Antiprotozoal Agents: Substances that are destructive to protozoans.Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense: A hemoflagellate subspecies of parasitic protozoa that causes Rhodesian sleeping sickness in humans. It is carried by Glossina pallidipes, G. morsitans and occasionally other species of game-attacking tsetse flies.Pentamidine: Antiprotozoal agent effective in trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, and some fungal infections; used in treatment of PNEUMOCYSTIS pneumonia in HIV-infected patients. It may cause diabetes mellitus, central nervous system damage, and other toxic effects.Parasitic Sensitivity Tests: Tests that demonstrate the relative effectiveness of chemotherapeutic agents against specific parasites.Leishmania donovani: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). The sandfly genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia are the vectors.Protozoan Infections: Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa.Trypanocidal Agents: Agents destructive to the protozoal organisms belonging to the suborder TRYPANOSOMATINA.Mikania: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. Members contain scandenolide (a sesquiterpene lactone) and germacranolides.Trypanosoma cruzi: The agent of South American trypanosomiasis or CHAGAS DISEASE. Its vertebrate hosts are man and various domestic and wild animals. Insects of several species are vectors.Trypanosoma: A genus of flagellate protozoans found in the blood and lymph of vertebrates and invertebrates, both hosts being required to complete the life cycle.Leishmania infantum: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). Human infections are confined almost entirely to children. This parasite is commonly seen in dogs, other Canidae, and porcupines with humans considered only an accidental host. Transmission is by Phlebotomus sandflies.Inhibitory Concentration 50: The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.

Persistent damage to Enterocytozoon bieneusi, with persistent symptomatic relief, after combined furazolidone and albendazole in AIDS patients. (1/1602)

AIM: To investigate morphological changes in Enterocytozoon bieneusi and the duration of symptomatic relief after combination treatment with furazolidone and albendazole in AIDS patients. METHODS: Four severely immunocompromised AIDS patients with symptomatic E bieneusi infection of the gut received an 18 day course of combined furazolidone and albendazole (500 + 800 mg daily). All patients were monitored for parasite shedding in stool by light microscopy at the end of treatment and monthly during follow up. At the end of treatment, duodenal biopsy specimens obtained from three patients were studied by transmission electron microscopy by two pathologists blind to the patients' treatment or clinical outcome. Duodenal biopsy specimens obtained from one of the patients two months after completion of treatment were also studied electronmicroscopically. RESULTS: All patients had long lasting symptomatic relief, with a major decrease--or transient absence--of spore shedding in stools from completion of treatment. After treatment, changes in faecal spores were persistently found by light microscopy in all cases, and there was evidence of both a substantial decrease in the parasite load and ultrastructural damage in the parasite in all biopsy specimens. The treatment was well tolerated, and no patient had clinical or parasitological relapse during follow up (up to 15 months). CONCLUSIONS: The long lasting symptomatic relief observed in all four treated patients correlated with the persistent decrease in parasite load both in tissue and in stool, and with the morphological changes observed in the life cycle of the protozoan. These data suggest that combined treatment with furazolidone and albendazole is active against E bieneusi and may result in lasting remission even in severely immunocompromised patients.  (+info)

U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval of AmBisome (liposomal amphotericin B) for treatment of visceral leishmaniasis. (2/1602)

In August 1997, AmBisome (liposomal amphotericin B, Nexstar, San Dimas, CA) was the first drug approved for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The growing recognition of emerging and reemerging infections warrants that safe and effective agents to treat such infections be readily available in the United States. The following discussion of the data submitted in support of the New Drug Application for AmBisome for the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis shows the breadth of data from clinical trials that can be appropriate to support approval for drugs to treat tropical diseases.  (+info)

Activity of disulfiram (bis(diethylthiocarbamoyl)disulphide) and ditiocarb (diethyldithiocarbamate) against metronidazole-sensitive and -resistant Trichomonas vaginalis and Tritrichomonas foetus. (3/1602)

Clinical resistance of Trichomonas vaginalis to metronidazole is best correlated with MIC values measured under aerobic conditions. Under these conditions both disulfiram (bis(diethylthiocarbamoyl)disulphide), and its first mammalian metabolite, ditiocarb (diethyldithiocarbamate), showed high levels of activity against metronidazole-sensitive (disulfiram MIC, 0.1-0.7 microM; ditiocarb MIC, 0.3-9 microM) and -resistant (MICs 0.2-1.3 microM and 1.2-9 microM respectively) isolates. Tritrichomonas foetus was also sensitive-the MICs for seven metronidazole-sensitive isolates were 0.1-1.0 microM for disulfiram and 1.0-6.9 microM for ditiocarb; those for two highly metronidazole-resistant strains were 0.3-1.3 microM and 0.6-6 microM respectively. Under anerobic conditions most strains became highly resistant to both compounds. Surprisingly, disulfiram was consistently more active than ditiocarb.  (+info)

Value of Western blotting in the clinical follow-up of canine leishmaniasis. (4/1602)

Specific serum antibody levels in Leishmania infantum-infected dogs treated with a combination of glucantime and allopurinol were estimated by indirect immunofluorescence and Western blotting. The sensitivity of Western blot was greater than that obtained with immunofluorescence titration. In general, both diagnostic methods concurred with the post-treatment clinical status of the animals. Clinical improvement of successfully treated dogs was related to lower immunofluorescence titers and simpler and/or less reactive immunodetection patterns in Western blotting. The recognition, by infected dogs, of certain low molecular weight antigens, particularly one of approximately 26 kDa, was restricted to pretreatment samples and a single animal in relapse thus apparently constituting an active infection marker.  (+info)

Recombinant bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (rBPI21) in combination with sulfadiazine is active against Toxoplasma gondii. (5/1602)

The activity of recombinant bactericidal/permeability-increasing protein (rBPI21), alone or in combination with sulfadiazine, on the intracellular replication of Toxoplasma gondii was assessed in vitro and in mice with acute toxoplasmosis. rBPI21 markedly inhibited the intracellular growth of T. gondii in human foreskin fibroblasts (HFFs). Following 72 h of exposure, the 50% inhibitory concentration of rBPI21 for T. gondii was 2.6 micrograms/ml, whereas only slight cytotoxicity for HFF cells was observed at the concentrations tested. Subsequent mathematical analyses revealed that the combination of rBPI21 with sulfadiazine yielded slight to moderate synergistic effects against T. gondii in vitro. Infection of mice orally with C56 cysts or intraperitoneally (i.p.) with RH tachyzoites resulted in 100% mortality, whereas prolongation of the time to death or significant survival (P = 0.002) was noted for those animals treated with 5 to 20 mg of rBPI21 per kg of body weight per day. Treatment with rBPI21 in combination with sulfadiazine resulted in significant (P = 0.0001) survival of mice infected i.p. with tachyzoites but not of mice infected orally with T. gondii cysts. These results indicate that rBPI21 is active in vitro and in vivo against T. gondii and that its activity is significantly enhanced when it is used in combination with sulfadiazine. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the activity of rBPI21 against a protozoan parasite.  (+info)

Indolylquinoline derivatives are cytotoxic to Leishmania donovani promastigotes and amastigotes in vitro and are effective in treating murine visceral leishmaniasis. (6/1602)

A wide variety of biologically active compounds contain indole and quinoline nuclei. Some novel indolylquinoline derivatives were synthesized from indole by Friedel-Crafts acylation reaction. Out of the four derivatives tested, 2-(2''-acetamidobenzyl)-3-(3'-indolylquinoline) (C) had no effect on the promastigotes or amastigotes of Leishmania donovani in vitro. The remaining three analogues, 2-(2''-dichloroacetamidobenzyl)-3-(3'-indolylquinoline) (A), 2-(2''-chloroacetamidobenzyl)-3-(3'-indolylquinoline) (B), and 2-(2''-aminobenzyl)-3-(3'-indolylquinoline) (D), inhibited the growth of L. donovani promastigotes in vitro and were cytotoxic to both the promastigote and amastigote forms of the parasite. These three derivatives were also effective in eliminating L. donovani amastigotes from BALB/c mouse peritoneal macrophages in vitro. One indolylquinoline derivative [A] was used to treat established visceral leishmaniasis in BALB/c mice. This compound was significantly more effective than sodium antimony gluconate (SAG) in reducing the splenic parasite load at a much lower concentration (5% of SAG). Our results suggest that indolylquinoline derivatives may be exploited as antileishmanial agents.  (+info)

What controls glycolysis in bloodstream form Trypanosoma brucei? (7/1602)

On the basis of the experimentally determined kinetic properties of the trypanosomal enzymes, the question is addressed of which step limits the glycolytic flux in bloodstream form Trypanosoma brucei. There appeared to be no single answer; in the physiological range, control shifted between the glucose transporter on the one hand and aldolase (ALD), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK), and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GDH) on the other hand. The other kinases, which are often thought to control glycolysis, exerted little control; so did the utilization of ATP. We identified potential targets for anti-trypanosomal drugs by calculating which steps need the least inhibition to achieve a certain inhibition of the glycolytic flux in these parasites. The glucose transporter appeared to be the most promising target, followed by ALD, GDH, GAPDH, and PGK. By contrast, in erythrocytes more than 95% deficiencies of PGK, GAPDH, or ALD did not cause any clinical symptoms (Schuster, R. and Holzhutter, H.-G. (1995) Eur. J. Biochem. 229, 403-418). Therefore, the selectivity of drugs inhibiting these enzymes may be much higher than expected from their molecular effects alone. Quite unexpectedly, trypanosomes seem to possess a substantial overcapacity of hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, and pyruvate kinase, making these "irreversible" enzymes mediocre drug targets.  (+info)

Cost-effectiveness analysis of humanitarian relief interventions: visceral leishmaniasis treatment in the Sudan. (8/1602)

Spending by aid agencies on emergencies has quadrupled over the last decade, to over US$6 billion. To date, cost-effectiveness has seldom been considered in the prioritization and evaluation of emergency interventions. The sheer volume of resources spent on humanitarian aid and the chronicity of many humanitarian interventions call for more attention to be paid to the issue of 'value for money'. In this paper we present data from a major humanitarian crisis, an epidemic of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in war-torn Sudan. The special circumstances provided us, in retrospect, with unusually accurate data on excess mortality, costs of the intervention and its effects, thus allowing us to express cost-effectiveness as the cost per Disability Adjusted Life Year (DALY) averted. The cost-effectiveness ratio, of US$18.40 per DALY (uncertainty range between US$13.53 and US$27.63), places the treatment of VL in Sudan among health interventions considered 'very good value for money' (interventions of less than US$25 per DALY). We discuss the usefulness of this analysis to the internal management of the VL programme, the procurement of funds for the programme, and more generally, to priority setting in humanitarian relief interventions. We feel that in evaluations of emergency interventions attempts could be made more often to perform cost-effectiveness analyses, including the use of DALYs, provided that the outcomes of these analyses are seen in the broad context of the emergency situation and its consequences on the affected population. This paper provides a first contribution to what is hoped to become an international database of cost-effectiveness studies of health interventions during relief operations, which use a comparable measure of health outcome such as the DALY.  (+info)

*Antiprotozoal

"Antiprotozoal Agents: An Overview". Anti-Infective Agents in Medicinal Chemistry. 8 (4): 345-366. doi:10.2174/ ... Antiprotozoal agents (ATC code: ATC P01) is a class of pharmaceuticals used in treatment of protozoan infection. Protozoans ... The mechanisms of antiprotozoal drugs differ significantly drug to drug. For example, it appears that eflornithine, a drug used ... Antiprotozoals are used to treat protozoal infections, which include amebiasis, giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, microsporidiosis ...

