Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.
Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to water and oxygen. It is present in many animal cells. A deficiency of this enzyme results in ACATALASIA.
A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.
An enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of 2 moles of glutathione in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to yield oxidized glutathione and water. EC
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.
The dialdehyde of malonic acid.
Low-molecular-weight end products, probably malondialdehyde, that are formed during the decomposition of lipid peroxidation products. These compounds react with thiobarbituric acid to form a fluorescent red adduct.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The N-acetyl derivative of CYSTEINE. It is used as a mucolytic agent to reduce the viscosity of mucous secretions. It has also been shown to have antiviral effects in patients with HIV due to inhibition of viral stimulation by reactive oxygen intermediates.
A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
A basic-leucine zipper transcription factor that was originally described as a transcriptional regulator controlling expression of the BETA-GLOBIN gene. It may regulate the expression of a wide variety of genes that play a role in protecting cells from oxidative damage.
Electron-accepting molecules in chemical reactions in which electrons are transferred from one molecule to another (OXIDATION-REDUCTION).
A natural tocopherol and one of the most potent antioxidant tocopherols. It exhibits antioxidant activity by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus. It has four methyl groups on the 6-chromanol nucleus. The natural d form of alpha-tocopherol is more active than its synthetic dl-alpha-tocopherol racemic mixture.
Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.
A large class of organic compounds having more than one PHENOL group.
Catalyzes the oxidation of GLUTATHIONE to GLUTATHIONE DISULFIDE in the presence of NADP+. Deficiency in the enzyme is associated with HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA. Formerly listed as EC
Inorganic or organic oxy acids of sulfur which contain the RSO2(OH) radical.
A carotenoid that is a precursor of VITAMIN A. It is administered to reduce the severity of photosensitivity reactions in patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria (PORPHYRIA, ERYTHROPOIETIC). (From Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Engewood, CO, 1995.)
A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.
A di-tert-butyl PHENOL with antioxidant properties.
The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.
Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.
A family of ubiquitously-expressed peroxidases that play a role in the reduction of a broad spectrum of PEROXIDES like HYDROGEN PEROXIDE; LIPID PEROXIDES and peroxinitrite. They are found in a wide range of organisms, such as BACTERIA; PLANTS; and MAMMALS. The enzyme requires the presence of a thiol-containing intermediate such as THIOREDOXIN as a reducing cofactor.
The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
Nucleotide sequences that are found in the PROMOTER REGIONS of the genes of stress-responsive and cytoprotective proteins, such as those encoding antioxidant and PHASE II DETOXIFICATION enzymes. NF-E2-RELATED FACTOR 2 containing transcription factors bind to these elements during induction of these genes.
Mixture of 2- and 3-tert-butyl-4-methoxyphenols that is used as an antioxidant in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals.
Compounds with a benzene ring fused to a thiazole ring.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
A flavonol glycoside found in many plants, including BUCKWHEAT; TOBACCO; FORSYTHIA; HYDRANGEA; VIOLA, etc. It has been used therapeutically to decrease capillary fragility.
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
An octanoic acid bridged with two sulfurs so that it is sometimes also called a pentanoic acid in some naming schemes. It is biosynthesized by cleavage of LINOLEIC ACID and is a coenzyme of oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (KETOGLUTARATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX). It is used in DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS.
A flavonol widely distributed in plants. It is an antioxidant, like many other phenolic heterocyclic compounds. Glycosylated forms include RUTIN and quercetrin.
The appearance of carbonyl groups (such as aldehyde or ketone groups) in PROTEINS as the result of several oxidative modification reactions. It is a standard marker for OXIDATIVE STRESS. Carbonylated proteins tend to be more hydrophobic and resistant to proteolysis.
A drug used to lower LDL and HDL cholesterol yet has little effect on serum-triglyceride or VLDL cholesterol. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p993).
The univalent radical OH. Hydroxyl radical is a potent oxidizing agent.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Benzopyrans saturated in the 2 and 3 positions.
Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.
A GLUTATHIONE dimer formed by a disulfide bond between the cysteine sulfhydryl side chains during the course of being oxidized.
A colorless or slightly yellow crystalline compound obtained from nutgalls. It is used in photography, pharmaceuticals, and as an analytical reagent.
Polyphenolic compounds with molecular weights of around 500-3000 daltons and containing enough hydroxyl groups (1-2 per 100 MW) for effective cross linking of other compounds (ASTRINGENTS). The two main types are HYDROLYZABLE TANNINS and CONDENSED TANNINS. Historically, the term has applied to many compounds and plant extracts able to render skin COLLAGEN impervious to degradation. The word tannin derives from the Celtic word for OAK TREE which was used for leather processing.
The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.
An antioxidant flavonoid, occurring especially in woody plants as both (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin (cis) forms.
Peroxidases that utilize ASCORBIC ACID as an electron donor to reduce HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to WATER. The reaction results in the production of monodehydroascorbic acid and DEHYDROASCORBIC ACID.
A flavoprotein that reversibly catalyzes the oxidation of NADH or NADPH by various quinones and oxidation-reduction dyes. The enzyme is inhibited by dicoumarol, capsaicin, and caffeine.
A genus in the family Myrtaceae sometimes known as "stoppers" in FOLK MEDICINE. Many species of the genus SYZYGIUM have synonymous names that begin with the Eugenia genus name.
A collective name for a group of closely related lipids that contain substitutions on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus and a long hydrocarbon chain of isoprenoid units. They are antioxidants by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen. Tocopherols react with the most reactive form of oxygen and protect unsaturated fatty acids from oxidation.
A lipid-soluble benzoquinone which is involved in ELECTRON TRANSPORT in mitochondrial preparations. The compound occurs in the majority of aerobic organisms, from bacteria to higher plants and animals.
A ubiquitous stress-responsive enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of HEME to yield IRON; CARBON MONOXIDE; and BILIVERDIN.
Hydroxycinnamic acid and its derivatives. Act as activators of the indoleacetic acid oxidizing system, thereby producing a decrease in the endogenous level of bound indoleacetic acid in plants.
Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.
An element with the atomic symbol Se, atomic number 34, and atomic weight 78.96. It is an essential micronutrient for mammals and other animals but is toxic in large amounts. Selenium protects intracellular structures against oxidative damage. It is an essential component of GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE.
A group of FLAVONOIDS derived from FLAVONOLS, which lack the ketone oxygen at the 4-position. They are glycosylated versions of cyanidin, pelargonidin or delphinidin. The conjugated bonds result in blue, red, and purple colors in flowers of plants.
A group of compounds that contain a bivalent O-O group, i.e., the oxygen atoms are univalent. They can either be inorganic or organic in nature. Such compounds release atomic (nascent) oxygen readily. Thus they are strong oxidizing agents and fire hazards when in contact with combustible materials, especially under high-temperature conditions. The chief industrial uses of peroxides are as oxidizing agents, bleaching agents, and initiators of polymerization. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Synthetic or natural substances which are given to prevent a disease or disorder or are used in the process of treating a disease or injury due to a poisonous agent.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Heterocyclic compounds in which an oxygen is attached to a cyclic nitrogen.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Organic compounds that contain 1,2-diphenylethylene as a functional group.
One of the enzymes active in the gamma-glutamyl cycle. It catalyzes the synthesis of gamma-glutamylcysteine from glutamate and cysteine in the presence of ATP with the formation of ADP and orthophosphate. EC
Nitrogenous products of NITRIC OXIDE synthases, ranging from NITRIC OXIDE to NITRATES. These reactive nitrogen intermediates also include the inorganic PEROXYNITROUS ACID and the organic S-NITROSOTHIOLS.
An oxidation product, via XANTHINE OXIDASE, of oxypurines such as XANTHINE and HYPOXANTHINE. It is the final oxidation product of purine catabolism in humans and primates, whereas in most other mammals URATE OXIDASE further oxidizes it to ALLANTOIN.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
Benzoate derivatives substituted by one or more hydroxy groups in any position on the benzene ring.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The process by which chemical compounds provide protection to cells against harmful agents.
A sweet viscous liquid food, produced in the honey sacs of various bees from nectar collected from flowers. The nectar is ripened into honey by inversion of its sucrose sugar into fructose and glucose. It is somewhat acidic and has mild antiseptic properties, being sometimes used in the treatment of burns and lacerations.
A naturally occurring phenolic acid which is a carcinogenic inhibitor. It has also been shown to prevent paraquat-induced oxidative stress in rats. (From J Chromatogr A 1996;741(2):223-31; Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 1996;60(5):765-68).
A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.
Dimers and oligomers of flavan-3-ol units (CATECHIN analogs) linked mainly through C4 to C8 bonds to leucoanthocyanidins. They are structurally similar to ANTHOCYANINS but are the result of a different fork in biosynthetic pathways.
A class of phenolic acids related to chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, vanillic acid, etc., which are found in plant tissues. It is involved in plant growth regulation.
Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.
Oxygenated forms of carotenoids. They are usually derived from alpha and beta carotene.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Root-like underground horizontal stem of plants that produces shoots above and roots below. Distinguished from true roots which don't have buds and nodes. Similar to true roots in being underground and thickened by storage deposits.
