Substances that are destructive to protozoans.
A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes Rhodesian sleeping sickness in humans. It is carried by Glossina pallidipes, G. morsitans and occasionally other species of game-attacking tsetse flies.
Antiprotozoal agent effective in trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and some fungal infections; used in treatment of PNEUMOCYSTIS pneumonia in HIV-infected patients. It may cause diabetes mellitus, central nervous system damage, and other toxic effects.
Tests that demonstrate the relative effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents against specific parasites.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). The sandfly genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia are the vectors.
Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa.
Agents destructive to the protozoal organisms belonging to the suborder TRYPANOSOMATINA.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain scandenolide (a sesquiterpene lactone) and germacranolides.
The agent of South American trypanosomiasis or CHAGAS DISEASE. Its vertebrate hosts are man and various domestic and wild animals. Insects of several species are vectors.
A genus of flagellate protozoans found in the blood and lymph of vertebrates and invertebrates, both hosts being required to complete the life cycle.
A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). Human infections are confined almost entirely to children. This parasite is commonly seen in dogs, other Canidae, and porcupines with humans considered only an accidental host. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.
The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.
A species of parasitic protozoa having both an ameboid and flagellate stage in its life cycle. Infection with this pathogen produces PRIMARY AMEBIC MENINGOENCEPHALITIS.
A species of parasitic protozoa causing ENTAMOEBIASIS and amebic dysentery (DYSENTERY, AMEBIC). Characteristics include a single nucleus containing a small central karyosome and peripheral chromatin that is finely and regularly beaded.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A free-living soil amoeba pathogenic to humans and animals. It occurs also in water and sewage. The most commonly found species in man is NAEGLERIA FOWLERI which is the pathogen for primary amebic meningoencephalitis in primates.
Infection with any of various amebae. It is an asymptomatic carrier state in most individuals, but diseases ranging from chronic, mild diarrhea to fulminant dysentery may occur.

Persistent damage to Enterocytozoon bieneusi, with persistent symptomatic relief, after combined furazolidone and albendazole in AIDS patients. (1/1602)

AIM: To investigate morphological changes in Enterocytozoon bieneusi and the duration of symptomatic relief after combination treatment with furazolidone and albendazole in AIDS patients. METHODS: Four severely immunocompromised AIDS patients with symptomatic E bieneusi infection of the gut received an 18 day course of combined furazolidone and albendazole (500 + 800 mg daily). All patients were monitored for parasite shedding in stool by light microscopy at the end of treatment and monthly during follow up. At the end of treatment, duodenal biopsy specimens obtained from three patients were studied by transmission electron microscopy by two pathologists blind to the patients' treatment or clinical outcome. Duodenal biopsy specimens obtained from one of the patients two months after completion of treatment were also studied electronmicroscopically. RESULTS: All patients had long lasting symptomatic relief, with a major decrease--or transient absence--of spore shedding in stools from completion of treatment. After treatment, changes in faecal spores were persistently found by light microscopy in all cases, and there was evidence of both a substantial decrease in the parasite load and ultrastructural damage in the parasite in all biopsy specimens. The treatment was well tolerated, and no patient had clinical or parasitological relapse during follow up (up to 15 months). CONCLUSIONS: The long lasting symptomatic relief observed in all four treated patients correlated with the persistent decrease in parasite load both in tissue and in stool, and with the morphological changes observed in the life cycle of the protozoan. These data suggest that combined treatment with furazolidone and albendazole is active against E bieneusi and may result in lasting remission even in severely immunocompromised patients.  (+info)

U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval of AmBisome (liposomal amphotericin B) for treatment of visceral leishmaniasis. (2/1602)

In August 1997, AmBisome (liposomal amphotericin B, Nexstar, San Dimas, CA) was the first drug approved for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The growing recognition of emerging and reemerging infections warrants that safe and effective agents to treat such infections be readily available in the United States. The following discussion of the data submitted in support of the New Drug Application for AmBisome for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis shows the breadth of data from clinical trials that can be appropriate to support approval for drugs to treat tropical diseases.  (+info)

Activity of disulfiram (bis(diethylthiocarbamoyl)disulphide) and ditiocarb (diethyldithiocarbamate) against metronidazole-sensitive and -resistant Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus. (3/1602)

Clinical resistance of Trichomonas vaginalis to metronidazole is best correlated with MIC values measured under aerobic conditions. Under these conditions both disulfiram (bis(diethylthiocarbamoyl)disulphide), and its first mammalian metabolite, ditiocarb (diethyldithiocarbamate), showed high levels of activity against metronidazole-sensitive (disulfiram MIC, 0.1-0.7 microM; ditiocarb MIC, 0.3-9 microM) and -resistant (MICs 0.2-1.3 microM and 1.2-9 microM respectively) isolates. Tritrichomonas foetus was also sensitive-the MICs for seven metronidazole-sensitive isolates were 0.1-1.0 microM for disulfiram and 1.0-6.9 microM for ditiocarb; those for two highly metronidazole-resistant strains were 0.3-1.3 microM and 0.6-6 microM respectively. Under anerobic conditions most strains became highly resistant to both compounds. Surprisingly, disulfiram was consistently more active than ditiocarb.  (+info)

Value of Western blotting in the clinical follow-up of canine leishmaniasis. (4/1602)

Specific serum antibody levels in Leishmania infantum-infected dogs treated with a combination of glucantime and allopurinol were estimated by indirect immunofluorescence and Western blotting. The sensitivity of Western blot was greater than that obtained with immunofluorescence titration. In general, both diagnostic methods concurred with the post-treatment clinical status of the animals. Clinical improvement of successfully treated dogs was related to lower immunofluorescence titers and simpler and/or less reactive immunodetection patterns in Western blotting. The recognition, by infected dogs, of certain low molecular weight antigens, particularly one of approximately 26 kDa, was restricted to pretreatment samples and a single animal in relapse thus apparently constituting an active infection marker.  (+info)

Recombinant bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (rBPI21) in combination with sulfadiazine is active against Toxoplasma gondii. (5/1602)