*Chiniofon

... is an antiprotozoal agent. Leake CD (December 1932). "The Pharmacologic Action of Chiniofon". Cal West Med. 37 (6): ...

*Difetarsone

... is an antiprotozoal agent. Various studies have shown it to be particularly effective against Trichuris trichiura, ...

*Teclozan

... is an antiprotozoal agent. It is a dichloroacetamide. Slighter RG, Yarinsky A, Drobeck HP, Bailey DM (August 1980). " ... "Activity of quinfamide against natural infections of Entamoeba criceti in hamsters: a new potent agent for intestinal ...

*Broxyquinoline

... is an antiprotozoal agent. An association with exercise intolerance has been reported. Swain R, Bapna JS ( ...

*Protozoan infection

They are treated with antiprotozoal agents. Recent papers have also proposed the use of viruses to treat infections caused by ...

*Arsthinol

... (INN) is an antiprotozoal agent. It was synthesized for the first time in 1949 by Ernst A.H. Friedheim by ...

*Tilbroquinol

... is an antiprotozoal agent effective against amoebiasis. It has also been used against Vibrio cholerae. ...

*Coccidiostat

A coccidiostat is an antiprotozoal agent that acts upon Coccidia parasites. Examples include: amprolium arprinocid artemether ...

*Maduramicin

... (maduramycin) is an antiprotozoal agent used in veterinary medicine to prevent coccidiosis. It is a natural ...

*Antitrichomonal agent

An antitrichomonal agent is an antiprotozoal agent that acts on trichomonas parasites. Examples include: furazolidone nifuratel ... nimorazole ornidazole tinidazole usnic acid Antitrichomonal Agents at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject ...

*Trypanocidal agent

A trypanocidal agent is an antiprotozoal agent that acts upon trypanosome parasites. Examples include: Aminoquinuride ... Trypanocidal Agents at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) MeSH list of agents 82014344 GOBLE, ...

*Phanquinone

It has been investigated as both antiprotozoal agent and for its bactericidal activity . Mett H, Gyr K, Zak O, Vosbeck K (July ... Agents Chemother. 26 (1): 35-8. doi:10.1128/aac.26.1.35. PMC 179912 . PMID 6236746. ...

*Tritrichomonas blagburni

However, antiprotozoal agents, such as ronidazole or metronidazole, are known to dramatically reduce symptoms in cats. Research ... "New species of parasite discovered as disease agent in domestic cats » College of Veterinary Medicine » University of Florida ...

*Clefamide

... (trade name Mebinol) is an antiprotozoal agent that was used to treat amoebiasis in the 1960s. There is no evidence ...

*Ronidazole

... is an antiprotozoal agent used in veterinary medicine for the treatment of histomoniasis and swine dysentery. It may ...

*Glycobiarsol

... (trade name Milibis) is an antiprotozoal agent that has been used in humans as well as in dogs. Berberian, D. A. ( ...

*Imidocarb

... is a urea derivative used in veterinary medicine as an antiprotozoal agent for the treatment of infection with ...

*DMOZ - Health: Pharmacy: Drugs and Medications: N: Nitazoxanide

a synthetic antiprotozoal agent Sites 1 Alinia Prescribing information from Romark Laboratories. [pdf] ...

*Emetine

Dehydroemetine is a synthetically produced antiprotozoal agent similar to emetine in its anti-amoebic properties and structure ... Emetine is a drug used as both an anti-protozoal and to induce vomiting. It is produced from the ipecac root. It takes its name ... The identification of emetine as a more potent agent improved the treatment of amoebiasis. While use of emetine still caused ... Although it is a potent antiprotozoal, the drug also can interfere with muscle contractions, leading to cardiac failure in some ...

*Dehydroemetine

... is a synthetically produced antiprotozoal agent similar to emetine in its anti-amoebic properties and structure ...

*Antiviral drug

Originally developed and commercialized as an antiprotozoal agent, nitazoxanide was later identified as a first-in-class broad- ... These agents act on penetration and uncoating. Pleconaril works against rhinoviruses, which cause the common cold, by blocking ... This stage of viral replication can be inhibited in two ways: Using agents which mimic the virus-associated protein (VAP) and ... Potentially, one of the benefits from the use of an effective entry-blocking or entry-inhibiting agent is that it potentially ...

*Tiabendazole

Albendazole Fenbendazole Lobendazole Oxfendazole Mebendazole Flubendazole (antiprotozoal agent) Cyclobendazole Dribendazole ... It has also been shown to serve as a vascular disrupting agent to reduce newly established blood vessels. Tiabendazole has been ... Medicinally, thiabendazole is also a chelating agent, which means it is used medicinally to bind metals in cases of metal ... Synthesis of labeled thiabendazole: Cambendazole (best of 300 agents in an extensive study), is made by nitration of ...

*Nitazoxanide

Originally developed and commercialized as an antiprotozoal agent, nitazoxanide was later identified as a first-in-class broad- ... The anti-protozoal activity of nitazoxanide is believed to be due to interference with the pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase ( ... Agents Chemother. 46 (7): 2116-23. doi:10.1128/aac.46.7.2116-2123.2002. PMC 127316 . PMID 12069963. Nitazoxanide (NTZ) is a ... Rossignol JF (October 2014). "Nitazoxanide: a first-in-class broad-spectrum antiviral agent". Antiviral Res. 110: 94-103. doi: ...

*Clostridium difficile infection

Nitazoxanide is a synthetic nitrothiazolyl-salicylamide derivative indicated as an antiprotozoal agent (FDA-approved for the ... "Cleaning agents 'make bug strong'". BBC News Online. 3 April 2006. Archived from the original on 8 November 2006. Retrieved 17 ... A number of different antibiotics are used for C. difficile, with the available agents being more or less equally effective. ...

