Der p 1 facilitates transepithelial allergen delivery by disruption of tight junctions. (1/34)House dust mite (HDM) allergens are important factors in the increasing prevalence of asthma. The lung epithelium forms a barrier that allergens must cross before they can cause sensitization. However, the mechanisms involved are unknown. Here we show that the cysteine proteinase allergen Der p 1 from fecal pellets of the HDM Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus causes disruption of intercellular tight junctions (TJs), which are the principal components of the epithelial paracellular permeability barrier. In confluent airway epithelial cells, Der p 1 led to cleavage of the TJ adhesion protein occludin. Cleavage was attenuated by antipain, but not by inhibitors of serine, aspartic, or matrix metalloproteinases. Putative Der p 1 cleavage sites were found in peptides from an extracellular domain of occludin and in the TJ adhesion protein claudin-1. TJ breakdown nonspecifically increased epithelial permeability, allowing Der p 1 to cross the epithelial barrier. Thus, transepithelial movement of Der p 1 to dendritic antigen-presenting cells via the paracellular pathway may be promoted by the allergen's own proteolytic activity. These results suggest that opening of TJs by environmental proteinases may be the initial step in the development of asthma to a variety of allergens. (+info)
Assembly and activation of HK-PK complex on endothelial cells results in bradykinin liberation and NO formation. (2/34)Prekallikrein (PK) activation on human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVEC) presumably leads to bradykinin liberation. On HUVEC, PK activation requires the presence of cell-bound high-molecular-weight kininogen (HK) and Zn(2+). We examined the Zn(2+) requirement for HK binding to and the consequences of PK activation on endothelial cells. Optimal HK binding (14 pmol/10(6) HUVEC) is seen with no added Zn(2+) in HEPES-Tyrode buffer containing gelatin versus 16--32 microM added Zn(2+) in the same buffer containing bovine serum albumin. The affinity and number of HK binding sites on HUVEC are a dissociation constant of 9.6 +/- 1.8 nM and a maximal binding of 1.08 +/- 0.26 x 10(7) sites/cell (means +/- SD). PK is activated to kallikrein by an antipain-sensitive mechanism in the presence of HK and Zn(2+) on HUVEC, human microvascular endothelial cells, umbilical artery smooth muscle cells, and bovine pulmonary artery endothelial cells. Simultaneous with kallikrein formation, bradykinin (5.0 or 10.3 pmol/10(6) HUVEC in the absence or presence of lisinopril, respectively) is liberated from cell-bound HK. Liberated bradykinin stimulates the endothelial cell bradykinin B2 receptor to form nitric oxide. Assembly and activation of PK on endothelial cells modulates their physiological activities. (+info)
Identification of prolylcarboxypeptidase as the cell matrix-associated prekallikrein activator. (3/34)Investigations determined that the cell matrix-associated prekallikrein (PK) activator is prolylcarboxypeptidase. PK activation on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) matrix is inhibited by antipain (IC(50)=50 microM) but not anti-factor XIIa antibody, 3 mM benzamidine, 5 mM iodoacetic acid or iodoacetamide, or 3 mM N-ethylmaleimide. Corn trypsin inhibitor (IC(50)=100 nM) or Fmoc-aminoacylpyrrolidine-2-nitrile (IC(50)=100 microM) blocks matrix-associated PK activation. Angiotensin II (IC(50)=100 microM) or bradykinin (IC(50)=3 mM), but not angiotensin 1-7 or bradykinin 1-5, inhibits matrix-associated PK activation. ECV304 cell matrix PK activator also is blocked by 100 microM angiotensin II, 1 microM corn trypsin inhibitor, and 50 microM antipain, but not angiotensin 1-7. 1 mM angiotensin II or 300 microM Fmoc-aminoacylpyrrolidine-2-nitrile indirectly blocks plasminogen activation by inhibiting kallikrein formation for single chain urokinase activation. On immunoblot, prolylcarboxypeptidase antigen is associated with HUVEC matrix. These studies indicate that prolylcarboxypeptidase is the matrix PK activator. (+info)
Involvement of secreted Aspergillus fumigatus proteases in disruption of the actin fiber cytoskeleton and loss of focal adhesion sites in infected A549 lung pneumocytes. (4/34)Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic pathogenic fungus that predominantly infects the respiratory system. Penetration of the lung alveolar epithelium is a key step in the infectious process. The cytoskeleton of alveolar epithelial cells forms the cellular basis for the formation of a physical barrier between the cells and their surroundings. This study focused on the distinct effects of A. fumigatus on the actin cytoskeleton of A549 lung pneumocytes. Of the 3 major classes of cytoskeletal fibers--actin microfilaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments--only the actin cytoskeleton was found to undergo major structural changes in response to infection, including loss of actin stress fibers, formation of actin aggregates, disruption of focal adhesion sites, and cell blebbing. These changes could be specifically blocked in wild-type strains of A. fumigatus by the addition of antipain, a serine and cysteine protease inhibitor, and were not induced by an alkaline serine protease-deficient strain of A. fumigatus. Antipain also reduced, by approximately 50%, fungal-induced A549 cell detachment from the plates and reduction in viability. Our findings suggest that A. fumigatus breaches the alveolar epithelial cell barrier by secreting proteases that act together to disorganize the actin cytoskeleton and destroy cell attachment to the substrate by disrupting focal adhesions. (+info)
