A major affective disorder marked by severe mood swings (manic or major depressive episodes) and a tendency to remission and recurrence.
Agents that are used to treat bipolar disorders or mania associated with other affective disorders.
A syndrome characterized by depressions that recur annually at the same time each year, usually during the winter months. Other symptoms include anxiety, irritability, decreased energy, increased appetite (carbohydrate cravings), increased duration of sleep, and weight gain. SAD (seasonal affective disorder) can be treated by daily exposure to bright artificial lights (PHOTOTHERAPY), during the season of recurrence.
A lithium salt, classified as a mood-stabilizing agent. Lithium ion alters the metabolism of BIOGENIC MONOAMINES in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, and affects multiple neurotransmission systems.
A group of two-ring heterocyclic compounds consisting of a benzene ring fused to a diazepine ring.
An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.
Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.
Works about books, articles or other publications on herbs or plants describing their medicinal value.
Agents used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. The most commonly used drugs act on the dopaminergic system in the striatum and basal ganglia or are centrally acting muscarinic antagonists.
A muscarinic antagonist that has effects in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It has been used in the treatment of arteriosclerotic, idiopathic, and postencephalitic parkinsonism. It has also been used to alleviate extrapyramidal symptoms induced by phenothiazine derivatives and reserpine.
A muscarinic antagonist used to treat drug-induced parkinsonism and to relieve pain from muscle spasm.
Drugs that bind to and activate dopamine receptors.
A potentially fatal syndrome associated primarily with the use of neuroleptic agents (see ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) which are in turn associated with dopaminergic receptor blockade (see RECEPTORS, DOPAMINE) in the BASAL GANGLIA and HYPOTHALAMUS, and sympathetic dysregulation. Clinical features include diffuse MUSCLE RIGIDITY; TREMOR; high FEVER; diaphoresis; labile blood pressure; cognitive dysfunction; and autonomic disturbances. Serum CPK level elevation and a leukocytosis may also be present. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1199; Psychiatr Serv 1998 Sep;49(9):1163-72)
Skeletal muscle relaxant that acts by interfering with excitation-contraction coupling in the muscle fiber. It is used in spasticity and other neuromuscular abnormalities. Although the mechanism of action is probably not central, dantrolene is usually grouped with the central muscle relaxants.
A heterogeneous group of drugs used to produce muscle relaxation, excepting the neuromuscular blocking agents. They have their primary clinical and therapeutic uses in the treatment of muscle spasm and immobility associated with strains, sprains, and injuries of the back and, to a lesser degree, injuries to the neck. They have been used also for the treatment of a variety of clinical conditions that have in common only the presence of skeletal muscle hyperactivity, for example, the muscle spasms that can occur in MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p358)
A semisynthetic ergotamine alkaloid that is a dopamine D2 agonist. It suppresses prolactin secretion.
Agents that control agitated psychotic behavior, alleviate acute psychotic states, reduce psychotic symptoms, and exert a quieting effect. They are used in SCHIZOPHRENIA; senile dementia; transient psychosis following surgery; or MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; etc. These drugs are often referred to as neuroleptics alluding to the tendency to produce neurological side effects, but not all antipsychotics are likely to produce such effects. Many of these drugs may also be effective against nausea, emesis, and pruritus.
An antiviral that is used in the prophylactic or symptomatic treatment of influenza A. It is also used as an antiparkinsonian agent, to treat extrapyramidal reactions, and for postherpetic neuralgia. The mechanisms of its effects in movement disorders are not well understood but probably reflect an increase in synthesis and release of dopamine, with perhaps some inhibition of dopamine uptake.
A phenyl-piperidinyl-butyrophenone that is used primarily to treat SCHIZOPHRENIA and other PSYCHOSES. It is also used in schizoaffective disorder, DELUSIONAL DISORDERS, ballism, and TOURETTE SYNDROME (a drug of choice) and occasionally as adjunctive therapy in INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY and the chorea of HUNTINGTON DISEASE. It is a potent antiemetic and is used in the treatment of intractable HICCUPS. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p279)
An inhibitor of DOPA DECARBOXYLASE, preventing conversion of LEVODOPA to dopamine. It is used in PARKINSON DISEASE to reduce peripheral adverse effects of LEVODOPA. It has no antiparkinson actions by itself.
The naturally occurring form of DIHYDROXYPHENYLALANINE and the immediate precursor of DOPAMINE. Unlike dopamine itself, it can be taken orally and crosses the blood-brain barrier. It is rapidly taken up by dopaminergic neurons and converted to DOPAMINE. It is used for the treatment of PARKINSONIAN DISORDERS and is usually given with agents that inhibit its conversion to dopamine outside of the central nervous system.
Dosage forms of a drug that act over a period of time by controlled-release processes or technology.
Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a product or its container or wrapper. It includes purpose, effect, description, directions, hazards, warnings, and other relevant information.
The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for drugs and BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS. These include those in ampule, capsule, tablet, solution or other forms. Packaging includes immediate-containers, secondary-containers, and cartons. In the United States, such packaging is controlled under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act which also stipulates requirements for tamper-resistance and child-resistance. Similar laws govern use elsewhere. (From Code of Federal Regulations, 21 CFR 1 Section 210, 1993) DRUG LABELING is also available.
An intermediate-acting INSULIN preparation with onset time of 2 hours and duration of 24 hours. It is produced by crystallizing ZINC-insulin-PROTAMINES at neutral pH 7. Thus it is called neutral protamine Hagedorn for inventor Hans Christian Hagedorn.
Accidental or deliberate use of a medication or street drug in excess of normal dosage.
A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).
Analgesic antipyretic derivative of acetanilide. It has weak anti-inflammatory properties and is used as a common analgesic, but may cause liver, blood cell, and kidney damage.
A cell surface receptor for INSULIN. It comprises a tetramer of two alpha and two beta subunits which are derived from cleavage of a single precursor protein. The receptor contains an intrinsic TYROSINE KINASE domain that is located within the beta subunit. Activation of the receptor by INSULIN results in numerous metabolic changes including increased uptake of GLUCOSE into the liver, muscle, and ADIPOSE TISSUE.
Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.
Acute or chronic pain in the lumbar or sacral regions, which may be associated with musculo-ligamentous SPRAINS AND STRAINS; INTERVERTEBRAL DISK DISPLACEMENT; and other conditions.
Acute or chronic pain located in the posterior regions of the THORAX; LUMBOSACRAL REGION; or the adjacent regions.
Aching sensation that persists for more than a few months. It may or may not be associated with trauma or disease, and may persist after the initial injury has healed. Its localization, character, and timing are more vague than with acute pain.
Behavior-response patterns that characterize the individual.
Decompression external to the body, most often the slow lessening of external pressure on the whole body (especially in caisson workers, deep sea divers, and persons who ascend to great heights) to prevent DECOMPRESSION SICKNESS. It includes also sudden accidental decompression, but not surgical (local) decompression or decompression applied through body openings.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
Determination of the degree of a physical, mental, or emotional handicap. The diagnosis is applied to legal qualification for benefits and income under disability insurance and to eligibility for Social Security and workmen's compensation benefits.
A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)
Abnormal involuntary movements which primarily affect the extremities, trunk, or jaw that occur as a manifestation of an underlying disease process. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent episodes of dyskinesia as a primary manifestation of disease may be referred to as dyskinesia syndromes (see MOVEMENT DISORDERS). Dyskinesias are also a relatively common manifestation of BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES.
Abnormal movements, including HYPERKINESIS; HYPOKINESIA; TREMOR; and DYSTONIA, associated with the use of certain medications or drugs. Muscles of the face, trunk, neck, and extremities are most commonly affected. Tardive dyskinesia refers to abnormal hyperkinetic movements of the muscles of the face, tongue, and neck associated with the use of neuroleptic agents (see ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS). (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1199)
A centrally active muscarinic antagonist that has been used in the symptomatic treatment of PARKINSON DISEASE. Benztropine also inhibits the uptake of dopamine.
Solid dosage forms, of varying weight, size, and shape, which may be molded or compressed, and which contain a medicinal substance in pure or diluted form. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Tricyclic anorexigenic agent unrelated to and less toxic than AMPHETAMINE, but with some similar side effects. It inhibits uptake of catecholamines and blocks the binding of cocaine to the dopamine uptake transporter.
Devices designed to provide personal protection against injury to individuals exposed to hazards in industry, sports, aviation, or daily activities.
A thioxanthene with therapeutic actions similar to the phenothiazine antipsychotics. It is an antagonist at D1 and D2 dopamine receptors.
Sodium chloride-dependent neurotransmitter symporters located primarily on the PLASMA MEMBRANE of dopaminergic neurons. They remove DOPAMINE from the EXTRACELLULAR SPACE by high affinity reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS and are the target of DOPAMINE UPTAKE INHIBITORS.
N-methyl-8-azabicyclo[3.2.1]octanes best known for the ones found in PLANTS.

