Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.
Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to water and oxygen. It is present in many animal cells. A deficiency of this enzyme results in ACATALASIA.
A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.
An enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of 2 moles of glutathione in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to yield oxidized glutathione and water. EC 1.11.1.9.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.
The dialdehyde of malonic acid.
Low-molecular-weight end products, probably malondialdehyde, that are formed during the decomposition of lipid peroxidation products. These compounds react with thiobarbituric acid to form a fluorescent red adduct.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
The N-acetyl derivative of CYSTEINE. It is used as a mucolytic agent to reduce the viscosity of mucous secretions. It has also been shown to have antiviral effects in patients with HIV due to inhibition of viral stimulation by reactive oxygen intermediates.
A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
A basic-leucine zipper transcription factor that was originally described as a transcriptional regulator controlling expression of the BETA-GLOBIN gene. It may regulate the expression of a wide variety of genes that play a role in protecting cells from oxidative damage.
Electron-accepting molecules in chemical reactions in which electrons are transferred from one molecule to another (OXIDATION-REDUCTION).
A natural tocopherol and one of the most potent antioxidant tocopherols. It exhibits antioxidant activity by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus. It has four methyl groups on the 6-chromanol nucleus. The natural d form of alpha-tocopherol is more active than its synthetic dl-alpha-tocopherol racemic mixture.
Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.
A large class of organic compounds having more than one PHENOL group.
Catalyzes the oxidation of GLUTATHIONE to GLUTATHIONE DISULFIDE in the presence of NADP+. Deficiency in the enzyme is associated with HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA. Formerly listed as EC 1.6.4.2.
Inorganic or organic oxy acids of sulfur which contain the RSO2(OH) radical.
A carotenoid that is a precursor of VITAMIN A. It is administered to reduce the severity of photosensitivity reactions in patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria (PORPHYRIA, ERYTHROPOIETIC). (From Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Engewood, CO, 1995.)
A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.
A di-tert-butyl PHENOL with antioxidant properties.
The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.
Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.
A family of ubiquitously-expressed peroxidases that play a role in the reduction of a broad spectrum of PEROXIDES like HYDROGEN PEROXIDE; LIPID PEROXIDES and peroxinitrite. They are found in a wide range of organisms, such as BACTERIA; PLANTS; and MAMMALS. The enzyme requires the presence of a thiol-containing intermediate such as THIOREDOXIN as a reducing cofactor.
The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.
Nucleotide sequences that are found in the PROMOTER REGIONS of the genes of stress-responsive and cytoprotective proteins, such as those encoding antioxidant and PHASE II DETOXIFICATION enzymes. NF-E2-RELATED FACTOR 2 containing transcription factors bind to these elements during induction of these genes.
Mixture of 2- and 3-tert-butyl-4-methoxyphenols that is used as an antioxidant in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals.
Compounds with a benzene ring fused to a thiazole ring.
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
A flavonol glycoside found in many plants, including BUCKWHEAT; TOBACCO; FORSYTHIA; HYDRANGEA; VIOLA, etc. It has been used therapeutically to decrease capillary fragility.
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
An octanoic acid bridged with two sulfurs so that it is sometimes also called a pentanoic acid in some naming schemes. It is biosynthesized by cleavage of LINOLEIC ACID and is a coenzyme of oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (KETOGLUTARATE DEHYDROGENASE COMPLEX). It is used in DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS.
A flavonol widely distributed in plants. It is an antioxidant, like many other phenolic heterocyclic compounds. Glycosylated forms include RUTIN and quercetrin.
The appearance of carbonyl groups (such as aldehyde or ketone groups) in PROTEINS as the result of several oxidative modification reactions. It is a standard marker for OXIDATIVE STRESS. Carbonylated proteins tend to be more hydrophobic and resistant to proteolysis.
A drug used to lower LDL and HDL cholesterol yet has little effect on serum-triglyceride or VLDL cholesterol. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p993).
The univalent radical OH. Hydroxyl radical is a potent oxidizing agent.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
Benzopyrans saturated in the 2 and 3 positions.
Organic substances that are required in small amounts for maintenance and growth, but which cannot be manufactured by the human body.
A GLUTATHIONE dimer formed by a disulfide bond between the cysteine sulfhydryl side chains during the course of being oxidized.
A colorless or slightly yellow crystalline compound obtained from nutgalls. It is used in photography, pharmaceuticals, and as an analytical reagent.
Polyphenolic compounds with molecular weights of around 500-3000 daltons and containing enough hydroxyl groups (1-2 per 100 MW) for effective cross linking of other compounds (ASTRINGENTS). The two main types are HYDROLYZABLE TANNINS and CONDENSED TANNINS. Historically, the term has applied to many compounds and plant extracts able to render skin COLLAGEN impervious to degradation. The word tannin derives from the Celtic word for OAK TREE which was used for leather processing.
The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.
An antioxidant flavonoid, occurring especially in woody plants as both (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin (cis) forms.
Peroxidases that utilize ASCORBIC ACID as an electron donor to reduce HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to WATER. The reaction results in the production of monodehydroascorbic acid and DEHYDROASCORBIC ACID.
A flavoprotein that reversibly catalyzes the oxidation of NADH or NADPH by various quinones and oxidation-reduction dyes. The enzyme is inhibited by dicoumarol, capsaicin, and caffeine.
A genus in the family Myrtaceae sometimes known as "stoppers" in FOLK MEDICINE. Many species of the genus SYZYGIUM have synonymous names that begin with the Eugenia genus name.
A collective name for a group of closely related lipids that contain substitutions on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus and a long hydrocarbon chain of isoprenoid units. They are antioxidants by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen. Tocopherols react with the most reactive form of oxygen and protect unsaturated fatty acids from oxidation.
A lipid-soluble benzoquinone which is involved in ELECTRON TRANSPORT in mitochondrial preparations. The compound occurs in the majority of aerobic organisms, from bacteria to higher plants and animals.
A ubiquitous stress-responsive enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of HEME to yield IRON; CARBON MONOXIDE; and BILIVERDIN.
Hydroxycinnamic acid and its derivatives. Act as activators of the indoleacetic acid oxidizing system, thereby producing a decrease in the endogenous level of bound indoleacetic acid in plants.
Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.
An element with the atomic symbol Se, atomic number 34, and atomic weight 78.96. It is an essential micronutrient for mammals and other animals but is toxic in large amounts. Selenium protects intracellular structures against oxidative damage. It is an essential component of GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE.
A group of FLAVONOIDS derived from FLAVONOLS, which lack the ketone oxygen at the 4-position. They are glycosylated versions of cyanidin, pelargonidin or delphinidin. The conjugated bonds result in blue, red, and purple colors in flowers of plants.
A group of compounds that contain a bivalent O-O group, i.e., the oxygen atoms are univalent. They can either be inorganic or organic in nature. Such compounds release atomic (nascent) oxygen readily. Thus they are strong oxidizing agents and fire hazards when in contact with combustible materials, especially under high-temperature conditions. The chief industrial uses of peroxides are as oxidizing agents, bleaching agents, and initiators of polymerization. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Synthetic or natural substances which are given to prevent a disease or disorder or are used in the process of treating a disease or injury due to a poisonous agent.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Heterocyclic compounds in which an oxygen is attached to a cyclic nitrogen.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Organic compounds that contain 1,2-diphenylethylene as a functional group.
One of the enzymes active in the gamma-glutamyl cycle. It catalyzes the synthesis of gamma-glutamylcysteine from glutamate and cysteine in the presence of ATP with the formation of ADP and orthophosphate. EC 6.3.2.2.
Nitrogenous products of NITRIC OXIDE synthases, ranging from NITRIC OXIDE to NITRATES. These reactive nitrogen intermediates also include the inorganic PEROXYNITROUS ACID and the organic S-NITROSOTHIOLS.
An oxidation product, via XANTHINE OXIDASE, of oxypurines such as XANTHINE and HYPOXANTHINE. It is the final oxidation product of purine catabolism in humans and primates, whereas in most other mammals URATE OXIDASE further oxidizes it to ALLANTOIN.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.
Benzoate derivatives substituted by one or more hydroxy groups in any position on the benzene ring.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The process by which chemical compounds provide protection to cells against harmful agents.
A sweet viscous liquid food, produced in the honey sacs of various bees from nectar collected from flowers. The nectar is ripened into honey by inversion of its sucrose sugar into fructose and glucose. It is somewhat acidic and has mild antiseptic properties, being sometimes used in the treatment of burns and lacerations.
A naturally occurring phenolic acid which is a carcinogenic inhibitor. It has also been shown to prevent paraquat-induced oxidative stress in rats. (From J Chromatogr A 1996;741(2):223-31; Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 1996;60(5):765-68).
A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.
Dimers and oligomers of flavan-3-ol units (CATECHIN analogs) linked mainly through C4 to C8 bonds to leucoanthocyanidins. They are structurally similar to ANTHOCYANINS but are the result of a different fork in biosynthetic pathways.
A class of phenolic acids related to chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, vanillic acid, etc., which are found in plant tissues. It is involved in plant growth regulation.
Retinol and derivatives of retinol that play an essential role in metabolic functioning of the retina, the growth of and differentiation of epithelial tissue, the growth of bone, reproduction, and the immune response. Dietary vitamin A is derived from a variety of CAROTENOIDS found in plants. It is enriched in the liver, egg yolks, and the fat component of dairy products.
Oxygenated forms of carotenoids. They are usually derived from alpha and beta carotene.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Root-like underground horizontal stem of plants that produces shoots above and roots below. Distinguished from true roots which don't have buds and nodes. Similar to true roots in being underground and thickened by storage deposits.
A peroxiredoxin that is a cytosolic bifunctional enzyme. It functions as a peroxiredoxin via a single redox-active cysteine and also contains a Ca2+-independent acidic phospholipase A2 activity.
The above-ground plant without the roots.
A group of 3-hydroxy-4-keto-FLAVONOIDS.
The dried seeds, bark, root, stems, buds, leaves, or fruit of aromatic plants used to season food.
A nucleoside consisting of the base guanine and the sugar deoxyribose.
The infusion of leaves of CAMELLIA SINENSIS (formerly Thea sinensis) as a beverage, the familiar Asian tea, which contains CATECHIN (especially epigallocatechin gallate) and CAFFEINE.
Isoprostanes derived from the free radical oxidation of ARACHIDONIC ACID. Although similar in structure to enzymatically synthesized prostaglandin F2alpha (DINOPROST), they occur through non-enzymatic oxidation of cell membrane lipids.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Porphyrins which are combined with a metal ion. The metal is bound equally to all four nitrogen atoms of the pyrrole rings. They possess characteristic absorption spectra which can be utilized for identification or quantitative estimation of porphyrins and porphyrin-bound compounds.
Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced mutations independently of the mechanism involved.
A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
A yellow-orange dye obtained from tumeric, the powdered root of CURCUMA longa. It is used in the preparation of curcuma paper and the detection of boron. Curcumin appears to possess a spectrum of pharmacological properties, due primarily to its inhibitory effects on metabolic enzymes.
A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.
Carbamates in which the -CO- group has been replaced by a -CS- group.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Antioxidant for foods, fats, oils, ethers, emulsions, waxes, and transformer oils.
Organic compounds which contain selenium as an integral part of the molecule.
Oils which evaporate readily. The volatile oils occur in aromatic plants, to which they give odor and other characteristics. Most volatile oils consist of a mixture of two or more TERPENES or of a mixture of an eleoptene (the more volatile constituent of a volatile oil) with a stearopten (the more solid constituent). The synonym essential oils refers to the essence of a plant, as its perfume or scent, and not to its indispensability.
A direct-acting oxidative stress-inducing agent used to examine the effects of oxidant stress on Ca(2+)-dependent signal transduction in vascular endothelial cells. It is also used as a catalyst in polymerization reactions and to introduce peroxy groups into organic molecules.
A broad range of biologically active compounds which occur naturally in plants having important medicinal and nutritional properties.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Several plant species of the genus VACCINIUM known for the edible blueberry fruit.
Hydrogen-donating proteins that participates in a variety of biochemical reactions including ribonucleotide reduction and reduction of PEROXIREDOXINS. Thioredoxin is oxidized from a dithiol to a disulfide when acting as a reducing cofactor. The disulfide form is then reduced by NADPH in a reaction catalyzed by THIOREDOXIN REDUCTASE.
Fermented juice of fresh grapes or of other fruit or plant products used as a beverage.
Oils derived from plants or plant products.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
A heavy metal trace element with the atomic symbol Cu, atomic number 29, and atomic weight 63.55.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
An antimicrobial, antiseptic, and disinfectant that is used also as an aromatic essence and preservative in pharmaceutics and perfumery.
A THIOREDOXIN-dependent hydroperoxidase that is localized in the mitochondrial matrix. The enzyme plays a crucial role in protecting mitochondrial components from elevated levels of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE.
Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
Compounds in which one or more of the ketone groups on the pyrimidine ring of barbituric acid are replaced by thione groups.
A group of FLAVONOIDS characterized with a 4-ketone.
A plant genus of the LAMIACEAE family. It is known as a spice and medicinal plant.
Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.
Organic derivatives of thiocyanic acid which contain the general formula R-SCN.
A large plant family of the order Asterales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The family is also known as Compositae. Flower petals are joined near the base and stamens alternate with the corolla lobes. The common name of "daisy" refers to several genera of this family including Aster; CHRYSANTHEMUM; RUDBECKIA; TANACETUM.
Chinese herbal or plant extracts which are used as drugs to treat diseases or promote general well-being. The concept does not include synthesized compounds manufactured in China.
Substances that reduce or suppress INFLAMMATION.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A mixed function oxidase enzyme which during hemoglobin catabolism catalyzes the degradation of heme to ferrous iron, carbon monoxide and biliverdin in the presence of molecular oxygen and reduced NADPH. The enzyme is induced by metals, particularly cobalt. EC 1.14.99.3.
Drugs used to protect against ionizing radiation. They are usually of interest for use in radiation therapy but have been considered for other, e.g. military, purposes.
The dogbane family of the order Gentianales. Members of the family have milky, often poisonous juice, smooth-margined leaves, and flowers in clusters. Asclepiadacea (formerly the milkweed family) has been included since 1999 and before 1810.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the univalent reduction of OXYGEN using NADPH as an electron donor to create SUPEROXIDE ANION. The enzyme is dependent on a variety of CYTOCHROMES. Defects in the production of superoxide ions by enzymes such as NADPH oxidase result in GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC.
An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria.
An enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of an aryl-dialkyl phosphate to form dialkyl phosphate and an aryl alcohol. It can hydrolyze a broad spectrum of organophosphate substrates and a number of aromatic carboxylic acid esters. It may also mediate an enzymatic protection of LOW DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS against oxidative modification and the consequent series of events leading to ATHEROMA formation. The enzyme was previously regarded to be identical with Arylesterase (EC 3.1.1.2).
A synthetic amino acid that depletes glutathione by irreversibly inhibiting gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase. Inhibition of this enzyme is a critical step in glutathione biosynthesis. It has been shown to inhibit the proliferative response in human T-lymphocytes and inhibit macrophage activation. (J Biol Chem 1995;270(33):1945-7)
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
A hemeprotein from leukocytes. Deficiency of this enzyme leads to a hereditary disorder coupled with disseminated moniliasis. It catalyzes the conversion of a donor and peroxide to an oxidized donor and water. EC 1.11.1.7.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
An antiseptic and disinfectant aromatic alcohol.
A natural tocopherol with less antioxidant activity than ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL. It exhibits antioxidant activity by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus. As in BETA-TOCOPHEROL, it also has three methyl groups on the 6-chromanol nucleus but at different sites.
Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved.
A series of prostaglandin-like compounds that are produced by the attack of free-radical species on unsaturated fatty acids, especially ARACHIDONIC ACID, of cellular MEMBRANES. Once cleaved from the lipid membrane by the action of phospholipases they can circulate into various bodily fluids and eventually be excreted. Although these compounds resemble enzymatically synthesized prostaglandins their stereoisometric arrangement is usually different than the "naturally occurring" compounds.
A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of VITAMIN E in the diet, characterized by posterior column and spinocerebellar tract abnormalities, areflexia, ophthalmoplegia, and disturbances of gait, proprioception, and vibration. In premature infants vitamin E deficiency is associated with hemolytic anemia, thrombocytosis, edema, intraventricular hemorrhage, and increasing risk of retrolental fibroplasia and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. An apparent inborn error of vitamin E metabolism, named familial isolated vitamin E deficiency, has recently been identified. (Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p1181)
A biogenic amine that is found in animals and plants. In mammals, melatonin is produced by the PINEAL GLAND. Its secretion increases in darkness and decreases during exposure to light. Melatonin is implicated in the regulation of SLEEP, mood, and REPRODUCTION. Melatonin is also an effective antioxidant.
Organic compounds with the general formula R-NCS.
A plant genus in the family VITACEAE, order Rhamnales, subclass Rosidae. It is a woody vine cultivated worldwide. It is best known for grapes, the edible fruit and used to make WINE and raisins.
A poisonous dipyridilium compound used as contact herbicide. Contact with concentrated solutions causes irritation of the skin, cracking and shedding of the nails, and delayed healing of cuts and wounds.
A group of FLAVONOLS based on kaempferol. They are derived from naringenin and can be hydroxylated to QUERCETIN or reduced to leucopelargonidin.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
A plant family of the order Sapindales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are resinous trees and shrubs with alternate leaves composed of many leaflets.
Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of methoxybenzene and contain the general formula R-C7H7O.
A colorless, flammable liquid used in the manufacture of FORMALDEHYDE and ACETIC ACID, in chemical synthesis, antifreeze, and as a solvent. Ingestion of methanol is toxic and may cause blindness.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A plant family of the order Myrtales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida that is a small family with a single genus.
Antioxidant; also a post-harvest dip to prevent scald on apples and pears.
The mint plant family. They are characteristically aromatic, and many of them are cultivated for their oils. Most have square stems, opposite leaves, and two-lipped, open-mouthed, tubular corollas (united petals), with five-lobed, bell-like calyxes (united sepals).
A genotoxicological technique for measuring DNA damage in an individual cell using single-cell gel electrophoresis. Cell DNA fragments assume a "comet with tail" formation on electrophoresis and are detected with an image analysis system. Alkaline assay conditions facilitate sensitive detection of single-strand damage.
A plant genus of the family PIPERACEAE that is indigenous in the Indian Malay region and cultivated in Madagascar, and the West Indies. It contains chavibetol, chavicol and cadinene. The leaf is chewed as a stimulant, antiseptic and sialogogue. The common name of betel is also used for ARECA.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
The termination of the cell's ability to carry out vital functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, responsiveness, and adaptability.
A xanthophyll found in the major LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES of plants. Dietary lutein accumulates in the MACULA LUTEA.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members contain isoacteoside, luteolin, indole-3-carboxylic acid.
The rose plant family in the order ROSALES and class Magnoliopsida. They are generally woody plants. A number of the species of this family contain cyanogenic compounds.
The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
5,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxy-flavone, one of the FLAVONES.
Material prepared from plants.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.

