Antioxidant Response Elements: Nucleotide sequences that are found in the PROMOTER REGIONS of the genes of stress-responsive and cytoprotective proteins, such as those encoding antioxidant and PHASE II DETOXIFICATION enzymes. NF-E2-RELATED FACTOR 2 containing transcription factors bind to these elements during induction of these genes.NF-E2-Related Factor 2: A basic-leucine zipper transcription factor that was originally described as a transcriptional regulator controlling expression of the BETA-GLOBIN gene. It may regulate the expression of a wide variety of genes that play a role in protecting cells from oxidative damage.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Response Elements: Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.NAD(P)H Dehydrogenase (Quinone): A flavoprotein that reversibly catalyzes the oxidation of NADH or NADPH by various quinones and oxidation-reduction dyes. The enzyme is inhibited by dicoumarol, capsaicin, and caffeine.HydroquinonesMafG Transcription Factor: MafG is a ubiquitously expressed small maf protein that is involved in CELL DIFFERENTIATION of ERYTHROCYTES. It dimerizes with P45 NF-E2 PROTEIN and activates expression of ALPHA-GLOBIN and BETA-GLOBIN.Glutamate-Cysteine Ligase: One of the enzymes active in the gamma-glutamyl cycle. It catalyzes the synthesis of gamma-glutamylcysteine from glutamate and cysteine in the presence of ATP with the formation of ADP and orthophosphate. EC 6.3.2.2.Isothiocyanates: Organic compounds with the general formula R-NCS.Thiocyanates: Organic derivatives of thiocyanic acid which contain the general formula R-SCN.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).beta-Naphthoflavone: A polyaromatic hydrocarbon inducer of P4501A1 and P4501A2 cytochromes. (Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1994 Dec:207(3):302-308)Nuclear Respiratory Factor 1: A transcription factor that controls the expression of variety of proteins including CYTOCHROME C and 5-AMINOLEVULINATE SYNTHETASE. It plays an important role in maintenance of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN of MITOCHONDRIA.Heme Oxygenase-1: A ubiquitous stress-responsive enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of HEME to yield IRON; CARBON MONOXIDE; and BILIVERDIN.MafK Transcription Factor: A small Maf protein involved in differentiation of ERYTHROID CELLS. MafK was originally described as the small subunit of the NF-E2 Transcription Factor, but other small MAF PROTEINS also serve as NF-E2 subunits.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.NF-E2-Related Factor 1: A basic-leucine zipper transcription factor that is involved in regulating inflammatory responses, MORPHOGENESIS, and HEME biosynthesis.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Nuclear Respiratory Factors: A family of transcription factors that control expression of a variety of nuclear GENES encoding proteins that function in the RESPIRATORY CHAIN of the MITOCHONDRIA.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Animal Use Alternatives: Alternatives to the use of animals in research, testing, and education. The alternatives may include reduction in the number of animals used, replacement of animals with a non-animal model or with animals of a species lower phylogenetically, or refinement of methods to minimize pain and distress of animals used.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-maf: Maf proto-oncogene protein is the major cellular homolog of the V-MAF ONCOGENE PROTEIN. It was the first of the mammalian MAF TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS identified, and it is induced in activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of INTERLEUKIN-4. c-maf is frequently translocated to an immunoglobulin locus in MULTIPLE MYELOMA.Luciferases: Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.ThionesTranscriptional Activation: Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.Sesquiterpenes, Guaiane: SESQUITERPENES cyclized into two adjoining rings, one being 7-carbons and the other is 5-carbons.Tanacetum parthenium: An aromatic perennial plant species that has been used to treat migraines, arthritis, and as a febrifuge. It contains TANNINS, volatile oils (OILS, ESSENTIAL), and sesquiterpene lactones, especially parthenolide.Butylated Hydroxyanisole: Mixture of 2- and 3-tert-butyl-4-methoxyphenols that is used as an antioxidant in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals.Anticarcinogenic Agents: Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Oxidants: Electron-accepting molecules in chemical reactions in which electrons are transferred from one molecule to another (OXIDATION-REDUCTION).Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Leucine Zippers: DNA-binding motifs formed from two alpha-helixes which intertwine for about eight turns into a coiled coil and then bifurcate to form Y shaped structures. Leucines occurring in heptad repeats end up on the same sides of the helixes and are adjacent to each other in the stem of the Y (the "zipper" region). The DNA-binding residues are located in the bifurcated region of the Y.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Glutathione Transferase: A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Benzoflavones: Organic compounds containing a BENZENE ring attached to a flavone group. Some of these are potent arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase inhibitors. They may also inhibit the binding of NUCLEIC ACIDS to BENZOPYRENES and related compounds. The designation includes all isomers; the 7,8-isomer is most frequently encountered.Hep G2 Cells: A human liver tumor cell line used to study a variety of liver-specific metabolic functions.Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)NADPH Dehydrogenase: A flavoprotein that reversibly oxidizes NADPH to NADP and a reduced acceptor. EC 1.6.99.1.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Intracellular Signaling Peptides and Proteins: Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Basic-Leucine Zipper Transcription Factors: A large superfamily of transcription factors that contain a region rich in BASIC AMINO ACID residues followed by a LEUCINE ZIPPER domain.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Cytoprotection: The process by which chemical compounds provide protection to cells against harmful agents.Transcription Factor AP-1: A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.Catalase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to water and oxygen. It is present in many animal cells. A deficiency of this enzyme results in ACATALASIA.Superoxide Dismutase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.Oleanolic Acid: A pentacyclic triterpene that occurs widely in many PLANTS as the free acid or the aglycone for many SAPONINS. It is biosynthesized from lupane. It can rearrange to the isomer, ursolic acid, or be oxidized to taraxasterol and amyrin.Heme Oxygenase (Decyclizing): A mixed function oxidase enzyme which during hemoglobin catabolism catalyzes the degradation of heme to ferrous iron, carbon monoxide and biliverdin in the presence of molecular oxygen and reduced NADPH. The enzyme is induced by metals, particularly cobalt. EC 1.14.99.3.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Active Transport, Cell Nucleus: Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Enhancer Elements, Genetic: Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein: A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Glutathione Peroxidase: An enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of 2 moles of glutathione in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to yield oxidized glutathione and water. EC 1.11.1.9.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.PicratesAdaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing: A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymesCytoskeletal Proteins: Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.RNA, Small Interfering: Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Acetylcysteine: The N-acetyl derivative of CYSTEINE. It is used as a mucolytic agent to reduce the viscosity of mucous secretions. It has also been shown to have antiviral effects in patients with HIV due to inhibition of viral stimulation by reactive oxygen intermediates.Serum Response Element: A DNA sequence that is found in the promoter region of many growth-related genes. The regulatory transcription factor SERUM RESPONSE FACTOR binds to and regulates the activity of genes containing this element.Cyclooctanes: A group of compounds with an 8-carbon ring. They may be saturated or unsaturated.Vaccinium myrtillus: A plant species of the family VACCINIUM.Mice, Inbred C57BLCell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Peroxiredoxin VI: A peroxiredoxin that is a cytosolic bifunctional enzyme. It functions as a peroxiredoxin via a single redox-active cysteine and also contains a Ca2+-independent acidic phospholipase A2 activity.Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay: An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Receptors, Retinoic Acid: Proteins in the nucleus or cytoplasm that specifically bind RETINOIC ACID or RETINOL and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Retinoic acid receptors, like steroid receptors, are ligand-activated transcription regulators. Several types have been recognized.Glutathione Reductase: Catalyzes the oxidation of GLUTATHIONE to GLUTATHIONE DISULFIDE in the presence of NADP+. Deficiency in the enzyme is associated with HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA. Formerly listed as EC 1.6.4.2.Cyclic AMP Response Element Modulator: Cyclic AMP response element modulator is a basic leucine zipper transcription factor that is regulated by CYCLIC AMP. It plays an important role in SPERMATID development in the mammalian TESTIS.Ascorbic Acid: A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.Free Radical Scavengers: Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.Retinoid X Receptors: A subtype of RETINOIC ACID RECEPTORS that are specific for 9-cis-retinoic acid which function as nuclear TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that regulate multiple signaling pathways.MafF Transcription Factor: A small maf protein that forms dimers with NRF1 protein; NRF2 PROTEIN; and P45 NF-E2 PROTEIN. MafF complexes bind Maf recognition elements to regulate tissue-specific GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Glutathione Disulfide: A GLUTATHIONE dimer formed by a disulfide bond between the cysteine sulfhydryl side chains during the course of being oxidized.Malondialdehyde: The dialdehyde of malonic acid.