*Flacourtia inermis

Its fruit is rich in an antimicrobial agent-2,3-Dihydroxybenzoic acid. The Plant is known as Flacourtia inermis in Cebuano, ... George Shibumon, Benny PJ, Kuriakose Sunny, George Cincy, Gopalakrishnan Sarala (2011) "Antiprotozoal activity of 2, 3- ... Benny PJ, George Shibumon, Kuriakose Sunny, George Cincy (2010) "2, 3-Dihydroxybenzoic Acid: An Effective Antifungal Agent ...
Antiprotozoal drugs are medicines that are used to treat a variety of diseases caused by protozoa. Protozoa are one-celled organisms, such as amoebas. Some are parasitic and cause infections in the body. African sleeping sickness,giardiasis, amebiasis, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP), and malaria are examples of diseases caused by protozoa.. Antiprotozoal drugs come in liquid, tablet, and injectable forms and are available only with a doctors prescription. Some commonly used antiprotozoal drugs are metronidazole (Flagyl), eflornithine (Ornidyl), furazolidone (Furoxone), hydroxychloroquine (Plaquenil), iodoquinol (Diquinol, Yodoquinol, Yodoxin), and pentamidine (Pentam 300). The recommended dosage depends on the type ofantiprotozoal drug, its strength, and the medical problem for which it is being used. Check with the physician who prescribed the drug or the pharmacistwho filled the prescription for the correct dosage. Always take antiprotozoaldrugs exactly as directed.. Some people feel ...
View list of generic drugs that are classified under Antiprotozoal Agents, Amebicides along with ICD Code. Find related prescribing information and price details for each drug listed under it.
Antiprotozoal agents (ATC code: ATC P01) is a class of pharmaceuticals used in treatment of protozoan infection. Protozoans have little in common with each other (for example, Entamoeba histolytica, an unikont eukaryotic organism, is less closely related to Naegleria fowleri, a bikont eukaryotic organism, than it is to Homo sapiens, which belongs to the unikont phylogenetic group) and so agents effective against one pathogen may not be effective against another. They can be grouped by mechanism or by organism. Recent papers have also proposed the use of viruses to treat infections caused by protozoa. Antiprotozoals are used to treat protozoal infections, which include amebiasis, giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, microsporidiosis, malaria, babesiosis, trypanosomiasis, Chagas disease, leishmaniasis, and toxoplasmosis. Currently, many of the treatments for these infections are limited by their toxicity. The mechanisms of antiprotozoal drugs differ significantly drug to drug. For example, it appears ...
BioAssay record AID 774779 submitted by ChEMBL: Antiprotozoal activity against axenic amastigote form of Leishmania donovani MHOM/ET/67/L82 assessed as parasite growth inhibition.
Azithromycin, an azalide antibiotic, is highly concentrated within different phagocytic cells, especially macrophages. The potential antileishmanial activity of azithromycin against three species of Leishmania from the New World was assessed using in vitro models. Azithromycin decreased viability of promastigote cultures of Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis, and Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi as determined by the colorimetric Alamar blue assay. In amastigote intracellular cultures, a significant decrease in infected macrophages counts was observed for all three species with IC50 of 20.83 (27 μ mol/L), 2.18 (2.7 μmol/L), and 6.12 (7.8 μmol/L) μg/mL, respectively. Azithromycin showed in vitro activity against L. (L.) amazonensis, L. (V.) braziliensis, and L. (L.) chagasi and may offer an alternative to current leishmaniasis treatment.
Malaria, leishmaniasis and human African trypanosomiasis continue to be major public health problems in need of new and more effective drugs. The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro antiprotozoal activity of twenty endemic medicinal plants collected from the island of Soqotra in the Indian Ocean. The plant materials were extracted with methanol and tested for antiplasmodial activity against erythrocytic schizonts of Plasmodium falciparum, for antileishmanial activity against intracellular amastigotes of Leishmania infantum and for antitrypanosomal activity against intracellular amastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi and free trypomastigotes of T. brucei. To assess selectivity, cytotoxicity was determined against MRC-5 fibroblasts. Selective activity was obtained for Punica protopunica against Plasmodium (IC50 2.2 µg/mL) while Eureiandra balfourii and Hypoestes pubescens displayed activity against the three kinetoplastid parasites (IC50 < 10 µg/mL). Acridocarpus socotranus showed activity against T
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Sixteen 1,4-diaryl-1,2,3-triazole compounds 4-19 derived from the tetrahydrofuran neolignans veraguensin 1, grandisin 2, and machilin G 3 were tested against Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis intracellular amastigotes. Triazole compounds 4-19 were synthetized via Click Chemistry strategy by 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition between terminal acetylenes and aryl azides containing methoxy and methylenedioxy groups as substituents. Our results suggest that most derivatives were active against intracellular amastigotes, with IC50 values ranging from 4.4 to 32.7 µM. The index of molecular hydrophobicity (ClogP) ranged from 2.8 to 3.4, reflecting a lipophilicity/hydrosolubility rate suitable for transport across membranes, which may have resulted in the potent antileishmanial activity observed. Regarding structure-activity relationship (SAR), compounds 14 and 19, containing a trimethoxy group, were the most active (IC50 values of 5.6 and 4.4 µM, respectively), with low cytotoxicity on mammalian cells (SI = 14.1
Nitazoxanide is an antiprotozoal agent.This medication is used to treat diarrhea due to certain intestinal parasitic infections(protozoa Cryptosporidium parvum).
Bark used as expectorant and for asthma.. • In Africa, bark root used for pulmonary problems; leaf for leprosy, and flower for kidney ailments and as diuretic.. • In West Nigeria, leaves and stems soaked and boiled in water, used for skin rashes. (see source study). • In India, reported Mawasi tribal use of flowers for diarrhea. (see source study). Scientific studies on the benefits and uses of the monkey tail. • Antimicrobial:. Studies of leaf extracts isolated gallic acid, corilagin and geranin responsible for antimicrobial activity.. • Trypanocidal/ antiprotozoal agent:. Aqueous extract of Acalypha hispida leaves suggest trypanocidal effect.. • Anti-ulcer / Anti-tumor:. Studies yielded geraniin and dehydroellagitannins which suggest diverse biological properties including anti-ulcer and anti-tumor effects, antibacterial activity against helicobacter pylori and antifungal activity.. • Phytochemicals:. Phytochemical studies yield phenolics, flavonoids, hydroxyanthraquinones and ...
REIMAO, JULIANA QUERO... Investigation of Calcium Channel Blockers as Antiprotozoal Agents and Their Interference in the Metabolism of Leishmania (L.) infantum. Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine n. p. 2016. Journal article.
Therapy obviously depends as to the precise nature of the problem. Some neuromuscular diseases have a specific therapy for example endocrine disorders (hyperthyroidism, diabetes mellitus); Myasthenia gravis (Pyridostigmine and immunosuppressive therapy); and antiprotozoal agents for Toxoplasmosis and Neosporosis. For many degenerative neuropathies there is no treatment however some improve when given dietary supplements such as the mitochondrial co-factor L-Carnitine 50mg/kg twice daily and anti-oxidants such as gamma linoleic acid and omgea-3-fatty acids. Many severely tetraparetic animals will require considerable supportive care as well. For example, a pet which is unable to swallow may require feeding through a (PEG) tube into the stomach ...
The obscure antiprotozoal drug suramin has the prettiest molecular structure Ive ever seen. It also has some evidence as a potential treatment for autism based on a cell danger response model of the condition.. Im not going to get too excited here, because there are a lot of things that can cure stuff in mice. Still, one has to ask - an antiprotozoal? Really?. Protozoa are primitive little parasites kind of like bacteria. The most famous is plasmodium, which causes malaria. Theres not much reason an antiprotozoal drug should cross-react with the brain, so if it does treat autism its probably just a coincidence.. But its a pretty common one. Ive already noted how an antibiotic used to treat acne, minocycline, is a promising schizophrenia treatment. The news article on such is called "Scientists Shocked To Find Antibiotics Alleviate Symptoms Of Schizophrenia", but maybe by this point they should start being less shocked.. Off the top of my head, I can think of two other antibiotics with a ...
There are problems with this story, though.. What if the company did not actually develop the drug in question? What if patient access to the drug is far from secure?. When it was created in 2007, the FDA Priority Review Voucher (PRV) program came with hopes that it could incentivize research and development (R&D) for neglected diseases. Under the initial legislation, a developer that receives FDA approval for a drug to treat one of 16 diseases is eligible for a PRV, which allows the bearer to speed up approval for a drug application of their choice, or sell the voucher for another company to use. This reduces approval time from ten months on average to six - a crucial window for companies to get drugs on the market earlier than their competitors.. Only three vouchers for neglected diseases have been granted since 2007, the latest of which was in March 2014 to Knight Therapeutics, for registering the leishmaniasis drug miltefosine in the United States. In November 2014, Knight sold the voucher ...
Drugs currently available for leishmaniasis treatment often show parasite resistance, highly toxic side effects and costs that are prohibitive commonly for patients from the tropical endemic countries. There is an urgent need for new drugs as a treatment solution for this neglected disease. Here the authors describe the development and implementation of an automated high-throughput viability screening assay for the discovery of new drugs against Leishmania. Assay validation was done with Leishmania promastigote forms, and included the screening of 4000 compounds with known pharmacological properties. In an attempt to find new compounds with leishmanicidal properties, 26,500 structurally diverse chemical compounds were screened. A cut-off of 70% growth inhibition in the primary screening led to the identification of 567 active compounds. Cellular toxicity and selectivity were responsible for the exclusion of 78% of the pre-selected compounds. The activity of the remaining 124 compounds was ...
Miltefosine(Miltex) generic is an antiprotozoal drug, prescribed for leishmaniasis. It acts as an Protein Kinase B (PKB) inhibitor.
Hymenidin (AG-CN2-0503), CAS 107019-95-4, is a high purity chemical. Isolated from sponge Stylissa sp. Inhibitor of CDK5/p25 and GSK3beta. Antagonist of serotonergic receptors. Moderate anticancer. Antibacterial and antiprotozoal.
... ! Flagyl is an oral antiprotozoal and antibacterial. It is thought to work by entering the bacterial cell, acting on some components of the cell, and destroying the bacteria.
... ! Flagyl is an oral antiprotozoal and antibacterial. It is thought to work by entering the bacterial cell, acting on some components of the cell, and destroying the bacteria.
Looking for online definition of Antiprotozoal Drugs in the Medical Dictionary? Antiprotozoal Drugs explanation free. What is Antiprotozoal Drugs? Meaning of Antiprotozoal Drugs medical term. What does Antiprotozoal Drugs mean?
Amoebiasis caused by Entamoeba histolytica is associated with high morbidity and mortality is becoming a major public health problem worldwide, especially in developing countries. Because of the side-effects and the resistance that pathogenic protozoa build against the standard antiparasitic drugs, e.g., metronidazole, much recent attention has been paid to plants used in traditional medicine around the world in order to find new antiprotozoal agents. We collected 32 plants used in Northeast Mexican traditional medicine and the methanolic extracts of these species were screened for antiprotozoal activity against E. histolytica trophozoites using in vitro tests. Only 18 extracts showed a significant inhibiting activity and among them six plant extracts showed more than 80% growth inhibition against E. histolytica at a concentration of 150 µg/mL and the IC50 values of these extracts were determined. Lippia graveolens Kunth and Ruta chalepensis Pers. showed the more significant antiprotozoal activity (91
RATIONALE: Sodium stibogluconate may stop the growth of tumor cells by blocking some of the enzymes needed for cell growth. Interferon alfa-2b may interfere with the growth of tumor cells and slow the growth of melanoma and other cancers. Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as cisplatin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine, work in different ways to stop the growth of tumor cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. Giving sodium stibogluconate and interferon alfa-2b together with combination chemotherapy may kill more tumor cells.. PURPOSE: This phase I trial is studying the side effects and best dose of sodium stibogluconate when given together with interferon alfa-2b, cisplatin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine in treating patients with advanced melanoma or other cancer. ...
sodium stibogluconate 16037-91-5 NMR spectrum, sodium stibogluconate H-NMR spectral analysis, sodium stibogluconate C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
S100 calcium‑binding protein B (S100B) is highly expressed in glioma cells and promotes cancer cell survival via inhibition of the p53 protein. In melanoma cells, this S100B‑p53 interaction is known to be inhibited by pentamidine isethionate, an antiprotozoal agent. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of pentamidine on rat C6 glioma cell proliferation, migration and apoptosis in vitro. The change in C6 cell proliferation following treatment with pentamidine was determined by performing a 3‑[4,5‑dimethylthiazol‑2‑yl]‑2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide‑formazan assay. Significant dose‑dependent decreases in proliferation were observed at pentamidine concentrations of 0.05 μM (58.5±5%; P,0.05), 0.5 μM (40.6±7%; P,0.01) and 5 μM (13±4%; P,0.001) compared with the control (100% viability). Furthermore, treatment with 0.05, 0.5 and 5 μM pentamidine was associated with a significant increase in apoptosis versus the untreated cells, as determined by DNA ...
