotic drugs
Using data from the MAX data from pregnant women who delivered infants born 2001-2010, researchers looked at patterns of antipsychotic use during pregnancy.
As Santayana says, those who do not learn from history are doomed to repeat it, and once again it will be the patients who are harmed. The benefit of second generation antipsychotic drugs in depression is underwhelming, while the risks of tardive dyskinesia, though less than with the early antipsychotic drugs, are nevertheless very real. That is why I chastised a lazy and compromised KOL like Charles Nemeroff so strictly last week, especially for his disease mongering (expanding the market for antipsychotic drug use to augment antidepressants) and for his reckless promotiion of the early and broad use of these drugs in NONPSYCHOTIC depressed patients. In doing so he serves his corporate handlers, whose marketing goal is the widest possible use of these problematic agents. ...
Clozapine has been reported to be effective in open studies in mania, including treatment-resistant patients (McElroy et al, 1991; Tohen & Zarate, 1998), and in a randomised trial (Suppes et al, 1999). Some patients had rapid cycling disorders so that spontaneous improvement would have contributed to the findings. In a comparative trial, clozapine appeared as effective as chlorpromazine in mania over 3 weeks (Barbini et al, 1997).. Many of the new atypical antipsychotic drugs developed in the wake of clozapine have potent activity for blocking 5-HT2 receptors. This is thought to protect against Parkinsonian side-effects by an interaction on dopamine neurons to enhance dopamine release, while the drugs also block subtypes of D2 receptors post-synaptically. Since dopamine agonists are able to trigger mania in predisposed individuals (Gerner et al, 1976; Turner et al, 1984), these atypical antipsychotic drugs carry a theoretical risk of triggering mania. Therefore, controlled trials are essential ...
Altered heart rate dynamics associated with antipsychotic-induced subjective restlessness in patients with schizophrenia Jong-Hoon Kim,1,2 Jun-Hyung Ann,2 Jinyoung Lee,1 Mee-Hee Kim,1 Ah-Young Han1 1Department of Psychiatry, Gil Medical Center, 2Graduate School of Medicine, Gachon University, Incheon, South Korea Background: Antipsychotic-induced subjective inner restlessness is one of the common and distressing adverse effects associated with antipsychotics; however, its underlying neurobiological basis is not well understood. We examined the relationship between antipsychotic-induced subjective inner restlessness and autonomic neurocardiac function. Methods: Twenty-two schizophrenia patients with antipsychotic-induced subjective restlessness, 28 schizophrenia patients without antipsychotic-induced subjective restlessness, and 28 matched healthy control subjects were evaluated. Assessments of the linear and nonlinear complexity measures of heart rate dynamics were performed. Multivariate analysis of
Although anti-psychotic medications are available, they are often associated with various adverse effects that lead to poor treatment adherence. Physicians are facing multiple challenges when designing a treatment plan for their schizophrenic patient.
In a footnote, the study also found that patients in the study whose blood tests showed signs of exposure to the parasite toxoplasmosis had a poor response to treatment. Toxoplasmosis is a parasite borne by cats and some other domestic animals. Lieberman speculated on this result: "Theres a theory that an infectious agent, a parasite or some other microorganism, can cause schizophrenia - and toxoplasmosis has an affinity for the nervous system, where it can lie dormant for a long time in its migration to the brain." Lieberman suggested that schizophrenic patients in a population with a high risk for toxoplasmosis should be given standard anti-psychotic medication along with one of the drugs typically used against the parasite. ...
An apparent suicidal feline attraction and risk behavioural profile among untreated infected individuals was clearly evident here. Under natural conditions, these are all behavioural traits likely to increase predation rate by the definitive host and hence completion of the parasites life cycle (Webster 2001), either through increased risk behaviours (presence in areas with evidence of cat presence), conspicuousness (increased activity or still and exposed), or through decreased attention on predator avoidance (grooming in exposed areas) relative to their untreated uninfected counterparts (figure 2, table 2). Treatment of infected rats with, in order of decreasing efficacy: HAL, PD and VAL, reduced these predator-risk behavioural traits. Therefore, our results lend support to the hypothesis that the anti-psychotic and mood stabilizing activity of some medications used in the treatment of schizophrenia and human affective disorder may be augmented through their inhibitory impact upon T. gondii in ...
Health,...Drugs such as olanzapine quetiapine may also lower good cholesterol...WEDNESDAY April 15 (HealthDay News) Newer antipsychotic drugs promot...The drugs olanzapine and quetiapine were both associated with signif...The longer patients took the drugs the more likely they were to exper...,Newer,Antipsychotics,May,Boost,Weight,in,Alzheimers,Patients,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Loxitane (Loxapine) is a tricyclic antipsychotic medication used to treat schizophrenia as well as demntia in elderly adults. Loxitane is a new second generation antipsychotic medication from Watso...
Antipsychotic medications for bipolar treatment. Covers types, including atypical antipsychotics, and side effects of antipsychotic medications. Read more.
Schizophrenia is associated with substantial disability and excess morbidity/mortality; life expectancy is curtailed by over 16 years1 with over a third of excess deaths attributable to cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).1 Increased risk of cardiometabolic disease in this population is multifactorial with possible contributing components including genetic predisposition to developing T2DM,2 reduced physical activity,3 suboptimal nutrition4 and glucose dysregulation associated with antipsychotic medications.5 Although other antipsychotic medications are effective treatments for schizophrenia,6 approximately 20%-33% of patients remain treatment refractory.7 Treatment refractory schizophrenia is defined as non-response with ongoing psychotic symptoms and functional deficits despite adequate trials of at least two different antipsychotic medications.8 For people with treatment refractory schizophrenia, clozapine is the most effective medication for reducing the positive ...
Body weight gain and metabolic alterations have been reported during treatment with atypical antipsychotic medications. Clinically significant weight gain of 0.9 kg/month resulting in a 6- to 10-kg body weight gain was reported after 1 year of treatment with olanzapine (Nemeroff, 1997). In the Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Interventions (CATIE) study, 30% of olanzapine-treated schizophrenics gained more than 7% of their initial body weight (Meyer et al., 2005). Because the weight gain occurred in a population that is already susceptible to diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease (Henderson et al., 2005), this issue is of particular importance. Given the complex pharmacology of olanzapine (Bymaster et al., 1999; Bymaster et al., 2001), little is known about the drug targets that contribute to the weight gain. It has been proposed that blockade of the 5-hydroxytryptamine2c and histamine H1 receptors may contribute to food craving and binge eating (Stahl, 1998), but this has not been ...
Long-term use of typical antipsychotic medications may lead to a condition called tardive dyskinesia (TD). TD causes muscle movements a person cant control. The movements commonly happen around the mouth. TD can range from mild to severe, and in some people the problem cannot be cured. Sometimes people with TD recover partially or fully after they stop taking the medication.. Every year, an estimated 5 percent of people taking typical antipsychotics get TD. The condition happens to fewer people who take the new, atypical antipsychotics, but some people may still get TD. People who think that they might have TD should check with their doctor before stopping their medication.. How are antipsychotics taken and how do people respond to them?. Antipsychotics are usually pills that people swallow, or liquid they can drink. Some antipsychotics are shots that are given once or twice a month.. Symptoms of schizophrenia, such as feeling agitated and having hallucinations, usually go away within days. ...
Updated 5/2/2006 10:09 AM ET Rex Evans, a student at Watson Junior High in Colorado Springs, suffers from involuntary jerking, which his parents believe was caused by atypical anti-psychotic...
BACKGROUND: The clearest advantage of new generation, atypical antipsychotics is a reduced risk of extrapyramidal side-effects (EPS), compared with conventional compounds. These findings might have been biased by the use of the high-potency antipsychotic haloperidol as a comparator in most of the trials. We aimed to establish whether the new drugs induce fewer EPS than low-potency conventional antipsychotics. METHODS: We did a meta-analysis of all randomised controlled trials in which new generation antipsychotics had been compared with low-potency (equivalent or less potent than chlorpromazine) conventional drugs. We included studies that met quality criteria A or B in the Cochrane Collaboration Handbook, and assessed quality with the Jadad scale. The primary outcome of interest was the number of patients who had at least one EPS. We used risk differences and 95% CIs as measures of effect size. FINDINGS: We identified 31 studies with a total of 2320 participants. Of the new generation drugs, ...