The activity of recombinant bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (rBPI21), alone or in combination with sulfadiazine, on the intracellular replication of Toxoplasma gondii was assessed in vitro and in mice with acute toxoplasmosis. rBPI21 markedly inhibited the intracellular growth of T. gondii in human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs). Following 72 h of exposure, the 50% inhibitory concentration of rBPI21 for T. gondii was 2.6 micrograms/ml, whereas only slight cytotoxicity for HFF cells was observed at the concentrations tested. Subsequent mathematical analyses revealed that the combination of rBPI21 with sulfadiazine yielded slight to moderate synergistic effects against T. gondii in vitro. Infection of mice orally with C56 cysts or intraperitoneally (i.p.) with RH tachyzoites resulted in 100% mortality, whereas prolongation of the time to death or significant survival (P = 0.002) was noted for those animals treated with 5 to 20 mg of rBPI21 per kg of body weight per day. Treatment with rBPI21 in combination with sulfadiazine resulted in significant (P = 0.0001) survival of mice infected i.p. with tachyzoites but not of mice infected orally with T. gondii cysts. These results indicate that rBPI21 is active in vitro and in vivo against T. gondii and that its activity is significantly enhanced when it is used in combination with sulfadiazine. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the activity of rBPI21 against a protozoan parasite.  (+info)

Indolylquinoline derivatives are cytotoxic to Leishmania donovani promastigotes and amastigotes in vitro and are effective in treating murine visceral leishmaniasis. (6/1602)

A wide variety of biologically active compounds contain indole and quinoline nuclei. Some novel indolylquinoline derivatives were synthesized from indole by Friedel-Crafts acylation reaction. Out of the four derivatives tested, 2-(2''-acetamidobenzyl)-3-(3'-indolylquinoline) (C) had no effect on the promastigotes or amastigotes of Leishmania donovani in vitro. The remaining three analogues, 2-(2''-dichloroacetamidobenzyl)-3-(3'-indolylquinoline) (A), 2-(2''-chloroacetamidobenzyl)-3-(3'-indolylquinoline) (B), and 2-(2''-aminobenzyl)-3-(3'-indolylquinoline) (D), inhibited the growth of L. donovani promastigotes in vitro and were cytotoxic to both the promastigote and amastigote forms of the parasite. These three derivatives were also effective in eliminating L. donovani amastigotes from BALB/c mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro. One indolylquinoline derivative [A] was used to treat established visceral leishmaniasis in BALB/c mice. This compound was significantly more effective than sodium antimony gluconate (SAG) in reducing the splenic parasite load at a much lower concentration (5% of SAG). Our results suggest that indolylquinoline derivatives may be exploited as antileishmanial agents.  (+info)

What controls glycolysis in bloodstream form Trypanosoma brucei? (7/1602)

On the basis of the experimentally determined kinetic properties of the trypanosomal enzymes, the question is addressed of which step limits the glycolytic flux in bloodstream form Trypanosoma brucei. There appeared to be no single answer; in the physiological range, control shifted between the glucose transporter on the one hand and aldolase (ALD), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK), and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GDH) on the other hand. The other kinases, which are often thought to control glycolysis, exerted little control; so did the utilization of ATP. We identified potential targets for anti-trypanosomal drugs by calculating which steps need the least inhibition to achieve a certain inhibition of the glycolytic flux in these parasites. The glucose transporter appeared to be the most promising target, followed by ALD, GDH, GAPDH, and PGK. By contrast, in erythrocytes more than 95% deficiencies of PGK, GAPDH, or ALD did not cause any clinical symptoms (Schuster, R. and Holzhutter, H.-G. (1995) Eur. J. Biochem. 229, 403-418). Therefore, the selectivity of drugs inhibiting these enzymes may be much higher than expected from their molecular effects alone. Quite unexpectedly, trypanosomes seem to possess a substantial overcapacity of hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, and pyruvate kinase, making these "irreversible" enzymes mediocre drug targets.  (+info)

Cost-effectiveness analysis of humanitarian relief interventions: visceral leishmaniasis treatment in the Sudan. (8/1602)

Spending by aid agencies on emergencies has quadrupled over the last decade, to over US$6 billion. To date, cost-effectiveness has seldom been considered in the prioritization and evaluation of emergency interventions. The sheer volume of resources spent on humanitarian aid and the chronicity of many humanitarian interventions call for more attention to be paid to the issue of 'value for money'. In this paper we present data from a major humanitarian crisis, an epidemic of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in war-torn Sudan. The special circumstances provided us, in retrospect, with unusually accurate data on excess mortality, costs of the intervention and its effects, thus allowing us to express cost-effectiveness as the cost per Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY) averted. The cost-effectiveness ratio, of US$18.40 per DALY (uncertainty range between US$13.53 and US$27.63), places the treatment of VL in Sudan among health interventions considered 'very good value for money' (interventions of less than US$25 per DALY). We discuss the usefulness of this analysis to the internal management of the VL programme, the procurement of funds for the programme, and more generally, to priority setting in humanitarian relief interventions. We feel that in evaluations of emergency interventions attempts could be made more often to perform cost-effectiveness analyses, including the use of DALYs, provided that the outcomes of these analyses are seen in the broad context of the emergency situation and its consequences on the affected population. This paper provides a first contribution to what is hoped to become an international database of cost-effectiveness studies of health interventions during relief operations, which use a comparable measure of health outcome such as the DALY.  (+info)

Antiprotozoal agents are a type of medication used to treat protozoal infections, which are infections caused by microscopic single-celled organisms called protozoa. These agents work by either killing the protozoa or inhibiting their growth and reproduction. They can be administered through various routes, including oral, topical, and intravenous, depending on the type of infection and the severity of the illness.

Examples of antiprotozoal agents include:

* Metronidazole, tinidazole, and nitazoxanide for treating infections caused by Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica.
* Atovaquone, clindamycin, and pyrimethamine-sulfadoxine for treating malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum or other Plasmodium species.
* Pentamidine and suramin for treating African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness) caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense or T. b. rhodesiense.
* Nitroimidazoles, such as benznidazole and nifurtimox, for treating Chagas disease caused by Trypanosoma cruzi.
* Sodium stibogluconate and paromomycin for treating leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania species.

Antiprotozoal agents can have side effects, ranging from mild to severe, depending on the drug and the individual patient's response. It is essential to follow the prescribing physician's instructions carefully when taking these medications and report any adverse reactions promptly.

Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense is a species of protozoan parasite that causes African trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness, in humans. It is transmitted through the bite of an infected tsetse fly and is endemic to certain regions of East and Southern Africa.