Chemotherapy of leishmaniasis is principally predicated on antimonials. and 13e werent dangerous against fibroblasts, macrophages, or dendritic cells. Jointly, these results claim that the aziridine-2,3-dicarboxylates 13b and 13e are potential antileishmanial business lead substances with low toxicity against web host cells and selective antiparasitic results. Chemotherapy against leishmaniasis is situated generally on antimony substances, initially defined in 1912 by Vianna (42) in Brazil as trivalent antimonials [Sb(III)]. These substances display high toxicity and a small therapeutic window, conditions that led to the introduction of the pentavalent antimonium [Sb(V)] agencies sodium stibogluconate (Pentostam) and meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime), presented around 1940 (31, 38). Pentavalent antimonium substances display a wider healing window and therefore became the medications of preference against leishmaniasis. Nevertheless, their toxicity causes critical unwanted effects that PXD101 ...
Anti-Leishmanial Activity In Vitro and In Vivo of Allicin and Allicin Cream Using Leishmania major Sub-strain Zymowme LON4 and Balb-c Mice. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
BioAssay record AID 384320 submitted by ChEMBL: Antiprotozoal activity against chloroquine and pyrimethamine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum K1.
ent-Pimarane and ent-Kaurane Diterpenes from Aldama discolor Asteraceae and Their Antiprotozoal Activity†. . Download books free in pdf. Online library with books, university works and thousands of documents available to read online and download.
Veterinary medicine for treatment of protozoal myeloencephalitis (Equine EPM), bacterial infections, strangles & more. Tucoprim. Gentamicin Sulfate. Protozoal. Metronidazole. Shop in our Antibacterial & Antiprotozoal (Rx) department online made by Zoetis Animal Health. Shop, sign-up and save, or request your free catalog. Free Shipping on Antibacterial & Antiprotozoal (Rx) products for orders over $60.
A 5-year-old American girl presents with a 1-week history of intermittent chills, fever, and sweats. She had returned home 2 weeks earlier after leaving the United States for the first time to spend 3 weeks with her grandparents in Nigeria. She received all standard childhood immunizations, but no additional treatment before travel, since her parents have returned to their native Nigeria frequently without medical consequences. Three days ago, the child was seen in an outpatient clinic and diagnosed with a viral syndrome. Examination reveals a lethargic child, with a temperature of 39.8°C (103.6°F) and splenomegaly. She has no skin rash or lymphadenopathy. Initial laboratory studies are remarkable for hematocrit 29.8%, platelets 45,000/mm3, creatinine 2.5 mg/dL (220 μmol/L), and mildly elevated bilirubin and transaminases. A blood smear shows ring forms of Plasmodium falciparum at 1.5% parasitemia. What treatment should be started? ...
Background: Parasitic diseases including malaria, leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis take a terrible toll of human life, health and productivity, especially in tropical and subtropical regions, and are also highly significant in animal health worldwide. Antiparasitic drugs are the mainstays of control of most of these diseases, but in many cases current therapies are inadequate and in some the situation is deteriorating because of drug resistance. Microtubules, as essential components of almost all eukaryotic cells, are proven drug targets in many helminth diseases and show promise as targets for the development of new antiprotozoal drugs. Objective: This article reviews the chemistry of the microtubule inhibitors in current use and under investigation as antiparasitic agents, their activities against the major parasites and their mechanisms of action. New directions in both inhibitor chemistry and biological evaluation are discussed. Conclusions: The most promising immediate avenues for discovery and
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Cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the course of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have regularly been recorded, mainly in southern Europe. HIV infection can increase the risk of VL development by 10-100 times in endemic areas. We describe the occurrence of this co-infection in 15 patients from Brazil. The mean age of the patients was 38 +/- 8.8 yr, with 86.6% males. The mean time between HIV diagnosis and the onset of visceral leishmaniasis was 44 +/- 39 mo. The main signs and symptoms presented at admission were splenomegaly (73%), weight loss (73%), cough (67%), fever (67%), asthenia (60%), and diarrhea (60%). The mean T CD4+ lymphocyte count was 173.7 +/- 225.6 cells/mm3, and viral load was 51,030 +/- 133,737/mm3. Treatment consisted of pentavalent antimonials (67% of cases). Most (87%) patients recovered from VL infection; death occurred in 1 patient due to septic shock. VL is an important opportunistic infection in HIV patients, which is potentially fatal, even when correct
Hexadecylphosphocholine (HePC, miltefosine) is an alkylphospholipid used clinically for the topical treatment of cancer and against leishmaniasis. The mechanism of action of HePC, not yet elucidated, involves its insertion into the plasma membrane, affecting lipid homeostasis. It has also been proposed that HePC directly affects lipid raft stability and function in cell membranes. The present work deals with two main questions in the understanding of the action of HePC: the bases for membrane selectivity and as a membrane perturbator agent. We explored the interaction of HePC with lipid monolayers and bilayer vesicles, combining monolayer penetration experiments, Brewster angle microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry. Several membrane compositions were tested to explore different rheological conditions, phase states and lateral structures. Additionally, the kinetics between the soluble and the membrane form of HePC was explored. Our results showed an increase in elasticity induced by ...
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A comparative study on the efficacy of combination therapy with Omeprazole and low dose systemic Meglumine Antimoniate (Glucantime) and the full dose systemic Meglumine Antimoniate in the treatment of cutaneous ...
Enteric parasitic diseases including giardiasis are of public health concern. Different methods are available for the diagnosis of this parasitic infection in fecal samples such as the identification of protozoan cysts and trophozoites by light microscopy, detection of specific antigens by ELISA, and amplification of DNA fragments by PCR. The present study aimed at assessing the performance of four laboratory tests for the detection of Giardia duodenalis in fecal specimens from three different host species with a previous diagnosis of giardiasis; canine, feline and human patients provided new stool samples to be retested for Giardia before initiating treatment with antiprotozoal drugs ...
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Ten Leishmania isolates (L. infantum: 6 isolates, L. donovani, L. tropica, L. major, L. aethiopica: one isolate each) have been successfully adapted to grow as axenic amastigote or amastigote-like forms. Promastigote forms were propagated in vitro (27oC, pH 7.2) in a defined liquid medium requiring no serum or serum substitutes at. Amastigotes forms were cultivated in a slightly modified medium [1] substituted with 1% of a commercially available serum fraction produced from abundantly available adult bovine serum (FC III, HyClone) which obviates the need for fetal bovine serum. Axenic amastigotes were produced from promastigotes by increasing the temperature stepwise to 36oC followed by decreasing the pH of the medium stepwise to 5.4 [2 ...
Javier D. Murillo is the author of this article in the Journal of Visualized Experiments: Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in the Dorsal Skin of Hamsters: a Useful Model for the Screening of Antileishmanial Drugs
Flagyl is an antiprotozoal and antibacterial drug to treat infections caused by anaerobic bacterteria and certain parasites like giardia and ameba. 200/400/mg.
Murray, PJ; Kranz, M; Ladlow, M; Taylor, S; Berst, F; Holmes, AB; Keavey, KN; Jaxa-Chamiec, A; Seale, PW; Stead, P; +4 more... Upton, RJ; Croft, SL; Clegg, W; Elsegood, MRJ; (2001) The synthesis of cyclic tetrapeptoid analogues of the antiprotozoal natural product apicidin. Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters, 11 (6). pp. 773-776. ISSN 0960-894X DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0960-894X(01)00049-X Full text not available from this repository ...
This pill with imprint 3513 10 mg SB 10 mg is Brown, Capsule-shape and has been identified as Dexedrine spansule 10 mg. It is supplied by GlaxoSmithKline.
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Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is caused by infection with the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. The organism T cruzi and infection in humans were first described in 1909 by the Brazilian physician Carlos R.
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a vector-borne parasitic disease caused by a range of Leishmania species. Many treatment modalities have been proposed, although pentavalent antimonials are still considered to be the first-line treatment of CL. However, due to the high cost and adverse effects of antimonials, as well as an increase in the number of resistant strains of CL to antimonials, this study was conducted to compare the efficacy of oral ketoconazole with intralesional meglumine antimoniate (Glucantime, Specia, Paris, France) for the treatment of CL. METHODS: A total of 96 patients with CL were enrolled in the study. The diagnosis of CL was confirmed parasitologically using direct skin smears or skin biopsies. The patients were randomly allocated to two treatment groups. Group A (64 patients) was treated with ketoconazole 600 mg/day for adults and 10 mg/kg per day for children for 30 days. Group B (32 patients) was treated with 6-8 biweekly intra-lesional injections of meglumine ...
Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical parasitic diseases affecting millions of people around the globe. Quinazolines are a group of compounds with diverse pharmacological activities. Owing to their promising antileishmanial activities, some 3-aryl-2-(substitutedstyryl)-4(3H)-quinazolinones were synthesized in good yields (65.2% to 86.4%). The target compounds were synthesized by using cyclization, condensation, and hydrolysis reactions. The structures of the synthesized compounds were determined using elemental microanalysis, infrared (IR), and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR). The in vitro antileishmanial activities of the synthesized compounds were evaluated using Leishmania donovani strain. All the synthesized compounds displayed appreciable antileishmanial activities (IC50 values, 0.0128 to 3.1085 μg/ml) as compared to the standard drug miltefosine (IC50 = 3.1911 μg/ml). (E)-2-(4-chlorostyryl)-3-p-tolyl-4(3H)-quinazolinone (7) is the compound with the most promising antileishmanial
Background. For patients with Indian visceral leishmaniasis, amphotericin B deoxycholate is usually given as 15 alternate-day infusions of 1 mg/kg over 30 days (total dose, 15 mg/kg); daily treatment with 1 mg/kg for 20 days (total dose, 20 mg/kg) is also used. This study was done to address the unsettled therapeutic questions of administration schedule (alternate-day vs. daily administration) and dose (1 vs. 0.75 mg/kg) and to determine whether the duration of amphotericin B treatment in Bihar, India, can be shortened to 15 days.. Methods. To compare alternate-day versus daily administration and 1-mg/kg versus 0.75-mg/kg doses and to determine whether the duration of treatment could be abbreviated, Indian subjects randomly received 15 infusions of 1 mg/kg (group A; 245 patients) or 0.75 mg/kg (group B; 244 patients) on alternate days or 1 mg/kg (group C; 500 patients) or 0.75 mg/kg (group D; 496 patients) daily. Noninferiority testing compared 6-month cure rates using a 5% margin.. Results. ...
Title:Trypanosomatidae Diseases: From the Current Therapy to the Efficacious Role of Trypanothione Reductase in Drug Discovery. VOLUME: 20 ISSUE: 21. Author(s):L.S.C. Bernardes, C.L. Zani and I. Carvalho. Affiliation:Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas de Ribeirao Preto, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Av. do Cafe, s/n, Monte Alegre, Ribeirao Preto-SP, Brazil, CEP 14040-903.. Keywords:Antitrypanosomatidae drugs, trypanosomatidae diseases, trypanothione reductase, trypanothione reductase inhibitors.. Abstract:According to World Health Organization (WHO), trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis are the most challenging among the neglected tropical diseases. Comparative studies between Leishmania spp and Trypanosoma cruzi have been conducted aiming to find a broad spectrum antiprotozoal agent acting against both parasites. Among the potential molecular target, Trypanothione reductase (TR) is considered an ideal enzyme since it is involved in the unique thiol-based metabolism observed in the Trypanosomatidae ...
TY - PAT. T1 - Synthesis and Antiprotozoal Activity of Dicationic 3.5 Diphenylisoxazoles. AU - Tidwell,Richard R.. AU - Bakunova,Svetlana M.. AU - Bakunov,Stanislav. AU - Patrick,Donald A.. N1 - Status: published applicationnumber: 11/415,982 usclass: 514/378 ; 548/247 applicationnumber: 11/415,982. PY - 1800. Y1 - 1800. N2 - Novel dicationic 3,5-diphenylisoxazole compounds are described. Synthetic routes to these novel compounds are provided. Several of the compounds displayed in vitro activity versus Trypanosoma brucei brucei and Plasmodium falciparum comparable to that of furamidine. A majority of the novel compounds also were less toxic to VERO cells than furamidine.. AB - Novel dicationic 3,5-diphenylisoxazole compounds are described. Synthetic routes to these novel compounds are provided. Several of the compounds displayed in vitro activity versus Trypanosoma brucei brucei and Plasmodium falciparum comparable to that of furamidine. A majority of the novel compounds also were less toxic to ...
ABSTRACT. Diminazene remains one of South Africas most commonly used antiprotozoal agents for the management of babesiosis in dogs . Although the drug has been on the market for over 40 years, its intravenous pharmacokinetics are poorly known. To better understand the pharmacokinetics of the drug Berenil®, it was reconstituted in sterile water and administered intravenously to 6 adult German shepherd dogs. All 6 dogs demonstrated the previously described secondary peak in the plasma concentration versus time profile. The plasma pharmacokinetics for diminazene are described by both non-compartmental and compartmental models. From non-compartmental analysis, the area under curve to the last sample point (AUQast), clearance (CL) and volume of distribution (Vz) were 4.65 ± 1.95 ng/ml/h, 0.77 ± 0.18 l/kg/h and2.28 ± 0.60 l/kg respectively. For compartmental modelling, the plasma concentrations were fitted to both a 2-compartmental open model and a recirculatory enterohepatic model. From the ...