Analysis of gabapentin in serum and plasma by solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for therapeutic drug monitoring. (1/798)

A simple method for the determination of gabapentin (Neurontin) is described. The method uses solid-phase extraction by disk column and derivatization followed by gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis. The single-step derivatization with MTBSTFA produces a t-BDMS derivative of both the carboxylic and amine moieties of the molecule. Each step of the procedure was optimized to assure reliable performance of the method. The assay limit of detection was 0.1 microg/mL with a linear range from 1.0 to 35 microg/mL. Within-run (n = 3) and between-run (n = 40) coefficients of variation were less than 8.2 and 15.9%, respectively. The method has proven reliable in routine production for more than a year, producing clean chromatography with unique ion fragments, consistent ion mass ratios, and no interferences. Statistical analysis of the gabapentin concentrations measured in 1020 random specimens over a 2-month period showed a mean concentration of 6.07 microg/mL with a standard deviation of 5.28.  (+info)

Impairment in preattentive visual processing in patients with Parkinson's disease. (2/798)

We explored the possibility of whether preattentive visual processing is impaired in Parkinson's disease. With this aim, visual discrimination thresholds for orientation texture stimuli were determined in two separate measurement sessions in 16 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. The results were compared with those of 16 control subjects age-matched and 16 young healthy volunteers. Discrimination thresholds were measured in a four-alternative spatial forced-choice paradigm, in which subjects judged the location of a target embedded in a background of distractors. Four different stimulus configurations were employed: (i) a group of vertical targets among horizontal distractors ('vertical line targets'); (ii) targets with varying levels of orientation difference on a background of spatially filtered vertically oriented noise ('Gaussian filtered noise'); (iii) one 'L' among 43 '+' signs ('texton'), all of which assess preattentive visual processing; and (iv) control condition, of one 'L' among 43 'T' distractors ('non-texton' search target), which reflects attentive visual processing. In two of the preattentive tasks (filtered noise and texton), patients with Parkinson's disease required significantly greater orientation differences and longer stimulus durations, respectively. In contrast, their performance in the vertical line target and non-texton search target was comparable to that of the matched control subjects. These differences were more pronounced in the first compared with the second session. Duration of illness and age within the patient group correlated significantly with test performance. In all conditions tested, the young control subjects performed significantly better than the more elderly control group, further indicating an effect of age on this form of visual processing. The results suggest that, in addition to the well documented impairment in retinal processing, idiopathic Parkinson's disease is associated with a deficit in preattentive cortical visual processing.  (+info)

Low-dose clozapine for the treatment of drug-induced psychosis in Parkinson's disease. The Parkinson Study Group. (3/798)

BACKGROUND: Drug-induced psychosis is a difficult problem to manage in patients with Parkinson's disease. Multiple open-label studies have reported that treatment with clozapine at low doses ameliorates psychosis without worsening parkinsonism. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of low doses of clozapine (6.25 to 50 mg per day) in 60 patients at six sites over a period of 14 months. The patients (mean age, 72 years) had idiopathic Parkinson's disease and drug-induced psychosis of at least four weeks' duration. All the patients continued to receive fixed doses of antiparkinsonian drugs during the four weeks of the trial. Blood counts were monitored weekly in all the patients. RESULTS: The mean dose of clozapine was 24.7 mg per day. The patients in the clozapine group had significantly more improvement than those in the placebo group in all three of the measures used to determine the severity of psychosis. The mean (+/-SE) scores on the Clinical Global Impression Scale improved by 1.6+/-0.3 points for the patients receiving clozapine, as compared with 0.5+/-0.2 point for those receiving placebo (P<0.001). The score on the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale improved by 9.3+/-1.5 points for the patients receiving clozapine, as compared with 2.6+/-1.3 points for those receiving placebo (P=0.002). The score on the Scale for the Assessment of Positive Symptoms improved by 11.8+/-2.0 points for the patients receiving clozapine, as compared with 3.8+/-1.9 points for those receiving placebo (P=0.01). Seven patients treated with clozapine had an improvement of at least three on the seven-point Clinical Global Impression Scale, as compared with only one patient given placebo. Clozapine treatment improved tremor and had no deleterious effect on the severity of parkinsonism. In one patient, clozapine was discontinued because of leukopenia. CONCLUSIONS: Clozapine, at daily doses of 50 mg or less, is safe and significantly improves drug-induced psychosis without worsening parkinsonism.  (+info)

Reassessment of unilateral pallidotomy in Parkinson's disease. A 2-year follow-up study. (4/798)

Unilateral pallidotomy has gained popularity in treating the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. We present the results of a 2-year post-pallidotomy follow-up study. Using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), the Goetz dyskinesia scale and the Purdue Pegboard Test (PPBT), we evaluated 20 patients at regular intervals both off and on medications for 2 years post-pallidotomy. There were no significant changes in the dosages of antiparkinsonian medications from 3 months pre-pallidotomy to 2 years post-pallidotomy. On the side contralateral to the operation, the improvements were preserved in 'on'-state dyskinesia (83% reduction from pre-pallidotomy to 2 years post-pallidotomy, P < 0.001) and 'off'-state tremor (90% reduction from pre-pallidotomy to 2 years post-pallidotomy, P = 0.005). There were no statistically significant differences between pre-pallidotomy scores and those at 2 years post-pallidotomy in ipsilateral dyskinesia, axial dyskinesia, 'off'- or 'on'-state PPBT, 'off'-state Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and 'off'-state gait and postural stability. After 2 years, the 'on'-state ADL scores worsened by 75%, compared with pre-pallidotomy (P = 0.005). We conclude that 2 years after pallidotomy, the improvements in dyskinesia and tremor on the side contralateral to pallidotomy are preserved, while the initial improvements in most other deficits disappear, either because of progression of pathology or loss of the early efficacy achieved by surgery.  (+info)

The effect of steady-state ropinirole on plasma concentrations of digoxin in patients with Parkinson's disease. (5/798)

AIMS: The aim of this single-blind study was to assess the effect of ropinirole, a novel treatment for Parkinson's disease, on the steady-state pharmacokinetics and safety of digoxin in 10 patients with Parkinson's disease. METHODS: There were three parts to the study: digoxin once daily plus placebo three times daily for 1 week; digoxin once daily plus ropinirole three times daily for 6 weeks; and digoxin once daily plus placebo three times daily for 1 week. Serial blood samples were collected over 24 h at the end of each part of the study for pharmacokinetic assessment. Pre-dose blood samples were collected on specific days throughout the study to assess the attainment of steady-state plasma levels of digoxin. The primary endpoints were AUC(0, tau) and Cmax for digoxin. RESULTS: There was a mean decrease of 10% in digoxin AUC (0, tau) (90% CI: 0.79, 1.01) and a 25% decrease in digoxin Cmax (90% CI: 0.58, 0.97) when ropinirole was co-administered, compared with digoxin alone Cmin plasma values for digoxin, however, were fairly constant throughout the study (point estimates 0.99, 95% CI: 0.85, 1.15). Changes in trough levels of digoxin are believed to be the most reliable way of assessing steady-state concentrations of digoxin, and therefore the clinical significance of an interaction. Changes in Cmax are too readily influenced by other factors. CONCLUSIONS: These results therefore indicate that on pharmacokinetic grounds no dose adjustment is necessary for digoxin co-administered with ropinirole.  (+info)

Efficacy, safety, and tolerance of the non-ergoline dopamine agonist pramipexole in the treatment of advanced Parkinson's disease: a double blind, placebo controlled, randomised, multicentre study. (6/798)

OBJECTIVES: Pramipexole, a non-ergot dopamine D2/D3 receptor agonist, was investigated as an add on drug in advanced parkinsonian patients with motor fluctuations to assess efficacy, safety, and tolerance. METHODS: Seventy eight patients of either sex with advanced Parkinson's disease and treatment complications such as motor fluctuations were enrolled into a double blind, placebo controlled, randomised, multicentre study (phase II) and assigned to add on treatment with pramipexole (n=34) versus placebo (n=44) to a previously stabilised antiparkinsonian medication (7 week dose titration interval, 4 week maintenance period). The primary end point of efficacy was the change from baseline in the total score of the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS) in the on "period" (2 hours after intake of study medication). Safety and tolerability were assessed on the basis of adverse events, vital signs, laboratory measurements, and ECG recordings. RESULTS: There was a significant improvement of the pramipexole group in UPDRS total scores, subscores part II, III (activities of daily living and motor examination), and IV (complications of therapy). Mean UPDRS total score decreased by 37.3% under pramipexole compared with 12.2% under placebo (p<0.001). Patients under pramipexole reported an overall reduction in "off" periods of 12%--resulting in 1.7 more hours "on" time a day--compared with an increase in "off" periods of 2% under placebo. There were no unexpected safety results. The adverse event profile disclosed a high tolerability. The most important adverse events under pramipexole were fatigue, dyskinesia, and vivid dreams. CONCLUSION: Pramipexole administration is an efficacious and well tolerated add on therapy in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease with an improvement in activities of daily living, motor function, and treatment associated complications.  (+info)

Impairment of EEG desynchronisation before and during movement and its relation to bradykinesia in Parkinson's disease. (7/798)

