Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.
A tricylic dibenzodiazepine, classified as an atypical antipsychotic agent. It binds several types of central nervous system receptors, and displays a unique pharmacological profile. Clozapine is a serotonin antagonist, with strong binding to 5-HT 2A/2C receptor subtype. It also displays strong affinity to several dopaminergic receptors, but shows only weak antagonism at the dopamine D2 receptor, a receptor commonly thought to modulate neuroleptic activity. Agranulocytosis is a major adverse effect associated with administration of this agent.
A selective blocker of DOPAMINE D2 RECEPTORS and SEROTONIN 5-HT2 RECEPTORS that acts as an atypical antipsychotic agent. It has been shown to improve both positive and negative symptoms in the treatment of SCHIZOPHRENIA.
A phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat SCHIZOPHRENIA and other PSYCHOSES. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, DELUSIONAL DISORDERS, ballism, and TOURETTE SYNDROME (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and the chorea of HUNTINGTON DISEASE. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable HICCUPS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)
A group of two-ring heterocyclic compounds consisting of a benzene ring fused to a diazepine ring.
A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.
Compounds containing phenyl-1-butanone.
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number two carbon, in contrast to INDOLES which have the nitrogen adjacent to the six-membered ring.
A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate DOPAMINE RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine or exogenous agonists. Many drugs used in the treatment of psychotic disorders (ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) are dopamine antagonists, although their therapeutic effects may be due to long-term adjustments of the brain rather than to the acute effects of blocking dopamine receptors. Dopamine antagonists have been used for several other clinical purposes including as ANTIEMETICS, in the treatment of Tourette syndrome, and for hiccup. Dopamine receptor blockade is associated with NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME.
An antimuscarinic agent that inhibits gastric secretion at lower doses than are required to affect gastrointestinal motility, salivary, central nervous system, cardiovascular, ocular, and urinary function. It promotes the healing of duodenal ulcers and due to its cytoprotective action is beneficial in the prevention of duodenal ulcer recurrence. It also potentiates the effect of other antiulcer agents such as CIMETIDINE and RANITIDINE. It is generally well tolerated by patients.
A substituted benzamide that has antipsychotic properties. It is a dopamine D2 receptor (see RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE D2) antagonist.
Disorders in which there is a loss of ego boundaries or a gross impairment in reality testing with delusions or prominent hallucinations. (From DSM-IV, 1994)
A derivative of morphine that is a dopamine D2 agonist. It is a powerful emetic and has been used for that effect in acute poisoning. It has also been used in the diagnosis and treatment of parkinsonism, but its adverse effects limit its use.
A subtype of dopamine D2 receptors that are highly expressed in the LIMBIC SYSTEM of the brain.
Cell-surface proteins that bind dopamine with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.
Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.
Azoles with an OXYGEN and a NITROGEN next to each other at the 1,2 positions, in contrast to OXAZOLES that have nitrogens at the 1,3 positions.
Cell-surface proteins that bind SEROTONIN and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Several types of serotonin receptors have been recognized which differ in their pharmacology, molecular biology, and mode of action.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate serotonin receptors, thereby blocking the actions of serotonin or SEROTONIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
One of the catecholamine NEUROTRANSMITTERS in the brain. It is derived from TYROSINE and is the precursor to NOREPINEPHRINE and EPINEPHRINE. Dopamine is a major transmitter in the extrapyramidal system of the brain, and important in regulating movement. A family of receptors (RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) mediate its action.
A phenothiazine antipsychotic used in the management of PHYCOSES, including SCHIZOPHRENIA.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A condition characterized by inactivity, decreased responsiveness to stimuli, and a tendency to maintain an immobile posture. The limbs tend to remain in whatever position they are placed (waxy flexibility). Catalepsy may be associated with PSYCHOTIC DISORDERS (e.g., SCHIZOPHRENIA, CATATONIC), nervous system drug toxicity, and other conditions.
Study of mental processes and behavior of schizophrenics.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Diseases of the BASAL GANGLIA including the PUTAMEN; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; claustrum; AMYGDALA; and CAUDATE NUCLEUS. DYSKINESIAS (most notably involuntary movements and alterations of the rate of movement) represent the primary clinical manifestations of these disorders. Common etiologies include CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES; and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.
The prototypical phenothiazine antipsychotic drug. Like the other drugs in this class chlorpromazine's antipsychotic actions are thought to be due to long-term adaptation by the brain to blocking DOPAMINE RECEPTORS. Chlorpromazine has several other actions and therapeutic uses, including as an antiemetic and in the treatment of intractable hiccup.
An antipsychotic phenothiazine derivative with actions and uses similar to those of CHLORPROMAZINE.
The use of multiple drugs administered to the same patient, most commonly seen in elderly patients. It includes also the administration of excessive medication. Since in the United States most drugs are dispensed as single-agent formulations, polypharmacy, though using many drugs administered to the same patient, must be differentiated from DRUG COMBINATIONS, single preparations containing two or more drugs as a fixed dose, and from DRUG THERAPY, COMBINATION, two or more drugs administered separately for a combined effect. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Abnormal movements, including HYPERKINESIS; HYPOKINESIA; TREMOR; and DYSTONIA, associated with the use of certain medications or drugs. Muscles of the face, trunk, neck, and extremities are most commonly affected. Tardive dyskinesia refers to abnormal hyperkinetic movements of the muscles of the face, tongue, and neck associated with the use of neuroleptic agents (see ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1199)
A phenothiazine used in the treatment of PSYCHOSES. Its properties and uses are generally similar to those of CHLORPROMAZINE.
Compounds containing dibenzo-1,4-thiazine. Some of them are neuroactive.
A hallucinogen formerly used as a veterinary anesthetic, and briefly as a general anesthetic for humans. Phencyclidine is similar to KETAMINE in structure and in many of its effects. Like ketamine, it can produce a dissociative state. It exerts its pharmacological action through inhibition of NMDA receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE). As a drug of abuse, it is known as PCP and Angel Dust.
A complex involuntary response to an unexpected strong stimulus usually auditory in nature.
A serotonin receptor subtype found widely distributed in peripheral tissues where it mediates the contractile responses of variety of tissues that contain SMOOTH MUSCLE. Selective 5-HT2A receptor antagonists include KETANSERIN. The 5-HT2A subtype is also located in BASAL GANGLIA and CEREBRAL CORTEX of the BRAIN where it mediates the effects of HALLUCINOGENS such as LSD.
A group of derivatives of naphthyridine carboxylic acid, quinoline carboxylic acid, or NALIDIXIC ACID.
The practice of prescribing or using a drug outside the scope of the drug's official approved label as designated by a regulatory agency concerning the treatment of a particular disease or condition.
A condition associated with the use of certain medications and characterized by an internal sense of motor restlessness often described as an inability to resist the urge to move.
A dopamine D2-receptor antagonist. It has been used therapeutically as an antidepressant, antipsychotic, and as a digestive aid. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A feeling of restlessness associated with increased motor activity. This may occur as a manifestation of nervous system drug toxicity or other conditions.
Standardized procedures utilizing rating scales or interview schedules carried out by health personnel for evaluating the degree of mental illness.
A subclass of G-protein coupled SEROTONIN receptors that couple preferentially to the GQ-G11 G-PROTEINS resulting in increased intracellular levels of INOSITOL PHOSPHATES and free CALCIUM.
A potentially fatal syndrome associated primarily with the use of neuroleptic agents (see ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) which are in turn associated with dopaminergic receptor blockade (see RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) in the BASAL GANGLIA and HYPOTHALAMUS, and sympathetic dysregulation. Clinical features include diffuse MUSCLE RIGIDITY; TREMOR; high FEVER; diaphoresis; labile blood pressure; cognitive dysfunction; and autonomic disturbances. Serum CPK level elevation and a leukocytosis may also be present. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1199; Psychiatr Serv 1998 Sep;49(9):1163-72)
A loosely defined grouping of drugs that have effects on psychological function. Here the psychotropic agents include the antidepressive agents, hallucinogens, and tranquilizing agents (including the antipsychotics and anti-anxiety agents).
A biologically active tridecapeptide isolated from the hypothalamus. It has been shown to induce hypotension in the rat, to stimulate contraction of guinea pig ileum and rat uterus, and to cause relaxation of rat duodenum. There is also evidence that it acts as both a peripheral and a central nervous system neurotransmitter.
Failure to adequately provide oxygen to cells of the body and to remove excess carbon dioxide from them. (Stedman, 25th ed)
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.

The social and economic effects of manic depressive illness and of its treatment in lithium clinics. (1/3659)

Advising about the employment of those who have had manic depressive episodes requires Occupational Health Physicians to obtain, with consent, an objective account of previous episodes and to appreciate the enormous range of manic and depressive manifestations. Familiarity is needed with the likely effects of treatment of episodes and the benefits and problems of prophylaxis--not just in general but in individual cases, for example, where driving is required. This article summarizes research into the effects of lithium preparations on the course of the illness, thyroid and renal function and the risk of suicide. The author found that changing from treatment of episodes to continuous prophylaxis benefited employment and personal relationships without causing body weight problems. Many patients do well in life if supported by an experienced professional team, with 61% requiring no further admissions once on lithium, and with an 86% reduction in admissions achieved in our local clinic.  (+info)

S-16924 [(R)-2-[1-[2-(2,3-dihydro-benzo[1,4]dioxin-5-yloxy)-ethyl]- pyrrolidin-3yl]-1-(4-fluorophenyl)-ethanone], a novel, potential antipsychotic with marked serotonin1A agonist properties: III. Anxiolytic actions in comparison with clozapine and haloperidol. (2/3659)

S-16924 is a potential antipsychotic that displays agonist and antagonist properties at serotonin (5-HT)1A and 5-HT2A/2C receptors, respectively. In a pigeon conflict procedure, the benzodiazepine clorazepate (CLZ) increased punished responses, an action mimicked by S-16924, whereas the atypical antipsychotic clozapine and the neuroleptic haloperidol were inactive. Similarly, in a Vogel conflict paradigm in rats, CLZ increased punished responses, an action shared by S-16924 but not by clozapine or haloperidol. This action of S-16924 was abolished by the 5-HT1A antagonist WAY-100,635. Ultrasonic vocalizations in rats were inhibited by CLZ, S-16924, clozapine, and haloperidol. However, although WAY-100,635 abolished the action of S-16924, it did not affect clozapine and haloperidol. In a rat elevated plus-maze, CLZ, but not S-16924, clozapine, and haloperidol, increased open-arm entries. Like CLZ, S-16924 increased social interaction in rats, whereas clozapine and haloperidol were inactive. WAY-100,635 abolished this action of S-16924. CLZ, S-16924, clozapine, and haloperidol decreased aggressive interactions in isolated mice, but this effect of S-16924 was not blocked by WAY-100, 635. All drugs inhibited motor behavior, but the separation to anxiolytic doses was more pronounced for S-16924 than for CLZ. Finally, in freely moving rats, CLZ and S-16924, but not clozapine and haloperidol, decreased dialysis levels of 5-HT in the nucleus accumbens: this action of S-16924 was blocked by WAY-100,165. In conclusion, in contrast to haloperidol and clozapine, S-16924 possessed a broad-based profile of anxiolytic activity at doses lower than those provoking motor disruption. Its principal mechanism of action was activation of 5-HT1A (auto)receptors.  (+info)

Ergoline derivative LEK-8829-induced turning behavior in rats with unilateral striatal ibotenic acid lesions: interaction with bromocriptine. (3/3659)

LEK-8829 [9,10-didehydro-N-methyl-(2-propynyl)-6-methyl-8- aminomethylergoline bimaleinate] is an antagonist of dopamine D2 receptors and serotonin (5-HT)2 and 5-HT1A receptors in intact animals and a D1 receptor agonist in dopamine-depleted animals. In the present study, we used rats with unilateral striatal lesions with ibotenic acid (IA) to investigate the dopamine receptor activities of LEK-8829 in a model with innervated dopamine receptors. The IA-lesioned rats circled ipsilaterally when challenged with apomorphine, the mixed agonist on D1/D2 receptors. LEK-8829 induced a dose-dependent contralateral turning that was blocked by D1 receptor antagonist SCH-23390. The treatment with D1 receptor agonist SKF-82958 induced ipsilateral turning, whereas the treatment with D2 receptor antagonist haloperidol induced contralateral posture. The combined treatment with SKF-82958 and haloperidol resulted in a weak contralateral turning, indicating the possible receptor mechanism of contralateral turning induced by LEK-8829. Bromocriptine induced a weak ipsilateral turning that was blocked by haloperidol. The ipsilateral turning induced by bromocriptine was significantly potentiated by the coadministration of a low dose but not by a high dose of LEK-8829. The potentiation of turning was blocked either by SCH-23390 or by haloperidol. The potentiation of ipsilateral turning suggests the costimulation of D2 and D1 receptors by bromocriptine and LEK-8829, respectively, whereas the lack of potentiation by the highest dose of LEK-8829 may be explained by the opposing activity of LEK-8829 and bromocriptine at D2 receptors. We propose that the D2 and 5HT2 receptor-blocking and D1 receptor-stimulating profile of LEK-8829 is promising for the treatment of negative symptoms of schizophrenia.  (+info)

Mixed agonist-antagonist properties of clozapine at different human cloned muscarinic receptor subtypes expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells. (4/3659)

We recently reported that clozapine behaves as a partial agonist at the cloned human m4 muscarinic receptor subtype. In the present study, we investigated whether the drug could elicit similar effects at the cloned human m1, m2, and m3 muscarinic receptor subtypes expressed in the Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Clozapine elicited a concentration-dependent stimulation of [3H]inositol phosphates accumulation in CHO cells expressing either the m1 or the m3 receptor subtype. Moreover, clozapine inhibited forskolin-stimulated cyclic AMP accumulation and enhanced [35S] GTP gamma S binding to membrane G proteins in CHO cells expressing the m2 receptor. These agonist effects of clozapine were antagonized by atropine. The intrinsic activity of clozapine was lower than that of the full cholinergic agonist carbachol, and, when the compounds were combined, clozapine potently reduced the receptor responses to carbachol. These data indicate that clozapine behaves as a partial agonist at different muscarinic receptor subtypes and may provide new hints for understanding the receptor mechanisms underlying the antipsychotic efficacy of the drug.  (+info)

Low-dose clozapine for the treatment of drug-induced psychosis in Parkinson's disease. The Parkinson Study Group. (5/3659)

BACKGROUND: Drug-induced psychosis is a difficult problem to manage in patients with Parkinson's disease. Multiple open-label studies have reported that treatment with clozapine at low doses ameliorates psychosis without worsening parkinsonism. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of low doses of clozapine (6.25 to 50 mg per day) in 60 patients at six sites over a period of 14 months. The patients (mean age, 72 years) had idiopathic Parkinson's disease and drug-induced psychosis of at least four weeks' duration. All the patients continued to receive fixed doses of antiparkinsonian drugs during the four weeks of the trial. Blood counts were monitored weekly in all the patients. RESULTS: The mean dose of clozapine was 24.7 mg per day. The patients in the clozapine group had significantly more improvement than those in the placebo group in all three of the measures used to determine the severity of psychosis. The mean (+/-SE) scores on the Clinical Global Impression Scale improved by 1.6+/-0.3 points for the patients receiving clozapine, as compared with 0.5+/-0.2 point for those receiving placebo (P<0.001). The score on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale improved by 9.3+/-1.5 points for the patients receiving clozapine, as compared with 2.6+/-1.3 points for those receiving placebo (P=0.002). The score on the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms improved by 11.8+/-2.0 points for the patients receiving clozapine, as compared with 3.8+/-1.9 points for those receiving placebo (P=0.01). Seven patients treated with clozapine had an improvement of at least three on the seven-point Clinical Global Impression Scale, as compared with only one patient given placebo. Clozapine treatment improved tremor and had no deleterious effect on the severity of parkinsonism. In one patient, clozapine was discontinued because of leukopenia. CONCLUSIONS: Clozapine, at daily doses of 50 mg or less, is safe and significantly improves drug-induced psychosis without worsening parkinsonism.  (+info)

Antagonistic effects of trifluoperazine, imipramine, and chlorpromazine against acetylcholine-induced contractions in isolated rat uterus. (6/3659)

AIM: To examine the effects and affinity of some phenothizines (trifluoperazine, Tri and chlorpromazine, Chl) and antidepressant (imipramine, Imi) drugs on acetylcholine (ACh)-induced uterine contraction. METHODS: Isotonic contractions of rat uterine strips were recorded. ACh was administrated to induce maximal contraction before exchange of nutrient solution. ACh was added 5 min after the testing drugs. The nutrient solution was exchanged 4 times after each agonist (ACh or other agents) to produce maximal contraction. RESULTS: Atropine (Atr, 0.029-2.9 mumol.L-1), 4-DAMP (3.6-360 nmol.L-1), pirenzepine (Pir, 0.23-23.5 mumol.L-1), and AF-DX 116 (0.7-35.6 mumol.L-1) competitively antagonized the muscular uterine concentration induced by ACh (0.068-36068 mumol.L-1). The Schild plot was linear (r = 1.00). The pKB and slopes values (95% confidence limits) were 9.28 +/- 0.12 and 1.00 +/- 0.10 to Atr, 9.06 +/- 0.10 and 1.10 +/- 0.08 to 4-DAMP, 7.03 +/- 0.15 and 0.99 +/- 0.12 to Pir, and 5.60 +/- 0.08 and 1.00 +/- 0.19 to AF-DX 116. Tri 0.01-2 mumol.L-1 (pKB = 8.39 +/- 0.04) and Imi 94-940 nmol.L-1 (pKB = 7.21 +/- 0.10) produced also a competitive antagonism of the muscular uterine contraction induced by ACh (r = 1.00), but the slope was only 0.60 +/- 0.03 to Tri or 0.83 +/- 0.16 to Imi. Chl 2.8-5.6 mumol.L-1 produced a weak antagonism on amplitude of muscular contraction induced by the cholinomimetic. CONCLUSION: The muscarinic receptors on uterus behaved as M3 subtype. Tri and Imi, but not Chl, were competitive antagonist of muscarinic receptors of uterus. Imi behaved a simple competitive antagonist at a single site on myometrium, but Tri was not a simple competitive agent at a single site.  (+info)

The use of atypical antipsychotics in the management of schizophrenia. (7/3659)