Antipsychotic drugs are also termed as major tranquilizers or neuroleptics and these are primarily used to treat psychosis. The common psychotic disorders, where these drugs are majorly used include schizophrenia, hallucinations, delusions, bipolar disorder and others. The antipsychotic drugs market is expected to grow due to the rising number of Schizophrenic patients.
Oliver D. Howes, Ph.D., of the Imperial College London and colleagues conducted a systematic review of case-control studies reporting on fasting plasma glucose levels, fasting insulin levels, insulin resistance, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels in individuals with first-episode schizophrenia who had minimal (≤2 weeks of antipsychotic treatment) or no exposure to antipsychotics. A total of 16 case-control studies were included in the analysis, including 731 patients and 614 controls. Fasting plasma glucose levels, plasma glucose levels after an oral glucose tolerance test, fasting plasma insulin levels, and insulin resistance were all significantly elevated in patients compared with controls, but HbA1c levels were not altered in patients compared with controls. ...
People with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have a greater risk of developing diabetes than the general population.. Lifestyle issues associated with severe mental illness and antipsychotics are probably both contributing factors. Clozapine and olanzapine are associated with the greatest increase in blood glucose and the risk of diabetes with risperidone and quetiapine appears to be relatively low. Hyperglycemia due to clozapine or olanzapine is not usually dose dependent. It occurs between 10 days to 18 months after starting the drug and is reversible on stopping.. Monitoring recommendations. ...
Tytuł projektu: Rozbudowa i przekształcenie bibliograficznej bazy danych AGRO w bazę bibliograficzno-abstraktową z wykorzystaniem oprogramowania YADDA. Nr umowy: POIG 02.03.02-00-031/09 (okres realizacji 2009-2013 ...
New York, New York (PRWEB) August 19, 2014 -- As Risperdal lawsuits (www.risperdallawsuitcenter.com) mount in U.S. courts, Bernstein Liebhard LLP notes the
Initially developed for the exclusive treatment of psychosis and schizophrenia, antipsychotic medications are now sometimes used to stabilize mood and as preventative medications against bipolar disorder relapses.
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In this literature search 16 reports were located with comparisons of SGAs in clinical settings, and performed with the basic methodological demands such as randomization fulfilled. With regards to global outcomes the most consistent finding was a superior drug adherence or time to treatment discontinuation (drug survival) for olanzapine in patients suffering from chronic schizophrenia. Drug adherence and survival were considered global effectiveness outcome measures, as they were thought to reflect both efficacy and tolerability of the drugs as judged by both the patient and treating psychiatrist. The outcome measure is clinically important, as antipsychotic drug adherence has major influences on risks of relapse, rehospitalisation and suicide in patients with schizophrenia [40]. Three of the five studies using this outcome measure were from the CATIE trial. A critical question is whether the comparator drugs were used in equivalent doses in the CATIE studies [41]. To permit blinding combined ...
Medications used to treat schizophrenia and related disorders. Also called neuroleptics. Includes both conventional antipsychotics such as chlorpromazine (Thorazine) and haloperidol (Haldol), and atypical antipsychotics such as risperidone (Risperdal), olanzapine (Zyprexa), quetiapine (Seroquel), and ziprasidone (Geodon).
Title Perceptions of support staff with respect to discontinuation of long-term used antipsychotics for residential individuals with intellectual disability; a mixed method study Background Antipsychotics are the most used psychotropic drugs by residential intellectually disabled individuals and have harmful side effects. There is limited evidence on the efficacy ... read more of antipsychotics on challenging behaviour. Discontinuation is possible for a part of residential individuals with intellectual disability and decreases some harmful side effects. In order to discontinue antipsychotics the cooperation of support staff is important. There is no knowledge on perceptions of support staff with respect to discontinuation of antipsychotic medication in persons with intellectual disability. Aim This study wants to gain insights in the perceptions of support staff about discontinuation of antipsychotics in residential individuals with intellectual disability. Method Four focus groups were ...
But a team of scientists, led by Brown virologist Walter Atwood, has found that a handful of antipsychotic drugs can prevent brain cells from becoming infected by the JC virus. The drugs may prove to be an effective, ready-made therapy for PML prevention or treatment. Their results are published in the current issue of Science. "This is very promising," Atwood said. "These are generic drugs we can take off the shelf that may help a lot of people." "It is likely that there are many other drugs with none of the potential side effects of antipsychotic drugs that will also block infection," said co-author Bryan Roth, professor of biochemistry at the Case School of Medicine and director of the National Institute of Mental Health s Psychoactive Drug Screening Program ...
Janssen Pharmaceutica, Inc. recently sent a letter out to physicians which advised physicians of important labeling changes regarding its antipsychotic drug, Risperdal ® (risperidone).. Risperdal was FDA approved for the treatment of schizophrenia. Janssen Pharmaceutica, Inc.advised the physicians that the FDA has asked all manufacturers of atypical antipsychotic medications, including Janssen Pharmaceutica, Inc. to add a Warnings statement describing the increased risk of hyperglycemia and diabetes in patients taking these medications, including Risperdal.. Accordingly, the Warning section of the Risperdal Prescribing Information was updated to warn that hyperglycemia, in some cases extreme and associated with ketoacidosis or hyperosmolar coma or death, has been reported in patients treated with atypical antipsychotics, including Risperdal.. It also advised that patients with an established diagnosis of diabetes mellitus who are started on atypical antipsychotics should be monitored regularly ...
People with severe mental illness (SMI-e.g., schizophrenia, bipolar disorder) die on average 25 years earlier than the general population, most often from cardiovascular disease (CVD) [1, 2]. Although CVD mortality in this population is multifactorial, some risk is attributed to treatment with antipsychotic medications [3]. In 2004, the American Diabetes Association and American Psychiatric Association published metabolic screening guidelines for people taking antipsychotic medications [4]. Although adherence to screening guidelines improves care in the general population [5], a review of 48 studies on metabolic monitoring of people taking antipsychotic medications found screening to be consistently low [6]. Leading experts agree that the geographic, electronic, cultural, and fiscal separation of primary care and mental health within most US healthcare systems contributes to poor quality of medical care in general for this vulnerable population [3, 7]. Notably, people with SMI are receptive to ...
For more than quarter of a century it has been recognised that traditional antipsychotic drugs, prescribed in therapeutic doses, can cause symptomatic hyperprolactinaemia.1 Unlike the extrapyramidal side effects of these drugs, hyperprolactinaemia has attracted little clinical and scientific interest. This is despite the fact that it is common, causes distressing endocrine symptoms, and has potential long term complications. The widespread use of antipsychotic drugs in a variety of psychiatric conditions-including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, psychotic depression, and anxiety disorders-and the recent introduction of prolactin sparing atypical antipsychotics make it timely to review this syndrome.. Antipsychotic drugs are thought to exert their therapeutic effect by an antidopaminergic action in the mesolimbic system, whereas their effect of raising prolactin is mediated by the blockade of dopamine D2 receptors on pituitary lactotrophs. An early prospective but uncontrolled study found that ...
Patients aged 30 to 74 years who took atypical antipsychotics such as risperidone (Risperdal), quetiapine (Seroquel), olanzapine (Zyprexa), and clozapine (Clozaril) had a significantly higher risk of sudden death from cardiac arrhythmias and other cardiac causes than patients who did not take these medications, according to a study published in the January 15 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine ...
Antipsychotic medications have been used for more than 60 years to treat acute psychosis from any cause and to manage chronic psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. As a class, antipsychotics are also effective in the treatment of acute agitation
in Acta Crystallographica Section E-Structure Reports Online (2002), 58(Part 1), 69-71. The crystal structure determination of the title compound, C17H20ClN5, has been undertaken as part of studies on antipsychotic drugs. Its structure is compared with that of clozapine (C18H19ClN4), a well ... [more ▼]. The crystal structure determination of the title compound, C17H20ClN5, has been undertaken as part of studies on antipsychotic drugs. Its structure is compared with that of clozapine (C18H19ClN4), a well known atypical antipsychotic drug. The side chain is more flexible than in the N-methylpiperazine analogues, but its folding is influenced by an intramolecular N-H . . .N hydrogen bond. The distances between the N-distal atom, a possible pharmacophore, and the centres of the two aromatic rings are significantly shorter than in clozapine. The crystal packing involves one N-H . . .N intermolecular hydrogen bond. The title compound showed no affinity for the receptors tested. [less ▲]. Detailed ...