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Chloramphenicol O-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.Vitamin D Response Element: A DNA sequence that is found in the promoter region of vitamin D regulated genes. Vitamin D receptor (RECEPTOR, CALCITRIOL) binds to and regulates the activity of genes containing this element.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.tert-Butylhydroperoxide: A direct-acting oxidative stress-inducing agent used to examine the effects of oxidant stress on Ca(2+)-dependent signal transduction in vascular endothelial cells. It is also used as a catalyst in polymerization reactions and to introduce peroxy groups into organic molecules.Receptors, Thyroid Hormone: Specific high affinity binding proteins for THYROID HORMONES in target cells. They are usually found in the nucleus and regulate DNA transcription. These receptors are activated by hormones that leads to transcription, cell differentiation, and growth suppression. Thyroid hormone receptors are encoded by two genes (GENES, ERBA): erbA-alpha and erbA-beta for alpha and beta thyroid hormone receptors, respectively.Vitamin E: A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.Repressor Proteins: Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-fos: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Glutathione Synthase: One of the enzymes active in the gamma-glutamyl cycle. It catalyzes the synthesis of glutathione from gamma-glutamylcysteine and glycine in the presence of ATP with the formation of ADP and orthophosphate. EC 6.3.2.3.Chromatin Immunoprecipitation: A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.Ipomoea nil: A plant species of the genus IPOMOEA, family CONVOLVULACEAE. An abundance of spontaneous mutants makes it useful in study of PLANT DNA and GENETICS.MaleatesPhenols: Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-jun: Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-jun genes (GENES, JUN). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. There appear to be three distinct functions: dimerization (with c-fos), DNA-binding, and transcriptional activation. Oncogenic transformation can take place by constitutive expression of c-jun.Trace Elements: A group of chemical elements that are needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of an organism. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Serum Response Factor: A MADS domain-containing transcription factor that binds to the SERUM RESPONSE ELEMENT in the promoter-enhancer region of many genes. It is one of the four founder proteins that structurally define the superfamily of MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS.Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear: Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Consensus Sequence: A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.Curcumin: A yellow-orange dye obtained from tumeric, the powdered root of CURCUMA longa. It is used in the preparation of curcuma paper and the detection of boron. Curcumin appears to possess a spectrum of pharmacological properties, due primarily to its inhibitory effects on metabolic enzymes.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Arsenic: A shiny gray element with atomic symbol As, atomic number 33, and atomic weight 75. It occurs throughout the universe, mostly in the form of metallic arsenides. Most forms are toxic. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), arsenic and certain arsenic compounds have been listed as known carcinogens. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Receptors, Glucocorticoid: Cytoplasmic proteins that specifically bind glucocorticoids and mediate their cellular effects. The glucocorticoid receptor-glucocorticoid complex acts in the nucleus to induce transcription of DNA. Glucocorticoids were named for their actions on blood glucose concentration, but they have equally important effects on protein and fat metabolism. Cortisol is the most important example.Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances: Low-molecular-weight end products, probably malondialdehyde, that are formed during the decomposition of lipid peroxidation products. These compounds react with thiobarbituric acid to form a fluorescent red adduct.Metallothionein: A low-molecular-weight (approx. 10 kD) protein occurring in the cytoplasm of kidney cortex and liver. It is rich in cysteinyl residues and contains no aromatic amino acids. Metallothionein shows high affinity for bivalent heavy metals.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Metabolic Detoxication, Drug: Reduction of pharmacologic activity or toxicity of a drug or other foreign substance by a living system, usually by enzymatic action. It includes those metabolic transformations that make the substance more soluble for faster renal excretion.Elements: Substances that comprise all matter. Each element is made up of atoms that are identical in number of electrons and protons and in nuclear charge, but may differ in mass or number of neutrons.Sulfhydryl Compounds: Compounds containing the -SH radical.Biphenyl CompoundsHeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Finite Element Analysis: A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.Fumarates: Compounds based on fumaric acid.Anniversaries and Special Events: Occasions to commemorate an event or occasions designated for a specific purpose.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Arsenites: Inorganic salts or organic esters of arsenious acid.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.RNA Interference: A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.Tretinoin: An important regulator of GENE EXPRESSION during growth and development, and in NEOPLASMS. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal VITAMIN A, is essential for normal GROWTH; and EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of PSORIASIS; ACNE VULGARIS; and several other SKIN DISEASES. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, PROMYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).Receptors, Steroid: Proteins found usually in the cytoplasm or nucleus that specifically bind steroid hormones and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. The steroid receptor-steroid hormone complex regulates the transcription of specific genes.CREB-Binding Protein: A member of the p300-CBP transcription factor family that was initially identified as a binding partner for CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN. Mutations in CREB-binding protein are associated with RUBINSTEIN-TAYBI SYNDROME.Environmental Pollutants: Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.Flavonoids: A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.Regulatory Elements, Transcriptional: Nucleotide sequences of a gene that are involved in the regulation of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Alu Elements: The Alu sequence family (named for the restriction endonuclease cleavage enzyme Alu I) is the most highly repeated interspersed repeat element in humans (over a million copies). It is derived from the 7SL RNA component of the SIGNAL RECOGNITION PARTICLE and contains an RNA polymerase III promoter. Transposition of this element into coding and regulatory regions of genes is responsible for many heritable diseases.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.alpha-Tocopherol: A natural tocopherol and one of the most potent antioxidant tocopherols. It exhibits antioxidant activity by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus. It has four methyl groups on the 6-chromanol nucleus. The natural d form of alpha-tocopherol is more active than its synthetic dl-alpha-tocopherol racemic mixture.Free Radicals: Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease: A particular type of FEMUR HEAD NECROSIS occurring in children, mainly male, with a course of four years or so.Genes, fos: Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (fos) originally isolated from the Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins (FBJ-MSV) and Finkel-Biskis-Reilly (FBR-MSV) murine sarcoma viruses. The proto-oncogene protein c-fos codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in growth-related transcriptional control. The insertion of c-fos into FBJ-MSV or FBR-MSV induces osteogenic sarcomas in mice. The human c-fos gene is located at 14q21-31 on the long arm of chromosome 14.Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.5' Flanking Region: The region of DNA which borders the 5' end of a transcription unit and where a variety of regulatory sequences are located.Polyphenols: A large class of organic compounds having more than one PHENOL group.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Sulfonic Acids: Inorganic or organic oxy acids of sulfur which contain the RSO2(OH) radical.Sp1 Transcription Factor: Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.DNA Footprinting: A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Mice, Inbred ICRProteasome Endopeptidase Complex: A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.beta Carotene: A carotenoid that is a precursor of VITAMIN A. It is administered to reduce the severity of photosensitivity reactions in patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria (PORPHYRIA, ERYTHROPOIETIC). (From Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Engewood, CO, 1995.)Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.ThiophenesTriiodothyronine: A T3 thyroid hormone normally synthesized and secreted by the thyroid gland in much smaller quantities than thyroxine (T4). Most T3 is derived from peripheral monodeiodination of T4 at the 5' position of the outer ring of the iodothyronine nucleus. The hormone finally delivered and used by the tissues is mainly T3.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.HEK293 Cells: A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.Ubiquitination: The act of ligating UBIQUITINS to PROTEINS to form ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes to label proteins for transport to the PROTEASOME ENDOPEPTIDASE COMPLEX where proteolysis occurs.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.Butylated Hydroxytoluene: A di-tert-butyl PHENOL with antioxidant properties.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Cystotomy: Surgical incision or puncture into a URINARY BLADDER. Cystotomy may be used to remove URINARY CALCULI, or to perform tissue repair and reconstruction.Gene Knockdown Techniques: The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.