Leishmaniasis is a complex disease, with visceral and cutaneous manifestations, and is caused by over 15 different species of the protozoan parasite genus Leishmania. There are significant differences in the sensitivity of these species both to the standard drugs, for example, pentavalent antimonials and miltefosine, and those on clinical trial, for example, paromomycin. Over 60% of patients with visceral leishmaniasis in Bihar State, India, do not respond to treatment with pentavalent antimonials. This is now considered to be due to acquired resistance. Although this class of drugs has been used for over 60 years for leishmaniasis treatment, it is only in the past 2 years that the mechanisms of action and resistance have been identified, related to drug metabolism, thiol metabolism, and drug efflux. With the introduction of new therapies, including miltefosine in 2002 and paromomycin in 2005-2006, it is essential that there be a strategy to prevent the emergence of resistance to new drugs; ...
Thiol dependent reductase 1 (TDR1) of Leishmania has been implicated in both the activation of pentavalent antimonial drugs and in the generation of drug-thiol conjugates facilitating drug-resistance. Reverse genetic studies were carried out on TDR1 to elucidate the role of the enzyme and to assess its potential value as a drug target against Leishmania. In a similar study, O¬acetylserine (thiol) lyase (OAS-TL), a key enzyme for the de novo synthesis of cysteine in Leishmania, was investigated as a potential target for new antileishmanial drugs. TDR1 of Leishmania is a 49.9 kDa protein of which the physiological role remains unclear. The protein has shown both thiol transferase activity and dehydroascorbate reductase activity. Due to its ability to reduce pentavalent antimonials to the active trivalent form in vitro, TDR1 has been suggested as playing a vital role in antimonial resistance in Leishmania. This part of the study was undertaken to clarify the role TDR1 plays in the parasite by ...
For the treatment of parenchymal neurocysticercosis due to active lesions caused by larval forms of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium and for the treatment of cystic hydatid disease of the liver, lung, and peritoneum, caused by the larval form of the dog tapeworm, Echinococcus granulosus ...
Abstract Standard courses of pentavalent antimonials frequently fail to cure cutaneous, mucocutaneous, and visceral leishmaniasis, and characteristically fail to cure diffuse cutaneous We have determined the in vitro sensitivity of clinical isolates of Leishmania to pentavalent antimony to determine if inherent drug resistance of the parasite is responsible for treatment failures in human beings. Intracellular amastigotes resulting from promastigote-initiated infection of human macrophages were exposed to pentavalent antimony for 6 days at 34.5-35°C. Amastigotes from clinically sensitive simple cutaneous lesions exhibited a range of in vitro sensitivity. Four strains were ≥90% eliminated and two strains were 70-75% eliminated in vitro by concentrations of antimony (15-20 µg Sb/ml), comparable to peak achievable serum levels in humans. Amastigotes from initially clinically resistant simple cutaneous lesions showed a wider range of sensitivities. Five strains were ≥90% eliminated, but one strain was
TY - CHAP. T1 - Antiparasitic Agents. AU - Leder, Karin. AU - McGuinness, Sarah L. AU - Weller, Peter F. PY - 2019. Y1 - 2019. N2 - A number of effective antiprotozoal and anthelmintic drugs are currently available. Antiparasitic agents are important both for therapy of infected individual patients and for control of parasitic infections at the community level. Large-scale chemotherapy is reducing transmission, morbidity, and mortality of certain infections, including lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, schistosomiasis, and infections with intestinal nematodes. However, the lack of financial incentives to develop new agents is a major limitation to the future of antiparasitic chemotherapy. Emerging resistance among parasites, lack of effective antiparasitic vaccines, and the enormous burden of disease worldwide also pose challenges to the effective management of parasitic infections. This chapter focuses on the mechanisms of action, pharmacology, clinical utility, and adverse effects of common ...
The EtOH extract of Abrus schimperi (Fabaceae), collected in Kenya, demonstrated significant activity against Leishmania donovani promastigotes with IC50 value of 3.6 microg/mL. Bioassay-guided fractionation of CHCl3 fraction using Centrifugal Preparative TLC afforded two antiparasitic isoflavanquinones, namely amorphaquinone (1) and pendulone (2). They displayed IC50 values of 0.63 microg/mL and 0.43 microg/mL, respectively, against L. donovani promastigotes. Both the compounds were also evaluated against L. donovani axenic amastigotes and amastigotes in THPI macrophage cultures. In addition, compounds 1 and 2 showed antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum D6 and W2 strains, while 2 displayed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (each IC50 1.44 microg/mL). The 1H and 13C data of 1, not fully assigned previously, were unambiguously assigned using 1D and 2D NMR HMBC and HMQC experiments. In addition, the absolute stereochemistry of ...
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Treatment failures for leishmaniasis with pentavalent antimonials, including meglumine antimonate, are increasingly common in many endemic areas. Imiquimod (Aldara; 3M Pharmaceuticals) is a novel immune response-activating compound, approved by the U
Video articles in JoVE about infection control include Establishment and Characterization of UTI and CAUTI in a Mouse Model, A Parasite Rescue and Transformation Assay for Antileishmanial Screening Against Intracellular Leishmania donovani Amastigotes in THP1 Human Acute Monocytic Leukemia Cell Line, Infection of Zebrafish Embryos with Intracellular Bacterial Pathogens, Scalable High Throughput Selection From Phage-displayed Synthetic Antibody Libraries, Fecal Microbiota Transplantation via Colonoscopy for Recurrent C. difficile Infection, Generation of Recombinant Influenza Virus from Plasmid DNA, Flexible Colonoscopy in Mice to Evaluate the Severity of Colitis and Colorectal Tumors Using a Validated Endoscopic Scoring System, Rapid Molecular Detection and Differentiation of Influenza Viruses A and B, General Approach to the Physical Exam, Palpation, Investigating the Function of Deep Cortical and Subcortical Structures Using Stereotactic Electroencephalography: Lessons from the
One hundred and twenty six patients with kala-azar (visceral leishmaniasis) were allocated at random to one of two groups for treatment with sodium stibogluconate. One group was treated for 20 days; in the other group the patients were assessed after 20 days treatment and treatment was continued if necessary. Both groups were followed up for six months. There was no significant difference in symptomatic outcome between the two groups at 20 days. At six months eight of the patients in the group treated for 20 days had relapsed and 54 were cured. Of the group given more than 20 days treatment if necessary, 62 were cured and none had relapsed (12 required more than 20 days treatment). This difference between the two groups was significant. One patient in each group did not respond to sodium stibogluconate, but both were were cured with pentamidine. Altogether 104 patients were cured after 20 days treatment; 20, including the eight who relapsed, were cured after more than 20 days treatment. ...
Author Summary Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected parasitic disease that is caused by the intracellular protozoan Leishmania donovani. Patients with this disease suffer from muscle wasting, enlargement of the spleen, reduced blood counts and ultimately will die without treatment. Progressive disease is considered to be due to impaired cellular immunity, with T cell or macrophage dysfunction, or both. We studied the Syrian hamster as an infection model because it mimics the progressive nature of human disease. We examined global changes in gene expression in the spleen and splenic macrophages during experimental VL and identified a highly inflammatory spleen environment with abundant expression of interferon and interferon-response genes that would be expected to control the infection. However, the high level of IFN-γ expression was ineffective in mediating a protective macrophage response, restraining parasite replication and halting progression of disease. We found that IFN-γ itself
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The invention provides novel compounds having the formula: ##STR1## wherein R when taken individually is H; R1 when taken individually is H or OH; R and R1 when taken together represent a double bond; R2 is an alpha-branched C3 -C8 alkyl, alkenyl, alkynyl, alkoxyalkyl or alkylthioalkyl group; a C3 -C8 cycloalkyl, C5 -C8 cycloalkenyl or C5 -C8 cycloalkylalkyl group, any of which may be substituted by methylene or one or more C1 -C4 alkyl groups or halo atoms; or a 3 to 6 membered oxygen or sulphur containing heterocyclic ring which may be substituted by one or more C1 -C4 alkyl groups or halo atoms; R3 is hydrogen or methyl; R4 is H or 4-(alpha-L-oleandrosyl)-alpha-L-oleandrosyloxy with the proviso that when R2 is alkyl it is not isopropyl or sec-butyl; when R4 is H, each of R and R1 is H, and R2 is not methyl or ethyl; and when R4 is H, R is H, R1 is OH, and R2 is not 2-buten-2-yl, 2-penten-2-yl or 4-methyl-2-penten-2-yl. The compounds are broad spectrum antiparasitic agents having utility as
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If antiparasitic drugs arent used the correct way, they can harm dogs. Dogs are mammals, and are physically quite similar to people. Therefore Canines would
Leishmaniasis remains a major health problem of the tropical and subtropical world. The visceral form causes the most fatalities if left untreated. Dramatic increases in the rates of infection and drug resistance and the non-availability of safe vacc
SRIWILAIJAREON N. , PETMITR S. , MUTIRANGURA A. , PONGLIKITMONGKOL M. , WILAIRAT P. Parasitology international : official journal of the Japanese Society of Parasitology 51(1), 99-103, 2002-03-01 医中誌Web 参考文献18件 被引用文献1件 ...
6. Garlic has anti-parasitic and anti-bacterial properties: Garlic has been known throughout the ages to be an effective anti-bacterial and anti-parasitic agent. Garlic extracts or small amounts of garlic in your diet can help you build up immunity and also kill infections within your system effectively. It is also known to be very effective against tapeworm infestations within the gut. ...
Indian researchers have identified a key protein that plays an important role in regulating the survival, infectivity and drug response of the parasite that causes visceral leishmaniasis - better known as kala-azar. Kala-azar is the most severe form of
Met 500 MG Tablet SR is an antiprotozoal which helps in treating infections in the stomach, genital areas. It is not recommended to take with alcohol with this medicine. Take this medicine only if it is necessary to reduce the development of resistance. Buy Met 500 MG Tablet SR Online. Know uses, side effects, dosage, contraindications, substitutes, benefit, interactions, purpose, drug interactions, precautions, warnings etc. Download Practo app & get your medicines home delivered.
Flagyl is an antiprotozoal medication, which is formulated for the treatment of infection in the stomach and genital areas. It works effectively against diarrhea.
Estimates indicate that across tropical and sub-tropical regions of the World more than 12 million people suffer from various forms of Leishmaniasis, infections caused by protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Leishmania. With no prospect of a vaccine chemotherapy is of major importance. However, current treatments are unsatisfactory & the development of new drugs is a priority. Previous drug screening programmes carried out at SBCS have identified several, potent anti-parasitic nitro- & quinone-based compounds that show little/no cytotoxicity to mammalian cells. These compounds invariably function as prodrugs & following activation are postulated to mediate their mode of action by promoting DNA damage.. ...
WebMD provides common contraindications for Paromomycin Oral. Find out what health conditions may be a health risk when taken with Paromomycin Oral
Unfortunately, our experiecnce suggests that only 50-70% of patients have the best outcomes of ART after 1-2 years, and resistance is common among patients with treatment failure. Our best outcomes...
Stanford researchers said they have identified the receptors to which opioids bind to produce tolerance to the drugs and increased sensitivity to pain. They also found that a commercially available drug limited those side effects in mice.. ...
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Evaluation of a Possible Synergistic Effect of Meglumine Antimoniate with Paromomycin, Miltefosine or Allopurinol on in Vitro Susceptibility of Leishmania tropica Resistant Isolate.
Pentavalent antimonials have been the first-line treatment for leishmaniasis for decades. However, the development of resistance to sodium stibogluconate (SSG) has limited its use, especially for treating visceral leishmaniasis (VL). The present work aims to optimize a cationic liposomal formulation of SSG for the treatment of both SSG-sensitive (AG83) and SSG-resistant (GE1F8R and CK1R) Leishmania donovani infections. Parasite killing was determined by the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and microscopic counting of Giemsa-stained macrophages. Macrophage uptake studies were carried out by confocal microscopic imaging. Parasite-liposome interactions were visualized through transmission electron microscopy. Toxicity tests were performed using assay kits. Organ parasite burdens were determined by microscopic counting and limiting dilution assays. Cytokines were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and flow cytometry. Although all cationic ...