OBJECTIVE: It has been suggested that the basal ganglia act to release cortical elements from idling (alpha) rhythms so that they may become coherent in the gamma range, thereby binding together those distributed activities necessary for the effective selection and execution of a motor act. This hypothesis was tested in 10 patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. METHODS: Surface EEG was recorded during self paced squeezing of the hand and elbow flexion performed separately, simultaneously, or sequentially. Recordings were made after overnight withdrawal of medication and, again, 1 hour after levodopa. The medication related improvement in EEG desynchronisation (in the 7.5-12.5 Hz band) over the 1 second before movement and during movement were separately correlated with the improvement in movement time for each electrode site. Correlation coefficients (r) > 0.632 were considered significant (p<0.05). RESULTS: Improvement in premovement desynchronisation correlated with reduction in bradykinesia over the contralateral sensorimotor cortex and supplementary motor area in flexion and squeeze, respectively. However, when both movements were combined either simultaneously or sequentially, this correlation shifted anteriorly, to areas overlying prefrontal cortex. Improvement in EEG desynchronisation during movement only correlated with reduction in bradykinesia in two tasks. Correlation was seen over the supplementary motor area during flexion, and central prefrontal and ipsilateral premotor areas during simultaneous flex and squeeze. CONCLUSIONS: The results are consistent with the idea that the basal ganglia liberate frontal cortex from idling rhythms, and that this effect is focused and specific in so far as it changes with the demands of the task. In particular, the effective selection and execution of more complex tasks is associated with changes over the prefrontal cortex.  (+info)

Affective symptoms in multiple system atrophy and Parkinson's disease: response to levodopa therapy. (8/798)

The objective was to determine the extent to which psychiatric disturbances (especially mood disorders) generally considered poor prognostic factors, are present in patients with striatonigral (SND) type multiple system atrophy (MSA) compared with patients with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD). The Hamilton depression scale (HAM-D), brief psychiatric rating scale (BPRS), and Unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS) were administered to clinically probable non-demented patients with SND-type MSA and patients with IPD matched for age and motor disability, at baseline and after receiving levodopa. At baseline total HAM-D score was greater in patients with IPD. Overall, BPRS score did not differ between the two groups; however, patients with IPD scored higher on anxiety items of the BPRS, and patients with MSA had higher scores on the item indicating blunted affect. After levodopa, both groups improved significantly in UPDRS and HAM-D total scores (just significant for patients with MSA). Patients with IPD improved significantly in total BPRS score but patients with MSA did not. At baseline patients with IPD were more depressed and anxious than patients with MSA who, by contrast, showed blunted affect. After levodopa, depression and anxiety of patients with IPD improved significantly whereas the affective detachment of patients with MSA did not change. Major neuronal loss in the caudate and ventral striatum, which are part of the lateral orbitofrontal and limbic circuits, may be responsible for the blunted affect not responsive to levodopa therapy found in patients with MSA.  (+info)