Antipsychotic use is reported to be associated with a higher risk of sudden cardiac death and new users are especially susceptible to that risk. In this study, we focused on the ability of antipsychotics to prolong the QTc interval at the earliest stages of antipsychotic use. We employed a retrospective cohort study design in a naturalistic setting where having three ECG measurements over time (at baseline and after drug exposure) in antipsychotic-naïve, first-episode schizophrenia (FES) inpatients. The results revealed, in this relatively homogeneous, drug naïve FES patient sample, that QTc intervals were statistically significantly prolongated after a relatively short term (2-4weeks) of antipsychotic treatments, compared with baseline ...
Clotiapine (Entumine) is an atypical antipsychotic of the dibenzothiazepine chemical class. It was first introduced in a few European countries (namely, Belgium, Italy, Spain and Switzerland), Argentina, Taiwan and Israel in 1970. Some sources regard clotiapine as a typical antipsychotic rather than atypical due to its high incidence of extrapyramidal side effects compared to the atypicals like clozapine and quetiapine, to which it is structurally related.Despite its profile of a relatively high incidence of extrapyramidal side effects it has demonstrated efficacy in treatment-resistant schizophrenic patients according to a number of psychiatrists with clinical experience with it, some weak clinical evidence supports this view too. ...
Long-term use of typical antipsychotic medications may lead to a condition called tardive dyskinesia (TD). TD causes muscle movements a person cant control. The movements commonly happen around the mouth. TD can range from mild to severe, and in some people the problem cannot be cured. Sometimes people with TD recover partially or fully after they stop taking the medication.. TD happens to fewer people who take the atypical antipsychotics, but some people may still get TD. People who think that they might have TD should check with their doctor before stopping their medication.. How are antipsychotics taken and how do people respond to them?. Antipsychotics are usually in pill or liquid form. Some anti-psychotics are shots that are given once or twice a month.. Symptoms of schizophrenia, such as feeling agitated and having hallucinations, usually go away within days. Symptoms like delusions usually go away within a few weeks. After about six weeks, many people will see a lot of ...
An EEG test to study and treat schizophrenia has been validated by University of California, San Diego School of Medicine scientists.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is warning that ziprasidone, an atypical antipsychotic agent, has been linked to a rare but serious skin reaction called Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS), which can progress to other parts of the body.
A new government report finds nearly one in seven nursing home residents are given antipsychotic medications - despite the fact they increase the risk of death.. ...
Objective: Several second generation antipsychotic (SGA) drugs have been associated with weight gain, hyperglycemia, and dyslipidemia. We evaluated whether glucose and lipid testing increased after the ADA Consensus Statement recommending metabolic monitoring for SGA-treated patients.. Research Design and Methods: Laboratory claims for serum glucose and lipid testing were identified for an incident cohort of 18,876 adults initiating SGA drugs in a US commercial health plan (2001-2006) and a control group of 56,522 adults with diabetes not receiving antipsychotics. Interrupted time series models were used to estimate the effect of ADA recommendations on baseline and annual testing trends after adjusting for differences in age, sex, mental health diagnoses and cardiovascular risk using propensity score matching.. Results: Mean baseline testing rates for SGA-treated patients during the study period were 23% (glucose) and 8% (lipids). Among persistent users of SGA medication, annual testing rates ...
In randomized clinical trials,51-57 haloperidol Studies have suggested that antiglutamatergic and the atypical antipsychotic agents risperidone therapy may be useful for treating Alzheimers dis- and olanzapine, when compared with placebo, re-ease and vascular dementia by limiting the neuro- duced the rates of agitation, delusions, and hallu-nal damage that may result from excessive release cinations by about 20 to 30 percent. Atypical anti-of glutamate.41,42 In one recent study,41 patients psychotic agents may be better tolerated than thewith Alzheimers disease who had moderate-to- older, traditional antipsychotic drugs, such as halo-severe dementia (MMSE score, ,8) and were treat- peridol. Side-effect profiles should guide the choiceed with memantine, a noncompetitive N-methyl- of agents (Table 3).44 Similarly, antidepressant d-aspartate-receptor antagonist, for a seven-month agents (including sertraline, citalopram, and flu- period had improvements in ratings of severe im- oxetine) have ...
University of California, Irvine scientists led by Emiliana Borrelli and colleagues have discovered the key cellular mechanism that underlies the antipsychotic-induced parkinsonism -- which includes involuntary movements, tremors and other severe physical conditions. These studies present evidence that will stimulate a targeted approach for the design of novel antipsychotics without side-effects.
See Caravaggio and Graff-Guerrero (doi:10.1093/awx023) for a scientific commentary on this article.Antipsychotic drugs, originally developed to treat schizophrenia, are used to treat psychosis, agitation and aggression in Alzheimers disease. In the absence of dopamine D2/3 receptor occupancy data to inform antipsychotic prescribing for psychosis in Alzheimers disease, the mechanisms underpinning antipsychotic efficacy and side effects are poorly understood. This study used a population approach to investigate the relationship between amisulpride blood concentration and central D2/3 occupancy in older people with Alzheimers disease by combining: (i) pharmacokinetic data (280 venous samples) from a phase I single (50 mg) dose study in healthy older people (n = 20, 65-79 years); (ii) pharmacokinetic, 18F-fallypride D2/3 receptor imaging and clinical outcome data on patients with Alzheimers disease who were prescribed amisulpride (25-75 mg daily) to treat psychosis as part of an open study (n = ...
Purpose: Antipsychotics are versatile drugs. Intranasal route could provide efficient delivery for certain therapeutic agents; however, studies on intranasal antipsychotics are limited. Moreover, the systemic and central nervous system (CNS) dispositions of active metabolites after intranasal drug administration are seldom investigated. The current project aims to 1) identify the antipsychotics that are more suitable to be developed into intranasal medications; and 2) characterize the CNS pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) profiles of the selected antipsychotic delivered by intranasal route, with a special attention to the role of drug metabolism in PK and PD outcomes.. Methods: To select an antipsychotic with greater potential for intranasal delivery, a systematic approach was adopted to screen antipsychotic candidates with in silico evaluations and then in vitro permeability assays. The systemic and CNS PK and PD profiles of the selected antipsychotic would be investigated in ...
The present invention relates to the delivery of antipsychotics through an inhalation route. Specifically, it relates to aerosols containing antipsychotics that are used in inhalation therapy. In a method aspect of the present invention, an antipsychotic is delivered to a patient through an inhalation route. The method comprises: a) heating a composition, wherein the composition comprises an antipsychotic, to form a vapor; and, b) allowing the vapor to cool, thereby forming a condensation aerosol comprising particles with less than 5% antipsychotic drug degradation products. In a kit aspect of the present invention, a kit for delivering an antipsychotic through an inhalation route is provided which comprises: a) a thin coating of an antipsychotic composition and b) a device for dispensing said thin coating as a condensation aerosol.
Schizophrenia is one of the most debilitating psychiatric disorders, affecting approximately 1% of the population worldwide. A number of antipsychotic drugs are...
The use of atypical antipsychotic drugs in kids (up to 18 years old) tipples the chances of getting type 2 diabetes later in life.
What next? A few years ago, there was a study from China on how to treat weight gain induced by medications. The Chinese study involved use of the drug, Metformin, to help reduce weight gain.
Aripiprazole lauroxil long-acting injectable (LAI) [Aristada®] is an intramuscularly administered, extended-release prodrug of aripiprazole, an established atypical antipsychotic agent that, in terms
Individuals with chronic mental illnesses are more likely to have poor dental hygiene and nutrition; antipsychotic drugs that decrease salivary flow can increase problems with oral health.
Komossa K, Rummel-Kluge C, Hunger H, Schwarz S, Schmid F, Lewis R, Kissling W, Leucht S. Sertindole versus other atypical antipsychotics for schizophrenia. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2009, Issue 2. Art. No.: CD006752. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD006752.pub2. ...
OBJECTIVE: The authors examined the refusal of antipsychotic medications and associated outcomes prospectively in a group of 348 psychiatric patients admitted to three acute inpatient units in a state-operated mental health ...