Long-term drug treatment of schizophrenia with conventional antipsychotics has limitations: an estimated quarter to one third of patients are treatment-resistant; conventional antipsychotics have only a modest impact upon negative symptoms (poverty of thought, social withdrawal and loss of affect); and adverse effects, particularly extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS). Newer, so-called atypical, antipsychotics such as olanzapine, risperidone, sertindole and clozapine (an old drug which was re-introduced in 1990) are claimed to address these limitations. Atypical agents are, at a minimum, at least as effective as conventional drugs such as haloperidol. They also cause substantially fewer extrapyramidal symptoms. However, some other adverse effects are more common than with conventional drugs. For example, clozapine carries a significant risk of serious blood disorders, for which special monitoring is mandatory; it also causes troublesome drowsiness and increased salivation more often than conventional agents. Some atypical agents cause more weight gain or QT prolongation than older agents. The choice of therapy is, therefore, not straightforward. At present, atypical agents represent an advance for patients with severe or intolerable EPS. Most published evidence exists to support the use of clozapine, which has also been shown to be effective in schizophrenia refractory to conventional agents. However, the need for compliance with blood count monitoring and its sedative properties make careful patient selection important. The extent of any additional direct benefit offered by atypical agents on negative symptoms is not yet clear. The lack of a depot formulation for atypical drugs may pose a significant practical problem. To date, only two double-blind studies in which atypical agents were compared directly have been published. Neither provides compelling evidence for the choice of one agent over another. Atypical agents are many times more expensive than conventional drugs. Although drug treatment constitutes only a small proportion of the costs of managing schizophrenia, the additional annual cost of the use of atypical agents in, say, a quarter of the likely U.K. schizophrenic population would be about 56 M pound sterling. There is only limited evidence of cost-effectiveness. Atypical antipsychotics are not currently licensed for other conditions where conventional antipsychotics are commonly used, such as behaviour disturbance or dementia in the elderly. Their dose, and place in treatment in such cases have yet to be determined.  (+info)

Synergistic interactions between ampakines and antipsychotic drugs. (8/3659)

Tests were made for interactions between antipsychotic drugs and compounds that enhance synaptic currents mediated by alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid-type glutamate receptors ("ampakines"). Typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs decreased methamphetamine-induced hyperactivity in rats; the effects of near or even subthreshold doses of the antipsychotics were greatly enhanced by the ampakines. Interactions between the ampakine CX516 and low doses of different antipsychotics were generally additive and often synergistic. The ampakine did not exacerbate neuroleptic-induced catalepsy, indicating that the interaction between the different pharmacological classes was selective. These results suggest that positive modulators of cortical glutamatergic systems may be useful adjuncts in treating schizophrenia.  (+info)