Double-blind intervention trial on modulation of ozone effects on pulmonary function by antioxidant supplements. (1/13910)

The aim of this study was to investigate whether the acute effects of ozone on lung function could be modulated by antioxidant vitamin supplementation in a placebo-controlled study. Lung function was measured in Dutch bicyclists (n = 38) before and after each training session on a number of occasions (n = 380) during the summer of 1996. The vitamin group (n = 20) received 100 mg of vitamin E and 500 mg of vitamin C daily for 15 weeks. The average ozone concentration during exercise was 77 microg/m3 (range, 14-186 microg/m3). After exclusion of subjects with insufficient compliance from the analysis, a difference in ozone exposure of 100 microg/m3 decreased forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) 95 ml (95% confidence interval (CI) -265 to -53) in the placebo group and 1 ml (95% CI -94 to 132) in the vitamin group; for forced vital capacity, the change was -125 ml (95% CI -384 to -36) in the placebo group and -42 ml (95% CI -130 to 35) in the vitamin group. The differences in ozone effect on lung function between the groups were statistically significant. The results suggest that supplementation with the antioxidant vitamins C and E confers partial protection against the acute effects of ozone on FEV1 and forced vital capacity in cyclists.  (+info)

Inflammatory cell-mediated tumour progression and minisatellite mutation correlate with the decrease of antioxidative enzymes in murine fibrosarcoma cells. (2/13910)

We isolated six clones of weakly tumorigenic fibrosarcoma (QR) from the tumorigenic clone BMT-11 cl-9. The QR clones were unable to grow in normal C57BL/6 mice when injected s.c. (1x10(5) cells). However, they formed aggressive tumours upon co-implantation with a 'foreign body', i.e. a gelatin sponge, and the rate of tumour take ranged from 8% to 58% among QR clones. The enhanced tumorigenicity was due to host cell-mediated reaction to the gelatin sponge (inflammation). Immunoblot analysis and enzyme activity assay revealed a significant inverse correlation between the frequencies of tumour formation by QR clones and the levels of manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD, P<0.005) and glutathione peroxidase (GPchi, P<0.01) in the respective tumour clones. Electron spin resonance (ESR) revealed that superoxide-scavenging ability of cell lysates of the QR clone with high level of Mn-SOD was significantly higher than that with low level of the antioxidative enzyme in the presence of potassium cyanide, an inhibitor for copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) (P<0.001). Minisatellite mutation (MSM) induced by the inflammatory cells in tumour cells were investigated by DNA fingerprint analysis after QR clones had been co-cultured with gelatin-sponge-reactive cells. The MSM rate was significantly higher in the subclones with low levels of Mn-SOD and GPchi (P<0.05) than in the subclones with high levels of both enzymes. The MSM of the subclones with low levels of both enzymes was inhibited in the presence of mannitol, a hydroxyl radical scavenger. The content of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) by which the cellular DNA damage caused by active oxygen species can be assessed was significantly low in the tumours arising from the QR clone with high levels of Mn-SOD and GPchi even if the clone had been co-implanted with gelatin sponge, compared with the arising tumour from the QR clone with low levels of those antioxidative enzymes (P<0.001). In contrast, CuZn-SOD and catalase levels in the six QR clones did not have any correlation with tumour progression parameters. These results suggest that tumour progression is accelerated by inflammation-induced active oxygen species particularly accompanied with declined levels of intracellular antioxidative enzymes in tumour cells.  (+info)

Synergistic protective effects of antioxidant and nitric oxide synthase inhibitor in transient focal ischemia. (3/13910)

Both nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors and free radical scavengers have been shown to protect brain tissue in ischemia-reperfusion injury. Nitric oxide and superoxide anion act via distinct mechanisms and react together to form the highly deleterious peroxynitrite. Therefore the authors examined the effects and the interaction between the NOS inhibitor, NG nitro-L-arginine (LNA) and the antioxidant/superoxide scavenger, di-tert-butyl-hydroxybenzoic acid (DtBHB) in the rat submitted to 2 hours of middle cerebral artery occlusion. Posttreatment was initiated 4 hours after the onset of ischemia and infarct volume was measured at 48 hours. The dose-related effect of LNA resulted in a bell-shaped curve: 15, 56, 65, and 33% reduction of total infarct for 0.03, 0.1, 0.3, and 1 mg/kg (intravenously [IV]) respectively and 11% increase in infarct volume for 3 mg/kg (IV). Whereas DtBHB (20 mg/kg; intraperitoneally [IP]) was ineffective, the dose of 60 mg/kg produced 65% protection in infarct volume. The combination of a subthreshold dose of LNA (0.03 mg/kg; IV) and DtBHB (20 mg/kg; IP) resulted in significant reduction (49%) in infarct volume. These results show that LNA and DtBHB act synergistically to provide a consistent neuroprotection against ischemic injury when administered 4 hours after ischemia. This suggests that nitric oxide and free radicals are involved and interact in synergy in ischemia-reperfusion injury.  (+info)

Increased lipophilicity and subsequent cell partitioning decrease passive transcellular diffusion of novel, highly lipophilic antioxidants. (4/13910)

Oxidative stress is considered a cause or propagator of acute and chronic disorders of the central nervous system. Novel 2, 4-diamino-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines are potent inhibitors of iron-dependent lipid peroxidation, are cytoprotective in cell culture models of oxidative injury, and are neuroprotective in brain injury and ischemia models. The selection of lead candidates from this series required that they reach target cells deep within brain tissue in efficacious amounts after oral dosing. A homologous series of 26 highly lipophilic pyrrolopyrimidines was examined using cultured cell monolayers to understand the structure-permeability relationship and to use this information to predict brain penetration and residence time. Pyrrolopyrimidines were shown to be a more permeable structural class of membrane-interactive antioxidants where transepithelial permeability was inversely related to lipophilicity or to cell partitioning. Pyrrole substitutions influence cell partitioning where bulky hydrophobic groups increased partitioning and decreased permeability and smaller hydrophobic groups and more hydrophilic groups, especially those capable of weak hydrogen bonding, decreased partitioning, and increased permeability. Transmonolayer diffusion for these membrane-interactive antioxidants was limited mostly by desorption from the receiver-side membrane into the buffer. Thus, in this case, these in vitro cell monolayer models do not adequately mimic the in vivo situation by underestimating in vivo bioavailability of highly lipophilic compounds unless acceptors, such as serum proteins, are added to the receiving buffer.  (+info)

Novel, highly lipophilic antioxidants readily diffuse across the blood-brain barrier and access intracellular sites. (5/13910)

In an accompanying article, an in vitro assay for permeability predicts that membrane-protective, antioxidant 2,4-diamino-pyrrolo[2, 3-d]pyrimidines should have improved blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeation over previously described lipophilic antioxidants. Using a first-pass extraction method and brain/plasma quantification, we show here that two of the pyrrolopyrimidines, one of which is markedly less permeable, readily partition into rat brain. The efficiency of extraction was dependent on serum protein binding, and in situ efflux confirms the in vitro data showing that PNU-87663 is retained in brain longer than PNU-89843. By exploiting inherent fluorescence properties of PNU-87663, its distribution within brain and within cells in culture was demonstrated using confocal scanning laser microscopy. PNU-87663 rapidly partitioned into the cell membrane and equilibrates with cytoplasmic compartments via passive diffusion. Although partitioning of PNU-87663 favors intracytoplasmic lipid storage droplets, the compound was readily exchangeable as shown by efflux of compound from cells to buffer when protein was present. The results demonstrated that pyrrolopyrimidines were well suited for quickly accessing target cells within the central nervous system as well as in other target tissues.  (+info)

Mechanisms and mediators in coal dust induced toxicity: a review. (6/13910)

Chronic inhalation of coal dust can cause several lung disorders, including simple coal workers pneumoconiosis (CWP), progressive massive fibrosis (PMF), chronic bronchitis, lung function loss, and emphysema. This review focuses on the cellular actions and interactions of key inflammatory cells and target cells in coal dust toxicity and related lung disorders, i.e. macrophages and neutrophils, epithelial cells, and fibroblasts. Factors released from or affecting these cells are outlined in separate sections, i.e. (1) reactive oxygen species (ROS) and related antioxidant protection mechanisms, and (2) cytokines, growth factors and related proteins. Furthermore, (3) components of the extracellular matrix (ECM), including the modifying role of ROS, cytokines, proteases and antiproteases are discussed in relation to tissue damage and remodelling in the respiratory tract. It is recognised that inhaled coal dust particles are important non-cellular and cellular sources of ROS in the lung, and may be significantly involved in the damage of lung target cells as well as important macromolecules including alpha-1-antitrypsin and DNA. In vitro and in vivo studies with coal dusts showed the up-regulation of important leukocyte recruiting factors, e.g. Leukotriene-B4 (LTB4), Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF), Monocyte Chemotactic Protein-1 (MCP-1), and Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF alpha), as well as the neutrophil adhesion factor Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 (ICAM-1). Coal dust particles are also known to stimulate the (macrophage) production of various factors with potential capacity to modulate lung cells and/or extracellular matrix, including O2-., H2O2, and NO, fibroblast chemoattractants (e.g. Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF beta), PDGF, and fibronectin) and a number of factors that have been shown to stimulate and/or inhibit fibroblast growth or collagen production such as (TNF alpha, TGF beta, PDGF, Insulin Like Growth Factor, and Prostaglandin-E2). Further studies are needed to clarify the in vivo kinetics and relative impact of these factors.  (+info)

Effects of pyrogallol, hydroquinone and duroquinone on responses to nitrergic nerve stimulation and NO in the rat anococcygeus muscle. (7/13910)

1. The hypothesis that endogenous superoxide dismutase (SOD) protects the nitrergic transmitter from inactivation by superoxide and that this explains the lack of sensitivity of the transmitter to superoxide generators was tested in the rat isolated anococcygeus muscle. 2. Responses to nitrergic nerve stimulation or to NO were not significantly affected by exogenous SOD or by the Cu/Zn SOD inhibitor diethyldithiocarbamic acid (DETCA). 3. Hydroquinone produced a concentration-dependent reduction of responses to NO with an IC50 of 27 microM, and higher concentrations reduced relaxant responses to nitrergic nerve stimulation with an IC50 of 612 microM. The effects of hydroquinone were only slightly reversed by SOD, so it does not appear to be acting as a superoxide generator. 4. Pyrogallol produced a concentration-dependent reduction in responses to NO with an IC50 value of 39 microM and this effect was reversed by SOD (100-1000 u ml(-1)). Pyrogallol did not affect responses to nitrergic nerve stimulation. Treatment with DETCA did not alter the differentiating action of pyrogallol. 5. Duroquinone produced a concentration-dependent reduction of relaxations to NO with an IC50 value of 240 microM and 100 microM slightly decreased nitrergic relaxations. After treatment with DETCA, duroquinone produced greater reductions of relaxant responses to NO and to nitrergic stimulation, the IC50 values being 8.5 microM for NO and 40 microM for nitrergic nerve stimulation: these reductions were reversed by SOD. 6. The findings do not support the hypothesis that the presence of Cu/Zn SOD explains the greater susceptibility of NO than the nitrergic transmitter to the superoxide generator pyrogallol, but suggest that it may play a role in the effects of duroquinone.  (+info)

UV-A-induced decrease in nuclear factor-kappaB activity in human keratinocytes. (8/13910)

Previous reports have demonstrated an increase in nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activity in response to UV radiation. These studies have essentially focused on the DNA-damaging fraction of solar UV radiation (UV-B and UV-C). In contrast, the effects of UV-A radiation (320-400 nm) on NF-kappaB are not well known. In this study, we present evidence that UV-A radiation induces a marked decrease in NF-kappaB DNA-binding activity in NCTC 2544 human keratinocytes. In addition, NCTC 2544 keratinocytes pretreated with UV-A fail to respond to NF-kappaB inducers. Moreover, UV-A radiation induces a decrease in NF-kappaB-driven luciferase reporter gene expression in NCTC 2544 keratinocytes. The expression of the gene encoding IkappaBalpha (IkappaB is the NF-kappaB inhibitor), which is closely associated with NF-kappaB activity, is also reduced (3-fold) upon UV-A treatment. Our results indicate that the UV-A-induced decrease in NF-kappaB DNA-binding activity is associated with a decrease in the levels of the p50 and p65 protein subunits. This is the first evidence that an oxidative stress, such as UV-A radiation, may induce a specific decrease in NF-kappaB activity in mammalian cells, probably through degradation of NF-kappaB protein subunits. These findings suggest that UV-A could modulate the NF-kappaB-dependent gene expression.  (+info)