HIV-1 gp120 induces antioxidant response element-mediated expression in primary astrocytes: role in HIV associated neurocognitive disorder. (1/39)

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Polyphenols, isothiocyanates, and carotenoid derivatives enhance estrogenic activity in bone cells but inhibit it in breast cancer cells. (2/39)

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Epigallocatechin gallate induces expression of heme oxygenase-1 in endothelial cells via p38 MAPK and Nrf-2 that suppresses proinflammatory actions of TNF-alpha. (3/39)

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Regulatory role of KEAP1 and NRF2 in PPARgamma expression and chemoresistance in human non-small-cell lung carcinoma cells. (4/39)

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The Nrf2-ARE pathway: a valuable therapeutic target for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. (5/39)

Modulation of NF-E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) has been shown in several neurodegenerative disorders. The overexpression of Nrf2 has become a potential therapeutic avenue for various neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Alzheimer's disease. The expression of phase II detoxification enzymes is governed by the cis-acting regulatory element known as antioxidant response element (ARE). The transcription factor Nrf2 binds to ARE thereby transcribing multitude of antioxidant genes. Keap1, a culin 3-based E3 ligase that targets Nrf2 for degradation, sequesters Nrf2 in cytoplasm. Disruption of Keap1-Nrf2 interaction or genetic overexpression of Nrf2 can increase the endogenous antioxidant capacity of the brain thereby rendering protection against oxidative stress in neurodegenerative disorders. This review primarily focuses on recent patents that target Nrf2 overexpression as a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders.  (+info)

Up-regulation of human prostaglandin reductase 1 improves the efficacy of hydroxymethylacylfulvene, an antitumor chemotherapeutic agent. (6/39)

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Activation of antioxidant response element in mouse primary cortical cultures with sesquiterpene lactones isolated from Tanacetum parthenium. (7/39)

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Molecular basis of electrophilic and oxidative defense: promises and perils of Nrf2. (8/39)

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*MAFK

... proteins negatively regulate antioxidant response element-mediated expression and antioxidant induction of the NAD(P)H:Quinone ... The latter DNA sequences have been recognized as antioxidant/electrophile response elements or NF-E2-binding motifs to which ... Nguyen T, Huang HC, Pickett CB (May 2000). "Transcriptional regulation of the antioxidant response element. Activation by Nrf2 ... "An Nrf2/small Maf heterodimer mediates the induction of phase II detoxifying enzyme genes through antioxidant response elements ...

*NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (quinone 1)

Role of AP1 binding site contained within human antioxidant response element". J. Biol. Chem. 267 (21): 15097-104. PMID 1340765 ... Furthermore, reduced forms of ubiquinone and vitamin E quinone have been shown to possess antioxidant properties that are ... External (via chemicals) and internal (stress response or caloric restriction) induction of NQO1 is mediated solely through the ... Dinkova-Kostova AT, Talalay P (2010). "NAD(P)H:quinone acceptor oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), a multifunctional antioxidant enzyme ...

*MAFG

... proteins negatively regulate antioxidant response element-mediated expression and antioxidant induction of the NAD(P)H:Quinone ... Mouse Mafg gene is induced by Nrf2-sMaf heterodimers through an antioxidant response element (ARE) at the promoter proximal ... The latter DNA sequences have been recognized as antioxidant/electrophile response elements or NF-E2-binding motifs to which ... "An Nrf2/small Maf heterodimer mediates the induction of phase II detoxifying enzyme genes through antioxidant response elements ...

*Small Maf

3). The latter DNA sequences have been recognized as antioxidant/electrophile response elements or NF-E2-binding motifs, to ... Katsuoka, F (2005). "Genetic evidence that small maf proteins are essential for the activation of antioxidant response element- ... Katsuoka, F (2005). "Nrf2 transcriptionally activates the mafG gene through an antioxidant response element". J. Biol. Chem. ... "An Nrf2/small Maf heterodimer mediates the induction of phase II detoxifying enzyme genes through antioxidant response elements ...

*Gene expression

Nguyen T, Nioi P, Pickett CB (May 2009). "The Nrf2-Antioxidant Response Element Signaling Pathway and Its Activation by ... The 3'-UTR often contains microRNA response elements (MREs). MREs are sequences to which miRNAs bind. These are prevalent ... Los M, Maddika S, Erb B, Schulze-Osthoff K (May 2009). "Switching Akt: from survival signaling to deadly response". BioEssays. ...

*Carcinogen

"In vitro and in vivo regulation of antioxidant response element-dependent gene expression by estrogens". Endocrinology. 145 (1 ... Colon cells with reduced ability to undergo apoptosis in response to DNA damage would tend to accumulate mutations, and such ...

*NFE2L1

Venugopal R, Jaiswal AK (Dec 1998). "Nrf2 and Nrf1 in association with Jun proteins regulate antioxidant response element- ... "Nrf1 and Nrf2 play distinct roles in activation of antioxidant response element-dependent genes". The Journal of Biological ... bounce-back response) in response to proteasome inhibition. This compensatory up-regulation of proteasome genes in response to ... NFE2L1 is a key regulator of cellular functions including oxidative stress response, differentiation, inflammatory response, ...

*ABCC3

A functional antioxidant response element in the 8th intron of the human ABCC3 gene appears responsible for Nrf2-mediated ... "Identification of a Functional Antioxidant Response Element within the Eighth Intron of the Human ABCC3 Gene". Drug Metabolism ... ABCC3 is induced as a hepatoprotective response to a variety of pathologic liver conditions. The constitutive androstane ... induction in response to oxidative stress. Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective articles. [[ ...

*NFE2L2

Venugopal R, Jaiswal AK (Dec 1998). "Nrf2 and Nrf1 in association with Jun proteins regulate antioxidant response element- ... and binds to the antioxidant response element (ARE) in the upstream promoter region of many antioxidative genes, and initiates ... "Nrf1 and Nrf2 positively and c-Fos and Fra1 negatively regulate the human antioxidant response element-mediated expression of ... "An Nrf2/small Maf heterodimer mediates the induction of phase II detoxifying enzyme genes through antioxidant response elements ...

*MAFF (gene)

"An Nrf2/small Maf heterodimer mediates the induction of phase II detoxifying enzyme genes through antioxidant response elements ... "Genetic evidence that small maf proteins are essential for the activation of antioxidant response element-dependent genes". ... mafG and mafK expression by electrophile-response-element activators". The Biochemical Journal. 361 (Pt 2): 371-7. doi:10.1042/ ... Nrf2-sMaf heterodimer regulates a battery of cytoprotective genes, such as antioxidant/xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme genes. ...

