Agents used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. The most commonly used drugs act on the dopaminergic system in the striatum and basal ganglia or are centrally acting muscarinic antagonists.
A muscarinic antagonist that has effects in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It has been used in the treatment of arteriosclerotic, idiopathic, and postencephalitic parkinsonism. It has also been used to alleviate extrapyramidal symptoms induced by phenothiazine derivatives and reserpine.
A muscarinic antagonist used to treat drug-induced parkinsonism and to relieve pain from muscle spasm.
Removal of a drug from the market due to the identification of an intrinsic property of the drug that results in a serious risk to public health.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate CHOLINERGIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of ACETYLCHOLINE or cholinergic agonists.
A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)
Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.

Analysis of gabapentin in serum and plasma by solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for therapeutic drug monitoring. (1/798)

A simple method for the determination of gabapentin (Neurontin) is described. The method uses solid-phase extraction by disk column and derivatization followed by gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis. The single-step derivatization with MTBSTFA produces a t-BDMS derivative of both the carboxylic and amine moieties of the molecule. Each step of the procedure was optimized to assure reliable performance of the method. The assay limit of detection was 0.1 microg/mL with a linear range from 1.0 to 35 microg/mL. Within-run (n = 3) and between-run (n = 40) coefficients of variation were less than 8.2 and 15.9%, respectively. The method has proven reliable in routine production for more than a year, producing clean chromatography with unique ion fragments, consistent ion mass ratios, and no interferences. Statistical analysis of the gabapentin concentrations measured in 1020 random specimens over a 2-month period showed a mean concentration of 6.07 microg/mL with a standard deviation of 5.28.  (+info)

Impairment in preattentive visual processing in patients with Parkinson's disease. (2/798)

We explored the possibility of whether preattentive visual processing is impaired in Parkinson's disease. With this aim, visual discrimination thresholds for orientation texture stimuli were determined in two separate measurement sessions in 16 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. The results were compared with those of 16 control subjects age-matched and 16 young healthy volunteers. Discrimination thresholds were measured in a four-alternative spatial forced-choice paradigm, in which subjects judged the location of a target embedded in a background of distractors. Four different stimulus configurations were employed: (i) a group of vertical targets among horizontal distractors ('vertical line targets'); (ii) targets with varying levels of orientation difference on a background of spatially filtered vertically oriented noise ('Gaussian filtered noise'); (iii) one 'L' among 43 '+' signs ('texton'), all of which assess preattentive visual processing; and (iv) control condition, of one 'L' among 43 'T' distractors ('non-texton' search target), which reflects attentive visual processing. In two of the preattentive tasks (filtered noise and texton), patients with Parkinson's disease required significantly greater orientation differences and longer stimulus durations, respectively. In contrast, their performance in the vertical line target and non-texton search target was comparable to that of the matched control subjects. These differences were more pronounced in the first compared with the second session. Duration of illness and age within the patient group correlated significantly with test performance. In all conditions tested, the young control subjects performed significantly better than the more elderly control group, further indicating an effect of age on this form of visual processing. The results suggest that, in addition to the well documented impairment in retinal processing, idiopathic Parkinson's disease is associated with a deficit in preattentive cortical visual processing.  (+info)

Low-dose clozapine for the treatment of drug-induced psychosis in Parkinson's disease. The Parkinson Study Group. (3/798)

BACKGROUND: Drug-induced psychosis is a difficult problem to manage in patients with Parkinson's disease. Multiple open-label studies have reported that treatment with clozapine at low doses ameliorates psychosis without worsening parkinsonism. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of low doses of clozapine (6.25 to 50 mg per day) in 60 patients at six sites over a period of 14 months. The patients (mean age, 72 years) had idiopathic Parkinson's disease and drug-induced psychosis of at least four weeks' duration. All the patients continued to receive fixed doses of antiparkinsonian drugs during the four weeks of the trial. Blood counts were monitored weekly in all the patients. RESULTS: The mean dose of clozapine was 24.7 mg per day. The patients in the clozapine group had significantly more improvement than those in the placebo group in all three of the measures used to determine the severity of psychosis. The mean (+/-SE) scores on the Clinical Global Impression Scale improved by 1.6+/-0.3 points for the patients receiving clozapine, as compared with 0.5+/-0.2 point for those receiving placebo (P<0.001). The score on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale improved by 9.3+/-1.5 points for the patients receiving clozapine, as compared with 2.6+/-1.3 points for those receiving placebo (P=0.002). The score on the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms improved by 11.8+/-2.0 points for the patients receiving clozapine, as compared with 3.8+/-1.9 points for those receiving placebo (P=0.01). Seven patients treated with clozapine had an improvement of at least three on the seven-point Clinical Global Impression Scale, as compared with only one patient given placebo. Clozapine treatment improved tremor and had no deleterious effect on the severity of parkinsonism. In one patient, clozapine was discontinued because of leukopenia. CONCLUSIONS: Clozapine, at daily doses of 50 mg or less, is safe and significantly improves drug-induced psychosis without worsening parkinsonism.  (+info)

Reassessment of unilateral pallidotomy in Parkinson's disease. A 2-year follow-up study. (4/798)

Unilateral pallidotomy has gained popularity in treating the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. We present the results of a 2-year post-pallidotomy follow-up study. Using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), the Goetz dyskinesia scale and the Purdue Pegboard Test (PPBT), we evaluated 20 patients at regular intervals both off and on medications for 2 years post-pallidotomy. There were no significant changes in the dosages of antiparkinsonian medications from 3 months pre-pallidotomy to 2 years post-pallidotomy. On the side contralateral to the operation, the improvements were preserved in 'on'-state dyskinesia (83% reduction from pre-pallidotomy to 2 years post-pallidotomy, P < 0.001) and 'off'-state tremor (90% reduction from pre-pallidotomy to 2 years post-pallidotomy, P = 0.005). There were no statistically significant differences between pre-pallidotomy scores and those at 2 years post-pallidotomy in ipsilateral dyskinesia, axial dyskinesia, 'off'- or 'on'-state PPBT, 'off'-state Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and 'off'-state gait and postural stability. After 2 years, the 'on'-state ADL scores worsened by 75%, compared with pre-pallidotomy (P = 0.005). We conclude that 2 years after pallidotomy, the improvements in dyskinesia and tremor on the side contralateral to pallidotomy are preserved, while the initial improvements in most other deficits disappear, either because of progression of pathology or loss of the early efficacy achieved by surgery.  (+info)