Enzymatic characterization of a cubilin-related serine proteinase from the hard tick Haemaphysalis longicornis. (5/34)In the present study, we performed enzymatic characterization of Haemaphysalis longicornis serine proteinase (HlSP) with a view to shed light on the mechanisms of blood digestion in the hard ticks. Escherichia coli-expressed recombinant HlSP (rHlSP) was shown to potently hydrolyze the synthetic substrates Bz-(DL)-Arg-pNA, Z-Ala-Ala-Leu-pNA and Suc-Ala-Ala-Ala-pNA and yielded an activity of 31.5, 88.2 and 18.3 mumol/min/mg protein, respectively at an optimum temperature of 25 degrees C. However, the enzyme showed little activity to hydrolyze the substrates Suc-Arg-Pro-Phe-His-Leu-Leu-Val-Tyr-MCA and Pyr-Phe-Leu-pNA. The optimum pH for the enzyme was shown to be 4.0 to 5.0. Several inhibitors such as antipain, leupeptin and phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride (PMSF), specific for serine proteinase were shown to inhibit enzyme activity by 20-82%, while E-64 (specific for cysteine proteinases) and pepstatinA (specific for aspartic proteinases) had shown only little inhibitory effects on it. This is the first report on enzymatic characterization of a functional serine proteinase from the hard ticks. (+info)
Light-induced D1 protein degradation is catalyzed by a serine-type protease. (6/34)Light-induced degradation of the D1 protein in isolated spinach photosystem II core preparations was studied after addition of various protease inhibitors. The degradation was selectively inhibited by several serine protease inhibitors in particular diisopropylfluorophosphate. The results demonstrate that the D1 protein is degraded by a serine-type of proteolytic activity that is an integral part of photosystem II. (+info)
Antipain-induced suppression of oncogene expression in H-ras-transformed NIH3T3 cells. (7/34)Antipain (AP; 50 micrograms/ml) inhibits transformation of NIH3T3 cells after transfection with an activated H-ras oncogene. To determine whether AP effects on transformation are associated with alterations in oncogene expression, NIH3T3 cells were cotransfected with an activated H-ras oncogene and the selectable marker gene aph, and gene expression was quantified. Fifty percent of geneticin-resistant colonies which were exposed to AP failed to express the transformed phenotype as determined by their inability to grow in soft agar. Northern blot analysis of the transformed and nontransformed colonies revealed that suppression of H-ras transformation by AP was associated with a decrease in expression of the exogenously transfected H-ras gene by approximately 4-fold. Expression of the endogenous oncogene c-myc was decreased by approximately 2.5-fold, to levels seen in untransfected cells. AP-treated colonies that retained the transformed phenotype had levels of oncogene expression that were similar to untreated ras-transformed colonies. Southern blot analysis revealed no effects of AP on incorporation or copy number of the H-ras gene. (+info)
Repression of serotonin secretion by an endogenous Ca2(+)-activated protease in electropermeabilized bovine platelets. (8/34)Micromolar levels of free calcium ions added to the extracellular medium elicit secretion of serotonin from electropermeabilized bovine platelets in the presence of millimolar levels of Mg-ATP. Such Ca2(+)-dependent secretion of serotonin was almost completely impaired when the permeabilized platelets were preincubated for 1 min at 35 degrees C in 100 microM Ca2+ without Mg-ATP. The half-maximal effect was observed with about 45 microM Ca2+ in the preincubation medium. Inhibitors of serine-thiol protease, such as leupeptin and antipain, suppressed the impairment of the secretion of serotonin by the preincubation with Ca2+. Electron microscopic observation revealed that disorganization of the cytoskeletal structures, in particular of the membrane undercoat and the network of microfilaments, accompanied the impairment of secretion of serotonin. Microfilaments were also found to be dissociated from dense granules that contained serotonin. These morphological changes were also suppressed when antipain was included in the Ca2(+)-preincubation medium. Coincident with these morphological changes, the following biochemical changes were observed in 100 microM Ca2+ but not in the presence of Ca2+ and antipain. The amount of Triton-insoluble cytoskeleton and the acto-myosin content of the dense-granule fraction were markedly decreased. The decrease in Triton-insoluble cytoskeletons was quantitatively correlated with the degree of impairment of secretion of serotonin. Immunoblot analysis of EGTA extracts of the cells showed that the 240-kDa spectrin in platelets was degraded to a 235-kDa fragment, and a 260-kDa actin-binding protein (ABP) in platelets was partially degraded to 190- and 110-kDa components.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) (+info)
Antipain is a naturally occurring organic compound that is found in various types of streptomyces bacteria. It is classified as a protease inhibitor, which means that it works by blocking the action of certain enzymes called proteases, which are involved in breaking down proteins in the body. Antipain has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and analgesic (pain-relieving) effects, and it is sometimes used in research to study the role of proteases in various biological processes. It is not approved for use as a medication in humans.