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TY - JOUR. T1 - Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of cyclodextrin-solubilized flavonoids, resveratrol and astaxanthin as measured with the ORAC-EPR method. AU - Sueishi, Yoshimi. AU - Ishikawa, Misa. AU - Yoshioka, Daisuke. AU - Endoh, Nobuyuki. AU - Oowada, Shigeru. AU - Shimmei, Masashi. AU - Fujii, Hirotada. AU - Kotake, Yashige. PY - 2012/3. Y1 - 2012/3. N2 - Recently, we proposed an oxygen radical absorbance capacity method that directly quantifies the antioxidants scavenging capacity against free radicals and evaluated the radical scavenging abilities for water soluble antioxidant compounds. In this study, we determined the radical scavenging abilities of lipophilic antioxidants which were solubilized by cyclodextrin in water. Commonly employed fluorescence-based method measures the antioxidants protection capability for the fluorescent probe, while we directly quantify free-radical level using electron para- magnetic resonance spin trapping technique. In addition, the spin ...
Oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) is a method of measuring antioxidant capacities in biological samples in vitro. A wide variety of foods have been tested using this method, with certain spices, berries and legumes rated highly in extensive tables once published by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), but withdrawn in 2012 since no correlation between test results and biological activity could be determined, stating that no physiological proof in vivo existed in support of the free-radical theory. Although not all have been unilaterally dismissive, the majority position supports the USDA decision. Alternative measurements include the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, and the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay. The assay measures the oxidative degradation of the fluorescent molecule (either beta-phycoerythrin or fluorescein) after being mixed with free radical generators such as azo-initiator compounds. Azo-initiators are considered to produce the peroxyl radical by ...
Background: Patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing hemodialysis (HD) are exposed to oxidative stress, which is associated with an impairment of antioxidant defense and an overproduction of oxidative stress markers. Oxidative stress plays a significant role in the development of inflammation in these patients. Objectives: The high incidence of cardiovascular diseases in HD patients is now well established and the involvement of oxidative stress has been hypothesized in these phenomena. This study focused on a comparison of plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and lipid peroxidation product and evaluated the relationship between them and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in patients on HD. Subjects and Methods: Plasma (TAC), lipid peroxidation products, malondialdehyde (MDA) as well as high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were determined in 30 patients on HD and in 20 normal controls (NC). Results: TAC and MDA levels were significantly higher in patients on HD than in the control ...
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Several lines of evidence suggested that antioxidants might play a protective role against high-risk human papillomavirus (hrHPV) infection and cervical cancer. However, the effect of combined intake of antioxidants has not been investigated thus far. The current cross-sectional study aimed to understand the relationship between dietary antioxidant intake and the risk of high-risk HPV (hrHPV) infection among 251 Italian women with normal cervical cytology. Women were tested for hrHPV using the Digene HC2 HPV DNA Test. Dietary antioxidant intakes were assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire, and a Composite Dietary Antioxidant Index (CDAI) was constructed on the basis of zinc, selenium, manganese, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E, carotenoid, and flavonoid intake. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for the associations of antioxidant intakes or CDAI with hrHPV status, adjusting for age, smoking status, body mass
article{d66ae562-8be9-46fc-bbf8-0060fc9536f8, abstract = {The aim of the study was to investigate whether a supplement of antioxidants to subjects with a high working pace can influence the antioxidant capacity. The study was parallel and double blind with 98 subjects randomised into two groups. One of the groups was given a test drink with antioxidants for 4 weeks (450 ml/day) while the other group took a corresponding amount of placebo drink. The test drink contained: 2 mg beta-carotene/100 ml, 40 mg alpha-tocopherol/100 ml, 80 mg ascorbic acid/100 ml, 2 mg pyridoxine/100 ml, 15 mg magnesium/100 ml, 0.2 mg manganese/100 ml, 1 mg zinc/100 ml, 0.1 mg copper/100 ml and 10 μg selenium/100 ml. Consumption of the test drink for 4 weeks increased the total plasma antioxidant capacity by 7% (ferric reducing ability of plasma method, P<0.05 compared with the placebo group), and the content of selenium and selenoprotein P in serum was raised by 16-17% (P<0.001 compared with the placebo group). No ...
A high intake of dietary antioxidant compounds has been hypothesized to be an appropriate strategy to reduce gastric cancer (GC) development. We investigated the effect of dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in relation to GC in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC) study including 23 centers in 10 European countries. A total of 521,457 subjects (153,447 men) aged mostly 35-70 years old, were recruited largely between 1992 and 1998. Ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) and total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP), measuring reducing and chain-breaking antioxidant capacity were used to measure dietary TAC from plant foods. Dietary antioxidant intake is associated with a reduction in the risk of GC for both FRAP (adjusted HR 0.66; 95%CI (0.46-0.95) and TRAP (adjusted HR 0.61; 95%CI (0.43-0.87) (highest vs. lowest quintile). The association was observed for both cardia and noncardia cancers. A clear effect was observed in smokers with a significant reduction in
A high intake of dietary antioxidant compounds has been hypothesized to be an appropriate strategy to reduce gastric cancer (GC) development. We investigated the effect of dietary total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in relation to GC in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC) study including 23 centers in 10 European countries. A total of 521,457 subjects (153,447 men) aged mostly 35-70 years old, were recruited largely between 1992 and 1998. Ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) and total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP), measuring reducing and chain-breaking antioxidant capacity were used to measure dietary TAC from plant foods. Dietary antioxidant intake is associated with a reduction in the risk of GC for both FRAP (adjusted HR 0.66; 95%CI (0.46-0.95) and TRAP (adjusted HR 0.61; 95%CI (0.43-0.87) (highest vs. lowest quintile). The association was observed for both cardia and noncardia cancers. A clear effect was observed in smokers with a significant reduction in
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Resistance training is known to promote the generation of reactive oxygen species. Although this can likely upregulate the natural, endogenous antioxidant defense systems, high amounts of reactive oxygen species can cause skeletal muscle damage, fatigue, and impair recovery. To prevent these, antioxidant supplements are commonly consumed along with exercise. Recently, it has been shown that these reactive oxygen species are important for the cellular adaptation process, acting as redox signaling molecules. However, most of the research regarding antioxidant status and antioxidant supplementation with exercise has focused on endurance training. In this review, the authors discuss the evidence for resistance training modulating the antioxidant status. They also highlight the effects of combining antioxidant supplementation with resistance training on training-induced skeletal muscle adaptations. ...
Antioxidants are health beneficial compounds that can protect cells from the damage caused by unstable molecules known as reactive oxygen species (ROS). This work reports the capacity assay of both lipophilic and hydrophilic antioxidants simultaneously, by making use of their host-guest complexes with methyl-beta-cyclodextrin (M-beta-CD), a cyclic oligosaccharide, in acetonated aqueous medium using the cupric reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) method. Thus the order of antioxidant potency of various compounds irrespective of their lipophilicity could be established in the same solvent medium. M-beta-CD was introduced as the water solubility enhancer for lipophilic antioxidants. Two percent M-beta-CD (w/v) in an acetone-H2O (9:1, v/v) mixture was found to sufficiently solubilize beta-carotene, lycopene, vitamin E, vitamin C, synthetic antioxidants and other phenolic antioxidants. This assay was validated through linearity, additivity, precision, and recovery. The validation results ...
These free radicals which are rogue cells attack the body and damage the cell membranes, impairing the life span of cells in your body.. Antioxidant supplements help to ward off the harmful effects of these free radicals which have on your cells.. Vitamin C is a powerful antioxidant supplement which performs various functions. It aids the responses of the human immune system.. This antioxidant supplement is crucial when it comes to the production of collagen in the body. Collagen acts as a connective tissue throughout your body therefore it is a very important compound.. Sources of vitamin C include green beans, tomatoes, papaya, citrus fruits, strawberries, broccoli, cantaloupes, and red bell peppers.. Vitamin E is also an important antioxidant supplement for the human health. Vitamin E helps the body by aiding the immune system. This vitamin also helps to protect the body against the threat of cancer and cardiovascular diseases. There are many benefits with vitamin supplements.. If you want to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of acute intervention with flavonoid-rich juice on the plasma antioxidant capacity. AU - Niwat, Chutamat. AU - George, Trevor. AU - Gordon, Michael. AU - Lovegrove, Julie. PY - 2007/11/1. Y1 - 2007/11/1. N2 - Epidemiological data provide evidence that consumption of a diet rich in fruit and vegetables is associated with a reduction in the incidence of CVD. One possible mechanism for the protective effect of fruits and vegetables is the antioxidant activity of several compounds, including vitamins, minerals, fibre and other phytochemicals. Flavonoids are a group of phenolic compounds with strong antioxidant activity that are present in fruits, vegetables and other plant foods and play a role in the reduction of the incidence of chronic diseases such as CVD. However, very little is known about the amount of flavonoids absorbed from the diet and the reliability of plasma biomarkers. The present study set out to investigate the pharmacokinetics of flavonoid uptake and the ...
Fresh human milk has a higher antioxidant capacity than infant formula. This result is consistent with the study of Shoji et al,10 who found increased urinary 8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine excretion in formula fed infants compared with breast fed infants. Schwarz et al11 found similar results by measuring breath ethane concentrations in breast fed and formula fed infants. Although most studies showed that human milk had a higher antioxidant capacity than formula, one study by Alberti-Fidanza et al12 using the oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay, suggested that formula may have higher antioxidant capacity than human milk. The difference in these findings may be due to the different methods used to determine the antioxidant capacity of human milk. An improved oxygen radical absorbance capacity assay has been developed and validated using fluorescein.13,14 Friel et al15 showed that human milk has better antioxidant protection than formulas, perhaps because of the higher iron content of ...
Have you ever heard of antioxidants? Chances are you have heard about antioxidants you can eat. But, did you know there are antioxidants for your skin? The most beneficial antioxidants for your skin are CE ferulic and phloretin. You will be amazed to learn what these two antioxidants can do for your skin.. What is CE ferulic? CE Ferulic contains a combination of 15% vitamin C, 1% vitamin E and 0.5% ferulic acid. This incredible antioxidant protects your skin from free radicals that cause aging.. What are Phloretin antioxidants? This powerful antioxidant combination provides environmental protection for your skin. Phloretin CF contains 10% vitamin C and 0.5% ferulic acid.. Why are antioxidants good for your skin? Antioxidants are known for their ability to improve the appearance of the skin and reduce the signs of aging. Antioxidants protect skin from harmful free radicals.. Where to find antioxidants for your skin? The dermatologist office is the best place for antioxidant treatments. You need ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mitochondrial targeted antioxidant peptide ameliorates hypertensive cardiomyopathy. AU - Dai, Dao Fu. AU - Chen, Tony. AU - Szeto, Hazel. AU - Nieves-Cintrón, Madeline. AU - Kutyavin, Vassily. AU - Santana, Luis F.. AU - Rabinovitch, Peter S.. PY - 2011/6/28. Y1 - 2011/6/28. N2 - Objectives: We investigated the effect of reducing mitochondrial oxidative stress by the mitochondrial-targeted antioxidant peptide SS-31 in hypertensive cardiomyopathy. Background: Oxidative stress has been implicated in hypertensive cardiovascular diseases. Mitochondria and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase have been proposed as primary sites of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Methods: The mitochondrial targeted antioxidant peptide SS-31 was used to determine the role of mitochondrial oxidative stress in angiotensin II (Ang)-induced cardiomyopathy as well as in Gαq overexpressing mice with heart failure. Results: Ang induces mitochondrial ROS in neonatal ...
This study was designed to elucidate the effect of ascorbic acid on salivary total antioxidant capacity in smokers. In this single blind crossover clinical trial, the whole unstimulated saliva of 30 smokers, who were randomly divided into two groups, was collected. In the first phase after the saliva collection, one group of patients took 500 mg of vitamin C powder, for 3 weeks. Then, saliva of all patients was collected. After a one-week wash-out period, vitamin C was given to the other group. The collection of saliva was done after 3 weeks. Total antioxidant capacity was measured. Statistic evaluation was performed by Repeated Measured ANOVA, Independent sample t-test and Covariate test. The mean of total antioxidant capacity with and without using vitamin C was 0.511 ± 0.155 (U/mL) and 0.555 ± 0.171 (U/mL), respectively. This variability was not significant (p = 0.605). Oxidative stress from cigarette smoke was not decreased significantly with using vitamin C.
This study will investigate the effect of ENI Patented Whole Grape Extract versus placebo on antioxidant status. The primary objective is to determine antioxidant status by measuring total antioxidant capacity and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in blood and 8-OHdG and 8-isoprostane in first morning void urine samples prior to and after six weeks of supplementation with ENI Patented Whole Grape Extract.. Secondary objectives will include the assessment of oxidized LDL (oxLDL) and safety evaluations:. ...
If your goal is to get a glowing skin tone, end clogged pores, and end acne once and for all, then antioxidants are a goldmine.. Supercharging your bodily antioxidant supplies is the joint most effective strategy for acne. Overall, it is one of the most enjoyable ways to clear acne too. Your near infallible rule is that the more flavoursome the fruit or herb, the heavier and more diverse the antioxidant count.. That said, theres a common perception that plant foods are the only source of antioxidants, which is wrong. A banana, for example, contains only a few antioxidants, like rutin. Meanwhile a slab of beef, not associated with antioxidants in adverts, is drenched in minerals and aids your body in manufacturing its own antioxidants.. The antioxidant content of a food does not totally determine the end result in your bloodstream and skin. To give you an easily consultable list for rapid action, here are 23 foods with strong powers to increase bodily antioxidant levels, and hence strong powers ...
Local resource for antioxidant supplements for athletes in Joplin. Includes detailed information on local businesses that give access to antioxidant supplements such as vitamin C, vitamin E, and beta carotene, as well as advice and content on free radicals and antioxidants.
Local resource for antioxidant supplements for athletes in Lincoln. Includes detailed information on local businesses that give access to antioxidant supplements such as vitamin C, vitamin E, and beta carotene, as well as advice and content on free radicals and antioxidants.
The objective of this study was to determine whether running a 24-h race would cause oxidative damage and changes in the blood antioxidant defense capacity in endurance-trained athletes. Fourteen male amateur runners (mean age 43.0±10.8 y, body weight 64.3±7.2 kg height 171±5 cm, weekly covered distance 81±43 km, training history 8±9 y) who participated in a 24-hr ultra-marathon and volunteered to give blood samples during the race were enrolled for this study. Blood samples were taken before the run, after completing the marathon distance (42.217 km), after 12 h and at the conclusion of the race.The capacity of erythrocyte antioxidant defense system was evaluated by measuring the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), concentrations of non-enzymatic antioxidants (uric acid and glutathione-GSH), and selected biomarkers of oxidative stress (i.e., plasma level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and plasma antioxidant capacity ...
If this recipe for Antioxidant Shooters has caught your eye, I have a feeling you are aware that pomegranate juice, strawberries and blueberries are filled with antioxidants. With the addition of beets, this recipe is SUPER high in antioxidants. If you dont have time to cook beets, you can often find them on the salad bar at a high end or gourmet grocery store. What is interesting about beets is not the fact that they are rich in antioxidants, but the unusual mix of antioxidants that they contain. Beets have unique antioxidants since they get their red color primarily from betalain antioxidant pigments (and not primarily from anthocyanins). This combined with being a very good source of the antioxidant manganese and vitamin C, provides antioxidant support in a different way than other antioxidant-rich vegetables.. Have you heard the term but wonder why antioxidants are important? Antioxidants offer a number of health benefits and can help possibly prevent diseases, ranging from cancer to ...
Among the fruits specifically highlighted as beneficial were grapes, which, after consumption resulted in almost double the amount of recommended total antioxidant capacity needed to counteract the deficit associated with consuming 1000 calories of food.. Dr. Ronald L. Prior of the USDAs Arkansas Childrens Nutrition Center, widely recognized as a pioneer of the ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity) technique for measuring antioxidant capacity in foods, shared his findings regarding the natural state of oxidative stress in the body that results from eating a meal and the ability to counteract it in humans following consumption of certain fruits.. Prior showed that the metabolic process of digesting a meal with no antioxidants -- just fat, carbohydrate and protein -- causes a decline in antioxidant capacity of the blood which creates a temporary state of oxidative stress. This deficit can be prevented by consuming high antioxidant fruits such as grapes, which in this study provided almost ...
Different kinds of antioxidants. Antioxidants are types of nutrients and enzymes that can help promote health and may play a role in reducing your risk of chronic illnesses. They do this by combatting the free radicals produced as a result of oxidation.. Not all forms of antioxidants are the same. In fact, there are different types. Antioxidants can be soluble (i.e. they dissolve) in either water or in fat. Both types of antioxidants are important, as they can both be attacked by free radicals.. Water soluble antioxidants include vitamin C and polyphenols (antioxidants specifically from plants), whereas fat soluble antioxidants include vitamin A, vitamin E, carotenoids and lipoic acid.. Can Oxidative Stress be prevented?. Some of the effects of oxidative stress can be counteracted. Your body is unlikely to produce enough antioxidants to fight all the free radicals, so you can do your bit to support it. Trying to avoid some of the causes of free radicals may be beneficial, as well as eating a ...
Many phytochemicals possess antioxidant and cancer-preventive properties, some putatively through antioxidant response elementCmediated phase II rate of metabolism, entailing mutagen/oxidant quenching. moderate, and none was apparent for glutathione S-transferase pi proteins manifestation. Measurements of reactive air varieties and glutathione/oxidized glutathione percentage demonstrated an antioxidant impact for DMEBP, but no certain effect was discovered for TRES in NHBE cells. Publicity of NHBE cells to H2O2 induced nuclear translocation of nuclear element erythroid 2Crelated element 2, but this translocation had not been inhibited by TRES and DMEBP considerably. These studies also show that strength and low toxicity may for just two potential NQO1-inducing real estate agents align, TRES and DMEBP. screening method of display 800 substances in an all natural items library, this scholarly research offers determined 2,3-dihydroxy-4-methoxy-4-ethoxybenzophenone (derivative, myrtle extract, and ...
Shelf life of cooked ground beef links with no, low, or high concentrations of a blend of natural plant extract antioxidant were compared to evaluate lipid oxidation over time. When no antioxidants were added, samples stored nine days or beyond were more oxidized than the samples with the addition of an antioxidant. No differences in lipid oxidation were observed between 0.13% and 0.20% antioxidant concentrations during similar days of refrigerated storage days. Therefore, the addition of natural antioxidants were effective at reducing oxidative rancidity, regardless the concentration of antioxidant.
Geographically, this report split global into several key Regions, with sales (K MT), revenue (Million USD), market share and growth rate of Water-soluble Antioxidant for these regions, from 2012 to 2022 (forecast), covering. United States. China. Europe. Japan. Southeast Asia. India. Ask for sample copy @ https://www.researchtrades.com/request-sample/1405955 Global Water-soluble Antioxidant market competition by top manufacturers/players, with Water-soluble Antioxidant sales volume, Price (USD/MT), revenue (Million USD) and market share for each manufacturer/player; the top players including. BASF. Chemtura. SONGWON. SI (Albemarle). Double Bond Chemical. CYTEC (SOLVAY). Akzonobel. Clariant. Lanxess. Dow. Sumitomo Chemical. Adeka. Innospec. Kumho Petrochemical. Lubrizol. EVONIK. Addivant. Akrochem. Eastman. On the basis of product, this report displays the production, revenue, price, market share and growth rate of each type, primarily split into. Ascorbic Acid. Tea Polyphenols. Others. Buy a ...
Previous observations have indicated that the red peel areas of grapefruit with high lycopene concentrations were more tolerant to CI than yellow peel areas (Lado et al., 2015a). Because lycopene is a carotene with powerful antioxidant capacity, this study investigated whether the CI tolerance of the lycopene-accumulating rind of grapefruit may be due to an enhancement of the enzymatic and/or nonenzymatic antioxidant systems. Total antioxidant capacity, antioxidant metabolite (GSH and AsA) contents, and antioxidant enzyme (GR [glutathione reductase], ascorbate peroxidase [APX], catalase [CAT] and superoxide dismutase [SOD]) activity and gene expression were measured in the peel of Star Ruby grapefruit with contrasting CI tolerance during storage at 2 C for up to 58 d. The peel of CI-tolerant fruit exhibited a lower lipid peroxidation level (MDA content). The hydrogen peroxide concentration was similar after 3 weeks of storage, when the differences in chilling damage between sensitive and ...
The antioxidant capacity and the phenolic content of hydroalcoholic macerations from leaves, inflorescences, stems and roots of species of the genus Pluchea were also compared. Leaf extracts followed by inflorescence extracts showed the highest values of antioxidant capacity. The species P. carolinensis was used as a model to evaluate the antioxidant capacity in two locations and two phenological stages and also for monitoring the antioxidant capacity over some months. Natural adult specimens presented a higher phenolic content, as well as higher antioxidant capacity than young and cultivated specimens. Maximal antioxidant capacity and concentrations in phenolics were recorded in January, September and December; over the blooming stage (March), the antioxidant capacity was minimal. Two different solvents of extraction and two methods were also screened for extracting the maximal concentrations in antioxidants. Hydroalcoholic extractions showed higher antioxidant capacity than ethanolic ones. ...
The lipid peroxidation, the total oxidant status and the oxidative stress index were significantly increased in the brain and retina of exposed rats when compared to the control group while the total antioxidant status was significantly decreased. Regarding lipid peroxidation a dose related effect was observed: The values of the 18 kV/m-exposed group were significantly higher than those of the 12 kV/m-exposed group ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Antioxidants and Lipid Oxidation in Foods - A Critical Appraisal. AU - Adegoke, G. O.. AU - Kumar, Matam Vijay. AU - Gopala Krishna, A. G.. AU - Varadaraj, M. C.. AU - Sambaiah, K.. AU - Lokesh, B. R.. PY - 1998/7/1. Y1 - 1998/7/1. N2 - Lipid oxidation is a process, which results in rancidity and deterioration of fats posing a major problem In food industry and on biological systems. Many synthetic antioxidants are used in food systems to inhibit lipid oxidation. However, the safety concerns about synthetic antioxidants have led to spurt of research on antioxidants from natural resources, particularly those derived from plant sources. Findings from some such studies on potent aromatic plants having good antioxidant potentials should be pooled to be exploited in food as well as in biological system as a safe alternative to synthetic antioxidants. An attempt has been made in the present review to critically appraise the potentials and safety aspects of synthetic and natural ...
On the other hand, vitamin C did not have an effect on mortality and the antioxidant mineral selenium was associated with a nine per cent decrease in all-cause mortality. We could find no evidence to support taking antioxidant supplements to reduce the risk of dying earlier in healthy people or patients with various diseases,​ said Goran Bjelakovic from the Copenhagen Trial Unit at the Copenhagen University Hospital in Denmark. A republishing of last years antioxidant meta-analysis in the prestigious Cochrane Systematic Review​ today looks set to refocus attention on the efficacy of antioxidant supplements, and raise questions over their safety. The meta-analysis was originally published in the Journal of the American Medical Association​ (2007, Vol. 297, pp. 842-857) last year and attracted criticism from both inside and outside of the dietary supplements industry. The authors admit that this report contained errors and corrections were subsequently published in JAMA​ (2008, Vol. ...