The effect of steady-state ropinirole on plasma concentrations of digoxin in patients with Parkinson's disease. (5/798)

AIMS: The aim of this single-blind study was to assess the effect of ropinirole, a novel treatment for Parkinson's disease, on the steady-state pharmacokinetics and safety of digoxin in 10 patients with Parkinson's disease. METHODS: There were three parts to the study: digoxin once daily plus placebo three times daily for 1 week; digoxin once daily plus ropinirole three times daily for 6 weeks; and digoxin once daily plus placebo three times daily for 1 week. Serial blood samples were collected over 24 h at the end of each part of the study for pharmacokinetic assessment. Pre-dose blood samples were collected on specific days throughout the study to assess the attainment of steady-state plasma levels of digoxin. The primary endpoints were AUC(0, tau) and Cmax for digoxin. RESULTS: There was a mean decrease of 10% in digoxin AUC (0, tau) (90% CI: 0.79, 1.01) and a 25% decrease in digoxin Cmax (90% CI: 0.58, 0.97) when ropinirole was co-administered, compared with digoxin alone Cmin plasma values for digoxin, however, were fairly constant throughout the study (point estimates 0.99, 95% CI: 0.85, 1.15). Changes in trough levels of digoxin are believed to be the most reliable way of assessing steady-state concentrations of digoxin, and therefore the clinical significance of an interaction. Changes in Cmax are too readily influenced by other factors. CONCLUSIONS: These results therefore indicate that on pharmacokinetic grounds no dose adjustment is necessary for digoxin co-administered with ropinirole.  (+info)

Efficacy, safety, and tolerance of the non-ergoline dopamine agonist pramipexole in the treatment of advanced Parkinson's disease: a double blind, placebo controlled, randomised, multicentre study. (6/798)

OBJECTIVES: Pramipexole, a non-ergot dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist, was investigated as an add on drug in advanced parkinsonian patients with motor fluctuations to assess efficacy, safety, and tolerance. METHODS: Seventy eight patients of either sex with advanced Parkinson's disease and treatment complications such as motor fluctuations were enrolled into a double blind, placebo controlled, randomised, multicentre study (phase II) and assigned to add on treatment with pramipexole (n=34) versus placebo (n=44) to a previously stabilised antiparkinsonian medication (7 week dose titration interval, 4 week maintenance period). The primary end point of efficacy was the change from baseline in the total score of the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS) in the on "period" (2 hours after intake of study medication). Safety and tolerability were assessed on the basis of adverse events, vital signs, laboratory measurements, and ECG recordings. RESULTS: There was a significant improvement of the pramipexole group in UPDRS total scores, subscores part II, III (activities of daily living and motor examination), and IV (complications of therapy). Mean UPDRS total score decreased by 37.3% under pramipexole compared with 12.2% under placebo (p<0.001). Patients under pramipexole reported an overall reduction in "off" periods of 12%--resulting in 1.7 more hours "on" time a day--compared with an increase in "off" periods of 2% under placebo. There were no unexpected safety results. The adverse event profile disclosed a high tolerability. The most important adverse events under pramipexole were fatigue, dyskinesia, and vivid dreams. CONCLUSION: Pramipexole administration is an efficacious and well tolerated add on therapy in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease with an improvement in activities of daily living, motor function, and treatment associated complications.  (+info)

Impairment of EEG desynchronisation before and during movement and its relation to bradykinesia in Parkinson's disease. (7/798)

OBJECTIVE: It has been suggested that the basal ganglia act to release cortical elements from idling (alpha) rhythms so that they may become coherent in the gamma range, thereby binding together those distributed activities necessary for the effective selection and execution of a motor act. This hypothesis was tested in 10 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. METHODS: Surface EEG was recorded during self paced squeezing of the hand and elbow flexion performed separately, simultaneously, or sequentially. Recordings were made after overnight withdrawal of medication and, again, 1 hour after levodopa. The medication related improvement in EEG desynchronisation (in the 7.5-12.5 Hz band) over the 1 second before movement and during movement were separately correlated with the improvement in movement time for each electrode site. Correlation coefficients (r) > 0.632 were considered significant (p<0.05). RESULTS: Improvement in premovement desynchronisation correlated with reduction in bradykinesia over the contralateral sensorimotor cortex and supplementary motor area in flexion and squeeze, respectively. However, when both movements were combined either simultaneously or sequentially, this correlation shifted anteriorly, to areas overlying prefrontal cortex. Improvement in EEG desynchronisation during movement only correlated with reduction in bradykinesia in two tasks. Correlation was seen over the supplementary motor area during flexion, and central prefrontal and ipsilateral premotor areas during simultaneous flex and squeeze. CONCLUSIONS: The results are consistent with the idea that the basal ganglia liberate frontal cortex from idling rhythms, and that this effect is focused and specific in so far as it changes with the demands of the task. In particular, the effective selection and execution of more complex tasks is associated with changes over the prefrontal cortex.  (+info)

Affective symptoms in multiple system atrophy and Parkinson's disease: response to levodopa therapy. (8/798)