Antipsychotic-induced weight gain constitutes a major unresolved clinical problem which may ultimately be associated with reducing life expectancy by 25 years. Overweight is associated with brain deterioration, cognitive decline and poor quality of life, factors which are already compromised in normal weight patients with schizophrenia. Here we outline the current strategies against antipsychotic-induced weight gain, and we describe peripheral and cerebral effects of the gut hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Moreover, we account for similarities in brain changes between schizophrenia and overweight patients. Current interventions against antipsychotic-induced weight gain do not facilitate a substantial and lasting weight loss. GLP-1 analogs used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes are associated with significant and sustained weight loss in overweight patients. Potential effects of treating schizophrenia patients with antipsychotic-induced weight gain with GLP-1 analogs are discussed. We propose
TY - JOUR. T1 - Second-generation antipsychotic medications in the treatment of mood disorders. T2 - Focus on aripiprazole. AU - Buckley, Peter F.. PY - 2005/1/1. Y1 - 2005/1/1. N2 - Second-generation antipsychotic medications offer a broader range of therapeutic efficacies than first-generation agents. Consequently, our field has witnessed a rapid expansion of the use of second-generation antipsychotic drugs for several conditions beyond psychosis. The use of second-generation antipsychotic medications has been most pronounced in mood disorders, especially in bipolar disorders. Information about the agents clozapine, risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, ziprasidone and aripiprazole in terms of their efficacy and tolerability in bipolar disorder is now available. Aripiprazole, a new agent whose proposed mechanism(s) of action differs from that of other agents, has been shown in placebo-controlled comparative trials in bipolar patients to be an effective and well tolerated treatment option for ...
In psychotic disorders, early intervention with antipsychotic medications increases the likelihood of favourable long-term course. However, the pharmacologic management especially with conventional antipsychotic medications is complicated by a high rate of adverse effects including sexual dysfunction. This study aims to determine the demographic and clinical factors associated with sexual dysfunction among male psychiatric outpatients on conventional antipsychotic medications in South-western Nigeria. Two hundred and seventy five consecutive male outpatients with psychotic disorders on conventional antipsychotic medications were interviewed. Data was collected on demographic characteristics, illness-related and medication-related variables. Illness severity was assessed with the Brief psychiatric rating scale. The International Index of Erectile Function questionnaire was used to assess for sexual dysfunctions. A total of 111 (40.4%) respondents had one or more forms of sexual dysfunction. Sexual desire
Atypical antipsychotic drugs, which are distinguished from typical antipsychotic drugs by a lower incidence of extra-pyramidal side effects and less propensity to elevate serum prolactin levels (e.g., clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone, quetiapine, ziprasidone), have become the most widely used treatments for schizophrenia, although their precise mechanism of action remains controversial. It has been suggested that this group of atypical antipsychotic drugs is characterized by preferentially high affinities for 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2A serotonin receptors and relatively low affinities for D2-dopamine receptors. It has recently been proposed that these atypical antipsychotic drugs may also be distinguished from typical antipsychotic drugs (e.g., haloperidol, fluphenazine, chlorpromazine, and so on) by inverse agonist actions at the 5-HT2C-INI RNA edited isoform of the human 5-HT2C receptor transiently expressed in COS-7 cells. We have examined the relationship among 5-HT2C inverse agonist ...
Title:Antipsychotic Drugs: From Receptor-binding Profiles to Metabolic Side Effects. VOLUME: 16 ISSUE: 8. Author(s):Spyridon Siafis, Dimitrios Tzachanis, Myrto Samara and Georgios Papazisis*. Affiliation:Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, 3rd Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki. Keywords:Receptor-binding profiles, antipsychotics, metabolic side effects, neurotransmitters, obesity, diabetes, metabolic regulation, feeding behavior.. Abstract:Background: Antipsychotic-induced metabolic side effects are major concerns in psychopharmacology and clinical psychiatry. Their pathogenetic mechanisms are still not elucidated. Methods: Herein, we review the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Reducing the burden of side effects during long-term antipsychotic therapy. T2 - The role of switching medications. AU - Weiden, Peter J.. AU - Buckley, Peter F.. PY - 2007/7/10. Y1 - 2007/7/10. N2 - One of the great challenges of long-term treatment of schizophrenia and related disorders is minimizing the medical or psychological burden from persistent side effects. Because of the differences in side effect profiles between the newer and older antipsychotic medications, and distinct differences among the newer agents themselves, the spectrum of side effects associated with antipsychotic therapy has changed tremendously. The authors review changing from one antipsychotic to another (switching) as a potential treatment strategy for reducing the overall side effect burden of antipsychotic therapy. This review identifies 6 steps to the evaluation of switching antipsychotics because of side effects: (1) Establish a causal attribution that the clinical problem is an adverse effect ...
Objective: A recent meta-analysis has indicated that, in patients with dementia, the use of atypical antipsychotics is associated with an excess mortality. Later observational studies have suggested that conventional antipsychotics may pose an even greater risk of death. None of these studies could evaluate the risk associated with single antipsychotics nor could they provide any conclusive evidence concerning the risk among nursing home residents. We conducted a retrospective cohort study to compare the risk of death associated with atypical and conventional antipsychotics in a large population of nursing home residents with dementia.. Method: We identified 6,524 new users of atypical antipsychotics and 3,205 new users of conventional antipsychotics living in 1,581 Medicare- or Medicaid-certified nursing homes in 5 US states during the years 1998-2000. The outcome measure was all-cause mortality, which was determined during 6-months of follow-up.. Results: After adjusting for potential ...
Two main conclusions can be drawn from this review. Firstly, taking the trial results at face value, atypical antipsychotics are slightly more effective and better tolerated in patients with schizophrenia. Atypical antipsychotics also have a significantly lower risk of causing extrapyramidal side effects. We found no reliable evidence of differential effects between atypical antipsychotics and we have therefore grouped them together in this discussion. Secondly, when we controlled for the higher than recommended dose of conventional antipsychotics used in some trials, a modest advantage in favour of atypical antipsychotics in terms of extrapyramidal side effects remains, but the differences in efficacy and overall tolerability disappear, suggesting that many of the perceived benefits of atypical antipsychotics are really due to excessive doses of the comparator drug used in the trials. Taking these points into account, we think it inappropriate to advocate the first line use of a new drug ...
Data are limited on the benefits and risks of dose reduction in managing side effects associated with antipsychotic treatment. As an example, antipsychotic dose reduction has been recommended in the management of tardive dyskinesia (TD), yet the benefits of lowering doses are not well studied. However, stable maintenance treatment is essential to prevent deterioration and relapse in schizophrenia. A retrospective cohort study was conducted to analyze the healthcare burden of antipsychotic dose reduction in patients with schizophrenia. Medical claims from six US states spanning a six-year period were analyzed for ≥10% or ≥ 30% antipsychotic dose reductions compared with those from patients receiving a stable dose. Outcomes measured were inpatient admissions and emergency room (ER) visits for schizophrenia, all psychiatric disorders, and all causes, and TD claims. A total of 19,556 patients were identified with ≥10% dose reduction and 15,239 patients with ≥30% dose reduction. Following a ≥ 10%
TY - JOUR. T1 - A randomized controlled trial undertaken to test a nurse-led weight management and exercise intervention designed for people with serious mental illness who take second generation antipsychotics. AU - Usher, Kim. AU - Park, Tanya. AU - FOSTER, Kim. AU - Buettner, Petra. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - To test the effect of a nurse-led intervention on weight gain in people with serious mental illness prescribed and taking second generation antipsychotic medication. Background: Weight gain and obesity has reached epidemic proportions in the general population with the prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome reaching 20-25% of the global population. People with serious mental illness are at even higher risk, particularly those taking second generation antipsychotic medication.. AB - To test the effect of a nurse-led intervention on weight gain in people with serious mental illness prescribed and taking second generation antipsychotic medication. Background: Weight gain and obesity has reached ...
The incidence of sudden cardiac death in users of atypical anti-psychotics like clozapine, risperidone, quetiapine and olanzapine is almost twice that of individuals who do not take these drugs. Sudden cardiac death is a sudden pulseless condition that is fatal, precipitated by ventricular tachyarrhythmia in the absence of known non-cardiac cause. This risk of sudden cardiac death increases with increased dose of the anti-psychotic medications.. Of late atypical anti-psychotics are being increasingly prescribed and are replacing the older anti-psychotic drugs. The results were obtained from a retrospective cohort trail that involved 93,300 users of anti-psychotic medications and 18300 matched controls. It is useful to note that typical anti-psychotics like haloperidol and thioridazine can also cause increased incidence of sudden cardiac death. One of the explanations provided is that anti-psychotics through blockade of potassium channels increase the prolongation of the cardiac repolarization, ...
As violence against self and others is an important outcome in the treatment of patients with psychosis-spectrum disorders and hostility is an important indicator for violence, we set out to evaluate the effects of different types of antipsychotic agents in reducing hostility. We performed a systematic literature search, which provided 18 suitable randomized studies comparing typical to atypical antipsychotics for at least 4 weeks in patients with psychotic disorders. Results showed a small (0.26) but significant effect for atypical as compared to typical antipsychotics, with high heterogeneity, even though the mean dose of typical antipsychotics was higher. This effect size remained similar when separately analyzing sponsored and non-sponsored studies. When differentiating between high and low-dose studies, the high-dose group showed a significant difference between typical and atypical antipsychotics whereas the low-dose group did not. An analysis comparing clozapine to typical antipsychotics ...
There are often questions regarding what to do regarding antipsychotic medication use after a patients psychotic symptoms have improved. In patients with schizophrenia whose symptoms have improved with antipsychotic medication, guidelines recommend that these patients continue to be treated with an antipsychotic medication. The goal is to prevent relapse or recurrence of psychotic symptoms. Guidelines also recommend that patients with schizophrenia whose symptoms have improved with an antipsychotic medication continue to be treated with the same antipsychotic medication. APA practice guidelines are found at: https://www.psychiatry.org/psychiatrists/practice/clinical-practice-guidelines.. ...
Conventional antipsychotic medication is commonly prescribed to patients with autistic spectrum disorder. However, a high incidence of severe adverse reactions highlights the need to find more favourable treatments. Atypical antipsychotics may combine efficacy in ameliorating some autistic symptoms with a lower incidence of some adverse reactions. This article reviews the use of atypical antipsychotics in autistic disorder, with particular focus on behaviour, cognition and physical well-being. Thirteen studies using risperidone, three using olanzapine, one using clozapine, one using amisulpride and one using quetiapine were identified. Few firm conclusions can be drawn due to the limitations of the studies; however, there is an indication that risperidone may be effective in reducing hyperactivity, aggression and repetitive behaviours, often without inducing severe adverse reactions. Olanzapine and clozapine may also be effective; however, there is little evidence for using amisulpride or quetiapine in
Research comparing sex differences in the effects of antipsychotic medications on acute ischemic heart disease (IHD) is limited and the findings ambiguous. This study aimed to investigate these associations within a primary care setting. Hong Kong public general outpatient electronic records of patients aged 45+ during 2007-2010 were extracted, with the last consultation date as the baseline for a 4-year follow-up period to observe acute IHD hospitalizations (2011-2014). Antipsychotic use was defined as any prescription over the previous 12 months from a list of 16 antipsychotics, while acute IHD was defined by ICD-9: 410.00-411.89. Both sex-specific and sex-combined (both sexes) mixed-effects Cox models (random intercept across 74 clinics) were implemented to examine the association and test the interaction between antipsychotics and sex. Among 1,043,236 included patients, 17,780 (1.7%) were prescribed antipsychotics, and 8342 (0.8%) developed IHD. In sex-specific analyses, antipsychotic prescription
The atypical antipsychotics risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, ziprasidone, and aripiprazole have become first-line treatment for schizophrenia because they reduce the positive symptoms of psychosis but do not have a high incidence of extrapyramidal symptoms. However, these agents, like other antipsychotics, may take as long as 16 or more weeks to produce a response, and even with prolonged treatment are unlikely to evoke responses greater than 50% improvement in symptoms. This has led to the experimental use of high atypical antipsychotic doses, antipsychotic polypharmacy, and augmentation with other psychotropic drugs, all of which occur commonly in clinical practice. This article reviews the current evidence for these increasingly common means of treating schizophrenia and psychosis, with particular emphasis on polypharmacy and augmentation. To date, there are only two controlled studies of antipsychotic polypharmacy involving an atypical antipsychotic; the rest of the data are uncontrolled ...
The new Metabolic Monitoring for Children and Adolescents on Antipsychotics (APM) HEDIS measure calculates the percentage of children ages 1-17 who have had two or more antipsychotic prescriptions filled and at least one metabolic test for blood glucose HbA1c, and at least one test for low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LCL-C) or total cholesterol each year. Examples of first and second-generation antipsychotic medications included in this measure are chlorpromazine, aripiprazole, clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone, haloperidol, and trifluoperazine. As you know, while antipsychotic medications are effective in treating certain mental illnesses in children, their side effects can lead to or exacerbate other health problems. Children taking antipsychotics are prone to significant weight gain and obesity-related complications such as cardiovascular issues, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and insulin-resistant type 2 diabetes. Consequently, it is important that patients on antipsychotic ...
Preface ix Acknowledgements x. Notes on using The Maudsley Prescribing Guidelines xi. Notes on inclusion of drugs xi. List of abbreviations xii. Chapter 1 Plasma level monitoring of psychotropic drugs and anticonvulsants 1. Interpreting sample results 2. Chapter 2 Schizophrenia 11. Antipsychotic drugs 11. Antipsychotic drugs: equivalent doses 13. Antipsychotic drugs: minimum effective doses 14. Antipsychotic drugs: licensed maximum doses 16. New antipsychotic drugs 17. Antipsychotic drugs: general principles of prescribing 21. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guidelines for the treatment of schizophrenia 22. Treatment algorithms for schizophrenia 24. Antipsychotic drugs: monitoring of metabolic effects 26. Switching antipsychotic drugs because of poor tolerability 31. Antipsychotic response: to increase the dose, to switch, to add or just wait - what is the right move? 33. Speed and onset of antipsychotic drug action 36. First-generation antipsychotic drugs: place in therapy ...
This proposal aims to use a well-characterized procedure, the modified Frequently Sampled Intravenous Glucose Tolerance Test (FSIGTT), to characterize the glucoregulatory effects of the two most commonly prescribed atypical antipsychotic medications, ziprasidone and olanzapine, in comparison to the conventional antipsychotic haloperidol. Abnormalities in peripheral glucose regulation and type 2 diabetes can occur more commonly in individuals with schizophrenia than in healthy subjects or in other psychiatric conditions. While abnormalities in glucose regulation were first reported in schizophrenia prior to the introduction of antipsychotic medications, antipsychotic treatment may contribute significantly to abnormalities in glucose regulation.. Recently, the adverse effect of antipsychotic medications on systemic glucose regulation has received increased attention as investigators noted prominent adverse glucoregulatory effects associated with certain newer antipsychotic medications. Abnormal ...
Evid Based Mental Health doi:10.1136/ebmental-2012-100740 Aetiology Atypical antipsychotics are associated with incident diabetes in older adults without schizophrenia or bipolar disorder Question Question Is atypical antipsychotic use associated with incident diabetes or hyperlipidaemia in older people without schizophrenia or bipolar disorder? People Medicare advantage or commercial managed healthcare plan enrolees aged 65 and above with no…
Objectives: Given the concern that mortality rates may be increased in geriatric patients exposed to atypical antipsychotic agents, we assessed mortality rates for adult patients with schizophrenia assigned to an investigational antipsychotic (olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, or ziprasidone), a control antipsychotic (haloperidol or chlorpromazine), or placebo in preapproval clinical development programs to assess relative risk with atypical antipsychotics as compared to typical antipsychotics or placebo.. Method: We reviewed safety data (from clinical trials conducted from approximately 1982 to 2002) for 16,791 adult patients with schizophrenia (DSM-III or DSM-IV criteria) in U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Summary Basis of Approval (SBA) reports for 6 antipsychotic drugs. Mortality rates were calculated for each treatment group (investigational agent, active control, orplacebo) on the basis of patient exposure years (PEY) and gross mortality. We compared the differences in mortality ...
A group of nine neuroleptic drug free schizophrenic patients (seven men, two women; ages 30-45 years) were compared with a group of nine schizophrenic patients (seven men, two women; ages 29-42 years) established on antipsychotic medication. All the patients met DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia.12 Seven of the neuroleptic drug free patients were antipsychotic naïve and the remaining two had not received antipsychotic medication for at least six months. Andreasans rating scales were used to assess the predominance of positive (SAPS) and negative (SANS) symptoms in drug naïve and medicated patients. The mean (SD) SAPS score was 35.2 (15.9) in the medicated patients and 41.0 (22.2) in the drug naïve patients. The mean SANS (SD) score was 15.0 (16.9) in the medicated patients and 17.6 (15.7) in the drug naïve patients. There was no significant difference (independent t test; P,0.05) for either score between the two groups of patients. There was no difference (Mann-Whitney rank sum test; ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Treatment of schizophrenia. T2 - Preventing the progression of disease. AU - Csernansky, John G.. PY - 2003/1/1. Y1 - 2003/1/1. N2 - Atypical antipsychotic drugs offer a number of advantages compared with typical antipsychotic drugs during the acute treatment of psychotic episodes and maintenance treatment to prevent psychotic relapses in patients with schizophrenia. These advantages include superior efficacy, especially for negative symptoms and reduced extrapyramidal adverse effects. Clinicians, however, need to be vigilant regarding new adverse effects that may be more strongly associated with atypical than typical drugs, especially those related to weight gain. Despite increased pill costs for atypical antipsychotic drugs, the overall costs of providing care to patients with schizophrenia using these drugs do not appear to be substantially higher.. AB - Atypical antipsychotic drugs offer a number of advantages compared with typical antipsychotic drugs during the acute ...
This proposal aims to use a well-characterized procedure, the modified Frequently Sampled Intravenous Glucose Tolerance Test (FSIGTT), to characterize the glucoregulatory effects of the two most commonly prescribed atypical antipsychotic medications, risperidone and olanzapine, in comparison to the conventional antipsychotic haloperidol. Abnormalities in peripheral glucose regulation and type 2 diabetes can occur more commonly in individuals with schizophrenia than in healthy subjects or in other psychiatric conditions. While abnormalities in glucose regulation were first reported in schizophrenia prior to the introduction of antipsychotic medications, antipsychotic treatment may contribute significantly to abnormalities in glucose regulation.. Recently, the adverse effect of antipsychotic medications on systemic glucose regulation has received increased attention as investigators noted prominent adverse glucoregulatory effects associated with certain newer antipsychotic medications. Abnormal ...
The review currently includes nine randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with 3361 participants. The overall rate of premature study discontinuation was very high (59.1%). Data for the comparisons of ziprasidone with amisulpride, clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine and risperidone were available. Ziprasidone was a less acceptable treatment than olanzapine (leaving the studies early for any reason: 5 RCTs, n=1937, RR 1.26 CI 1.18 to 1.35, NNH 7 CI 5 to 10) and risperidone (3 RCTs, n=1029, RR 1.11 CI 1.02 to 1.20, NNH 14 CI 8 to 50), but not than the other second generation antipsychotic drugs. Ziprasidone was less efficacious than amisulpride (leaving the study early due to inefficacy: 1 RCT, n=123, RR 4.72 CI 1.06 to 20.98, NNH 8 CI 5 to 50) olanzapine (PANSS total score: 4 RCTs, n=1291, MD 8.32 CI 5.64 to 10.99) and risperidone (PANSS total score: 3 RCTs, n=1016, MD 3.91 CI 0.27 to 7.55). Based on limited data there were no significant differences in tolerability between ziprasidone and amisulpride ...
Restricted antipsychotic drug use may have caused extra deaths among schizophrenics - Thousands of extra deaths among schizophrenia patients worldwide may have resulted because of the restrictions imposed by authorities on the use of antipsychotic drug clozapine over safety concerns, suggests a new piece of research. - AndhraNews.net