A peroxiredoxin that is a cytosolic bifunctional enzyme. It functions as a peroxiredoxin via a single redox-active cysteine and also contains a Ca2+-independent acidic phospholipase A2 activity.
The above-ground plant without the roots.
A group of 3-hydroxy-4-keto-FLAVONOIDS.
The dried seeds, bark, root, stems, buds, leaves, or fruit of aromatic plants used to season food.
A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.
The infusion of leaves of CAMELLIA SINENSIS (formerly Thea sinensis) as a beverage, the familiar Asian tea, which contains CATECHIN (especially epigallocatechin gallate) and CAFFEINE.
Isoprostanes derived from the free radical oxidation of ARACHIDONIC ACID. Although similar in structure to enzymatically synthesized prostaglandin F2alpha (DINOPROST), they occur through non-enzymatic oxidation of cell membrane lipids.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Porphyrins which are combined with a metal ion. The metal is bound equally to all four nitrogen atoms of the pyrrole rings. They possess characteristic absorption spectra which can be utilized for identification or quantitative estimation of porphyrins and porphyrin-bound compounds.
Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced mutations independently of the mechanism involved.
A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
A yellow-orange dye obtained from tumeric, the powdered root of CURCUMA longa. It is used in the preparation of curcuma paper and the detection of boron. Curcumin appears to possess a spectrum of pharmacological properties, due primarily to its inhibitory effects on metabolic enzymes.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.
Carbamates in which the -CO- group has been replaced by a -CS- group.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Antioxidant for foods, fats, oils, ethers, emulsions, waxes, and transformer oils.
Organic compounds which contain selenium as an integral part of the molecule.
Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleoptene (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensability.
A direct-acting oxidative stress-inducing agent used to examine the effects of oxidant stress on Ca(2+)-dependent signal transduction in vascular endothelial cells. It is also used as a catalyst in polymerization reactions and to introduce peroxy groups into organic molecules.
A broad range of biologically active compounds which occur naturally in plants having important medicinal and nutritional properties.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Several plant species of the genus VACCINIUM known for the edible blueberry fruit.
Hydrogen-donating proteins that participates in a variety of biochemical reactions including ribonucleotide reduction and reduction of PEROXIREDOXINS. Thioredoxin is oxidized from a dithiol to a disulfide when acting as a reducing cofactor. The disulfide form is then reduced by NADPH in a reaction catalyzed by THIOREDOXIN REDUCTASE.
Fermented juice of fresh grapes or of other fruit or plant products used as a beverage.
Oils derived from plants or plant products.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
An antimicrobial, antiseptic, and disinfectant that is used also as an aromatic essence and preservative in pharmaceutics and perfumery.
A THIOREDOXIN-dependent hydroperoxidase that is localized in the mitochondrial matrix. The enzyme plays a crucial role in protecting mitochondrial components from elevated levels of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE.
Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
Compounds in which one or more of the ketone groups on the pyrimidine ring of barbituric acid are replaced by thione groups.
A group of FLAVONOIDS characterized with a 4-ketone.
A plant genus of the LAMIACEAE family. It is known as a spice and medicinal plant.
Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.
Organic derivatives of thiocyanic acid which contain the general formula R-SCN.
A large plant family of the order Asterales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The family is also known as Compositae. Flower petals are joined near the base and stamens alternate with the corolla lobes. The common name of "daisy" refers to several genera of this family including Aster; CHRYSANTHEMUM; RUDBECKIA; TANACETUM.
Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A mixed function oxidase enzyme which during hemoglobin catabolism catalyzes the degradation of heme to ferrous iron, carbon monoxide and biliverdin in the presence of molecular oxygen and reduced NADPH. The enzyme is induced by metals, particularly cobalt. EC
Drugs used to protect against ionizing radiation. They are usually of interest for use in radiation therapy but have been considered for other, e.g. military, purposes.
The dogbane family of the order Gentianales. Members of the family have milky, often poisonous juice, smooth-margined leaves, and flowers in clusters. Asclepiadacea (formerly the milkweed family) has been included since 1999 and before 1810.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the univalent reduction of OXYGEN using NADPH as an electron donor to create SUPEROXIDE ANION. The enzyme is dependent on a variety of CYTOCHROMES. Defects in the production of superoxide ions by enzymes such as NADPH oxidase result in GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC.
An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria.
An enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of an aryl-dialkyl phosphate to form dialkyl phosphate and an aryl alcohol. It can hydrolyze a broad spectrum of organophosphate substrates and a number of aromatic carboxylic acid esters. It may also mediate an enzymatic protection of LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS against oxidative modification and the consequent series of events leading to ATHEROMA formation. The enzyme was previously regarded to be identical with Arylesterase (EC
A synthetic amino acid that depletes glutathione by irreversibly inhibiting gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase. Inhibition of this enzyme is a critical step in glutathione biosynthesis. It has been shown to inhibit the proliferative response in human T-lymphocytes and inhibit macrophage activation. (J Biol Chem 1995;270(33):1945-7)
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A hemeprotein from leukocytes. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to a hereditary disorder coupled with disseminated moniliasis. It catalyzes the conversion of a donor and peroxide to an oxidized donor and water. EC
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
An antiseptic and disinfectant aromatic alcohol.
A natural tocopherol with less antioxidant activity than ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL. It exhibits antioxidant activity by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus. As in BETA-TOCOPHEROL, it also has three methyl groups on the 6-chromanol nucleus but at different sites.
Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved.
A series of prostaglandin-like compounds that are produced by the attack of free-radical species on unsaturated fatty acids, especially ARACHIDONIC ACID, of cellular MEMBRANES. Once cleaved from the lipid membrane by the action of phospholipases they can circulate into various bodily fluids and eventually be excreted. Although these compounds resemble enzymatically synthesized prostaglandins their stereoisometric arrangement is usually different than the "naturally occurring" compounds.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN E in the diet, characterized by posterior column and spinocerebellar tract abnormalities, areflexia, ophthalmoplegia, and disturbances of gait, proprioception, and vibration. In premature infants vitamin E deficiency is associated with hemolytic anemia, thrombocytosis, edema, intraventricular hemorrhage, and increasing risk of retrolental fibroplasia and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. An apparent inborn error of vitamin E metabolism, named familial isolated vitamin E deficiency, has recently been identified. (Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1181)
A biogenic amine that is found in animals and plants. In mammals, melatonin is produced by the PINEAL GLAND. Its secretion increases in darkness and decreases during exposure to light. Melatonin is implicated in the regulation of SLEEP, mood, and REPRODUCTION. Melatonin is also an effective antioxidant.
Organic compounds with the general formula R-NCS.
A plant genus in the family VITACEAE, order Rhamnales, subclass Rosidae. It is a woody vine cultivated worldwide. It is best known for grapes, the edible fruit and used to make WINE and raisins.
A poisonous dipyridilium compound used as contact herbicide. Contact with concentrated solutions causes irritation of the skin, cracking and shedding of the nails, and delayed healing of cuts and wounds.
A group of FLAVONOLS based on kaempferol. They are derived from naringenin and can be hydroxylated to QUERCETIN or reduced to leucopelargonidin.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
A plant family of the order Sapindales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are resinous trees and shrubs with alternate leaves composed of many leaflets.
Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of methoxybenzene and contain the general formula R-C7H7O.
A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A plant family of the order Myrtales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida that is a small family with a single genus.
Antioxidant; also a post-harvest dip to prevent scald on apples and pears.
The mint plant family. They are characteristically aromatic, and many of them are cultivated for their oils. Most have square stems, opposite leaves, and two-lipped, open-mouthed, tubular corollas (united petals), with five-lobed, bell-like calyxes (united sepals).
A genotoxicological technique for measuring DNA damage in an individual cell using single-cell gel electrophoresis. Cell DNA fragments assume a "comet with tail" formation on electrophoresis and are detected with an image analysis system. Alkaline assay conditions facilitate sensitive detection of single-strand damage.
A plant genus of the family PIPERACEAE that is indigenous in the Indian Malay region and cultivated in Madagascar, and the West Indies. It contains chavibetol, chavicol and cadinene. The leaf is chewed as a stimulant, antiseptic and sialogogue. The common name of betel is also used for ARECA.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
A xanthophyll found in the major LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES of plants. Dietary lutein accumulates in the MACULA LUTEA.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members contain isoacteoside, luteolin, indole-3-carboxylic acid.
The rose plant family in the order ROSALES and class Magnoliopsida. They are generally woody plants. A number of the species of this family contain cyanogenic compounds.
The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
5,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxy-flavone, one of the FLAVONES.
Material prepared from plants.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.