Irwin Naturals Anti-Aging Antioxidants 60 Soft-gels Anti-Aging Antioxidants Directions: Take two soft-gels daily with a meal and a full glass of water. The Free Radical Theory of Aging Free radicals are a major contributor to aging. The free radical theory of aging states that the inborn process of aging is caused by the accumulation of free radical damage inside the body. This theory is supported by countless studies and suggests that antioxidants can help neutralize the effects of natural aging.* Boost Your Antioxidant Defense Systems! Anti-Aging Antioxidants is a simple yet powerful way to boost your daily antioxidant intake. This product supplies a broad spectrum of antioxidant-active compounds to protect your body from the harmful effects of free radicals.* Anti-Aging Antioxidants can be used daily or as needed to help fill the nutritional gaps in your diet. Supplement Facts Serving Size 2 Liquid Soft Gels Servings Per Container 30 Vitamin C as Ascorbic Acid 500mg 833%
You have likely heard the term “antioxidant supplements,” but do you know the role that antioxidants play in preventing cardiovascular disease? In fact, according to proponents of antioxidant supplements, antioxidants cannot only prevent cardiovascular disease, but also reverse the damage that often leads to numerous...
Seventytwo Indian barley varieties were screened for their antioxidant activity for 2 years using two antiradical systems Differences in the levels of antioxidant activity in 2 years were obtained but the genotypic differences still remained and a 2fold variability was observed in the antioxidant activity Yeartoyear differences were also obtained when the selected varieties were analyzed for their free and bound phenolic contents Evaluation of the antioxidant activity and phenolic content in the five varieties grown at six different locations revealed that the antioxidant activity and the free phenolics were more influenced by the genotype whereas the bound and the total phenolics were most influenced by the environment After malting no significant changes were observed in the antioxidant activity however a 2fold increase was observed in the total phenolic content which was mainly due to the increase in the level of free phenolics after ...
1. The oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is believed to play a central role in atherogenesis. We have compared the effect of antioxidant vitamins and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) on the Cu(2+)-catalysed oxidation of LDL. 2. Antioxidant vitamin supplementation significantly reduced conjugated diene formation but did not affect the formation of lipid peroxides. 3. Conversely, HDL did not affect conjugated diene formation but inhibited the formation of lipid peroxides by up to 90%. 4. The inhibition by HDL of lipid peroxide formation in oxidized LDL was dependent on the concentration of HDL and was not due to HDL chelating Cu2+. 5. Large interindividual variations in the inhibition of lipid peroxide formation by autologous HDL were evident, which were related to the rate of lipid peroxide generation in the LDL. 6. We conclude that HDL is a powerful antioxidant or more probably inhibitor of LDL oxidation in vitro and may play an important role in vivo in preventing atherosclerosis by ...
Hydrogen atom transfer (HAT) is the mechanism by which the vast majority of radical-trapping antioxidants (RTAs), such as hindered phenols, inhibit autoxidation. As such, at least one weak O-H bond is the key structural feature which underlies the reactivity of phenolic RTAs. We recently observed that quinone methi 2020 Chemical Science HOT Article Collection 2020 ChemSci Pick of the Week Collection
Youve seen or heard the term antioxidant before and you feel like its something you should have in your food, right? Right, but you probably dont know what antioxidants actually are and why you need them. I know that was the case for me.. To understand what antioxidants are, you must first know what a free radical is. Free radicals are naturally occurring substances in our bodies that attack the fats, protein and DNA in our cells, causing us to age quickly and can even cause diseases. Antioxidants are the compounds found in some foods that help to neutralize the free radicals in our bodies. The best sources of antioxidants are fruits and vegetables but they are also found in green tea, black tea, red wine and dark chocolate (yum!). According to experts, the presence of color indicates that there is a specific antioxidant in that food.. Now do you understand why we need them? I do! To get a healthy dose of antioxidants in your diet, try eating more of these foods.. Tomatoes ...
Kirkmans Alpha Lipoic Acid is a powerful and versatile nutrient with antioxidant activity that helps protect the body against free radical damage and, as a result, is a protector of many types of cells and tissues. It also helps increase glutathione production, which supports detoxification processes in the body.. Alpha lipoic acid is a nutrient with unique antioxidant activity in that it is both fat- and water-soluble. Other well-known nutrients with antioxidant activity can only function within their soluble media. Because of its dual solubility, alpha lipoic acid can function in both fatty and aqueous parts of a cell and is capable of defending against a wide variety of invading free radicals. Alpha lipoic acid can enter all parts of a nerve cell and also cross the blood-brain barrier and protect cells.. Alpha lipoic acid is found naturally in foods such as spinach, broccoli, tomatoes, liver, heart and animal muscle tissue. Its bioavailability from food may be limited, however, because it is ...
High ORAC food supplements are the latest craze. Find out what ORAC means and its relevance in evaluating supplements. - Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC) - Holistic Health at BellaOnline
A plant-based diet protects against chronic oxidative stress-related diseases. Dietary plants contain variable chemical families and amounts of antioxidants. It has been hypothesized that plant antioxidants may contribute to the beneficial health effects of dietary plants. Our objective was to develop a comprehensive food database consisting of the total antioxidant content of typical foods as well as other dietary items such as traditional medicine plants, herbs and spices and dietary supplements. This database is intended for use in a wide range of nutritional research, from in vitro and cell and animal studies, to clinical trials and nutritional epidemiological studies. We procured samples from countries worldwide and assayed the samples for their total antioxidant content using a modified version of the FRAP assay. Results and sample information (such as country of origin, product and/or brand name) were registered for each individual food sample and constitute the Antioxidant Food Table. The
Water and lipid soluble antioxidant; supports glucose metabolism and nerve health Alpha lipoic acid is an exceptionally versatile nutrient; being both water and fat soluble, it is able to function in almost any part of the body. It is manufactured in the body, but often times not in the amounts necessary to perform its many functions. Alpha lipoic acid is a potent antioxidant which neutralizes harmful free radicals and enhances the activity of vitamins C and E. A key component of the metabolic process, alpha lipoic acid produces energy in muscles and directs calories into energy production. In addition, this powerful nutrient helps maintain healthy glucose metabolism, supports the nervous system and provides nutritional support for healthy liver function. In one study, alpha lipoic acid decreased serum lactate and pyruvate and promoted healthy glucose metabolism in lean and overweight individuals. Alpha lipoic acid supported nerve health in subjects who participated in a four-month, randomized, double
The in vitro antioxidant potential assay between ethanolic extracts of two species from the genus Vitex (Vitex negundo L. and Vitex trifolia L.) belonging to the Lamiaceae family were evaluated. The antioxidant properties of different extracts prepared from both plant species were evaluated by different methods. DPPH scavenging, nitric oxide scavenging, and β-carotene-linoleic acid and ferrous ion chelation methods were applied. The antioxidant activities of these two species were compared to standard antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), ascorbic acid, and Ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA). Both species of Vitex showed significant antioxidant activity in all of the tested methods. As compared to V. trifolia L. (60.87-89.99%; 40.0-226.7 μg/mL), V. negundo has been found to hold higher antioxidant activity (62.6-94.22%; IC50 = 23.5-208.3 μg/mL) in all assays. In accordance with antioxidant activity, total polyphenol contents in V. negundo possessed greater phenolic (89.71 mg GAE
Title: 3,4-Dihydrospiro[piperidine-4,2-(1H)quinoline] Derivatives as New Antioxidant Agents with Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitory Property. VOLUME: 7 ISSUE: 10. Author(s):Vladimir V. Kouznetsov, Leonor Y. Vargas Mendez and Amner Munoz Acevedo. Affiliation:Laboratorio de Quimica Organica y Biomolecular, Escuela de Quimica, Universidad Industrial de Santander, A.A. 678 Bucaramanga, Colombia.. Keywords:Antioxidant capacity, AChE inhibitory activity, Intramolecular Friedel-Crafts cyclization, Dihydrospiro[piperidine-4,2(1H)quinoline] derivatives, Multifunctional drug discovery, 4-allyl-4-arylaminopiperidines, AChE assay, Alzheimers disease, AD, tacrine, rivas-tigmine, donepezil, galantamine, acetylcholine, hyperphosphory-lation, tacrine-ferullic hybrids, tacrine-melatonin, TMTHQ, Physostigmine, Trolox, Toluene, Allylmagnesium bromide, H-NMR, C-NMR, TPSA, BHT, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-4-methylphenol, BHA, 2-tert-butyl-4-hydroxyanisol, Trolox® Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity, TEAC, Ellmans reagent, DTNB, ...
Antioxidants can be used on a long-term basis, also after completion of Momentum® Stage 1 and 2. The product is very well-suited to people who smoke, experience stress, are exposed to sun and/ or exercise a lot.. About alpha lipoic acid Momentum® Antioxidant contains a high dose of R-alpha lipoic acid (the natural and most easily absorbed form of alpha lipoic acid). Alpha lipoic acid is a fatty acid which naturally occurs in the human body and in foodstuffs (steak, offal contain alpha lipoic acid). Alpha lipoic acid has two functions: it is essential for cellular energy production and a very powerful antioxidant which renders various free radicals harmless 2-3. Additionally it helps to ensure that previously oxidised antioxidants (such as vitamins C and E) can be returned to their original, active, form. This ensures that these chemicals work even better and that the antioxidative capacity of the body is increased.. Alpha lipoic acid also functions as an anti-inflammatory and helps fight cell ...
Consumption of plant flavonoids, antioxidants, and n-3 fatty acids is proposed to have many potential health benefits derived primarily through antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. This study examined the effects of 1,000 mg quercetin + 1,000 mg vitamin C (QC); 1,000 mg quercetin, 1,000 mg vitamin C, 400 mg isoquercetin, 30 mg epigallocatechin gallate, and 400 mg n-3 fatty acids (QFO); or placebo (P), taken each day for 2 wk before and during 3 d of cycling at 57% Wmax for 3 hr, on plasma antioxidant capacity (ferricreducing ability of plasma [FRAP], oxygen-radical absorbance capacity [ORAC]), plasma oxidative stress (F2-isoprostanes), and plasma quercetin and vitamin C levels. Thirty-nine athletes were recruited and randomized to QC, QFO, or P. Blood was collected at baseline, after 2 wk supplementation, immediately postexercise, and 14 hr postexercise. Statistical design used a 3 (groups) × 4 (times) repeated-measures ANOVA with post hoc analyses. Plasma quercetin was significantly ...
Low prices on Alpha Lipoic Acid! Alpha lipoic acid is a powerful antioxidant*. Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) provides antioxidant protection throughout the body because of its unique property of being both fat and water soluble. It also protects you by helping the body recycle other antioxidants like vitamin C, vitamin E, CoQ10 and glutathione. Alpha lipoic acid helps support normal blood sugar levels already within the normal range.*
The most common and most efficient antioxidants are: Vitamins A, C and E, Carotenoids, Selenium, Alpha Lipoic Acid and Coenzyme Q10.. Antioxidants can be found in food: fruits, vegetables and whole grains, but if your dog does not eat enough of these you should probably consider adding antioxidant supplements to his meals.. It is recommended to consult with your veterinarian and then decide which combination of antioxidants you should administer to your dog according to his age and needs.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Voltammetric study of the antioxidant properties of catalase and superoxide dismutase. AU - Korotkova, E. I.. AU - Lipskikh, O. I.. AU - Kiseleva, M. A.. AU - Ivanov, V. V.. PY - 2008/8. Y1 - 2008/8. N2 - The antioxidant properties of catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) have been studied by voltammetry. The effect of pH on the antioxidant properties of catalase and SOD has been evaluated. It is established that the antioxidant activity of both enzymes is maximum at pH 6.86. Mechanisms of the interaction of enzymes with reactive oxygen species are considered. Antioxidant activity criterion (IC50) for SOD and some copper complexes have been estimated by voltammetry and spectrophotometry.. AB - The antioxidant properties of catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) have been studied by voltammetry. The effect of pH on the antioxidant properties of catalase and SOD has been evaluated. It is established that the antioxidant activity of both enzymes is maximum at pH 6.86. Mechanisms ...
Product Description wholesale raw material powder r alpha lipoic acid alpha lipoic acid; r alpha lipoic acid; lipoic acid Brief Introduction and Application Product Name: alpha lipoic acid raw material CAS No.: 1077-28-7 Purity: 99%-101% MO
Antioxidant-rich - Cacao is the most antioxidant-rich food in the world. Its powder, for instance, contains an ORAC (Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity) score of 95,500 µmol per 100g, while cacao nibs contain a lower but still impressive 62,100 µmol per 100g. To put these numbers in perspective, goji berries (the highest non-cacao source of antioxidants) score 25,300, acai berries score 18,500, and blueberries - famous for their antioxidant content - score 2,400. Many of the antioxidants present in cacao are flavonoids, including anthocyanidin. Like all antioxidants, these flavonoids are intimately involved in the prevention of free radical damage, but they also have a central role in boosting collagen protection. This means that antioxidant-rich foods like cacao are not only good at guarding us from cancer and other degenerative diseases, but also provide us with many anti-aging benefits.. Mood booster - Chocolate, in both its processed and natural form, has always been regarded as a mood ...
In this study, evidence has been collected that supports the notion that paclitaxel may exert its toxicity via elevation of intracellular O2−, H2O2, and NO levels. This theory is confirmed by our data showing that (a) paclitaxel induced the production of O2−, H2O2 and NO; (b) paclitaxel induced oxidative DNA damage; (c) agents that decreased H2O2 and NO production suppressed paclitaxel-induced DNA damage, G2-M arrest, apoptosis, and cell growth inhibition; (d) inhibition of SOD or glutamylcysteine synthase increased paclitaxel-induced apoptosis; (e) cell lines with higher total antioxidant capacity were more resistant to paclitaxel cytotoxicity; and (f) agents that decreased clonogenic survival in paclitaxel-treated cells also decreased cellular total antioxidant capacity. Thus, paclitaxel chemoresistance correlates very well to intracellular antioxidant capacity.. Kong et al. ( 27) speculated that many chemotherapeutic agents exert their toxic effects on cancer cells by producing free ...
D6810-13 Standard Test Method for Measurement of Hindered Phenolic Antioxidant Content in Non-Zinc Turbine Oils by Linear Sweep Voltammetry antioxidant content~ linear sweep voltammetry~ 2,6-di-tert-butylphenol~
This review addresses the general hypothesis that the pathogenesis of preeclampsia and eclampsia are related to an imbalance of increased oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation coupled with a deficiency of antioxidant protection. Accordingly, this study was initiated to assess total antioxidant status and free-radical activity in preeclampsia and eclampsia. The patients studied were 44 healthy pregnant women and 45 women with hypertension classified as having preeclampsia (n=27), and eclampsia (n=18). The serum levels of lipid peroxide were significantly increased (p,0.0001) and antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase and glutathione levels) in erythrocytes were significantly decreased (p,0.0001) in women with preeclampsia and eclampsia compared with the controls. The groups of preeclampsia and eclampsia had similar values of catalase activities as the controls (p,0.05). There were no correlations between serum levels of lipid peroxide and antioxidant enzyme activities or ...
The antioxidant activities of five medicinal plants (Ampelopsis sinica, Ampelopsis humiliforlia var. heterophylla, Potentilla freyniana, Selaginella labordei and Chrysanthemum multiflorum), used in the Hubei province of China, have been investigated using both enzymatic and non-enzymatic in vitro antioxidant assays. Extracts from all five of the plants inhibited xanthine oxidase and lipoxygenase activities, and were scavengers of the ABTS*+ radical cation using the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay (TEAC). Extracts from Potentilla freyniana and Selaginella labordei down-regulated cyclooxygenase-2 gene expression, measured by real-time RT-PCR, in human colon adenocarcinoma CaCo-2 cells.. ...
Previously we have reported that patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) obtained a significant reduction in disease activity by adopting a Mediterranean-type diet. The present study was carried out to investigate the antioxidant intake, the plasma levels of antioxidants and a marker of oxidative stress (malondialdehyde) during the study presented earlier. RA patients randomized to either a Mediterranean type diet (MD group; n = 26) or a control diet (CD group; n = 25) were compared during a three month dietary intervention study. Their antioxidant intake was assessed by means of diet history interviews and their intake of antioxidant-rich foods by a self-administered questionnaire. The plasma levels of retinol, antioxidants (α- and γ-tocopherol, β-carotene, lycopene, vitamin C and uric acid) and urinary malondialdehyde (MDA), a marker for oxidative stress, were determined using high performance liquid chromatography. The Students t-test for independent samples and paired samples were used to test
Shop a variety of alpha lipoic acid antioxidant supplements at Vitamin World, to help metabolize sugar, especially in muscles, where it promotes energy.
A team of scientists have designed a synthetic antioxidant, XJB-5-131, that targets mitochondria and suppresses symptoms of Huntingtons disease in mice.. Theres new hope in the fight against Huntingtons disease. A group of researchers that includes scientists from the U.S. Department of Energys Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) have designed a compound that suppresses symptoms of the devastating disease in mice.. The compound is a synthetic antioxidant that targets mitochondria, an organelle within cells that serves as a cells power plant. Oxidative damage to mitochondria is implicated in many neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimers, Parkinsons, and Huntingtons.. The scientists administered the synthetic antioxidant, called XJB-5-131, to mice that have a genetic mutation that triggers Huntingtons disease. The compound improved mitochondrial function and enhanced the survival of neurons. It also inhibited weight loss and stopped the decline of motor skills, ...
If you are looking for something to increase your weight loss efforts and boost your energy while you lose weight, antioxidants can help. The process of losing weight actually releases more free radicals into your body than normal and for this reason, it is vitally important to make sure you are getting an adequate amount of antioxidants to assist with your weight loss.. 2. Antioxidant super-fruits - The new trend in weight loss today seems to be the super-fruits known commonly as acai berries or goji berries. These exotic fruits from far away lands are proven to have relatively high antioxidant content. Comparitively, wolfberry (goji) and acai berry are the highest ranking foods in terms of antioxidant content.. Taking antioxidants regularly will help to make you feel better and reduce illness during your weight loss. You may want to buy a supplement high in antioxidants such as one of the trendy super-fruits, acai and goji berry. To find out more about how you can lose that stubborn fat ...
Background: Chronic renal failure, particularly end-stage renal disease, is a serious health problem associated with a high mortality rate. Uremic syndrome leads to increased oxidative stress, inflammation, and dyslipidemia. Aims: To examine superoxide dismutase isoenzyme gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients on hemodialysis and to determine the associations between superoxide dismutase isoenzyme gene expression, oxidative stress, and non-enzymatic antioxidative protection. Study Design: Case control study. Methods: This study included 33 patients on hemodialysis (age, 55.33 +/- 15.31 years old) and 33 apparently healthy controls (age, 45.37 +/- 8.92 years old). Superoxide dismutase isoenzyme messenger ribonucleic acid levels were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction. General biochemical parameters, high sensitivity C-reactive protein, total antioxidant status, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, and the superoxide anion radical were also ...
Alzheimers disease (AD) is a serious condition associated with increased inflammation, cholesterol, and oxidative stress (a condition involving an excess of free radicals and a decrease in antioxidant levels). Fish oil and alpha lipoic acid, which have few side effects, may help relieve these problems; therefore, these supplements may slow the progression of AD, particularly when given in combination. This study will evaluate the effect of fish oil and alpha lipoic acid on inflammation, lipid levels, and oxidative stress.. Participants in this study will be randomly assigned to receive fish oil alone, fish oil and alpha lipoic acid, or placebo for 1 year. AD rating scales as well as urine and blood tests will be used to assess participants. Participants will have monthly clinic visits during the study to monitor adverse events and to undergo various laboratory tests. ...
Among antioxidants, alpha lipoic acid is unique because it is both fat and water soluble. This means it can work in more areas of the body than other antioxidants that either dissolve in water like Vitamin C or are absorbed into fat like Vitamin E. Alpha lipoic acid has another important role through increasing the…
How do antioxidants work?. Antioxidants perform mainly by taking away totally free radicals, terminating the destructive chain reactions via which these free radicals injury cells. Antioxidants do so by reacting with the free radical, and are as a result used up when they terminate the reaction.. This operate of anti-oxidants explain their exceptional potential to defend the physique in opposition to a wide selection of threats. For illustration, the antioxidant lutein, a carotenoid located in many plants, absorbed into the entire body when we take in these vegetation, is acknowledged to safeguard from radiation hurt: when radiation enters the physique and breaks aside a molecule creating a free radical, lutein neutralizes the free radical, therefore decreasing the volume of radiation injury.. Oxidative tension is associated with many types of ailment, so antioxidants can shield from a wide variety of distinct stressors on the human body.. Examples of antioxidants:. Antioxidants consist of the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The protective effect of Opuntia dillenii Haw fruit against low-density lipoprotein peroxidation and its active compounds. AU - Chang, Su Feng. AU - Hsieh, Chiu Lan. AU - Yen, Gow Chin. PY - 2008/1/15. Y1 - 2008/1/15. N2 - The antioxidant activity and inhibitory effect of extracts from Opuntia dillenii Haw fruit (ODHF) and its active compounds on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) peroxidation were investigated. The results indicated that the antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts of ODHF in Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity and oxygen-radical absorbance capacity assays were in the order of seed , peel , pulp. The lag time of conjugated diene formation in Cu2+-induced LDL oxidation was increased by incubation of LDL with various methanolic extracts of ODHF. The methanolic extracts from seed, peel and pulp prolonged the lag time compared to control (154.1 min) to 514.8, 163.9 and 190.2 min, respectively, at a concentration of 10 μg/ml. Among the extracts, seed extracts of ...
Alpha lipoic acid is a powerful antioxidant that first gained worldwide recognition at the United Nations First Joint Conference on Healthy Aging in 1996. Some of the findings presented at the conference included research that showed that alpha lipoic acid directly restores vitamin C and glutathione to their active fo
Save 50% Lindberg - Alpha Lipoic Acid 100 mg 120 Capsules Alpha Lipoic Acid 100 mg Antioxidant Support* Alpha-Lipoic Acid is involved in the energy-producing reactions in the body. Both fat and water soluble, Alpha-Lipoic Acid supports antioxidant processes both inside the cell and and at the cell membrane level.* It also increases the antioxidant capacity of other nutrients by helping the body recycle vitamins C and E, CoQ10 and glutathione.* Alpha-Lipoic Acid helps support normal blood sugar levels already within the normal range.*
Botanicals have been explored for their multitude of pharmaceutical and therapeutic potential. In this study, crude methanolic extract (MSSL) and organic soluble fractions of Syzygium samarangense leaves were evaluated for antioxidant activity using in vitro and in vivo models. To evaluate the antioxidant activity, total antioxidant capacity, free radical scavenging ability (DPPH) and reducing power, assays were conducted in vitro. Lipid peroxidation and activities of different antioxidant enzymes were measured in vivo. Quantitative phytochemical analyses such as the measurement of total phenolic, flavonoid, flavonol, and proanthocyanide contents were also evaluated. The ethyl acetate fraction (ESSL) showed significant effects in DPPH assay (IC50 = 38.84 ± 0.08 μg/mL) and reducing power assay. The effect of ESSL was found to be concentration-dependent with remarkable antioxidant activity as compared to other tested samples. In addition, administration of the extract/fractions (200 and 400 ...
Natural News) Antioxidants such as vitamin C are often taken to boost immunity and prevent diseases, but these substances can also be used against a water contaminant called hexavalent chromium. This chemical contaminates the water supply in about 200 million American homes.. Researchers from Olivet Nazarene University in Bourbonnais, Illinois discovered that vitamin C and other antioxidants like epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), the primary antioxidant in green tea, can reduce the harmful effects of hexavalent chromium. This chemical is often produced by industrial processes, so it usually enters the water supply through industrial waste. Additionally, it is known to cause cancer. (Related: Hexavalent chromium (chromium-6) was just found in 75% of drinking water… the mass chemical suicide of America is under way.). In this study, the researchers aimed to determine whether antioxidants can help avoid cell toxicity. To do so, the researchers exposed two types of human cells to different ...