The aim of this review was to determine the spectrum and severity of effects of unintentional antipsychotic poisoning in children. A computerised literature search of MEDLINE (1966 to February 2005) and EMBASE (1980 to February 2005) was undertaken. The Internet was searched using URL: www.google.com. The proceedings of the North American Congress of Clinical Toxicology (NACCT) and the European Association of Poisons Centres and Clinical Toxicologists (EAPCCT) were hand searched. All cases of unintentional antipsychotic (all classes) poisoning in children aged 0-6 years were included. The data extracted included the age, weight, antipsychotic, dose, clinical effects, treatment and outcomes. The toxic dose was estimated as the lowest dose causing objective adverse effects. Sixty-eight reports were identified. Few contained all of the required information. Most of the case series included multiple antipsychotics with limited information on individual drugs or all ages with limited paediatric ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Critical review of antipsychotic polypharmacy in the treatment of schizophrenia. AU - Fleischhacker, W. Wolfgang. AU - Uchida, Hiroyuki. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Antipsychotic polypharmacy remains prevalent; it has probably increased for the treatment of schizophrenia in real-world clinical settings. The current evidence suggests some clinical benefits of antipsychotic polypharmacy, such as better symptom control with clozapine plus another antipsychotic, and a reversal of metabolic side-effects with a concomitant use of aripiprazole. On the other hand, the interpretation of findings in the literature should be made conservatively in light of the paucity of good studies and potentially serious side-effects. Also, although the available data are still limited, two smaller-scale clinical trials provide preliminary evidence that converting antipsychotic polypharmacy to monotherapy could be a valid and reasonable treatment option. Several studies have explored strategies to change ...
Arana G, Goff D, Baldessarini R, Keepers G. Efficacy of anticholinergic prophylaxis for neuroleptic induced acute dystonia. Am J Psychiatry 1988;145:993-6.. Divac N et al.: Review Article: Second-Generation Antipsychotics and Extrapyramidal Adverse Effects, BioMed Research International 2014,. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/656370. Rummel-Kluge C et al.: Second-Generation Antipsychotic Drugs and Extrapyramidal Side Effects: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Head-to-Head Comparisons. Schizophr Bull. 2012 Jan; 38(1): 167-177. Published online 2010 May 31. doi: 10.1093/schbul/sbq042. DSouza R, Hooten W: Extrapyramidal Symptoms (EPS), 2019. StatPearls [Internet]. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK534115/. Gharabawi GM, Bossie CA, Lasser RA, Turkoz I, Rodriguez S, Chouinard G. Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS) and Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale (ESRS): Cross-scale comparison in assessing tardive dyskinesia. Schizophr Res 2005;77:119-28.. Muench J, Hamer A.: Adverse Effects ...
Parcours dExil centre. active for sale quetiapine fumarate 100mg price levothyroxine no. india.pdf glipizide er drug vibramycin doxycycline.The Drug-Induced Respiratory Disease Website. Quetiapine. 1. See also. No drugs. Publications. Acute respiratory failure with a single dose of quetiapine fumarate.. buy sirolimus online about quetiapine fumarate 50 mg quetiapine tablet buy armodafinil canada. 25mg about bupropion tablets lasix oral buy levitra.. modafinil 120 mg of cymbalta amitriptyline tablets glucotrol online bupropion 350 mg. costo-farmaco-lariam.pdf quetiapine fumarate 100mg price in usa price.Background: Although the new atypical antipsychotic, quetiapine fumarate, is growing in popularity over its progenitor, clozapine, clinical experience with overdose.. generic lioresal benicar hct prices ranitidine hcl zoloft mail order zofran cost metoprolol levothyroxine sodium rifagut 400mg quetiapine fumarate. tablets.quetiapine 50 mg tablets for sleep Is used for autism I forgot to take my ...
This multisite study was conducted to compare the efficacy and tolerability of combination treatment with clozapine plus aripiprazole versus combination treatment with clozapine plus haloperidol in patients with schizophrenia who do not have an optimal response to clozapine. Patients continued to take clozapine and were randomly assigned to receive daily augmentation with aripiprazole or haloperidol. Physicians prescribed the allocated treatments according to usual clinical care. Withdrawal from allocated treatment within 3 months was the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes included severity of symptoms on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale and antipsychotic subjective tolerability on the Liverpool University Neuroleptic Side Effect Rating Scale. A total of 106 patients with schizophrenia were randomly assigned to treatment. After 3 months, we found no difference in the proportion of patients who discontinued treatment between the aripiprazole and haloperidol groups (13.2% vs 15.1%, P = 0.780). The 3
Trihexyphenidyl is used for the symptomatic treatment of Parkinsons disease in mono and combination therapy. It is active in postencephalitic, arteriosclerotic, and idiopathic forms. The drug is also commonly used to treat extrapyramidal side effects occurring during antipsychotic treatment. It reduces the frequency and duration of oculogyric crises as well as of dyskinetic movements and spastic contractions. Trihexyphenidyl may improve psychotic depression and mental inertia frequently associated with Parkinsons disease and symptomatic problems caused by antipsychotic treatment.[medical citation needed]. The drug cannot cure Parkinsons disease, but may provide substantial alleviation of symptoms.An estimated 50 to 75% of people with Parkinsons disease will react positively and experience a 20 to 30% symptomatic improvement. To increase therapeutic activity trihexyphenidyl is often given concomitantly with levodopa, other antimuscarinic or antihistaminic (e.g. diphenhydramine) agents. ...
To the editor: Severe hyperkalemia may complicate the use of succinylcholine in patients with major burns, direct muscle trauma, and various neuromuscular disorders (1-3). Nontraumatic rhabdomyolysis is common in the neuroleptic malignant syndrome (4) but has not been recognized as a risk factor for succinylcholine-induced hyperkalemia. We present the case of a patient with the neuroleptic malignant syndrome complicated by massive rhabdomyolysis in whom life-threatening hyperkalemia developed after the administration of intravenous succinylcholine.. A 28-year-old white man was admitted for treatment of chronic back pain complicated by habitual narcotic and diazepam use. He had received succinylcholine during lumbar laminectomy three ...
Objective: The aim of this study was to construct a rating scale to predict long-term outcome on the basis of clinical and sociodemographic characteristics in patients with symptoms of psychosis who seek psychiatric help for the first time. Method: Patients (N = 153) experiencing their first episode of psychosis (DSM-IV schizophrenia, schizophreniform disorder, schizoaffective disorder, brief psychotic episode, delusional disorder, affective psychosis with mood-incongruent delusions, or psychotic disorder not otherwise specified or being actively psychotic) were consecutively recruited from 17 psychiatric clinics in Sweden from January 1996 through December 1997 (24 months). Baseline characteristics were assessed with an extensive battery of psychiatric rating scales; duration of untreated psychosis, premorbid characteristics, and cognitive functioning were also assessed. The relationship between baseline characteristics and the 5-year outcome was analyzed using a stepwise logistic regression ...
A diagnosis other than schizophrenia, e.g., dissociative disorder, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder, schizoaffective disorder, schizophreniform disorder, autistic disorder, primary substance-induced psychotic disorder, dementia-related psychosis -Relevant history or current presence of any significant or unstable medical condition(s) determined to be clinically significant by the Investigator (ie, obesity, diabetes, heart disease etc) - A diagnosis of substance dependence within 6 months before screening - History of neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) or tardive dyskinesia - Clozapine use in the last 2 months when used for treatment-resistant or treatment-refractory illness - Clinically significant findings in biochemistry, hematology, ECG or urinalysis results - Any other disease or condition that, in the opinion of the investigator, would make participation not in the best interest of the patient or that could prevent, limit, or confound the protocol-specified assessments ...
... is a chronic mental health condition characterized primarily by symptoms of schizophrenia, such as hallucinations or delusions, and symptoms of a mood disorder, such as mania and depression. Because schizoaffective disorder is less well-studied than the other two conditions, many interventions are borrowed from their treatment approaches.. Many people with schizoaffective disorder are often incorrectly diagnosed at first with bipolar disorder or schizophrenia because it shares symptoms of multiple mental health conditions.. Schizoaffective disorder is seen in about 0.3% of the population. Men and women experience schizoaffective disorder at the same rate, but men often develop the illness at an earlier age. Schizoaffective disorder can be managed effectively with medication and therapy. Co-occurring substance use disorders are a serious risk and require integrated treatment.. ...