The objective was to determine the extent to which psychiatric disturbances (especially mood disorders) generally considered poor prognostic factors, are present in patients with striatonigral (SND) type multiple system atrophy (MSA) compared with patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD). The Hamilton depression scale (HAM-D), brief psychiatric rating scale (BPRS), and Unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS) were administered to clinically probable non-demented patients with SND-type MSA and patients with IPD matched for age and motor disability, at baseline and after receiving levodopa. At baseline total HAM-D score was greater in patients with IPD. Overall, BPRS score did not differ between the two groups; however, patients with IPD scored higher on anxiety items of the BPRS, and patients with MSA had higher scores on the item indicating blunted affect. After levodopa, both groups improved significantly in UPDRS and HAM-D total scores (just significant for patients with MSA). Patients with IPD improved significantly in total BPRS score but patients with MSA did not. At baseline patients with IPD were more depressed and anxious than patients with MSA who, by contrast, showed blunted affect. After levodopa, depression and anxiety of patients with IPD improved significantly whereas the affective detachment of patients with MSA did not change. Major neuronal loss in the caudate and ventral striatum, which are part of the lateral orbitofrontal and limbic circuits, may be responsible for the blunted affect not responsive to levodopa therapy found in patients with MSA.  (+info)

Antiparkinson agents are a class of medications used to treat the symptoms of Parkinson's disease and related disorders. These agents work by increasing the levels or activity of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the brain that is responsible for regulating movement and coordination.

There are several types of antiparkinson agents, including:

1. Levodopa: This is the most effective treatment for Parkinson's disease. It is converted to dopamine in the brain and helps to replace the missing dopamine in people with Parkinson's.
2. Dopamine agonists: These medications mimic the effects of dopamine in the brain and can be used alone or in combination with levodopa. Examples include pramipexole, ropinirole, and rotigotine.
3. Monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) inhibitors: These medications block the breakdown of dopamine in the brain and can help to increase its levels. Examples include selegiline and rasagiline.
4. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) inhibitors: These medications block the breakdown of levodopa in the body, allowing it to reach the brain in higher concentrations. Examples include entacapone and tolcapone.
5. Anticholinergic agents: These medications block the action of acetylcholine, another neurotransmitter that can contribute to tremors and muscle stiffness in Parkinson's disease. Examples include trihexyphenidyl and benztropine.

It is important to note that antiparkinson agents can have side effects, and their use should be carefully monitored by a healthcare professional. The choice of medication will depend on the individual patient's symptoms, age, overall health, and other factors.

Biperiden is an anticholinergic drug, which is primarily used to treat symptoms of Parkinson's disease such as stiffness, tremors, spasms, and poor muscle control. It works by blocking the action of a certain natural substance (acetylcholine) in the body. Biperiden can also be used to treat related conditions such as drooling, loss of bladder control, and movement disorders caused by certain medications.

Biperiden may also be used for purposes not listed in its medical product label, as determined by a doctor. It is available in immediate-release and extended-release tablets and oral solution forms. Common side effects include dizziness, drowsiness, dry mouth, blurred vision, and difficulty urinating. Serious side effects are rare but may include hallucinations, irregular heartbeat, and mental/mood changes.

It is important to follow the instructions of a healthcare professional when taking biperiden, as it can interact with other medications and have potentially serious side effects if not used properly.

Orphenadrine is an anticholinergic and skeletal muscle relaxant drug. It is primarily used to treat symptoms associated with muscle pain and stiffness, such as those caused by strains, sprains, or other muscle injuries. Orphenadrine works by blocking the action of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter that plays a role in muscle contraction. This helps to reduce muscle spasms and relieve pain. It is available in immediate-release and extended-release forms, and is often prescribed in combination with other medications, such as aspirin or acetaminophen, to provide additional pain relief.

It's important to note that Orphenadrine can have side effects, including dizziness, dry mouth, blurred vision, and constipation. It should be used under the direction of a healthcare professional, and patients should follow their instructions carefully when taking this medication. Additionally, it may interact with other medications, so it's important to inform your doctor about all the medications you are currently taking before starting on Orphenadrine.

Safety-based drug withdrawals refer to the removal of a medication from the market due to concerns about its safety profile. This action is typically taken by regulatory authorities, such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), when new information emerges that suggests a drug may pose an unacceptable risk of harm to patients, even if the benefit-risk balance was previously considered favorable.

Safety-based drug withdrawals can occur for various reasons, including the identification of new adverse effects, interactions with other medications or medical conditions, or an increased understanding of the drug's pharmacology or toxicology. In some cases, safety-based drug withdrawals may be temporary, allowing the manufacturer to conduct further studies and address the safety concerns. However, in other instances, the withdrawal may be permanent, leading to the discontinuation of the drug's production and distribution.

It is important to note that safety-based drug withdrawals are rare and typically represent a small fraction of the drugs approved for use. Nevertheless, they serve as an essential mechanism for protecting public health and ensuring that medications on the market are safe and effective for their intended use.

Cholinergic antagonists, also known as anticholinergics or parasympatholytics, are a class of drugs that block the action of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the nervous system. They achieve this by binding to and blocking the activation of muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, which are found in various organs throughout the body, including the eyes, lungs, heart, gastrointestinal tract, and urinary bladder.

The blockade of these receptors results in a range of effects depending on the specific organ system involved. For example, cholinergic antagonists can cause mydriasis (dilation of the pupils), cycloplegia (paralysis of the ciliary muscle of the eye), tachycardia (rapid heart rate), reduced gastrointestinal motility and secretion, urinary retention, and respiratory tract smooth muscle relaxation.

Cholinergic antagonists are used in a variety of clinical settings, including the treatment of conditions such as Parkinson's disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, gastrointestinal disorders, and urinary incontinence. Some common examples of cholinergic antagonists include atropine, scopolamine, ipratropium, and oxybutynin.