The life cycle of T. b. rhodesiense involves two hosts: the tsetse fly and a mammalian host (such as a human). In the tsetse fly, the parasite undergoes development and multiplication in the midgut, then migrates to the salivary glands where it transforms into the metacyclic trypomastigote stage. When the infected tsetse fly bites a mammalian host, the metacyclic trypomastigotes are injected into the skin and enter the lymphatic system and bloodstream, where they multiply by binary fission as bloodstream trypomastigotes.

The symptoms of African trypanosomiasis caused by T. b. rhodesiense include fever, headache, joint pain, and itching, which may progress to more severe symptoms such as sleep disturbances, confusion, and neurological disorders if left untreated. The disease can be fatal if not diagnosed and treated promptly.

It is important to note that T. b. rhodesiense is distinct from another subspecies of Trypanosoma brucei called T. b. gambiense, which causes a different form of African trypanosomiasis that is endemic to West and Central Africa.

Pentamidine is an antimicrobial drug that is primarily used to treat and prevent certain types of pneumonia caused by the parasitic organisms Pneumocystis jirovecii (formerly known as P. carinii) and Leishmania donovani. It can also be used for the treatment of some fungal infections caused by Histoplasma capsulatum and Cryptococcus neoformans.

Pentamidine works by interfering with the DNA replication and protein synthesis of these microorganisms, which ultimately leads to their death. It is available as an injection or inhaled powder for medical use. Common side effects of pentamidine include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and changes in blood sugar levels. More serious side effects can include kidney damage, hearing loss, and heart rhythm disturbances.

It is important to note that the use of pentamidine should be under the supervision of a healthcare professional due to its potential for serious side effects and drug interactions.

Parasitic sensitivity tests, also known as parasite drug susceptibility tests, refer to laboratory methods used to determine the effectiveness of specific antiparasitic medications against a particular parasitic infection. These tests help healthcare providers identify which drugs are most likely to be effective in treating an individual's infection and which ones should be avoided due to resistance or increased risk of side effects.

There are several types of parasitic sensitivity tests, including:

1. In vitro susceptibility testing: This involves culturing the parasite in a laboratory setting and exposing it to different concentrations of antiparasitic drugs. The growth or survival of the parasite is then observed and compared to a control group that was not exposed to the drug. This helps identify the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the drug, which is the lowest concentration required to prevent the growth of the parasite.
2. Molecular testing: This involves analyzing the genetic material of the parasite to detect specific mutations or gene variations that are associated with resistance to certain antiparasitic drugs. This type of testing can be performed using a variety of methods, including polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing.
3. Phenotypic testing: This involves observing the effects of antiparasitic drugs on the growth or survival of the parasite in a laboratory setting. For example, a parasite may be grown in a culture medium and then exposed to different concentrations of a drug. The growth of the parasite is then monitored over time to determine the drug's effectiveness.

Parasitic sensitivity tests are important for guiding the treatment of many parasitic infections, including malaria, tuberculosis, and leishmaniasis. These tests can help healthcare providers choose the most effective antiparasitic drugs for their patients, reduce the risk of drug resistance, and improve treatment outcomes.

'Leishmania donovani' is a species of protozoan parasite that causes a severe form of visceral leishmaniasis, also known as kala-azar. This disease primarily affects the spleen, liver, and bone marrow, leading to symptoms such as fever, weight loss, anemia, and enlargement of the spleen and liver. The parasite is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected female sandflies. It's worth noting that this organism can also affect dogs and other animals, causing a disease known as canine leishmaniasis.

Protozoan infections are diseases caused by microscopic, single-celled organisms known as protozoa. These parasites can enter the human body through contaminated food, water, or contact with an infected person or animal. Once inside the body, they can multiply and cause a range of symptoms depending on the type of protozoan and where it infects in the body. Some common protozoan infections include malaria, giardiasis, amoebiasis, and toxoplasmosis. Symptoms can vary widely but may include diarrhea, abdominal pain, fever, fatigue, and skin rashes. Treatment typically involves the use of antiprotozoal medications to kill the parasites and alleviate symptoms.

Trypanocidal agents are a type of medication specifically used for the treatment and prevention of trypanosomiasis, which is a group of diseases caused by various species of protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Trypanosoma. These agents work by killing or inhibiting the growth of the parasites in the human body.

There are two main types of human trypanosomiasis: African trypanosomiasis, also known as sleeping sickness, which is caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense; and American trypanosomiasis, also known as Chagas disease, which is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi.

Trypanocidal agents can be divided into two categories:

1. Drugs used to treat African trypanosomiasis: These include pentamidine, suramin, melarsoprol, and eflornithine. Pentamidine and suramin are used for the early stages of the disease, while melarsoprol and eflornithine are used for the later stages.
2. Drugs used to treat American trypanosomiasis: The main drug used for Chagas disease is benznidazole, which is effective in killing the parasites during the acute phase of the infection. Another drug, nifurtimox, can also be used, although it has more side effects than benznidazole.

It's important to note that trypanocidal agents have limited availability and are often associated with significant toxicity, making their use challenging in some settings. Therefore, prevention measures such as avoiding insect vectors and using vector control methods remain crucial in controlling the spread of these diseases.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Mikania" is not a medical term. It is actually the name of a genus of plants in the family Asteraceae, also known as the daisy family. The most well-known species is Mikania micrantha, which is native to Central and South America but has become an invasive weed in many other parts of the world, including Southeast Asia, Africa, and the Pacific Islands. It is often referred to by the common name "climbing hempvine" or "mile-a-minute weed."

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health concerns, I'd be happy to try to help answer those for you!

Trypanosoma cruzi is a protozoan parasite that causes Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis. It's transmitted to humans and other mammals through the feces of triatomine bugs, often called "kissing bugs." The parasite can also be spread through contaminated food, drink, or from mother to baby during pregnancy or birth.

The life cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi involves two main forms: the infective metacyclic trypomastigote that is found in the bug's feces and the replicative intracellular amastigote that resides within host cells. The metacyclic trypomastigotes enter the host through mucous membranes or skin lesions, where they invade various types of cells and differentiate into amastigotes. These amastigotes multiply by binary fission and then differentiate back into trypomastigotes, which are released into the bloodstream when the host cell ruptures. The circulating trypomastigotes can then infect other cells or be taken up by another triatomine bug during a blood meal, continuing the life cycle.