Protease inhibitors are a class of antiviral drugs that are used to treat infections caused by retroviruses, such as the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which is responsible for causing AIDS. These drugs work by blocking the activity of protease enzymes, which are necessary for the replication and multiplication of the virus within infected cells.
Protease enzymes play a crucial role in the life cycle of retroviruses by cleaving viral polyproteins into functional units that are required for the assembly of new viral particles. By inhibiting the activity of these enzymes, protease inhibitors prevent the virus from replicating and spreading to other cells, thereby slowing down the progression of the infection.
Protease inhibitors are often used in combination with other antiretroviral drugs as part of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for the treatment of HIV/AIDS. Common examples of protease inhibitors include saquinavir, ritonavir, indinavir, and atazanavir. While these drugs have been successful in improving the outcomes of people living with HIV/AIDS, they can also cause side effects such as nausea, diarrhea, headaches, and lipodystrophy (changes in body fat distribution).
Leupeptins are a type of protease inhibitors, which are substances that can inhibit the activity of enzymes called proteases. Proteases play a crucial role in breaking down proteins into smaller peptides or individual amino acids. Leupeptins are naturally occurring compounds found in some types of bacteria and are often used in laboratory research to study various cellular processes that involve protease activity.
Leupeptins can inhibit several different types of proteases, including serine proteases, cysteine proteases, and some metalloproteinases. They work by binding to the active site of these enzymes and preventing them from cleaving their protein substrates. Leupeptins have been used in various research applications, such as studying protein degradation, signal transduction pathways, and cell death mechanisms.
It is important to note that leupeptins are not typically used as therapeutic agents in clinical medicine due to their potential toxicity and lack of specificity for individual proteases. Instead, they are primarily used as research tools in basic science investigations.
Pepstatins are a group of naturally occurring cyclic peptides that inhibit aspartic proteases, a type of enzyme that breaks down proteins. They are isolated from various actinomycete species of Streptomyces and Actinosynnema. Pepstatins are often used in laboratory research to study the function of aspartic proteases and as tools to probe the mechanism of action of these enzymes. In addition, pepstatins have been explored for their potential therapeutic use in various diseases, including cancer, viral infections, and cardiovascular disease. However, they have not yet been approved for clinical use.
Carbamates are a group of organic compounds that contain the carbamate functional group, which is a carbon atom double-bonded to oxygen and single-bonded to a nitrogen atom (> N-C=O). In the context of pharmaceuticals and agriculture, carbamates are a class of drugs and pesticides that have carbamate as their core structure.
Carbamate insecticides work by inhibiting the enzyme acetylcholinesterase, which is responsible for breaking down the neurotransmitter acetylcholine in the synapses of the nervous system. When this enzyme is inhibited, acetylcholine accumulates in the synaptic cleft, leading to overstimulation of the nervous system and ultimately causing paralysis and death in insects.
Carbamate drugs are used for a variety of medical indications, including as anticonvulsants, muscle relaxants, and psychotropic medications. They work by modulating various neurotransmitter systems in the brain, such as GABA, glutamate, and dopamine. Carbamates can also be used as anti- parasitic agents, such as ivermectin, which is effective against a range of parasites including nematodes, arthropods, and some protozoa.
It's important to note that carbamate pesticides can be toxic to non-target organisms, including humans, if not used properly. Therefore, it's essential to follow all safety guidelines when handling or using these products.
Oligopeptides are defined in medicine and biochemistry as short chains of amino acids, typically containing fewer than 20 amino acid residues. These small peptides are important components in various biological processes, such as serving as signaling molecules, enzyme inhibitors, or structural elements in some proteins. They can be found naturally in foods and may also be synthesized for use in medical research and therapeutic applications.
Endopeptidases are a type of enzyme that breaks down proteins by cleaving peptide bonds inside the polypeptide chain. They are also known as proteinases or endoproteinases. These enzymes work within the interior of the protein molecule, cutting it at specific points along its length, as opposed to exopeptidases, which remove individual amino acids from the ends of the protein chain.
Endopeptidases play a crucial role in various biological processes, such as digestion, blood coagulation, and programmed cell death (apoptosis). They are classified based on their catalytic mechanism and the structure of their active site. Some examples of endopeptidase families include serine proteases, cysteine proteases, aspartic proteases, and metalloproteases.
It is important to note that while endopeptidases are essential for normal physiological functions, they can also contribute to disease processes when their activity is unregulated or misdirected. For instance, excessive endopeptidase activity has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, cancer, and inflammatory conditions.