The health benefits of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) are related with its chemical composition and the presence of bioactive compounds with antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was evaluate antioxidant compounds (pigments, CoQ10 and phenolic compounds) and antioxidant properties of EVOO from the same region comparing different cultivars (Hojiblanca and Arbequina), harvest year and crop stage. Antioxidant properties of oils were studied before and after a gastrointestinal digestion process, by in vitro assays (DPPH, ABTS and FRAP) and antioxidant markers in Caco-2 cells (reactive oxygen species production). The content of bioactive compounds measured was significantly affected by cultivar and harvest year (except for carotenoids) and by the crop stage (except for coenzyme Q10). Higher amount of coenzyme Q10 was observed in Hojiblanca than in Arbequina EVOO. Total phenol content and antioxidant properties were also different depending on cultivar and harvest year and the in vitro digestion
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Use of organotypic cultures of Cortis organ to study the protective effects of antioxidant molecules on cisplatin-induced damage of auditory hair cells. AU - Kopke, Richard D.. AU - Liu, Wei. AU - Gabaizadeh, Ramin. AU - Jacono, Andrew. AU - Feghali, Joseph. AU - Spray, David. AU - Garcia, Phil. AU - Steinman, Howard. AU - Malgrange, Bridgitte. AU - Ruben, Robert J.. AU - Rybak, Leonard. AU - Van De Water, Thomas R.. PY - 1997/9/1. Y1 - 1997/9/1. N2 - Hypothesis: Cisplatin causes the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which interferes with the antioxidant defense system of Cortis organ and results in damage to the hair cells. Background: Cisplatin is a widely used chemotherapeutic agent with the dose-limiting side effect of ototoxicity. Evidence is accumulating that cisplatin interferes with the antioxidant defense system of Cortis organ. Methods: Organotypic explants of P-3 rat organ of Corti were the in vitro model system. Presence of intact auditory hair cells and ...
The potential of selected industrial food wastes from juice and nut production including apple peel, apple pomace, pomegranate peel, pomegranate seed, chestnut shell, and black carrot pomace as resources for natural antioxidants was investigated. Soluble free and insoluble-bound phenolics were extracted from the wastes and analyzed for total phenolic and flavonoid contents, phenolic profile and antioxidant activity. Total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of wastes were positively correlated with their antioxidant activity. The highest total phenolic and antioxidant activity were determined in soluble fraction of pomegranate peel due to a significant amount of punicalagin derivatives. Pomegranate peel and seed had the most phenolics and flavonoids in soluble form while other wastes had more than 45% of total phenolics in insoluble-bound form. Chestnut shell showed more antioxidant activity in insoluble-bound fraction compared to that of its soluble fraction. These findings showed that not ...
Quite Possibly the Universal Antioxidant. Lester Packer, Ph.D., of the University of California, Berkeley, published a lengthy review article on alpha-lipoic acid in Free Radical Biology & Medicine. Several qualities distinguish alpha-lipoic acid from other antioxidants, and Packer has described it at various times as the universal, ideal, and metabolic antioxidant. It directly recycles and extends the metabolic life spans of vitamin C, glutathione, and coenzyme Q10, and it indirectly renews vitamin E.. Alternative Names: Thiotic Acid or Thioctic Acid, Lipoic Acid, ALA. Alpha lipoic acid is a fatty acid found naturally inside every cell in the body. Its needed by the body to produce the energy for our bodys normal functions. Alpha lipoic acid converts glucose (blood sugar) into energy.. Alpha lipoic acid is an antioxidant; a substance that neutralizes potentially harmful chemicals called free radicals. What makes alpha lipoic acid unique is that it functions in water and fat, unlike ...
Alpha-lipoic acid helps prevent certain kinds of cell damage in the body. It also restores vitamin levels such as vitamin E and vitamin C in their cycles so they would work again as an antioxidant in their cycles and this reduces body need of antioxidants. There are some evidence that alpha-lipoic acid can improve the function and conduction of neuron cells in diabetes. ALA antioxidant benefits might also be helpful in liver diseases. ...
Buy Alpha Lipoic Acid 300 mg 60 Capsules & other Antioxidants Supplements. Alpha Lipoic Acid (ALA) serves a variety of important functions in the body, one of which is the ability to help metabolize sugar, especially in muscles, where it promotes energy.
Table 3: Tai Chi Exercise Increases SOD Activity and Total Antioxidant Status in Saliva and Is Linked to an Improvement of Periodontal Disease in the Elderly
Some nutrients play a supporting role. For instance, selenium is an essential component of various enzymes used by the antioxidant network. And flavonoids help recycle vitamin C.. The mineral selenium is not an antioxidant but it supports the network antioxidants. For example, it works in synergy with vitamin E, making a powerful combination. Selenium is also an essential component in various enzymes used by the antioxidant network, including glutathione peroxidase and thioredoxin reductase, which reactivates and recycles vitamin C.. Selenium is involved in the antioxidant enzymes responsible for detoxifying rancid fat in membranes. Also, with seleniums help, vitamin E protects lipoproteins against oxidative damage more effectively.. Blood platelets contain the greatest concentration of selenium of any body tissue, suggesting that high levels of selenium may prevent blood clots. This network helpers role in heart disease prevention is complex but numerous studies have linked low consumption of ...
Free Radicals and Antioxidants [ISSN: 2231-2536] is an online peer reviewed publication dedicated to publishing novel, original findings in the field of free radical biology and both natural and synthetic antioxidants. The Free Radicals and Antioxidants Journal aims to foster the dissemination of scientific information by publishing manuscripts that provide new insights into the biology of free radicals, including their generation, degradation, modulation, role in cellular function and cell signaling. The submission of uninvited expert reviews and research articles in all areas of Free Radical Biology and Antioxidants are also welcomed. Free Radicals and Antioxidants publishes full research papers presenting original, high quality research, critical review articles providing comprehensive analysis of research development within a defined area and editorial commentaries on key topical issues in Free Radical and Antioxidant Biology.. ...
Buy Resveratrol 250 mg plus Red Wine Extract 60 Rapid Release Softgels & other Antioxidants Supplements. Resveratrol is the beneficial nutrient in red wine. Provides powerful antioxidant support & helps fight against cell-damaging free radicals.
Antioxidants are an important substance that can fight the deterioration of free radicals and can easily oxidize when exposed to light. There are many methods to measure the antioxidant activity in a biological sample, for example 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) antioxidant activity test, which is one of the simplest methods used. Despite its simplicity, the organic solvent that has been used to dilute DPPH is easily evaporated and degraded with respect to light exposure and time. Thus, it needs to be used at the earliest convenient time prior to the experiment. To overcome this issue, a rapid and close system for antioxidant activity is required. In this paper, we introduced the Lab-on-a-Disc (LoD) method that integrates the DPPH antioxidant activity test on a microfluidic compact disc (CD).We used ascorbic acid, quercetin, Areca catechu, Polygonum minus, and Syzygium polyanthum plant extracts to compare the results of our proposed LoD method with the conventional method. Contrasted to the ...
Fuel stabilizers (antioxidants and metal deactivators)[edit]. Substituted phenols and derivatives of phenylenediamine are ... This degradation can be prevented through the addition of 5-100 ppm of antioxidants, such as phenylenediamines and other amines ...
The most common antioxidant additives are ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and ascorbates.[9] Thus, antioxidants are commonly added to ... Antioxidants[edit]. The free radical pathway for the first phase of the oxidative rancidification of fats. This process is ... Smoking entails exposing food to a variety of phenols, which are antioxidants. Natural preservatives include rosemary and ... oils, cheese, and chips.[2] Other antioxidants include the phenol derivatives BHA, BHT, TBHQ and propyl gallate. These agents ...
Examples of bioactive antioxidant compounds[edit]. Antioxidants are classified into two broad divisions, depending on whether ... Antioxidants that are reducing agents can also act as pro-oxidants. For example, vitamin C has antioxidant activity when it ... Antioxidant vitamins Foods containing high levels of antioxidant vitamins[36][189][190] ... As with antioxidant metabolites, the contributions of these enzymes to antioxidant defenses can be hard to separate from one ...
Due to the ability of thiols to undergo redox reactions, cysteine has antioxidant properties. Its antioxidant properties are ...
Category:Food antioxidants[edit]. Hi there -- I just removed Category:Food antioxidants from Category:Nutrients. You didn't ... really mean to put it there, did you? It caught my eye because of Category:Dietary antioxidants -- which you also, properly, ...
Antioxidant effect assessment[edit]. In vitro measurements. Other tests measure the antioxidant capacity of a fraction. Some ... Wolfe, K. L.; Liu, R. H. (2007). "Cellular Antioxidant Activity (CAA) Assay for Assessing Antioxidants, Foods, and Dietary ... Studies on evaluating antioxidant capacity can used electrochemical methods.[32] Detection can be made by recombinant ... Larvae of the model animal Galleria mellonella, also called waxworms, can be used to test the antioxidant effect of individual ...
Antioxidant[edit]. Melatonin was first reported as a potent antioxidant and free radical scavenger in 1993.[39] In vitro, ... the overall antioxidant capacity of melatonin is believed to be greater than that of other well‐known antioxidants, such as ... melatonin works with other antioxidants to improve the overall effectiveness of each antioxidant.[41] Melatonin has been proven ... The discovery that melatonin is an antioxidant was made in 1993.[80] The first patent for its use as a low-dose sleep aid was ...
Antioxidant activity[edit]. Honokiol has also been proposed as an antioxidant. The compound protects against lipid peroxidation ... "Antioxidants & Redox Signaling. 11 (5): 1139-48. doi:10.1089/ars.2009.2440. PMC 2842137. PMID 19203212.. ... It has been shown to have antitumorigenic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects as well.[1][8][9] ... "Effect of natural exogenous antioxidants on aging and on neurodegenerative diseases". Free Radical Research. 47 (6-7): 451-62. ...
Antioxidants *It has been theorized that free radicals contribute to the onset of type-1 diabetes in infants and young children ... "Intake of antioxidant vitamins and trace elements during pregnancy and risk of advanced beta cell autoimmunity in the child". ... and estimated antioxidant intake on this basis, rather than by exact measurements or use of supplements. ... and therefore that the risk could be reduced by high intake of antioxidant substances during pregnancy. However, a study ...
... is the N-acetyl derivative of the amino acid L-cysteine, and is a precursor in the formation of the antioxidant ... While many antioxidants have been researched to treat a large number of diseases by reducing the negative effect of oxidative ... Acetylcysteine serves as a prodrug to L-cysteine, a precursor to the biologic antioxidant glutathione. Hence administration of ... Dodd S, Dean O, Copolov DL, Malhi GS, Berk M (December 2008). "N-acetylcysteine for antioxidant therapy: pharmacology and ...
The redox functions of CoQ in cellular energy production and antioxidant protection are based on the ability to exchange two ... Shindo, Y.; Witt, E.; Han, D.; Epstein, W.; Packer, L. (1994). "Enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants in epidermis and dermis of ... electrons in a redox cycle between ubiquinol (reduced CoQ) and ubiquinone (oxidized CoQ).[60][61] The antioxidant role of the ... and as a free-radical-scavenging antioxidant. ...
... has been found to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties in vitro. Similar to classical non-steroidal ... Naturally Occurring Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory and Anti-oxidant Agent Derived from Extra Virgin Olive Oils". Organic ...
Food antioxidants. *6-Hydroxymelatonin. *Acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR). *Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) ...
Antioxidants:. Three vitamins, ascorbic acid; α-tocopherol; and β-carotene, are well recognized for their antioxidant ... Rahimi R, Nikfar S, Larijani B, Abdollahi M (2005). "A review on the role of antioxidants in the management of diabetes and its ... Antioxidants may have beneficial effects on diabetic complications by reducing blood pressure, attenuating oxidative stress and ... Free radical-scavenging ability of antioxidants may reduce the oxidative stress and thus may protect against oxidative damage.[ ...
An antioxidant is a molecule stable enough to donate an electron to a free radical and neutralize it, thus reducing its ... These antioxidants delay or inhibit cellular damage mainly through their free radical scavenging property, as they can safely ... There are two principal mechanisms of action of antioxidants: *The first is a chain-breaking mechanism by which the primary ... In biological systems, antioxidants exert their effect by different mechanisms including electron donation, metal ion chelation ...
... as an antioxidant and also regenerator of other antioxidants.[134] Plants use multiple pathways to synthesize vitamin C. The ... "Antioxidants & Redox Signaling. 19 (17): 2141-56. doi:10.1089/ars.2013.5372. PMC 3869468. PMID 23621620.. ... The thinking is that inhalation of smoke causes oxidative damage, depleting this antioxidant vitamin.[3][61] The U.S. Institute ... "In Vandamme EJ, Revuelta JI (eds.). Industrial Biotechnology of Vitamins, Biopigments, and Antioxidants. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH ...
Food antioxidants. *Double salts. *E-number additives. Hidden categories: *Articles without EBI source ...
Despite the similarity in name, sodium lactate is not chemically similar to lactose (milk sugar), so need not be restricted by those with lactose intolerance.[4][10] In general, lactates such as sodium, calcium, and potassium lactate are salts derived from the neutralization of lactic acid and most commercially used lactic acids are fermented from dairy-free products such as cornstarch, potatoes, or molasses.[11] Sugar or tapioca additionally may be used. In some rare instances, some lactic acid is fermented from dairy products such as whey[4] and lactose.[11] Whey is made of up 6.5% solids of which 4.8% is solid lactose.[12] Waste whey is infrequently used to produce lactic acid when the whey itself is produced as waste during the manufacture of certain dairy products.[13] Such dairy-type lactic acid generally goes back into dairy products, such as ice cream and cream cheese,[11] rather than into nondairy products. Moreover, although the lactic-acid starter culture to ferment corn or beets may ...
... is a compound with formula NH4(C2H4(OH)COO). It is the ammonium salt of lactic acid. It has mild anti-bacterial properties. It has E number "E328" and is the active ingredient of the skin lotions Amlactin and Lac-Hydrin.[1] Ammonium lactate is the chemical combination of lactic acid and ammonium hydroxide. It is used as a skin moisturizer lotion to treat dry, scaly, itchy skin. Those who are using it should avoid exposure to sunlight or artificial UV rays, such as sunlamps or tanning beds. Ammonium lactate makes skin more sensitive to sunlight. Skin is more likely to sunburn. Use sunblock and wear clothes when exposed to sunlight.[1] ...
InChI=1S/C28H48O2/c1-20(2)11-8-12-21(3)13-9-14-22(4)15-10-17-28(7)18-16-25-19-26(29)23(5)24(6)27(25)30-28/h19-22,29H,8-18H2,1-7H3/t21-,22-,28-/m1/s1 ...
... is a compound with formula NH4(C2H4O(COO)2). It is the ammonium salt of malic acid. It is used as a food additive and has the E number E349. There is a recommendation to avoid this food additive.[1] ...
... exists in greater than trace amounts in a variety of fruits and vegetables, most notably citrus fruits. Lemons and limes have particularly high concentrations of the acid; it can constitute as much as 8% of the dry weight of these fruits (about 47 g/l in the juices[9]).[a] The concentrations of citric acid in citrus fruits range from 0.005 mol/L for oranges and grapefruits to 0.30 mol/L in lemons and limes; these values vary within species depending upon the cultivar and the circumstances in which the fruit was grown. Industrial-scale citric acid production first began in 1890 based on the Italian citrus fruit industry, where the juice was treated with hydrated lime (calcium hydroxide) to precipitate calcium citrate, which was isolated and converted back to the acid using diluted sulfuric acid.[10] In 1893, C. Wehmer discovered Penicillium mold could produce citric acid from sugar. However, microbial production of citric acid did not become industrially important until World War I ...
... it is also used as an antioxidant food additive (E number E304). It is approved for use as a food additive in the EU,[1] the U. ...
... as an antioxidant and also regenerator of other antioxidants.[136] Plants use multiple pathways to synthesize vitamin C. The ... "Antioxidants & Redox Signaling. 19 (17): 2141-56. doi:10.1089/ars.2013.5372. PMC 3869468. PMID 23621620.. ... The thinking is that inhalation of smoke causes oxidative damage, depleting this antioxidant vitamin.[9][60] The U.S. Institute ... Industrial Biotechnology of Vitamins, Biopigments, and Antioxidants. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. p. 161. ISBN ...
... was at one time extensively used in formulations for a variety of consumer-grade soaps and detergents, and the most common use for trisodium phosphate has been in cleaning agents. The pH of a 1% solution is 12 (i.e., very basic), and the solution is sufficiently alkaline to saponify grease and oils. In combination with surfactants, TSP is an excellent agent for cleaning everything from laundry to concrete driveways. This versatility and low manufacturing price made TSP the basis for a plethora of cleaning products sold in the mid-20th century. TSP is still sold and used as a cleaning agent, but since the late 1960s, its use has diminished in the United States and many other parts of the world because, like many phosphate-based cleaners, it is known to cause extensive eutrophication of lakes and rivers once it enters a water system.[8] Substitutes are generally not as effective.[9] TSP is commonly used after cleaning a surface with mineral spirits to remove hydrocarbon ...
Fluoroapatite is an alternative feedstock, in which case fluoride is removed as the insoluble compound Na2SiF6. The phosphoric acid solution usually contains 23-33% P2O5 (32-46% H3PO4). It may be concentrated to produce commercial- or merchant-grade phosphoric acid, which contains about 54-62% P2O5 (75-85% H3PO4). Further removal of water yields superphosphoric acid with a P2O5 concentration above 70% (corresponding to nearly 100% H3PO4). Calcium sulfate (gypsum) is produced as a by-product and is removed as phosphogypsum. To produce food-grade phosphoric acid, phosphate ore is first reduced with coke in an electric arc furnace, to make elemental phosphorus. Silica is also added, resulting in the production of calcium silicate slag. Elemental phosphorus is distilled out of the furnace and burned with air to produce high-purity phosphorus pentoxide, which is dissolved in water to make phosphoric acid. The phosphoric acid from both processes may be further purified by removing compounds of arsenic ...
Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. Meeting, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nation. (2006). Compendium of Food Additive Specifications. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. pp. 49-50. ISBN 92-5-105559-9 ...
Market Study: Antioxidants». Ceresana Research]. *↑ «Why use Antioxidants?». SpecialChem Adhesives. Consultado em 27 de ... Duarte TL, Lunec J (2005). «Review: When is an antioxidant not an antioxidant? A review of novel actions and reactions of ... Vertuani, Silvia; Angusti, Angela; Manfredini, Stefano (2004). «The Antioxidants and Pro-Antioxidants Network: An Overview». ... Khan MA, Tania M, Zhang D, Chen H (2010). «Antioxidant enzymes and cancer». Chin J Cancer Res. 22 (2): 87-92. doi:10.1007/ ...
"Antioxidants & Redox Signaling. 17 (5): 775-785. doi:10.1089/ars.2011.4396.. *^ Russell RC, Tian Y, Yuan H, Park HW, Chang YY, ...
"Antioxidants & Redox Signaling. 14 (2): 275-287. doi:10.1089/ars.2010.3253. PMC 3014770. PMID 20518700.. ...
Global Antioxidants market was valued at USD 2123.4 million in 2013, growing at a CAGR of 5.6% from 2014 to 2020 to account for ... Global Antioxidants Market: Snapshot An antioxidant is useful in increasing the shelf life of food products by preventing their ... Global Antioxidants Market: Overview With the increasing meat consumption worldwide, the demand for antioxidants is expected to ... Synthetic Antioxidants Outsell their Natural Counterparts due to Easy Availability. Antioxidants can be broadly segmented into ...
Antioxidant activity. The DPPH scavenging activity of the methanolic extract of clove buds is summarized in Figure 2. It was ... Anti-Tumor, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial and the Phenolic Constituents of Clove Flower Buds (Syzygium aromaticum) Abd El Azim ... Phenolic; Anti-tumor; Antioxidant; Antimicrobial. Introduction. Main objectives of this study were to evaluate antitumor, ... Citation: Abd El Azim MHM, El-Mesallamy AMD, El-Gerby M, Awad A (2014) Anti-Tumor, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial and the ...
Antioxidants can protect cells against free radicals that can cause damage. But there is a lot of misinformation. Get the facts ... Antioxidants (Harvard School of Public Health) * Antioxidants: In Depth (National Center for Complementary and Integrative ... Antioxidants: Protecting Healthy Cells (Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics) * Antioxidants: What You Need to Know (American ... Antioxidants are man-made or natural substances that may prevent or delay some types of cell damage. Antioxidants are found in ...
The hydrogen peroxide is there because of the presence of the antioxidants - "antioxidants" is really just another way of ... We have become antioxidant devotees. But are they doing us any good? Evidence gathered over the past few years shows that at ... The best known antioxidants are vitamin E (also known by its chemical name tocopherol), vitamin C, and two broad classes of ... "Antioxidants should not be expected to perform as drugs," he insists. "Thats simply not how nutrients work. They work in ...
Examples of bioactive antioxidant compounds[edit]. Antioxidants are classified into two broad divisions, depending on whether ... Antioxidants that are reducing agents can also act as pro-oxidants. For example, vitamin C has antioxidant activity when it ... Antioxidant vitamins Foods containing high levels of antioxidant vitamins[36][189][190] ... As with antioxidant metabolites, the contributions of these enzymes to antioxidant defenses can be hard to separate from one ...
Antioxidant Supplements Worsen Lung Tumors, Study Finds. Doctors have long known that taking antioxidant supplements may ... Too many antioxidants can give you cancer, and other facts about the misunderstood molecules. And free radicals arent always ... Why Antioxidants Might Actually Make Your Cancer Worse. Supplements can do more harm than good ...
This is the reason that antioxidants are capable of inhibiting apoptosis. Antioxidants such as α-tocopherol, which partition ... Antioxidants, by preventing oxidant-mediated damage to diverse targets (DNA, RNA, proteins, and lipids), may play a protective ... KEY WORDS: * antioxidants * apoptosis * cancer therapy There is a well-documented association between increased consumption of ... It seems reasonable to suggest that the potential risks and benefits of high-dose antioxidants need to be considered on a case- ...
Antioxidants are a group of vitamins, minerals and enzymes that protect the body from the formations of free radicals by ... What Are Antioxidants?. By Edith Lingenfelter. See all Articles by Edith LingenfelterGet Updates on Dietary SupplementsGet ... Many plants produce antioxidants as part of their natural protective mechanism. Therefore, a diet rich in plant food is likely ... Antioxidants are a group of vitamins, minerals and enzymes that protect the body from the formations of free radicals by ...
Antioxidant Rich Foods - List of Antioxidants in Food. Antioxidant-rich foods in the diet are a must for those who want to lead ... List of Antioxidants. All are aware that antioxidants are beneficial for the body. This article provides a list of antioxidants ... Best Antioxidant Supplements. Antioxidant supplements are known for their anti-aging effects. Which is the best antioxidant ... Antioxidant Supplements. Antioxidant supplements are formulated with an aim to provide the body with useful antioxidant ...
Antioxidants, and Diseases gives an idea of detecting free radicals in vivo by newer techniques and provides insights into the ... roles played by various antioxidants in combating diseases caused by oxidative stress. The chapters included in this volume ... adducts administered DMPO alkaline phosphatase anti-DMPO probe antimicrobial antioxidant antioxidant activity antioxidant ... The current book entitled Free Radicals, Antioxidants, and Diseases gives an idea of detecting free radicals in vivo by newer ...
... the best way to get the full gamut of antioxidants in your diet is to eat a variety of fruits and vegetables every day.SOURCE: ... were also related to a lower risk of cartilage defects in the knee.Antioxidants protect cells throughout the body from ... People who have plenty of foods with antioxidants in their diets may be protecting themselves from bone changes associated with ... Antioxidants protect cells throughout the body from accumulating oxidative damage, which has been shown to play a role in ...
Instead of consuming large quantities of non-specific antioxidants, we need to use antioxidants in a very targeted, context- ... On the other hand, the antioxidant scavenger that soaks up oxidants being produced did not permit regeneration while it was ... Indiscriminate use of antioxidants can actually impair these important endogenous signals. ... "oxidants are bad guys and antioxidants are good guys" myth. Oxidants can be harmful in some contexts, but they can also serve ...
Some key antioxidants include vitamins E and C, carotenoids, flavonoids, alpha lipoic acid, and CoQ10. Antioxidants are a true ... Technical Appendix B: How Antioxidants Work. Antioxidants are stable molecules with electrons to spare; they also have the ... Antioxidants work together to fight free radicals directly or to regenerate and support other antioxidants; in other words, ... The core of the antioxidant network includes powerful antioxidants such as CoQ10 and vitamins C and E. In addition to their ...
Are Antioxidants deadly?. by Dr. Larry G. Martin 3 years ago. Are Antioxidants deadly?In the news concerns are being discussed ... Anti-oxidants are very important. I try to eat some anti-oxidant rich foods daily. Unfortunately, even if one can eat a lot of ... The presence of antioxidants in your body is one of the pillars of a good heart health. Vitamin C is a good anti oxidant. ... I love my antioxidants. Wouldnt go without them.. Heres a link from my blog to an article on antioxidants:. ,snipped - do not ...
Clinical question Are antioxidants associated with a decreased risk of Alzheimers disease? ... Antioxidants dont prevent dementia. BMJ 2003; 326 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.326.7400.0-f (Published 29 May 2003) Cite ...
... has higher levels of healthy antioxidants than some fruits and vegetables, according to new research. ... They evaluated antioxidants known as polyphenols. These compounds are found in a wide variety of plants. Antioxidants undo the ... Antioxidants in Popcorn: Study Details. The study is a good first step, but it wasnt designed to measure health benefits, says ... Antioxidants in Popcorn: Study Details. Vinson and Michael Coco, Jr., a chemistry student at the university, analyzed four ...