Anti-psychotic drugs are widely used within psychiatric services as a first-line treatment of schizophrenia. A review is presented of the short-term and long-term effectiveness of anti-psychotics in reducing the distress associated with hallucinations and delusions, together with a discussion about the means by which they achieve their outcomes. The wide range of negative side-effects is also listed. It is concluded that anti-psychotic drugs achieve their impact by means of a general slowing of
Risperidone is a benzisoxazole derivative with antagonistic activity, primarily at dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors. The higher binding affinity of risperidone for 5-HT2A than for D2 receptors, along with the mesolimbic specificity of action, is thought to account for the reduced incidence of EPS relative to conventional antipsychotic drugs. It also has affinity for α1-adenergic receptors and lower affinity for α2-adrenergic and H1-histaminergic receptors. Unlike clozapine, it has no affinity for cholinergic receptors. The first two large, placebo-controlled, double-blind trials examining the efficacy and tolerability of an atypical antipsychotic drug for patients with BPSD was using risperidone (De Deyn et al, 1999; Katz et al, 1999).. Katz et al (1999) randomised 625 nursing home patients to receive risperidone at 3 possible doses (0.5, 1 or 2 mg daily) or placebo in 2 divided doses for 12 weeks. Treatment response at end-point was defined as a greater than 50% reduction in total ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The time-dependent change of insulin secretion in schizophrenic patients treated with olanzapine. AU - Chiu, Chih Chiang. AU - Chen, Chun Hsin. AU - Chen, Bo Yu. AU - Yu, Shu Han. AU - Lu, Mong Liang. PY - 2010/8. Y1 - 2010/8. N2 - The second generation antipsychotic drugs (SGAs) are effective in treating patients with schizophrenia and have been considered as the first line therapy. Recently, increasing attention has been drawn to the potential diabetogenic effect of these novel antipsychotics. The goal of this study was to evaluate the time-dependent effects of olanzapine treatment on pancreatic beta cell function in SGA-naïve schizophrenic patients. Forty-two schizophrenic subjects received olanzapine therapy for 8. weeks and thirty-three of them completed the trial. Of whom 33 completers (21 male, mean ± SD age: 37.6 ± 8.0. years) were inpatients and unexposed to SGA. The metabolic parameters were quantitatively assessed at weeks 0, 2, 4, and 8 by the intravenous glucose ...
BACKGROUND: The concept of dose equivalence is important for many purposes. The classical approach published by Davis in 1974 subsequently dominated textbooks for several decades. It was based on the assumption that the mean doses found in flexible-dose trials reflect the average optimum dose which can be used for the calculation of dose equivalence. We are the first to apply the method to second-generation antipsychotics. METHODS: We searched for randomized, double-blind, flexible-dose trials in acutely ill patients with schizophrenia that examined 13 oral second-generation antipsychotics, haloperidol, and chlorpromazine (last search June 2014). We calculated the mean doses of each drug weighted by sample size and divided them by the weighted mean olanzapine dose to obtain olanzapine equivalents. RESULTS: We included 75 studies with 16 555 participants. The doses equivalent to 1 mg/d olanzapine were: amisulpride 38.3 mg/d, aripiprazole 1.4 mg/d, asenapine 0.9 mg/d, chlorpromazine 38.9 mg/d, clozapine
Chicago Soaring numbers of American children are being prescribed anti-psychotic drugs. And in many cases, theyre being prescribed for attention deficit disorder or other behavioral problems for which these medications have not been proven to work, a study found.. The annual number of children prescribed anti-psychotic drugs jumped fivefold between 1995 and 2002, to an estimated 2.5 million, the study said. That is an increase from 8.6 out of every 1,000 children in the mid-1990s to nearly 40 out of 1,000.. But more than half of the prescriptions were for attention deficit and other nonpsychotic conditions, the researchers said.. The findings are worrisome because it looks like these medications are being used for large numbers of children in a setting where we dont know if they work, said lead author Dr. William Cooper, a pediatrician at Vanderbilt Childrens Hospital.. The increasing use of anti-psychotics since the mid-1990s corresponds with the introduction of costly and heavily marketed ...
Clinical obervations indicate that antipsychotic action starts early and increases in magnitude with repeated treatment. Animal models that faithfully capture this time course of action are few. Inhibition of hyperlocomotion induced by amphetamine or phencyclidine has been widely used as a screening tool for the antipsychotic activity of a drug. We thus investigated whether repeated antipsychotic treatment could produce an early-onset and progressively increased antagonistic effect on amphetamine or phencyclidine-induced hyperlocomotion as a way of assessing the validity of such models in capturing time course of antipsychotic action. One each of the five consecutive test days, different groups of rats (n = 6-7/group) received an initial injection of either haloperidol (0.01-0.10 mg/kg, sc), clozapine (5-20.0 mg/kg, sc), olanzapine (1.0 mg/kg, sc), chlordiazepoxide (10.0 mg/kg, ip) or vehicle (sterile water, sc) 30 min prior to a second injection of either amphetamine (1.5 mg/kg, sc) or phencyclidine (3
By applying genetic analysis to the NIMH-funded Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness, we show that variants in a specific gene, RGS4, predict the effectiveness of different antipsychotic treatments. Our results also indicate that the predictive power of the RGS4 genetic variants differed between patients of self-reported African and European ancestry, and thus emphasize the importance of including multiple ethnic groups in a study. The authors importantly note that their results will require replication, but the findings indicate that RGS4 contributes to both the severity of schizophrenia symptoms and the response to antipsychotic treatment. Dr. Krystal adds, While this type of information is not yet ready to guide clinical practice, since the RGS4 variants explain only a small component of overall patterns of treatment response, these data provide an example of pharmacogenomics, the approach that will very likely ultimately guide treatment.. ...
Title: Partial Dopamine Receptor Agonists as Newer Atypical Antipsychotics:Intrinsic Activity Appropriate for Treatment of Schizophrenic Patients. VOLUME: 7 ISSUE: 3. Author(s):Yuji Odagaki. Affiliation:Department of Psychiatry,Faculty of Medicine, Saitama Medical University, 38 Morohongo,Moroyama-achi, Iruma-gun, Saitama 350-0495, Japan.. Keywords:Atypical antipsychotics, aripiprazole, dopamine receptor, partial agonist, intrinsic activity, presynaptic autoreceptor, schizophrenia, dopamine system stabilizer. Abstract: Conventional antipsychotic drugs, which have been used for a half century to treat a range of major psychiatric disorders like schizophrenia, are being replaced by modern atypical antipsychotics. Although the term atypical has been applied broadly to antipsychotic drugs marketed in the past decade, these newer drugs are strikingly heterogeneous in chemical, pharmacological, and clinical points of view. Recently, much attention has been directed to partial dopamine receptor ...
Available evidence suggests that second-generation atypical antipsychotics are broadly similar to first-generation agents in terms of their efficacy, but may have a more favourable tolerability profile, primarily by being less likely to cause extrapyramidal symptoms. However, atypical antipsychotics are variably associated with disturbances in the cardiometabolic arena, including increased body weight and the development of metabolic syndrome, which may reflect differences in their receptor binding profiles. Effective management of schizophrenia must ensure that the physical health of patients is addressed together with their mental health. This should therefore involve consideration of the specific tolerability profiles of available agents and individualization of treatment to minimize the likelihood of adverse metabolic sequelae, thereby improving long-term adherence and optimizing overall treatment outcomes. Alongside this, modifiable risk factors (such as exercise, diet, obesity/body weight ...
By Dr. Mercola Thanks to aggressive marketing techniques, pharmaceutical companies are raking in profits from atypical antipsychotic medications -
Antipsychotic medications are effective drugs for schizophrenia, and have in recent years also been used for bipolar disorder. The medications are not equally effective for all patients, and have a limited effect on the core symptoms for approximately 20 % of those treated. Side effects are problematic and in some cases serious, such as for instance cardiovascular risk factors (blodlipids, diabetes, weight gain etc).. Research at NORMENT has a particular focus on immune and lipid systems. We use animal models to enhance our knowledge about the mechanisms of action of antipsychotic medication. We aim to optimize antipsychotic treatment by contributing to increasing the desired effect of medication and reducing side effects.. ...
The findings, which are published in the February issue of the Archives of General Psychiatry, suggest that physicians should consider using the lowest effective dose of antipsychotics when treating patients with schizophrenia. However, lead study author Beng-Choon Ho, M.D., associate professor of psychiatry in the UI Carver College of Medicine, notes that the study does not mean that patients with schizophrenia should not be treated with antipsychotic medications.. Antipsychotic medications are still the most important and effective form of treatment for schizophrenia patients, Ho said. These medications reduce psychiatric symptoms and prevent relapse in patients. What our study suggests is that careful review of risks and benefits of dosage and duration is very important.. Schizophrenia affects 1 percent of the worlds population and is a leading cause of chronic disability among young adults. On average, progressive loss of brain tissue occurs at a faster rate in patients with ...
Introduction of a new group of antipsychotic drugs, called atypical because of the proprieties differing them from classical neuroleptics, gave hope for the beginning of a new era in treatment of psychoses, including schizophrenia. Different mechanisms of action not only resulted in a broader spectrum of action and high efficacy but also in a relative lack of extrapiramidal symptoms. However, atypical neuroleptics are not totally free from adverse effects. Symptoms such as sedation, metabolic changes and weight gain, often very quick and severe - present also in the case of classical drugs, but put to the background by extrapiramidal symptoms--have become prominent. Weight gain is important both from the clinical and subjective point of view--as associated with serious somatic consequences and as a source of enormous mental distress. These problems are addressed in this review, with the focus on weight gain associated with the use of specific atypical neuroleptics.
Previous work has shown that withdrawal from chronic antipsychotic treatment leads to a supersensitive psychomotor response to dopamine agonists (Gianutsos et al., 1974; Sayers et al., 1975; Smith and Davis, 1975, 1976; Clow et al., 1979; Montanaro et al., 1982; Rebec et al., 1982; Meng et al., 1998). We show here that behavioral dopamine supersensitivity is not just evident on withdrawal, but develops early during antipsychotic exposure and significantly undermines the efficacy of ongoing treatment. The loss of efficacy was seen with typical or atypical antipsychotics in two widely used tests of antipsychotic-like effects in animals and occurred despite ongoing, clinically relevant, levels of striatal D2-receptor blockade. Thus, the effects were not likely caused by pharmacokinetic or peripheral factors, but by compensatory neurobiological changes in response to ongoing treatment.. One possible explanation for the progressive loss in the ability of antipsychotics to suppress amphetamine-induced ...
BACKGROUND: Current neuroscience literature has related treatment with aripiprazole to improved memory performance and subcellular changes in the hippocampus.AIMS: To explore the volumetric changes in hippocampal grey matter in people with a first episode of psychosis (FEP) treated with second-generation antipsychotics.METHOD: Baseline and 1-year follow-up magnetic resonance images were obtained. Hippocampal volumes were estimated by using FreeSurfer and MAGeT-Brain. Subgroups included: aripiprazole (=13), olanzapine (=12), risperidone/paliperidone (=24), refused-antipsychotics (=13) and controls (=44).RESULTS: Aripiprazole subgroup displayed significant increases in bilateral hippocampal volume compared with all other subgroups (FreeSurfer: all s,0.012; MAGeT-Brain: all s,0.040).CONCLUSIONS: Aripiprazole is a first-line, second-generation treatment option that may provide an added benefit of pro-hippocampal growth. The biological underpinnings of these changes should be the focus of future ...
Health,...Among patients with schizophrenia whose medication is changed because ...For almost 50 years antipsychotic medications have been the primary m...Peter B. Jones M.D. Ph.D. University of Cambridge and Cambridgeshir...,Second-generation,antipsychotic,medications,appear,to,offer,little,advantage,over,older,drugs,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Do you plan on trying or maybe even switching to the new Antipsychotic - Rexulti (Brexpiprazole) anytime soon? It is very similar to Abilify, but with less Akathisia and Anxiety - It is coming out sometime in the start…
Pimozide is a high potency antipsychotic medication which has been used in many countries since the 1970s for the treatment of schizophrenia and other psychoses. In the US, it was licensed in the past decade as an orphan drug for the treatment of Tourettes syndrome.. Sultana and McMonagle have identified randomised controlled trials of pimozide for the treatment of schizophrenia. Not surprisingly, pimozide was found to be more effective than placebo for preventing relapse and was similar to other typical antipsychotic drugs in efficacy and side effect profile.. Several unanswered questions remain. It has been claimed that pimozide is more effective than other typical antipsychotic drugs for treating negative symptoms of schizophrenia.1 None of the studies included in the review specifically reported on negative symptoms as an outcome, so the review was unable to support or refute this claim. In addition, the efficacy of pimozide relative to the newer atypical antipsychotic drugs is unknown ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Critical review of antipsychotic polypharmacy in the treatment of schizophrenia. AU - Fleischhacker, W. Wolfgang. AU - Uchida, Hiroyuki. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - Antipsychotic polypharmacy remains prevalent; it has probably increased for the treatment of schizophrenia in real-world clinical settings. The current evidence suggests some clinical benefits of antipsychotic polypharmacy, such as better symptom control with clozapine plus another antipsychotic, and a reversal of metabolic side-effects with a concomitant use of aripiprazole. On the other hand, the interpretation of findings in the literature should be made conservatively in light of the paucity of good studies and potentially serious side-effects. Also, although the available data are still limited, two smaller-scale clinical trials provide preliminary evidence that converting antipsychotic polypharmacy to monotherapy could be a valid and reasonable treatment option. Several studies have explored strategies to change ...
This study aimed to assess the neurophysiological effects of acute atypical antipsychotic treatment on cognitive functioning in subjects presenting with a first episode of psychosis. We used functional MRI to examine the modulatory effects of acute psychopharmacological intervention on brain activation during four different cognitive tasks: overt verbal fluency, random movement generation, n-back and a spatial object memory task. Treatment with atypical antipsychotics was associated with alterations in regional activation during each task and also when task demands were manipulated within paradigms. The initial treatment of psychosis with atypical antipsychotics thus appears to be associated with modifications of the neurofunctional correlates of executive and mnemonic functions. These effects need to be considered when interpreting group differences in activation between medicated patients and controls.
DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Clinical work on the mother-child relationship shows that the quality of maternal care from women with schizophrenia is generally inferior to that from healthy mothers. One important contributing factor recognized by both patients and their clinicians is antipsychotic medications. Both typical and atypical antipsychotics are reported to adversely affect maternal care. The PIs long-term goal is to understand the neurobiological and behavioral mechanisms of action of antipsychotic drugs. The objective of this R03 application is to determine the behavioral and neurochemical mechanisms underlying the adverse effects of both typical and atypical antipsychotics on maternal behavior using a rat model. The project hypothesis is that at the clinical relevant dose, the disruptive effect of antipsychotics on maternal behavior primarily reflects a suppressive effect on maternal motivation and is mediated via the dopamine D2 receptor system. Rat maternal behavior is ...
McIntyre RS, Mancini DA, Basile VS. Mechanisms of antipsychotic-induced weight gain. J Clin Psychiatry 2001; 62:23_29.. Ryan MCM, Flanagan S, Kinsella U, Keeling F, Thakore JH. Atypical antipsychotics and visceral fat distribution in first episode, drug-naı¨ve patients with schizophrenia. Life Sci 2004; 74:1999_2008.. Connolly M, Kelly C. Lifestyle and physical health in schizophrenia. Adv Psychiatr Treat 2005; 11:125_132.. Reist C, Mintz J, Albers L, Jamal MM, Szabo S, Ozdemir V. Second-generation antipsychotic exposure and metabolicrelated disorders in patients with schizophrenia: an observational pharmacoepidemiology study from 1988 to 2002. J Clin Psychopharmacol 2007; 27:46_51.. Newcomer JW. Second generation (atypical) antipsychotics and metabolic effects: a comprehensive literature review. CNS Drugs 2005; 19:1_93.. Lieberman JA, Stroup TS, McEvoy JP et al. Effectiveness of antipsychotic drugs in patients with schizophrenia. N Engl J Med 2005; 353:1209_1223.. Allison DB, Mentore LJ, Heo ...
BACKGROUND: Recent literature documents a stronger association between nonfasting triglycerides (TG) and cardiovascular risk compared to fasting TG. Given concerns over antipsychotic effects on serum TG, this analysis explored changes in nonfasting TG in phase 1 of the CATIE Schizophrenia Trial.METHODS: Change in nonfasting TG, adjusted for baseline value, was compared between
Second generation antipsychotic drugs (SGAs) cause substantial body weight gain/obesity and other metabolic side-effects such as dyslipidaemia. Their antagonistic affinity to the histaminergic H1 receptor (H1R) has been identified as one of the main contributors to weight gain/obesity side-effects. The effects and mechanisms of betahistine (a histaminergic H1R agonist and H3 receptor antagonist) have been investigated for ameliorating SGA-induced weight gain/obesity in both animal models and clinical trials. It has been demonstrated that co-treatment with betahistine is effective in reducing weight gain, associated with olanzapine in drug-naïve patients with schizophrenia, as well as in the animal models of both drug-naïve rats and rats with chronic, repeated exposure to olanzapine. Betahistine co-treatment can reduce food intake and increase the effect of thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue by modulating hypothalamic H1R-NPY-AMPKα (NPY: neuropeptide Y; AMPKα: AMP-activated protein kinase α)
Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome; Neuroleptic-Induced Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome; Neuroleptic-Malignant Syndrome, Neuroleptic Induced. On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible diseases from either several symptoms or a full patient history. A similarity measure between symptoms and diseases is provided.
Antipsychotics are the most important treatment for schizophrenia. However, antipsychotics, particularly olanzapine and clozapine, are associated with severe weight gain/obesity side-effects. Although numerous studies have been carried out to identify the exact mechanisms of antipsychotic-induced weight gain, it is still important to consider other pathways. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling and its associated inflammation pathway is one of the most important pathways involved in regulation of energy balance. In the present study, we examined the role of hypothalamic protein kinase R like endoplasmic reticulum kinase- eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (PERK-eIF2α) signaling and the inflammatory IkappaB kinase β- nuclear factor kappa B (IKKβ-NFκB) signaling pathway in olanzapine-induced weight gain in female rats. In this study, we found that olanzapine significantly activated PERK-eIF2α and IKKβ-NFκB signaling in SH-SY5Y cells in a dose-dependent manner. Olanzapine treatment for ...
There is no standard treatment for tardive dyskinesia. Most interventions focus on adjusting the medication thought to be causing tardive dyskinesia. In many cases neuroleptic medications will be adjusted to use the lowest possible dose, or discontinued if at all possible. Stopping the medication is a gradual process, lowering the doses 10 to 25 percent every one to three months. Replacing the neuroleptic drug with other medications may help some patients. Other drugs such as tranquilizers like benzodiazepines and medicines that mimic the effect of dopamine, may also be beneficial. Symptoms of tardive dyskinesia may remain even after the medication is stopped. However, with careful management, some symptoms may improve or disappear with time.. Tardive dyskinesia symptoms may take time to develop. On some occasions symptoms do not arise until after neuroleptic drug use has been stopped. For this reason, tardive dyskinesia may be hard to diagnose. If you think you have tardive dyskinesia seek ...
OBJECTIVE: The Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) study examined the comparative effectiveness of antipsychotic treatments for individuals with chronic schizophrenia. Patients who had discontinued antipsychotic treatment in phases 1 and 2 were eligible for phase 3, in which they selected one of nine antipsychotic regimens with the help of their
The clinical picture and features of NMS with atypical antipsychotics seem to be different from those of typical antipsychotics. This had led to uncertainty over the diagnosis of NMS in patients on atypical antipsychotics who manifest only few of the NMS symptoms.38 Among the core symptoms of NMS, fever is often encountered less frequently in patients with atypical antipsychotic-induced NMS.38 The issue is further complicated by the various operational definitions of NMS.38 The DSM-IV-TR defines NMS as the presence of severe muscle rigidity and elevated temperature after antipsychotic initiation along with two or more of: diaphoresis, dysphagia, tremor, incontinence, changes in level of consciousness, mutism, tachycardia, elevated or labile blood pressure, leukocytosis, or laboratory evidence of muscle injury (elevated CPK level). Various other criteria for NMS have been postulated, each with varying emphasis on the individual symptoms and signs.39 Another set of criteria defines NMS in patients ...