The aim of our study was to understand the effects of dopamine replacement therapy on various aspects of cognition in patients with Parkinsons disease. When it comes to this particular disease, the part of the brain most affected by dopamine depletion is the striatum which is divided into several structures. In Parkinsons disease, the dorsal striatum is more severely affected than the ventral striatum, which remains relatively unaffected, at least during the first phases of the disease. We observed that while dopamine replacement therapy enhances the functions of the dorsal striatum, it is at the expense of the ventral striatum which suffers a dopamine overdose, impairing its function, states Dr. Monchi.. Until now, the effect of dopamine replacement therapy on cognition in individuals with Parkinsons disease was controversial. The purpose of this study however, was to further investigate. This led to a series of laboratory tests and neuroimaging studies that allowed researchers to clearly ...
INTRODUCTION: The World Health Organization (2003) has estimated that 80% of the population of developing countries are being unable to afford pharmaceutical drugs rely on traditional medicines, mainly plant based, to sustain their primary health care needs. In Ayurveda the specific properties of plants and their use as medicinal drugs has been dealt with in great detail. Neurological and psychiatric disorders together account for more chronic suffering than all other disorders combined. 1 Treating these problems however, remains a challenging field in medical science.. Traditional therapies in the form of herbal preparations containing anticholinergics, L-dopa, and monoamine oxidase inhibitors were used in the treatment of Parkinsons disease in India, China, and the Amazon basin. No satisfactory treatment is seen in contemporary system of medicines of parkinsons disease. The conventional treatment includes levodopa preparation, anticholinergic drugs and surgery etc. which give more or less ...
Sato, K., Hatano, T., Yamashiro, K., Kagohashi, M., Nishioka, K., Izawa, N., Mochizuki, H., Hattori, N., Mori, H. and Mizuno, Y. (2006), Prognosis of Parkinsons disease: Time to stage III, IV, V, and to motor fluctuations. Mov. Disord., 21: 1384-1395. doi: 10.1002/mds.20993 ...
The use of a dopamine agonist with a long duration of action has theoretical advantages in attempting to reduce the motor fluctuations in Parkinsons disease. We report the results of a double-blind c
Electrophysiological Dfierences Between Demented and Nondemented Patients with Parhnsons Disease Douglas S. Goodin, MD, and Michael J. Aminoff, MD ~ Long-latency auditory evoked potentials were studied in demented and nondemented patients with Parkinsons disease who were matched for age, stage of disease, duration of illness, and amount and nature of antiparkinsonian medication. We found clear electrophysiological differences between the two groups of patients in that the N1, N2, and P3 peak latencies were prolonged in the demented group compared both to the nondemented group and to normal controls. Moreover, the N1 latency but not the N2 and P3 latency prolongation distinguished the demented parkinsonian patients from demented patients with Alzheimers disease. These results provide strong evidence for the existence of different subtypes of dementia and suggest that electrophysiological recordings may be helpful in establishing the underlying pathogenesis of a dementia syndrome when there is ...
For 10 days prior to surgery, patients must not take aspirin, any aspirin containing drugs, related drugs such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) or naproxen (Naprosyn), or Vitamin E. These drugs can increase the risk of bleeding. The evening before surgery, patients should wash their head, neck, and chest with hibiclens (or other soap containing chlorhexidine) in the shower. The morning of surgery, the patient should not take their antiparkinsonian medications. However, the patient should take any medications they normally take for other problems, such as high blood pressure.
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Figure 2 Brain scans demonstrating enlargement of the ventricles (Case 2). Morishita, T. et al. (2010) INPH and Parkinson disease: differentiation by levodopa response Nat. Rev. Neurol. doi:10.1038/nrneurol.2009.195. Slideshow 6861959 by valentine-burris
5-HT1a receptor agonists for extending on-time and alleviating motor fluctuations in the treatment of Parkinsons disease (use patent ...
Traxoprodil (CP-101606) acts as an NMDA antagonist, selective for the NR2B subunit. It has neuroprotective, analgesic, and anti-Parkinsonian effects in animal studies. Traxoprodil (CP101606) has been researched in humans as a potential treatment to lessen
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Bilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulation (STN-DBS) is used to improve parkinsonian symptoms and attenuate levodopa-induced motor complications. In some patients, such clinical improvement allows antiparkinsonian medication (ApMed) withdrawal. We show the clinical outcome at the long-term follow-up of patients with advanced Parkinsons disease (PD) in which STN-DBS was used in monotherapy, and compare the clinical results of patients without medication with those obtained in parkinsonian patients in which ApMed were reduced but could not be totally displaced after surgery. We analyzed clinical outcome of ten patients with PD in which all ApMed was withdrawn after bilateral subthalamic stimulation and 16 parkinsonian patients still taking antiparkinsonian medication after surgery. After 1.5 years, STN-DBS monotherapy produced UPDRS motor scores similar to those observed in the on-drug condition before surgery without the inconvenience of motor fluctuations and dyskinesias. No significant ...
The modulation of levodopa transport across the blood brain barrier by large neutral amino acids is well documented. Protein limitation and protein redistribution diets may improve motor fluctuations in patients with Parkinsons disease but the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of levodopa and amino acids are highly variable. Clinical records of 1037 Parkinsons disease patients were analyzed to determine the proportion of patients with motor fluctuations related to protein interaction with levodopa. Motor fluctuations due to protein interaction with levodopa were defined as dietary protein being associated with (i) longer time to levodopa effectiveness, (ii) reduced benefit or duration of benefit, (iii) dose failures or (iv) earlier wearing off from a previously effective dose. Dose failures, sudden, painful or behavioral wearing-off periods, gait freezing, nausea, hallucinations, orthostasis, and dyskinesias were taken as markers of motor fluctuations, disease severity, and levodopa side effects
Antiparkinsonian effects of tandospirone, a selective 5-HT1A receptor agonist, were evaluated using rat models of Parkinson's disease. Tandospirone reversed catalepsy induced by the D2 antagonist haloperidol, in a dose-dependent manner. The anti-cataleptic action of tandospirone was comparable to that of bromocriptine and greater than that of L-DOPA. In rats with unilateral dopaminergic lesion by 6-hydroxydopamine, tandospirone markedly induced contralateral rotation. Furthermore, tandospirone dose-dependently restored spontaneous locomotor activity in reserpine-treated rats. These antiparkinsonian effects of tandospirone were abolished by coadministration of WAY-100635, a selective 5-HT1A antagonist, but not by haloperidol. The present results suggest that tandospirone has a therapeutic potential in treating parkinsonian symptoms, which is brought about through activation of 5-HT1A receptor.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Methylphenidate increases the motor effects of L-dopa in Parkinsons disease. T2 - A pilot study. AU - Camicioli, Richard. AU - Lea, Eric. AU - Nutt, John G.. AU - Sexton, Gary. AU - Oken, Barry S.. PY - 2001/8/16. Y1 - 2001/8/16. N2 - We determined whether methylphenidate, a dopamine transporter blocker, modifies motor, cognitive, or affective responses to L-Dopa in Parkinsons disease (PD). Five patients who reported benefit from L-Dopa/carbidopa and motor fluctuations were admitted and withdrawn from their usual antiparkinsonian medications. On 3 consecutive days in a randomized double-blinded fashion, they took 0.2 mg/kg oral methylphenidate or placebo followed 30 minutes later by a 1-hour intravenous L-Dopa (2 mg/kg per h) or placebo infusion. Vital signs, tapping, walking, dyskinesias, mood, anxiety, concentration, and arousal were monitored every 30 minutes. Cognitive testing was performed before and following the infusion. Methylphenidate combined with L-Dopa led to ...
Dystonia in Parhnsons Disease: Clinical and Pharmacological Features W. H. Poewe, MD, A. J. Lees, MD,t and G. M. Stern, M D t We studied the features of dystonia in 9 patients with untreated idiopathic Parkinsons disease and in 56 patients on sustained treatment with L-dopa Dystonia was seen as an initial symptom in patients with both early- and late-onset Parkinsons disease and included action dystonia of the limbs and cranial dystonia Although the coexistence of parkinsonism and dystonia suggests a common pathophysiology, antiparkinsonian drugs did not consistently influence dystonic spasms. L-dopa-induced dystonia was seen as an off-period, biphasic, or peak-dose phenomenon. Each type showed a distinctive pattern of localization of dystonic spasms, possibly reflecting neurochemical aspects of basal ganglia somatotopy. Neuropharmacological studies performed in 12 patients suggest that off-period dystonia is genuinely induced by L-dopa and best relieved by antiparkinsonian agents. Poewe WH, ...
misc{14a50af6-8f72-422d-b5fa-2d14c522d3ed, author = {Halje, Pär and Tamté, Martin and Richter, Ulrike and Mohammed, Mohsin and Schouenborg, Jens and Cenci Nilsson, Angela and Petersson, Per}, language = {eng}, title = {Cortical resonance around 80 Hz is linked to dyskinesia after levodopa treatment in a rodent model of Parkinsons disease}, year = {2011 ...
Author: Holiga, Štefan et al.; Genre: Poster; Title: Investigating differences in brain function with levodopa treatment in Parkinsons disease using fMRI
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dopaminergic medication increases reliance on current information in Parkinsons disease. AU - Vilares, Iris. AU - Kording, Konrad P.. PY - 2017/7/24. Y1 - 2017/7/24. N2 - The neurotransmitter dopamine is crucial for decision-making under uncertainty, but its computational role is still a subject of intense debate. To test its potential roles, we invited patients with Parkinsons disease (PD), who have less internally generated dopamine, to participate in a visual decision-making task in which uncertainty in both prior and current sensory information was varied. Behaviour during these tasks is often predicted by Bayesian statistics. We found that many aspects of uncertainty processing were conserved in PD patients: They could learn the prior uncertainty and utilize both prior and current sensory information. As predicted by prominent theories, we found that dopaminergic medication influenced the weight given to sensory information. However, as PD patients learned, this bias ...