*NFE2L3

"Nrf3 negatively regulates antioxidant-response element-mediated expression and antioxidant induction of NAD(P)H:quinone ... Venugopal R, Jaiswal AK (December 1998). "Nrf2 and Nrf1 in association with Jun proteins regulate antioxidant response element- ... factors to bind antioxidant response elements in target genes. Several in vivo data has revealed that NFE2L3 is known to ... Hayes JD, McMahon M (December 2001). "Molecular basis for the contribution of the antioxidant responsive element to cancer ...

*Philip Kraft

Natsch, Andreas; Emter, Roger (2007). "Skin Sensitizers Induce Antioxidant Response Element Dependent Genes: Application to the ...

*GCLC

Mulcahy RT, Gipp JJ (Apr 1995). "Identification of a putative antioxidant response element in the 5'-flanking region of the ... "Human glutamate cysteine ligase gene regulation through the electrophile response element". Free Radical Biology & Medicine. 37 ...

*JUNB

Venugopal R, Jaiswal AK (1999). "Nrf2 and Nrf1 in association with Jun proteins regulate antioxidant response element-mediated ... factor jun-B is a transcription factor involved in regulating gene activity following the primary growth factor response. It ...

*GABPA

"Nitric oxide-induced transcriptional up-regulation of protective genes by Nrf2 via the antioxidant response element counteracts ... "Keap1 represses nuclear activation of antioxidant responsive elements by Nrf2 through binding to the amino-terminal Neh2 domain ... "Synergistic transcriptional activation by hGABP and select members of the activation transcription factor/cAMP response element ...

*C-Fos

Venugopal R, Jaiswal AK (December 1998). "Nrf2 and Nrf1 in association with Jun proteins regulate antioxidant response element- ... This includes the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB), the phosphorylation of which induces its association with the ... "Isolation and characterization of a novel member of the gene family encoding the cAMP response element-binding protein CRE-BP1 ... This is known to occur on many genes including fosB and c-fos in response to psychostimulant exposure. ΔFosB is also ...

*KEAP1

"Functional characterization and role of INrf2 in antioxidant response element-mediated expression and antioxidant induction of ... Bloom DA, Jaiswal AK (2004). "Phosphorylation of Nrf2 at Ser40 by protein kinase C in response to antioxidants leads to the ... Keap1 has been shown to interact with Nrf2, a master regulator of the antioxidant response, which is important for the ... not required for Nrf2 stabilization/accumulation in the nucleus and transcriptional activation of antioxidant response element- ...

*JunD

Venugopal R, Jaiswal AK (1998). "Nrf2 and Nrf1 in association with Jun proteins regulate antioxidant response element-mediated ...

*C-jun

Venugopal R, Jaiswal AK (1998). "Nrf2 and Nrf1 in association with Jun proteins regulate antioxidant response element-mediated ... Kara CJ, Liou HC, Ivashkiv LB, Glimcher LH (1990). "A cDNA for a human cyclic AMP response element-binding protein which is ... "Isolation and characterization of a novel member of the gene family encoding the cAMP response element-binding protein CRE-BP1 ... c-Jun in combination with c-Fos, forms the AP-1 early response transcription factor. It was first identified as the Fos-binding ...

*KLF9

... around 10 kb upstream and 1 kb downstream of Klf9 transcription start site contain conserved antioxidant response elements ( ... Nrf2 is a major regulator of the antioxidant response to ROS within the cell. Klf9 is upregulated by Nrf2; when oxidative ... The protein encoded by this gene is a transcription factor that binds to GC box elements located in the promoter. Binding of ... Previously known as Basic Transcription Element Binding Protein 1 (BTEB Protein 1), Klf9 is part of the Sp1 C2H2-type zinc ...

*NRF1

"Nrf1 and Nrf2 positively and c-Fos and Fra1 negatively regulate the human antioxidant response element-mediated expression of ...

*Broccoli sprouts

Once activated, Nrf2 then translocates to the nucleus of the cell, where it aligns itself with the antioxidant response element ... the gut microflora with its wide variability could pose a significant limitation on the achievement of a biochemical response. ...

*15-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid

... while concurrently activating anti-oxidant responses upregulated through the anti-oxidant response element (ARE) by forcing ... By these actions, 15-oxo-ETE may dampen inflammatory and/or Oxidative stress responses. In a cell-free system, 15-oxo-ETE is a ... It is presumed that the preceding activities of 15-oxo-ETE reflect its adduction to the indicated elements. 15-Oxo-ETE, at 2-10 ... 15(S)-HETE may also act through BLT2 to stimulate an immediate contractile response in rat pulmonary arteries and its ...

*MTORC1

... factor that is able to regulate the expression of electrophilic response elements as well as antioxidants in response to ... Murrow L, Debnath J (Jan 2013). "Autophagy as a stress-response and quality-control mechanism: implications for cell injury and ... This paradox of rapamycin inhibiting the immune system response has been linked to several reasons, including its interaction ... Wang S, Song P, Zou MH (Jun 2012). "AMP-activated protein kinase, stress responses and cardiovascular diseases". Clinical ...

*Response element

Calcium-response element CaRE1 Antioxidant response element (ARE) p53 response element Thyroid hormone response element Growth ... Sterol response element Polycomb Response Elements (PREs) Vitamin D response element (VDRE) response element at the US National ... DNA damage response element (DRE) IFN-stimulated response elements (ISREs) ROR-response element Glucocorticoid response element ... Examples of response elements include: Hormone response element cAMP response element (CRE) B recognition element AhR-, dioxin ...