Perphenazine Tablets (Perphenazine): Side Effects, Interactions, Warning, Dosage & UsesPerphenazine Tablets (Perphenazine): Side Effects, Interactions, Warning, Dosage & Uses

As with all antipsychotic agents, tardive dyskinesia may appear in some patients on long-term therapy or may appear after drug ... Should it be necessary to reinstitute treatment, or increase the dosage of the agent, or switch to a different antipsychotic ... It is suggested that all antipsychotic agents be discontinued if these symptoms appear. ... If the patient is being treated with an anticonvulsant agent, increased dosage of that agent may be required when perphenazine ...
more infohttps://www.rxlist.com/perphenazine-drug.htm

Drug information update. Atypical antipsychotics and neuroleptic malignant syndrome: nuances and pragmatics of the association ...Drug information update. Atypical antipsychotics and neuroleptic malignant syndrome: nuances and pragmatics of the association ...

Once the diagnosis is suspected, the offending antipsychotic agent must be immediately stopped. Regular monitoring of the ... Atypical antipsychotics are among the most commonly prescribed antipsychotics.12,13 They are utilised for the treatment of a ... The clinical picture and features of NMS with atypical antipsychotics seem to be different from those of typical antipsychotics ... Risk factors for atypical antipsychotic-induced NMS. A few significant risk factors for atypical antipsychotic-induced NMS have ...
more infohttp://pb.rcpsych.org/content/41/4/211