Clinical manifestations of Chagas disease range from an acute phase with non-specific symptoms like fever, swelling, and fatigue to a chronic phase characterized by cardiac and gastrointestinal complications, which can develop decades after the initial infection. Early detection and treatment of Chagas disease are crucial for preventing long-term health consequences.

Trypanosoma is a genus of flagellated protozoan parasites belonging to the family Trypanosomatidae. These microscopic single-celled organisms are known to cause various tropical diseases in humans and animals, including Chagas disease (caused by Trypanosoma cruzi) and African sleeping sickness (caused by Trypanosoma brucei).

The life cycle of Trypanosoma involves alternating between an insect vector (like a tsetse fly or kissing bug) and a mammalian host. The parasites undergo complex morphological changes as they move through the different hosts and developmental stages, often exhibiting distinct forms in the insect vector compared to the mammalian host.

Trypanosoma species have an undulating membrane and a single flagellum that helps them move through their environment. They can be transmitted through various routes, including insect vectors, contaminated food or water, or congenital transmission from mother to offspring. The diseases caused by these parasites can lead to severe health complications and may even be fatal if left untreated.

"Leishmania infantum" is a species of protozoan parasite that causes a type of disease known as leishmaniasis. It is transmitted to humans through the bite of infected female sandflies, primarily of the genus Phlebotomus in the Old World and Lutzomyia in the New World.

The parasite has a complex life cycle, alternating between the sandfly vector and a mammalian host. In the sandfly, it exists as an extracellular flagellated promastigote, while in the mammalian host, it transforms into an intracellular non-flagellated amastigote that multiplies within macrophages.

"Leishmania infantum" is the primary causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the Mediterranean basin, parts of Africa, Asia, and Latin America. VL, also known as kala-azar, is a systemic infection that can affect multiple organs, including the spleen, liver, bone marrow, and lymph nodes. Symptoms include fever, weight loss, anemia, and enlargement of the spleen and liver. If left untreated, VL can be fatal.

In addition to VL, "Leishmania infantum" can also cause cutaneous and mucocutaneous forms of leishmaniasis, which are characterized by skin lesions and ulcers, respectively. These forms of the disease are typically less severe than VL but can still result in significant morbidity.

Prevention and control measures for "Leishmania infantum" infection include avoiding sandfly bites through the use of insect repellents, protective clothing, and bed nets, as well as reducing sandfly breeding sites through environmental management. Effective treatment options are available for leishmaniasis, including antimonial drugs, amphotericin B, and miltefosine, among others. However, access to treatment and drug resistance remain significant challenges in many endemic areas.

Inhibitory Concentration 50 (IC50) is a measure used in pharmacology, toxicology, and virology to describe the potency of a drug or chemical compound. It refers to the concentration needed to reduce the biological or biochemical activity of a given substance by half. Specifically, it is most commonly used in reference to the inhibition of an enzyme or receptor.

In the context of infectious diseases, IC50 values are often used to compare the effectiveness of antiviral drugs against a particular virus. A lower IC50 value indicates that less of the drug is needed to achieve the desired effect, suggesting greater potency and potentially fewer side effects. Conversely, a higher IC50 value suggests that more of the drug is required to achieve the same effect, indicating lower potency.

It's important to note that IC50 values can vary depending on the specific assay or experimental conditions used, so they should be interpreted with caution and in conjunction with other measures of drug efficacy.

Naegleria fowleri is a free-living, thermophilic, and opportunistic protozoan parasite that causes the rare but often fatal primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) in humans. It's commonly found in warm freshwater bodies such as lakes, rivers, and hot springs, as well as inadequately chlorinated swimming pools and contaminated soil.

The life cycle of Naegleria fowleri includes three stages: trophozoite, flagellate, and cyst. The infective stage is the motile and feeding trophozoite, which enters the human body through the nasal passages during activities like swimming or diving in infected waters. Once inside the nose, it can migrate to the brain via the olfactory nerve, where it multiplies and causes extensive damage leading to severe inflammation and necrosis of the brain tissue.

The incubation period for PAM is typically between 1 to 14 days after exposure, with symptoms including sudden onset of fever, headache, nausea, vomiting, stiff neck, altered mental status, seizures, and hallucinations. Unfortunately, the infection progresses rapidly, often leading to death within 3 to 7 days post-symptom onset if left untreated.

Early diagnosis and prompt treatment with specific antimicrobial agents such as amphotericin B, miltefosine, rifampin, and azithromycin, along with supportive care, may improve the prognosis of PAM caused by Naegleria fowleri. However, due to its aggressive nature and rapid progression, the overall mortality rate remains high at around 95%. Preventive measures include avoiding water-related activities in warm freshwater bodies during peak temperature months and using nose clips while swimming or diving in suspected infected waters.

'Entamoeba histolytica' is a species of microscopic, single-celled protozoan parasites that can cause a range of human health problems, primarily in the form of intestinal and extra-intestinal infections. The medical definition of 'Entamoeba histolytica' is as follows:

Entamoeba histolytica: A species of pathogenic protozoan parasites belonging to the family Entamoebidae, order Amoebida, and phylum Sarcomastigophora. These microorganisms are typically found in the form of cysts or trophozoites and can infect humans through the ingestion of contaminated food, water, or feces.

Once inside the human body, 'Entamoeba histolytica' parasites can colonize the large intestine, where they may cause a range of symptoms, from mild diarrhea to severe dysentery, depending on the individual's immune response and the location of the infection. In some cases, these parasites can also invade other organs, such as the liver, lungs, or brain, leading to more serious health complications.

The life cycle of 'Entamoeba histolytica' involves two main stages: the cyst stage and the trophozoite stage. The cysts are the infective form, which can be transmitted from person to person through fecal-oral contact or by ingesting contaminated food or water. Once inside the human body, these cysts excyst in the small intestine, releasing the motile and feeding trophozoites.

The trophozoites then migrate to the large intestine, where they can multiply by binary fission and cause tissue damage through their ability to phagocytize host cells and release cytotoxic substances. Some of these trophozoites may transform back into cysts, which are excreted in feces and can then infect other individuals.