SIQUEIRA, Carlos A. T. et al. Chemical constituents of the volatile oil from leaves of Annona coriacea and in vitro antiprotozoal activity. Rev. bras. farmacogn. [online]. 2011, vol.21, n.1. Epub Nov 26, 2010. ISSN 0102-695X. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0102-695X2011005000004.. The essential oil of the leaves from Annona coriacea Mart., Annonaceae, was extracted by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by GC/MS and GC/FID. The oil yield was 0.05% m/m. Sixty compounds were identified, in a complex mixture of sesquiterpenes (76.7%), monoterpenes (20.0%) and other constituents (3.3%). Bicyclogermacrene was its major compound (39.8%) followed by other sesquiterpenes. Most of the monoterpenes were in low concentration (,1%). Only β-pinene and pseudolimonene presented the highest level of 1.6%. The volatile oil presented anti-leishmanial and trypanocidal activity against promastigotes of four species of Leishmania and trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi, showing to be more active ...
Introduction. Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania transmitted by insects of the genus Lutzomyia sp. or Phlebotomus sp.1 There are more than 20 species of leishmanias causing clinical manifestations in humans, and the main syndromes are cutaneous leishmaniasis, mucocutaneous leishmaniasis, visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar), and post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis.2 This article reviews kidney involvement in cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis.. Cutaneous leishmaniasisKidney involvement in cutaneous leishmaniasis. There have been few studies showing renal dysfunction in American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL), which is, in some cases, associated with the use of specific treatment with pentavalent antimonial drugs.3,4. In a recent study performed in our region, a total of 73 patients admitted with ACL were evaluated. Acute kidney injury (AKI) was observed in 17 cases (23.2%), and oliguria was seen in one case. Mean value of maximum serum creatinine ...
Miltefosine, which is the first oral drug licensed for the treatment of leishmaniasis, was recently reported to be a promising lead compound for the synthesis of novel antischistosomal derivatives with potent activity in vivo against different developmental stages of Schistosoma mansoni. In this paper an in vitro study was carried out to investigate whether it has a biocidal activity against the aquatic stages of Schistosoma mansoni and its snail intermediate host, Biomphalaria alexandrina , thus being also a molluscicide. Additionally, to see whether miltefosine can have a broad spectrum antischistosomal activity, a similar in vitro study was carried out on the adult stage of Schistosoma haematobium, the second major human species, its larval stages and snail intermediate host, Bulinus truncutes. This was checked by scanning electron microscopy. Miltefosine proved to have in vitro ovicidal, schistolarvicidal and lethal activity on adult worms of both Schistosoma species and has considerable
Background: Improved treatment approaches are needed for visceral leishmaniasis. We assessed the efficacy and safety of three potential short-course combination treatments compared with the standard monotherapy in India. Methods: Standard treatment (1 mg/kg amphotericin B infusion on alternate days for 30 days, total dose 15 mg/kg) was compared with three drug combinations (single injection of 5 mg/kg liposomal amphotericin B and 7-day 50 mg oral miltefosine or single 10-day 11 mg/kg intramuscular paromomycin; or 10 days each of miltefosine and paromomycin) in an open-label, parallel-group, non-inferiority, randomised controlled trial in two hospital sites in Bihar, India. Patients aged 5-60 years with parasitologically confirmed visceral leishmaniasis were randomly assigned one of the four treatments by the trial statistician using a computer-generated list. Clinical assessments were done at the end of treatment (15 days on combination treatment; 31 days for standard treatment) and after 45 ...
Sixty-three extracts obtained from 18 plants traditionally used in the South Pacific archipelago Vanuatu for the treatment of infectious diseases were screened for antimicrobial and antiprotozoal activities. In addition, the extracts were subjected to a detailed analysis on cytotoxic effects toward a panel of human cancer cell lines, designed as a smaller version of the NCI60 screen. Intriguingly, 15 plant extracts exhibited strong cytotoxic effects specific for only one cancer cell line. Extracts of the leaves of Acalypha grandis Benth. significantly affected Plasmodium falciparum without showing obvious effects against the other protozoa tested. The leaves of Gyrocarpus americanus Jacq. displayed significant activity against Trypanosoma b. brucei and the leaves of Tabernaemontana pandacaqui Lam. I as well as the stems of Macropiper latifolium (L.f.) against Trypanosoma cruzi. In contrast none of the extracts showed relevant antibacterial or antifungal activity. ...
Giardia lamblia protozoan, coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM). This is a single-celled parasite of the intestinal tract. It is most common in tropical regions. This is the trophozoite (active, feeding) life stage of the protozoan. The cell has flagella (hair-like structures), which are used for locomotion. Giardia lamblia is the causative agent of giardiasis, an intestinal disease that causes abdominal pain, diarrhoea and nausea. It is spread through contaminated food and water. Treatment is with antibiotics or antiprotozoal drugs, such as metronidazole. - Stock Image Z100/0235
Kala-azar in the Americas is very similar to that found in the Mediterranean basin. The habit of keeping dogs and other domestic animals inside the house is thought to promote human infection. The epidemiology of CL in the Americas is complex, with variations in transmission cycles, reservoir hosts, sandfly vectors, clinical manifestations and response to therapy, and multiple circulating Leishmania species in the same geographical area.. Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL). PKDL is a sequel of visceral leishmaniasis that appears as macular, papular or nodular rash usually on face, upper arms, trunks and other parts of the body. It occurs mainly in East Africa and on the Indian subcontinent, where up to 50% and 5-10% of patients with kala-azar, respectively, develop the condition. It usually appears 6 months to 1 or more years after kala-azar has apparently been cured, but can occur earlier. People with PKDL are considered to be a potential source of kala-azar infection.. Leishmania-HIV ...
One randomized, open-label, active-controlled study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of IMPAVIDO in the treatment of visceral leishmaniasis in Bihar, India, an area where L. donovani is known epidemiologically to be the prevalent infecting species. Patients ≥ 12 years of age with clinical signs and symptoms compatible with visceral leishmaniasis (fever, splenomegaly, and cytopenia) confirmed by the presence of Leishmania amastigotes in aspirates of spleen or bone marrow were randomized to receive oral IMPAVIDO or intravenous amphotericin B deoxycholate in a 3:1 ratio. Patients weighing ≥ 25 kg received an IMPAVIDO 50 mg capsule with meals twice a day. Patients weighing , 25 kg received an IMPAVIDO 50 mg capsule with meals once a day in the morning. Weight ranged between 15 and 67 kg (mean weight 38.6 kg) and BMI ranged between 8.2 and 24 (mean 16.1). No patient weighed more than 70kg. Amphotericin B was administered intravenously over 6 continuous hours at 1 mg/kg every other day for ...
Miltefosine is an orally- and topically-active alkyl-phosphocholine compound with potential antineoplastic activity. Miltefosine targets cellular membranes, modulating cell membrane permeability, membrane lipid composition, phospholipid metabolism, and mitogenic signal transduction, resulting in cell differentiation and inhibition of cell growth. This agent also inhibits the anti-apoptotic mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and modulates the balance between the MAPK and pro-apoptotic stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK/JNK) pathways, thereby inducing apoptosis. As an immunomodulator, miltefosine stimulates T-cells, macrophages and the expression of interleukin 3 (IL-3), granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and interferon gamma (INF-gamma). Check for active clinical trials or closed clinical trials using this agent. (NCI Thesaurus).
MILTEFOSINE 89367-17-9 safety info, MILTEFOSINE chemical safety search, Chemical MILTEFOSINE safety technical specifications ect.
Antimony (Sb) is a toxic, flaky, brittle element with the symbol Sb (Latin: stibium, meaning "mark") and atomic number 51. It does not react with air, but burns brightly when ignited. Since it is not a metal, antimony is a poor conductor of both heat and electricity. The stable form of antimony is a blue-white metalloid. Yellow and black antimony are unstable non-metals. Antimony is used in flame-proofing, paints, batteries, ceramics, enamels, as a hardener for lead and other metals, and in a wide variety of alloys, electronics, and rubber. The ancient Egyptians used black stibnite as eye make-up. Antimony is a member of the "pnictogen" (group 15) of the periodic table. This is the area that has a metal near the bottom (bismuth) and some nonmetals near the top (nitrogen). Antimony in between-It is one of the few elements which is neither a metal or a non-metal. Antimony was known as an element at least as far back as the alchemists. It was first scientifically studied in 1707 by Nicolas Lemery. ...
Looking for online definition of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis in the Medical Dictionary? post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis explanation free. What is post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis? Meaning of post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis medical term. What does post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis mean?
Background and objectives: Leishmaniasis is caused by the genus Leishmania. Medications such as antimony compounds for the treatment of the disease are associated with limitations along with several side effects and disease recurrence; thus, evaluation of natural compounds with history of antimicrobial properties such as Pleurotus ostreatus, is of a great importance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the apoptotic and leishmanicidal effects of Pleurotus ostreatus alcoholic extract on Leishmania major promastigote in vitro. Methods: Different concentrations of Pleurotus ostreatus extract (50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 μg/mL) were tested at 6, 24, 48 and 72 h on Leishmania major (MRHO/IR/75/ER) promastigotes. The leishmanicidal effects were determined using MTT [3-(4,5-dimethyl thiazolyl- 2)-2,5-diphenyle tetrazolium bromide] assay. Also, apoptosis induction was measured by flow cytometry and DNA fragmentation analysis. Results:The MTT results showed that leishmanicidal effect of Pleurotus
To facilitate future pharmacokinetic studies of combination treatments against leishmaniasis in remote endemic regions, a simple and cheap sampling methodology was required for miltefosine quantification. The aim of this study was to validate a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method to quantify miltefosine in dried blood spots (DBS) and to validate its use in Ethiopian visceral leishmaniasis (VL) patients. Since hematocrit (Ht) values are typically severely decreased in VL patients, regressing to normal during treatment, the method was evaluated over a range of clinically relevant Ht values.Miltefosine was extracted from DBS using a simple pre-treatment method with methanol, resulting in ,97% recovery. The method was validated over a calibration range of 10-2,000 ng/mL and accuracy and precision were within ±11.2% and ≤7.0% (≤19.1% at LLOQ), respectively. The method was accurate and precise for blood spot volumes between 10-30 μL and for an Ht of 20-35%, though a linear ...
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), also known as kala-azar, black fever, and Dumdum fever, is the most severe form of leishmaniasis and, without proper diagnosis and treatment, is associated with high fatality. Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by protozoan parasites of the Leishmania genus. The parasite migrates to the internal organs such as the liver, spleen (hence "visceral"), and bone marrow, and, if left untreated, will almost always result in the death of the host. Signs and symptoms include fever, weight loss, fatigue, anemia, and substantial swelling of the liver and spleen. Of particular concern, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), is the emerging problem of HIV/VL co-infection. This disease is the second-largest parasitic killer in the world (after malaria), responsible for an estimated 200,000 to 400,000 infections each year worldwide. Response to infection by Leishmania donovani varies a great deal, not only by the strength but also by the type of the patients immune ...
American cutaneous leishmaniasis is characterized by a spectrum of elinical manifestations. These inelude localized, often self-healing single lesions, interrnediate forms which frequently produce mucosallesions and often show exaggerated delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), and the rare diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis in -:vhichn~ reaction o~ protect!ve cell-rnediated irnmunity or DTH can be dernonstrated. Clinical, pathological and immunological studies have begun to unravel some of the mechanisms associated with different disease manifestations, dependent on complex interactions between the host irnmune response, measured in terms of indices including lyrnphocyte subsets and lymphokines in vitro and within active lesions, and different species of Leishmania ...
INTRODUCTION. Human visceral leishmaniasis (HVL) and canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) in the New World are caused by Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi, which is transmitted by the phlebotomine Lutzomyia longipalpis. L. chagasi belongs to Leishmania donovani complex, for example, L. chagasi in the New World, and L. donovani and Leishmania infantum in the Old World. The parasite exists in distinct morphologic forms in the hosts. The promastigote, a flagellated extracellular form, is found in the sand fly vector host, whereas the amastigotes, an unflagellated intracellular parasite, is commonly found in macrophages of mammalian host tissue (Grimaldi et al., 1989; Ashford, 2000).. In Brazil, CVL is highly endemic in many Northeastern states, as Maranhão, Piauí, Ceará, Rio Grande do Norte, Paraíba, Pernambuco and Bahia. There is an association between infected dogs and the abundance of Leishmania longipalpis in these states (Deane and Deane, 1962; Cunha et al., 1995; Ashford et al., 1998). Cunha ...