*Metabolism

Vertuani S, Angusti A, Manfredini S (2004). "The antioxidants and pro-antioxidants network: an overview". Curr Pharm Des. 10 ( ... Inorganic elements play critical roles in metabolism; some are abundant (e.g. sodium and potassium) while others function at ... Firstly, the regulation of an enzyme in a pathway is how its activity is increased and decreased in response to signals. ... The abundant inorganic elements act as ionic electrolytes. The most important ions are sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, ...
Excellgen Nuclear factor-like 2, NRF2, NFE2L2, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 [RP-123] - Product Name Nuclear factor-like 2, NRF2, NFE2L2 Size 100 µg Description Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2, also known as NFE2L2 or Nrf2, is a transcription factor that binds to the antioxidant response element (ARE) of target genes in response to oxidative stress and increases the transcription of a variety of antioxidative and carcinogen-detoxification enzymes. Stress
Nuclear Factor Erythroid Derived 2 products available through Novus Biologicals. Browse our Nuclear Factor Erythroid Derived 2 product catalog backed by our Guarantee+.
Activation of antioxidant response and induction of HMOX1. (A) Representative immunoblots of total cellular proteins (20 μg) illustrating the effect of 25 μM
Nuclear Factor Erythroid 2 Related Factor 1兔多克隆抗体(ab90524)可与人样本反应并经WB实验严格验证并得到1个独立的用户反馈。所有产品均提供质保服务,中国75%以上现货。
UCL Discovery is UCLs open access repository, showcasing and providing access to UCL research outputs from all UCL disciplines.
Rabbit polyclonal PCBP2/hnRNP E2 antibody validated for WB, ICC/IF and tested in Human. Immunogen corresponding to synthetic peptide
Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that induces a battery of cytoprotective genes involved in antioxidant defense through binding to Antioxidant Response Elements (ARE) located in the promoter regions of these genes. To identify Nrf2 activators for the treatment of oxidative/electrophilic stress-induced diseases, the present study developed a high-throughput assay to evaluate Nrf2 activation using AREc32 cells that contain a luciferase gene under the control of ARE promoters. Of the 47,000 compounds screened, 238 (top 0.5% hits) of the chemicals increased the luminescent signal more than 14.4-fold and were re-tested at eleven concentrations in a range of 0.01-30 µM. Of these 238 compounds, 231 (96%) increased the luminescence signal in a concentration-dependent manner. Chemical structure relationship analysis of these 231 compounds indicated enrichment of four chemical scaffolds (diaryl amides and diaryl ureas, oxazoles and thiazoles, pyranones and
筑波大学の研究情報ポータル、COmmunity of Tsukuba Researchers、略してCOTREにようこそ!このサイトでは、筑波大学に所属する研究者の情報、筑波大学が誇る高被引用論文、研究推進体制、学内の諸手続きなど筑波大学の「研究」についての情報を網羅的に紹介しています。筑波大学の研究大学強化促進事業の目玉、国際テニュアトラックについても本サイトで情報公開しています。
This gene encodes a transcription factor which is a member of a small family of basic leucine zipper (bZIP) proteins. The encoded transcription factor regulates genes which contain antioxidant response elements (ARE) in their promoters; many of these genes encode proteins involved in response to injury and inflammation which includes the production of free radicals. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been characterized for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2015 ...
Synthesis and biological evaluation of biotin conjugates of (±)-(4bS,8aR,10aS)-10a-ethynyl-4b,8,8-trimethyl- 3,7-dioxo-3,4b,7,8,8a,9,10,10a-octahydro-phenanthrene-2,6-dicarbonitrile, an activator of the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway, for the isolation of its protein targets", A. Saito, M. Higgins, S. Zheng, W. Li, I. Ojima, A. T. Dinkova-Kostova, and T. Honda, Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 23, 5540-5543 (2013). PMID: ...
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States, and its prevalence is increasing in all populations and age groups worldwide (71). In 2002 alone, more than 927,000 Americans died from heart disease-related conditions. Oxidative stress, or the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), is a contributing factor to the progression of many cardiovascular diseases. One approach to combat the detrimental effects of oxidative stress in cardiac disease is to use the cells inherent ability to increase the expression of various stress-related proteins to eliminate the oxidative stress. NF-E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) is the transcriptional activator of the antioxidant response element (ARE) found in the promoter region of antioxidant and phase II detoxifying genes. In this study, we examined the role of Nrf2 in protecting the H9c2 cardiac-like cell line against oxidative stress. Nrf2 was induced using the known Nrf2 activator tert-butyl hydroquinone (tBHQ). We measured ...
Mouse monoclonal PCBP2/hnRNP E2 antibody [376CT13.1.2] validated for WB and tested in Human. Immunogen corresponding to recombinant full length protein
Drug resistance during chemotherapy is the major obstacle to the successful treatment of many cancers. Here, we report that inhibition of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) may be a promising strategy to combat chemoresistance. Nrf2 is a critical transcription factor regulating a cellular protective response that defends cells against toxic insults from a broad spectrum of chemicals. Under normal conditions, the low constitutive amount of Nrf2 protein is maintained by the Kelch-like ECH-associated protein1 (Keap1)-mediated ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation system. Upon activation, this Keap1-dependent Nrf2 degradation mechanism is quickly inactivated, resulting in accumulation and activation of the antioxidant response element (ARE)-dependent cytoprotective genes. Since its discovery, Nrf2 has been viewed as a good transcription factor that protects us from many diseases. In this study, we demonstrate the dark side of Nrf2: stable overexpression of Nrf2 resulted in enhanced resistance of ...
Read "Effect of boron deficiency on photosynthesis and antioxidant responses of young tea plantlets, Russian Journal of Plant Physiology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
An Italian doctor says that he came up with a cure for many types of MS. He also feels that he knows what cause these types of the disease. The doctors name is Paolo Zamboni. He says that there are pathways in the brain that get rid of extra iron that the brain does not need. In the brains of MS patients, they passages are blocked, which causes a build up of iron in the brain. The cure, he says, is a surgery to open some of the main veins in the brain that aid in moving this extra iron. his research all started when MS hit close to home, his wife was diagnosed. He began doing deep and intense research on the disease and found very old information on a the theory of iron build-up as the cause. When the iron builds up in the brain, it damages blood vessels that are vital to the body. He began taking ultrasounds on all of the patients he was treating for MS. Surprisingly these ultrasounds confirmed his theory. More than 90% of the patients have some sort of blockage in the veins that drain blood ...
We compared antioxidant responses and regulation of porphyrin metabolism in rice plants treated with oxyfluorfen (OF) or methyl viologen (MV). Plants treated with MV exhibited not only greater increases in conductivity and malondialdehyde but also a greater decline in Fv/Fm, compared to plants treated with OF. MV-treated plants had greater increases in activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) as well as transcript levels of SODA and CATA than OF-treated plants after 28 h of the treatments, whereas increases in ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity and transcript levels of APXA and APXB were greater in OF-treated plants. Both OF- and MV-treated plants resulted in not only down-regulation of most genes involved in porphyrin biosynthesis but also disappearance of Mg-porphyrins during the late stage of photooxidative stress. By contrast, up-regulation of heme oxygenase 2 (HO2) is possibly part of an efficient antioxidant response to compensate photooxidative damage in both treatments. Our
Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Friedreichs Ataxia (FRDA), a neurodegenerative disease caused by the decreased expression of frataxin, a mitochondrial protein responsible of iron homeostasis. Under conditions of oxidative stress, the activation of the transcription factor NF-E2-related factor (Nrf2) triggers the antioxidant cellular response by inducing antioxidant response element (ARE) driven genes. Increasing evidence supports a role for the Nrf2-ARE pathway in neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we analyzed the expression and the distribution of Nrf2 in silenced neurons for frataxin gene. Decreased Nrf2 mRNA content and a defective activation after treatment with pro-oxidants have been evidenced in frataxin-silenced neurons by RT-PCR and confocal microscopy. The loss of Nrf2 in FRDA may greatly enhance the cellular susceptibility to oxidative stress and make FRDA neurons more vulnerable to injury. Our findings may help to focus on this promising target, especially
TY - JOUR. T1 - Relevance of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of exemestane and synergism with sulforaphane for disease prevention. AU - Liu, Hua. AU - Talalay, Paul. PY - 2013/11/19. Y1 - 2013/11/19. N2 - Exemestane (6-methyleneandrosta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione) is a synthetic steroidal inhibitor of the aromatase reaction that catalyzes the terminal and rate-limiting step of the biosynthesis of estrogens. It is active clinically in preventing, delaying progression of, and treating mammary cancers, many of which are estrogen receptor-positive. A striking feature of the structure of exemestane is an extended system of conjugated Michael reaction functions, which is also characteristic of inducers of a broad network of chemoprotective genes regulated by the Keap1 (Kelch-like ECAassociated protein)/Nrf2 (nuclear factor E2-related factor 2)/ARE (antioxidant response element) signaling system. These genes are largely involved in xenobiotic metabolism and antioxidative and anti-inflammatory ...
Chronic treatment with azathioprine, a highly effective anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agent, profoundly increases the risk for development of unusually aggressive cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. Its ultimate metabolite, 6-thioguanine (6-TG) nucleotide, is incorporated in DNA of skin cells, and upon exposure to UVA radiation, causes oxidative stress, followed by damage of DNA and associated proteins. The acetylenic tricyclic bis(cyano enone) TBE-31 is a strong inhibitor of inflammation and a potent inducer of the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway, which orchestrates the expression of a large network of cytoprotective genes. We now report that long-term (five days per week for four weeks) topical daily applications of small (200 nmol) quantities of TBE-31 cause a robust systemic induction of the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway and decreases the 6-TG incorporation in DNA of skin, blood, and liver of azathioprine-treated mice, indicating extraordinary bioavailability and efficacy. In addition, TBE-31, at ...
Aim 1 was to elucidate the effects of diesel exhaust particulate (DEP) and ambient PM components on the generation of oxidative stress and inflammation in cellular studies performed in vitro. We demonstrated that DEP induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in macrophages and bronchial epithelial cells, and that these effects can be reproduced by methanol extracts made from these particles. ROS generation by pro-oxidative PM chemicals induced a hierarchical oxidative stress response in which a protective antioxidant defense (Tier 1) upgrades to pro-inflammatory (Tier 2) and cytotoxic effects (Tier 3) as the level of oxidative stress increases. An example of a Tier 1 antioxidant defense is the expression of HO-1. This gene is activated by the nuclear accumulation of Nrf2. This transcription factor drives the antioxidant response element (ARE) in the promoter of phase II enzymes, leading to increased expression of hemoxygenase-1, glutathione-S- transferase, NADPH quinone oxidoreductase, ...
The KeratinoSensTM assay is a cell-based reporter gene assay which identifies skin sensitizers by measuring the induction of luciferase under the control of the antioxidant response element (ARE) derived from the human AKR1C2 gene. In the proposed Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) leading to skin sensitization, this method addresses the second key event, gene expression in keratinocytes associated with the antioxidant/electrophile response element (ARE)-dependent pathway. The IIVS laboratory participated in the validation studies led by Givaudan to assess the KeratinoSensTM assay which demonstrated... DPRA , h-CLAT , Itegrated Testing Strategies , KeratinoSens , LuSens ...
Cells respond to oxidants and electrophiles by activating receptor/transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) to coordinate the induction of cytoprotective genes critical for defense against oxidative and other stresses. Activation involves blocking the ubiquitination-proteasomal degradation of Nrf2. Modification of cysteine thiol groups by inducers in the linker regio
The Keap1-Nrf2-ARE signaling pathway elicits an adaptive response for cell survival after endogenous and exogenous stresses, such as inflammation and carcinogens, respectively. Keap1 inhibits the transcriptional activation activity of Nrf2 (p45 nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-related factor 2) in unstressed cells by facilitating its degradation. Through transcriptional analyses in Keap1- or Nrf2-disrupted mice, we identified interactions between the Keap1-Nrf2-ARE and the Notch1 signaling pathways. We found that Nrf2 recognized a functional antioxidant response element (ARE) in the promoter of Notch1. Notch1 regulates processes such as proliferation and cell fate decisions. We report a functional role for this cross talk between the two pathways and show that disruption of Nrf2 impeded liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy and was rescued by reestablishment of Notch1 signaling.. ...
Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2) like 2 (Nrf2) is a key regulator in protecting cells against stress by targeting many anti-stress response genes. Recent evidence also reveals that Nrf2 functions partially by targeting mircroRNAs (miRNAs). However, the understanding of Nrf2-mediated cytoprotection through miRNA-dependent mechanisms is largely unknown. In the current study, we identified a direct Nrf2 targeting miRNA, miR-214, and demonstrated a protective role of miR-214 in erythroid cells against oxidative stresses generated by radiation, excess iron and arsenic (As) exposure. miR-214 expression was transcriptionally repressed by Nrf2 through a canonical antioxidant response element (ARE) within its promoter region, and this repression is ROS-dependence. The suppression of miR-214 by Nrf2 could antagonize oxidative stress-induced cell death in erythroid cells by two ways. First, miR-214 directly targeted ATF4, a crucial transcriptional factor involved in anti-stress responses, down ...
Kang-fu-ling (KFL) is a polybotanical dietary supplement with antioxidant properties. This study aimed to evaluate the potential protective effects of KFL on cognitive deficit induced by high-power microwave (HPM) and the underlying mechanism for this neuroprotection. The electron spin resonance technique was employed to evaluate the free radical scavenging activity of KFL in vitro and KFL exhibited scavenging hydroxyl radical activity. KFL at doses of 0.75, 1.5 and 3 g kg-1 and vehicle were administered orally once daily for 14 days to male Wistar rats after being exposed to 30 mW cm-2 HPM for 15 minutes. KFL reversed HPM-induced memory loss and the histopathological changes in hippocampus of rats. In addition, KFL displayed a protective effect against HPM-induced oxidative stress and activated the nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its target genes in the hippocampus of rats. The Nrf2-antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling pathway may be involved in the neuroprotective effects ...
Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is an important transcription factor that regulates antioxidant response element (ARE)-driven phase II detoxification enzymes. In this study, inducti
Journal of Diabetes Research is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes research articles, review articles, and clinical studies related to type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The journal welcomes submissions focusing on the epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, management, and prevention of diabetes, as well as associated complications, such as diabetic retinopathy, neuropathy and nephropathy.
Cabbage has long been known as a fantastic food for the reduction of cancer risk, and for the healing of the intestinal tract. It turns out that there are numerous factors that play into those abilities. These include the beneficial fibers in cabbage, the content of glutamine (an amino acid-like substance used by intestinal cells for healing), and a high content of miraculous compounds called glucosinolates. Glucosinolates are sulfur containing molecules that have glucose attached to them. When you break open the cell walls of cabbage, an enzyme is released called myrosinase that removes the glucose from the sulfur compounds commonly called isothiocyanates. One of these isothiocyanates, sulforaphane, has an amazing capacity to turn on a part of our genes called the Antioxidant Response Element. When it does this, we start producing more antioxidant proteins, and detoxification proteins (enzymes actually) that provide us 72 hours of protection from environmentally and internally produced toxins. ...
The official symbol for this TF is NFE2L2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2) but this article will refer to it as NRF2, echoing the predominant use of this alias in the literature. Nrf2 is a basic "cap and collar" leucine zipper transcription factor, which regulates environmental stress response by activating the expression of genes for antioxidants and detoxification enzymes. The Nrf2-directed environmental stress response protects cells against variety of stressors including environmental pollutants such as electrophiles and oxidizing agents, immunotoxicants, and inflammation[1] Under normal conditions, Nrf2 is bound to Keap1 (Kelch-like erythroid-cell-derived protein with CNC homology [ECH]-associated protein), which anchors it in the cytoplasm and targets it for ubiquitination and proteasome degradation. Upon exposure to stressors, the Nrf2-Keap1 complex dissociates and Nrf2 translocates to the nucleus. This activation involves modification of the Nrf2-Keap1 complex by ...