Patients attending a regional movement disorder clinic with idiopathic PD (by UK Brain Bank criteria) and prescribed one or more antiparkinson drug (including dopamine agonist or levodopa) were invited to participate. Patients who were unable to manipulate the electronic pill monitoring bottles, or whose compliance would be adversely affected by using the electronic pill monitoring bottles (e.g. those reliant on a compliance aid) were excluded. The study received ethics approval and signed consent was obtained. During the study medication was adjusted according to clinical need. The increase in levodopa equivalent units during the study period was calculated according to established formula[12].. Baseline assessments of unified Parkinsons disease rating scale (UPDRS), Hoehn and Yahr, Schwab and England, mini-mental state examination, geriatric depression scale and quality of life score (PDQ 39) were performed. Clinical scoring was blind to patient group and performed in an on state. The UPDRS ...
Movement problems (motor fluctuations) are the most common complication of long-term levodopa use. The majority of people who take levodopa develop these problems within 5 to 10 years. The main types of levodopa-related motor fluctuations include: The wearing-off effect. Wearing-off periods occur when the...
In 6-OHDA-lesioned rats, repeated administration produces behavioral sensitization, manifested as a marked increase in l-Dopa-induced contralateral rotations across days of treatment (Henry et al., 1998). Behavioral sensitization has been suggested to predict the development of dyskinesias after chronic treatment with l-Dopa (Tronci et al., 2007). Here, we found that l-Dopa produced behavioral sensitization after only 4 days of treatment in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. However, when l-Dopa was delivered concurrently with preladenant, the rats displayed no behavioral sensitization for as long as 23 days of treatment. The blockade of behavioral sensitization by preladenant in this model suggests that this agent may not only have antiparkinsonian effects on its own but also may reduce dyskinesias when used in combination with l-Dopa.. Aside from the motor symptoms that characterize PD, there are a collection of nonmotor symptoms that are not treated by current pharmacotherapies. One of the most severe is ...
This study compared the efficacy and tolerability of rasagiline and entacapone as adunctive therapy to levodopa in patients with Parkinsons disease and motor
Patients with Parkinsons disease can show brief but dramatic normalization of motor activity in highly arousing situations, a phenomenon often termed paradoxical kinesis. We sought to mimic this in a controlled experimental environment. Nine patients with Parkinsons disease and nine age-matched healthy controls were asked to grip a force dynamometer as quickly and strongly as possible in response to a visual cue. A loud (96 dB) auditory stimulus was delivered at the same time as the visual cue in ~50% of randomly selected trials. In patients with Parkinsons disease, the experiment was conducted after overnight withdrawal of antiparkinsonian drugs and again 1 h after patients had taken their usual morning medication. Patients showed improvements in the peak rate of force development and the magnitude of force developed when loud auditory stimuli accompanied visual cues. Equally, they showed improvements in the times taken to reach the peak rate of force development and their maximal force. The
Background Central neurocytoma (CN) is an intraventricular tumor that affects young adults. It has a favorable prognosis after adequate surgical intervention; however, an aggressive course may take place in some cases. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the rate of shunt insertion and outcome of control in CN excision. Patients and methods Ten patients were included in this study and followed up for 24 months. Data collected included age, sex, clinical presentation, early morbidity and mortality, and radiological findings (tumor location, features, residual, recurrence, and hydrocephalus). All patients underwent surgery for total or subtotal excision through a transcortical or transcallosal approach. An external ventricular drain was inserted and then removed and replaced by a shunt, if indicated. Histopathology and the MIB index were used to confirm diagnosis and guide the follow-up. Adjuvant radiotherapy or gamma knife radiosurgery was used for residual or recurrence. Results ...
First potentially disease-modifying anti-alpha-synuclein antibody to be evaluated for efficacy in patients with Parkinsons disease Prothena to receive $30 ...
Kombinasi levodopa dan benserazid HCl telah banyak digunakan untuk pengobatan penyakit parkinson. Sebuah metode analisis komatografi lapis tipis-densitometri (KLT Densitometri) telah dikembangkan dan divalidasi untuk analisis kuantitatif campuran levodopa dan benserazid HCl dalam sediaan tablet. Pemisahan kromatografi dilakukan pada pelat KLT silika gel 60 F254 dengan menggunakan campuran etanol: air: asam asetat glasial (6:4:0,4 v/v/v) sebagai fase gerak. Pemisahan menghasilkan bercak levodopa dengan Rf 0,79 dan benserazid HCl dengan Rf 0,21. Analisis levodopa dilakukan pada panjang gelombang 280 nm dan benserazid HCl pada 271 nm. Metode ini divalidasi untuk linieritas, batas deteksi, batas kuantitasi, presisi dan akurasi. Uji linearitas memberikan hasil yang linear dengan koefisien korelasi (R) levodopa 0,9996 dan benserazid HCl 0,9997. Batas deteksi dan batas kuantitasi levodopa adalah 7,542 μg/mL dan 25,139 μg/mL dan benserazid HCl 5,977 μg/mL dan 19,923 μg/mL. Presisi levodopa dan ...
Randomised, double-blind, double dummy, parallel group design. Following the screening period patients will be randomised at the baseline visit, in a 1:1:1 manner, to one of three treatment arms; 4 mg E2007, 200 mg entacapone (with each dose of levodopa) or placebo. The first 4 weeks of the double blind phase will be used to titrate patients on the E2007 arm from 2 mg up to the maintenance dose of 4 mg. Patients randomised to entacapone or placebo will have dummy up titrations to maintain the blind. Following this titration phase, patients will remain on the maintenance dose for a further 14 weeks.. Patients will have visits at 2, 4, 6, 10, 14 and 18 weeks after baseline. A follow up visit will be performed at Week 22.. A home diary will be completed in which patients rate themselves as either:. ...
MR images through, A, C, E, basal ganglia and, B, D, F, posterior fossa at level of dentate nucleus. Images are shown for, A, B, control group patient 4, and the, C, D, first and, E, F, last examinations performed in contrast group patient 13. Regions of interest used in quantification of signal intensity are shown as dashed lines for globus pallidus (green), thalamus (blue), dentate nucleus (yellow), and pons (red).. ...
This trial investigated the efficacy of two different doses of opicapone [BIA 91067] (25 versus 50 mg/day) in Parkinsons disease patients showing signs of
All information about the latest scientific publications of the Clínica Universidad de Navarra. Bilateral subthalamotomy in Parkinsons disease: initial and long-term response
Today s Wall Street Journal reports on promising new research directions to treat dyskinesia, the disabling side effect of long-term dopamine replacement therapy...
Pedersen KF, Larsen JP, Tysnes OB, Alves G. Prognosis of Mild Cognitive Impairment in Early Parkinson Disease: The Norwegian ParkWest Study ...
Ropinirole by Sanis Health Inc.: Ropinirole belongs to the class of medications called antiparkinsonian agents. It is used to treat the signs and symptoms of Parkinsons disease. It helps to improve muscle control and movement by affecting the balance of a chemical in the brain called dopamine.
Act Ropinirole: Ropinirole belongs to the class of medications called antiparkinsonian agents. It is used to treat the signs and symptoms of Parkinsons disease. It helps to improve muscle control and movement by affecting the balance of a chemical in the brain called dopamine.
Have a look at common early signs of Parkinson disease that you need to look for. When dopamine levels in the brain decrease and when the neurons die, Parkinson
The purpose was to investigate some aspects of epidemiology, risk factors and treatment with ECT in advanced Parkinsons disease (PD).. In study I, we performed a descriptive epidemiologic population-based survey in the Central Health Care District in Östergötland in south-east Sweden, with a population of almost 150,000 inhabitants 1989. The case finding was accomplished in three ways: 1. Collection of all prescriptions for Parkinsons disease. 2. Search in medical files. 3. Checking with all nursing homes in the area. The crude prevalence was found to be 115 per 100,000 inhabitants. When we used the European Standard Population as a tool for easy comparisons of PD prevalence between different areas and time periods 76 PD-cases per 100,000 inhabitants were found. The corresponding incidences were 11.0 (crude) and 7.9 (age standardised) per 100,000 person-years. Mean age at onset was 65.6. A low prevalence and a high age at onset suggested that e.g. environmental factors could influence the ...
Parkinsons Disease , Read about Parkinsons Disease symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and treatment. Also read Parkinsons Disease articles about how to live with Parkinsons Disease , and more.
Parkinsons Disease , Read about Parkinsons Disease symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and treatment. Also read Parkinsons Disease articles about how to live with Parkinsons Disease , and more.
Find out the demographics that are usually a prey to Parkinsons Disease and understand the risk factors involved in it. Understand who all are susceptible to Parkinsons Disease.
Primary care physicians are often the first to see patients with symptoms of Parkinsons disease. Symptoms of Parkinsons disease mimic those of other conditions, and Parkinsons disease is widely misdiagnosed. Since early and expert intervention can ensure proper diagnosis and effective treatment, it is important to be evaluated at an advanced brain center as soon as possible.
Parkinsons Disease. Patients often experience unwanted symptoms such as motor fluctuations from chronic medication that can be disruptive in their daily lives. Rapid and acute treatment is highly desirable to minimize off periods, wearing off and freezing.. ...
Replacing lost brain cells may help undo the damage caused by Parkinsons disease, researchers believe.Parkinsons disease affects more than 4.6 million people worldwide and this number is set to double by 2030 as the population ages. While the symptoms of this movement disorder can be alleviated, there is currently no way to stop it from progressing.
Parkinsons disease is primarily treated using medications. Medicines may be used to treat the symptoms of Parkinsons disease. These medicines can ease symptoms but do not cure the condition. The degree of responsiveness to the medication and the duration for which the effects persist varies between individuals.