Double-blind intervention trial on modulation of ozone effects on pulmonary function by antioxidant supplements. (1/13910)

The aim of this study was to investigate whether the acute effects of ozone on lung function could be modulated by antioxidant vitamin supplementation in a placebo-controlled study. Lung function was measured in Dutch bicyclists (n = 38) before and after each training session on a number of occasions (n = 380) during the summer of 1996. The vitamin group (n = 20) received 100 mg of vitamin E and 500 mg of vitamin C daily for 15 weeks. The average ozone concentration during exercise was 77 microg/m3 (range, 14-186 microg/m3). After exclusion of subjects with insufficient compliance from the analysis, a difference in ozone exposure of 100 microg/m3 decreased forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) 95 ml (95% confidence interval (CI) -265 to -53) in the placebo group and 1 ml (95% CI -94 to 132) in the vitamin group; for forced vital capacity, the change was -125 ml (95% CI -384 to -36) in the placebo group and -42 ml (95% CI -130 to 35) in the vitamin group. The differences in ozone effect on lung function between the groups were statistically significant. The results suggest that supplementation with the antioxidant vitamins C and E confers partial protection against the acute effects of ozone on FEV1 and forced vital capacity in cyclists.  (+info)

Inflammatory cell-mediated tumour progression and minisatellite mutation correlate with the decrease of antioxidative enzymes in murine fibrosarcoma cells. (2/13910)

We isolated six clones of weakly tumorigenic fibrosarcoma (QR) from the tumorigenic clone BMT-11 cl-9. The QR clones were unable to grow in normal C57BL/6 mice when injected s.c. (1x10(5) cells). However, they formed aggressive tumours upon co-implantation with a 'foreign body', i.e. a gelatin sponge, and the rate of tumour take ranged from 8% to 58% among QR clones. The enhanced tumorigenicity was due to host cell-mediated reaction to the gelatin sponge (inflammation). Immunoblot analysis and enzyme activity assay revealed a significant inverse correlation between the frequencies of tumour formation by QR clones and the levels of manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD, P<0.005) and glutathione peroxidase (GPchi, P<0.01) in the respective tumour clones. Electron spin resonance (ESR) revealed that superoxide-scavenging ability of cell lysates of the QR clone with high level of Mn-SOD was significantly higher than that with low level of the antioxidative enzyme in the presence of potassium cyanide, an inhibitor for copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) (P<0.001). Minisatellite mutation (MSM) induced by the inflammatory cells in tumour cells were investigated by DNA fingerprint analysis after QR clones had been co-cultured with gelatin-sponge-reactive cells. The MSM rate was significantly higher in the subclones with low levels of Mn-SOD and GPchi (P<0.05) than in the subclones with high levels of both enzymes. The MSM of the subclones with low levels of both enzymes was inhibited in the presence of mannitol, a hydroxyl radical scavenger. The content of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) by which the cellular DNA damage caused by active oxygen species can be assessed was significantly low in the tumours arising from the QR clone with high levels of Mn-SOD and GPchi even if the clone had been co-implanted with gelatin sponge, compared with the arising tumour from the QR clone with low levels of those antioxidative enzymes (P<0.001). In contrast, CuZn-SOD and catalase levels in the six QR clones did not have any correlation with tumour progression parameters. These results suggest that tumour progression is accelerated by inflammation-induced active oxygen species particularly accompanied with declined levels of intracellular antioxidative enzymes in tumour cells.  (+info)

Synergistic protective effects of antioxidant and nitric oxide synthase inhibitor in transient focal ischemia. (3/13910)

Both nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors and free radical scavengers have been shown to protect brain tissue in ischemia-reperfusion injury. Nitric oxide and superoxide anion act via distinct mechanisms and react together to form the highly deleterious peroxynitrite. Therefore the authors examined the effects and the interaction between the NOS inhibitor, NG nitro-L-arginine (LNA) and the antioxidant/superoxide scavenger, di-tert-butyl-hydroxybenzoic acid (DtBHB) in the rat submitted to 2 hours of middle cerebral artery occlusion. Posttreatment was initiated 4 hours after the onset of ischemia and infarct volume was measured at 48 hours. The dose-related effect of LNA resulted in a bell-shaped curve: 15, 56, 65, and 33% reduction of total infarct for 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, and 1 mg/kg (intravenously [IV]) respectively and 11% increase in infarct volume for 3 mg/kg (IV). Whereas DtBHB (20 mg/kg; intraperitoneally [IP]) was ineffective, the dose of 60 mg/kg produced 65% protection in infarct volume. The combination of a subthreshold dose of LNA (0.03 mg/kg; IV) and DtBHB (20 mg/kg; IP) resulted in significant reduction (49%) in infarct volume. These results show that LNA and DtBHB act synergistically to provide a consistent neuroprotection against ischemic injury when administered 4 hours after ischemia. This suggests that nitric oxide and free radicals are involved and interact in synergy in ischemia-reperfusion injury.  (+info)

Increased lipophilicity and subsequent cell partitioning decrease passive transcellular diffusion of novel, highly lipophilic antioxidants. (4/13910)

Oxidative stress is considered a cause or propagator of acute and chronic disorders of the central nervous system. Novel 2, 4-diamino-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines are potent inhibitors of iron-dependent lipid peroxidation, are cytoprotective in cell culture models of oxidative injury, and are neuroprotective in brain injury and ischemia models. The selection of lead candidates from this series required that they reach target cells deep within brain tissue in efficacious amounts after oral dosing. A homologous series of 26 highly lipophilic pyrrolopyrimidines was examined using cultured cell monolayers to understand the structure-permeability relationship and to use this information to predict brain penetration and residence time. Pyrrolopyrimidines were shown to be a more permeable structural class of membrane-interactive antioxidants where transepithelial permeability was inversely related to lipophilicity or to cell partitioning. Pyrrole substitutions influence cell partitioning where bulky hydrophobic groups increased partitioning and decreased permeability and smaller hydrophobic groups and more hydrophilic groups, especially those capable of weak hydrogen bonding, decreased partitioning, and increased permeability. Transmonolayer diffusion for these membrane-interactive antioxidants was limited mostly by desorption from the receiver-side membrane into the buffer. Thus, in this case, these in vitro cell monolayer models do not adequately mimic the in vivo situation by underestimating in vivo bioavailability of highly lipophilic compounds unless acceptors, such as serum proteins, are added to the receiving buffer.  (+info)

Novel, highly lipophilic antioxidants readily diffuse across the blood-brain barrier and access intracellular sites. (5/13910)

In an accompanying article, an in vitro assay for permeability predicts that membrane-protective, antioxidant 2,4-diamino-pyrrolo[2, 3-d]pyrimidines should have improved blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeation over previously described lipophilic antioxidants. Using a first-pass extraction method and brain/plasma quantification, we show here that two of the pyrrolopyrimidines, one of which is markedly less permeable, readily partition into rat brain. The efficiency of extraction was dependent on serum protein binding, and in situ efflux confirms the in vitro data showing that PNU-87663 is retained in brain longer than PNU-89843. By exploiting inherent fluorescence properties of PNU-87663, its distribution within brain and within cells in culture was demonstrated using confocal scanning laser microscopy. PNU-87663 rapidly partitioned into the cell membrane and equilibrates with cytoplasmic compartments via passive diffusion. Although partitioning of PNU-87663 favors intracytoplasmic lipid storage droplets, the compound was readily exchangeable as shown by efflux of compound from cells to buffer when protein was present. The results demonstrated that pyrrolopyrimidines were well suited for quickly accessing target cells within the central nervous system as well as in other target tissues.  (+info)

Mechanisms and mediators in coal dust induced toxicity: a review. (6/13910)

Chronic inhalation of coal dust can cause several lung disorders, including simple coal workers pneumoconiosis (CWP), progressive massive fibrosis (PMF), chronic bronchitis, lung function loss, and emphysema. This review focuses on the cellular actions and interactions of key inflammatory cells and target cells in coal dust toxicity and related lung disorders, i.e. macrophages and neutrophils, epithelial cells, and fibroblasts. Factors released from or affecting these cells are outlined in separate sections, i.e. (1) reactive oxygen species (ROS) and related antioxidant protection mechanisms, and (2) cytokines, growth factors and related proteins. Furthermore, (3) components of the extracellular matrix (ECM), including the modifying role of ROS, cytokines, proteases and antiproteases are discussed in relation to tissue damage and remodelling in the respiratory tract. It is recognised that inhaled coal dust particles are important non-cellular and cellular sources of ROS in the lung, and may be significantly involved in the damage of lung target cells as well as important macromolecules including alpha-1-antitrypsin and DNA. In vitro and in vivo studies with coal dusts showed the up-regulation of important leukocyte recruiting factors, e.g. Leukotriene-B4 (LTB4), Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF), Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1 (MCP-1), and Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF alpha), as well as the neutrophil adhesion factor Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Coal dust particles are also known to stimulate the (macrophage) production of various factors with potential capacity to modulate lung cells and/or extracellular matrix, including O2-., H2O2, and NO, fibroblast chemoattractants (e.g. Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF beta), PDGF, and fibronectin) and a number of factors that have been shown to stimulate and/or inhibit fibroblast growth or collagen production such as (TNF alpha, TGF beta, PDGF, Insulin Like Growth Factor, and Prostaglandin-E2). Further studies are needed to clarify the in vivo kinetics and relative impact of these factors.  (+info)