Diagnosis of 'Entamoeba histolytica' infection typically involves the examination of stool samples for the presence of cysts or trophozoites, as well as serological tests to detect antibodies against the parasite. Treatment usually involves the use of antiparasitic drugs such as metronidazole or tinidazole, which can kill the trophozoites and help to control the infection. However, it is important to note that these drugs do not affect the cysts, so proper sanitation and hygiene measures are crucial to prevent the spread of the parasite.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

Naegleria is a genus of free-living excavate protists, commonly found in warm freshwater such as lakes, rivers, and hot springs. It's also found in soil. The most notorious species within this genus is Naegleria fowleri, which is known to cause a rare but often fatal brain infection called primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) in humans. This occurs when the amoeba enters the nose and migrates to the brain through the olfactory nerve. It's important to note that this type of infection is extremely rare, but can be deadly if not treated promptly and effectively.

Amebiasis is defined as an infection caused by the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica, which can affect the intestines and other organs. The infection can range from asymptomatic to symptomatic with various manifestations such as abdominal pain, diarrhea (which may be mild or severe), bloody stools, and fever. In some cases, it can lead to serious complications like liver abscess. Transmission of the parasite typically occurs through the ingestion of contaminated food or water.

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Antiprotozoal agents, All stub articles, Gastrointestinal system drug stubs, Antiinfective agent stubs). ... Broxyquinoline is an antiprotozoal agent.[citation needed]An association with exercise intolerance has been reported. Swain R, ...
... (INN) is an antiprotozoal agent. It was synthesized for the first time in 1949 by Ernst A.H. Friedheim by ... Antiprotozoal agents, Acetanilides, Primary alcohols, Phenols, Organoarsenic dithiolates, Arsenic heterocycles, Arsenic(III) ... compounds, Sulfur heterocycles, Heterocyclic compounds with 1 ring, All stub articles, Antiinfective agent stubs). ...
Pyrimethamine is a widely used antiprotozoal agent. Other classes of compounds that target DHFR in general, and bacterial DHFRs ... Regardless, trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole in combination has been used as an antibacterial agent for decades. ... Trimethoprim, an antibiotic, inhibits bacterial DHFR while methotrexate, a chemotherapy agent, inhibits mammalian DHFR. However ... Hawser S, Lociuro S, Islam K (March 2006). "Dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors as antibacterial agents". Biochemical ...
Antiprotozoal agents, Bromoarenes, Quinolinols, All stub articles, Antiinfective agent stubs). ... Tilbroquinol is an antiprotozoal agent effective against amoebiasis. It has also been used against Vibrio cholerae. ...
The drug blocks a number of CYP450 liver enzymes.[citation needed] It has also been studied as an antiprotozoal agent. " ... Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 48 (11): 4286-92. doi:10.1128/AAC.48.11.4286-4292.2004. PMC 525424. PMID 15504854. v t e ...
... including antiprotozoal and antihelminthic) agents. Depending on the severity and the type of infection, the antibiotic may be ... First, the catalog of infectious agents has grown to the point that virtually all of the significant infectious agents of the ... Second, an infectious agent must grow within the human body to cause disease; essentially it must amplify its own nucleic acids ... Not all infectious agents cause disease in all hosts. For example, less than 5% of individuals infected with polio develop ...
MeSH list of agents 82003049 v t e (Antiprotozoal agents, All stub articles, Antiinfective agent stubs). ... A coccidiostat is an antiprotozoal agent that acts upon Coccidia parasites. Examples include: Amprolium Arprinocid Artemether ...
MeSH list of agents 82000994 v t e (Antiprotozoal agents, All stub articles, Antiinfective agent stubs). ... An antitrichomonal agent is an antiprotozoal agent that acts on trichomonas parasites. Examples include: furazolidone nifuratel ... nimorazole ornidazole tinidazole usnic acid Antitrichomonal+Agents at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ...
A trypanocidal agent is an antiprotozoal agent that acts upon trypanosome parasites. Examples include: Aminoquinuride ... Antiprotozoal agents, All stub articles, Antiinfective agent stubs). ... Trypanosomiasis vaccine Trypanocidal+Agents at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) MeSH list ... of agents 82014344 GOBLE, F. C. (January 1950). "Chemotherapy of experimental trypanosomiasis; trypanocidal activity of certain ...
... (maduramycin) is an antiprotozoal agent used in veterinary medicine to prevent coccidiosis. It is a natural ... Antiprotozoal agents, Carboxylic acids, Secondary alcohols, Spiro compounds, Tertiary alcohols, Tetrahydrofurans, ... Tetrahydropyrans, All stub articles, Antiinfective agent stubs). ...
... is a broad-spectrum anthelmintic and antiprotozoal agent of the benzimidazole type. It is used for the treatment of ... Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy. 57 (11): 5448-5456. doi:10.1128/AAC.00843-13. PMC 3811268. PMID 23959307. Archived from ...
It is a local antiprotozoal and antifungal agent that may also be given orally. Nifuratel is not approved for use in the United ...
The main uses of mepacrine are as an antiprotozoal, antirheumatic, and an intrapleural sclerosing agent. Antiprotozoal use ... Antiprotozoal agents, Antimalarial agents, Sterilization (medicine), Experimental methods of birth control, Acridines, ... This antiprotozoal is also approved for the treatment of giardiasis (an intestinal parasite), and has been researched as an ... Agents Chemother. 55 (5): 1827-1830. doi:10.1128/aac.01296-10. PMC 3088196. PMID 21383088. Canete R, Escobedo AA, Gonzalez ME, ...
Antiprotozoal agents, Phenanthrolines, Quinones, Bipyridines, Enones, All stub articles, Antiinfective agent stubs). ... It has been investigated as both antiprotozoal agent and for its bactericidal activity . Mett H, Gyr K, Zak O, Vosbeck K (July ... Agents Chemother. 26 (1): 35-8. doi:10.1128/aac.26.1.35. PMC 179912. PMID 6236746. v t e (Articles with short description, ...
However, antiprotozoal agents, such as ronidazole or metronidazole, are known to dramatically reduce symptoms in cats. Research ... "New species of parasite discovered as disease agent in domestic cats » College of Veterinary Medicine » University of Florida ...