Bilberry - Whortleberry Seeds (Vaccinium myrtillus)Bilberry - Whortleberry Seeds (Vaccinium myrtillus)

... and induce the antioxidant response element (ARE) with consequent phase II enzyme induction and other cytoprotective effects ( ... Antioxidant Effects. Anthocyanins are potent antioxidants that scavenge radicals and chelate metal ions (Pool-Zobel et al. 1999 ... 2002; Prior and Wu 2006). Many herbs and berries have powerful antioxidant properties (refer to Chapter 2 on antioxidants in ... Variation in anthocyanin content affects the antioxidant content of extracts. In vitro testing of the antioxidant capacity of ...
more infohttps://www.seeds-gallery.shop/en/home/bilberry-whortleberry-seeds-vaccinium-myrtillus.html

Regulatory mechanisms controlling gene expression mediated by the antioxidant response element.  - PubMed - NCBIRegulatory mechanisms controlling gene expression mediated by the antioxidant response element. - PubMed - NCBI

Regulatory mechanisms controlling gene expression mediated by the antioxidant response element.. Nguyen T1, Sherratt PJ, ... the antioxidant response element or ARE, found in the promoter of the enzymes gene. The transcription factor Nrf2 has been ... implicated as the central protein that interacts with the ARE to activate gene transcription constitutively or in response to ... and Phase II detoxification enzymes is induced in cells exposed to electrophilic compounds and phenolic antioxidants. Induction ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12359864?dopt=Abstract

AID 718465 - Antioxidant activity in human U373 cells assessed as increase of antioxidant response element-mediated phase 2...AID 718465 - Antioxidant activity in human U373 cells assessed as increase of antioxidant response element-mediated phase 2...