Effects of pyrogallol, hydroquinone and duroquinone on responses to nitrergic nerve stimulation and NO in the rat anococcygeus muscle. (7/13910)

1. The hypothesis that endogenous superoxide dismutase (SOD) protects the nitrergic transmitter from inactivation by superoxide and that this explains the lack of sensitivity of the transmitter to superoxide generators was tested in the rat isolated anococcygeus muscle. 2. Responses to nitrergic nerve stimulation or to NO were not significantly affected by exogenous SOD or by the Cu/Zn SOD inhibitor diethyldithiocarbamic acid (DETCA). 3. Hydroquinone produced a concentration-dependent reduction of responses to NO with an IC50 of 27 microM, and higher concentrations reduced relaxant responses to nitrergic nerve stimulation with an IC50 of 612 microM. The effects of hydroquinone were only slightly reversed by SOD, so it does not appear to be acting as a superoxide generator. 4. Pyrogallol produced a concentration-dependent reduction in responses to NO with an IC50 value of 39 microM and this effect was reversed by SOD (100-1000 u ml(-1)). Pyrogallol did not affect responses to nitrergic nerve stimulation. Treatment with DETCA did not alter the differentiating action of pyrogallol. 5. Duroquinone produced a concentration-dependent reduction of relaxations to NO with an IC50 value of 240 microM and 100 microM slightly decreased nitrergic relaxations. After treatment with DETCA, duroquinone produced greater reductions of relaxant responses to NO and to nitrergic stimulation, the IC50 values being 8.5 microM for NO and 40 microM for nitrergic nerve stimulation: these reductions were reversed by SOD. 6. The findings do not support the hypothesis that the presence of Cu/Zn SOD explains the greater susceptibility of NO than the nitrergic transmitter to the superoxide generator pyrogallol, but suggest that it may play a role in the effects of duroquinone.  (+info)

UV-A-induced decrease in nuclear factor-kappaB activity in human keratinocytes. (8/13910)

Previous reports have demonstrated an increase in nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activity in response to UV radiation. These studies have essentially focused on the DNA-damaging fraction of solar UV radiation (UV-B and UV-C). In contrast, the effects of UV-A radiation (320-400 nm) on NF-kappaB are not well known. In this study, we present evidence that UV-A radiation induces a marked decrease in NF-kappaB DNA-binding activity in NCTC 2544 human keratinocytes. In addition, NCTC 2544 keratinocytes pretreated with UV-A fail to respond to NF-kappaB inducers. Moreover, UV-A radiation induces a decrease in NF-kappaB-driven luciferase reporter gene expression in NCTC 2544 keratinocytes. The expression of the gene encoding IkappaBalpha (IkappaB is the NF-kappaB inhibitor), which is closely associated with NF-kappaB activity, is also reduced (3-fold) upon UV-A treatment. Our results indicate that the UV-A-induced decrease in NF-kappaB DNA-binding activity is associated with a decrease in the levels of the p50 and p65 protein subunits. This is the first evidence that an oxidative stress, such as UV-A radiation, may induce a specific decrease in NF-kappaB activity in mammalian cells, probably through degradation of NF-kappaB protein subunits. These findings suggest that UV-A could modulate the NF-kappaB-dependent gene expression.  (+info)

1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.

2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.

3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.

4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.

5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.

6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.

7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.

8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.

9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.

10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.

Causes and risk factors:

1. Poor diet: A diet that is lacking in vitamin E can lead to a deficiency. Foods that are low in vitamin E include processed foods, sugary drinks, and refined carbohydrates.
2. Malabsorption: Certain medical conditions, such as celiac disease, can lead to malabsorption of nutrients, including vitamin E.
3. Pregnancy and lactation: Pregnant and breastfeeding women have a higher requirement for vitamin E, and a deficiency can occur if they do not consume enough.
4. Chronic diseases: Certain chronic diseases, such as Crohn's disease, can increase the risk of vitamin E deficiency.
5. Genetic disorders: Some genetic disorders, such as abetalipoproteinemia, can lead to a deficiency in vitamin E.


1. Fatigue and weakness
2. Muscle weakness
3. Loss of appetite
4. Nerve damage
5. Poor wound healing
6. Increased risk of infections
7. Decreased immune function
8. Anemia
9. Skin problems, such as acne and dermatitis
10. Eye problems, such as cataracts and retinal degeneration.


Vitamin E deficiency is diagnosed based on a combination of clinical symptoms, medical history, and laboratory tests, including:

1. Blood tests: Measurement of serum vitamin E levels can help determine if there is a deficiency.
2. Dietary assessment: A dietitian or nutritionist may evaluate the patient's diet to identify any potential sources of vitamin E deficiency.
3. Physical examination: A healthcare provider may perform a physical examination to look for signs of vitamin E deficiency, such as skin problems or muscle weakness.

Treatment and Prevention:

1. Dietary changes: Increasing the intake of foods rich in vitamin E, such as nuts, seeds, and vegetable oils, can help prevent and treat vitamin E deficiency.
2. Supplementation: Vitamin E supplements can be used to treat and prevent vitamin E deficiency. The recommended daily intake of vitamin E varies by age and sex, but generally ranges from 5-15 mg/day.
3. Addressing underlying causes: If the deficiency is caused by an underlying medical condition, such as Crohn's disease or abetalipoproteinemia, treating the condition can help resolve the deficiency.
4. Supportive care: Patients with severe vitamin E deficiency may require supportive care, such as intravenous nutrition or respiratory support, to manage their symptoms.

Prognosis and Complications:
The prognosis for vitamin E deficiency is generally good if the underlying cause is identified and treated promptly. However, untreated severe vitamin E deficiency can lead to complications such as:

1. Skin problems: Vitamin E deficiency can cause skin problems, such as acne, dermatitis, and wound healing difficulties.
2. Muscle weakness: Vitamin E is important for muscle function, and deficiency can lead to muscle weakness and wasting.
3. Neurological problems: Vitamin E deficiency can cause neurological problems, such as peripheral neuropathy and seizures.
4. Increased risk of infections: Vitamin E is important for immune function, and deficiency can increase the risk of infections.
5. Reproductive problems: Vitamin E deficiency can cause reproductive problems, such as infertility and miscarriage.

Types of Experimental Diabetes Mellitus include:

1. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes: This type of EDM is caused by administration of streptozotocin, a chemical that damages the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas, leading to high blood sugar levels.
2. Alloxan-induced diabetes: This type of EDM is caused by administration of alloxan, a chemical that also damages the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas.
3. Pancreatectomy-induced diabetes: In this type of EDM, the pancreas is surgically removed or damaged, leading to loss of insulin production and high blood sugar levels.

Experimental Diabetes Mellitus has several applications in research, including:

1. Testing new drugs and therapies for diabetes treatment: EDM allows researchers to evaluate the effectiveness of new treatments on blood sugar control and other physiological processes.
2. Studying the pathophysiology of diabetes: By inducing EDM in animals, researchers can study the progression of diabetes and its effects on various organs and tissues.
3. Investigating the role of genetics in diabetes: Researchers can use EDM to study the effects of genetic mutations on diabetes development and progression.
4. Evaluating the efficacy of new diagnostic techniques: EDM allows researchers to test new methods for diagnosing diabetes and monitoring blood sugar levels.
5. Investigating the complications of diabetes: By inducing EDM in animals, researchers can study the development of complications such as retinopathy, nephropathy, and cardiovascular disease.

In conclusion, Experimental Diabetes Mellitus is a valuable tool for researchers studying diabetes and its complications. The technique allows for precise control over blood sugar levels and has numerous applications in testing new treatments, studying the pathophysiology of diabetes, investigating the role of genetics, evaluating new diagnostic techniques, and investigating complications.