Antiprotozoal agents, Acetamides, Diphenyl ethers, Primary alcohols, All stub articles, Antiinfective agent stubs). ... Clefamide (trade name Mebinol) is an antiprotozoal agent that was used to treat amoebiasis in the 1960s. There is no evidence ...
Antiprotozoal agents, Organoarsenic compounds, Bismuth compounds, Acetanilides, All stub articles, Antiinfective agent stubs). ... Glycobiarsol (trade name Milibis) is an antiprotozoal agent that has been used in humans as well as in dogs. Berberian, D. A. ( ...
Various forms of isolation exist, and are applied depending on the type of infection and agent involved, and its route of ... antivirals and antiprotozoals. The World Health Organization (WHO) has set up an Infection Prevention and Control (IPC) unit in ... According to the WHO, outbreak investigations are meant to detect what is causing the outbreak, how the pathogenic agent is ... Antimicrobial medications (aka antimicrobials or anti-infective agents) include antibiotics, antibacterials, antifungals, ...
... however its use as an antiprotozoal agent has widely restricted because of neurotoxic concerns. Clioquinol and PBT2 are ... It also serves as an anti-fouling agent in paints to cover and protect surfaces against mildew and algae. Clioquinol and PBT2 ... It is also used as a food additive, shelf-life extending agent in food packaging, and wood preservative in timber treatment. ... Some synthetic agents are not macrocyclic, e.g. carbonyl cyanide-p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone. Even simple organic ...
Imidazoles devoid of the nitro group no longer have any antiprotozoal activity, however, such drugs are effective antifungal ... agents.[citation needed] Alkylation of imidazole (2) with bromoketone (1) prepared from o,p-dichloroacetophenone affords the ... Sunderland MR, Cruickshank RH, Leighs SJ (2014). "The efficacy of antifungal azole and antiprotozoal compounds in protection of ...
Saponins are also natural ruminal antiprotozoal agents that are potential to improve ruminal microbial fermentation reducing ... other agents[example needed] are now preferred[medical citation needed]) and arrhythmia. These sweet glycosides found in the ...
Antiprotozoal agents, Ureas, Imidazolines, All stub articles, Antiinfective agent stubs). ... Imidocarb is a urea derivative used in veterinary medicine as an antiprotozoal agent for the treatment of infection with ...
... is an antiprotozoal agent used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of histomoniasis and swine dysentery as well ... AbdelKhalek, Ahmed; Seleem, Mohamed N. (December 2020). "Repurposing the Veterinary Antiprotozoal Drug Ronidazole for the ... Treatment of Clostridioides difficile Infection". International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents. 56 (6): 106188. doi:10.1016/j. ...
Originally developed and commercialized as an antiprotozoal agent, nitazoxanide was later identified as a first-in-class broad- ... The anti-protozoal activity of nitazoxanide is believed to be due to interference with the pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase ( ... Nitazoxanide [NTZ: 2-acetyloxy-N-(5-nitro-2-thiazolyl)benzamide] is a thiazolide antiparasitic agent with excellent activity ... Shakya A, Bhat HR, Ghosh SK (2018). "Update on Nitazoxanide: A Multifunctional Chemotherapeutic Agent". Current Drug Discovery ...
Antiprotozoal agents, Trifluoromethyl compounds, Boronate esters, Fluoroarenes, All stub articles, Antiinfective agent stubs). ... Acoziborole (SCYX-7158) is an antiprotozoal drug invented by Anacor Pharmaceuticals in 2009, and now under development by the ...
These data demonstrated that non-dihydropyridine-CCBs present antiprotozoal activity and could be useful candidates for future, ... Except for amrinone, our results demonstrated antiprotozoal activity for fendiline, mibefradil, and lidoflazine, with IC,sub,50 ... Investigation of Calcium Channel Blockers as Antiprotozoal Agents and Their Interference in the Metabolism of Leishmania (L.) ... The results of this work extend the investigation of CCBs as antiprotozoal agents and indicate that its leishmanicidal activity ...
Antiprotozoal Agents. Class Summary. Protozoal infections occur throughout the world and are a major cause of morbidity and ... Antiprotozoal Agents. Atovaquone is a hydroxynaphthoquinone that inhibits the mitochondrial electron transport chain by ... A combination of an antiprotozoal agent and an antibiotic-clindamycin plus quinine or, alternatively, atovaquone plus ... This agent is a bacteriostatic drug that interferes with bacterial protein and cell-wall synthesis during active multiplication ...
As a result, agents effective against one pathogen may not be effective against another.[citation needed] Antiprotozoal agents ... Overuse or misuse of antiprotozoals can lead to the development of antiprotozoal resistance. Antiprotozoals are used to treat ... "Antiprotozoal Agents: An Overview". Anti-Infective Agents in Medicinal Chemistry. 8 (4): 345-366. doi:10.2174/ ... Antiprotozoal agents, Biocides, All stub articles, Antiinfective agent stubs). ...
Drug class: Antiprotozoals, Miscellaneous. - Antiprotozoal Agents. VA class: AM900. Chemical name: trans2-[4-(4-Chlorophenyl) ... Antiprotozoal; hydroxynaphthoquinone derivative. Uses for Atovaquone. Pneumocystis jirovecii Pneumonia. Alternative for ... Evaluate all patients with acute PCP for other possible causes of pulmonary disease and treat with additional agents as ...
Tinidazole: a nitroimidazole antiprotozoal agent. Clin The. 2005 Dec. 27(12):1859-84. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ... Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012 Jan. 56(1):487-94. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ...
Used to treat bacterial infections such as Rocky Mountain spotted fever, typhus fever, and tick fevers; upper respiratory infections; pneumonia; gonorrhea; amoebic infections; and urinary tract infections. It is also used to help treat severe acne and to treat trachoma (a chronic eye infection) and conjunctivitis (pinkeye). Tetracycline is often an alternative drug for people who are allergic to penicillin ...
Nitazoxanide is in a class of medications called antiprotozoal agents. It works by stopping the growth of certain protozoa that ...
Anti-protozoal Agents: Metronidazole*, Tinidazole, Ornidazole, Diloxanide, Iodoquinol, Pentamidine Isethionate, Atovaquone, ... Anti-tubercular Agents. Synthetic anti tubercular agents: Isoniozid*, Ethionamide, Ethambutol, Pyrazinamide, Para amino sali- ... Urinary tract anti-infective agents. Quinolones: SAR of quinolones, Nalidixic Acid,Norfloxacin, Enoxacin, Ciprofloxacin*, ... Synthetic Antifungal agents: Clotrimazole, Econazole, Butoconazole, Oxiconazole Tioconozole, Mi- conazole*, Ketoconazole, ...