Antiprotozoal Agents, Amebicides - ICD CodesAntiprotozoal Agents, Amebicides - ICD Codes

View list of generic drugs that are classified under Antiprotozoal Agents, Amebicides along with ICD Code. Find related ... Antiprotozoal Agents, Amebicides. ICD Code -Y41.3 Diloxanide This medication is an anti-protozoal agent, prescribed for ...
more infohttp://www.medindia.net/drugs/icd-codes/antiprotozoal-agents-amebicides.htm

Chagas Disease (American Trypanosomiasis) Medication: Antiprotozoal agentsChagas Disease (American Trypanosomiasis) Medication: Antiprotozoal agents

Antiprotozoal agents. Class Summary. These agents are used to treat infections caused by the protozoan T cruzi. ... The genome sequence of Trypanosoma cruzi, etiologic agent of Chagas disease. Science. 2005 Jul 15. 309(5733):409-15. [Medline] ...
more infohttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/214581-medication

Marine Drugs  | Free Full-Text | Discovery and Evaluation of Thiazinoquinones as  Anti-Protozoal Agents | HTMLMarine Drugs | Free Full-Text | Discovery and Evaluation of Thiazinoquinones as Anti-Protozoal Agents | HTML

Discovery and Evaluation of Thiazinoquinones as Anti-Protozoal Agents. Cary F. C. Lam 1, A. Norrie Pearce 1, Shen H. Tan 1,†, ... Table 1. Anti-protozoal, cytotoxic activities and clogP values of 2-4, 7a-h, j, 8a-k.. Entry. Compound. IC50 (μM) a. SI Pf g. ... Table 2. Anti-protozoal and cytotoxic activities of 10a/10b, 11a/11b, 12, 15-17.. Entry. Compound. IC50 (μM) a. SI Pf g. clogP ... Table 1. Anti-protozoal, cytotoxic activities and clogP values of 2-4, 7a-h, j, 8a-k. ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/1660-3397/11/9/3472/htm

Antiprotozoal - WikipediaAntiprotozoal - Wikipedia

"Antiprotozoal Agents: An Overview". Anti-Infective Agents in Medicinal Chemistry. 8 (4): 345-366. doi:10.2174/ ... Antiprotozoal agents (ATC code: ATC P01) is a class of pharmaceuticals used in treatment of protozoan infection. Protozoans ... The mechanisms of antiprotozoal drugs differ significantly drug to drug. For example, it appears that eflornithine, a drug used ... Antiprotozoals are used to treat protozoal infections, which include amebiasis, giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, microsporidiosis ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antiprotozoal

S100B‑p53 disengagement by pentamidine promotes apoptosis and inhibits cellular migration via aquaporin‑4 and metalloproteinase...S100B‑p53 disengagement by pentamidine promotes apoptosis and inhibits cellular migration via aquaporin‑4 and metalloproteinase...

In melanoma cells, this S100B‑p53 interaction is known to be inhibited by pentamidine isethionate, an antiprotozoal agent. Thus ... In melanoma cells, this S100B‑p53 interaction is known to be inhibited by pentamidine isethionate, an antiprotozoal agent. Thus ...
more infohttps://www.iris.unina.it/handle/11588/600181

PentamidinePentamidine

Antiparasitics - antiprotozoal agents - Excavata antiparasitics (P01). Discicristata. Trypanosomiasis. *African trypanosomiasis ...
more infohttps://readtiger.com/wkp/en/Pentamidine

Symptoms of Antiprotozoal agent-induced liver damage - RightDiagnosis.comSymptoms of Antiprotozoal agent-induced liver damage - RightDiagnosis.com

... and correct diagnosis for Antiprotozoal agent-induced liver damage signs or Antiprotozoal agent-induced liver damage symptoms. ... Symptoms of Antiprotozoal agent-induced liver damage including 16 medical symptoms and signs of Antiprotozoal agent-induced ... Do I have Antiprotozoal agent-induced liver damage? *Antiprotozoal agent-induced liver damage: Introduction *Antiprotozoal ... Treatments for Antiprotozoal agent-induced liver damage *More about Antiprotozoal agent-induced liver damage Antiprotozoal ...
more infohttps://www.rightdiagnosis.com/a/antiprotozoal_agent_induced_liver_damage/symptoms.htm

Investigation of Calcium Channel Blockers as Antiprotozoal Agents and Their Interference in the Metabolism of Leishmania (L.)...Investigation of Calcium Channel Blockers as Antiprotozoal Agents and Their Interference in the Metabolism of Leishmania (L.)...

Investigation of Calcium Channel Blockers as Antiprotozoal Agents and Their Interference in the Metabolism of Leishmania (L.) ... "Investigation of Calcium Channel Blockers as Antiprotozoal Agents and Their Interference in the Metabolism of Leishmania (L.) ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2016/1523691/cta/

ASMscience | Antiprotozoal AgentsASMscience | Antiprotozoal Agents

A newer agent, nitazoxanide, which has both anthelmintic and antiprotozoal activity, is discussed. The chapter also reviews ... There are a number of effective antiprotozoal and anthelmintic drugs currently available. These antiparasitic agents are ... The two agents used for treatment of American trypano-somiasis are nifurtimox and benznidazole. Nifurtimox has significant side ... Benznidazole crosses the placenta, but there are minimal data regarding teratogenic effects of either agent in either animals ...
more infohttp://www.asmscience.org/content/concept/Entity/ASM/Microbiology/Clinical_and_Public_Health/Antimicrobials/Antiparasitics/Antiprotozoal_Agents

Synthesis of 1-(Aryl-1H-pyrrolyl)(phenyl)methyl-1H-imidazole Derivatives as Antiprotozoal AgentsSynthesis of 1-(Aryl-1H-pyrrolyl)(phenyl)methyl-1H-imidazole Derivatives as Antiprotozoal Agents

... Our company offers the ... Synthesis of 1-(Aryl-1H-pyrrolyl)(phenyl)methyl-1H-imidazole Derivatives as Antiprotozoal Agents. Our company offers the ... Synthesis of 1-(Aryl-1H-pyrrolyl)(phenyl)methyl-1H-imidazole Derivatives as Antiprotozoal Agents. /technology-offers/6000/ ... Synthesis of 1-(Aryl-1H-pyrrolyl)(phenyl)methyl-1H-imidazole Derivatives as Antiprotozoal Agents. ...
more infohttps://www.innoget.com/technology-offers/6000/synthesis-of-1-aryl-1h-pyrrolyl-phenyl-methyl-1h-imidazole-derivatives-as-antiprotozoal-agents

Albendazole
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        Anthelmintics,  Anticestodal Agents,  Antiprotozoal Agents,  ATC:P02CA03Albendazole - Anthelmintics, Anticestodal Agents, Antiprotozoal Agents, ATC:P02CA03

For the treatment of parenchymal neurocysticercosis due to active lesions caused by larval forms of the pork tapeworm, Taenia solium and for the treatment of cystic hydatid disease of the liver, lung, and peritoneum, caused by the larval form of the dog tapeworm, Echinococcus granulosus ...
more infohttp://pharmacycode.com/Albendazole.html

IAB
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        Amebicides,  Anti-Bacterial Agents,  Antifungal Agents,  Antiprotozoal Agents,  ATC:A01AB04,  ATC:A07AA07...IAB - Amebicides, Anti-Bacterial Agents, Antifungal Agents, Antiprotozoal Agents, ATC:A01AB04, ATC:A07AA07...