"Antioxidants & Redox Signaling , Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers". "Antioxidants and Redox Signaling". 2014 Journal Citation ... Antioxidants & Redox Signaling is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering reduction-oxidation (redox) signaling and ... antioxidant research. It covers topics such as reactive oxygen species/reactive nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) as messengers ...
The only dietary antioxidants are vitamins A, C, and E, but the term antioxidant has also been applied to numerous other ... Antioxidants that are reducing agents can also act as pro-oxidants. For example, vitamin C has antioxidant activity when it ... As with antioxidant metabolites, the contributions of these enzymes to antioxidant defenses can be hard to separate from one ... Duarte TL, Lunec J (July 2005). "Review: When is an antioxidant not an antioxidant? A review of novel actions and reactions of ...
... antioxidant activity, antioxidant content and antioxidant properties, and protection of DNA, proteins and lipids from oxidative ... Most food compounds listed as antioxidants - such as polyphenols common in colorful, edible plants - have antioxidant activity ... On the contrary, research indicates that although polyphenols are antioxidants in vitro, antioxidant effects in vivo are ... which have antioxidant capacity in vitro and so provide an artificial index of antioxidant strength - the ORAC measurement. ...
The Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assay measures the antioxidant capacity of a given substance, as compared to ... Most commonly, antioxidant capacity is measured using the ABTS Decolorization Assay. Other antioxidant capacity assays which ... The TEAC assay is often used to measure the antioxidant capacity of foods, beverages and nutritional supplements. Huang, D.; Ou ... B.; Prior, R. L. (2005). "The Chemistry behind Antioxidant Capacity Assays". J. Agric. Food Chem. 53 (6): 1841-56. doi:10.1021/ ...
A polyphenol antioxidant is a hypothetical type of antioxidant containing a polyphenolic substructure and studied in vitro. ... Controlled long-term studies on the efficacy of low molecular weight antioxidants in the prevention or treatment of skin aging ... Antioxidant levels of purified anthocyanin extracts were much higher than expected from anthocyanin content indicating ... It is difficult to evaluate the physiological effects of specific natural phenolic antioxidants, since such a large number of ...
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Antioxidants combat the effects that free radicals cause. It appears that foods that are high in antioxidants can provide the ... Plant foods have antioxidants and seem to be more effective than their supplemental drug counterparts most likely because of ... Vitamin E is an antioxidant, and like Omega-3 fatty acids, vitamin E can also be found in seeds and nuts, plant oils, and ... Fruits and vegetables make the list of antioxidants alongside seafood, seeds, nuts, and protein sources like beef and poultry. ...
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The natural antioxidants tend to be short-lived, so synthetic antioxidants are used when a longer shelf-life is preferred. The ... Natural antioxidants include ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and tocopherols (vitamin E). Synthetic antioxidants include butylated ... Antioxidants are often used as preservatives in fat-containing foods to delay the onset or slow the development of rancidity ... A combination of water-soluble and fat-soluble antioxidants is ideal, usually in the ratio of fat to water. In addition, ...
... (MitoQ) is a synthetic analogue of coenzyme Q10 which has antioxidant effects. It was first developed in ... Kezic A, Spasojevic I, Lezaic V, Bajcetic M (2016). "Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidants: Future Perspectives in Kidney Ischemia ... October 2020). "Traumatic Brain Injury: Oxidative Stress and Novel Anti-Oxidants Such as Mitoquinone and Edaravone". ... Antioxidants. 9 (10): 943. doi:10.3390/antiox9100943. PMC 7601591. PMID 33019512. Braakhuis AJ, Nagulan R, Somerville V (2018 ...
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It is believed that this is possible due to DJ-1 antioxidant properties, therefore, inhibiting oxidative stress in the cell ... Antioxidants. 9 (10): 1007. doi:10.3390/antiox9101007. ISSN 2076-3921. PMC 7602991. PMID 33081318. Hernandez-Baltazar, D.; ...
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Mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 has been shown to extend the lifespan of mice. Some research effort is directed to slow ... For example, the secretion of cryptomphalus aspersa (or brown garden snail) has been found to have antioxidant properties, ... Liochev SI (December 2015). "Which Is the Most Significant Cause of Aging?". Antioxidants. 4 (4): 793-810. doi:10.3390/ ... November 2011). "Effects of the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1 on lifespan of rodents". Aging (Albany NY). 3 (11): 1110 ...
... antioxidant activity, antioxidant content and antioxidant properties, and protection of DNA, proteins and lipids from oxidative ... Flavonoids have negligible antioxidant activity in the body, and the increase in antioxidant capacity of blood seen after ... Phytochemical List of antioxidants in food List of phytochemicals in food Phytochemistry Secondary metabolites ... Serafini M, Bugianesi R, Maiani G, Valtuena S, De Santis S, Crozier A (August 2003). "Plasma antioxidants from chocolate" (PDF ...
Flohé L (December 2020). "Looking Back at the Early Stages of Redox Biology". Antioxidants. 9 (12): 1254. doi:10.3390/ ... is developed in nearly all living cells as an important antioxidant agent. They promote the disproportionation of superoxide ...
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Antioxidant vitamins as dietary supplements have been proposed as having benefits if consumed during pregnancy. For the ... Many biological functions have been postulated, including a role as a fat-soluble antioxidant. In this role, vitamin E acts as ... As to why plants synthesize tocochromanols, the major reason appears to be for antioxidant activity. Different parts of plants ... The first QHCs relevant to vitamin E were issued in 2003: "Some scientific evidence suggests that consumption of antioxidant ...
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This may be monitored by the ratio of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione to its oxidised product, glutathione disulphide (GSH: ... Leto TL, Geiszt M (September 2006). "Role of Nox family NADPH oxidases in host defense". Antioxidants & Redox Signaling. 8 (9- ... Tumorigenic cells also simultaneously maintain high levels of antioxidants to protect against cancer cell death. Most notably, ... Herb M, Schramm M (February 2021). "Functions of ROS in Macrophages and Antimicrobial Immunity". Antioxidants. 10 (2): 313. doi ...
Yang, Xiaolan; Yang, Lei; Zheng, Haiying (2010). "Hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects of mulberry (Morus alba L.) fruit in ... Antioxidant and Antiglycation Activities of Mulberry Leaf Extract in Streptozotocin-Induced Chronic Diabetic Rats". Plant Foods ... Antioxidants. 7 (5): 69. doi:10.3390/antiox7050069. ISSN 2076-3921. PMC 5981255. PMID 29883416. Hussain, Fahad; Rana, Zohaib; ...
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This fact sheet provides a general overview of antioxidant dietary supplements, including vitamins C and E and beta-carotene, ... Additional antioxidants come from foods, such as fruits, vegetables, and grains. Some antioxidants, such as vitamins C and E ... Antioxidants and Cancer Prevention. Accessed at on ... In addition, different types of antioxidants may not be interchangeable. Each of the many antioxidants found in the body has ...
... - are found in many foods, including fruits and vegetables. They are also available as dietary supplements. ... Examples of -antioxidants- include - Beta-carotene - Lutein - Lycopene - Selenium - Vitamin A - Vitamin C - Vitamin E - ... Vegetables and fruits are rich sources of -antioxidants. There... ... Antioxidants- are man-made or natural substances that may - ... Antioxidants. Antioxidants are man-made or natural substances that may prevent or delay some types of cell damage. Antioxidants ...
Although antioxidant therapy does not reduce the risk of cardiovascular and all-cause death or major cardiovascular events in ... Antioxidants for chronic kidney disease Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Oct 17;10(10):CD008176. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD008176 ... Objectives: To examine the benefits and harms of antioxidant therapy on mortality and cardiovascular events in people with CKD ... Authors conclusions: Although antioxidant therapy does not reduce the risk of cardiovascular and all-cause death or major ...
‌While the problem lies in having extremely low levels of antioxidants, simply supplementing antioxidants does not fully treat ... Understanding the Importance of Antioxidants. Antioxidants play an important role in your body. They protect your body from ... Oxidative stress can cause chronic heart failure because of the reduced antioxidant levels. Antioxidants prevent certain ... Antioxidants can also be found in cocoa, tea, and coffee. Risk Factors of Oxidative Stress. ‌Because free radicals tear down ...
Antioxidant: A substance that reduces damage due to oxygen, such as that caused by free radicals. Well-known antioxidants ... Antioxidants may possibly reduce the risks of cancer. Antioxidants clearly slow the progression of age-related macular ... Antioxidants are also commonly added to food products such as vegetable oils and prepared foods to prevent or delay their ...
FRAP, Ferric Reducing/Antioxidant Power method. This method measures the ability of antioxidants to reduce ferric iron. It is ... He said that he uses the Folin-Ciocalteau test to compare "antioxidants" because the source of the antioxidant is not an issue- ... Cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay for assessing antioxidants, foods, and dietary supplements. J. Agric. Food Chem. 55: ... Moreover, we dont know if the "antioxidant" will act as an antioxidant, act as a prooxidant at higher consumption levels, or ...
... are nutrients that prevent oxygen from combining with other substances and damaging cells. Since ... issued new recommendations for antioxidants. While the FNB urged people to get more antioxidants in their diet, it said there ... Antioxidant supplements often include 50 micrograms. of selenium not far from most peoples RDA. The FNBs safe upper limit is ... Daily supplements of a fourth antioxidant, a precursor. of vitamin A called beta-carotene, were popular until 1996, when long- ...