People can sometimes miss the early signs and symptoms of Parkinsons disease, as they can be subtle and sporadic. In this article, we look at 13 signs of Parkinsons disease to look out for.
{loadposition article-preamble}Jagjeet Singh Ahluwalia, from India (currently in Canada), used EFT with his mother for her recently diagnosed Parkinsons Disease. Please note the following: (1) Both symptoms improved significantly but one of them ten...
Learn more about In her own words: living with Parkinsons disease at Doctors Hospital of Augusta Arlene learned that she had Parkinsons disease 22 years ...
Learn more about In her own words: living with Parkinsons disease at Grand Strand Medical Center Arlene learned that she had Parkinsons disease 22 years ...
Parkinsons disease is most often diagnosed in patients in their 60s, with 1-to-2 percent of the population over the age of 65 having Parkinsons dise
Neurologist, Mindy Bixby, DO, discusses the early signs and symptoms of Parkinsons Disease, commonly referred to as non-motor symptoms. Dr. Bixby explains how to identify and differentiate these symptoms from other disorders and when its time to visit your doctor for an accurate diagnosis.
November 2002). "Differential actions of antiparkinson agents at multiple classes of monoaminergic receptor. II. Agonist and ... "Differential actions of antiparkinson agents at multiple classes of monoaminergic receptor. I. A multivariate analysis of the ... "an iatrogenic worsening of RLS symptoms following treatment with dopaminergic agents" and may include an earlier onset of ...
"Differential actions of antiparkinson agents at multiple classes of monoaminergic receptor. I. A multivariate analysis of the ... "Differential actions of antiparkinson agents at multiple classes of monoaminergic receptor. II. Agonist and antagonist ... "Differential actions of antiparkinson agents at multiple classes of monoaminergic receptor. III. Agonist and antagonist ... Among similar antiparkinsonian drugs, cabergoline but not lisuride exhibit this same type of serotonin receptor binding. In ...
June 2001). "Antiparkinsonian agent piribedil displays antagonist properties at native, rat, and cloned, human alpha(2)- ... Piribedil (trade names Pronoran, Trivastal Retard, Trastal, Trivastan, Clarium and others) is an antiparkinsonian agent and ... "Differential Actions of Antiparkinson Agents at Multiple Classes of Monoaminergic Receptor. II. Agonist and Antagonist ...
... has been investigated as antidepressant and antiparkinson agent. 4-Methylcathinone 4- ... methylenedioxypropiophenones as anti-depressant and anti-parkinsonism agents.", published 12 December 1996, assigned to ...
... , also known as benzhexol and trihex, is an antiparkinsonian agent of the antimuscarinic class. It was approved ... Trihexyphenidyl (THP) and other antiparkinsonian drugs are known to be substances of abuse. This is true both in abusers of ... It is also abused, typically in combination with other drugs or delicate pharmaceutical agents. Prisons in Iraq were among the ... agents. Combination treatment with dopaminergic agonists such as cabergoline is also possible. This is often termed a ' ...
... (brand names Aturbal, Aturbane) is an anticholinergic used[citation needed] as an antiparkinsonian agent. ...
... antiparkinson agents, migraine therapy, stimulants and other agents causing serotonin syndrome. It is thought to be caused by ... Pethidine's apparent in vitro efficacy as an antispasmodic agent is due to its local anesthetic effects. It does not have ... Synthesized in 1938 as a potential anticholinergic agent by the German chemist Otto Eisleb, its analgesic properties were first ...
June 2001). "Antiparkinsonian agent piribedil displays antagonist properties at native, rat, and cloned, human alpha(2)- ...
Pergolide was an antiparkinson medications that was in decreasing use since reported in 2003 to be associated with cardiac ... Certain antimigraine drugs which are targeted at serotonin receptors as vasoconstrictive agents, have long been known to be ... Among similar antiparkinsonian drugs, cabergoline exhibits the same type of serotonin receptor binding as pergolide. Although ... Certain antiparkinson drugs, although targeted at dopaminergic receptors, cross-react with serotoninergic 5-HT2B receptors as ...
... which is used as an antiparkinsonian agent. Like its analogue benzatropine, it may act as a dopamine reuptake inhibitor.[ ...
Anticancer agent Meclozine - Antihistamine Piberaline - Antidepressant Piribedil - Antiparkinsonian agent Trimetazidine - ... It is often claimed that BZP was originally synthesized as a potential antihelminthic (anti-parasitic) agent for use in farm ...
Other dopaminergic agents such as co-careldopa, co-beneldopa, pergolide, or lisuride may also be used. These drugs decrease or ... PLMD is often treated with anti-Parkinson medication; it may also respond to anticonvulsants, benzodiazepines, and narcotics. ...
Orphenadrine (a close relative of diphenhydramine used mainly as a skeletal muscle relaxant and anti-Parkinsons agent) ... These are experimental agents and do not yet have a defined clinical use, although a number of drugs are currently in human ...
... motility disorders and to prevent gastrointestinal symptoms associated with the use of dopamine agonist antiparkinsonian agents ... Domperidone, by acting as an anti-dopaminergic agent, results in increased prolactin secretion, and thus promotes lactation ( ... gastroprokinetic agent, and galactagogue.[1][6][7] It may be administered orally or rectally, and is available in the form of ... Ung D, Parkman HP, Nagar S (October 2009). "Metabolic interactions between prokinetic agents domperidone and erythromycin: an ...
Several clinical trials have demonstrated the effect of octreotide as acute treatment (abortive agent) in cluster headache, ... The bioavailability of bromocriptine is increased; besides being an antiparkinsonian, bromocriptine is also used for the ... Attempts at caloric restriction or pharmacotherapy with adrenergic or serotonergic agents have previously met with little or ...
Herraiz, T; Guillén, H (2011). "Inhibition of the bioactivation of the neurotoxin MPTP by antioxidants, redox agents and ... a new anti-Parkinson drug?". Expert Rev Neurother. 11 (6): 845-860. doi:10.1586/ern.11.1. PMID 21651332. Vignoni M, Rasse- ...
Levodopa (L-DOPA) and other anti-Parkinson drugs often produce dramatic responses; however, most people given L-DOPA experience ... the causative agent still unknown, the pathological riddle still unsolved…", and goes on to offer the following conclusion, as ... and it is likely that the influenza virus potentiated the effects of the causative agent of the encephalitis or lowered ... BBC news item about the tracing of the infectious agent in encephalitis lethargica. ...
Cannabinoids are used in patients with cachexia, cytotoxic nausea, and vomiting, or who are unresponsive to other agents. These ... Antidementia agents. *Antidepressants. *Antimigraine agents. *Antiparkinson agents. *Antipsychotics. *Anxiolytics. *Depressants ...
Psychotropic agents[edit]. Other psychotropic analgesic agents include ketamine (an NMDA receptor antagonist), clonidine and ... Unselective agents Aceclofenac. Comes in betadex salt and free acid forms; practically insoluble in water, soluble in many ... Other agents directly potentiate the effects of analgesics, such as using hydroxyzine, promethazine, carisoprodol, or ... When choosing analgesics, the severity and response to other medication determines the choice of agent; the World Health ...
It may be used as a nasal/sinus decongestant, as a stimulant,[119] or as a wakefulness-promoting agent.[120] ... Tashkin, D. P. (1 March 2001). "Airway effects of marijuana, cocaine, and other inhaled illicit agents". Current Opinion in ... and anorectic agent.[112] It is commonly used in prescription and over-the-counter cough and cold preparations. In veterinary ... Antidementia agents. *Antidepressants. *Antimigraine agents. *Antiparkinson agents. *Antipsychotics. *Anxiolytics. * ...
List of agents[edit]. Adrenaline releasing agents[edit]. Main article: Norepinephrine releasing agent ... 3 List of agents *3.1 Adrenaline releasing agents *3.1.1 Common or widely marketed ... since these agents lose effectiveness after a few days. ... Antimigraine agents. *Antiparkinson agents. *Antipsychotics. * ...
"Dermatotherapeutic Agents". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry (7th ed.). 2007. doi:10.1002/14356007.a08_301.pub2. ... Kyriakidis I, Tragiannidis A, Munchen S, Groll AH (February 2017). "Clinical hepatotoxicity associated with antifungal agents ... "The cost effectiveness of testing for onychomycosis versus empiric treatment of onychodystrophies with oral antifungal agents ... Antidementia agents. *Antidepressants. *Antimigraine agents. *Antiparkinson agents. *Antipsychotics. *Anxiolytics. *Depressants ...
Within the class of medications, there is no clear evidence that one agent works better than another.[1][2] ... In British Columbia, Canada the cost of the PPIs varies significantly from 0.20 CAD to 2.38 CAD per dose while all agents in ... Antidementia agents. *Antidepressants. *Antimigraine agents. *Antiparkinson agents. *Antipsychotics. *Anxiolytics. *Depressants ... The cost between different agents varies significantly.[1] ...
The term "calcium-sparing diuretic" is sometimes used to identify agents that result in a relatively low rate of excretion of ... Alternatively, an antidiuretic, such as vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone), is an agent or drug which reduces the excretion of ... Diuretics increase the urine volume and dilute doping agents and their metabolites. Another use is to rapidly lose weight to ... Antidementia agents. *Antidepressants. *Antimigraine agents. *Antiparkinson agents. *Antipsychotics. *Anxiolytics. *Depressants ...
Reducing agent (antioxidant), e.g. if epinephrine is used, then sodium metabisulfite is used as a reducing agent ... LA drugs are also often combined with other agents such as opioids for synergistic analgesic action.[1] Low doses of LA drugs ... This can be a factor in choosing an agent in patients with liver failure,[56] although since cholinesterases are produced in ... Even with proper administration, it is inevitable for some diffusion of agent into the body from the site of application due to ...
antifungal, alkalinizing agents, quinolones, antibiotics, cholinergics, anticholinergics, antispasmodics, 5-alpha reductase ... In the inter-war period, the first anti-bacterial agents such as the sulpha antibiotics were developed. The Second World War ... These were drugs that worked chiefly as anti-anxiety agents and muscle relaxants. The first benzodiazepine was Librium. Three ... HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) for lowering LDL cholesterol inhibitors: hypolipidaemic agents. ...
Alkylating agents[edit]. The alkylating agents used in immunotherapy are nitrogen mustards (cyclophosphamide), nitrosoureas, ... Small biological agents[edit]. Fingolimod is a new synthetic immunosuppressant, currently in phase 3 of clinical trials. It ... Immunosuppressive drugs, also known as immunosuppressive agents, immunosuppressants and antirejection medications are drugs ... Immunosuppressive+Agents at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