It's important to note that cholinergic antagonists can have significant side effects, particularly when used in high doses or in combination with other medications that affect the nervous system. These side effects can include confusion, memory impairment, hallucinations, delirium, and blurred vision. Therefore, it's essential to use these drugs under the close supervision of a healthcare provider and to follow their instructions carefully.

Parkinson's disease is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects movement. It is characterized by the death of dopamine-producing cells in the brain, specifically in an area called the substantia nigra. The loss of these cells leads to a decrease in dopamine levels, which results in the motor symptoms associated with Parkinson's disease. These symptoms can include tremors at rest, stiffness or rigidity of the limbs and trunk, bradykinesia (slowness of movement), and postural instability (impaired balance and coordination). In addition to these motor symptoms, non-motor symptoms such as cognitive impairment, depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbances are also common in people with Parkinson's disease. The exact cause of Parkinson's disease is unknown, but it is thought to be a combination of genetic and environmental factors. There is currently no cure for Parkinson's disease, but medications and therapies can help manage the symptoms and improve quality of life.

Antipsychotic agents are a class of medications used to manage and treat psychosis, which includes symptoms such as delusions, hallucinations, paranoia, disordered thought processes, and agitated behavior. These drugs work by blocking the action of dopamine, a neurotransmitter in the brain that is believed to play a role in the development of psychotic symptoms. Antipsychotics can be broadly divided into two categories: first-generation antipsychotics (also known as typical antipsychotics) and second-generation antipsychotics (also known as atypical antipsychotics).

First-generation antipsychotics, such as chlorpromazine, haloperidol, and fluphenazine, were developed in the 1950s and have been widely used for several decades. They are generally effective in reducing positive symptoms of psychosis (such as hallucinations and delusions) but can cause significant side effects, including extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), such as rigidity, tremors, and involuntary movements, as well as weight gain, sedation, and orthostatic hypotension.

Second-generation antipsychotics, such as clozapine, risperidone, olanzapine, quetiapine, and aripiprazole, were developed more recently and are considered to have a more favorable side effect profile than first-generation antipsychotics. They are generally effective in reducing both positive and negative symptoms of psychosis (such as apathy, anhedonia, and social withdrawal) and cause fewer EPS. However, they can still cause significant weight gain, metabolic disturbances, and sedation.

Antipsychotic agents are used to treat various psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, major depressive disorder with psychotic features, delusional disorder, and other conditions that involve psychosis or agitation. They can be administered orally, intramuscularly, or via long-acting injectable formulations. The choice of antipsychotic agent depends on the individual patient's needs, preferences, and response to treatment, as well as the potential for side effects. Regular monitoring of patients taking antipsychotics is essential to ensure their safety and effectiveness.