However, this recommendation is contradicted by a large body of evidence which shows that antioxidant supplements are often ... A growing body of evidence shows that if you take antioxidant supplements, and you are otherwise healthy, then you are wasting ... The mitochondrial free radical theory of aging says that if we consume antioxidant supplements, we can repair the damage caused ... Are We Killing Ourselves With Antioxidants? Posted by Brady Hartman in categories: biotech/medical, life extension. ...
... cure for all illsOne may be under the impression that the world just went crazy about antioxidants. Numerous articles ... ... Myth No 3: Taking a single antioxidant can do the trick There is a trap set for every antioxidant, and therefore you are ... Myth No 2: You cannot but take antioxidants in supplement form Antioxidants in supplement form are strongly recommended only in ... Moreover, antioxidants work as best they can if two or several of them are united for the common purpose. An antioxidant ...
... Antioxidants: Strategies For Interventions in Aging and Age-Related Diseases National Institute on Aging & ... Home , News & Events , ODS Seminars, Conferences, and Workshops , Antioxidants 1999. Notice: Historical Content. This is an ... SESSION III: ANTIOXIDANTS IN SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION PATHWAYS AND GENE EXPRESSION CHAIRPERSON Gino A. Cortopassi Department of ... Search for antioxidant intervention strategies in aging and neurodegeneration Discussion Leaders Pamela E. Starke-Reed Office ...
Antioxidants can protect cells against free radicals that can cause damage. But there is a lot of misinformation. Get the facts ... Antioxidants: Protecting Healthy Cells (Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics) * Antioxidants: What You Need to Know (American ... Antioxidants are man-made or natural substances that may prevent or delay some types of cell damage. Antioxidants are found in ... Antioxidants and Cancer Prevention (National Cancer Institute) Also in Spanish * Coenzyme Q10 (National Cancer Institute) Also ...
... learn about the role of antioxidants beyond the hype. ... Antioxidants in food. -Bottom line on antioxidants and disease ... What are antioxidants?. -Health benefits of antioxidants: whats the buzz?. -Studies of antioxidant supplements and disease ... Antioxidants. Often used as a marketing buzzword, learn about the role of antioxidants beyond the hype, and some of the ... Antioxidants in food. One possible reason why many studies on antioxidant supplements do not show a health benefit is because ...
People with higher levels of certain antioxidants in their blood may be less likely to develop dementia later on, a new study ... Antioxidant-rich foods may benefit brain. Like much of the previous research, the new study is an observational study, so it ... Many factors affect antioxidant levels in blood. Some earlier studies have found a link between higher dietary intake of ... Certain antioxidants linked to lower risk of dementia. Researchers used data on over 7,200 participants from the third National ...
Antioxidants serve as a powerful first line of defense against damage to your cells from aging, stress, and inflammation. ... Antioxidants can be broken into two general categories: antioxidant enzymes, and antioxidant nutrients, which include vitamins ... What Do Antioxidants Do?. Antioxidants are molecules that capture free radicals, or harmful oxygen atoms, that occur in ... Super Food List: The Best Antioxidant Foods by ORAC Value. Foods antioxidant quality is measured as an ORAC value, which ...
Using massage creams that contain antioxidants may allow you and your clients to absorb of some of the nutrients through the ... What are antioxidants?. According to Medline Plus, a service of the National Library of Medicine, "Antioxidants are man-made or ... Another benefit of antioxidants in massage creams is that they are actually preservatives. As the word implies, antioxidants ... The main benefit, then, of using creams that contain antioxidants is absorption of some of the antioxidants through the skin. ...
L-Glutathione is an antioxidant that our body produces from three basic amino acids that are found in our food. Our body makes ... It turns out that L-Glutathione is one of the most effective antioxidants that our body produces. It works to protect our ... L-Glutathione and other antioxidants attack the free radicals and destroy them before they have a chance to attack the cells.. ... This is important because research into this specific anti-oxidant has shown that it can actually cure disease, regenerate ...
Preliminary studies that look at the addition of antioxidants during cancer therapy show us that antioxidants could play a ... Safety of Antioxidants During GYN Cancer Care. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the ... Common antioxidants include vitamins E, C, and A, beta-carotene, and glutathione. Some doctors who treat cancer are now using ... Antioxidants are vitamins and other nutrients that help to decrease inflammation in the body by stopping free radicals or ...
A rejuvenating lip treatment that uses two powerful antioxidants, silymarin and vitamin E, to shield the delicate lip area from ... SkinCeuticals Antioxidant Lip Repair (0.34 fl. oz.). A rejuvenating lip treatment with antioxidants. ... SkinCeuticals Antioxidant Lip Repair (0.34 fl. oz.). A rejuvenating lip treatment with antioxidants. ... Ingredient: Antioxidants, Dimethicone, Herbal Extracts, Hyaluronic Acid, Peptides, Vitamin E. Preferences: Clean, Fragrance- ...
Antioxidants can reduce exercise-induced oxidative stress, and can also enhance recovery between workouts. ... Antioxidants are a group of compounds that fight free radicals, which are harmful to the immune system and other ... NOW Foods Super Antioxidants, 120 VCapsules Users gave this product an average rating of 100 out of 100 (4) ...
Penn State food scientists have found that mushrooms are a better natural source of the antioxidant ergothioneine than either ...
Some antioxidants can come in one treatment, similar to a multivitamin. Others are available individually to treat specific ... Because of antioxidants purported success in improving short-term memory, they can also provide much-needed cognitive support ... A well-balanced diet and proper exercise can usually provide enough support to keep free radicals at bay, but antioxidant ... While younger animals may be able to process and eliminate them thanks to naturally occurring antioxidants, as animals age, ...
Is there such thing as taking too many antioxidants? ... Downside Of Antioxidants?. Can you take too many antioxidants? ... Antioxidants are compounds that help protect the body. They do this by blocking the oxidation reactions that harm the molecules ... My advice is to stick with the antioxidant supplement doses I recommend. But theres no need to limit the amount of fruits and ... You do have to be careful when choosing antioxidant supplements. Vitamin C, for example, is most needed in the liquid contents ...
... here the foods that are very high in antioxidants. ... Antioxidants are abundant in health benefits and are easy ... Other whole food antioxidants. Black plums and prunes are known to kick a strong antioxidant punch as are raisins, blackberries ... Why Antioxidants are Important. Antioxidants can prevent cell damage and reduce the effects of ageing as well as preventing ... Antioxidants are abundant in health benefits and are easy obtain - here the foods that are very high in antioxidants. ...
Explore the antioxidant benefits & skin-protecting uses of Tocopherol skincare. Reduces signs of premature aging & protects ...
How important are antioxidants when it comes to older small mammals diets? Learn more! ... Antioxidants in the Senior Diet. While antioxidants are beneficial at any age, they should be of particular focus with an ... These antioxidants provide key benefits to mitigate signs and symptoms of aging so those added years are enjoyed by all. ... Though beneficial, antioxidants and their benefits take a back seat to the fiber necessary to stimulate your pets digestive ...
485h) Reaction-Diffusion Model Describing Antioxidant Depletion in Polyethylene-Clay Nanocomposites. Conference ... degradation of PE properties is primarily due to environmental oxidative degradation which is stabilized by antioxidants (AO). ...
... studies have shown that cancer cells display an adaptive response to oxidative stress by increasing expression of antioxidant ... Several types of antioxidants play important roles in ROS homeostasis, including dietary natural antioxidants (e.g., vitamins A ... antioxidant coupled with antiinflammatory," Antioxidants and Redox Signaling, vol. 13, no. 11, pp. 1679-1698, 2010. ... Superoxide Dismutases. Superoxide dismutases (SOD) were the first characterized antioxidant enzymes [10] able to dismutate two ...
Boosting Your ANTIOXIDANTS. Free radicals are like the mafia; stealthy, destructive, and impossible to completely eradicate ... Boosting Your ANTIOXIDANTS To Arm Against Free Radical Mafia 0 By Wendy Bazilian, DrPH, MA, RD on October 15, 2016. Diet, Food ... But consuming antioxidants does not require visits to exotic lands or fancy food departments. You can cover all of your ... the more antioxidants they discover and the more they discover about antioxidants. ...
Fight Heart Disease With Vitamins and Antioxidants. $16.95. $3.39. SKU: 9781620552964 Categories: Books, Diet + Nutrition Tag: ... Be the first to review "Fight Heart Disease With Vitamins and Antioxidants" Cancel reply. You must be logged in to post a ...
  • Because people who eat foods rich in antioxidants have lower rates of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and other health problems, some experts advise taking daily supplements of these nutrients. (
  • Frozen berries, green tea, and other foods labeled as being rich in antioxidants began popping up in stores. (
  • Experts suggest eating foods rich in antioxidants, including dark, leafy greens and orange fruits. (
  • But a diet rich in antioxidants is an effective method of containment. (
  • By protecting our bodies from oxidation damage done to our cells by free radicals foods rich in antioxidants help to safeguard our bodies from the ravages of aging and disease. (
  • High-dose supplements of antioxidants may be linked to health risks in some cases. (
  • Antioxidant supplements may also interact with some medicines. (
  • While the FNB urged people to get more antioxidants in their diet, it said there was no proof that taking supplements is a good way to accomplish this. (
  • Summary: The mitochondrial free radical theory of aging says that if we consume antioxidant supplements, we can repair the damage caused by free radicals. (
  • However, this recommendation is contradicted by a large body of evidence which shows that antioxidant supplements are often harmful. (
  • A growing body of evidence shows that if you take antioxidant supplements, and you are otherwise healthy, then you are wasting your money, and damaging your liver and nervous system. (