Alkylating agents[edit]. The alkylating agents used in immunotherapy are nitrogen mustards (cyclophosphamide), nitrosoureas, ... Small biological agents[edit]. Fingolimod is a new synthetic immunosuppressant, currently in phase 3 of clinical trials. It ... Immunosuppressive drugs or immunosuppressive agents or antirejection medications are drugs that inhibit or prevent activity of ... Immunosuppressive+Agents at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) ...
Agents Chemother. 12 (5): 642-6. doi:10.1128/AAC.12.5.642. PMC 429991 . PMID 303498.. ... Also indirect D2 agonists, such as dopamine reuptake inhibitors (cocaine, methylphenidate), releasing agents (amphetamine, ... Virtue, RW; Alanis, JM; Mori, M; Lafargue, RT; Vogel, JH; Metcalf, DR (1967). "An anaesthetic agent: 2-orthochlorophenyl, 2- ... a PCP-receptor-acylating agent". Synapse. 1 (5): 497-504. doi:10.1002/syn.890010514. PMID 2850626.. ...
Antidementia agents. *Antidepressants. *Antimigraine agents. *Antiparkinson agents. *Antipsychotics. *Anxiolytics. * ... "Pharmacologic Agents That Promote Airway Clearance in Hospitalized Subjects: A Systematic Review" (PDF). Respiratory Care. 60 ...
... is the active metabolite of the antiparkinson's drug selegiline.[9] Selegiline, a selective monoamine ... functioning as a selective norepinephrine releasing agent (with few or no effects on the release of dopamine), so it affects ...
... (brand name Parkinsan) is an antiparkinson agent marketed for the treatment of Parkinson's disease.[2][3][1] ... Kornhuber J., Herr B., Thome J., Riederer P. (1995). "The antiparkinsonian drug budipine binds to NMDA and sigma receptors in ...
... and as antiparkinson agents. ... type of drug is a norepinephrine-dopamine releasing agent (NDRA ...
... antiparkinson agents (e.g., selegiline), and vasopressors (e.g., ephedrine), among others. Many of these psychoactive compounds ...
Main article: Antiparkinson medication. Other drugs such as amantadine and anticholinergics may be useful as treatment of motor ... In such cases it may be helpful to use thickening agents for liquid intake and an upright posture when eating, both measures ... Hornykiewicz O (2002). "L-DOPA: from a biologically inactive amino acid to a successful therapeutic agent". Amino Acids. 23 (1- ... A psychosis with delusions and associated delirium is a recognized complication of anti-Parkinson drug treatment and may also ...
Available agents[edit]. Main article: List of antineoplastic agents. There is an extensive list of antineoplastic agents. ... Alkylating agents[edit]. Main article: Alkylating antineoplastic agent. Alkylating agents are the oldest group of ... Siddik ZH (2005). Mechanisms of Action of Cancer Chemotherapeutic Agents: DNA-Interactive Alkylating Agents and Antitumour ... Anti-microtubule agents[edit]. Vinca alkaloids prevent the assembly of microtubules, whereas taxanes prevent their disassembly ...
... (TV-1203) is a dopaminergic agent which was developed as a treatment for Parkinson's disease.[1] It is the ethyl ...
Lisuride, an antiparkinson dopamine agonist of the ergoline class, that is also a dual 5-HT2A / 5-HT2C agonist[57] and 5-HT2B ... as these agents are also non-hallucinogenic in humans despite being active 5-HT2A agonists.[78][79] One known example of ... the causative agent of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), that enters cells such as oligodendrocytes, astrocytes ...
Antiparkinson agents (N04). Dopaminergics. DA precursors. *Levodopa#. *Melevodopa. DA receptor agonists. *Apomorphine ...
Antidementia agents. *Antidepressants. *Antimigraine agents. *Antiparkinson agents. *Antipsychotics. *Anxiolytics. *Depressants ...
LDL-lowering potency varies between agents. Cerivastatin is the most potent, (withdrawn from the market in August, 2001 due to ... Thurnher M, Nussbaumer O, Gruenbacher G (July 2012). "Novel aspects of mevalonate pathway inhibitors as antitumor agents". ... The first agent they identified was mevastatin (ML-236B), a molecule produced by the fungus Penicillium citrinum. ... Several combination preparations of a statin and another agent, such as ezetimibe/simvastatin, are also available. In 2005, ...
Antiparkinsonian agents. *Combination drugs. *World Health Organization essential medicines. Hidden categories: *Webarchive ...
... "centrally acting agents",[10] but adds a distinct category of "directly acting agents", for dantrolene.[11] Use of this ... Several of these agents also have abuse potential, and their prescription is strictly controlled.[22][23][24] ... However, it is now known not every agent in this class has CNS activity (e.g. dantrolene), so this name is inaccurate.[5] ... "M03B Muscle Relaxants, Centrally acting agents". ATC/DDD Index. WHO Collaborating Centre for Drug Statistics Methodology.. ...
Interactions with other anticholinergics like tricyclic antidepressants, anti-Parkinson drugs and quinidine, which ... Antiallergic agents,. excluding corticosteroids. *Spaglumic acid. *histamine antagonists (Levocabastine. *Antazoline. * ...
This network is made up of protein-protein interactions from Treponema pallidum, the causative agent of syphilis and other ... Targets in synapses can be modulated with pharmacological agents. In this case, cholinergics (such as muscarine) and ... Antidementia agents. *Antidepressants. *Antimigraine agents. *Antiparkinson agents. *Antipsychotics. *Anxiolytics. *Depressants ...
Is a loved one is going through Parkinsonism Treatment and you are looking to buy antiparkinsonian drugs? Buy Parkinsons ... Antiparkinsonian. Antiparkinson agents aim to replace dopamine either by drugs that release dopamine or those that mimic the ... Antiparkinson agents attempt to replace dopamine and treat or halt the symptoms such as tremor, hypokinesia, and so on.. ...
"Antiparkinson Agents" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Antiparkinson Agents" was a major or minor ... "Antiparkinson Agents" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Antiparkinson Agents" by people in Profiles. ... Below are MeSH descriptors whose meaning is more general than "Antiparkinson Agents". ...
Antiparkinson Agents, Dopamine Agonists. Class Summary. Dopamine agonists may improve sensory symptoms associated with RLS. ... This agent is FDA-approved for neuropathic pain associated with diabetic peripheral neuropathy or postherpetic neuralgia and as ... Agents such as pramipexole, ropinirole, and bromocriptine are less likely to produce augmentation or rebound than the ... Low-potency opioids (eg, codeine) can benefit patients with mild and intermittent symptoms; higher-potency agents (eg, ...
Antiparkinson Agents, Dopamine Agonists. Class Summary. Dopamine agonists are non-ergot agents that bind to D2 and D3 dopamine ... This agent is useful in treating patients with rapid-cycling bipolar disorders and has been used to treat aggressive or ... These agents are strong dopamine D2 antagonists. However, each drug in this class has various effects on other receptors, such ... This agent is typically reserved for patients who decline electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) and who do not respond to medication ...
Antiparkinson Agents, Dopamine Agonists: Dosing, Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Patient Handouts, Pricing and more from ...
Ethopropazine, a phenothiazine and antidyskinetic, is used in the treatment of Parkinsons disease. By improving muscle control and reducing stiffness, this drug permits more normal movements of the body as the disease symptoms are reduced. It is also used to control severe reactions to certain medicines such as reserpine, phenothiazines, chlorprothixene, thiothixene, loxapine, and haloperidol. Unlike other NMDA antagonists, ethopropazine - because of its anticholinergic action - is largely devoid of neurotoxic side effects. Ethopropazine also has a slight antihistaminic and local anesthetic effect ...
Dopaminergic anti-parkinsonian medications, such as levodopa (LD) cause drug-induced dyskinesias (DID) in majority of patients ... Dopaminergic anti-parkinsonian medications, such as levodopa (LD) cause drug-induced dyskinesias (DID) in majority of patients ... Antiparkinsonian effects of aqueous methanolic extract of Hyoscyamus niger seeds result from its monoamine oxidase inhibitory ... In our earlier studies, Mucuna pruriens has been shown to possess antiparkinson and neuroprotective effects in animal models of ...
Metixene is a tertiary antimuscarinic with actions similar to those of atropine; it also has antihistaminic and direct antispasmodic properties. It is used for the symptomatic treatment of parkinsonism, including the alleviation of the extrapyramidal syndrome induced by other drugs such as phenothiazines, but, like other antimuscarinics, it is of no value against tardive dyskinesias. Metixene has been discontinued ...
Antiparkinson Agents / adverse effects* * Antiparkinson Agents / therapeutic use * Benzophenones / adverse effects * ... Bad guys among the antiparkinsonian drugs Psychiatr Danub. 2009 Mar;21(1):114-8. ...
Drug Class: Antiparkinson Agents, Adjunct; Antiparkinson Agents, MAO Type B Inhibitors. What Is Safinamide Used For and How ...
Antiparkinson Agents. NMS is also present in patients treated for Parkinsons disease during abrupt medication cessation, dose ... Antiemetic Agents. Droperidol, metoclopramide, prochlorperazine, and promethazine are agents that exhibit dopamine receptor- ... Although these agents are commonly used as antiemetics, their dopaminergic activity can trigger NMS. The use of a serotonin ... Case studies and meta-analyses report that dopaminergic agents may reverse parkinsonism in NMS and reduce recovery and ...
November 2002). "Differential actions of antiparkinson agents at multiple classes of monoaminergic receptor. II. Agonist and ... "Differential actions of antiparkinson agents at multiple classes of monoaminergic receptor. I. A multivariate analysis of the ... "an iatrogenic worsening of RLS symptoms following treatment with dopaminergic agents" and may include an earlier onset of ...
"Differential actions of antiparkinson agents at multiple classes of monoaminergic receptor. I. A multivariate analysis of the ... "Differential actions of antiparkinson agents at multiple classes of monoaminergic receptor. II. Agonist and antagonist ... "Differential actions of antiparkinson agents at multiple classes of monoaminergic receptor. III. Agonist and antagonist ... Among similar antiparkinsonian drugs, cabergoline but not lisuride exhibit this same type of serotonin receptor binding. In ...
Largest database of Antiparkinsonian Agents listed for your easy reference. Find your preferred Antiparkinsonian Agents right ... Home - Human - Miscellaneous Central Nervous System Agents - Antiparkinsonian Agents. Antiparkinsonian Agents Category Listing ... Miscellaneous Central Nervous System Agents (16913)*Alpha- and Beta-Adrenergic Agonists (5167)*Alpha-Adrenergic Agonists (250) ... Anorexigenic Agents and Respiratory and Cerebral Stimulants (517)*Anorectal Drug Products (5) ...