Highest Development Phases: Preclinical : Neurological disorders; Type 2 diabetes mellitus (Antiparkinsonian agents, Peptides, ...
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Catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitor F.. Macdonald (1997). Dictionary of Pharmacological Agents. CRC Press. p. 1635. ISBN 978 ... It was patented as an antiparkinson medication but was never marketed. ...
"Differential actions of antiparkinson agents at multiple classes of monoaminergic receptor. I. A multivariate analysis of the ... "Differential actions of antiparkinson agents at multiple classes of monoaminergic receptor. II. Agonist and antagonist ... "an iatrogenic worsening of RLS symptoms following treatment with dopaminergic agents" and may include an earlier onset of ... These observations provide novel insights into the long-term antiparkinson, antidepressant and additional clinical actions of ...
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"Differential actions of antiparkinson agents at multiple classes of monoaminergic receptor. I. A multivariate analysis of the ... "Differential actions of antiparkinson agents at multiple classes of monoaminergic receptor. II. Agonist and antagonist ... "Differential actions of antiparkinson agents at multiple classes of monoaminergic receptor. III. Agonist and antagonist ... that the greater affinity bromocriptine and many similar antiparkinson's drugs have for the D2S receptor form (considered to be ...
"Differential actions of antiparkinson agents at multiple classes of monoaminergic receptor. I. A multivariate analysis of the ... "Differential actions of antiparkinson agents at multiple classes of monoaminergic receptor. II. Agonist and antagonist ... "Differential actions of antiparkinson agents at multiple classes of monoaminergic receptor. III. Agonist and antagonist ... The use of lisuride as initial antiparkinsonian medication for Parkinson's disease has been advocated, delaying the need for ...
"Differential actions of antiparkinson agents at multiple classes of monoaminergic receptor. I. A multivariate analysis of the ... "Differential actions of antiparkinson agents at multiple classes of monoaminergic receptor. II. Agonist and antagonist ... "Differential actions of antiparkinson agents at multiple classes of monoaminergic receptor. III. Agonist and antagonist ... where a decreased response to an anti-Parkinson drug such as L-DOPA causes muscle stiffness and loss of muscle control. While ...
"Differential actions of antiparkinson agents at multiple classes of monoaminergic receptor. I. A multivariate analysis of the ... "Differential actions of antiparkinson agents at multiple classes of monoaminergic receptor. II. Agonist and antagonist ... "Differential actions of antiparkinson agents at multiple classes of monoaminergic receptor. III. Agonist and antagonist ... a new putative antiparkinsonian drug". Soc Neurosci Abs. 17: 1075. Staff. News: Farmitalia bought by Kabi Pharmacia[permanent ...
June 2001). "Antiparkinsonian agent piribedil displays antagonist properties at native, rat, and cloned, human alpha(2)- ... Piribedil (trade names Pronoran, Trivastal Retard, Trastal, Trivastan, Clarium and others) is an antiparkinsonian agent and ... "Differential actions of antiparkinson agents at multiple classes of monoaminergic receptor. II. Agonist and antagonist ...
"Differential actions of antiparkinson agents at multiple classes of monoaminergic receptor. I. A multivariate analysis of the ... "Differential actions of antiparkinson agents at multiple classes of monoaminergic receptor. II. Agonist and antagonist ... "Differential actions of antiparkinson agents at multiple classes of monoaminergic receptor. III. Agonist and antagonist ...
Agents Chemother. 35 (3): 572-4. doi:10.1128/AAC.35.3.572. PMC 245052. PMID 1674849. Klockgether T, Turski L (October 1990). " ... "NMDA antagonists potentiate antiparkinsonian actions of L-dopa in monoamine-depleted rats". Ann. Neurol. 28 (4): 539-46. doi: ... Papp M, Moryl E, Maccecchini ML (December 1996). "Differential effects of agents acting at various sites of the NMDA receptor ... Dizocilpine had a promising future as a neuroprotective agent until neurotoxic-like effects, called Olney's Lesions, were seen ...
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... (brand name Parkinsan) is an antiparkinson agent marketed for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. While its exact ... Antiparkinsonian agents, Drugs with unknown mechanisms of action, 4-Phenylpiperidines, Tert-butyl compounds, Benzhydryl ... Kornhuber J, Herr B, Thome J, Riederer P (1995). "The antiparkinsonian drug budipine binds to NMDA and sigma receptors in ...
... (Pentona) is an anticholinergic used as an antiparkinsonian agent in Japan. Government registered description of ... Antiparkinsonian agents, Muscarinic antagonists, Thiophenes, Carboxylate esters, Tertiary alcohols, All stub articles, Nervous ...
... (brand name Lepticur) is an anticholinergic used as an antiparkinsonian agent. The Grignard reaction between 3- ...
... (brand name Trimol) is an anticholinergic and antihistamine used as an antiparkinsonian agent. Piroheptine was ... Antiparkinsonian agents, Dibenzocycloheptenes, H1 receptor antagonists, Muscarinic antagonists, Pyrrolidines, All stub articles ... Ohashi T, Akita H, Tamura T, Noda K, Honda F (June 1972). "Effect of piroheptine, a new antiparkinson drug, on dopamine uptake ...
... (Phenoxene) is an antihistamine and anticholinergic used as an antipruritic and antiparkinsonian agent. It is ...
June 2001). "Antiparkinsonian agent piribedil displays antagonist properties at native, rat, and cloned, human alpha(2)- ...
It was patented as a possible sedative, antiepileptic, and/or antiparkinsonian agent, but was never marketed. Thies PW, Asai A ... Dictionary of Pharmacological Agents Volume 2. CRC Press. 1996-11-21. p. 2104. ISBN 978-0-412-46630-4. Retrieved 22 April 2012 ...
... (brand names Aturbal and Aturbane) is an anticholinergic used[citation needed] as an antiparkinsonian agent. ...
... antiparkinson agents, migraine therapy, stimulants and other agents causing serotonin syndrome. It is thought to be caused by ... Pethidine's apparent in vitro efficacy as an antispasmodic agent is due to its local anesthetic effects. It does not have ... Synthesized in 1938 as a potential anticholinergic agent by the German chemist Otto Eisleb, its analgesic properties were first ...
It was under investigation as an antiparkinsonian agent but was discontinued due to concerns of tumorogenesis in rodents. Voith ... Koller WC, Fields JZ, Gordon JH, Perlow MJ (September 1986). "Evaluation of ciladopa hydrochloride as a potential anti-Parkinson ...
... and antiparkinsonian agent. However, it was instead later studied as a potential antidepressant and/or anxiolytic agent, though ... Francis Gilbert McMahon (1974). Psychopharmacological agents. Futura Pub. Co. ISBN 978-0-87993-052-3. Retrieved 27 April 2012. ...