Sarasota, FL - (PRESS RELEASE JET) - 10/20/2017 - Global Tardive Dyskinesia (TD) Treatment Market: Overview. Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a neurological disorder that has the involvement of the involuntary movements. The terms can be described as tardive which means delayed and dyskinesia which means abnormal movement. The symptoms of tardive dyskinesia include finger movement, facial grimacing, jaw swinging, repetitive chewing, continuous blinking of the eyes, tongue thrusting, and others. The side effect of the neuroleptics medicines is tardive dyskinesia. These medicines are also known as major tranquilizers or antipsychotics. These medicines are mainly used for treating mental issues. Tardive dyskinesia occurs when you are on the medication for many months or years. As the drug that can be used for the treatment of tardive dyskinesia is not approved and method of treatment is also yet not confirmed thus the treatment of the disease is a difficult task. The tardive dyskinesia treatment affects ...
Neurocognitive impairment in schizophrenia is severe and is an important predictor of functional outcome. The relative effect of the second-generation (atypical) antipsychotic drugs and older agents on neurocognition has not been comprehensively determined. Keefe RSE, Bilder RM, Davis SM, Harvey PD, Palmer BW, Gold JM, Meltzer HY, Green MF, Capuano G, Stroup TS, McEvoy JP, Swartz MS, Rosenheck RA, Perkins DO, Davis CE, Hsiao JK, and Lieberman JA for the CATIE Investigators and the Neurocognitive Working Group. Neurocognitive effects of antipsychotic medications in patients with chronic schizophrenia in the CATIE trial. Archives of General Psychiatry, 2007; 64 (6): 633-647.
The use of antipsychotic agents can be limited by side effects, particularly extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) and tardive dyskinesia (TD). These neurologic movement disorders can occur early in the course of treatment (often as EPS) or as a more latent effect (TD). TD can be debilitating, and several patient-related and treatment-related factors have been associated with an increased risk for its development. Of these, older age has been strongly linked to TD. The advent of novel antipsychotics for the treatment of schizophrenia and severe behavioral disorders permits the use of such agents with reduced risk of EPS and TD. Most clinical trials of the novel antipsychotics have enrolled younger patients, but some data on their efficacy and safety in the elderly are now available. This article reviews the relationship between TD and aging and its treatment in elderly patients. ...
You searched for: Genre Speeches Remove constraint Genre: Speeches Language English Remove constraint Language: English Subject Antipsychotic Agents Remove constraint Subject: Antipsychotic Agents ...
Extrapyramidal Side Effects Antipsychotic-induced EPS may occur acutely or after long-term treatment. First-generation antipsychotics, in particular high-potency neuroleptics, are more likely than second-generation antipsychotics to cause EPS when the drugs are used at usual therapeutic doses. However, as can be noted in Table Selected side effects of commonly used antipsychotic medications, considerable variation in the… Read More ». ...
Define tardive dyskinesia. tardive dyskinesia synonyms, tardive dyskinesia pronunciation, tardive dyskinesia translation, English dictionary definition of tardive dyskinesia. n. A chronic disorder of the nervous system characterized by involuntary jerky movements of the face, tongue, jaws, trunk, and limbs, usually caused by...
The serotonin (5-HT) 1A receptor has been found to be dysregulated in prefrontal cortex and other brain regions in schizophrenia, and 5-HT1A receptor levels in the amygdala have been related to negative schizophrenia symptoms. We have assessed the impact of the functional C-1019G variant of the 5-HT1A receptor on the response to risperidone or haloperidol in a prospective, randomized, double-blind study. Patients were treated for 4 weeks and negative symptoms assessed weekly. The variant influenced the response to risperidone: improvement of negative symptoms by 4.38 points for carriers of the C allele, compared with the GG genotype (1.22 points, P=0.046). In a second independent study of 130 schizophrenia patients treated with atypical antipsychotics, this effect was confirmed (P=0.003). The functional variant of the 5-HT1A receptor thus influences the response of schizophrenia patients to atypical antipsychotics and may be useful in the future to predict the pharmacogenetics of negative ...
The NICE guideline issued in 2002 recommended that the second-generation, so-called atypical antipsychotics, should be used as first-line treatments mainly due to a reduced incidence of extrapyramidal side-effects.[4] The revised guidance, however, does not recommend a particular medicine, or class of medication, but highlights the role of patient choice; it recommends that the choice of medicine should be a joint decision between the service user and healthcare professional.[3]. The decision should consider the adverse event profile, particularly in respect to extrapyramidal and metabolic adverse events, and if appropriate involve the carer.[3]. The new guidelines have been heavily influenced by two major new studies; CATIE and CUTLASS.[5],[6] In CATIE 1,493 people with chronic schizophrenia from 57 sites in the USA, were randomised to the typical anti-psychotic, perphenazine, or one out of four atypicals (olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone or ziprasidone, which is not available in the ...
While the recent publication of Phase I results of the landmark Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) study enabled pharmaceutical companies and stock pundits to declare winners and losers among the marketed antipsychotics, the big winners may be clinicians who treat the 3.2 million Americans suffering from schizophrenia. The results of the CATIE study provide the most comprehensive set of data on the pharmacologic treatment of schizophrenia ever assembled, Jeffrey A. Lieberman, M.D., a Columbia University psychiatrist and lead author of the study, said at a press conference. These [results] will guide doctors in their selection of treatments and clinical management of individual patients. This is because no study has ever examined all marketed drugs in a controlled fashion for such a long time period using such extensive measures of safety and efficacy, much less the cost data.. Thomas Insel, M.D., director of the National Institute of Mental Health, which ...
JL13 [5-(4-methylpiperazin-1-yl)-8-chloro-pyrido[2,3-b][1,5] benzoxazepine fumarate] is a substance with a close structural resemblance to clozapine. However, it is less sensitive to oxidation and may therefore have less hematological side effects. In the present study, JL13 was compared with clozapine and haloperidol in several animal models for schizophrenia. The paw test represents a screening model for antipsychotic drugs that can discriminate between drugs with extrapyramidal side effects and drugs without. Haloperidol increased both forelimb retraction time and hindlimb retraction time (HRT), whereas both clozapine and JL13 increased only HRT. In the prepulse inhibition paradigm, all three drugs reversed the apomorphine- and the amphetamine-induced disruption of prepulse inhibition. However, whereas haloperidol was equally effective against both dopaminergic drugs, JL13 and clozapine were more effective against amphetamine. Finally, only JL13 was able to increase prepulse inhibition in ...
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Atypical antipsychotics are highly effective antischizophrenic medications but their clinical utility is limited by adverse metabolic sequelae. We investigated whether upregulation of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) underlies the insulin resistance that develops during treatment with the most commonly prescribed atypical antipsychotic, olanzapine. Olanzapine monotherapy increased BMI and circulating insulin, triglyceride, and MIF concentrations in drug-naive schizophrenic patients with normal MIF expression, but not in genotypic low MIF expressers. Olanzapine administration to mice increased their food intake and hypothalamic MIF expression, which led to activation of the appetite-related AMP-activated protein kinase and Agouti-related protein pathway. Olanzapine also upregulated MIF expression in adipose tissue, which reduced lipolysis and increased lipogenic pathways. Increased plasma lipid concentrations were associated with abnormal fat deposition in liver and skeletal muscle, ...
There is excess amenable mortality risk and evidence of healthcare quality deficits for persons with serious mental illness (SMI). We sought to identify sociodemographic and clinical characteristics associated with variations in two 2015 Healthcare Effectiveness Data and Information Set (HEDIS) measures, antipsychotic medication adherence and preventive diabetes screening, among Medicaid enrollees with serious mental illness (SMI). We retrospectively analyzed claims data from September 2014 to December 2015 from enrollees in a Medicaid specialty health plan in Florida. All plan enrollees had SMI; analyses included continuously enrolled adults with antipsychotic medication prescriptions and schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Associations were identified using mixed effects logistic regression models. Data for 5502 enrollees were analyzed. Substance use disorders, depression, and having both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder diagnoses were associated with both HEDIS measures but the direction of the
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Extrapyramidal side effects are symptoms that can occur if you're taking antipsychotic medications. Here's what they include and how they're treated.
Previous studies have reported that context can powerfully modulate the inhibitory effect of an antipsychotic drug on phencyclidine (PCP)-induced hyperlocomotion (a behavioral test used to evaluate putative antipsychotic drugs). The present study investigated the experimental conditions under which environmental stimuli exert their influence through associative conditioning processes. Experiment 1 examined the extent to which prior antipsychotic treatment in the home cages affected a drugs ability to inhibit PCP-induced hyperlocomotion in a novel motor activity test apparatus. Five days of repeated haloperidol (0.05 mg/kg, sc) and olanzapine (2.0 mg/kg, sc) treatment in the home cages still potentiated their inhibition of PCP-induced hyperlocomotion (i.e. sensitization) assessed in a new environment, whereas the clozapine (10.0 mg/kg, sc) treatment enhanced the development of clozapine tolerance, indicating a lack of environmental modulation of antipsychotic efficacy. Experiment 2 assessed the impact
Increased activity within known reward-processing neurocircuitry (eg, ventral striatum, VS) has been reported among medicated individuals with bipolar disorder (BD) I and II. However, such findings are confounded by the potential ameliorative effects of mood-stabilizing and antipsychotic medications on neural activations. This study tests the hypothesis that a pathophysiological locus of alterations in reward processing is present within the striatum in antipsychotic and lithium-naive individuals with BD. Twenty antipsychotic and lithium-naive individuals with BD II or BD not-otherwise specified (NOS) and 20 matched healthy comparison individuals participated in functional magnetic resonance imaging during the performance of a monetary incentive delay task. Between-group comparisons were conducted using small-volume correction focusing on orthogonal a priori regions of interest centered in the VS and dorsal striatum (DS), respectively. During reward anticipation, unmedicated individuals with BD II/NOS
OBJECTIVE: The efficacy and safety of olanzapine were compared with those of ziprasidone.. METHOD: This was a multicenter randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, 28-week study of patients with schizophrenia. Patients were randomly assigned to treatment with 10-20 mg/day of olanzapine or 80-160 mg/day of ziprasidone. The primary efficacy measure was the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total score. Secondary efficacy and safety measures included Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale subscales as well as mood, quality of life, and extrapyramidal symptom scales. Safety was evaluated by recording treatment-emergent adverse events and measuring vital signs and weight.. RESULTS: The study was completed by significantly more olanzapine-treated patients (165 of 277, 59.6%) than ziprasidone-treated patients (115 of 271, 42.4%). At 28 weeks, the olanzapine-treated patients showed significantly more improvement than the ziprasidone-treated patients on the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale overall ...
Description of disease Tardive dyskinesia. Treatment Tardive dyskinesia. Symptoms and causes Tardive dyskinesia Prophylaxis Tardive dyskinesia
Schizophrenia Antipsychotic Drugs: Prominent psychiatrist Loren Mosher argues for treatment of schizophrenia without antipsychotics. Describes Soteria Project.
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Abstract: Metabolic Syndrome is a cluster of risk factors that raise an individuals risk for developing diabetes, heart disease, stroke, and other health problems. These risk factors include: low HDL cholesterol, high blood pressure, high fasting blood glucose, high triglycerides, high BMI, and a large waistline. Metabolic Syndrome has become a more prominent topic in child and adolescent psychiatry with the increase in the prescription of antipsychotic drugs. Numerous studies have found the differential prevalence of metabolic syndrome associated with atypical antipsychotic drugs. In fact, atypical antipsychotics carry an FDA warning about metabolic risk. Specifically, there have been higher effects noted for antipsychotic medication on triglycerides, glucose, weight, and waist circumference. Many insurance companies now require monitoring for Metabolic Syndrome by psychiatric prescribers be performed and documented in the medical record. Additionally, it has been estimated that 80% of ...
The study of brain networks, including those derived from functional neuroimaging data, attracts a broad interest and represents a rapidly growing interdisciplinary field. Comparing networks of healthy volunteers with those of patients can potentially offer new, quantitative diagnostic methods and a framework for better understanding brain and mind disorders. We explore resting state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) data through network measures. We construct networks representing 15 healthy individuals and 12 schizophrenia patients (males and females), all of whom are administered three drug treatments: i) a placebo; and two antipsychotic medications ii) aripiprazole and iii) sulpiride. We compare these resting state networks to a performance at an
TY - JOUR. T1 - Asenapine sensitization from adolescence to adulthood and its potential molecular basis. AU - Shu, Qing. AU - Qin, Rongyin. AU - Chen, Yingzhu. AU - Hu, Gang. AU - Li, Ming. PY - 2014/10/15. Y1 - 2014/10/15. N2 - Asenapine is a new antipsychotic drug that induces a long-lasting behavioral sensitization in adult rats. The present study investigated the developmental impacts of adolescent asenapine treatment on drug sensitivity and on 3 proteins implicated in the action of antipsychotic drugs (i.e. brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), dopamine D2 receptor, and δFosB) in adulthood. Male adolescent Sprague-Dawley rats (postnatal days, P 43-48) were first treated with asenapine (0.05, 0.10 or 0.20mg/kg, sc) and tested in the conditioned avoidance or PCP (2.0mg/kg, sc)-induced hyperlocomotion tasks for 5 days. After they became adults (~P 76), asenapine sensitization was assessed in a single avoidance or PCP-induced hyperlocomotion challenge test with all rats being injected with ...
Psychology Definition of NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME: results after complications with conventional therapies such as the use of antipsychotics which can give rise to a wide range of symptoms such as- fever,
Doctors give unbiased, trusted information on the benefits and side effects of Sertraline to treat Schizophrenia: Dr. Steiner on zoloft for schizophrenia: Antidepressants, mood stabilizers, and antipsychotic medications are often combined to treat schizophrenia. The decision is best made by the treating psychiatrist and the patient.
The drug: Although the exact mechanism of action of risperidone is unknown, the drug blocks receptors in the dopaminergic, adrenergic and histaminergic neurotransmitter systems as well as those in the serotonin system that may play a role in agression.7,8,9 Like other atypical antipsychotic agents, risperidone is a popular first-line agent for psychotic disorders because it is effective (especially for negative symptoms) and is associated with fewer extrapyramidal adverse effects than are traditional antipsychotic drugs.7 Risperidone, at doses higher than those used in dementia, appears to cause diabetes, worsened lipid profiles and obesity in some patients,10 but any relation between these adverse effects and risperidone-associated cerebrovascular adverse events is unclear. Risperidone should be used with caution in patients with seizure disorders and avoided in states of dehydration and hypotension.. What to do: Dementia is a difficult burden for patients and caregivers,11 but the degree to ...
Harbert CA, Welch MW (1 September 1974). "Antipsychotic and Antianxiety Agents". In Henzelmann RV, Gordon M (eds.). Annual ...
Katzung, BG; Kruidering-Hall, M; Trevor, AJ (eds.). "Chapter 29: Antipsychotic Agents & Lithium". Katzung & Trevor's ... in an oral antipsychotic regimen or 3 months for long-acting injectable antipsychotics 2. Tolerance to antipsychotic effects ( ... which should occur when antipsychotics are withdrawn, and improve or disappear when antipsychotics are restarted) It may ... The antagonizing or "blockade" of D2 by antipsychotics may cause neurons, a type of cell within the brain, to undergo ...
de Paulis T (1983). "3. Antipsychotic Agents and Dopamine Agonists". Annual Reports in Medicinal Chemistry. Academic Press. p. ... Flumezapine is an antipsychotic, due to its antagonism of dopamine receptors in the brain. However, like other antipsychotics, ... Flumezapine is structurally related to the common antipsychotic olanzapine-a point that was used against its manufacturer, Eli ... Flumezapine is an abandoned, investigational antipsychotic drug that was studied for the treatment of schizophrenia. ...
Related early antipsychotic agents include declenperone and milenperone. Lenperone was never approved by the FDA for use in ... Lenperone (Elanone-V) is a typical antipsychotic of the butyrophenone chemical class. It was first reported as an emetic in ... Booth NJ (1982). "Psychotropic Agents". In Booth NH, McDonald LE (ed.). Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics (5th ed.). ...
Frankenburg FR, Baldessarini RJ (2008). "Neurosyphilis, malaria, and the discovery of antipsychotic agents". Harv Rev ... doi:10.1001/jama.1901.52470070017001f. Sutter PS (2007). "Nature's agents or agents of empire? Entomological workers and ... 1881). "El mosquito hipotéticamente considerado como agent de transmision de la fiebre amarilla". Anales de la Real Academia de ... Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 50 (6): 1927-30. doi:10.1128/AAC.01472-05. PMC 1479118. PMID 16723547. Weiyuan C (2009). "Ancient ...
March 1994). "Binding of typical and atypical antipsychotic agents to 5-hydroxytryptamine-6 and 5-hydroxytryptamine-7 receptors ... January 2002). "Pyrrolo[1,3]benzothiazepine-based atypical antipsychotic agents. Synthesis, structure-activity relationship, ... Ganellin CR, Triggle DJ, Macdonald F (1997). Dictionary of pharmacological agents. CRC Press. p. 500. ISBN 978-0-412-46630-4. ... Clorotepine (INN; brand names Clotepin, Clopiben), also known as octoclothepin or octoclothepine, is an antipsychotic of the ...
Haloperidol, an antipsychotic medication, was a preferred agent. It was used to induce intense restlessness and Parkinson's- ... as part of a 1950s secret program run by the US army that tested chemical warfare agents on US citizens. In Uruguay, people ... apparently with anti-psychotic drugs. The Legal Resources Centre, a non-governmental organization, is representing 13 clients ... which was most active between 1953 and 1966 and conducted experiments that included the CIA agents administering LSD and Truth ...
... a novel atypical antipsychotic agent". The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 274 (3): 1404-13. PMID ... similar to other atypical antipsychotics. The older typical antipsychotics are primarily dopamine antagonists. Iloperidone has ... Iloperidone, also known as Fanapt, Fanapta, and previously known as Zomaril, is an atypical antipsychotic for the treatment of ... In a 2013 study in a comparison of 15 antipsychotic drugs in effectivity in treating schizophrenic symptoms, iloperidone was ...
Typical antipsychotic Phenothiazine "Evaluation of a new antipsychotic agent. Butaperazine maleate (repoise maleate)". JAMA. ... Butaperazine (Repoise, Tyrylen) is a typical antipsychotic of the phenothiazine class. ...
The use of the antipsychotic agent clozapine is associated with neutropenia. An increased risk of this side effect has been ...
Pharmacotherapy of psychosis and mania; Tricyclic antipsychotic agents". Goodman & Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of ...
Morin AK (March 2014). "Off-label use of atypical antipsychotic agents for treatment of insomnia". Mental Health Clinician. 4 ( ... January 1997). "Disposition and biotransformation of the antipsychotic agent olanzapine in humans". Drug Metabolism and ... Atypical antipsychotics (second-generation antipsychotics), such as olanzapine (Zyprexa), have been proven to induce de novo ... It has a lower risk of causing movement disorders than typical antipsychotics. In a 2013 comparison of 15 antipsychotic drugs ...
So cotreatment with another, more potent, antipsychotic agent is needed. Chlorprothixene is structurally related to ... "Binding of typical and atypical antipsychotic agents to 5-hydroxytryptamine-6 and 5-hydroxytryptamine-7 receptors". J. ... antipsychotic effects, sedation/anxiolysis, antidepressant effect, weight gain D1, D2, D3, D4, D5: antipsychotic effects, ... Also, like most antipsychotics, chlorprothixene has antiemetic effects. Chlorprothixene has a strong sedative activity with a ...
Davidson AB, Boff E, MacNeil DA, Wenger J, Cook L (1983). "Pharmacological effects of Ro 22-1319: a new antipsychotic agent". ... Piquindone (Ro 22-1319) is an atypical antipsychotic with a tricyclic structure that was developed in the 1980s but was never ... isoquinoline antipsychotics". Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 24 (9): 1026-34. doi:10.1021/jm00141a002. PMID 6116805. ... "Structural requirements of Na+-dependent antidopaminergic agents: Tropapride, Piquindone, Zetidoline, and Metoclopramide. ...
532-. ISBN 978-0-19-162675-3. Psychotropic Agents: Part I: Antipsychotics and Antidepressants. Springer Science & Business ... 836-. ISBN 978-0-7817-2845-4. I.K. Morton; Judith M. Hall (6 December 2012). Concise Dictionary of Pharmacological Agents: ...
396-. ISBN 978-94-011-5913-5. Psychotropic Agents: Part I: Antipsychotics and Antidepressants. Springer Science & Business ... Prothipendyl is said to not possess antipsychotic effects, and in accordance, appears to be a weaker dopamine receptor ...
Psychotropic Agents: Part I: Antipsychotics and Antidepressants. Springer Science & Business Media. 2012-12-06. ISBN ... Pipamperone is considered to have been a forerunner to the atypical antipsychotics, if not an atypical antipsychotic itself, ... Prinssen EP, Koek W, Kleven MS (January 2000). "The effects of antipsychotics with 5-HT(2C) receptor affinity in behavioral ... 88-. ISBN 978-1-4200-4177-4. Awouters FH, Lewi PJ (2007). "Forty years of antipsychotic Drug research--from haloperidol to ...
In 1998, trials evaluating Tamoxifen as a preventative agent have shown dropout rates of around one-third: *36% in the Royal ... Dolder CR, Lacro JP, Dunn LB, Jeste DV (2002). "Antipsychotic medication adherence: Is there a difference between typical and ... Partridge AH, Avorn J, Wang PS, Winer EP (2002). "Adherence to therapy with oral antineoplastic agents". Journal of the ... Dolder CR, Lacro JP, Leckband S, Jeste DV (2003). "Interventions to improve antipsychotic medication adherence: Review of ...
... the potential impact of antipsychotic agents". Psychoneuroendocrinology. 28: 97-108. doi:10.1016/S0306-4530(02)00129-4. ISSN ...