These animals did not receive pharmacological agents. The tissues harvested for monoamine determination included the striatum, ... In conclusion we have shown that the antiparkinsonian effects of 5-HT2A receptor antagonists may be mediated by regulation of ... The 5-HT2A receptor antagonist M100907 produces antiparkinsonian effects and decreases striatal glutamate. Twum A. Ansah*, ... Citation: Ansah TA, Ferguson MC and Nayyar T (2011) The 5-HT2A receptor antagonist M100907 produces antiparkinsonian effects ...
Addition Of Other Antiparkinson Medications. Anticholinergic agents, dopamine agonists, and amantadine can be given with ... have been reported in association with dose reductions or withdrawal of certain antiparkinsonian agents such as levodopa, ... Use of SINEMET CR with dopamine-depleting agents (e.g., reserpine and tetrabenazine) or other drugs known to deplete monoamine ... The patient should be cautioned not to change the prescribed dosage regimen and not to add any additional antiparkinson ...
Antiparkinson agents. *TRIHEXYPHENIDYL HYDROCHLORIDE USP [MEDSURGE] [BIONPHARMA] Tablet (Trihexyphenidyl hydrochloride 2mg) ...
antiparkinson drug A drug used in the treatment of Parkinsons disease.. antidyskinesia agent Any compound which can be used to ... procyclidine (CHEBI:8448) has role antidyskinesia agent (CHEBI:66956) procyclidine (CHEBI:8448) has role antiparkinson drug ( ...
... has role antiparkinson drug (CHEBI:48407) L-dopa (CHEBI:15765) has role dopaminergic agent (CHEBI:48560) L ... dopaminergic agent A drug used for its effects on dopamine receptors, on the life cycle of dopamine, or on the survival of ... dopaminergic agent A drug used for its effects on dopamine receptors, on the life cycle of dopamine, or on the survival of ... antiparkinson drug A drug used in the treatment of Parkinsons disease.. prodrug A compound that, on administration, must ...
Antiparkinson Agents. Grant support. *R03 HD058150/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/United States ...
Antidepressive Agents. Psychotropic Drugs. Antiparkinson Agents. Anti-Dyskinesia Agents. Parasympatholytics. Autonomic Agents. ... Neurotransmitter Agents. Serotonin Agents. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation. ...
Antidepressive Agents. Psychotropic Drugs. Antiparkinson Agents. Anti-Dyskinesia Agents. Parasympatholytics. Autonomic Agents. ... Neurotransmitter Agents. Serotonin Agents. Physiological Effects of Drugs. Antidepressive Agents, Second-Generation. ...
Antiparkinson Agents. Anti-Dyskinesia Agents. Dopamine Agents. Neurotransmitter Agents. Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological ...
Antiparkinson Agents. Anti-Dyskinesia Agents. Dopamine Agents. Neurotransmitter Agents. Molecular Mechanisms of Pharmacological ... Patients stop taking all antiparkinsonian medications for one month (2 months if taking Selegiline) before the study begins and ...
Antiparkinson Agents / administration & dosage * Antiparkinson Agents / adverse effects * Antiparkinson Agents / therapeutic ...
Drug class: anticholinergic antiparkinson agents. Consumer resources. *Benztropine. *Benztropine Injection. *Benztropine ( ...
Drug class: anticholinergic antiparkinson agents. Consumer resources. *Procyclidine Tablets. Professional resources. * ...
Antiparkinsonian Agents Carbidopa/ levodopa. Continue until the morning of surgery and restart as soon as possible after ... Antiparkinsonian Agents Carbidopa/ levodopa. Continue until the morning of surgery and restart as soon as possible after ... No association with withdrawal syndrome known; no known interactions with anesthetic agents[14] ... No association with withdrawal syndrome known; no known interactions with anesthetic agents[14] ...
Discovery of Allosteric Potentiators of mGluR7 as Novel Antiparkinsonian Agents. 2005 Read More ...
I. Antiparkinsonian agents.. 1. Levodopa.. 2. COMT inhibitors.. 3. Dopamine agonists.. 4. Monoamine oxidase B inhibitors. ...
Antiparkinson agents amantadine, bromocriptine, carbergoline, levodopa, pergolide, selegiline Illicit drugs. cocaine, ... Table 1: Agents causing serotonin syndrome2. Antidepressants. mirtazapine, monoamine oxidase inhibitors (including moclobemide ... Other agents. bupropion, carbamazepine, lithium, morphine, pethidine, reserpine, sibutramine, St. Johns wort, tramadol. ...
  • Antiparkinson agents aim to replace dopamine either by drugs that release dopamine or those that mimic the action of dopamine. (safegenericpharmacy.com)
  • Antiparkinson agents attempt to replace dopamine and treat or halt the symptoms such as tremor, hypokinesia, and so on. (safegenericpharmacy.com)
  • Agents such as pramipexole, ropinirole, and bromocriptine are less likely to produce augmentation or rebound than the combination of levodopa and carbidopa is. (medscape.com)
  • These agents can be used alone or along with levodopa. (medscape.com)
  • The natural occurrence of antiparkinsonian drugs in plants--anticholinergics in Datura stramonium, levodopa in Mucuna pruriens and Vicia faba, dopamine agonist activity in Claviceps purpura, and MAO inhibitor activity in Banisteria caapi-are known. (isharonline.org)
  • Standard antiparkinson drugs, other than levodopa alone, may be continued while 'Sinemet CR' or 'Half Sinemet CR' are being administered, although their dosage may have to be adjusted. (medicines.org.uk)
  • It is thought to be linked to dopamine blockade and is often associated with the use of antipsychotics, antidopaminergic drugs, and the abrupt withdrawal of dopaminergic agents. (uspharmacist.com)
  • Among similar antiparkinsonian drugs, cabergoline but not lisuride exhibit this same type of serotonin receptor binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • A companion website includes updates with infrequently used or recently approved drugs, a full-color pill atlas, guidelines to safe handling of chemotherapeutic agents, combination products, drugs metabolized by known P450s, medications to be cautiously for geriatric patients, herbal products, a listing of high-alert Canadian medications and immunization schedules, patient teaching guides in English and Spanish, and more. (elsevier.com)
  • The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics of antiparkinsonian drugs are described. (medigraphic.com)
  • Toru M, Matsuda O, Makiguchi K, Sugano K. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome-like state following a withdrawal of antiparkinsonian drugs. (medigraphic.com)
  • Soporific Agents (Hypnotics and Sedative Drugs) 5. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Antiparkinson drugs, dopa and dopa derivatives. (mims.com)
  • 5. The agent for relieving or preventing xerostomia according to claim 3, wherein the health food ingredient is at least one ingredient selected from the group consisting of herbs, crude drugs, mushrooms, and extracts thereof. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Article contains a simplified, layman's definition of anticonvulsants, including information about various different agents of this group and the possible adverse reactions and side effects that may be pertinent. (avivadirectory.com)
  • When managing the immediate and long-term consequences of such injuries, clinicians have many pharmacological options, including psychostimulants, antidepressants, antiparkinsonian agents, and anticonvulsants. (bcmj.org)
  • Agents used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. (harvard.edu)
  • L-DOPA is the most effective pharmacological agent used for the symptomatic treatment of Parkinson's disease but long-term L-DOPA treatment induces involuntary abnormal movements such as dyskinesias. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Amantadine, which is also used as an antiviral agent, is classified in N04BB. (whocc.no)
  • Antiparkinson Agent and dopamine receptor agonist. (nih.gov)
  • Dopamine blockade most often occurs in patients treated with neuroleptic medications or selected antiemetic agents or by withdrawal of dopaminergic agents. (uspharmacist.com)
  • Patients stop taking all antiparkinsonian medications for one month (2 months if taking Selegiline) before the study begins and throughout its duration, except for certain medicines allowed, including Sinemet, Mirapex and Requip. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Ropinirole belongs to the class of medications called antiparkinsonian agents . (medbroadcast.com)
  • Antiparkinson Agents" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • Belongs to the class of dopaminergic agents, monoamine oxidase B inhibitors. (mims.com)
  • Augmentation: Especially when used to treat restless legs syndrome, long-term pramipexole treatment may exhibit drug augmentation, which is "an iatrogenic worsening of RLS symptoms following treatment with dopaminergic agents" and may include an earlier onset of symptoms during the day or a generalized increase in symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • antimuscarinic agents operate on the muscarinic acetylcholine receptors . (wikidoc.org)
  • Psychostimulants, antidepressants, and other agents may speed the recovery of patients suffering from the functional deficits that follow an insult to the brain. (bcmj.org)
  • As it appears to improve mood, we examined its actions in rodent models of antidepressant properties, in comparison with the prototypical anti-Parkinson agent, apomorphine, the D2/D3 receptor agonist, quinpirole, and the antidepressants, imipramine and fluvoxamine. (biopsychiatry.com)
  • Profenamine ( Parsidol , Parsidan , Parkin ), also known as ethopropazine , is a phenothiazine derivative used as an antiparkinsonian agent that has anticholinergic , antihistamine , and antiadrenergic actions. (thefullwiki.org)
  • An anticholinergic agent is a member of a class of pharmaceutical compounds (such as Dicyclomine) which serve to reduce the effects mediated by acetylcholine in the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system . (wikidoc.org)
  • This group comprises specific antiviral agents, excl. (whocc.no)
  • For patients who have had no previous therapy, it is advisable to initiate treatment with an oral antipsychotic agent or a quick-acting parenteral antipsychotic. (intekom.com)
  • These and other agents can play a role in managing the neuropsychiatric, neurocognitive, and neurobehavioral sequelae of injury to the brain. (bcmj.org)
  • The choice of agent depends on the presence of symptoms such as psychotic symptoms, agitation, aggression, and sleep disturbance. (medscape.com)
  • Treatment involves the discontinuation of the offending agent and supportive therapy. (uspharmacist.com)
  • The present review discusses the advance of dual agents with mixed actions at the dopamine D 2 and serotonin 5-HT 1A receptors in the treatment of these diseases. (utmb.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Antiparkinson Agents" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Antiparkinson Agents" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Antiparkinson Agents" by people in Profiles. (harvard.edu)
  • It is an antipsychotic agent with an extended duration of action. (intekom.com)
  • Ye, N, Song, Z & Zhang, A 2014, ' Dual ligands targeting dopamine D 2 and serotonin 5-HT 1A receptors as new antipsychotical or anti-parkinsonian agents ', Current Medicinal Chemistry , vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 437-457. (utmb.edu)
  • antinicotinic agents operate on the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors . (wikidoc.org)