Topical antioxidants are available through over-the-counter skin care products that are aimed at preventing the clinical signs ... Antioxidants can provide protection from endogenous and exogenous oxidative stresses by scavenging free radicals. ... This article will discuss antioxidants that are currently marketed in cosmetic formulations and will focus on their antioxidant ... Many antioxidants have been used for centuries in ancient and modern cultures around the world for various diseases.[7] In ...
Topical antioxidants are available through over-the-counter skin care products that are aimed at preventing the clinical signs ... Antioxidants can provide protection from endogenous and exogenous oxidative stresses by scavenging free radicals. ... Vitamin E (tocopherol) is a lipid-soluble antioxidant that is present in the skin and found in various foods, such as ... Newer studies suggest that the combined application of various antioxidants can increase their potency when compared with 1 ...
Oxidative stress research has largely focused on the role and effects of antioxidants in protecting these molecules from damage ... Current antioxidant treatment. Several antioxidants are currently used to treat diseases.. For example, antioxidants may be ... Antioxidant source. Most antioxidants are obtained from diet but they can also be taken as supplements in the form of capsules ... Antioxidants in disease prevention. Antioxidants may be used in disease prevention but the extent of their benefits is not ...
anti-oxidants. * Aging, cryonics, and the quest for immortality May 8, 2013 at 10:36 am There are a few themes that have dogged ...
What it is: An illuminating antioxidant eye cream that delivers all-day hydration for a youthful, dewy glow.. Skin Type: Normal ... Shopping ideas related to Anti Aging Antioxidants. eye serums. "I liked this product a lot." ... Noni, an exotic antioxidant-rich fruit sourced from Okinawa, Japan, helps the body maintain and increase its natural moisture ... Antioxidant-rich grapeseed polyphenols and jojoba help to protect the skin, as soothing cucumber fruit extract helps to revive ...
Dietary antioxidants can offer a degree of protection but quite how much is yet to be determined. It seems that various ... I say mild, but have seen estimates that these antioxidant substances can reduce sunburn by 20 per cent. However, this seems ... This has a bearing as hoping for safer sun exposure this summer by increasing antioxidant rich foods isnt viable. ... pointed out that any dietary antioxidants would take several weeks to express themselves in the skin given the natural turnover ...
... the benefits of antioxidants may not be related to antioxidant activity. Last weeks NutraIngredients Antioxidants Conference ... Antioxidants may hamper cancer therapies 22-Sep-2005. By Staff Reporter Antioxidants are widely believed to help reduce the ... Body drinks up coffee antioxidants 07-Apr-2004. Coffee contains similar levels of antioxidants to black tea and can be just as ... in its Coffee Antioxidant Enhancement Technology, a proprietary process that increases the quantity of natural antioxidants ...
Quercetin is well known for its antioxidant properties and ability to maintain a healthy immune system. Now a new human study ... As people age, the bodys antioxidant defense system becomes weaker and more susceptible to oxidative stress. Although ...
Indena: botanical ingredients for the Health Food industry , 11-Feb-2020 , Technical / White Paper Meriva® - curcumin Phytosome offers the complete power of all 3 major curcuminoids and its optimized bioabsorpion thanks to Phytosome Indenas delivery... ...
Find out more about what antioxidants can do for your health. ... Nutrition and Healthy Eating: All About Antioxidants. Sources: ... FamilyDoctor.org: "Antioxidants: What You Need to Know.". * Pharmacognosy Review: "Free radicals, antioxidants and functional ... Harvard School of Public Health: "Antioxidants: Beyond the Hype.". * RSC Advances: "Free radicals, natural antioxidants, and ... What Are Antioxidants?. Theyre chemicals that fight a process in your cells called oxidation. The main source is plant-based ...
Flavonoids, like other antioxidants, do their work in the body by corralling cell-damaging free radicals and metallic ions. But ... Flavonoids: Antioxidants Help the Mind Naturally occurring plant pigments, flavonoids are one of the reasons. fruits and ... ECGC is as much as 100 times more powerful an antioxidant as vitamin C, and 25 times more powerful than vitamin E. ECGC also ... You probably know about the powerful antioxidant properties of vitamins C, and E, and beta carotene. But theres another group ...
... future research should address the effects of anti-oxidant supplementation on breast cancer outcomes, including whether anti- ... Given the common use of anti-oxidant supplements during breast cancer treatment, often at high doses and in conjunction with ... Many women with breast cancer take anti-oxidants while undergoing cancer treatment, even though the consequences are unknown, U ... Greenlees study is based on 764 patients who completed a follow-up interview and provided information on anti-oxidant ...
Antioxidants for children with kwashiorkor. BMJ 2005; 330 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.330.7500.1095 (Published 12 May 2005 ...
... * Green Tea Benefits Antioxidants to the Rescue! @habitsguy ... 1 Acts as an Antioxidant. * 1 A daily cup helps to remove free radicals and slightly decreases the chance of getting diseases ... 4 The antioxidant "catechin" found in green teas has been shown to destroy bacteria found in the teeth. Healthy Teeth ...
  • High-dose supplements of antioxidants may be linked to health risks in some cases. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Antioxidant supplements may also interact with some medicines. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Evidence gathered over the past few years shows that at best, antioxidant supplements do little or nothing to benefit our health. (caltech.edu)
  • It's little surprise that antioxidants have acquired a reputation as miracle health supplements. (caltech.edu)
  • Putting two and two together, scientists assumed that these antioxidants were protective, and that taking them as supplements or in fortified foods should decrease oxidative damage and diminish disease," says Halliwell, who pioneered research into free radicals and disease. (caltech.edu)
  • Most supplements touted as antioxidants contain at least one of these, often as a pure chemical and sometimes as a concentrated plant extract. (caltech.edu)
  • Importantly, antioxidant dietary supplements have not yet been shown to improve health in humans, or to be effective at preventing disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although certain levels of antioxidant vitamins in the diet are required for good health, there is still considerable debate on whether antioxidant-rich foods or supplements have anti-disease activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Doctors have long known that taking antioxidant supplements may actually increase the risk for cancer in some people. (popsci.com)
  • A leading researcher at the University of New South Wales (UNSW) points out that there is little convincing evidence that dietary antioxidant supplements such as vitamin E prevent heart disease, despite claims to the contrary. (redorbit.com)
  • There has been a lot of hype which suggested that antioxidant vitamin supplements had a beneficial outcome for cardiovascular disease. (redorbit.com)
  • For these reasons, antioxidant supplements are often recommended as part of a cancer prevention diet (7,8). (redorbit.com)
  • Antioxidant supplements are known for their anti-aging effects. (buzzle.com)
  • Just as health and nutrition experts recommend a high intake of antioxidants from a variety of fruits and vegetables and nutritional supplements, skin care experts are now recognizing the anti-aging benefits of topically applied antioxidants. (nuskin.com)
  • Eat approx 4-5 servings of veggies and fruits on a daily basis and take multivitamin and omega (not an antioxidant, but good for mental capacity++) supplements. (hubpages.com)
  • Most antioxidants are obtained from diet but they can also be taken as supplements in the form of capsules or tablets. (news-medical.net)
  • Antioxidant supplements slowed progress a little for some people in late stages of this eye disease. (medicinenet.com)
  • Even conventional Western physicians now acknowledge the significance of getting sufficient antioxidants from your diet or taking high-quality antioxidant supplements. (mercola.com)
  • Aug. 20, 2007 -- French scientists have shown that taking antioxidant supplements, which include vitamins C and E and beta carotene, may increase a woman's risk of skin cancer by 68 percent. (go.com)
  • The risk of melanoma, the most serious form of skin cancer, was four times greater for women taking the antioxidant supplements. (go.com)
  • I tell my breast cancer patients not to take vitamin supplements or antioxidants during radiation,' says Weiss, who was not involved in the new study. (cnn.com)
  • Excitement around antioxidants has diminished, replaced by polarised views and misconceptions that have started to impede industry use of the ingredient in supplements and drugs, scientists suggest. (nutraingredients.com)
  • It is true that 'erroneous statements don't get corrected' but this applies to supplements in general, not just to antioxidants. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Some people choose to take antioxidant supplements. (familydoctor.org)
  • Should I take antioxidant supplements if I'm a smoker? (familydoctor.org)
  • Should I take antioxidant supplements if I already have cancer? (familydoctor.org)
  • Reuters Health) - - Consuming lots of antioxidants through foods or supplements may not reduce muscle soreness after exercise, a research review suggests. (reuters.com)
  • Across all of these studies, researchers didn't find a meaningful connection between antioxidants in foods or supplements and the amount of muscle soreness at 6, 24, 48, 72, or 96 hours after workouts. (reuters.com)
  • Antioxidant supplements are often marketed in health food stores as a workout recovery aid. (reuters.com)
  • There are several limitations in the current analysis, including the wide variety of exercise types and intensities as well as the range of different types of antioxidant exposure from foods and supplements, the authors note. (reuters.com)
  • Still, the results suggest that it doesn't make sense for athletes to spend lots of money on antioxidant supplements to help with recovery from strenuous exercise, said Troy Merry, a nutrition researcher at the University of Auckland in New Zealand who wasn't involved in the study. (reuters.com)
  • This mostly applies to people who take antioxidant supplements. (care2.com)
  • Research shows that high doses of antioxidant supplements, such as beta-carotene and vitamin E, may increase the risk of lung cancer. (care2.com)
  • Myth #5: You have to take antioxidant supplements. (care2.com)
  • Many people spend their hard-earned cash on antioxidant supplements that have little to no effect on their health. (care2.com)
  • In fact, one study found that antioxidant supplements may actually cause cancer to spread more quickly. (care2.com)
  • However, intervention trials using standard antioxidant supplements or diets have failed to produce uniform therapeutic effect. (nih.gov)
  • CHICAGO (Reuters) - Beta carotene and vitamins A and E, antioxidant supplements taken by millions to fight disease, may actually raise the risk of death, a review of 68 studies on nearly a quarter-million people said on Tuesday. (reuters.com)
  • Tuesday's report related only to synthetic supplements and not to fruits and vegetables in everyday diets which are natural and contain less concentrated levels of antioxidants, said the study from the Center for Clinical Intervention Research at Denmark's Copenhagen University Hospital. (reuters.com)
  • Beta carotene, vitamin A, and vitamin E given singly or combined with other antioxidant supplements significantly increase mortality," the study found. (reuters.com)
  • We did not find convincing evidence that antioxidant supplements have beneficial effects on mortality," concluded the study. (reuters.com)
  • Some dietary antioxidants are also available as dietary supplements ( 1 , 3 ). (cancer.gov)
  • Can antioxidant supplements help prevent cancer? (cancer.gov)
  • Therefore, researchers have investigated whether taking dietary antioxidant supplements can help lower the risk of developing or dying from cancer in humans. (cancer.gov)
  • Many observational studies , including case-control studies and cohort studies , have been conducted to investigate whether the use of dietary antioxidant supplements is associated with reduced risks of cancer in humans. (cancer.gov)
  • To date, nine randomized controlled trials of dietary antioxidant supplements for cancer prevention have been conducted worldwide. (cancer.gov)
  • Explain to interested patients that neither dietary antioxidants nor supplements appeared to prevent the onset of age-related macular degeneration, although a diet high in fruits and vegetables has many other health benefits. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Randomized controlled trials and observational studies have focused on the role of antioxidants and supplements in the secondary prevention of progression to late disease, but the evidence of dietary antioxidants as a primary preventive measure remains unclear, the researchers wrote. (medpagetoday.com)
  • In addition, antioxidant supplements were analyzed in three randomized controlled clinical trials (including one abstract). (medpagetoday.com)
  • There is insufficient evidence to support the role of dietary antioxidants, including the use of antioxidant supplements, for the primary prevention of early age-related macular degeneration," the researchers said. (medpagetoday.com)
  • There seems to be a lot of confusion around antioxidant benefits, antioxidant rich foods and antioxidant supplements. (bellaonline.com)
  • Antioxidant supplements are equally problematic. (bellaonline.com)
  • The most commonly used ingredients in the most aggressively marketed phytonutrient antioxidant supplements are pine bark (pycnogenol), sea algae, milk thistle, gingo biloba, quercetin, grape seed extract and alpha lipoic acid. (bellaonline.com)
  • They may be marketed as a way to protect yourself against disease, but antioxidant supplements are increasingly thought of as more foe than friend. (newscientist.com)
  • Some studies looked at antioxidant supplements taken before exercise, some after. (nytimes.com)
  • But the evidence for antioxidant supplements is pretty poor. (nytimes.com)
  • Nowadays, most people know about antioxidants because of their presence in different foods, supplements and even skincare products. (mercola.com)
  • There are numerous antioxidants known today, and these can naturally occur in the body or be found in whole and organic foods or high-quality antioxidant supplements. (mercola.com)
  • Should You Give Antioxidant Supplements a Try? (mercola.com)
  • However, some people may need to take antioxidant supplements, especially if they miss out on essential nutrients. (mercola.com)
  • Some vitamins are antioxidants, such as vitamins C and E. Some minerals are antioxidants, such as selenium and manganese, and there are plant compounds that act as antioxidants such as beta carotene and lycopene, terms you may have heard before or seen in ads for vitamin supplements. (theatlantic.com)
  • Most double-blind randomized clinical trials - the gold standard of medical evidence - have found that antioxidant supplements do not prevent disease, she said. (yahoo.com)
  • According to the National Institutes of Health, high doses of beta-carotene may increase the risk of lung cancer in smokers, high doses of vitamin E may increase risks of prostate cancer and one type of stroke, and antioxidant supplements may also interact with some medicines. (yahoo.com)
  • Antioxidant supplements should not be used to replace a nutritionally adequate diet," she added. (yahoo.com)
  • Now, in a provocative study that raises unsettling questions about the widespread use of vitamin supplements, Swedish researchers have showed that moderate doses of two widely used antioxidants spur the growth of early lung tumors in mice. (slashdot.org)
  • Could the antioxidants in vitamin supplements cause cancer? (doctoroz.com)
  • Dietary supplements marketed as antioxidants have not been shown to improve health or prevent disease in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Common pharmaceuticals (and supplements) with antioxidant properties may interfere with the efficacy of certain anticancer medication and radiation therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • These two publications are consistent with some previous meta-analyses that also suggested that vitamin E supplementation increased mortality, and that antioxidant supplements increased the risk of colon cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Overall, the large number of clinical trials carried out on antioxidant supplements suggest that either these products have no effect on health, or that they cause a small increase in mortality in elderly or vulnerable populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antioxidants are a group of vitamins, minerals and enzymes that protect the body from the formations of free radicals by neutralizing them before they can travel freely through the body wreaking havoc. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Several essential vitamins and minerals have strong antioxidant properties. (selfgrowth.com)
  • In general, foods are considered a better source of antioxidant vitamins and minerals than pills. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Some skin care products offer antioxidant benefits directly to the skin by including antioxidant-rich vitamins and extracts in their formulations. (nuskin.com)
  • Apart from vitamins such as vitamins E and C, examples of other antioxidants include minerals, resveratrol, beta carotene (a precursor form of vitamin A), selenium, green tea and jiaogulan. (news-medical.net)
  • You probably know about the powerful antioxidant properties of vitamins C, and E, and beta carotene. (psychologytoday.com)
  • US scientists found that in some cases the memory skills of patients participating in the four-month study who were taking antioxidants actually declined faster than those who took placebo pills that contained no vitamins. (ageuk.org.uk)
  • The researchers looked at about 13,000 French adults, ages 35 to 60, half of whom took an oral daily capsule of antioxidant that contained vitamins C, E, beta carotene and selenium. (go.com)
  • Now a new study shows that many breast cancer patients take powerful antioxidant vitamins during radiation or chemotherapy--despite evidence suggesting that antioxidants may be more harmful than helpful during such treatments. (cnn.com)
  • It is possible that if you are taking concentrated high-grade antioxidant vitamins in significant doses, it may interfere with your treatment,' says Dr. Marisa Weiss, the president and founder of advocacy group Breastcancer.org and the author of several books, including 'Taking Care of Your Girls: A Breast Health Guide for Girls, Teens, and In-Betweens. (cnn.com)
  • The jury is still out on how--or even if--antioxidant vitamins can affect breast cancer patients, but in the study, 60.5 percent of women with breast cancer reported taking antioxidants, including vitamin E, vitamin C, beta carotene, and selenium, during their treatment. (cnn.com)
  • For example, many fruits and vegetables are known to be good sources of antioxidant vitamins, such as E, C, and beta carotene, a form of vitamin A. But these natural foods also contain other compounds, collectively known as phytonutrients, that may contribute to health. (usda.gov)
  • In March 2012, scientists from the University of California, San Diego, said they found no link between the antioxidant combo of vitamins E, C, and α-lipoic acid (E/C/ALA) and changes in cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers associated with Alzheimer's disease . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • It appears (human) livers don't like antioxidants other than Vitamins E and C. (scienceblogs.com)
  • A dual-phased serum that delivers a potent daily dose of vitamins, antioxidants, and nutrients to moisturize, protect, and visibly brighten the complexion. (sephora.com)
  • Vitamin E infused bubbles burst to combine with essential vitamins and antioxidant-rich complex for an instant glow. (sephora.com)
  • NUTRILITE ROC2O helps protect cells inside and out by providing an antioxidant blend of vitamins and Red Orange Complex (ROC), which has been shown in clinical studies to combat increased free radical damage brought on by physical activity, environmental factors, and daily diets high in trans fat, corn oil, red meat, and other fatty foods. (prweb.com)
  • Nu Skin's skin care products can offer antioxidant benefits directly to the skin with antioxidant-rich vitamins and extracts in our formulations. (nuskin.com)
  • Both vitamins are antioxidants. (healthcentral.com)
  • But instead of assuming that it was the antioxidants that lowered risk of these conditions, the Harvard team dug deeper and found that the source of food for these vitamins could be what makes the difference. (healthcentral.com)
  • Tea and coffee contain antioxidants, but not vitamins E or C. So getting your antioxidants from tea or coffee, the study suggests, may not be that helpful. (healthcentral.com)
  • MELBOURNE, Australia, Oct. 9 -- A diet rich in antioxidant vitamins and minerals (vitamins A, C, and E, various carotenoids, and zinc) did nothing to prevent age-related macular degeneration, according to a large review and meta-analysis. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The main anti-aging antioxidants found in antioxidant rich foods include vitamins A, C and E, the minerals selenium and zinc and the complete family of carotenoid phytonutrient. (bellaonline.com)
  • Antioxidants are chemicals such as beta-carotene and vitamins C and E, which mop up destructive free radicals produced when our cells metabolise energy. (newscientist.com)
  • The type of antioxidant studied varied - cherry juice, pomegranate juice, vitamins C and E, black tea extract and others in various doses. (nytimes.com)
  • Common antioxidants include Vitamins A, C and E as well as substances like beta-carotene and lycopene, which is why it's suggested to consume antioxidant-rich foods and use skincare that includes these ingredients. (newbeauty.com)
  • Berries are a fantastic source of vitamins, antioxidants and fibre. (yahoo.com)
  • Antioxidants, including vitamins A, C and E, are plentiful in vegetables and fruits and may help protect against cell or DNA damage - as a result, they've been touted for cancer prevention, heart disease prevention and warding off dementia. (yahoo.com)
  • The magnitude of risk reduction varied by the quantity and types of antioxidants but reached a maximum of 67% in people who had the greatest intake of vitamins C and E and selenium. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The current evidence from etiological epidemiological work is minimal and inconsistent, although our work using an accurate method of dietary assessment and other studies using biomarkers of antioxidants suggest that vitamins C and E and selenium may be protective," the authors wrote in conclusion. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Studies conducted in Canada, Spain and Britain have investigated the effects of supplementing with antioxidants (particularly vitamins A, C, and E, as well as some minerals) on the immune function of the elderly. (healthy.net)
  • Many people take vitamins such as A, E, and C thinking that their antioxidant properties will ward off cancer. (slashdot.org)
  • The only dietary antioxidants are vitamins A, C, and E. The term antioxidant is also used for industrial chemicals added during manufacturing to prevent oxidation in synthetic rubber, plastics, and fuels, or as preservatives in food and cosmetics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Having foods rich in antioxidants is a sure-shot way to improve your health. (buzzle.com)
  • Previous research had suggested that older adults who have a diet rich in antioxidants are less vulnerable to Alzheimer's. (ageuk.org.uk)
  • Foods rich in antioxidants include a variety of berries like blueberries, cranberries, goji berries and elderberries as well as dark chocolate, pecans, artichokes and kidney beans. (reuters.com)
  • We all thought that if we ate heaps of foods rich in antioxidants, our risk of developing serious diseases would be reduced. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In a new study, researchers at The University of Copenhagen surprisingly discovered that eating a diet rich in antioxidants may actually counteract many of the health benefits of exercise, including reduced blood pressure and cholesterol. (psychcentral.com)
  • This serum contains four superfruit extracts rich in antioxidants that are known for their anti-aging and free radical fighting properties. (sephora.com)
  • Have you ever wondered what it means when something is "rich in antioxidants? (nuskin.com)
  • There is no suggestion people concerned about cancer should limit their intake of natural food rich in antioxidants, but there have been suggestions they should swallow less of the advertising promoting high dose supplementation. (afr.com)
  • Some natural antioxidants, namely vitamin C, vitamin E, and carotenoids aid in bringing down the risk of cancer and heart disease by preventing the formation of free radicals. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • The best known antioxidants are vitamin E (also known by its chemical name tocopherol), vitamin C, and two broad classes of plant chemicals called polyphenols (including flavonoids) and carotenoids (including beta carotene and lycopene). (caltech.edu)
  • Antioxidants such as thiols or ascorbic acid (vitamin C) terminate these chain reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • To balance the oxidative state , plants and animals maintain complex systems of overlapping antioxidants, such as glutathione and enzymes (e.g., catalase and superoxide dismutase ), produced internally, or the dietary antioxidants vitamin C, and vitamin E . (wikipedia.org)
  • Inhibition of apoptosis by antioxidants may explain why, in several studies in heavy smokers, vitamin E and β-carotene enhanced carcinogenesis in the lung (33) (where, presumably, precancerous lesions caused by smoking predated antioxidant treatment) but decreased carcinogenesis in the prostate (34) (where, presumably, smoking had not caused precancerous lesions that predated antioxidant treatment). (redorbit.com)
  • For other products, their ability to improve wrinkles is either due to swelling or hydrating effects, or to other formulary constituents, such as retinol and vitamin C. Hence, antioxidants can prevent wrinkles, but not treat them. (medscape.com)
  • Vitamin E (tocopherol) is a lipid-soluble antioxidant that is present in the skin and found in various foods, such as vegetables, seeds, and meat. (medscape.com)
  • While studies show that that beta carotene, for example, has a pro-oxidative effect in the lungs of smokers, other epidemiological research has demonstrated an inverse relationship between levels of established antioxidants such as vitamin E and C and disease states such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. (news-medical.net)
  • Benefit-risk ratios must be established for each antioxidant separately, considering risk groups and dosage, according to researchers reviewing polarised perceptions of vitamin E and beta-carotene. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • ECGC is as much as 100 times more powerful an antioxidant as vitamin C, and 25 times more powerful than vitamin E. ECGC also may account for the antibacterial properties of green tea. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Halliwell B (1996) Vitamin C: antioxidant or pro-oxidant in vivo. (springer.com)
  • Taking antioxidants such as vitamin C and vitamin E on a daily basis does not improve the thinking and memory skills of people with Alzheimer's disease, new research has shown. (ageuk.org.uk)