Antiparkinsonian agents, Muscarinic antagonists, Thioxanthenes, Piperidines, All stub articles, Nervous system drug stubs). ... is an anticholinergic used as an antiparkinsonian agent. 3-Quinuclidinyl thiochromane-4-carboxylate Dothiepin Anvisa (2023-03- ... Morton IK, Hall JM (1999). "Metixene". Concise Dictionary of Pharmacological Agents: Properties and Synonyms. Dordrecht: ...
The utility of diphenhydramine as an antiparkinson agent is the result of its blocking properties on the muscarinic ... It is a member of the ethanolamine class of antihistaminergic agents. By reversing the effects of histamine on the capillaries ... Diphenhydramine is a potent anticholinergic agent and potential deliriant in higher doses. This activity is responsible for the ... Dilsaver SC (February 1988). "Antimuscarinic agents as substances of abuse: a review". Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology. ...
... a potent and long-acting antiparkinsonian agent". Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. 47 (4): 399-410. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.1971 ...
Clinical drugs used as an antiparkinsonian agent such as Trihexyphenidyl are known to create tactile hallucinations in patients ... Additionally, as mentioned above, Trihexyphenidyl is an antiparkinsonian drug that creates tactile hallucination. The mechanism ...
... antiparkinsonian agent). A prodrug, GCC1290K, has been developed on account of 3-HM's poor bioavailability (18%), and a New ... Ganellin CR, Triggle DJ, Macdonald F (1997). Dictionary of pharmacological agents. CRC Press. p. 1378. ISBN 978-0-412-46630-4. ...
... antiparkinsonian agent, and antihypertensive agent. It was chiefly investigated as a drug to treat insomnia, especially to ... Audia A, Bhat KP (January 2018). "Ritanserin, a novel agent targeting the mesenchymal subtype of glioblastomas". Neuro-Oncology ... Morton I, Morton IK, Hall JM (31 October 1999). Concise Dictionary of Pharmacological Agents: Properties and Synonyms. Springer ...
Anti-Parkinson Agents. Class Summary. Anti-Parkinson medications have been useful in patients with brain injuries because these ... In addition to the agents that may enhance thinking skills, aggressive management of specific symptoms is also warranted, ... Although most notably used in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), this agent often helps with ... Has wake-promoting actions similar to sympathomimetic agents. Improves wakefulness in patients with excessive daytime ...
Antiparkinson Agents, Dopamine Agonists. Class Summary. Dopamine-receptor agonists make up another pharmacologic option. They ... After transsphenoidal surgery, these agents are generally a first-line treatment, followed by a dopamine-receptor agonist or GH ... However, circulating GH and insulinlike growth factor ̶ I (IGF-I) levels rarely normalize with these agents. ... have modest effects if used as single agents and are usually added to somatostatin analogues if complete remission has not been ...
Highest Development Phases: Preclinical : Neurological disorders; Type 2 diabetes mellitus (Antiparkinsonian agents, Peptides, ...
Antiparkinson agents (e.g., bromocriptine [Parlodel], levodopa, trihexyphenidyl). Antipsychotics (e.g., chlorpromazine, ... If antidepressants are used, the specific agent should be one that is less likely to worsen ED (e.g., bupropion, mirtazapine, ... Sildenafil is the only PDE-5 inhibitor that is available generically; generic formulations of other agents are expected to be ... Hormones and hormone-active agents (e.g., 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors, androgen receptor blockers, androgen synthesis ...
Dopaminergic drugs serving as treatment agents for the disease strongly affect the area postrema, which has a high density of ... Accordingly, a common side effect of antiparkinsonian drugs is nausea.[13]. Other Issues. The structure has links to a ...
Treatment with anti-parkinsonian agents, benzodiazepines or propranolol may be helpful. Pseudo-Parkinsonism: Symptoms may ... Anti- parkinsonism agents should be used only when required. Generally, therapy of a few weeks to 2 or 3 months will suffice. ... Other pressor agents, including epinephrine, should not be used because they may cause a paradoxical further lowering of blood ... Or, injectable Benadryl®ll may be useful). In more severe cases, the administration of an anti-parkinsonism agent, except ...
Nonanticholinergic antiparkinson agents should be considered first when treating Parkinson Disease (Beers Criteria) ... Comment: Anticholinergic agents may enhance the therapeutic effects of levodopa; however, anticholinergic agents can exacerbate ... Comment: Anticholinergic agents may enhance the therapeutic effects of levodopa; however, anticholinergic agents can exacerbate ... Applies only to oral form of both agents. Use Caution/Monitor.. trihexyphenidyl decreases levels of loxapine by pharmacodynamic ...
Drug related problems with antiparkinsonian agents: consumer internet reports vs. published data ... Discovery of novel cd4 inhibitors as immunosuppressive agents Effect of additivies on the characteristics of ngf-plga ... Establish drug safety mechanism of dispensing accuracy for chemotherapy agents. Evaluation of computerized physician order ... Developing resveratrol analogs as potential anti-angiogenic agents. Development a ms/nmr correlation heterospectroscopy method ...
... glutathione codrugs as new anti-Parkinson agents with free radical scavenging properties. J. Med. Chem. 2007, 50, 2506-2515. [ ... Agents Chemother. 2021, 65. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]. *Beigel, J.H.; Tomashek, K.M.; Dodd, L.E.; Mehta, A.K.; Zingman, B.S ... Agents Chemother. 2019, 63, 12. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]. *Good, S.S.; Westover, J.; Jung, K.H.; Zhou, X.J ... Agents Chemother. 2012, 56, 3498-3507. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]. *Kozal, M.; Aberg, J.; Pialoux, G.; Cahn, P ...
Azilect is an antiparkinsonian agent, a specific inhibitor of monoamine oxidase. Brands: Azilect ...
Antiparkinson Agent; Dopamine Agent. Form:. Free Base. GLOBALLY HARMONIZED SYSTEM (GHS). Pictograms. ...
Propofol is an ideal agent to use because of its rapid metabolism and emergence profile. Neuromuscular blocking agents can be ... Drugs used in anaesthesia may interact with anti-parkinsonian medication and there is controversy about the optimal anaesthetic ... These drugs may have significant interactions with anesthetic agents.1 In addition, there are several disease and drug-induced ... for intravenous administration alone may be dangerous during general anesthesia because of interactions with anesthetic agents ...