September 1991). "The effects of umespirone as a potential anxiolytic and antipsychotic agent". Pharmacology Biochemistry and ... As a result, further development has commenced to bring more selective of anxiolytic agents to the market. An example of this ... Kato T, Hirose A, Ohno Y, Shimizu H, Tanaka H, Nakamura M (December 1990). "Binding profile of SM-9018, a novel antipsychotic ... Azapirones are a class of drugs used as anxiolytics, antidepressants, and antipsychotics. They are commonly used as add-ons to ...
September 1991). "The effects of umespirone as a potential anxiolytic and antipsychotic agent". Pharmacology Biochemistry and ... Krähling H, Fuchs A, Ruhland M, Schön U, Mol F, Tulp M (November 1988). "KC 9172 (free base of KC 7218)--an antipsychotic/ ... Umespirone (KC-9172) is a drug of the azapirone class which possesses anxiolytic and antipsychotic properties. It behaves as a ... Ruhland M, Krähling H, Fuchs A, Schön U (November 1988). "KC 9172 (free base of KC 7218)--an antipsychotic/anxiolytic compound ...
Schmidt AW, Lebel LA, Howard HR, Zorn SH (2001). "Ziprasidone: a novel antipsychotic agent with a unique human receptor binding ... actions of antiparkinsonian and antipsychotic agents". J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 282 (1): 181-91. PMID 9223553. Bymaster FP, ... Unlike many other antipsychotics, ziprasidone has no significant affinity for the mACh receptors, and as such lacks any ... Although it can also cause weight gain, the risk is much lower than for other atypical antipsychotics. How it works is not ...
"Enhancement of drug withdrawal convulsion by combinations of phenobarbital and antipsychotic agents". Jpn. J. Pharmacol. 31 (5 ... Antipsychotics increase the severity of benzodiazepine withdrawal effects with an increase in the intensity and severity of ... phenothiazines and other antipsychotics, skeletal muscle relaxants, antihistamines, and anaesthetics. Administration of ...
"Antibacterial property of the antipsychotic agent prochlorperazine, and its synergism with methdilazine". Microbiol Res. 160 (1 ... The ring-contracted analog, methdilazine shows only very weak activity as a tranquilizer; instead, that agent constitutes an ... "Antimicrobial properties of methdilazine and its synergism with antibiotics and some chemotherapeutic agents". ...
An antipsychotic agent BMS 181100 is synthesized using BINAP/diamine-Ru catalyst. Midland Alpine Borane Reduction Corey-Itsuno ... and the antipsychotic agent BMS181100. The stoichiometric asymmetric reduction of ketones has long been known, e.g., using ...
... a new type of antipsychotic agent?". Progress in Medicinal Chemistry. 33: 185-232. doi:10.1016/s0079-6468(08)70306-0. ISBN ... Barnes TR (22 October 2013). Antipsychotic Drugs and Their Side-Effects. Elsevier Science. pp. 28, 34. ISBN 978-1-4832-8810-9. ... is said to be ineffective as an antipsychotic. However, it retains higher affinity for the dopamine D1 receptor (IC50 = 198 nM ...
"Effect of topiramate on weight gain in patients receiving atypical antipsychotic agents". Journal of Clinical ... Other uses include treatment of obesity and antipsychotic-induced weight gain. It is being studied to treat post traumatic ...
Some antipsychotic agents may be riskier than others during withdrawal, especially clozapine, olanzapine or low potency ... Antipsychotics are generally ineffective for benzodiazepine withdrawal-related psychosis. Antipsychotics should be avoided ... "Enhancement of drug withdrawal convulsion by combinations of phenobarbital and antipsychotic agents". The Japanese Journal of ... Bobolakis, Ioannis (2000). "Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome After Antipsychotic Drug Administration During Benzodiazepine ...
"Effect of the antipsychotic agent amisulpride on glucose lowering and insulin secretion". Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism. 14 (4 ... The mainstay of treatment for schizophrenia is an antipsychotic medication. Most antipsychotics can take around 7 to 14 days to ... Most people on antipsychotics get side effects. People on typical antipsychotics tend to have a higher rate of extrapyramidal ... Clinical Antipsychotic Trials of Intervention Effectiveness (CATIE) Investigators (2005). "Effectiveness of Antipsychotic Drugs ...
Pharmacotherapy of psychosis and mania; Tricyclic antipsychotic agents". Goodman & Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of ...
A second oral agent of another class or insulin may be added if metformin is not sufficient after three months.[87] Other ... atypical antipsychotics,[45] and statins.[46] Those who have previously had gestational diabetes are at a higher risk of ... Krentz AJ, Bailey CJ (February 2005). "Oral antidiabetic agents: current role in type 2 diabetes mellitus". Drugs. 65 (3): 385- ... As of 2015 there was no significant difference between these agents.[87] A 2018 review found that SGLT2 inhibitors may be ...
Agents. Morpholines: Fenbutrazate • Morazone • Phendimetrazine • Phenmetrazine; Oxazolines: 4-Methylaminorex (4-MAR, 4-MAX) • ... Typical Antipsychotics: Acepromazine • Azaperone • Benperidol • Bromperidol • Clopenthixol • Chlorpromazine • Chlorprothixene ... Atypical Antipsychotics: Amisulpride • Asenapine • Blonanserin • Clozapine • Gevotroline • Iloperidone • Lurasidone • Melperone ...
Tikal K, Hrabánková M (June 1993). "[Indications for antidepressive agents in relation to diseases of the cardiovascular system ... be an antipsychotic; finally its reversible MAO-A properties as well as its lack of tyramine pressor effect. Clinical trials ... moclobemide has been recommended as a first line agent for the treatment of depression in the elderly.[55] Due to the side ... Intoxications with moclobemide as single agent are usually mild; however, when combined with tricyclic or SSRI antidepressants ...
Triggle DJ (1996). Dictionary of Pharmacological Agents. Boca Raton: Chapman & Hall/CRC. ISBN 978-0-412-46630-4. .. ... Typical antipsychotics (e.g., acetophenazine, chlorpromazine, chlorprothixene, fluphenazine, loxapine, pimozide). *Vortioxetine ... Atypical antipsychotics (e.g., asenapine, brexpiprazole, clozapine, lurasidone, olanzapine, paliperidone, quetiapine, ... Atypical antipsychotics (e.g., aripiprazole, asenapine, brexpiprazole, cariprazine, clozapine, lurasidone, quetiapine, ...
... is used as an antihypertensive agent postoperatively, and also intravenously (IV) to treat a hypertensive crisis.[4] ... Atypical antipsychotics: Alentemol (U-66444B). *Aripiprazole (+sertraline). *Aripiprazole lauroxil. *Bifeprunox. *Brexpiprazole ... Fenoldopam is used as an antihypertensive agent.[2] It was approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in September 1997 ... Since fenoldopam is the only intravenous agent that improves renal perfusion, in theory it could be beneficial in hypertensive ...
Typical antipsychotics (e.g., acetophenazine, chlorpromazine, chlorprothixene, fluphenazine, loxapine, pimozide). *Vortioxetine ... Atypical antipsychotics (e.g., aripiprazole, asenapine, brexpiprazole, cariprazine, clozapine, lurasidone, quetiapine, ... Atypical antipsychotics (e.g., amperozide, aripiprazole, asenapine, blonanserin, brexpiprazole, carpipramine, clocapramine, ... Typical antipsychotics (e.g., chlorpromazine, fluphenazine, haloperidol, loxapine, perphenazine, pimozide, pipamperone, ...
Atypical antipsychotics (e.g., clozapine, fluperlapine, olanzapine (+fluoxetine), rilapine, quetiapine, tenilapine, zotepine) ... Typical antipsychotics (e.g., acetophenazine, chlorpromazine, chlorprothixene, fluphenazine, loxapine, pimozide). *Vortioxetine ... Atypical antipsychotics (e.g., aripiprazole, asenapine, brexpiprazole, cariprazine, clozapine, lurasidone, quetiapine, ... Atypical antipsychotics (e.g., amperozide, aripiprazole, asenapine, blonanserin, brexpiprazole, carpipramine, clocapramine, ...
antifungal, alkalinizing agents, quinolones, antibiotics, cholinergics, anticholinergics, antispasmodics, 5-alpha reductase ... Drugs affecting the central nervous system include: Psychedelics, hypnotics, anaesthetics, antipsychotics, eugeroics, ... In the inter-war period, the first anti-bacterial agents such as the sulpha antibiotics were developed. The Second World War ... These were drugs that worked chiefly as anti-anxiety agents and muscle relaxants. The first benzodiazepine was Librium. Three ...
Cannabinoids are used in patients with cachexia, cytotoxic nausea, and vomiting, or who are unresponsive to other agents. These ... Antidementia agents. *Antidepressants. *Antimigraine agents. *Antiparkinson agents. *Antipsychotics. *Anxiolytics. *Depressants ...
1974 - Domperidone synthesized at Janssen Pharmaceutica[69] following the research on antipsychotic drugs.[70] Janssen ... Domperidone, by acting as an anti-dopaminergic agent, results in increased prolactin secretion, and thus promotes lactation ( ... gastroprokinetic agent, and galactagogue.[1][6][7] It may be administered orally or rectally, and is available in the form of ... Ung D, Parkman HP, Nagar S (October 2009). "Metabolic interactions between prokinetic agents domperidone and erythromycin: an ...
Autonomous moral agents can be expected to obey the command of a categorical imperative even if they lack a personal desire or ... or the temporary treatment of a person living with a psychotic disorder with antipsychotic medication). While controversial, ... This characterization implies that autonomy is a property of the relation between two agents, in the case of robotics, of the ... Kant argued that morality presupposes this autonomy (German: Autonomie) in moral agents, since moral requirements are expressed ...
Antipsychotics (e.g., loxapine, ziprasidone). *Arylcyclohexylamines (e.g., 3-MeO-PCP, esketamine, ketamine, methoxetamine, ... See also: Receptor/signaling modulators • Monoamine releasing agents • Adrenergics • Dopaminergics • Serotonergics • Monoamine ...
First-line pharmacotherapy agents include selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and the selective serotonin-norepinephrine ... antipsychotics, and even anticonvulsants), benzodiazepines should be considered relatively contraindicated until all other ...
Atypical antipsychotics (e.g., asenapine, brexpiprazole, clozapine, lurasidone, olanzapine, paliperidone, quetiapine, ... Also indirect D2 agonists, such as dopamine reuptake inhibitors (cocaine, methylphenidate), releasing agents (amphetamine, ...
Structure of periciazine, an antipsychotic studied in the treatment of opiate dependence. ... α-aminonitriles can be decyanated with other reducing agents such as lithium aluminium hydride.[31] ...
... not all triglyceride lowering agents are PPAR agonists, and not all drugs that are used to treat atherosclerosis are ...
... , also known as BMS-181100, is a drug with antipsychotic effects which acts as both a sigma receptor antagonist and a ... Typical antipsychotics (e.g., acetophenazine, chlorpromazine, chlorprothixene, fluphenazine, loxapine, pimozide). *Vortioxetine ... Atypical antipsychotics (e.g., aripiprazole, asenapine, brexpiprazole, cariprazine, clozapine, lurasidone, quetiapine, ... Atypical antipsychotics (e.g., amperozide, aripiprazole, asenapine, blonanserin, brexpiprazole, carpipramine, clocapramine, ...
... the effectiveness of pharmacological agents, such as benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants, antidepressants, antipsychotic and ...
Antipsychotics (e.g., loxapine, ziprasidone). *Arylcyclohexylamines (e.g., 3-MeO-PCP, esketamine, ketamine, methoxetamine, ... Selectivity of antidepressant agents are based on the neurotransmitters that are thought to influence symptoms of depression.[ ... Agents with dual serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibition (SNRIs) are sometimes called non-tricyclic serotonin and ... Combination of mechanisms of action in a single active agent is an important development in psychopharmacology.[28] ...
In addition to these agents, amiodarone has some AV node blocking effects (in particular when administered intravenously) and ... and antipsychotics.[57] This form of atrial fibrillation occurs in people of all ages but is most common in the elderly, in ... and other chemotherapeutic agents such as melphalan, interleukin 2, and anthracyclines.[57] Other medications that rarely ... Agents associated with a moderately increased risk include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (e.g., ibuprofen), ...
Psychotropic agents[edit]. Other psychotropic analgesic agents include ketamine (an NMDA receptor antagonist), clonidine and ... Unselective agents Aceclofenac. Comes in betadex salt and free acid forms; practically insoluble in water, soluble in many ... Other agents directly potentiate the effects of analgesics, such as using hydroxyzine, promethazine, carisoprodol, or ... When choosing analgesics, the severity and response to other medication determines the choice of agent; the World Health ...
... s can be caused by genetics, infectious agents, autoimmune reactions, and other unknown factors. Proposed ... "Effect of chronic antipsychotic exposure on astrocyte and oligodendrocyte numbers in macaque monkeys". Biol. Psychiatry. 63 (8 ... "Development of oral agent in the treatment of multiple sclerosis- how the first available oral therapy, fingolimod will change ...
In such cases it may be helpful to use thickening agents for liquid intake and an upright posture when eating, both measures ... Dementia with Lewy bodies, progressive supranuclear palsy, essential tremor, antipsychotic use[5]. ... Hornykiewicz O (2002). "L-DOPA: from a biologically inactive amino acid to a successful therapeutic agent". Amino Acids. 23 (1- ... Agents currently under investigation include anti-apoptotics (omigapil, CEP-1347), antiglutamatergics, monoamine oxidase ...
It may be used as a nasal/sinus decongestant, as a stimulant,[119] or as a wakefulness-promoting agent.[120] ... Tashkin, D. P. (1 March 2001). "Airway effects of marijuana, cocaine, and other inhaled illicit agents". Current Opinion in ... and anorectic agent.[112] It is commonly used in prescription and over-the-counter cough and cold preparations. In veterinary ... Antipsychotics. *Depressants. *Hallucinogens. *Nootropics. *Psychoanaleptics. Notes[edit]. *^ Enantiomers are molecules that ...
Available agents[edit]. Main article: List of antineoplastic agents. There is an extensive list of antineoplastic agents. ... Alkylating agents[edit]. Main article: Alkylating antineoplastic agent. Alkylating agents are the oldest group of ... Siddik ZH (2005). Mechanisms of Action of Cancer Chemotherapeutic Agents: DNA-Interactive Alkylating Agents and Antitumour ... Anti-microtubule agents[edit]. Vinca alkaloids prevent the assembly of microtubules, whereas taxanes prevent their disassembly ...
List of agents[edit]. Adrenaline releasing agents[edit]. Main article: Norepinephrine releasing agent ... 3 List of agents *3.1 Adrenaline releasing agents *3.1.1 Common or widely marketed ... since these agents lose effectiveness after a few days. ... Antimigraine agents. *Antiparkinson agents. *Antipsychotics. * ...
Atypical antipsychotic(如:asenapine、clorotepine、氯氮平、fluperlapine、iloperidone、melperone、奥氮平、帕利哌酮、喹硫平、維思通、sertindole、ziprasidone、 ... 受體拮抗劑Atypical antipsychotic(如:amisulpride、阿立哌唑、asenapine、clorotepine、氯氮平、fluperlapine、奥氮平、維思通、sertindole、tiospirone、ziprasidone ... Typical antipsychotic(如:氯丙嗪、fluphenazine、氟哌啶醇、loxapine、perphenazine、哌迷清、pipamperone、prochlorperazine、thioridazine、thiothixene、 ... Atypical antipsychotic(如
Typical antipsychotics (e.g., acetophenazine, chlorpromazine, chlorprothixene, fluphenazine, loxapine, pimozide). *Vortioxetine ... MDEA acts as a serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine releasing agent and reuptake inhibitor.[1] ... Atypical antipsychotics (e.g., aripiprazole, asenapine, brexpiprazole, cariprazine, clozapine, lurasidone, quetiapine, ... Atypical antipsychotics (e.g., amperozide, aripiprazole, asenapine, blonanserin, brexpiprazole, carpipramine, clocapramine, ...
These are geared towards lay readers, not readers who are technically proficient. Do not replace easy to understand lay variants (e.g. "smell") with difficult variants lay readers will not understand (e.g. "olfaction ...
... and Astex ally for anticancer agents Business Intelligence, 1 July 2005 ... health care programs in connection with its marketing and promotional practices for the blockbuster atypical antipsychotic, ... KGB agents and competitors. This was in a last-ditch effort to distract attention from the real wrongdoer, Bildman himself." ... suicide while enrolled in an industry-sponsored pharmaceutical trial comparing three FDA-approved atypical antipsychotics: ...
... antipsychotic after a first episode of schizophrenia is more effective than starting a... more ... A novel antipsychotic agent. N Engl J Med. 1991 Mar 14. 324(11):746-54. [Medline]. ... Is injectable or oral administration of antipsychotic agents more effective for schizophrenia?. Updated: Mar 16, 2018 ... encoded search term (Is injectable or oral administration of antipsychotic agents more effective for schizophrenia?) and Is ...
antipsychotic agents in schizophrenic non- diabetic patients. BMJ. 2008;337:a1792.. (3)Which comes first: atypical ... Hypoglycaemia induced by second generation antipsychotic agents in schizophrenic non-diabetic patients BMJ 2009; 338 :a1792 ... Hypoglycaemia induced by second generation antipsychotic agents in schizophrenic non-diabetic patients. BMJ 2009; 338 doi: ... induced by second generation antipsychotic agents in schizophrenic non-. diabetic patients. BMJ 2009;338:a1792. ...
... ... J. P. Kelleher, F. Centorrino, M. J. Albert, and R. J. Baldessarini, "Advances in atypical antipsychotics for the treatment of ... a potential atypical antipsychotic," Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 35, no. 7, pp. 713-720, 1995. View at Google ... schizophrenia: new formulations and new agents," CNS Drugs, vol. 16, no. 4, pp. 249-261, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at ...
19 Studies found for: Gilles De La Tourette Syndrome , Antipsychotic Agents. Also searched for Tourette Syndrome, ...
Investigational Agent Targeting Metabotropic Glutamate 2/3 Receptors Demonstrates Antipsychotic Activity in Humans, Study in ... Investigational Agent Targeting Metabotropic Glutamate 2/3 Receptors Demonstrates Antipsychotic Activity in Humans, Study in ... PRESS RELEASE: Investigational Agent Targeting Metabotropic Glutamate 2/3 Receptors Demonstrates Antipsychotic Activity ... As with all antipsychotic medications, a rare and potentially fatal condition known as NMS has been reported with Zyprexa. If ...
Association Between Antipsychotic Agents and Risk of Acute Respiratory Failure in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary ... The use of antipsychotics was self-compared during days 1 to 14 (the risk period according to previous case reports) and days ... Antipsychotic use is associated with an acute and dose-dependent increased risk of ARF in patients with COPD. Clinicians should ... Acute respiratory failure (ARF) is a life-threatening event that has been linked in case reports to antipsychotic use, but this ...
Patients taking antipsychotic agents may be at an increased risk of myocardial infarction, based on a review of nine ... Study Suggests Antipsychotic Agents May Up MI Risk Da Hee Han, PharmD ... Patients taking antipsychotic agents may be at an increased risk of myocardial infarction, based on a review of nine ... Given antipsychotic agents are used to treat major psychiatric conditions, "the relatively modest increased absolute risk of MI ...
RELATED: Switching from Antipsychotic Polypharmacy to Monotherapy in Schizophrenia: Risks and Benefits ... Vraylar is an atypical antipsychotic that exerts its effect through a combination of partial agonist activity at central ... patients with dementia-related psychosis and that elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis treated with antipsychotic ...
This application relates to a combination of the antidepressant mirtazapine and an antipsychotic agent such as haloperidol for ... Administration of an antipsychotic agent in combination with mirtazapine allows a lower dosing of the antipsychotic agent to ... 2. A combination according to claim 1 wherein the antipsychotic agent is a typical or atypical antipsychotic agent. 3. A ... 4,062,848, in combination with an antipsychotic agent is able to enhance the antipsychotic effect of said antipsychotic. ...
Antidepressive Agents. Psychotropic Drugs. Antipsychotic Agents. Tranquilizing Agents. Central Nervous System Depressants. ... Evaluation of the Strategies of Switching Schizophrenia Patients to Aripiprazole From Other Antipsychotic Agents. The safety ... However, the process of switching other antipsychotic agents to aripiprazole can result in a re-emergence or worsening of ... Evaluation of the Strategies of Switching Schizophrenia Patients to Aripiprazole From Other Antipsychotic Agents: Combination ...
Antipsychotic Agents. Tranquilizing Agents. Central Nervous System Depressants. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Psychotropic ... Antidepressive Agents. Dopamine Agonists. Dopamine Agents. Neurotransmitter Agents. Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological ... Evaluation of the Strategies of Switching Schizophrenia Patients to Aripiprazole From Other Antipsychotic Agents. The safety ... However, the process of switching other antipsychotic agents to aripiprazole can result in a re-emergence or worsening of ...
Antipsychotic Agents. Tranquilizing Agents. Central Nervous System Depressants. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Psychotropic ... Real‐World Evaluation Screening Study and Registry of Dyskinesia in Patients Taking Antipsychotic Agents (RE-Kinect). The ... Real‐World Evaluation Screening Study and Registry of Dyskinesia in Patients Taking Antipsychotic Agents. ... Patients must be 18 years or older with a cumulative lifetime exposure to antipsychotic medication of three months or more. ...
All antipsychotic agents were grouped into one of two categories: atypical and conventional. The atypical antipsychotic agents ... Other information included switching from a conventional antipsychotic agent to an atypical antipsychotic during an admission, ... Given the change in access to atypical antipsychotic agents over the course of the study, an interaction term was created to ... Given the change in access to atypical antipsychotic agents over the course of the study, an interaction term was created to ...
Second-Generation Antipsychotics. The original agents, FGAs or typical antipsychotics, were thought to act by blocking striatal ... These agents have been added to either typical or atypical antipsychotics and show some significant benefits in reducing ... Older agents such as haloperidol and chlorpromazine (first-generation antipsychotics [FGAs]) are very effective for managing ... Blonanserin is unrelated structurally to typical antipsychotics or to newer agents such as risperidone. It is hoped that the ...
DSP and Takeda Announce the Acceptance of the European Medicines Agency Submission of an Atypical Antipsychotic Agent ... Lurasidone is an atypical antipsychotic, developed originally by DSP with an affinity for dopamine D2, serotonin 5-HT2A and ... Lurasidone, orally administrated once daily, is an atypical antipsychotic medication discovered and developed by DSP with a ... for an atypical antipsychotic medication lurasidone hydrochloride for the treatment of schizophrenia. The MAA was filed by ...
... This article originally appeared on MPR. ... Abilify MyCite consists of the atypical antipsychotic Abilify (aripiprazole; Otsuka) tablets embedded with an Ingestible Event ... Significant Improvement in Schizophrenia Symptoms After Antipsychotic Injectable Switch. *Abilify Maintena Gains New Bipolar I ...
Antipsychotic agents and stimulants: a judicious combination? M.H. de Jong, M.L.J.M. Eussen, A.R. van Gool ... In theory, stimulants and antipsychotics produce opposite effects. Relevant literature on the subject is discussed. ... Antipsychotic agents and stimulants: a judicious combination? ...
Antiparkinson Agents, Dopamine Agonists. Class Summary. Dopamine agonists are non-ergot agents that bind to D2 and D3 dopamine ... Antipsychotics, 2nd Generation. Class Summary. Second-generation, or atypical, antipsychotics are increasingly being used for ... Antipsychotics, 1st Generation. Class Summary. First-generation antipsychotics, also known as conventional or typical ... Antipsychotics, Phenothiazine. Class Summary. Phenothiazine antipsychotics, which are classified as first-generation ...