  • Supplements with a high content of antioxidants are thought to be beneficial for senior citizens. (
  • Most research teams reported that vitamin E and other antioxidant supplements didn't protect against heart disease or cancer. (
  • The purpose of this study is to try and understand if it is safe efficacious to add antioxidant nutritional supplements to traditional chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy during the treatment of cancer. (
  • Antioxidant Supplements & Reviews. (
  • You do have to be careful when choosing antioxidant supplements. (
  • This is less of a concern with vitamin E , which is fat soluble and acts mainly to protect the fatty layers of cell membranes from free-radical chain reactions, but where a compound has its effects can be a concern for many of the antioxidants taken as supplements. (
  • You can buy antioxidants as supplements and also consume them is as whole foods. (
  • Oxidative stress can cause chronic heart failure because of the reduced antioxidant levels. (
  • Poor nutrition, excessive exposure to toxins, and immune dysfunction can all contribute to reduced antioxidant levels and a higher prevalence of free radicals. (
  • This method, also similar to ORAC, is based on the degree of inhibition of dichloro-fluorescin oxidation by antioxidants that scavenge peroxyl radicals generated from thermal degradation of 2,2'-azobis(amidinopropane). (
  • Since oxidation is thought to play a role in aging, antioxidants are widely believed to promote longevity. (
  • Keeping in mind that the cream on your face is regularly exposed to the environment, the antioxidant should be strong enough to prevent oxidation of the cream in the first place. (
  • As the word implies, antioxidants prevent the oxidation of cells. (
  • Antioxidants inhibit oxidation or damage to cells in the body (hence anti-oxidant). (
  • ‌ Naturally occurring antioxidants are found in vitamins C and E, carotenoids, flavonoids, and tannins. (
  • Exogenous antioxidants are derived from the diet: vitamin C, selenium, flavonoids etc. (
  • Antioxidant vitamins can be broken down into flavonoids and carotenoids. (
  • This nutritious super-food is packed with antioxidants such as Beta-carotene and flavonoids, both of which are known fighters against the development of illness. (
  • One of the main reasons it has gained this reputation is thanks to the flavonoids and a lesser known group of antioxidants known as catechins. (
  • Herbal ingredients such as ginger root, turmeric, and chamomile contain flavonoids and other natural antioxidants which can benefit senior pets primarily through anti-inflammatory properties. (
  • Everyone is familiar with the most prominent members of the vitamin world marquee players like vitamins C and E. But these days, it's the exotic-sounding antioxidants that are grabbing the headlines: lycopene, lutein, flavonoids, and resveratrol. (
  • Endogenous antioxidants are produced by the body e.g. female sex hormones, coenzyme Q, ferments of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione etc. (
  • The antioxidant enzymes are superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). (
  • It turns out that L-Glutathione is one of the most effective antioxidants that our body produces. (
  • L-Glutathione is an antioxidant that our body produces from three basic amino acids that are found in our food. (
  • L-Glutathione and other antioxidants attack the free radicals and destroy them before they have a chance to attack the cells. (
  • Secondary Hypothesis: To assess efficacy by tumor response rates in patients with gynecologic malignancies treated with antioxidants to include intravenous and oral ascorbic acid, intravenous glutathione, oral mixed carotenoids, mixed tocopherols, and vitamin A. Secondary endpoints will be time to progression and survival. (
  • In contrast, the journal also stated that elevated glutathione levels helped improve overall antioxidant levels as well as the body's resistance to oxidative stress. (
  • Although glutathione is naturally produced in the body, the levels of this antioxidant in the body are often reduced due to numerous factors such as poor nutrition, environmental toxins, stress, and age. (
  • Increase your intake of vitamin C. Vitamin C is another antioxidant that not only protects cells from oxidative damage but also helps maintain the body's supply of other antioxidants, including glutathione. (
  • The aim of this research was to study the regulatory functions of the active components of TCM and to elucidate the effects of different TCM decoctions on antioxidant activity and lipid peroxide content, using in vitro and in vivo models of heat stress. (
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Lipid antioxidants & hemolysis. (
  • Lipid antioxidants & hemolysis. (
  • Ingredients such as oats and barley provide antioxidants in the form of whole grains while other plants such as yucca also contribute valuable antioxidants. (
  • antioxidant enzymes , and antioxidant nutrients , which include vitamins, minerals and the various -noids detailed below. (
  • It is known that people with cancer are using antioxidant vitamins at high rates. (
  • Antioxidants are vitamins and other nutrients that help to decrease inflammation in the body by stopping free radicals or oxidants. (
  • Antioxidants are molecules that capture free radicals, or harmful oxygen atoms, that occur in response to normal body processes and environmental conditions. (
  • Oxidative stress at the most basic level is an imbalance between free radicals, or molecules with unpaired electrons, and antioxidants. (
  • Several studies have shown that cancer cells display an adaptive response to oxidative stress by increasing expression of antioxidant enzymes and molecules. (
  • It also, for the first time, set safe upper limits on the three most important antioxidants. (
  • The coolest fact about flavonoid antioxidants: they offer a double-punch because they improve vitamin C's antioxidant capabilities. (
  • Most of the antioxidant-related skin care research is focused on Retin-A, which is a form of vitamin A. While some massage creams may contain vitamin A, they are not formulated in the same way Retin-A skin products are. (
  • It uses two powerful antioxidants, silymarin and vitamin E, to shield the delicate lip area from the ravages of sun, smoke and air damage. (
  • In addition to its antioxidant properties, vitamin E helps to nourish dry skin. (
  • Vitamin C can function as a pro-oxidant as well as an antioxidant. (
  • Vitamin K is another antioxidant that Kale provides and although this vegetable might be a trifle unusual, it isn't too hard to get hold of. (
  • This huge role of antioxidants can be a factor in preventing or reducing the effects of heart disease, cancer, and other lifestyle diseases . (
  • Often used as a marketing buzzword, learn about the role of antioxidants beyond the hype, and some of the research on health and disease prevention. (
  • ‌ When there is an imbalance of reactive oxygen species, also known as free radicals, and antioxidant defenses , your body experiences oxidative stress. (
  • Antioxidants help combat free radicals by donating electrons and then safely decomposing. (
  • Antioxidants are found in many foods, including fruits and vegetables. (
  • Some studies showed that people with low intakes of antioxidant-rich fruits and vegetables were at greater risk for developing these chronic conditions than were people who ate plenty of those foods. (
  • These specific antioxidants are a type known as carotenoids, which give fruits and vegetables their yellow, orange, and red color. (
  • The antioxidants in a massage cream cannot replace the need for a healthy, well-rounded diet that contains plenty of fruits and vegetables. (
  • Other micronutrients that act as antioxidants are the mineral selenium and the carotenoid pigments in fruits and vegetables. (
  • But there's no need to limit the amount of fruits and vegetables you consume, or be concerned about getting too many antioxidants from them. (
  • Dark, leafy greens and veggies high in antioxidants, as mentioned before, should be a staple in your small mammal's diet and can also be added to homemade treats and enrichment items. (
  • One area of focus that can be beneficial to older pets is dietary antioxidants which can come via key ingredients in fortified foods, dark leafy greens and veggies, or even herbal additions you can make to your pet's hay. (
  • Antioxidants are man-made or natural substances that may prevent or delay some types of cell damage . (
  • Antioxidants are nutrients that prevent oxygen from combining with other substances and damaging cells. (
  • There are hundreds, probably thousands, of different substances that can act as antioxidants. (
  • But using the term "antioxidant" to refer to substances is misleading. (
  • Some substances that act as antioxidants in one situation may be pro-oxidants-electron grabbers-in a different situation. (
  • According to Medline Plus , a service of the National Library of Medicine, "Antioxidants are man-made or natural substances that may prevent or delay some types of cell damage. (
  • Antioxidants are substances that are said to offer protection for your cells against the effects of free radicals. (
  • In contrast, the current study measured antioxidant levels in the blood sample, which provides a more accurate picture of these nutrients - at least for that moment in time. (
  • That's because when antioxidant levels are low and inflammation levels are high, especially within blood vessels, atheromatous plaque starts to form. (
  • Antioxidants serve as a powerful first line of defense against damage to your cells from aging, stress, and inflammation. (
  • Foods' antioxidant quality is measured as an ORAC value , which stands for Oxygen Radical Absobance Capacity. (
  • Without the healing properties of antioxidants, factors such as hyperglycemia, obesity, smoking, an unbalanced diet, and stress can increase your CVD risk. (
  • Food and beverage companies are touting the presence of antioxidants in their products in response to consumer interest in the potential health benefits of antioxidants in the diet. (
  • No doubt about it, you will not get enough antioxidants if you are a patron of a fast-food restaurant or stick to a high-protein diet. (
  • In addition to the antioxidant levels in the blood, Beydoun and her colleagues also looked at participants' diet quality, which was based on their recall of what they ate over a 24-hour period. (
  • The research regarding good nutrition is clear: the National Cancer Institute , the Harvard School of Public Health and the Mayo Clinic , all suggest that adding antioxidants through a well-rounded diet is a good idea. (
  • In addition to diet, however, antioxidants are also listed as an ingredient in several massage creams. (
  • If you want to get antioxidants into your diet, fruit and veg are the best sources - but which of these have the highest concentration of anti-oxidants? (