07056 Agents for Alzheimer-type dementia. 07057 Antiparkinsonian agents. Chronology: Other drugs 07055 Sulfonamide derivatives ... 07026 Antifungal agents. 07044 Antiviral agents. 07053 Anti-HIV agents. Chronology: Antineoplastics 07040 Antineoplastics - ... alkylating agents. 07041 Antineoplastics - antimetabolic agents. 07042 Antineoplastics - agents from natural products. 07043 ... 07052 Antidyslipidemic agents. 07054 Antiglaucoma agents. Target-based classification: G protein-coupled receptors 07220 ...
Antiparkinson medicinal products of the anticholinergic type may be prescribed as required to manage extrapyramidal symptoms, ... plasma or concentrated albumin and vasopressor agents, such as dopamine or noradrenaline. Adrenaline must not be used because ... If concomitant treatment with an antiparkinson medicinal product is required, it may have to be continued after stopping HALDOL ... In cases of severe extrapyramidal reactions, parenteral administration of an antiparkinson medicinal product is recommended. ...
Antiparkinson Agents / therapeutic use* * Behavior / drug effects * Catalepsy / chemically induced * Catalepsy / drug therapy ... opening promising perspectives for the development of antiparkinsonian therapeutic strategies focused on orthosteric mGlu4- ...
Antiparkinson Agents 8% * Gastrointestinal Agents 8% * Odds Ratio 7% * European Union 6% ...
amantadine, and anti-Parkinson therapy also used to treat or prevent certain illnesses caused by viruses ... Parkinsons disease and as aid to anaesthesia from a class called anticholinergic agents ...
... a selective monoamine oxidase-B inhibitor and novel antiparkinsonian agent) in a single molecule. M-30, the second derivative ... a selective monoamine oxidase-B inhibitor and novel antiparkinsonian agent) in a single molecule. M-30, the second derivative ... Rasagiline: a novel anti-Parkinsonian monoamine oxidase-B inhibitor with neuroprotective activity. Prog Neurobiol 2010; 92(3): ... Regulation of protein kinase C by the anti-Parkinson drug, MAO-B inhibitor, rasagiline and its derivatives, in vivo. J ...
ANTIPARKINSONIAN AGENT 93022 ARTIFICIAL TEAR SOLUTION 93023 ASACOL 93024 ASPERCREME 93025 ATROHIST PLUS 93029 BETA CAROTENE ... Antimycobacterial Agents 0358 Antifungal Agents 0388 Antiviral Agents 0400 HEMATOLOGIC AGENTS 0408 Agents Used to Treat ... ANTIOBESITY AGENT 35490 ANTIPRURITIC AGENT 35495 ANTIPYRETIC AGENT 35500 ANTITHYROID AGENT 35510 ANTIVIRAL AGENT 35530 BACTINE ... ANTIDEPRESSANT AGENT 35420 ANTIDIABETIC AGENT 35425 ANTIDIARRHEAL AGENT 35430 ANTIEMETIC AGENT 35445 ANTIFUNGAL AGENT 35450 ...
Mechanism of Action: Atropine is an anticholinergic agent which competitively blocks the binding of acetylcholine to muscarinic ... antiparkinsonian drugs, antispasmodics (e.g. domperidone), and some antihistamines (e.g. promethazine). Reduces absorption of ... Antagonises miotic actions of ophthalmic long-acting cholinergic antiglaucoma agents (e.g. echothiopate). May increase toxic ...
Sebastianutto, I., Goyet, E., Andreoli, L., Font-Ingles, J., Moreno-Delgado, D., Bouquier, N., Jahannault-Talignani, C., Moutin, E., Di Menna, L., Maslava, N., Pin, J. P., Fagni, L., Nicoletti, F., Ango, F., Cenci, M. A. & Perroy, J., 2020 Mar 2, In: Journal of Clinical Investigation. 130, 3, p. 1168-1184. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article › peer-review ...
Antiparkinson agents33 products * Migraine medications1313 products * Neurovascular1818 products ...
ANTIPARKINSONIAN AGENTS. 283604. ADAMANTANES. 283608. ANTICHOLINERGIC AGENTS. 283612. CATECHOL-O-METHYLTRANSFERASE (COMT) ...
These results suggest that the combination of physical activity with an anti-oxidant agent does not have a synergistic ... or anti-oxidant agents (such as N-acetyl-L-cysteine, NAC) are common therapeutic strategies. Therefore, this study aims to ... Design, synthesis and biochemical evaluation of novel multi-target inhibitors as potential anti-Parkinson agents. Eur J Med ... These results suggest that the combination of physical activity with an anti-oxidant agent does not have a synergistic ...
Amantadine is an antiparkinson and antiviral agent. It may block reproduction of the virus and decrease the ability of the ...
Antiparkinsonian agents11 product. *Antiperspirant spray33 products. *Antiplatelets44 products ...
Differential actions of antiparkinson agents at multipleclasses of monoaminoergic receptor. II. Agonist andantagonist ... Central nervous system agents in relevance is (at least) doubtful (Franchimont et al., the treatment of erectile dysfunction: ... Hypersexuality with antiparkinsonian (2000). Young women with PD: a group work experience.. therapy. Clin Neuropharmacol 12:375 ... ion of pergolide in the situation of dopamine agonist parkinson agents at multiple classes of monoaminergic treatment need ...
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal. *Antiparkinson Agents. *Arm. *Astrocytes. *Autoimmune Diseases. *Awareness ...
Anticholinergic antiparkinsonian agent may be needed to counter EPS. Strong anticholinergic agent and alpha blocker ...
  • TV-3326 combines the neurorestorative/neuroprotective effects of the cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitory activity of rivastigmine with rasagiline (a selective monoamine oxidase-B inhibitor and novel antiparkinsonian agent) in a single molecule. (benthamscience.com)
  • The need for continued use of antiparkinsonian medication should be reevaluated periodically. (drugcentral.org)
  • Cases of PD and parkinsonism in a geographically defined rural area of North Wales were ascertained from the prescription of antiparkinsonian medication in primary care, hospital records, attendance at general medical outpatient clinics and at a specialist movement disorder clinic. (ox.ac.uk)
  • slightly more effective than anticholinergic agents. (medscape.com)
  • Many drugs (eg, tricyclic antidepressants, sedating antihistamines, urinary antimuscarinic agents, some antipsychotic drugs, antiparkinsonian drugs with atropine -like activity, many over-the-counter hypnotics and cold preparations) have anticholinergic effects. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Generally, anticholinergic antiparkinsonian agents (i.e., benztropine, biperiden, procyclidine, or trihexphenidyl) and amantadine are helpful in alleviating symptoms that cannot be managed by neuroleptic dose reduction. (drugcentral.org)
  • Finally, systemic administration of LSP1-2111 counteracts haloperidol-induced catalepsy, opening promising perspectives for the development of antiparkinsonian therapeutic strategies focused on orthosteric mGlu4-receptor agonists. (nih.gov)
  • Prochlorperazine Maleate is classified as an anti-emetic and antipsychotic agent. (nih.gov)
  • After transsphenoidal surgery, these agents are generally a first-line treatment, followed by a dopamine-receptor agonist or GH receptor antagonist. (medscape.com)