S33138, A PREFERENTIAL DOPAMINE D3 VERSUS D2 RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST AND POTENTIAL ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENT. III. ACTIONS IN MODELS OF ... S33138, A PREFERENTIAL DOPAMINE D3 VERSUS D2 RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST AND POTENTIAL ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENT. III. ACTIONS IN MODELS OF ... S33138, A PREFERENTIAL DOPAMINE D3 VERSUS D2 RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST AND POTENTIAL ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENT. III. ACTIONS IN MODELS OF ... S33138, A PREFERENTIAL DOPAMINE D3 VERSUS D2 RECEPTOR ANTAGONIST AND POTENTIAL ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENT. III. ACTIONS IN MODELS OF ...
1993) Pharmacokinetics of the novel antipsychotic agent risperidone and the prolactin response in healthy subjects. Clin ... 2008) Differential effects of antipsychotic and glutamatergic agents on the phMRI response to phencyclidine. ... A Validation Using Antipsychotic and Glutamatergic Agents. O. M. Doyle, S. De Simoni, A. J. Schwarz, C. Brittain, O. G. ODaly ... A Validation Using Antipsychotic and Glutamatergic Agents Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from Journal ...
Blockade of MK-801-induced heat shock protein 72/73 in rat brain by antipsychotic and monoaminergic agents targeting D2, 5-HT1A ... Each of these effects may contribute to antipsychotic action. The results suggest that the efficacy of atypical antipsychotic ... monoaminergic agents were also studied to delineate the particular receptors responsible for the actions of antipsychotic drugs ... we have examined the existence of possible differences among different antipsychotic drugs in their capacity to block ...
Study Antipsychotic Agents and Lithium flashcards from Tin Hernandez ... Antipsychotic Agents and Lithium Flashcards Preview Pharmacology , Antipsychotic Agents and Lithium , Flashcards ... Atypical antipsychotic. Least sedating atypical antipsychotic. no atropine like effects. Little or not tendency to cause ... Atypical antipsychotic SE: Postural hypotension, QT prolongation (Torsades) Little or not tendency to cause hyperglycemia, ...
Parasites as causative agents of human affective disorders? The impact of anti-psychotic, mood-stabilizer and anti-parasite ... Parasites as causative agents of human affective disorders? The impact of anti-psychotic, mood-stabilizer and anti-parasite ... Parasites as causative agents of human affective disorders? The impact of anti-psychotic, mood-stabilizer and anti-parasite ... Parasites as causative agents of human affective disorders? The impact of anti-psychotic, mood-stabilizer and anti-parasite ...
... but until recently none of these agents had marketing authorisation for this indication. Medicines regulators have recognised ... The use of antipsychotic drugs is common in the care of the elderly with dementia and associated behavioural problems, ... New warnings on the use of antipsychotic agents in the elderly with dementia ... The use of antipsychotic drugs is common in the care of the elderly with dementia and associated behavioural problems, but ...
Assessment of the Contributions of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 in the Metabolism of the Antipsychotic Agent Haloperidol to Its ... Assessment of the Contributions of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 in the Metabolism of the Antipsychotic Agent Haloperidol to Its ... Assessment of the Contributions of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 in the Metabolism of the Antipsychotic Agent Haloperidol to Its ... Assessment of the Contributions of CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 in the Metabolism of the Antipsychotic Agent Haloperidol to Its ...
Studies on the metabolic enzyme involved in the formation of neurotoxic pyridinium metabolite derived from antipsychotic agent ... Haloperidol / Antipsychotic agent / Neurotoxicity / CYP3A / Cytochrome P450 / Peroxygenase / Pyridinium metabolite / Brain ... Publications] K.Igarashi: The possible role of an active metabolite derived from the neuroleptic agent J.Toxicol. Toxin Rev. ... Publications] K.Igarashi: The possible role of an active metabolite derived from the neuroleptic agent haloperidol in drug- ...
... berberine added to current antipsychotic drugs could produce significantly greater efficacy in reducing atypical antipsychotic- ... Intervention Name: Antipsychotic Agents Description: Antipsychotic agents prescribed at the discretion of the patients ... Description: Patients will receive berberine pills in additional to current atypical antipsychotic agents ... Description: Patients will receive placebos pills in additional to current atypical antipsychotic agents ...
What is antipsychotic agent? Meaning of antipsychotic agent medical term. What does antipsychotic agent mean? ... Looking for online definition of antipsychotic agent in the Medical Dictionary? antipsychotic agent explanation free. ... antipsychotic agent. Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus.. Related to antipsychotic agent: atypical antipsychotic agent ... antipsychotic agent.. antipsychotic agent any drug that favorably modifies psychotic symptoms; categories include the ...
  • Is injectable or oral administration of antipsychotic agents more effective for schizophrenia? (medscape.com)
  • According to the results of a year-long randomized controlled trial, starting a long-acting injectable (LAI) antipsychotic after a first episode of schizophrenia is more effective than starting an oral antipsychotic. (medscape.com)
  • These data provide compelling new evidence that mGlu2/3 receptor agonists have antipsychotic properties and may provide a completely new therapeutic approach for treating schizophrenia and, perhaps, other neuropsychiatric disorders,' said Steven Paul, M.D., Lilly's executive vice president of science and technology. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • In this prospective, observational study, we assessed the measurement properties of 3 commonly used, pharmacy-based measures of treatment adherence with antipsychotic agents in schizophrenia using data from the Veterans Health Administration during 2000 to 2005. (dovepress.com)
  • Patients were selected if they were on antipsychotics and diagnosed with schizophrenia (N = 18,425). (dovepress.com)
  • On the basis of a prior study demonstrating the efficacy and safety of aripiprazole in Taiwan population, we hence propose to apply a combined use of pharmacogenomics and therapeutic drug monitoring in the evaluation of the strategies of switching stable schizophrenia patients to aripiprazole from other antipsychotic agents. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Developing a protocol that has high probability of switching successfully schizophrenia patients to aripiprazole, which is effective in treatment refractory cases and has a markedly lower incidence of severe side effects, from other antipsychotics. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Costs of New Atypical Antipsychotic Agents for Schizophrenia: Does Unrestricted Access Reduce Hospital Utilization? (longwoods.com)
  • To determine whether increased expenditures to provide unrestricted access to expensive atypical antipsychotic drugs would be associated with a reduction in hospital utilization and cost by patients with schizophrenia. (longwoods.com)
  • The unrestricted reimbursement policy for atypical antipsychotics was associated with a large increase in drug plan expenditure, which was not offset by a decrease in hospital utilization by schizophrenia sufferers. (longwoods.com)
  • At present there is no cure for schizophrenia, and antipsychotic medication is the cornerstone of treatment. (longwoods.com)
  • Osaka, Japan ) today announced that the European Medicines Agency (EMA) has confirmed the acceptance for review of the Marketing Authorization Application (MAA) for an atypical antipsychotic medication lurasidone hydrochloride for the treatment of schizophrenia. (prnewswire.co.uk)
  • Although antipsychotic therapy is the mainstay of the management of schizophrenia, the treatment outcomes are often unsatisfactory, largely due to adverse drug reactions. (ichgcp.net)
  • Background Most evidence suggesting an association between schizophrenia, antipsychotic medications and diabetes has been based on retrospective studies not controlled for important confounders. (nuigalway.ie)
  • Specifically, the principal finding that supports a role for dopamine hyperactivity in schizophrenia has been that all antipsychotic drugs, which are effective in treating these symptoms, inhibit the dopamine D2 receptors. (pnas.org)
  • A recent report that an agonist of the metabotropic glutamate 2/3 (mGlu2/3) receptor has comparable efficacy to the antipsychotic drug olanzapine in treating positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia ( 5 ) suggests that blocking dopamine receptors is not necessary for antipsychotic efficacy. (pnas.org)
  • If OFC is a key region in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, then it would be expected that its activity is disrupted in animal models of the disease and that it is a target for antipsychotic agents. (pnas.org)
  • Thus, it will be critical to fully understand the effects of different M1-selective allosteric modulators on coupling of M1 to different signaling pathways and to determine how this relates to electrophysiological effects of these agents and effects in animal models that predict efficacy in treatment of different domains of schizophrenia. (grantome.com)
  • Adherence to treatment with antipsychotic medication and health care costs among Medicaid beneficiaries with schizophrenia. (pharmacist.com)
  • First rank symptoms & facial emotion recognition deficits in antipsychotic naïve schizophrenia: Implications for social threat perception model. (nih.gov)
  • Developing a new drug which works in the same way, but without the side-effects, is a major part of clinical schizophrenia research which would be aided by knowing how clozapine actually works, and how it is different to other antipsychotics! (tamias.co.uk)
  • The new agents require that clinicians treating patients with schizophrenia adopt new ways of thinking regarding the pharmacotherapy of this illness. (elsevier.com)
  • What warnings should be given prior to treatment with antipsychotic medications for schizophrenia? (medscape.com)
  • We examined 86 first episode patients (schizophrenia, psychotic bipolar disorder and major depressive disorder with psychotic features) who had minimal to no prior antipsychotic exposure in a 6-week pharmacogenomic study of antipsychotic treatment response. (nature.com)
  • These agents are all FDA approved for the treatment of schizophrenia, with some atypical antipsychotics obtaining additional FDA approval for other psychiatric conditions including autism spectrum disorders, bipolar I disorder (acute manic and/or mixed episodes, maintenance), and as adjunctive treatment of major depressive disorder. (allenpress.com)
  • Efficacy of atypical antipsychotics in early-onset schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Effect of GWAS-Identified Genetic Variants on Maximum QT Interval in Patients With Schizophrenia Receiving Antipsychotic Agents: A 24-Hour Holter E. (cdc.gov)
  • Cost-effectiveness analysis of switching antipsychotic medication to long-acting injectable risperidone in patients with schizophrenia : a 12- and 24-month follow-up from the e-STAR database in Spain. (qxmd.com)
  • Preliminary analyses suggest that TD is common in patients with schizophrenia and mood disorders taking antipsychotics. (cambridge.org)
  • They also suggest that LAIs reduce risk of relapse versus oral antipsychotics in schizophrenia outpatients when combined with quality psychosocial interventions. (hindawi.com)
  • Antipsychotics-drugs that block dopamine D 2 receptors-attenuate positive symptoms in schizophrenia and help improve outcomes, especially in the early stages of illness [ 4 , 6 - 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The high rate of noncompliance can be explained by poor insight into illness, cognitive deficits, and elevated substance abuse associated with schizophrenia and by side effects associated with antipsychotics such as anhedonia and extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS) [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Vyvanse was administered orally as adjunctive therapy (20 to 70 mg per day, titrated over 7 weeks) to 92 clinically stable patients with predominant negative symptom schizophrenia (ages of 18 to 55), taking established maintenance doses of atypical antipsychotic medications. (prnewswire.com)
  • Antipsychotics are approved in the U.S. for treatment of psychotic conditions including bipolar disorder and schizophrenia, as well as for easing aggression among cognitively impaired youth, Matone, who wasn't involved in the study, said by email. (reuters.com)
  • However, this is likely an oversimplification, as-despite differences in sensitivity to dopamine of around 3-fold in people that have taken antipsychotics chronically, there is a disproportionately low increase in the amount of D2 receptors in the brain in these people (around 1.4-fold in the striatum of the brain in people with schizophrenia). (wikipedia.org)
  • Presence of tardive dyskinesia (which should occur when antipsychotics are withdrawn, and improve or disappear when antipsychotics are restarted) It may sometimes be impossible to distinguish dopamine supersensitivity psychosis from psychosis that occurs "naturally" in the course of a primary psychotic disorder like schizophrenia, including cases in which the person was not taking their antipsychotic medication. (wikipedia.org)
  • The purpose of this study is to determine whether moderately ill Asian schizophrenic patients can be switched from their previous antipsychotic medication to aripiprazole with minimal adverse clinical consequences, and elucidate both pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic factors associated with clinical efficacy of aripiprazole. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • However, the process of switching other antipsychotic agents to aripiprazole can result in a re-emergence or worsening of psychosis, along with unpleasant side effects such as insomnia, nausea, vomiting, anxiety and agitation. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Aripiprazole and are associated with little or no significant weight gain, diabetes, or dyslipidemia, although they have not been used as extensively as the other agents. (levelofhealth.com)
  • After earlier warnings of increased risks of cerebrovascular events (with risperidone, olanzapine, and aripiprazole), 9 the Food and Drug Administration issued an advisory warning in 2005 that atypical antipsychotics were associated with a 60-70% increased risk of death compared with placebo in randomised controlled trials among older patients with dementia, and black box warnings were added to the labels of all atypical drugs. (bmj.com)
  • Aripiprazole is an antipsychotic agent. (mayoclinic.org)
  • This application relates to a combination of the antidepressant mirtazapine and an antipsychotic agent such as haloperidol for the treatment of psychotic disorders. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • As a plausible explanation for the large interindividual variability in the pharmacokinetics of the neuroleptic agent haloperidol, the contributions of CYP3A isozymes (CYP3A4 and the polymorphic CYP3A5) predominantly involved in haloperidol bioactivation to the neurotoxic pyridinium species 4-(4-Chlorophenyl)-1-[4-(4-fluorophenyl)-4-oxobutyl]-pyridinium (HPP + ) were assessed in human liver microsomes and heterologously expressed enzymes. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Publications] K.Igarashi: 'The possible role of an active metabolite derived from the neuroleptic agent haloperidol in drug-induced parkinsonism' J.Toxicol.Toxin Reviews. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Antipsychotic drugs haloperidol and clozapine, which target monoamine receptors, as well as an mGlu2/3 agonist and an mGlu5 receptor modulator proposed to have antipsychotic efficacy, reversed the impact of NMDA hypofunction on OFC cells and on behavior. (pnas.org)
  • In the preventive protocol, mice received intraperitoneal injection of MOR (100 mg/kg), reference antipsychotic drugs [haloperidol (1 mg/kg), risperidone (0.5 mg/kg)], or saline daily for 14 consecutive days prior to i.p. injection of ketamine (KET) (20 mg/kg/day) from the 8th to the 14th day. (springer.com)
  • Many antipsychotic drugs, including classic neuroleptics such as haloperidol, are metabolized by the liver cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP2D6. (questia.com)
  • The importance of medication adherence in sustaining control of schizophrenic symptoms has generated a great deal of interest in comparing levels of treatment adherence with different antipsychotic agents. (dovepress.com)
  • A gap of ≥30 days (with no filled index medication) was used to define discontinuation of treatment as well as medication "episodes," or the number of times a patient returned to the same index agent after discontinuation of treatment within a 1-year period. (dovepress.com)
  • Considering the measurement problems associated with each existing approach, we offered a new, medication episode-specific approach, which would provide a fairer comparison of the levels of treatment adherence across different antipsychotic agents. (dovepress.com)
  • Prospective study to quantify the prevalence of possible tardive dyskinesia (TD) in outpatient psychiatry practices in the United States (US), as well as to describe the associated disease burden in a cohort of patients with one or more psychiatric disorders and a cumulative lifetime exposure to antipsychotic medication of three months or more. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Patients must be 18 years or older with a cumulative lifetime exposure to antipsychotic medication of three months or more. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Lurasidone, orally administrated once daily, is an atypical antipsychotic medication discovered and developed by DSP with a unique chemical structure as compared to other existing antipsychotic medicines. (prnewswire.co.uk)
  • Results No difference in the incidence of glycaemic abnormalities between placebo cohorts and antipsychotic medication cohorts was identified. (nuigalway.ie)
  • Before or soon after initiation of antipsychotic medication, obtain a fasting lipid profile at baseline and monitor periodically during treatment. (drugs.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS: Obese postmenopausal women on atypical antipsychotic medication appear to respond favorably to a nutritional program. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Despite limited supporting evidence, off-label uses of atypical or second generation antipsychotics (particularly olanzapine, quetiapine, and risperidone) are not uncommon. (allenpress.com)
  • Several studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of the atypical antipsychotics quetiapine, olanzapine, and risperidone for the treatment of insomnia were identified and are summarized in this article. (allenpress.com)
  • 1 Results of a recently published meta-analysis and an Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Comparative Effectiveness Review (AHRQ CER) indicate that the off-label use (use without FDA approval for the indication) of some atypical antipsychotics (most commonly olanzapine, quetiapine, and risperidone) has increased significantly. (allenpress.com)
  • BACKGROUND: Antipsychotic-related constipation is a common and serious adverse effect, especially for people taking clozapine. (isharonline.org)
  • James mentioned that clozapine is a particularly effective antipsychotic (although it is rarely used now as it has some severe side-effects), and no-one quite knows why, although apparently it acts on D 2 less strongly than other antipsychotics. (tamias.co.uk)
  • 1991. Clozapine: A novel antipsychotic agent. (jhu.edu)
  • The situation changed dramatically, first in 1949 when John Cade in Australia discovered the effects of lithium in mania ( Cade, 1949 ), and in 1952 with the development of the first antipsychotic phenothiazine, chlorpromazine. (rcpsych.org)
  • Risperidone monotherapy was the primary antipsychotic treatment. (nature.com)
  • Drug categories include mood stabilizers, anticonvulsants, and antipsychotics. (medscape.com)
  • Future studies should evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of newer atypical antipsychotic agents, and the place of anticonvulsants in combination with antipsychotics in bipolar disorder. (rcpsych.org)
  • and 2) company has current products and products in development in the area of newer atypical antidepressants and/or antipsychotics. (hhs.gov)
  • A number of factors were significantly associated with antipsychotic initiation, including male gender, residence in a group home, prior use of benzodiazepines, antidepressants or cognitive enhancers, a recent emergency department visit or mental health hospitalisation and a visit to a psychiatrist or family physician in the prior 90 days. (bmj.com)
  • Our findings provide important information about the safety of antipsychotic drugs," said Dr. Bing Ruan, senior author of the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology study. (empr.com)
  • Vraylar carries a boxed warning that states the drug is not approved for patients with dementia-related psychosis and that elderly patients with dementia-related psychosis treated with antipsychotic drugs are at an increased risk of death. (empr.com)
  • Average per diem costs were multiplied by LOS to determine hospital expenditures, and the provincial drug plan database provided the amount of money reimbursed for antipsychotic drugs. (longwoods.com)
  • In the present work, we have examined the existence of possible differences among different antipsychotic drugs in their capacity to block immunolabeling of Hsp72/73 in the retrosplenial cortex of the rat induced by the potent NMDA receptor antagonist, MK- 801. (nih.gov)
  • In addition, the effects of selective monoaminergic agents were also studied to delineate the particular receptors responsible for the actions of antipsychotic drugs. (nih.gov)
  • The results suggest that the efficacy of atypical antipsychotic drugs in the clinic may result from a combined effect on 5-HT2, 5-HT1A and α1-adrenergic receptors added to the classical dopamine D2 receptor antagonism. (nih.gov)
  • The use of antipsychotic drugs is common in the care of the elderly with dementia and associated behavioural problems, but until recently none of these agents had marketing authorisation for this indication. (rcpe.ac.uk)
  • One double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial is designed to examine whether berberine added to current antipsychotic drugs could produce significantly greater efficacy in reducing atypical antipsychotic-induced metabolic syndrome. (ichgcp.net)
  • In recent years, the atypical antipsychotics or second-generation antipsychotics have become the drugs of choice for acute psychoses. (statpearls.com)
  • Identify the mechanism of action of the atypical antipsychotic class of drugs. (statpearls.com)
  • We not only repurposed the antipsychotic drug thioridazine as a potent anti-GBM and anti-GSCs agent, but also provided a new strategy to search for drugs with anticancer and anticancer stem cell properties. (nih.gov)
  • I was intrigued to read about a recent consensus development conference on the use of antipsychotic drugs and the development of obesity and diabetes-frankly, a connection that I had not realized. (levelofhealth.com)
  • Conclusions Diabetogenic potential ascribed to atypical antipsychotic drugs, resulting from retrospective studies, may be incorrect. (nuigalway.ie)
  • antipsychotic drugs that decrease salivary flow can increase problems with oral health. (btpnews.com)
  • Until recently, all known antipsychotic drugs were thought to block the dopamine D2 receptor. (pnas.org)
  • Thus, proven or putative antipsychotic drugs with different mechanisms of action similarly reduced the impact of NMDA hypofunction and dopamine hyperfunction on OFC neurons, suggesting that these neurons are a candidate target for the therapeutic effects of antipsychotic medications. (pnas.org)