Antiprotozoal Agents); 0 (Drug Combinations); 0 (Echinocandins); 7XU7A7DROE (Amphotericin B); 8VZV102JFY (Fluconazole); ... LR: 20151029; CI: Copyright (c) 2014; GR: K12 GM088021/GM/NIGMS NIH HHS/United States; JID: 0315061; 0 (Antifungal Agents); 0 ( ... Drug repurposing is an approach that might identify agents that are able to overcome antifungal drug resistance within biofilms ...
A novel antiprotozoal agent that inhibits parasite histone deacetylase. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 1996, 93, 13143-13147. [ ... BEA in particular was reported to be a chemo sensitising agent with the potential to increase the efficacy of antibiotics, as ... histone deacetylase inhibitor, broad spectrum antiprotozoal activity [37]; antiproliferative [38] and apoptotic [39] in various ...
Apicidin: a novel antiprotozoal agent that inhibits parasite histone deacetylase. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1996. 93:13143-13147. ... Kruh, J. Effects of sodium butyrate, a new pharmacological agent, on cells in culture. Mol Cell Biochem 1982. 42:65-82. View ... These findings support the proposal that HDACIs alone or in combination with RA might have utility as anticancer agents. ... Strikingly, this combination of agents induced leukemia remission and prolonged survival, without apparent toxic side effects. ...
Categories: Antiprotozoal Agents Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Categories: Antiprotozoal Agents Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Metronidazole is an imidazole and is classified therapeutically as an antiprotozoal and antibacterial agent. Chemically, ...
Large distributors of eggs recalled its eggs because they contained antiprotozoal agent nicarbazin, which is forbidden in ... A batch of 1.5 tons of tea was adulterated with coloring agents extracted from coal tar to make the prepared tea to look ... or using illicit additives and chemical agents to improve sensory properties can occur at any point in the food supply chain. ... methanol and antifreeze agent) added to increase alcohol strength 1,2,3.. [65]. ...
Tinidazole: a nitroimidazole antiprotozoal agent. Clin Ther 2005;27:1859-1884. [PubMed] ... Antimicrob.Agents Chemother. 1989;33:484-488. [PubMed]. 55. Edlind TD. Tetracyclines as antiparasitic agents: lipophilic ... Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2007l;51:868-876. [PubMed]. 96.Hollm-Delgado MG, Gilman RH, Bern C, Cabrera L, Sterling CR, Black ... Int J Antimicrob Agents 2007;29:98-102. [PubMed]. 51.DuPont HL. Giardia: both a harmless commensal and a devastating pathogen. ...
Supply and Delivery of Anti-Infective Medicines (Antibiotics, Antifungal, Antiprotozoal and Antiviral Agents) to the State 01 ... Supply and Delivery of Contraceptives and Hormone Modulating Agents to the State 01 October 2017 to 30 September 2020 ... Supply and Delivery of Oncology and Immunological Agents 1 July 2018 to 30 June 2020 Amendments / Addendums ... Supply and Delivery of Diagnostic Agents and Contrast Media to the State 1 July 2018 to 30 June 2021 ...
Metronidazole is a member of the imidazole class of antibacterial agents and is classified therapeutically as an antiprotozoal ... and anti-bacterial agent. Chemically, metronidazole is 2-methyl-5-nitro-1 H-imidazole-1-ethanol. The molecular formula is C6H9N ...
Antiprotozoal. Sulfamethizole + Phenazopyridine. Thiosulfil-A. Urinary analgesic. Antibiotic. Sulfamethoxazole. Gantanol. ... Fluorescent brightening agent for cellulose, nylon, or wool fibers. Blankophor. Melanogenics (furocoumarins). Methoxypsoralens ... Anthracene / Many phenolic agents / Naphthalene / Phenanthrene / Pitch / Thiophene. Cosmetics and dyes. Acridine / Eosin / ... Reactions to photosensitizing agents involve both photoallergy (allergic reaction of the skin) and phototoxicity (irritation of ...
Antiprotozoid sztenderdek / Antiprotozoal agents. Termékszám. Terméknév. Kiszerelés. Nettó ár:. R1206. Imidocarb ...
The natural agent, 6-OAP, was initially demonstrated to exhibit anti-bacterial and anti-protozoal activities (7-9). However, ... Ding LF, Liu Y, Liang HX, Liu DP, Zhou GB and Cheng YX: Two new terpene glucosides and antitumor agents from Centipeda minima. ... 6‑O‑angeloylplenolin (6‑OAP) is a sesquiterpene lactone agent that has been previously demonstrated to inhibit the growth of ... The treatment of MM remains unsatisfactory and new agents that specifically target key signaling pathways required for myeloma ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Synthesis of new 4-phenylpyrimidine-2(1H)-thiones and their potency to inhibit COX-1 and COX-2. AU - Seebacher, Werner. AU - Faist, Johanna. AU - Presser, Armin. AU - Weis, Robert. AU - Saf, Robert. AU - Kaserer, Teresa. AU - Temml, Veronika. AU - Schuster, Daniela. AU - Ortmann, Sabine. AU - Otto, Nadine. AU - Bauer, Rudolf. PY - 2015. Y1 - 2015. U2 - 10.1016/j.ejmech.2015.07.003. DO - 10.1016/j.ejmech.2015.07.003. M3 - Article. SN - 1768-3254. VL - 101. SP - 552. EP - 559. JO - European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. JF - European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. ER - ...
Aminoglycoside antibiotic agent. Potent Delta7-SMN target sequence inducer. Inhibits amino acid incorporation into proteins. ... Shows antibacterial and antiprotozoal effects in vivo. * CAS Number. 108321-42-2 ... Aminoglycoside antibiotic agent. Potent Delta7-SMN target sequence inducer. Inhibits amino acid incorporation into proteins. ... 2D chemical structure image of ab144261, G 418 sulfate (Geneticin sulfate), Aminoglycoside antibiotic agent ...
... antivirals or antiprotozoal agents).1. Acupuncture does just that: it "tweaks" the immune system and capitalizes on the bodys ...
... antiviral and antiprotozoal agents. The second approach uses sulfonylimidazolium salts as key reagents for generating highly ... to the terminal phosphate is described employing an activated form of cyclic trimetaphosphate as a novel phosphorylating agent ...
search PARASITICIDES under ANTIPROTOZOAL AGENTS 1966. History Note:. PARASITICIDES was heading 1963-66. ...
  • These data demonstrated that non-dihydropyridine-CCBs present antiprotozoal activity and could be useful candidates for future in vivo efficacy studies against Leishmaniasis and Chagas' disease. (hindawi.com)
  • For example, it appears that eflornithine, a drug used to treat trypanosomiasis, inhibits ornithine decarboxylase, while the aminoglycoside antibiotic/antiprotozoals used to treat leishmaniasis are thought to inhibit protein synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • resultado que brinda una base científica para el uso tradicional que las comunidades le han dado a las plantas como fuente terapéutica para tratar la leishmaniasis cutánea en el nuevo mundo. (jppres.com)