  • Whether or not you're fond of spinach, it's well worth including in your diet since it's one of the top antioxidant foods you can get. (
  • Fresh greens and veggies provide a fantastic source of antioxidants and should remain a key dietary staple in a senior animal's diet. (
  • When looking at senior specific fortified foods, antioxidants can also provide benefit to the daily diet. (
  • With that in mind, there are always ways to add antioxidants to each component of your little one's diet. (
  • It is important, however, to remember these antioxidant ingredients should be fed in appropriate amounts and added gradually to the diet. (
  • An antioxidant-rich diet nourishes you not only physically but also psychologically," points out Wendy Bazilian, DrPH, registered dietician, and the nutrition specialist at the Golden Door spa in Escondido, California. (
  • Supporting the body with antioxidants through diet (or supplementation) can help combat free radical damage. (
  • Antioxidants can prevent cell damage and reduce the effects of ageing as well as preventing common diseases by combating the free-radicals produced by cells as part of their normal functioning. (
  • 2010]. Antioxidants and pulmonary function among police officers . (
  • Antioxidants in supplement form are strongly recommended only in case of a protracted disease, toxins poisoning, overexposure to the effects of ultraviolet radiation, and treatment of radiation sickness. (
  • Even before the results of these trials were in, the media and the supplement and food industries began to hype the benefits of "antioxidants. (
  • Supplement makers touted the disease-fighting properties of all sorts of antioxidants. (
  • These mostly disappointing results haven't stopped food companies and supplement sellers from banking on antioxidants. (
  • My advice is to stick with the antioxidant supplement doses I recommend. (
  • Measuring oxidant and antioxidant levels in the body can help researchers know how these levels impact particular diseases. (
  • Researchers caution that more research is needed before we know how much of these antioxidants have the biggest impact on lowering the risk of dementia. (
  • The apparent protective effect of these antioxidants was reduced somewhat when researchers considered other factors such as income, education, and physical activity. (
  • One of the study's limitations is that researchers only assessed antioxidant levels once. (
  • The more researchers delve into the nutritional benefits of foods, the more antioxidants they discover and the more they discover about antioxidants. (
  • Researchers are also discovering that antioxidants can be affected by how food is prepared. (
  • Honey has many potential medicinal benefits, including antioxidant activity. (
  • Ten Nigerian plants suggested from their ethnomedical uses to possess antimicrobial and antioxidant activities were studied for their anti-microbial and anti-oxidant properties. (
  • Older bodies are less efficient at repairing oxidative damage so the added boost that dietary antioxidants provide can help keep your pet feeling spritely as they age. (
  • Conclusions: It was found that the shear bond strength was reduced by carbamide peroxide bleaching, and that the antioxidant SA was ineffective at reversing the composite strength at the concentrations and treatment times examined. (
  • Some doctors who treat cancer are now using antioxidants with chemotherapy while others believe they should not be used with cancer treatment. (
  • The study is an open label prospective investigational study in 50 gynecologic cancer patients with a Primary Hypothesis: To assess safety of adding high-dose antioxidants to chemotherapy in the treatment of gynecologic malignancies (uterine, cervical, or epithelial ovarian). (
  • Liu chaired a symposium entitled "Nutrition Controversies: Moving Beyond Lab Chemical Methods for Antioxidant Assessment as Related to Health Benefits" at the 2008 IFT Annual Meeting & Food Expo in New Orleans last July. (
  • There is a trap set for every antioxidant, and therefore you are unlikely to reap the benefits by taking one antioxidant only. (
  • Health benefits of antioxidants: what's the buzz? (
  • Can clients and LMTs reap benefits from the topical application of antioxidants? (
  • Antioxidants are abundant in health benefits and are easy obtain - here the foods that are very high in antioxidants. (
  • Though beneficial, antioxidants and their benefits take a back seat to the fiber necessary to stimulate your pet's digestive tract to keep it functioning properly. (
  • These antioxidants provide key benefits to mitigate signs and symptoms of aging so those added years are enjoyed by all. (
  • We all know that antioxidants are frequently referred to in the health and wellness community but what are they and what are their benefits? (
  • To minimize risk, tell you of your health care providers about any antioxidants you use. (
  • Natural antioxidants in human health and disease / edited by Balz Frei. (
  • A variety of in-vitro chemical methods are being used to determine the antioxidant activity of products and ingredients, but questions regarding whether the results have any bearing on effectiveness in the human body are leading to development of additional methods that may be more appropriate for screening potential antioxidant ingredients. (
  • Some herbal ingredients can also be added to a fortified food to pack another punch of antioxidants. (
  • ROS are also involved in the increased expression of antioxidant genes related to the activation of transcription factors such as the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), activator protein 1 (AP-1), nuclear factor κ B (NF- κ B), hypoxia-inducible transcription factor 1a (HIF-1a), and p53 [ 7 - 9 ]. (
  • Mechanistic analyses revealed that Res activated the oxidant/antioxidant-activated receptor Nrf2 to induce cytoprotective genes. (
  • TRAP values are calculated from the length of the lag-phase caused by the antioxidant compared to that of Trolox . (
  • Strawberries rank among the top antioxidant fruits you can get - but be aware: you need to get them fresh and you shouldn't store them for more than two days. (
  • The fruit pulp is richer in antioxidants than blueberries and strawberries, but getting fresh acai berries mightn't be all that easy! (
  • Evidence shows that antiplatelet agents, antioxidant therapies, amino acid supplementation, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, and angiotensin-receptor blockers may be able to prevent or slow the progression of atherosclerosis. (
  • But it isn't clear whether this is because of the antioxidants , something else in the foods, or other factors. (
  • Antioxidants are still added to breakfast cereals, sports bars, energy drinks, and other processed foods , and they are promoted as additives that can prevent heart disease, cancer, cataracts, memory loss, and other conditions. (
  • In addition, many studies just measure antioxidant levels based on which foods people eat. (
  • What Foods are Very High in Antioxidants? (
  • Foods that are very high in Antioxidants are freely available at your local supermarket. (
  • Antioxidants can also be found in cocoa, tea, and coffee. (
  • Raw cocoa contains more antioxidants than green tea. (
  • People 65 years or older at baseline with the highest blood levels of lutein and zeaxanthin had a lower risk of developing any type of dementia during the follow-up period compared to people with lower levels of those antioxidants. (
  • When there's an imbalance in your body and free radicals exceed antioxidants, there can be lasting harmful effects. (
  • An antioxidant becomes oxidized and inactive after transferring its electron to a free radical. (
  • Antioxidants came to public attention in the 1990s, when scientists began to understand that free radical damage was involved in the early stages of artery-clogging atherosclerosis. (
  • It can be hard to control some of the factors which contribute to free radical production so often times the addition of antioxidants becomes a focus to reducing oxidative stress. (
  • Deterring free radical damage requires maintaining an appropriate level of antioxidants. (
  • Resveratrol is a bioflavonoid antioxidant that is considered by many to be one of the best polyphenols for protecting against free radical damage. (
  • Antioxidants are said to be capable of beating cancer and smoothing wrinkles off one's face. (
  • Preliminary studies that look at the addition of antioxidants during cancer therapy show us that antioxidants could play a significant role in the management of cancer. (
  • It is known that cancer patients use antioxidants at greater rates than their healthy peers and these patients generally do not tell their physicians. (
  • Red wine , green tea , chocolate , goji berries , turmeric , and acai have all been recently celebrated as antioxidant powerhouses. (
  • When you have fewer antioxidants, you're more likely to have cerebral damage if you had a stroke. (
  • In contrast, the antioxidant function of SOD1 in CnVG is less crucial for pathogenesis ( 14 ). (
  • Antioxidants can also be used to prevent or repair damage to the skin, according to WebMD . (
  • An article published by the New York University Langone Medical Center discussed the topical application of antioxidants to combat photoaging, or damage to the skin caused by the sun. (
  • For example, Lipton teas carry a logo, "AOX, Naturally Protective Antioxidants," POM Wonderful pomegranate juice says it's "the real Antioxidant Superpower™," and Hershey's Nuggets Special Dark Mildly Sweet Chocolate bears a logo stating "Natural Source of Flavonol Antioxidants. (
  • Is Your Massage Cream a Source of Antioxidants? (
  • The USDA rates blueberries as the best source of antioxidants you can get. (
  • This assay measures the change in color when metal oxides are reduced by polyphenolic antioxidants such as gallic acid and catechin, resulting in a blue solution with maximal absorption at 765 nm. (
  • Antioxidants play an important role in your body. (
  • Your body can make some antioxidants, and you get others from food. (
  • However, problems develop when the number of free radicals exceeds the number of antioxidants in the body. (
  • High blood levels of antioxidants were linked with a lower risk of dementia. (
  • This pilot trial is a Phase II study designed to assess safety of high-dose antioxidants in gynecologic malignancies. (
  • This population was chosen because of anecdotal and case report evidence for benefit when high-dose antioxidants are added to their care. (
  • Antioxidants prevent certain conditions like cardiac hypertrophy, cardiac myocyte apoptosis, and myocardial stunning. (
  • Resveratrol (Res) is a natural phytoalexin with multiple functions including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory in animals and humans. (