Chlorpromazine Hydrochloride - patient information, description, dosage and directions.Chlorpromazine Hydrochloride - patient information, description, dosage and directions.

Patients treated with antipsychotic agents often have elevation in prolactin levels; however, there is no evidence of increased ... Has occurred with agents of this class; is potentially fatal. Signs and symptoms are hyperpyrexia, muscle rigidity, altered ...
more infohttp://drugster.info/drug/medicament/5059/

Fluphenazine synonyms, fluphenazine antonyms - FreeThesaurus.comFluphenazine synonyms, fluphenazine antonyms - FreeThesaurus.com

... antipsychotic agent, antipsychotic drug, major tranquilizer, major tranquilliser, major tranquillizer.... What are synonyms for ... antipsychotic,type:4},{name:antipsychotic agent,type:4},{name:antipsychotic drug,type:4},{name:major ... First-generation antipsychotics such as haloperidol, fluphenazine, and chlorpromazine were used by 2.. Antipsychotics linked to ... 13 among those on high-potency conventional antipsychotics such as haloperidol and fluphenazine, and by 3.. Some antipsychotics ...
more infohttp://www.freethesaurus.com/fluphenazine

BMJ Best PracticeBMJ Best Practice

5] Hasan S, Buckley P. Novel antipsychotics and the neuroleptic malignant syndrome: a review and critique. Am J Psychiatry. ... NMS has also been associated with other psychotropic agents that block central dopamine pathways (e.g., metoclopramide). It is ... A delay of at least 2 weeks in restarting antipsychotic treatment after an NMS episode has fully resolved is advised. ... A serious, potentially life-threatening complication of treatment with antipsychotic drugs or abrupt withdrawal of dopamine ...
more infohttp://bestpractice.bmj.com/topics/en-us/990

New Antipsychotic Agents « Hacked by 4Ri3 60ndr0n9New Antipsychotic Agents « Hacked by 4Ri3 60ndr0n9

Second-Generation Antipsychotics. The original agents, FGAs or typical antipsychotics, were thought to act by blocking striatal ... These agents have been added to either typical or atypical antipsychotics and show some significant benefits in reducing ... Older agents such as haloperidol and chlorpromazine (first-generation antipsychotics [FGAs]) are very effective for managing ... Blonanserin is unrelated structurally to typical antipsychotics or to newer agents such as risperidone. It is hoped that the ...
more infohttp://primarypsychiatry.com/new-antipsychotic-agents/

Hypoglycaemia induced by second generation antipsychotic agents in schizophrenic non-diabetic patients | The BMJHypoglycaemia induced by second generation antipsychotic agents in schizophrenic non-diabetic patients | The BMJ

antipsychotic agents in schizophrenic non- diabetic patients. BMJ. 2008;337:a1792.. (3)Which comes first: atypical ... Hypoglycaemia induced by second generation antipsychotic agents in schizophrenic non-diabetic patients BMJ 2009; 338 :a1792 ... Hypoglycaemia induced by second generation antipsychotic agents in schizophrenic non-diabetic patients. BMJ 2009; 338 doi: ... induced by second generation antipsychotic agents in schizophrenic non-. diabetic patients. BMJ 2009;338:a1792. ...
more infohttps://www.bmj.com/content/338/bmj.a1792/rapid-responses

Liquid Chromatographic Method for the Quantification of Antipsychotic Agent Iloperidone in Pharmaceutical FormulationLiquid Chromatographic Method for the Quantification of Antipsychotic Agent Iloperidone in Pharmaceutical Formulation

... ... J. P. Kelleher, F. Centorrino, M. J. Albert, and R. J. Baldessarini, "Advances in atypical antipsychotics for the treatment of ... a potential atypical antipsychotic," Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 35, no. 7, pp. 713-720, 1995. View at Google ... schizophrenia: new formulations and new agents," CNS Drugs, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 249-261, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2012/963276/ref/

New Antipsychotic Agent Available for Bipolar Mania, Schizophrenia - MPRNew Antipsychotic Agent Available for Bipolar Mania, Schizophrenia - MPR

RELATED: Switching from Antipsychotic Polypharmacy to Monotherapy in Schizophrenia: Risks and Benefits ... Vraylar is an atypical antipsychotic that exerts its effect through a combination of partial agonist activity at central ... patients with dementia-related psychosis and that elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis treated with antipsychotic ...
more infohttp://www.empr.com/news/new-antipsychotic-agent-available-for-bipolar-mania-schizophrenia/article/483471/

Antipsychotic Agents and Lithium Flashcards by Tin Hernandez | BrainscapeAntipsychotic Agents and Lithium Flashcards by Tin Hernandez | Brainscape

Study Antipsychotic Agents and Lithium flashcards from Tin Hernandez ... Antipsychotic Agents and Lithium Flashcards Preview Pharmacology , Antipsychotic Agents and Lithium , Flashcards ... Atypical antipsychotic. Least sedating atypical antipsychotic. no atropine like effects. Little or not tendency to cause ... Atypical antipsychotic SE: Postural hypotension, QT prolongation (Torsades) Little or not tendency to cause hyperglycemia, ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/antipsychotic-agents-and-lithium-2527904/packs/4415837

FDA Approves Antipsychotic Agent With Sensor to Track IngestionFDA Approves Antipsychotic Agent With Sensor to Track Ingestion

... This article originally appeared on MPR. ... Abilify MyCite consists of the atypical antipsychotic Abilify (aripiprazole; Otsuka) tablets embedded with an Ingestible Event ... Significant Improvement in Schizophrenia Symptoms After Antipsychotic Injectable Switch. *Abilify Maintena Gains New Bipolar I ...
more infohttp://www.psychiatryadvisor.com/news/abilify-mycite-sensor-track-ingestion-patch-app-schizophrenia-bipolar-disorder-depression/article/707170/

Association Between Antipsychotic Agents and Risk of Acute Respiratory Failure in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary...Association Between Antipsychotic Agents and Risk of Acute Respiratory Failure in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary...