  • Nitazoxanide is in a class of medications called antiprotozoal agents. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Alinia (nitazoxanide) is an antiprotozoal agent used to treat diarrhea in adults and children caused by the protozoa Giardia lamblia, or the protozoa Cryptosporidium parvum. (musclerelaxant.org)
  • Nitazoxanide is an antiprotozoal medicine that treats infections caused by protozoa (single-cell parasites that live in moist places such as lakes, streams, and soil). (musclerelaxant.org)
  • Nitazoxanide belongs to the class of antiprotozoal agents and exerts its therapeutic effect by inhibiting the growth of specific protozoa that are responsible for inducing diarrhea. (candrugstore.com)
  • A combination of an antiprotozoal agent and an antibiotic-clindamycin plus quinine or, alternatively, atovaquone plus azithromycin-is used to treat all patients in order to prevent sequelae and potential transmission through blood donation. (medscape.com)
  • The molecular basis for the action of antibiotics, antiprotozoal, and antifungal drugs are covered together with the basis for resistance to these agents. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Specific medications used to treat infections include antibiotics , antivirals , antifungals , antiprotozoals , [3] and antihelminthics . (wikipedia.org)
  • For this, the in vitro activity of four non-dihydropyridine agents (amrinone, fendiline, mibefradil, and lidoflazine) was tested against different Leishmania species and their cytotoxicity to mammalian cells was evaluated. (hindawi.com)
  • Overuse or misuse of antiprotozoals can lead to the development of antiprotozoal resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasma concentrations of azithromycin are very low, but tissue concentrations are much higher, making this agent valuable in the treatment of infections caused by intracellular organisms. (medscape.com)
  • This agent is a bacteriostatic drug that interferes with bacterial protein and cell-wall synthesis during active multiplication by binding to the 30S ribosome. (medscape.com)
  • Finally an entirely new approach to the synthesis of nucleoside tetraphosphates (Np4's), dinucleoside pentaphosphates (Np5N's) and nucleoside tetraphosphates in which a fluorescent dye is attached to the terminal phosphate is described employing an activated form of cyclic trimetaphosphate as a novel phosphorylating agent. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of 3-[4-(7-chloro-quinolin-4-yl)-piperazin-1-yl]-propionic acid hydrazones as antiprotozoal agents. (fiocruz.br)
  • Antiprotozoal agents (ATC code: ATC P01) is a class of pharmaceuticals used in treatment of protozoan infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metronidazole is a member of the imidazole class of antibacterial agents and is classified therapeutically as an antiprotozoal and anti-bacterial agent. (nih.gov)
  • This module deals with antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Antimicrobial and antiparasitic agents may be used to treat diarrhea caused by specific organisms and/or clinical circumstances. (medscape.com)
  • This agent is a potent peroxyl radical scavenger and inhibits noncompetitively cyclooxygenase activity in many tissues, resulting in a decrease in prostaglandin production. (medindex.am)
  • Metronidazole is an imidazole and is classified therapeutically as an antiprotozoal and antibacterial agent. (nih.gov)
  • As albendazole is an available and safe antiprotozoal medicine in the Islamic Republic of Iran and perhaps in other parts of the world, we conducted a clinical trial in order to assess the anti-giardial effects compared to metronidazole. (who.int)
  • This agent may be bactericidal or bacteriostatic, depending on its concentration at the infection site and the susceptibility of the organism. (medindex.am)
  • An infection is the invasion of tissues by pathogens , their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agent and the toxins they produce. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diagnosis of infection is by stool examination, which may also eliminate other possible infectious agents [2]. (who.int)
  • 6‑O‑angeloylplenolin (6‑OAP) is a sesquiterpene lactone agent that has been previously demonstrated to inhibit the growth of multiple myeloma (MM) cells through mitotic arrest with accumulated cyclin B1. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • The mechanisms of antiprotozoal drugs differ significantly drug to drug. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Antiprotozoal agents can be grouped by mechanism or by organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Given the evidence presented, a case is made that itraconazole warrants further clinical investigation as an anti- cancer agent. (ecancer.org)
  • Reactions to photosensitizing agents involve both photoallergy (allergic reaction of the skin) and phototoxicity (irritation of the skin) after exposure to ultraviolet radiation from natural sunlight or artificial lighting (particularly from tanning booths). (wisconsin.gov)
  • Turmeric and its bioactive ingredient curcumin are broad spectrum anti-microbial agents. (turmericforhealth.com)
  • Protists were once considered protozoans, but of late the categorization of unicellar organisms has undergone rapid development, however in literature, including scientific, there tends to persist the usage of the term antiprotozoal when they really mean anti-protist. (wikipedia.org)
  • This methodology was also used to prepare a substrate-intermediate analog of the reaction catalyzed by cytidine triphosphate synthase (CTPS) a recognized target for the development of antineoplastic, antiviral and antiprotozoal agents. (uwaterloo.ca)
  • The hydrochloride salt form of midodrine, a direct-acting prodrug and sympathomimetic agent with antihypotensive properties. (medindex.am)
  • 9. Severe infections (requiring hospitalization, parenteral treatment with antibacterial, antimycotic, or antiprotozoal agents) within 30 days before signing the informed consent form and during the screening period. (who.int)
  • The treatment of MM remains unsatisfactory and new agents that specifically target key signaling pathways required for myeloma growth or survival are urgently required. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • This agent is used in combination with azithromycin. (medscape.com)
  • The most prominent cases is not defined, and some agents (e.g., quinacrine) are effect of nitroimidazole combination was found for al- often unavailable. (cdc.gov)