Amphotericin B shows a high order of in vitro activity against many species of fungi. Histoplasma capsulatum, Coccidioides immitis, Candida species, Blastomyces dermatitidis, Rhodotorula, Cryptococcus neoformans, Sporothrix schenckii, Mucor mucedo, and Aspergillus fumigatus are all inhibited by concentrations of amphotericin B ranging from 0.03 to 1.0 mcg/mL in vitro. While Candida albicans is generally quite susceptible to amphotericin B, non-albicans species may be less susceptible. Pseudallescheria boydii and Fusarium sp. are often resistant to amphotericin B. The antibiotic is without effect on bacteria, rickettsiae, and viruses ...
more infohttp://pharmacycode.com/IAB.html

Vitamin C | GreenMedInfo | Substance | Natural Medicine | AlternativeVitamin C | GreenMedInfo | Substance | Natural Medicine | Alternative

Antiprotozoal Agents Research. [x] Remove Focus on Antiprotozoal Agents. Filter by Study Type. Animal Study. ...
more infohttp://www.greenmedinfo.com/substance/vitamin-c?ed=5208

Arsenic compounds | Agents against amoebiasis and other protozoal diseases | AntiprotozoalsArsenic compounds | Agents against amoebiasis and other protozoal diseases | Antiprotozoals

Antiprotozoals Brokerage service for pharmaceutical and parapharmaceutical products active ingredients and precursors.. ... Agents acting on the renin-angiot.. Ace inhibitors, plain Ace inhibitors, plain ... Beta blocking agents Beta blocking agents Beta blocking agents, non-selecti.. Beta blocking agents, selective ... Agents against amoebiasis and other protozoal diseases , ... Lipid modifying agents Lipid modifying agents, plain Hmg coa ...
more infohttps://goldpharma.com/article/11232/lang/ENGLISH/t/arsenic%20compounds/

Drug-induced ocular side effects (Book, 2001) [WorldCat.org]Drug-induced ocular side effects (Book, 2001) [WorldCat.org]

Antifungal agents. Antileprosy agents. Antimalarial agents. Antiprotozoal agents. Antitubercular agents --. 2. Agents affecting ... Antifungal agents. Antileprosy agents. Antimalarial agents. Antiprotozoal agents. Antitubercular agents -- 2. Agents affecting ... Oxytocic agents --. 9. Homeostatic and nutrient agents: Agents used to treat hyperglycemia. Vitamins --. 10. Agents used to ... Oxytocic agents -- 9. Homeostatic and nutrient agents: Agents used to treat hyperglycemia. Vitamins -- 10. Agents used to treat ...
more infohttp://www.worldcat.org/title/drug-induced-ocular-side-effects/oclc/44129071

Chloroquine - LiverTox - NCBI BookshelfChloroquine - LiverTox - NCBI Bookshelf

It is also effective in extraintestinal amebiasis and as an antiinflammatory agent for therapy of rheumatoid arthritis and ... Antiprotozoal agents. In, Zimmerman HJ. Hepatotoxicity: the adverse effects of drugs and other chemicals on the liver. 2nd ed. ... Int J Antimicrob Agents 2005; 26: 176-8. [PubMed: 16009537]. (50 year old woman developed jaundice four days after starting ... There does not seem to be cross reactivity to hepatic injury among the various antimalarial agents and switching to other drug ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK548224/

Molecules | Free Full-Text | Antiprotozoal Activity against Entamoeba histolytica of Plants Used in Northeast Mexican...Molecules | Free Full-Text | Antiprotozoal Activity against Entamoeba histolytica of Plants Used in Northeast Mexican...

... attention has been paid to plants used in traditional medicine around the world in order to find new antiprotozoal agents. We ... showed the more significant antiprotozoal activity (91.54% and 90.50% growth inhibition at a concentration of 150 µg/mL with ... used in Northeast Mexican traditional medicine and the methanolic extracts of these species were screened for antiprotozoal ... antiprotozoal agents; 1D- and 2D-NMR data neglected diseases; amoebiasis; Mexican medicinal plants; bioguided isolation; ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/19/12/21044

Artemisinin-Based Antimalarial Combinations and Clinical Response in Cameroon - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govArtemisinin-Based Antimalarial Combinations and Clinical Response in Cameroon - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Antiprotozoal Agents. Antiparasitic Agents. Anti-Infective Agents. Antifungal Agents. Coccidiostats. Schistosomicides. ... Both compounds are effective as single agents. However, recrudescence is common with artemether and lumefantrine has a slow ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01845701?recr=Open&cond=%22Protozoan+Infections%22&rank=19

Effect of Weight and/or Obesity on Dapsone Drug Concentrations - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.govEffect of Weight and/or Obesity on Dapsone Drug Concentrations - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov

Anti-Infective Agents. Antimalarials. Antiprotozoal Agents. Antiparasitic Agents. Folic Acid Antagonists. Enzyme Inhibitors. ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01165840?recr=Open&cond=%22Leprosy%22&rank=7

MK-7625A Plus Metronidazole Versus Meropenem in Pediatric Participants With Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infection (cIAI) (MK...MK-7625A Plus Metronidazole Versus Meropenem in Pediatric Participants With Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infection (cIAI) (MK...

Anti-Infective Agents. Anti-Bacterial Agents. Antiprotozoal Agents. Antiparasitic Agents. beta-Lactamase Inhibitors. Enzyme ...
more infohttps://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03217136

Comparison of Trimetrexate Plus Leucovorin Calcium Rescue Versus Sulfamethoxazole-Trimethoprim in the Treatment of Pneumocystis...Comparison of Trimetrexate Plus Leucovorin Calcium Rescue Versus Sulfamethoxazole-Trimethoprim in the Treatment of Pneumocystis...

Antiprotozoal Agents. AIDS-Related Complex. Sulfamethoxazole-Trimethoprim. Additional relevant MeSH terms: HIV Infections. ... Bone Density Conservation Agents. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Antidotes. Protective Agents. Vitamin B Complex. ... Another antiprotozoal regimen for this episode for therapy of active Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP). ...
more infohttps://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00001013

Metronidazole Hydrochloride Monograph for Professionals - Drugs.comMetronidazole Hydrochloride Monograph for Professionals - Drugs.com

Class: Antiprotozoals, Miscellaneous. - Antiprotozoal Agents. VA Class: AM900. CAS Number: 443-48-1. Brands: Flagyl ... Susceptibility of Mobiluncus species to 23 antimicrobial agents and 15 other compounds. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1987; 31: ... Susceptibility of Propionibacterium acnes clinical isolates to 22 antimicrobial agents. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1983; 23: ... Antibacterial and antiprotozoal;.152 197 430 494 495 nitroimidazole derivative.494. Uses for Metronidazole Hydrochloride. Bone ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/monograph/metronidazole-hydrochloride.html

Please give us all your moneyPlease give us all your money

Sodium Gluconate :: pharmacology; Antiprotozoal Agents ::. pharmacology; Cell Line; Chromatography, Ion Exchange; Cresols ::. ... Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1993 Sep ;37 (9):1842-6 8239593. (P,S,G,E,B). W L Roberts, P M Rainey. Department of Laboratory ...
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Chagas Disease | GreenMedInfo | Disease | Natural MedicineChagas Disease | GreenMedInfo | Disease | Natural Medicine

Pharmacological Actions : Antiparasitic Agents, Antiprotozoal Agents. Additional Keywords : Essential Oils. [+] Red propolis ... Pharmacological Actions : Anti-Fibrotic, Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Cardioprotective, Interferon Gamma Reducer, Interleukin-10 ... Pubmed Data : Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2018 Jul 9. Epub 2018 Jul 9. PMID: 29987143 ...
more infohttps://www.greenmedinfo.com/disease/chagas-disease

Secnidazole - Drugs.comSecnidazole - Drugs.com

Antiprotozoal agent: Amebicide. Chemical Names. α,2-Dimetyl-5-nitroimidazole-1-etanol (WHO) ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/international/secnidazole.html
  • For example, it appears that eflornithine, a drug used to treat trypanosomiasis, inhibits ornithine decarboxylase, while the aminoglycoside antibiotic/antiprotozoals used to treat leishmaniasis are thought to inhibit protein synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protozoans have little in common with each other (for example, Entamoeba histolytica, an unikont eukaryotic organism, is less closely related to Naegleria fowleri, a bikont eukaryotic organism, than it is to Homo sapiens, which belongs to the unikont phylogenetic group) and so agents effective against one pathogen may not be effective against another. (wikipedia.org)
  • These antiparasitic agents are important both for therapy of individual patients and for control of parasitic infections at the community level. (asmscience.org)
  • Because of the side-effects and the resistance that pathogenic protozoa build against the standard antiparasitic drugs, e.g., metronidazole, much recent attention has been paid to plants used in traditional medicine around the world in order to find new antiprotozoal agents. (mdpi.com)
  • Our company offers the chemical optimization service - synthesis of a unique 1-(aryl-1H-pyrrolyl)(phenyl)methyl-1H-imidazole derivatives for your biological projects, related to developing of antiprotozoal drugs. (innoget.com)
  • Benznidazole crosses the placenta, but there are minimal data regarding teratogenic effects of either agent in either animals or humans. (asmscience.org)
  • Juliana Quero Reimão, Juliana Tonini Mesquita, Daiane Dias Ferreira, and Andre Gustavo Tempone, "Investigation of Calcium Channel Blockers as Antiprotozoal Agents and Their Interference in the Metabolism of Leishmania (L.) infantum ," Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , vol. 2016, Article ID 1523691, 9 pages, 2016. (hindawi.com)