Association Between Antipsychotic Agents and Risk of Acute Respiratory Failure in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary ... The use of antipsychotics was self-compared during days 1 to 14 (the risk period according to previous case reports) and days ... Antipsychotic use is associated with an acute and dose-dependent increased risk of ARF in patients with COPD. Clinicians should ... Acute respiratory failure (ARF) is a life-threatening event that has been linked in case reports to antipsychotic use, but this ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28055066

Evaluation of the Strategies of Switching Schizophrenia Patients to Aripiprazole From Other Antipsychotic Agents - Full Text...Evaluation of the Strategies of Switching Schizophrenia Patients to Aripiprazole From Other Antipsychotic Agents - Full Text...

Antipsychotic Agents. Tranquilizing Agents. Central Nervous System Depressants. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Psychotropic ... Antidepressive Agents. Dopamine Agonists. Dopamine Agents. Neurotransmitter Agents. Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological ... Evaluation of the Strategies of Switching Schizophrenia Patients to Aripiprazole From Other Antipsychotic Agents. The safety ... However, the process of switching other antipsychotic agents to aripiprazole can result in a re-emergence or worsening of ...
more infohttps://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00545467?term=ARIPIPRAZOLE&rank=67

Real‐World Evaluation Screening Study and Registry of Dyskinesia in Patients Taking Antipsychotic Agents - Full Text View -...Real‐World Evaluation Screening Study and Registry of Dyskinesia in Patients Taking Antipsychotic Agents - Full Text View -...

Antipsychotic Agents. Tranquilizing Agents. Central Nervous System Depressants. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Psychotropic ... Real‐World Evaluation Screening Study and Registry of Dyskinesia in Patients Taking Antipsychotic Agents (RE-Kinect). The ... Real‐World Evaluation Screening Study and Registry of Dyskinesia in Patients Taking Antipsychotic Agents. ... Patients must be 18 years or older with a cumulative lifetime exposure to antipsychotic medication of three months or more. ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03062033?term=Tardive+Dyskinesia&rank=34

Therapeutic combinations of mirtazapine and antipsychotic agents, for the treatment or prophylaxis of psychotic disorders -...Therapeutic combinations of mirtazapine and antipsychotic agents, for the treatment or prophylaxis of psychotic disorders -...

This application relates to a combination of the antidepressant mirtazapine and an antipsychotic agent such as haloperidol for ... Administration of an antipsychotic agent in combination with mirtazapine allows a lower dosing of the antipsychotic agent to ... 2. A combination according to claim 1 wherein the antipsychotic agent is a typical or atypical antipsychotic agent. 3. A ... 4,062,848, in combination with an antipsychotic agent is able to enhance the antipsychotic effect of said antipsychotic. ...
more infohttp://www.freepatentsonline.com/6150353.html

S33138, A PREFERENTIAL DOPAMINE D3 VERSUS D2 RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST AND POTENTIAL ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENT. III. ACTIONS IN MODELS OF...S33138, A PREFERENTIAL DOPAMINE D3 VERSUS D2 RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST AND POTENTIAL ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENT. III. ACTIONS IN MODELS OF...

S33138, A PREFERENTIAL DOPAMINE D3 VERSUS D2 RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST AND POTENTIAL ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENT. III. ACTIONS IN MODELS OF ... S33138, A PREFERENTIAL DOPAMINE D3 VERSUS D2 RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST AND POTENTIAL ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENT. III. ACTIONS IN MODELS OF ... S33138, A PREFERENTIAL DOPAMINE D3 VERSUS D2 RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST AND POTENTIAL ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENT. III. ACTIONS IN MODELS OF ... S33138, A PREFERENTIAL DOPAMINE D3 VERSUS D2 RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST AND POTENTIAL ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENT. III. ACTIONS IN MODELS OF ...
more infohttp://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/early/2007/12/20/jpet.107.134536

Pharmacological Profile of Lurasidone, a Novel Antipsychotic Agent with Potent 5-Hydroxytryptamine 7 (5-HT7) and 5-HT1A...Pharmacological Profile of Lurasidone, a Novel Antipsychotic Agent with Potent 5-Hydroxytryptamine 7 (5-HT7) and 5-HT1A...

1992) The behavioral pharmacology of olanzapine, a novel "atypical" antipsychotic agent. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 262:545-551. ... Comparison of receptor binding profiles between lurasidone and other antipsychotic agents. Values are means ± S.E.M. of three ... Pharmacological Profile of Lurasidone, a Novel Antipsychotic Agent with Potent 5-Hydroxytryptamine 7 (5-HT7) and 5-HT1A ... 1998) Anxiolytic-like effects of perospirone, a novel serotonin-2 and dopamine-2 antagonist (SDA)-type antipsychotic agent. ...
more infohttp://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/334/1/171.long

Second-Generation Antipsychotic AgentsSecond-Generation Antipsychotic Agents

I was intrigued to read about a recent consensus development conference on the use of antipsychotic ... Second-Generation Antipsychotic Agents. 15 May 2010 By now, most readers know that I am not a psychiatrist! I was intrigued to ... Newer products, sometimes called "atypical antipsychotics," or second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs), have been found to be ... As I understand it, the so-called first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs) are, of course, still widely available and very ...
more infohttp://www.levelofhealth.com/drugs/second-generation-antipsychotic-agents.html

Assessment of the Contributions of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 in the Metabolism of the Antipsychotic Agent Haloperidol to Its...Assessment of the Contributions of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 in the Metabolism of the Antipsychotic Agent Haloperidol to Its...