Antioxidant activity in human U373 cells assessed as increase of antioxidant response element-mediated phase 2 protein ...
more infohttps://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bioassay/718465

Cul3-mediated Nrf2 ubiquitination and antioxidant response element (ARE) activation are dependent on the partial molar volume...Cul3-mediated Nrf2 ubiquitination and antioxidant response element (ARE) activation are dependent on the partial molar volume...

Abbreviations: 15d-PGJ2, 15d-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2; ARE, antioxidant response element; As(III), sodium arsenite; BIA, ... Cul3-mediated Nrf2 ubiquitination and antioxidant response element (ARE) activation are dependent on the partial molar volume ... Cul3-mediated Nrf2 ubiquitination and antioxidant response element (ARE) activation are dependent on the partial molar volume ... Cul3-mediated Nrf2 ubiquitination and antioxidant response element (ARE) activation are dependent on the partial molar volume ...
more infohttp://www.biochemj.org/content/422/1/171

Identification of a novel Nrf2-regulated antioxidant response element (ARE) in the mouse NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 gene:...Identification of a novel Nrf2-regulated antioxidant response element (ARE) in the mouse NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 gene:...

Identification of a novel Nrf2-regulated antioxidant response element (ARE) in the mouse NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 gene ... Abbreviations used: ARE, antioxidant response element; bZIP, basic leucine zipper; ChIP, chromatin immunoprecipitation; EMSA, ... Identification of a novel Nrf2-regulated antioxidant response element (ARE) in the mouse NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 gene ... Identification of a novel Nrf2-regulated antioxidant response element (ARE) in the mouse NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 gene ...
more infohttp://www.biochemj.org/content/374/2/337

Induction of quinone reductase NQO1 by resveratrol in human K562 cells involves the antioxidant response element ARE and is...Induction of quinone reductase NQO1 by resveratrol in human K562 cells involves the antioxidant response element ARE and is...

... reporter provided evidence that the modulation of NQO1 gene expression by resveratrol involved the antioxidant response element ... Induction of quinone reductase NQO1 by resveratrol in human K562 cells involves the antioxidant response element ARE and is ... Induction of quinone reductase NQO1 by resveratrol in human K562 cells involves the antioxidant response element ARE and is ... An antioxidant response phenotype shared between hereditary and sporadic type 2 papillary renal cell carcinoma.. *Aikseng Ooi, ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Induction-of-quinone-reductase-NQO1-by-resveratrol-Hsieh-Lu/7224c7f881ca3c9dd1ffff768b46b400d200c26e

A Polymorphic Antioxidant Response Element Links NRF2/sMAF Binding to Enhanced MAPT Expression and Reduced Risk of Parkinsonian...A Polymorphic Antioxidant Response Element Links NRF2/sMAF Binding to Enhanced MAPT Expression and Reduced Risk of Parkinsonian...

A Polymorphic Antioxidant Response Element Links NRF2/sMAF Binding to Enhanced MAPT Expression and Reduced Risk of Parkinsonian ... A polymorphic antioxidant response element links NRF2/sMAF binding to enhanced MAPT expression and reduced risk of Parkinsonian ... A polymorphic antioxidant response element links NRF2/sMAF binding to enhanced MAPT expression and reduced risk of Parkinsonian ... A polymorphic antioxidant response element links NRF2/sMAF binding to enhanced MAPT expression and reduced risk of Parkinsonian ...
more infohttps://phgkb.cdc.gov/PHGKB/phgHome.action?action=forward&dbsource=huge&id=131109

Benzo(a)pyrene affects Jurkat T cells in the activated state via the antioxidant response element dependent Nrf2 pathway...Benzo(a)pyrene affects Jurkat T cells in the activated state via the antioxidant response element dependent Nrf2 pathway...

Benzo(a)pyrene affects Jurkat T cells in the activated state via the antioxidant response element dependent Nrf2 pathway ... the proteome changes in unstimulated cells point towards a modified regulation of the cytoskeleton and cellular stress response ...
more infohttps://bib.vetmed.fu-berlin.de/pubdb/pub/13190-benzo-a-pyrene-affects-jurkat-t-cells-in-the-activated-state-vi/

Molecules  | Free Full-Text | Cancer Chemoprevention by Carotenoids | HTMLMolecules | Free Full-Text | Cancer Chemoprevention by Carotenoids | HTML

They include molecules that are involved in antioxidant activity, the antioxidant response element (ARE), apoptosis induction, ... Functional characterization and role of INrf2 in antioxidant response element-mediated expression and antioxidant induction of ... Antioxidant Response Element. Induction of phase 2 enzymes that neutralize reactive electrophiles and act as indirect ... through the antioxidant response element (ARE) found in the regulatory regions of their genes. The transcription factor Nrf2, ...
more infohttps://www.mdpi.com/1420-3049/17/3/3202/htm

Frontiers | Oxidative Stress in Oral Diseases: Understanding Its Relation with Other Systemic Diseases | PhysiologyFrontiers | Oxidative Stress in Oral Diseases: Understanding Its Relation with Other Systemic Diseases | Physiology

NRF2-Antioxidant Response Element Signaling Pathway. The nuclear factor erythroid 2 (NFE2)-related factor (NRF2), a basic ... NRF2 plays a role as a positive regulator of human Antioxidant Response Elements (AREs; Venugopal and Jaiswal, 1996). NRF2 was ... Phosphorylation of Nrf2 at Ser-40 by protein kinase C regulates antioxidant response element-mediated transcription. J. Biol. ... Nrf1 and Nrf2 positively and c-Fos and Fra1 negatively regulate the human antioxidant response element-mediated expression of ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphys.2017.00693/full

Thioredoxin-dependent redox regulation of the antioxidant responsive element (ARE) in electrophile response - Semantic ScholarThioredoxin-dependent redox regulation of the antioxidant responsive element (ARE) in electrophile response - Semantic Scholar

... through the antioxidant responsive element (ARE). We showed here that tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ), an electrophile stressor, ... thioredoxin expression is a mechanism of enhancing signal transduction through the ARE in electrophile-induced stress responses ... Thioredoxin-dependent redox regulation of the antioxidant responsive element (ARE) in electrophile response. @article{ ... Thioredoxin-dependent redox regulation of the antioxidant responsive element (ARE) in electrophile response}, author={Yong-Chul ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Thioredoxin-dependent-redox-regulation-of-the-%28ARE%29-Kim-Yamaguchi/12054ab3aa430204c436bf968fb2795ba48aa076

Publication Results | Division of Cancer PreventionPublication Results | Division of Cancer Prevention