  • Murphy and colleagues created a mixture of three antioxidants, vitamin C, glutathione and uric acid. (livescience.com)
  • Antioxidants such as phenol extracts (derived from plants including fruit and grains), vitamin C and vitamin E protect the skin from free radical damage from the sun. (selfgrowth.com)
  • A dual antioxidant serum, with a self-activating mixer, that blends ferulic acid, vitamin E, and centella asiatica to help protect and calm the look of stressed skin. (sephora.com)
  • For example, ageLOC Tru Face Essence Ultra is formulated with an antioxidant network comprised of colorless carotenoids, coenzyme Q10, vitamin C, vitamin E, and green tea (TeGreen 97). (nuskin.com)
  • They are antioxidants that decrease damaging free radicals in your body and also serve as a source of Vitamin A. Beta-carotene, alpha-carotene, betalains, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin are all types of carotenoids and each provides a unique protective effect on your body. (self.com)
  • Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid, is a water soluble vitamin as well as a powerful antioxidant. (self.com)
  • Like other antioxidants, Vitamin C protects your body from oxidative stresses. (self.com)
  • Vitamin E, also known as alpha-tocopherol, is a fat soluble vitamin as well as an antioxidant. (self.com)
  • Based on the complex nature of antioxidants and ROS, it would thus be extremely unlikely that a magic bullet with a high dose of one or a few particular antioxidants such as vitamin C, vitamin E, or β-carotene would protect all parts of the cells, organs, and tissues against oxidative damage and oxidative stress, at the same time without destroying any of the numerous normal and beneficial functions of ROS. (nih.gov)
  • Two years later, another trial involving smokers and workers who had been exposed to asbestos, was stopped prematurely because researchers realised the antioxidants, high-dose beta-carotene and retinol (vitamin A), increased their risk of developing lung cancer by 28 per cent. (afr.com)
  • Of those receiving treatment, half got vitamin E and the other half an antioxidant called N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), a drug given to reduce mucus levels in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). (newscientist.com)
  • High antioxidant natural food are including spices and herbs , breakfast cereals, grains, legumes, vitamin E from nuts and seeds, polyphenols from fresh berries, resveratrol from fruit and vitamin C or carotenoids from vegetables, and beverages. (selfgrowth.com)
  • One of the critical issues is that we don't know very much about how antioxidants act at different concentrations and how they act in humans who have, or who do not have, sufficient vitamin/antioxidant intake," Rohrmann told Reuters Health by email. (yahoo.com)
  • Vitamin C is another major antioxidant found in colorful fruits and vegetables. (sheknows.com)
  • Vitamin E is a fat-soluble antioxidant found abundantly in nuts and seeds, nut and seed oils and safflower oil as well as dark leafy greens, asparagus, avocados, broccoli, kiwi, mangoes, papaya and pumpkin. (sheknows.com)
  • Antioxidants are found in many foods, including fruits and vegetables. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Vegetables and fruits are rich sources of antioxidants. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Fruits and vegetables are a rich source of antioxidants that can neutralise free radicals by donating electrons to them. (caltech.edu)
  • To assure adequate intake of antioxidants, consume a varied diet that includes fresh or lightly processed vegetables, fruits, whole grains, legumes, and other plant products. (selfgrowth.com)
  • According to experts, the best way to get the full gamut of antioxidants in your diet is to eat a variety of fruits and vegetables every day. (reuters.com)
  • WebMD) Popcorn, already known to be a good source of fiber, has higher levels of healthy antioxidants than some fruits and vegetables , according to new research. (cbsnews.com)
  • Most fresh fruits and vegetables provide a natural source of antioxidants. (news-medical.net)
  • The debate continues this week with new findings from food scientists in the US that suggest fruits and vegetables grown organically have higher levels of antioxidants than conventionally grown. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • Vegetables and fruits have lots of antioxidants. (medicinenet.com)
  • This differed from an Italian study that found the higher total antioxidant levels were associated with a lower risk of stroke, where the variation from coffee and tea was lower, and the contribution from alcoholic beverages, fruits and vegetables was higher. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • DNI scientists investigated antioxidant capacity of fruits and vegetables and how different components of plants may influence health, revealing significant and somewhat surprising conclusions. (dole.com)
  • DNI scientists looked at a variety of fruits and vegetables in the lab and analyzed how they activate antioxidant response elements (AREs), sequences of DNA in genes that provide codes for making enzymes that help protect cells from free radical damage. (dole.com)
  • Interestingly, some fruits and vegetables measured low in total phenolics and ORAC score but high in ARE activity, suggesting traditional measurements of antioxidant capacity do not give the full picture and are unable to predict which compounds in foods are able to deter free radical damage in a different way. (dole.com)
  • The main purpose of this study was to use this pathway to compare the antioxidant potential between different fruits and vegetables, and this new method for measurement suggests surprisingly high potential for foods not generally celebrated for antioxidant power, such as pineapples, pears and plums. (dole.com)
  • Other research has shown, however, that people who get the majority of their antioxidants from fruit, vegetables and nuts, have seen their risks of stroke and dementia lowered. (healthcentral.com)
  • Plants, especially dietary fruits and vegetables, are a rich source of antioxidants. (hindawi.com)
  • Fruits, vegetables, and grains are rich sources of dietary antioxidants. (cancer.gov)
  • Thus, it has long been suggested that antioxidants found in fruits and vegetables could be useful for preventing the development and progression of the eye disorder, the researchers wrote. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Antioxidants are the naturally occurring nutrients found in certain fruits and vegetables. (bellaonline.com)
  • But the best sources for antioxidant rich foods, by far, are organically grown fresh fruits and vegetables. (bellaonline.com)
  • And while you're at it, eat more healthy antioxidant rich organic fruits and vegetables. (bellaonline.com)
  • Antioxidants are usually found in vegetables and fruits. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Rich in carotenoids, antioxidants that are derived from brightly colored vegetables, this orange tinged oil, which can be used on both the hair and skin, safeguards the skin against oxidative damage. (newbeauty.com)
  • Lycopene belongs to a family of antioxidants called the carotenoids, which give certain fruits and vegetables their distinctive colors. (eurekalert.org)
  • Bright orange, deep yellow fruits and vegetables like carrots, sweet potatoes, and apricots provide one type of antioxidant. (theatlantic.com)
  • Green vegetables, such as broccoli and cabbage, and blue or purple foods, like blueberries and eggplant, each have their own antioxidant packages. (theatlantic.com)
  • Getting more fruits and vegetables in your diet is the easiest way to increase your antioxidant consumption, but nuts, seeds, fatty fish, coffee, tea and even chocolate are also on the high-antioxidant food list. (sheknows.com)
  • Though filling your plate with fruits and vegetables is the number one way to eat more antioxidants, you can also bolster your diet with antioxidants by sipping tea, coffee and wine - all in moderation, of course. (sheknows.com)
  • Our body is protect by antioxidants from oxidative damage, and thereby reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease and several kinds of cancer. (buzzle.com)
  • Antioxidants protect cells throughout the body from accumulating oxidative damage, which has been shown to play a role in osteoarthritis. (reuters.com)
  • For example, antioxidants may be useful in treating patients after a stroke to protect the nerves and brain cells from oxidative damage and lipid peroxidation. (news-medical.net)
  • Cannabidiol and THC also were shown to prevent hydroperoxide-induced oxidative damage as well as or better than other antioxidants in a chemical (Fenton reaction) system and neuronal cultures. (pnas.org)
  • Most quinones, with coenzyme Q10 as their best known representative, are seen as very efficient radical scavengers and antioxidants, commonly acting in a way to protect the living cells from oxidative damage. (innovations-report.com)
  • An alternative and much more likely antioxidant strategy to test protection against oxidative stress and related diseases would be to test the potential beneficial effects of antioxidant-rich foods, since such foods typically contain a large combination of different antioxidants that are selected, through plant evolution, to protect every part of the plant cells against oxidative damage. (nih.gov)
  • Antioxidant benefits include protecting your cells from oxidative damage. (bellaonline.com)
  • It was suggested that the antioxidants serve to counter the oxidative damage. (doctoryourself.com)
  • Consequently, organisms contain a complex network of antioxidant metabolites and enzymes that work together to prevent oxidative damage to cellular components such as DNA, proteins and lipids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists know about more than 4,000 of these antioxidants found in fruits and veggies. (medicinenet.com)
  • Antioxidants are naturally found in many foods like citrus fruits, red wine, green tea and tomatoes, among others. (newbeauty.com)
  • Polyphenols , which often have antioxidant properties in vitro , are not necessarily antioxidants in vivo due to extensive metabolism following digestion. (wikipedia.org)
  • [14] In many polyphenols the catechol group acts as an electron acceptor and is therefore responsible for the antioxidant activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many polyphenols may have non-antioxidant roles in minute concentrations that affect cell-to-cell signaling , receptor sensitivity, inflammatory enzyme activity or gene regulation . (wikipedia.org)
  • As polyphenols are known antioxidants, side effects of polyphenols are outbalanced by their benefits. (buzzle.com)
  • They evaluated antioxidants known as polyphenols. (cbsnews.com)
  • The lesson that all "polyphenols" are not medicines and all "chemical antioxidants" are not toxins is well taken. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Traditionally, antioxidants have been measured by oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC score ), a laboratory index of the potential for a food to furnish antioxidant value in a test tube, or total phenolics content, a method which identifies specific structures of polyphenols in a food. (dole.com)
  • Researchers found that a diet rich in plant antioxidants (called polyphenols) lowered blood sugar . (medicinenet.com)
  • Dietary antioxidants also exist in various forms, with polyphenols and carotenoids being the largest groups of compounds. (nih.gov)
  • Tea, coffee and wine are super sources of the antioxidants called polyphenols. (sheknows.com)
  • It's true: Dark chocolate (and cocoa powder) is high in the antioxidants known as polyphenols and flavonols. (sheknows.com)
  • Polyphenols, which have antioxidant properties in vitro, have unknown antioxidant activity in vivo due to extensive metabolism following digestion and little clinical evidence of efficacy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Structure of the antioxidant glutathione . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells contain endogenous antioxidant enzymes (e.g., catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase), and many, but not all, human cancer cell types have decreased antioxidant enzyme levels compared to their normal tissue counterparts (28-30). (redorbit.com)
  • Other antioxidants produced internally include uric acid and glutathione. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Here are 10 health benefits of glutathione, a potent antioxidant that plays an important role in each body system. (healthdiaries.com)
  • To balance oxidative stress, plants and animals maintain complex systems of overlapping antioxidants, such as glutathione. (wikipedia.org)
  • A powerful antioxidant, this anti-aging serum works to both protect and prevent accelerated signs of aging while hydrating. (sephora.com)
  • Read the Buzzle article to learn whether tea is a good source of antioxidants or not. (buzzle.com)
  • Researchers from the University of Scranton found that coffee is the number one source of antioxidants in the US diet . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Beans-especially black and red-are often overlooked as a source of antioxidants, but they contain a large amount of nutrients for your body. (self.com)
  • We begin with a brief introduction of ROS and their role in normal physiology and oxidative stress, and then present data that demonstrate herbs and spices are the most antioxidant-dense dietary source of antioxidants that has been described. (nih.gov)
  • Since antioxidants help neutralize free radicals, it is believed that they may be instrumental in preventing many diseases. (selfgrowth.com)
  • It is intuitive to hypothesize that the topical application of antioxidants may neutralize some of the resulting free radicals, and consequently lessen or prevent the signs of aging skin. (medscape.com)
  • Antioxidants can neutralize free radicals and prevent them from being destructive. (livescience.com)
  • Antioxidants have become popular, because they're said to neutralize free radicals, which damage our cells and increase the risk of aging, cancer and chronic diseases. (care2.com)
  • Antioxidants neutralize free radicals preventing damage to all the cells in the body including our skin. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Fortunately, bodies can leverage antioxidants, compounds that neutralize free radicals and limit the damage they do to organs. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Antioxidants are chemicals that interact with and neutralize free radicals , thus preventing them from causing damage. (cancer.gov)
  • The body makes some of the antioxidants that it uses to neutralize free radicals. (cancer.gov)
  • Antioxidants are basically molecules, which are capable of slowing or preventing oxidation of other molecules. (buzzle.com)
  • The answer lies with antioxidants, the molecules that fight free radicals. (nuskin.com)
  • Research theories about free radicals (unstable molecules) causing degenerative ailments like cancer and heart disease, for example, have further led to investigations to clarify the relationships between free radical molecules and antioxidants like beta carotene. (hubpages.com)
  • Antioxidants undo the damage that can be done by unstable molecules known as ''free radicals. (cbsnews.com)
  • Oxidative stress research has largely focused on the role and effects of antioxidants in protecting these molecules from damage. (news-medical.net)
  • Antioxidants are molecules that inhibit the oxidation of other molecules and thus, prevent free-radicals, which cause damage to cells. (lifehack.org)
  • Antioxidants are a class of molecules that are capable of inhibiting the oxidation of another molecule. (mercola.com)
  • Repairing damaged molecules - Some unique types of antioxidants can repair damaged molecules by donating a hydrogen atom. (mercola.com)
  • Antioxidants in foods are conventionally thought to act by trapping free radicals, highly reactive molecules that can have damaging effects in the body. (dole.com)
  • Blueberries are full of antioxidants which protect the body from damage caused by harmful molecules called free radicals. (uaex.edu)
  • Antioxidants are molecules which can safely interact with free radicals and terminate the chain reaction before vital molecules are damaged.They are involved in the prevention of cellular damage which is the common pathway for cancer, aging, and a variety of diseases. (cyberparent.com)
  • Antioxidants are molecules that may help prevent oxidation of other molecules. (mercola.com)
  • Antioxidants actually protect your cells against free radicals: the molecules produced when your body is exposed to things like stress, pollution, tobacco smoke and radiation or when your body breaks down food. (newbeauty.com)
  • It creates many different types of molecules -- antioxidants -- to combat these free radicals and protect the cells from attack by oxygen. (theatlantic.com)
  • But some clinical trials have suggested that such antioxidants, which sop up DNA-damaging molecules called free radicals, have the opposite effect and raise cancer risk in certain people . (slashdot.org)
  • Antioxidants are substances that can provide protection from endogenous and exogenous oxidative stresses by scavenging free radicals. (medscape.com)
  • In a healthy cell, this balance is maintained as a result of our natural, endogenous antioxidant defences counteracting the continuous production of reactive species. (hindawi.com)
  • These antioxidants are called endogenous antioxidants. (cancer.gov)
  • The aim of this chapter is to discuss the potential role of antioxidants in herbs and spices in normal physiology, oxidative stress, and related diseases. (nih.gov)
  • The role of antioxidants and phytoprotectants in these disease processes. (surrey.ac.uk)
  • Information describing free radicals, their effects on the body, and the role of antioxidants in eliminating them. (herbs.org)
  • After excluding the possible confounding phenomenon that the increase in ROS was merely a bystander effect of increases in inflammatory cells, the researchers then performed a pivotal set of experiments in which they used antioxidants to see if these would affect the tail regeneration. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • The researchers first utilized pharmacological inhibitors that reduce the production of oxidants as well as the therapeutic antioxidant MCI-186 (its trade-name is Edaravone, and it is marketed for use in patients in Japan). (huffingtonpost.com)
  • However, he did admit that many researchers in the field still believe that antioxidants could have a role to play in the fight against Alzheimer's and ageing in general, but they are likely to offer little or no benefits once the disease has actually been diagnosed. (ageuk.org.uk)
  • This study, the researchers say, was different because the "antioxidants are given only after many years of exposure to sunlight. (go.com)
  • Other researchers note that the findings of the study could be called into question based on the fact that the research was initially designed to find something else entirely - the effects of antioxidants on reducing (rather than increasing) the incidence of cancer and heart disease. (go.com)
  • The researchers found no difference in skin cancer rates among the men who were taking the antioxidant or placebo. (go.com)
  • Women, the researchers say, tend to have, "higher concentrations of antioxidants in the skin," thought to be related to a higher dietary intake when compared to men. (go.com)
  • The idea that they antioxidants might ease muscle soreness after intense workouts stems from their role in potentially halting or slowing the development of what's known as oxidative stress, researchers note in the British Journal of Sports Medicine. (reuters.com)
  • DNA in patients' samples required less repair when they took the antioxidant formula before the radiation, the researchers say. (livescience.com)
  • For decades, researchers have touted the power of antioxidant compounds found in plants, grapes and food as a natural method to improve cardiovascular function and slow the aging process. (psychcentral.com)
  • Researchers are finding that blueberries contain an antioxidant thought to be important for preserving brain function. (uaex.edu)
  • To evaluate antioxidants as primary prevention, the researchers undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials and prospective cohort studies. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Next, the researchers tested the effects of adding an antioxidant called N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) to drinking water. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The tomato is a wonderful biosynthetic factory for carotenoids, and scientists are working on ways to enhance the fruit's antioxidant content and composition," Schwartz continued. (eurekalert.org)
  • The Health Benefits of Antioxidants: How Do They Prevent Free Radical Damage? (mercola.com)
  • Learn About the Health Benefits of Antioxidants Today - Get Your Copy of The Ultimate Guide to Antioxidants for Free! (mercola.com)
  • Antioxidants are a category of nutrients that have the ability to defend our cells by fighting cell-damaging free radicals. (nuskin.com)
  • I have compiled all the basic facts about antioxidants to broaden your understanding of these nutrients, for you to better appreciate their importance in keeping you youthful and healthy. (mercola.com)
  • Your body naturally circulates various nutrients in your body due to their antioxidant properties. (mercola.com)
  • More research is needed, but a diet rich in plant antioxidants is chock-full of healthy nutrients. (medicinenet.com)
  • Antioxidants are naturally occurring, anti-aging nutrients found in all plants. (bellaonline.com)
  • I believe that one of the major types of nutrients that the body constantly needs is antioxidants. (mercola.com)
  • As with other nutrients, the best way to get antioxidants is through your diet. (mercola.com)
  • Although the cultivated blueberries you get at the supermarket contain the same antioxidants as wild blueberries, the latter have a higher amount per serving. (popsugar.com)
  • Think about adding more antioxidants to your diet by eating goji berries, blueberries, pecans, kidney beans, and dark chocolate. (popsugar.com)
  • COLUMBUS , Ohio - Deep red tomatoes get their rich color from lycopene, a disease-fighting antioxidant. (eurekalert.org)
  • It also manufactures antioxidant enzymes in order to control free radical chain reactions. (mercola.com)
  • An antioxidant is useful in increasing the shelf life of food products by preventing their oxidation which results in fat rancidity and color changes. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • Antioxidants are deemed necessary to prolong the shelf-life of packed foods or other food products by protecting them against oxidation such as color changes and fat rancidity. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • Antioxidants are compounds that inhibit oxidation . (wikipedia.org)
  • The former, industrial antioxidants, have diverse uses: acting as preservatives in food and cosmetics, and being oxidation -inhibitors in fuels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antioxidants are substances that are capable of fighting the adverse effects of oxidation. (buzzle.com)
  • The purpose of taking antioxidants is to prevent oxidation, a chemical reaction that can produce free radicals. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Each of these methods measures the effect on the degree of oxidation rather than antioxidant activity directly. (news-medical.net)
  • Antioxidants help fight oxidation, a normal chemical process that takes place in the body every day. (theatlantic.com)
  • Antioxidants & Redox Signaling is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering reduction-oxidation (redox) signaling and antioxidant research. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antioxidants are compounds that inhibit oxidation, a chemical reaction that can produce free radicals and chain reactions that may damage the cells of organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here's a radical thought for the marketers - the benefits of antioxidants may not be related to antioxidant activity. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • Numerous studies have confirmed the benefits of antioxidants and the role they play in maintaining good health and reducing your risk of heart disease, Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, and cancer. (mercola.com)
  • The benefits of antioxidants from food, or a good quality natural antioxidant supplement, give you the anti aging protection against degenerative diseases and help slow down the aging process of your skin, cells, tissues and organs. (bellaonline.com)
  • The benefits of antioxidants from food, or a good quality natural antioxidant supplement, give you anti-aging protection from degenerative diseases and help to slow down the aging process of your skin, cells, tissues and organs. (bellaonline.com)
  • The last seven chapters discuss the potential therapeutic benefits of antioxidants in a number of cardiovascular conditions which include atherosclerosis, restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention, major cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia, and left ventricular dysfunction and congestive heart failure. (springer.com)
  • And so a hypothesis was born: dietary antioxidants are free-radical sponges that can stave off the diseases of old age. (caltech.edu)
  • Although dietary antioxidants have been investigated for potential effects on neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease , Parkinson's disease , and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis , [18] [19] these studies have been inconclusive. (wikipedia.org)
  • There have been studies that indicate that antioxidants may play an important role in both the prevention and treatment of diseases. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Antioxidant drinks are beverages that strengthen the immune system and may even prevent development of dreaded diseases like cancer. (buzzle.com)
  • The current book entitled Free Radicals, Antioxidants, and Diseases gives an idea of detecting free radicals in vivo by newer techniques and provides insights into the roles played by various antioxidants in combating diseases caused by oxidative stress. (google.com)
  • Many antioxidants have been used for centuries in ancient and modern cultures around the world for various diseases. (medscape.com)
  • Several antioxidants are currently used to treat diseases. (news-medical.net)
  • Individuals with neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease also benefit to a certain extent from the use of antioxidants. (news-medical.net)
  • In healthy people who are not being treated for cancer, antioxidants can have beneficial effects by sopping up the free radicals linked to aging and other diseases. (cnn.com)
  • Well-known antioxidants, as well those newly discovered, raise hopes for their use in the prevention and treatment of the abovementioned diseases. (hindawi.com)
  • This report is intended to cast additional light on the subject It is suggested that, viewed in the bigger picture, the total body concept, significant changes in macular degeneration and other diseases may occur when larger-than-recommended amounts of the antioxidants are supplied. (doctoryourself.com)
  • The mineral element selenium is often thought to be a dietary antioxidant, but the antioxidant effects of selenium are most likely due to the antioxidant activity of proteins that have this element as an essential component (i.e., selenium-containing proteins), and not to selenium itself ( 4 ). (cancer.gov)
  • How do I know what types of antioxidants are good for me? (familydoctor.org)
  • The table below shows several types of antioxidants, their possible effects, and food sources of each. (theatlantic.com)
  • Coffee contains similar levels of antioxidants to black tea and can be just as beneficial to health, according to Scottish scientists that have found coffee's antioxidants are highly absorbable by the human body. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • The authors were surprised to find that the levels of antioxidants in their diets made no difference to dementia or stroke risk . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Rather it showed that reducing the levels of antioxidants actually helped to kill pancreatic cells that were on the road to cancer or those that were already in a malignant state. (afr.com)