Assessment of the Contributions of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 in the Metabolism of the Antipsychotic Agent Haloperidol to Its ... Assessment of the Contributions of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 in the Metabolism of the Antipsychotic Agent Haloperidol to Its ... Assessment of the Contributions of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 in the Metabolism of the Antipsychotic Agent Haloperidol to Its ... Assessment of the Contributions of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 in the Metabolism of the Antipsychotic Agent Haloperidol to Its ...
more infohttp://dmd.aspetjournals.org/content/31/3/243

Antipsychotic Agents & Lithium -  ppt downloadAntipsychotic Agents & Lithium - ppt download

2 Antipsychotic Agents & Lithium. Dr. S. A. Ziai 3 ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS Introduction History. Antipsychotic & neuroleptic ... Download ppt "Antipsychotic Agents & Lithium" * Ppt on tourism industry in india Ppt on group development and change Training ... TCAs or, more often, SSRIs Lithium or valproic acid is sometimes added to antipsychotic agents with benefit to patients who do ... Antipsychotic Agents & Lithium. Published byEmerson Walder Modified over 2 years ago ...
more infohttp://slideplayer.com/slide/4054231/

Oral Health, Schizophrenia, and Antipsychotic AgentsOral Health, Schizophrenia, and Antipsychotic Agents

... antipsychotic drugs that decrease salivary flow can increase problems with oral health. ... Oral Health, Schizophrenia, and Antipsychotic Agents. Individuals with chronic mental illnesses are more likely to have poor ... Oral Health, Schizophrenia, and Antipsychotic Agents. September 2013. These pages frequently refer to the "mortality gap" ... Zonisamide to Combat Antipsychotic-Associated Weight Gain. Adjunctive treatment with zonisamide (Zonegran) may help prevent ...
more infohttps://www.btpnews.com/article/2013/09/06/Oral-Health-Schizophrenia-and-Antipsychotic-Agents

Muscarinic receptor activators as antipsychotic agents - Jeffrey ConnMuscarinic receptor activators as antipsychotic agents - Jeffrey Conn

Muscarinic receptor activators as antipsychotic agents Conn, Jeffrey P. Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, ... activators of M1 have effects in animal models that predict efficacy as novel antipsychotic and cognition-enhancing agents. In ... In addition, our studies suggest that these agents may differentially regulate coupling of M1 to protein kinase pathways. These ... In addition, we will determine the behavioral effects of M1 allosteric activators in rodent models that predict antipsychotic ...
more infohttp://grantome.com/grant/NIH/R01-MH073676-09

Antipsychotic Agents: Problems in Prescribing, Adherence, Persistence | APhA DrugInfoLineAntipsychotic Agents: Problems in Prescribing, Adherence, Persistence | APhA DrugInfoLine

Multiple versus single antipsychotic agents for hospitalized psychiatric patients: case-control study of risks versus benefits ... Simultaneous use of multiple antipsychotic agents among inpatients-a trend on the upswing for 4 decades but unsupported by ... Adherence to treatment with antipsychotic medication and health care costs among Medicaid beneficiaries with schizophrenia. Am ... shows that less than one-half of patients are adherent and persistent with antipsychotic therapy, with large numbers taking too ...
more infohttps://blog.pharmacist.com/psychiatry/antipsychotic-agents-problems-prescribing-adherence-persistence

Association between atypical antipsychotic agents and type 2 diabetes: review of prospective clinical dataAssociation between atypical antipsychotic agents and type 2 diabetes: review of prospective clinical data

... ... Bushe, C. (2004). Association between atypical antipsychotic agents and type 2 diabetes: review of prospective clinical data. ... No significant difference between any of the antipsychotic medications studied in terms of their association with glycaemic ... Aims To compare diabetogenic risk between antipsychotic medications; and to describe the limitations of current prospective ...
more infohttps://aran.library.nuigalway.ie/handle/10379/8924
  • These symptoms have disappeared upon reduction of dosage, withdrawal of the drug, or administration of an antiparkinsonian agent. (rxlist.com)
  • An antiparkinsonian agent, such as trihexyphenidyl hydrochloride or benztropine mesylate, is valuable in controlling drug-induced extrapyramidal symptoms. (rxlist.com)
  • Vraylar carries a boxed warning that states the drug is not approved for patients with dementia-related psychosis and that elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis treated with antipsychotic drugs are at an increased risk of death. (empr.com)
  • Lithium is considered a first-line agent for long-term prophylaxis in bipolar illness, especially for classic bipolar disorder with euphoric mania. (medscape.com)
  • brand names Clotepin, Clopiben), also known as octoclothepin or octoclothepine, is an antipsychotic of the tricyclic group which was derived from perathiepin in 1965 and marketed in the Czech Republic by Spofa in or around 1971 for the treatment of schizophrenic psychosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • These results demonstrate that lurasidone possesses antipsychotic activity and antidepressant- or anxiolytic-like effects with potentially reduced liability for extrapyramidal and CNS depressant side effects. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Clinicians should exercise caution when prescribing antipsychotics to patients with COPD and avoid high doses if possible. (nih.gov)
  • Another study, which analyzed Medicaid data from San Diego County from 1998 to 2000, shows that less than one-half of patients are adherent and persistent with antipsychotic therapy, with large numbers taking too few doses and about one-fifth of patients having their prescriptions refilled too frequently. (pharmacist.com)
  • Furthermore, preliminary studies suggest that representative compounds have efficacy in animal models that predict antipsychotic and cognition-enhancing effects. (grantome.com)
  • It is recommended that patients with risk factors for diabetes mellitus starting treatment with atypical antipsychotics should undergo fasting blood glucose testing at the beginning of treatment, and periodically thereafter. (drugs.com)
  • Patients who develop symptoms of hyperglycemia during treatment with atypical antipsychotics should undergo fasting blood glucose testing. (drugs.com)
  • Lurasidone showed potent effects predictive of antipsychotic activity, such as inhibition of methamphetamine-induced hyperactivity and apomorphine-induced stereotyped behavior in rats, similar to other antipsychotics. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Particular attention should be focused on patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) regarding this drug safety concern because these patients are prone to ARF and are commonly treated with antipsychotics. (nih.gov)
  • Multiple versus single antipsychotic agents for hospitalized psychiatric patients: case-control study of risks versus benefits. (pharmacist.com)
  • The use of antipsychotics was self-compared during days 1 to 14 (the risk period according to previous case reports) and days 75 to 88 (control period) preceding the ARF event or index date. (nih.gov)
  • 001) adjusted increased risk of ARF regardless of antipsychotic class and administration route. (nih.gov)
  • Users of antipsychotics (APs) have a risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). (cdc.gov)
  • While all agents in the class have been shown to produce some changes, each drug has its own specific risk profile. (drugs.com)
  • Reserpine is an adrenergic blocking agent used to treat mild to moderate hypertension via the disruption of norepinephrine vesicular storage. (pharmacycode.com)
  • ADMET studies coupled with a behavioral test using the amphetamine-induced hyperactivity model identified four compounds possessing drug-like profiles and having antipsychotic properties. (edu.au)
  • In addition, our studies suggest that these agents may differentially regulate coupling of M1 to protein kinase pathways. (grantome.com)
  • In addition, we will determine the behavioral effects of M1 allosteric activators in rodent models that predict antipsychotic and cognition-enhancing effects. (grantome.com)
  • We will perform a series of studies in to systematically determine the effects of representative M1 allosteric activators on cell signaling and electrophysiological responses in forebrain neurons important for antipsychotic and cognition-enhancing effects of these agents. (grantome.com)
  • Although they are better tolerated and generally thought to be more effective than the older agents, the question remains: which ones should we choose to put on our formulary? (levelofhealth.com)