  • These drugs may have significant interactions with anesthetic agents. (ispub.com)
  • Nonamphetamine CNS agents have actions that are similar to sympathomimetic agents. (medscape.com)
  • Has wake-promoting actions similar to sympathomimetic agents. (medscape.com)
  • The value of prophylactic antiparkinsonian drug therapy has not been established. (drugcentral.org)
  • They have modest effects if used as single agents and are usually added to somatostatin analogues if complete remission has not been achieved. (medscape.com)
  • Within this group, epilepsy is refractory in up to 40 % of patients, who have shown para el control de síntomas refractarios en a decrease in the frequency of seizures with the concomitant use of cannabidiol and conventional antiepileptics, with mild síndromes convulsivos side effects such as diarrhea and drowsiness. (bvsalud.org)
  • Although most notably used in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), this agent often helps with hypoarousal. (medscape.com)
  • Many drugs (eg, tricyclic antidepressants, sedating antihistamines, urinary antimuscarinic agents, some antipsychotic drugs, antiparkinsonian drugs with atropine -like activity, many over-the-counter hypnotics and cold preparations) have anticholinergic effects. (msdmanuals.com)
  • This study aims to examine the effects of ziprasidone, an atypical antipsychotic agent, on locomotor activity and motor functions in mice with experimental Parkinson s disease 2.5, 5 and 10 mg kg -1 doses of ziprasidone were used. (scialert.net)
  • Frequently, one dose day is sufficient, and divided doses may be unnecessary or undesirable.The long duration of action of this drug makes it particularly suitable for bedtime medication when its effects may last throughout the night, enabling patients to turn in bed during the night more easily, and to rise in the morning.When benztropine mesylate is started, do not terminate therapy with other antiparkinsonian agents abruptly. (drugcentral.org)
  • Several substituted coumarins have shown activity as inhibitors of monoamine oxidase B. Objective: To evaluate the possible antiparkinsonian effects of the coumarin analogue FCS005 (3-methyl-7H-furo[3,2-g]chromen-7-one) in mouse models, as well as its inhibitory activity towards monoamine oxidases (MAO) and its antioxidant activity. (scielo.org)
  • If adverse effects such as visual hallucinations and orthostatic hypotension are seen in patients with DLB following the use of dopamine agents, zonisamide might be a good alternative therapeutic option. (medcraveonline.com)
  • Although NIOSH hazardous drug evaluation includes consideration of carcinogenicity and geno- toxicity, this evaluation is tailored to identify and evaluate data from human toxicity profiles, animal studies and in vitro studies unique to evaluating therapeutic agents. (cdc.gov)
  • Los inhibidores de la monoamino oxidasa B se emplean en el tratamiento de esta enfermedad en monoterapia o concomitantemente con levodopa. (scielo.org)
  • El compuesto FCS005 en dosis de 100 mg/kg produjo la remisión de la hipocinesia en los modelos de reserpina y de levodopa. (scielo.org)
  • Because better options are not available, however, these agents remain the treatment of choice for the disease. (medscape.com)
  • These agents are used for the treatment of acute and short-term insomnia. (medscape.com)
  • The management of Parkinson s Disease Psychosis (PDP) is a challenge requiring to diminish antiparkinson treatment or to use classical antipsychotics which worsen motor symptoms. (scialert.net)
  • Antiparkinsonian treatment-related neuropsychiatric complications like psychosis and hallucinations are common in the late stages of the disease ( Schrag, 2004 ) and probably, they are the most important complications considering their morbidity, negative effects on life quality and complexity of treatment ( Rabey, 2009 ). (scialert.net)
  • Psychotic symptoms are thought to be the most frequent psychiatric complication associated with antiparkinsonian treatment ( Kummer and Teixeira, 2009 ). (scialert.net)
  • In the patient-derived glioma cell lines NULU and ZAR, which exhibit drug-resistant phenotypes, we investigated the effect of combined AE (Aloe-emodin) and TMZ (temozolomide) and found a significant additive inhibitory effect on cell growth and a promising cytotoxic effect on both cell lines compared to treatment with single agents. (bvsalud.org)
  • Sildenafil Citrate is present in Fildena XXX 100 mg as an active agent used in the treatment of erectile dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension. (genericshot.com)
  • These agents have been the hypnotics of choice for many years because of their relative safety compared with barbiturates. (medscape.com)
  • However, typical antipsychotics have unfavorable effects on extra pyramidal motor symptoms in PD therefore, they are not convenient agents to treat hallucinations or psychosis ( Schindehutte and Trenkwalder, 2007 ). (scialert.net)
  • Anti-parkinsonian agents are used for improving motor symptoms, but have the potential to lead to psychotic problems such as hallucinations and confusion, while anti-psychotic agents are used for improving psychotic symptoms, but can potentially lead motor problem [3]. (medcraveonline.com)
  • We suggest that ziprasidone may be a safe agent at low dose in PDP. (scialert.net)
  • The usual daily dose is to mg with range of 0.5 to mg orally.As with any agent used in parkinsonism, dosage must be individualized according to age and weight, and the type of parkinsonism being treated. (drugcentral.org)
  • La proteína de suero ha sido utilizada con mayor frecuencia por adultos en dosis de hasta 30 gramos por vía oral al día durante un máximo de 6 meses. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Thus, agents that block the receptors, such as benztropine mesylate and trihexyphenidyl, are administered to reduce symptoms, though their actions are modest. (britannica.com)
  • The bromperidol levels in the four‐times‐a‐day group were significantly higher than those in the once‐a‐day group and the daily variation in the serum level of the agent was markedly wider in the latter than in the former patients. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Natural Medicines Comprehensive Database (La Base Exhaustiva de Datos de Medicamentos Naturales) clasifica la eficacia, basada en evidencia científica, de acuerdo a la siguiente escala: Eficaz, Probablemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Eficaz, Posiblemente Ineficaz, Probablemente Ineficaz, Ineficaz, e Insuficiente Evidencia para Hacer una Determinación. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Triazolam, a short-acting agent, is good for use in sleep-onset insomnia. (medscape.com)
  • It is a good agent for sleep-maintenance insomnia. (medscape.com)

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