  • Atypical antipsychotic drugs have been associated with undesirable alterations in lipid levels. (drugs.com)
  • Most antipyschotic drugs appear to work by simply blocking dopamine receptors in the brain, typically the D 2 or D 4 receptor , and "atypical" antipsychotics also act on serotonin receptors . (tamias.co.uk)
  • Background Studies highlighting the difficulties associated with lithium suggest that the role of antipsychotic drugs and mood stabilisers in bipolar disorder should be reconsidered. (rcpsych.org)
  • Aims To review the efficacy and mode of action of antipsychotic drugs in mania, and to consider the differences between official guidelines and routine clinical practice in the use of these agents for mania. (rcpsych.org)
  • However, in routine practice, antipsychotic drugs are often prescribed. (rcpsych.org)
  • Conclusion Antipsychotic drugs are important in the treatment of bipolar disorder and mania. (rcpsych.org)
  • Objective To assess risks of mortality associated with use of individual antipsychotic drugs in elderly residents in nursing homes. (bmj.com)
  • Up to a third of all elderly patients in nursing homes are treated with antipsychotic drugs. (bmj.com)
  • 10 Subsequent studies found risks at least as high among users of conventional antipsychotics, 11 12 13 and the Food and Drug Administration issued a similar warning for such drugs in 2008. (bmj.com)
  • These relationships may be easier to identify among patients early in the course of disease who have limited exposure to antipsychotic drugs. (nature.com)
  • Anticholinergic drugs in the presence of increased intraocular pressure may be hazardous when taken concurrently with agents such as corticosteroids . (medicinenet.com)
  • To determine whether second-generation antipsychotics had better outcomes in terms of EPS than first-generation drugs. (cambridge.org)
  • A clinically significant difference was defined as double or half the symptoms in groups prescribed first- v. second-generation antipsychotics, represented by odds ratios greater than 2.0 (indicating advantage for first-generation drugs) or less than 0.5 (indicating advantage for the newer drugs). (cambridge.org)
  • The place of careful prescription of first-generation drugs in contemporary practice remains to be defined, potentially improving clinical effectiveness and avoiding life-shortening metabolic disturbances in some patients currently treated with the narrow range of second-generation antipsychotics used in routine practice. (cambridge.org)
  • In addition, African Americans, in general, are prescribed higher doses of antipsychotic medications than are patients from other racial or ethnic groups, and they are treated with these drugs for longer periods of time. (questia.com)
  • This is most likely due to increased efforts to curb antipsychotic use among younger kids over concerns about side effects such as weight gain, high cholesterol and uncertainty about the long-term effects of the drugs on the developing nervous system, Olfson said by email. (reuters.com)
  • All participants were hospitalized to ensure patient safety, tapered off from any pre-trial antipsychotic medications (no therapeutically stable patients were included in the trial), and treated in a double-blind manner for four weeks. (fiercebiotech.com)
  • Compared to the older 'conventional' or 'traditional' antipsychotics, these medications appear to be equally effective for helping reduce such positive symptoms as hallucinations and delusions (Beasley et al. (longwoods.com)
  • No effective therapies are available in treating antipsychotic-induced metabolic syndrome, although some antidiabetic medications may have limited benefits in controlling weight gain and increased glucose level. (ichgcp.net)
  • No significant difference between any of the antipsychotic medications studied in terms of their association with glycaemic abnormalities was identified. (nuigalway.ie)
  • Access and Utilization of New Antidepressant and Antipsychotic Medications. (hhs.gov)
  • Before beginning antipsychotic medications, clinicians should warn patients and their families of adverse effects, and the slowness of response. (medscape.com)
  • Some clinicians routinely perform electrocardiography (ECG) before beginning treatment with antipsychotic medications and then as often as seems appropriate, for example if doses are increased or agents change. (medscape.com)
  • STUDY DESIGN: In a case-control design, 25 obese postmenopausal women treated with antipsychotic medications and 28 obese healthy comparisons were followed for 3 months. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Conclusion: We found that the use of antipsychotic medications during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of GDM in mothers. (hku.hk)
  • Plus, African Americans who receive antipsychotic medications tend to have classic neuroleptics prescribed rather than the newer and more expensive atypical agents. (questia.com)
  • Adults with ≥3 months lifetime exposure to antipsychotic(s) and ≥1 psychiatric disorder are eligible for two-tier screening: informal observation, and then clinician observation of abnormal involuntary movements in general body regions (head/face, neck/trunk, upper/lower limbs) and confirmation of possible TD. (cambridge.org)
  • at least 1 mood disorder, 84.5%, and 10.4 years mean cumulative lifetime exposure to antipsychotic(s). (cambridge.org)
  • RYANODEX ® ( NDC 42367-540-32 ) is available in 20 mL vials containing a sterile lyophilized mixture of 250 mg dantrolene sodium for reconstitution with 5 mL sterile water for injection USP (without a bacteriostatic agent) to yield an orange colored injectable suspension. (rxlist.com)
  • Long-acting injectable antipsychotics (LAIs) should offer better efficacy and tolerability, compared to oral antipsychotics due to improved adherence and more stable pharmacokinetics. (hindawi.com)
  • One possibility for the disparate results may be that some studies administered different antipsychotics in the oral and injectable form. (hindawi.com)
  • Rebound psychosis within 6 weeks of a change (e.g. dose reduction, or antipsychotic switching) in an oral antipsychotic regimen or 3 months for long-acting injectable antipsychotics 2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Results Guidelines recommend lithium or valproate as first-line treatments for mania, and antipsychotic agents only as 'adjuncts' for agitation, dangerous behaviour or psychosis. (rcpsych.org)
  • For example, a pivotal study by May [ 8 ] revealed that treatment with antipsychotics or electroconvulsive therapy increased the rate of release from the hospital, reduced the length of hospital stay, and decreased the need for sedatives and hydrotherapy in newly admitted first-episode psychosis (FEP) patients, relative to psychotherapy or milieu therapy. (hindawi.com)
  • Clearly, the goal of treatment of FEP patients should be to increase compliance with antipsychotic therapy, thereby decreasing the negative effects of untreated psychosis and-at the same time-to minimize the amount of antipsychotic-induced side effects. (hindawi.com)
  • Dopamine supersensitivity psychosis is a hypothesis that attempts to explain the phenomenon in which psychosis (e.g. having hallucinations, which can mean hearing or seeing things that other people do not see or hear) occurs despite treatment with escalating doses of antipsychotics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because psychosis is thought to be mediated-at least in part-by the activity of dopamine at D2 receptors, the activity of dopamine in the presence of supersensitivity may paradoxically give rise to worsening psychotic symptoms despite antipsychotic treatment at a given dose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, dopamine supersensitivity may reduce the effect of antipsychotics and increase the brain's response to endogenous dopamine, leading to worsening psychosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The original criteria for dopamine supersensitivity psychosis were the following: A. Continuous use of antipsychotics for at least 3 months. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recognizing the possible role of dopamine supersensitivity psychosis in a psychotic episode has implications for how to best manage someone's antipsychotic therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The current agents, though helpful, only diminish the frequency and severity of positive psychotic symptoms by 20% to 30% and have less of an effect on the negative symptoms and the cognitive deterioration. (primarypsychiatry.com)
  • The choice of agent depends on the presence of symptoms such as psychotic symptoms, agitation, aggression, and sleep disturbance. (medscape.com)
  • The working hypothesis of the proposed study is that berberine as an adjuvant can control weight gain and other metabolic symptoms associated with antipsychotic therapy. (ichgcp.net)
  • As I understand it, the so-called first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs) are, of course, still widely available and very effective in treating some of the key symptoms such as hallucinations and delusions. (levelofhealth.com)
  • Any patient treated with atypical antipsychotics should be monitored for symptoms of hyperglycemia including polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia, and weakness. (drugs.com)
  • Patients who develop symptoms of hyperglycemia during treatment with atypical antipsychotics should undergo fasting blood glucose testing. (drugs.com)
  • I feel there is something to be learned for my research from how antipyschotics and antidementia agents act on the brain to reduce the symptoms. (tamias.co.uk)
  • Longer drug trials than have traditionally been used may be required to determine response to the newer agents, and response should be measured across negative symptoms, cognitive symptoms, and broader rehabilitative dimensions. (elsevier.com)
  • The data generally showed minor differences between the atypical antipsychotics evaluated and typical antipsychotics, regarding improvement in disease symptoms, despite better adherence to treatment with atypical antipsychotics. (scielo.br)
  • The peak use among adolescent boys, who are frequently diagnosed with ADHD and are also treated with stimulants, strongly suggests that antipsychotics are commonly used to treat impulsive aggression and other behavioral symptoms," Olfson said. (reuters.com)
  • The main takeaway for clinicians and families is that for youth without psychiatric symptoms, alternatives to antipsychotic treatment should be tried whenever possible," Correll said. (reuters.com)
  • This may explain why, for people with tardive dyskinesia, increasing the dose of the antipsychotic may temporarily improve symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tolerance to antipsychotic effects (requiring escalating doses, even beyond what has controlled symptoms in the past) 3. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vraylar is an atypical antipsychotic that exerts its effect through a combination of partial agonist activity at central dopamine D2 and serotonin 5-HT1A receptors and antagonist activity at serotonin 5-HT2A receptors. (empr.com)
  • Lurasidone is an atypical antipsychotic, developed originally by DSP with an affinity for dopamine D2, serotonin 5-HT2A and serotonin 5-HT7 receptors where it has antagonist effects. (prnewswire.co.uk)
  • In addition to the peripheral effects, berberine also broadly modulates brain biogenic amines and related receptors that are involved in the pathogenesis of antipsychotic-induced metabolic syndrome. (ichgcp.net)
  • see Greenstein and Ruppin, 1998) and Dopamine (supported by the fact that antipsychotics work by blocking dopamine receptors) theories. (tamias.co.uk)
  • 1 All of the atypical antipsychotics are antagonists at the dopamine 2 (D 2 ) and serotonin type 2 (5-HT 2A ) receptors, but differ considerably with respect to activity at other central nervous system receptor systems. (allenpress.com)
  • Which agents are more likely to block D1 and D4 receptors also? (brainscape.com)
  • Inverse agonist properties of antipsychotic agents at cloned, human (h) serotonin (5-HT)(1B) and h5-HT(1D) receptors. (scienceexchange.com)
  • The actions of diverse antipsychotics at cloned h5-HT(1B) and h5-HT(1D) receptors were examined employing [3H]-GR125,743 and [35S]-GTPgammaS for determination of affinities and efficacies, respectively. (scienceexchange.com)
  • In conclusion, with the exception of ziprasidone, all antipsychotics were inverse agonists at h5-HT(1B) and h5-HT(1D) receptors, although they differed markedly in their potency at these sites as compared to hD(2) receptors. (scienceexchange.com)
  • Dopamine supersensitivity may be caused by the dopamine receptor D2 antagonizing effect of antipsychotics, causing a compensatory increase in D2 receptors within the brain that sensitizes neurons to endogenous release of the neurotransmitter dopamine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The antagonizing or "blockade" of D2 by antipsychotics may cause neurons, a type of cell within the brain, to undergo compensatory changes to make up for the loss of activity at D2 receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • It may be the case that, in response to antipsychotics, neurons increase the production of D2 receptors (upregulation), thereby sensitizing the neuron to dopamine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fluphenazine is a phenothiazine antipsychotic sold under the brand names Permitil and Prolixin in the United States . (encyclopedia.com)
  • While atypical antipsychotics are associated with a lower risk of tardive dyskinesia, extrapyramidal side effects, and more favorable effects on cognitive deficits and negative symptomatology in schizophrenic patients compared to typical or first generation antipsychotic agents, they are not without risks. (allenpress.com)
  • Clinicians should exercise caution when prescribing antipsychotics to patients with COPD and avoid high doses if possible. (nih.gov)
  • Another study, which analyzed Medicaid data from San Diego County from 1998 to 2000, shows that less than one-half of patients are adherent and persistent with antipsychotic therapy, with large numbers taking too few doses and about one-fifth of patients having their prescriptions refilled too frequently. (pharmacist.com)
  • Metabolic adverse effects are particularly problematic with atypical antipsychotics, even at doses lower than those used to treat FDA-approved indications. (allenpress.com)
  • The availability of the newer agents may represent an opportunity to reduce the incidence of tardive dyskinesia and to gain better management of comorbid substance abuse and aggression among schizophrenic patients. (elsevier.com)
  • Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is associated with prolonged exposure to dopamine receptor blockers including antipsychotics. (cambridge.org)
  • Tardive dyskinesia, a type of rare movement disorder that can be caused by antipsychotics, may also be caused by dopamine receptor sensitization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Given antipsychotic agents are used to treat major psychiatric conditions, "the relatively modest increased absolute risk of MI is unlikely to alter their benefit-risk balance when used appropriately. (empr.com)
  • Multiple versus single antipsychotic agents for hospitalized psychiatric patients: case-control study of risks versus benefits. (pharmacist.com)
  • Results Among 39 244 individuals eligible for this study, 6924 (17.6%) initiated an antipsychotic over the accrual window, of whom 1863 (26.9%) had no psychiatric diagnosis in the prior 2 years. (bmj.com)
  • In a secondary analysis, the association between antipsychotic initiation and age, prior diagnosis of diabetes or myocardial infarction and polypharmacy differed slightly on the basis of whether an individual had a previously diagnosed psychiatric disorder. (bmj.com)
  • Conclusions Factors associated with the initiation of an antipsychotic differ according to the presence of a psychiatric diagnosis. (bmj.com)
  • Two SNPs in GRM7 (rs2069062 and rs2014195) were significantly associated with antipsychotic response in candidate gene analysis, as were two SNPs in the human glutamate receptor delta 2 ( GRID2) gene (rs9307122 and rs1875705) in genome-wide association analysis. (nature.com)
  • Weight gain has been observed with atypical antipsychotic use. (drugs.com)
  • Association Between Antipsychotic Agents and Risk of Acute Respiratory Failure in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. (nih.gov)
  • We aimed to evaluate the association between antipsychotic use in pregnancy and GDM. (hku.hk)
  • These studies will allow us to rigorously test the hypothesis that selective allosteric activators of M1 have effects in animal models that predict efficacy as novel antipsychotic and cognition-enhancing agents. (grantome.com)
  • The study found that the 3 existing measures differed in their approaches in measuring treatment adherence, suggesting that studies using these different measures would generate different levels of treatment adherence across antipsychotic agents. (dovepress.com)
  • Atypical antipsychotics have advantages over typical antipsychotics mainly through their better safety profile, which leads to better adherence to treatment. (scielo.br)
  • 7. A patient pack comprising at least one of mirtazapine and an antipsychotic agent as active ingredients, and an information insert containing directions on the use of the active ingredient(s) in a therapeutic regimen using a combination comprising mirtazapine and an antipsychotic agent. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The present invention relates to therapeutic combinations of mirtazapine and an antipsychotic agent, to pharmaceutical compositions containing said combinations and to their use in the treatment or prophylaxis of psychotic disorders. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Active ingredients of central nervous system agents will remain the largest therapeutic group served by pharmaceutical chemicals based on value and will post above average revenue growth. (freedoniagroup.com)
  • 2. A combination according to claim 1 wherein the antipsychotic agent is a typical or atypical antipsychotic agent. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The current antipsychotics, including both typical and atypical, are at best effective only partially effective. (primarypsychiatry.com)
  • Initially confined to new-generation atypical antipsychotics in which an approximately 1.6-1.7-fold increase in mortality has been demonstrated, recent evidence points to a risk of at least similar magnitude with older-generation typical agents, prompting warnings by UK and US medicines regulators about an increased risk of death associated with the entire class, atypical and typical. (rcpe.ac.uk)
  • Lithium is considered a first-line agent for long-term prophylaxis in bipolar illness, especially for classic bipolar disorder with euphoric mania. (medscape.com)
  • Study authors from China conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies that compared incidence of myocardial infarction among patients taking antipsychotics vs. no treatment. (empr.com)
  • There is a tremendous need to develop novel agents with unique mechanisms of action for the treatment of psychotic disorders. (primarypsychiatry.com)
  • This suggests that it may be suitable for the treatment of antipsychotic-induced metabolic disturbance. (ichgcp.net)
  • Adjunctive treatment with zonisamide (Zonegran) may help prevent weight gain in patients being treated with antipsychotics. (btpnews.com)
  • It is recommended that patients with risk factors for diabetes mellitus starting treatment with atypical antipsychotics should undergo fasting blood glucose testing at the beginning of treatment, and periodically thereafter. (drugs.com)
  • however, some patients required continuation of anti-diabetic treatment despite discontinuation of the atypical antipsychotic drug. (drugs.com)
  • The relative efficacy of these agents, particularly in treatment-refractory patients, remains to be determined. (elsevier.com)
  • Genetic factors may underlie beneficial and adverse responses to antipsychotic treatment. (nature.com)
  • The off-label use of these agents for the treatment of insomnia is the focus of this review. (allenpress.com)
  • 2 , 3 The off-label use of these agents includes treatment of ADHD, anxiety disorders, dementia in the elderly, depression, eating disorders, insomnia, personality disorders, and substance abuse disorders. (allenpress.com)
  • This article will provide an overview of the evidence regarding the safety and efficacy of off-label use of atypical antipsychotics agents for the treatment of insomnia due to various causes. (allenpress.com)
  • Assessing and maximizing the safety and tolerability of antipsychotics used in the treatment of chil. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Overall, multiple reviews found that that early antipsychotic treatment is crucial for improving outcomes in FEP patients and may prevent some functional deterioration and development of a chronic course [ 4 , 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Despite the benefits of compliance with antipsychotic therapy during the early stage of illness, data from 2,588 FEP patients revealed that only 58% collected their prescription during the first 30 days of hospital discharge, and only 46% continued their initial treatment for 30 days or longer [ 9 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • 3. Analgesics, Narcotic antagonists, and agents used to treat arthritis: Agents used to treat gout. (worldcat.org)
  • Cost-effectiveness analysis of schizophrenic patient care settings: impact of an atypical antipsychotic under long-acting injection formulation]. (qxmd.com)
  • We will perform a series of studies in to systematically determine the effects of representative M1 allosteric activators on cell signaling and electrophysiological responses in forebrain neurons important for antipsychotic and cognition-enhancing effects of these agents. (grantome.com)
  • Thioridazine has been known as an antipsychotic agent, but it also has anticancer activity. (dsmc.or.kr)
  • Review the adverse event and interaction profile for atypical antipsychotics. (statpearls.com)
  • Simultaneous use of multiple antipsychotic agents among inpatients-a trend on the upswing for 4 decades but unsupported by sound clinical evidence-results in longer hospitalizations and possibly more adverse effects but does not improve clinical outcomes, according to a recently published case-control retrospective analysis of data from the spring of 1998. (pharmacist.com)
  • Because of these differences in receptor activity, adverse effects associated with atypical antipsychotics can vary and can include weight gain, dyslipidemia, glucose dysregulation, sedation, akathisia, and an increased risk of death in elderly patients with dementia. (allenpress.com)
  • These findings suggest that atypical antipsychotics may play an adverse role in fat loss and lipid metabolism in this population. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Second-generation antipsychotics have been thought to cause fewer extrapyramidal side-effects (EPS) than first-generation antipsychotics, but recent pragmatic trials have indicated equivalence. (cambridge.org)
  • These associations indicate a role for gene variants related to glutamate signaling and antipsychotic response with more broad association patterns indicating the potential importance of genes involved in neuronal development. (nature.com)
  • There has been a tremendous effort to develop newer antipsychotics to improve outcome. (primarypsychiatry.com)
  • Newer products, sometimes called "atypical antipsychotics," or second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs), have been found to be more useful, producing fewer and less severe side effects. (levelofhealth.com)
  • For younger children, antipsychotic use declined from 2006 to 2010, the researchers report in JAMA Psychiatry. (reuters.com)
  • Objectives To describe factors associated with initiating antipsychotics and patterns of persistence to antipsychotic therapy in a large cohort of adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. (bmj.com)