  • To know more about sources of antioxidants, read on. (buzzle.com)
  • Read ahead to find out what are the best sources of antioxidants around you and use this information to derive maximum health benefits on a daily basis! (buzzle.com)
  • Coffee is one of the major sources of antioxidants in many peoples' daily diet and the beneficial health effects of coffee are usually attributed to its high antioxidant activity. (news-medical.net)
  • Synthetic antioxidants are manmade and find application in stabilizing fat, oil, and lipid-containing feed and are primarily phenolic. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • Abd El Azim MHM, El-Mesallamy AMD, El-Gerby M, Awad A (2014) Anti-Tumor, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial and the Phenolic Constituents of Clove Flower Buds (Syzygium aromaticum). (omicsonline.org)
  • Main objectives of this study were to evaluate antitumor, antioxidant, antimicrobial and phenolic constituents of clove flower buds. (omicsonline.org)
  • The ultimate unsaturated lipid phenolic antioxidant is nordihydroguaiaretic acid from the creosote bush Larrea tridentata. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Describe the structures of the phenolic antioxidants BHA and BHT in terms of groups attached to the phenolic ring system. (bartleby.com)
  • The structure of phenolic antioxidants BHA and BHT in terms of groups that are attached to the phenolic ring system has to be described. (bartleby.com)
  • Moreover, if they are actually beneficial, it is unknown which antioxidants are health-promoting in the diet and in what amounts beyond typical dietary intake. (wikipedia.org)
  • All are aware that antioxidants are beneficial for the body. (buzzle.com)
  • Oldham KM, Bowen PE (1998) Oxidative stress in critical care: is antioxidant supplementation beneficial? (springer.com)
  • Roger Clemens, doctor of pharmacy at University of Southern California, agrees, but he thinks similar information regarding lack of beneficial antioxidant effects have been found before. (go.com)
  • This comprehensive reference consolidates current information on the antioxidant properties of wheat, their beneficial effects, the mechanisms involved, factors affecting availability/bioavailability, and the methods used to measure them. (wiley.com)
  • Depending upon end use industry again, the market for antioxidants can be segregated into automotive industry, power generation industry, aerospace and defense industry, and oil and gas industry. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • [ 5 ] Some of these antioxidant defense mechanisms can be inhibited by ultraviolet (UV) light. (medscape.com)
  • As people age, the body's antioxidant defense system becomes weaker and more susceptible to oxidative stress. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • Antioxidants are nature's way of providing your cells with adequate defense against attack by reactive oxygen species (ROS). (mercola.com)
  • Antioxidants are nature's defense to guard cellular structures and genetic material against the damaging effects of free radicals. (nuskin.com)
  • To prevent free radical damage the body has a defense system of antioxidants.An antioxidant acts as a reducing agent in free-radical reactions. (cyberparent.com)
  • Thus, herbs and spices may have a role in antioxidant defense and redox signaling. (nih.gov)
  • In a way, antioxidants serve as a powerful defense mechanism against reactive oxygen species (ROS)-caused attacks. (mercola.com)
  • Antioxidants such as α-tocopherol, which partition into the lipid compartment of cells, or N-acetylcysteine, a free radical scavenger that partitions into the aqueous phase of the cytosol, can delay or inhibit apoptosis (24,25). (redorbit.com)
  • These antioxidants are also known as free radical scavengers. (selfgrowth.com)
  • First one is a general antioxidant introduction, whereas the second chapter is about Free Radicals and the Free Radical Theory. (hubpages.com)
  • In order to fully understand how antioxidants truly benefit your wellbeing, you should first be familiar with free radical formation. (mercola.com)
  • In cancer, we create free radical damage to tumor cells with treatment, and we want that, but antioxidants quench this damage,' explains Dr. Brian Lawenda, the clinical director of radiation oncology at the Naval Medical Center, in San Diego, California. (cnn.com)
  • This network of antioxidants helps protect the skin from free radical assault that can impact the firmness and contour of the skin. (nuskin.com)
  • Antioxidants are also known as "free radical scavengers. (cancer.gov)
  • In laboratory and animal studies , the presence of increased levels of exogenous antioxidants has been shown to prevent the types of free radical damage that have been associated with cancer development. (cancer.gov)
  • When faced with the threat of free radicals, antioxidants act as electron donors by disrupting the free radical chain reaction in the body. (mercola.com)
  • There is a huge range of antioxidant systems, and scientists haven't yet determined exactly how all the different systems work together in our bodies to protect us from free-radical damage. (theatlantic.com)
  • Small changes make big differences , so if you're new to this, stock up on the following berries that boast free-radical-suppressant benefits and give your body an antioxidant boost. (popsugar.com)
  • Even a moderate increase in the accumulation of oxygen radicals in malignant cells of animals fed an antioxidant-poor diet could increase reactive oxygen species to the critical level required for progression of apoptosis (21-23). (redorbit.com)
  • Thus, though early administration of antioxidants may prevent the initiation and progression of cancer by quenching the action of potentially mutagenic reactive free radicals, administration of antioxidants subsequent to a mutagenic event may effectively intercept free radicals that are critical in promoting apoptosis. (redorbit.com)
  • Antioxidants refer to substances that act against the free radicals, which are reactive substances that can cause damage to cells, thereby making one susceptible to medical conditions. (buzzle.com)
  • Antioxidants such as α-tocopherol ( 5 , 6 ) are effective neuroprotectants because of their ability to reduce the toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS) formed during ischemic metabolism. (pnas.org)
  • Our primary objective is to delineate the biological significance of compounds that modulate our redox status (i.e., reactive species and antioxidants) as well as outline their current role in brain health and the impact of redox modulations on the severity of illnesses. (hindawi.com)
  • In cases where this balance of antioxidants and reactive species is disrupted by an excess or deficiency of either one, our body experiences a strong modulation of its redox status, commonly referred to as oxidative stress [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Oxidative stress is generated by an imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidants. (hindawi.com)
  • Antioxidants are revered for their positive effects towards neutralizing free radicals, which are unstable and highly reactive atoms or groups of atoms that contain an unpaired electron. (mercola.com)
  • In general, antioxidant systems either prevent these reactive species from being formed, or remove them before they can damage vital components of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, your body's natural antioxidant production can decline as you age. (mercola.com)
  • Antioxidants do have a role in the health of normal cells and every day millions of people around the world take them from a bottle in the hope they will supplement the body's own antioxidants. (afr.com)
  • US company Applied Food Sciences (AFS) has made yield improvements in its Coffee Antioxidant Enhancement Technology, a proprietary process that increases the quantity of natural antioxidants found in brewed coffee. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • What they found was that 51 of the women taking the antioxidants developed skin cancer, compared to only 30 percent of those taking the placebo. (go.com)
  • Different results might have been found if they gave the antioxidants to younger people and followed them for a longer period of time," said Mary Kavanagh, a nutritionist at Case Western University in Cleveland. (go.com)
  • It's possible that individual antioxidants, or the main foods that contribute those antioxidants - rather than the total antioxidant level in the diet - contribute to the lower risk of dementia and stroke found in earlier studies. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • New research now suggests that resveratrol, a natural antioxidant compound found in red grapes and other plants actually blocks many of the cardiovascular benefits of exercise. (psychcentral.com)
  • Another antioxidant, ferulic acid, found in wheat, works on much the same principle and has found less blame. (scienceblogs.com)
  • The antioxidants are found in dark chocolate , green tea , coffee, and extra virgin olive oil, among other foods. (medicinenet.com)
  • They found that after studying 5,300 people over a 14-year period, people following a high antioxidant diet were no less likely to suffer a stroke or develop dementia than those who didn't. (healthcentral.com)
  • Seeking a way to increase NRF2's antioxidant action, Ramanathan and his colleagues have discovered a potential solution in earlier research performed at Johns Hopkins: a compound called sulforaphane that's found in broccoli sprouts. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Few randomized controlled trials were found, they said, and it was not possible to evaluate the effect of potential antioxidant synergism, including various combinations or ratios. (medpagetoday.com)
  • Back in 1994, a large trial of male smokers found daily megadoses of the antioxidant beta-carotene increased their risk of lung cancer by 18 per cent. (afr.com)
  • Led by postdoctoral investigator Lok In Christine Chio, they found something unusual when antioxidants were inhibited in the cell samples with cancer. (afr.com)
  • For my highest recommendation of the best natural antioxidant supplement, be sure to check out the in-depth scientific research studies found at the carotenoid website. (bellaonline.com)
  • The effect of antioxidants on tumour growth was the same as knocking out p53 altogether, Bergö found. (newscientist.com)
  • Two trials found antioxidants caused mild gastrointestinal problems in a small number of participants. (nytimes.com)
  • In a recent series of experiments, scientists found that a specific antioxidant helps prevent the damage that osteoarthritis causes to cartilage. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The next seven chapters describe recently defined markers of oxidative stress, pharmacological compounds with antioxidant activity, natural antioxidants found in micronutrients and in nutrient-rich diets, and reviews the recent evidence for their efficacy or lack of efficacy in patients with cardiovascular disease or cardiovascular risk factors. (springer.com)
  • A lot of hype surrounds a group of compounds found in food called antioxidants. (theatlantic.com)
  • The big thing to notice is that antioxidants are found primarily in plant foods. (theatlantic.com)
  • Antioxidants are believed to fight free radicals, atoms or groups of atoms formed in such a way that they can cause cell damage. (reuters.com)
  • Plus, learn how antioxidants fight free radicals in the body. (doctoroz.com)
  • This research adds to the growing body of evidence questioning the positive effects of antioxidant supplementation in humans. (psychcentral.com)
  • Indeed, supplementation with antioxidants has often resulted in no effect or even adverse disease outcomes. (nih.gov)
  • Similar to resveratrol, this antioxidant boasts extreme anti-inflammatory benefits. (newbeauty.com)
  • [37] Toxicity associated with high doses of water-soluble antioxidants such as ascorbic acid are less of a concern, as these compounds can be excreted rapidly in urine . (wikipedia.org)
  • Overall, 69.3 percent of those on antioxidants took high doses. (cnn.com)
  • And more than half who took antioxidants used doses that were higher than the current dietary reference intakes (DRI), which are the daily nutritional recommendations set forth by the Institute of Medicine. (cnn.com)
  • Talk to your doctor before taking high doses of antioxidants. (familydoctor.org)
  • High doses of some antioxidants may have harmful long-term effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Flavonoids, like other antioxidants, do their work in the body by corralling cell-damaging free radicals and metallic ions. (psychologytoday.com)
  • But flavonoids go beyond the yeoman work of your average antioxidant. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Tea and coffee are rich in some non-traditional antioxidants, such as flavonoids. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Flavonoids are a powerful group of antioxidants that derive from phytonutrients, or chemicals in plants. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Perhaps, before cancer patients supplement their diets, suppression of apoptosis by antioxidants needs to be considered. (redorbit.com)
  • Which is the best antioxidant supplement? (buzzle.com)
  • Don't take a high-dose supplement of any antioxidant during chemotherapy and during radiation because we don't know what the effects will be on your treatment,' he suggests. (cnn.com)
  • What's worse is that some antioxidants can have side effects when you take them in supplement form. (care2.com)
  • An antioxidant may be either produced naturally in the body or taken as a supplement. (psychologytoday.com)
  • When looking for a natural antioxidant supplement , always ask a simple question, Can I find these ingredients at a salad bar or fruit and vegetable stand? (bellaonline.com)
  • When shopping for a natural antioxidant supplement, ask yourself one simple question, "Can I find these ingredients at a salad bar, the grocery store or at a fruit and vegetable stand? (bellaonline.com)
  • By Kathryn Doyle People who get a lot of antioxidants in their diets, or who take them in supplement form, don't live any longer than those who just eat well overall, according to a long term study of retirees in California. (yahoo.com)
  • [ 7 ] In addition to their antioxidant activity, most of them possess numerous other biologic properties, e.g., they can be anticarcinogenic and anti-inflammatory. (medscape.com)
  • Hence, we will attempt to emphasize the relationship of antioxidants to common disorders such as heart disease, cancer, diabetes, arthritis, cataracts, and macular degeneration as well as other syndromes through an examination of 40 representative studies in the English language literature. (doctoryourself.com)
  • Three similar studies in the US have linked low antioxidant levels with the risk of age related macular degeneration. (healthy.net)
  • Green plants are full of antioxidants for good reason. (caltech.edu)
  • Apply antioxidants to skin daily and sunscreen before you go outside and eat a healthy diet full of antioxidants. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Since free radicals are created both in the environment and in our bodies, a continuous supply of antioxidants is critical for internal and external health and longevity. (nuskin.com)
  • The best way to maintain a steady, varied supply of antioxidants is through the consumption of a fruit- and vegetable-rich diet . (psychologytoday.com)
  • A continuous supply of antioxidants is critical to counteract these free radicals for internal and external health. (nuskin.com)
  • Bergö plans to perform some of this follow-up work, as well as investigating the effects of antioxidants on other cancers, including malignant melanomas and gut cancers. (newscientist.com)
  • The study is a good first step, but it wasn't designed to measure health benefits, says Jeffrey B. Blumberg, PhD, professor of nutrition at Tufts University and senior scientist and director of Tufts' Antioxidants Research Laboratory. (cbsnews.com)
  • This research, published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, pointed out that any dietary antioxidants would take several weeks to express themselves in the skin given the natural turnover of skin cells. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • The latest axe blow from EFSA has fallen, and this time it has taken one of the biggest trees in the nutrition forest: Antioxidants. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • A study released in the Journal of Nutrition on Monday examined the relationship between antioxidant use and skin cancer risk. (go.com)
  • Most people know the word "antioxidant" but new research from the Dole Nutrition Institute has uncovered that we may not know exactly how they work. (dole.com)
  • Since antioxidant benefits are so important to your health, the Human Nutrition Research Center at Tufts University measured the total antioxidant phytonutrient protection power of various foods. (bellaonline.com)
  • And you won't find any of these aggressively hype-marketed ingredients on the list of recommended antioxidants from the Human Nutrition Research Center, Tufts or the USDA. (bellaonline.com)
  • Similarly, the designed antioxidant NXY-059 exhibited efficacy in animal models, but failed to improve stroke outcomes in a clinical trial. (wikipedia.org)
  • Clinical question Are antioxidants associated with a decreased risk of Alzheimer's disease? (bmj.com)
  • Topical antioxidants are available in multivariate combinations through over-the-counter skin care products that are aimed at preventing the clinical signs of photoaging. (medscape.com)
  • Over the years it has become clear from these clinical trials that antioxidants don't work in disease treatment. (reuters.com)
  • A clinical study on professional athletes shows ROC increasing antioxidant levels by 68 percent and a 133 percent increase in total antioxidant status. (prweb.com)
  • There is extensive discussion of the success and limitations of the use of antioxidants in several clinical settings. (springer.com)
  • Antioxidants are man-made or natural substances that may prevent or delay some types of cell damage. (medlineplus.gov)
  • At present, topical antioxidants are marketed to prevent aging and UV-induced skin damage, as well as to treat wrinkles and erythema due to inflammation (e.g., post laser resurfacing). (medscape.com)
  • The findings were a surprise to many who believed that antioxidants actually protect against sun damage that leads to skin cancer. (go.com)
  • Antioxidants can protect and reverse some of the damage. (familydoctor.org)
  • Some previous research has linked antioxidants to the prevention of cellular damage that can potentially result in sore muscles, but results have been mixed. (reuters.com)
  • A specific combination of antioxidants reduced DNA damage from the radiation by almost 50 percent. (livescience.com)
  • Eating a variety of foods with antioxidants not only helps skin from aging but also keeps cellular damage at bay. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Organic foods: Antioxidants are involved in prevention of cellular damage. (cyberparent.com)
  • Antioxidants decrease the damage done to cells by reducing oxidants before they can damage the cell. (cyberparent.com)
  • As antioxidants stop them doing this damage, they are perceived as a universal force for good. (afr.com)
  • antioxidants may protect healthy cells from DNA damage but they also protect cancer cells from our bodies' defences. (newscientist.com)
  • Antioxidants are compounds that reduce the body cell damage and the risk of disease. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Free radicals can cause inflammation, damage and disease, and antioxidants are vital because they fight these free radicals. (newbeauty.com)
  • Antioxidants can safely interact with free radicals and stop the chain of damaging reactions before damage is done to cells. (theatlantic.com)
  • Antioxidants may be used in disease prevention but the extent of their benefits is not fully understood. (news-medical.net)
  • It is for this reason that antioxidant pills have been recommended for the prevention of sunburns and for their protective properties. (go.com)
  • In this special annual issue, an attempt has been made to gather articles that update our understanding about the role of plant-derived antioxidants in disease prevention. (hindawi.com)
  • These reports fill the gaps in the field of antioxidant research, allow better understanding of their action, and facilitate their future usage in disease prevention and treatment. (hindawi.com)
  • TEMECULA - The term "antioxidants" is frequently associated with cancer prevention. (myvalleynews.com)
  • This has led to an interest in the use of antioxidants in the prevention and treatment of such problems. (doctoryourself.com)
  • Antioxidants can be broadly segmented into two types - synthetic and natural. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • Natural antioxidants, as opposed to synthetic oxidants, occur naturally in food and feed ingredients. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • Natural antioxidants also find application in formulating cosmetics, including anti-aging products. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • Easy availability of synthetic antioxidants such as BHA, BHT, propyl gallates, and EDTA is predicted to dampen demand for natural antioxidants in the foreseeable future. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • The market in Asia Pacific, in particular, is fragmented because of a large unorganized sector of natural antioxidants manufacturers in the region. (transparencymarketresearch.com)
  • Many plants produce antioxidants as part of their natural protective mechanism. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Natural antioxidants are a great way to remain healthy and avoid aging without any side effects. (buzzle.com)
  • Here is a list of some of the best natural antioxidants and their uses. (buzzle.com)
  • Chinese ingredient supplier Fenchem has said it will focus research and development on finding natural antioxidants in response to market demand. (nutraingredients-usa.com)
  • Carr A, Frei B (2000) The role of natural antioxidants in preserving the biological activity of endothelium-derived nitric oxide. (springer.com)
  • A lot of produce has natural antioxidants. (familydoctor.org)
  • With this in mind, antioxidants may be interpreted as natural products with significant pharmacological actions in the body. (hindawi.com)
  • Antioxidants are natural or man-made substances that protect living organisms from the harmful effects of free radicals. (psychologytoday.com)
  • What are natural antioxidants? (psychologytoday.com)
  • Practically every cell in the human body produces Co-enzyme Q10 (CoQ10), a natural antioxidant, also known as Ubiquinone. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Plant-derived antioxidants are a large group of natural products with reducing or radical-scavenging capacity. (hindawi.com)
  • Our bodies can make part of antioxidants by ourselves and if not enough, we have to get them from natural food like high antioxidant vegetable and fruit. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Do you know exactly what kind of natural food has high antioxidants? (selfgrowth.com)
  • There are hundreds of natural antioxidant foods that improve and protect our health. (selfgrowth.com)
  • It's not yet clear how much of popcorn's healthy antioxidants get absorbed by the body. (cbsnews.com)
  • But more information is needed, she says, on what amount of popcorn's antioxidants actually go to work in your body. (cbsnews.com)
  • But do you know how antioxidants function in your body and what types you need? (mercola.com)
  • Some antioxidants are produced by your body, but some are not. (mercola.com)
  • Your body uses antioxidants to balance free radicals. (familydoctor.org)
  • Your body produces some antioxidants. (familydoctor.org)
  • Prior also studies the ability of antioxidants to be absorbed and utilized within the human body. (usda.gov)
  • Myth #1: Antioxidants in test tubes work the same way in the human body. (care2.com)
  • But as we saw earlier, antioxidants behave differently in the human body. (care2.com)
  • What is emerging is a new view that antioxidants are not a fix for everything, and that some degree of oxidant stress may be necessary for the body to work correctly. (psychcentral.com)
  • Maintain healthy, beautiful, youthful looking skin by giving your body antioxidants from the inside and out. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Each of these groups of foods contains powerful antioxidants, which protect the body from aging at a cellular level. (selfgrowth.com)
  • The body naturally produces some antioxidant compounds on its own, while others are obtained through nutrient-rich foods. (psychologytoday.com)
  • In the body, an antioxidant network works in concert through several different mechanisms: ROS scavenging, termination of lipid peroxidation, or chelating of metals. (hindawi.com)
  • However, the body relies on external (exogenous) sources, primarily the diet, to obtain the rest of the antioxidants it needs. (cancer.gov)
  • Antioxidants keep free radicals from ravaging your body and stealing the life from your cells. (bellaonline.com)
  • This adds to the expanding body of evidence that has already shown antioxidants can be harmful in melanoma, lung and prostate cancer. (afr.com)
  • So antioxidants keep free radicals from ravaging your body and stealing the life from your cells. (bellaonline.com)
  • However, most people know very little about antioxidants, which is quite a shame because these substances can deliver so many health benefits to your body. (mercola.com)
  • It's important to note, though, that your body needs a balance of free radicals and antioxidants to function, so you can't and shouldn't eat with the aim of completely ridding your body of the former. (popsugar.com)
  • According to some estimates around half the adults in the US take antioxidant pills daily in the belief they promote good health and stave off disease. (caltech.edu)
  • The use of antioxidants to treat disease states induced by oxidative stress is controversial. (news-medical.net)
  • This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Antioxidants and Antioxidant Treatment in Disease. (nih.gov)
  • Fill your skin care routine and your diet with antioxidants to reduce the signs of aging and fight off disease. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Antioxidants are thus crucial to strengthening the immune system and guarding against cognitive decline , heart disease, inflammation, and vision loss. (psychologytoday.com)
  • Shyam Biswal of Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health in Baltimore says the next step will be to see if NAC and other antioxidants promote tumours in mice at high risk of cancer having been exposed to a carcinogen, as well as those bred to have the disease. (newscientist.com)
  • Antioxidants and Cardiovascular Disease, Second Edition addresses a complex but very timely and fascinating problem in cardiovascular medicine. (springer.com)
  • NEW YORK (Reuters Health) - People who have plenty of foods with antioxidants in their diets may be protecting themselves from bone changes associated with knee arthritis, according to a new study. (reuters.com)
  • Devore pointed out that most (90%) of the difference in the antioxidant levels in people's diets was due to how much tea or coffee they consumed . (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In this study, those who had high antioxidant diets and low antioxidant diets were often differentiated by the amount of coffee or tea the person drank. (healthcentral.com)
  • One cup of whole cranberries has 8,983 total antioxidant capacity. (webmd.com)
  • Cannabidiol was more protective against glutamate neurotoxicity than either ascorbate or α-tocopherol, indicating it to be a potent antioxidant. (pnas.org)
  • Using a transgenic mouse model of mammary tumorigenesis with defined rates of tumor growth and lung-targeted metastasis, they determined that dietary antioxidant depletion inhibited tumor growth and diminished metastasis. (redorbit.com)
  • Second, the various antioxidants that exist are often viewed as a single functional entity. (nih.gov)