Is Antioxidant Response Element a Prevention Target?. Lubet RA, Townsend R, Clapper ML, Juliana MM, Steele VE, McCormick DL, ... Pharmacometabolomic Pathway Response of Effective Anticancer Agents on Different Diets in Rats with Induced Mammary Tumors.. ...
more infohttps://prevention.cancer.gov/cgi-bin-pubsearch/pubsearch/index.pl?rgroup=CADRG&originating_page_name=Chemopreventive+Agent+Development&originating_page_nid=23

Gene Regulation Flashcards by Anna  Myrmoe | BrainscapeGene Regulation Flashcards by Anna Myrmoe | Brainscape

Transcribed and translated in response to the needs of the cell.. ex. immune response, development, vasodialators/constrictors ... Each gene has a specific set of regulatory elements that are bound by specific regulatory proteins. -More efficient because no ... In response to injunctions from activators, these factors position RNA pol. at the start of transcription and initiate the ... binding allows for the cell to respond to enviornmental changes by expressing genes involved in that response. ex. ARE ( ...
more infohttps://www.brainscape.com/flashcards/gene-regulation-2781539/packs/4629025

ER stress-induced cell death mechanisms.  - PubMed - NCBIER stress-induced cell death mechanisms. - PubMed - NCBI

... antioxidant response elements; apoptotic-signaling kinase-1; bax-inhibitor 1; bifunctional apoptosis regulator; binding ... AGE; ALS; AMD; ARE; ASK1; ATF/cAMP response elements; ATF4; ATF6; BAG; BAR; BI-1; Bcl-2 associated athanogene; BiP; CASR; CHOP ... ER stress-response element; ER-assisted degradation; ERAD; ERO1α; ERSE; GADD34; HCV; HFD; HO-1; HSV; IBD; IEC; IP(3)R; IRE1α; ... The ER stress response is mediated by three sensors located at the ER membrane: IRE1α, ATF6 and PERK. Accumulation of unfolded ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23850759?dopt=Abstract

Curcumin Protects Human Keratinocytes against Inorganic Arsenite-Induced Acute Cytotoxicity through an NRF2-Dependent MechanismCurcumin Protects Human Keratinocytes against Inorganic Arsenite-Induced Acute Cytotoxicity through an NRF2-Dependent Mechanism

M. Biswas and J. Y. Chan, "Role of Nrf1 in antioxidant response element-mediated gene expression and beyond," Toxicology and ... Antioxidant Response Element (ARE) Reporter Assay. Cignal Lenti ARE reporter transduction of HaCaT cells was performed as ... We found that curcumin led to nuclear accumulation of NRF2 protein and increased the expression of antioxidant response element ... that regulate the cellular adaptive response to oxidative stress through the cis-regulating antioxidant response element (ARE ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2013/412576/

Expression of Glutathione Peroxidase and Glutathione Reductase and Level of Free Radical Processes under Toxic Hepatitis in RatsExpression of Glutathione Peroxidase and Glutathione Reductase and Level of Free Radical Processes under Toxic Hepatitis in Rats

Transcription of antioxidant enzymes is regulated by antioxidant response elements (AREs). Earlier it was shown that Nrf2 (NF- ... proteins negatively regulate antioxidant response element-mediated expression and antioxidant induction of the NAD(P)H:Quinone ... R. Yu, C. Chen, Y. Y. Mo et al., "Activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways induces antioxidant response element- ... H. C. Huang, T. Nguyen, and C. B. Pickett, "Regulation of the antioxidant response element by protein kinase C-mediated ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/jt/2013/870628/

Erectile Dysfunction as a Cardiovascular Impairment - 1st EditionErectile Dysfunction as a Cardiovascular Impairment - 1st Edition

4.26 Is There an Age-Related Progressive Antioxidant Deficiency Syndrome?. 4.27 Natures Antioxidant Response Element ... Chapter 9. The Polyphenolic Antioxidant Resveratrol, the Carotinoid Lycopene, and the Proanthocyanidin Pycnogenol ...
more infohttps://www.elsevier.com/books/erectile-dysfunction-as-a-cardiovascular-impairment/fried/978-0-12-420046-3

Protection against electrophile and oxidant stress by induction of the phase 2 response: Fate of cysteines of the Keap1 sensor...Protection against electrophile and oxidant stress by induction of the phase 2 response: Fate of cysteines of the Keap1 sensor...

Abbreviations: ARE, antioxidant response element; NQO1, nicotinamide quinone oxidoreductase 1, NAD(P)H:quinone acceptor ... Many phase 2 genes are regulated by upstream antioxidant response elements (ARE) that are targets of the leucine zipper ... The Nrf2-Antioxidant Response Element Signaling Pathway and Its Activation by Oxidative Stress ... Phase 2 genes are regulated by 5′ upstream regulatory sequences which have been designated as antioxidant response elements ( ...
more infohttp://www.pnas.org/content/101/7/2040

Plus itPlus it

Nrf3 negatively regulates antioxidant-response element-mediated expression and antioxidant induction of NAD(P)H:quinone ... Functional characterization and role of INrf2 in antioxidant response element-mediated expression and antioxidant induction of ... Small Maf (MafG and MafK) proteins negatively regulate antioxidant response element-mediated expression and antioxidant ... Regulation of the antioxidant response element by protein kinase C-mediated phosphorylation of NF-E2-related factor 2. Proc ...
more infohttp://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/66/17/8421

Lessons from mammalian hibernators: molecular insights into striated muscle plasticity and remodeling : Biomolecular ConceptsLessons from mammalian hibernators: molecular insights into striated muscle plasticity and remodeling : Biomolecular Concepts

Regulation of the antioxidant response element by protein kinase C-mediated phosphorylation of NF-E2-related factor 2. Proc ... Antioxidant defenses during mammalian hibernation. Adaptation of antioxidant defenses is widespread as a response to ... This activates Nrf and promotes binding to the antioxidant response element (ARE) that is present in the promoter region of ... Sirt3 blocks the cardiac hypertrophic response by augmenting Foxo3a-dependent antioxidant defense mechanisms in mice. J Clin ...
more infohttps://www.degruyter.com/view/j/bmc.2016.7.issue-2/bmc-2015-0031/bmc-2015-0031.xml

Frontiers | Nrf2/ARE Pathway Modulation by Dietary Energy Regulation in Neurological Disorders | PharmacologyFrontiers | Nrf2/ARE Pathway Modulation by Dietary Energy Regulation in Neurological Disorders | Pharmacology

... regulates the expression of an array of enzymes with important detoxifying and antioxidant functions. Current findings support ... regulates the expression of an array of enzymes with important detoxifying and antioxidant functions. Current findings support ... Nguyen, T., Nioi, P., and Pickett, C. B. (2009). The Nrf2-antioxidant response element signaling pathway and its activation by ... 6-OHDA, 6-hydroxydopamine; Aβ, Amyloid β; AD, Alzheimers disease; ARE, antioxidant response element; BBB, blood-brain barrier ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2019.00033/full

Potent Induction of Phase 2 Enzymes in Human Prostate Cells by Sulforaphane | Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & PreventionPotent Induction of Phase 2 Enzymes in Human Prostate Cells by Sulforaphane | Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention

Role of AP1 binding site contained within human antioxidant response element(Published erratum in J. Biol. Chem., 268: 21454, ... Li Y., Jaiswal A. K. Human antioxidant-response-element-mediated regulation of type 1 NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase gene ... 3 The abbreviations used are: GST, glutathione-S-transferase; ARE, antioxidant response element; GSH, reduced glutathione; QR, ... Wasserman W. W., Fahl W. E. Functional antioxidant responsive elements. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 94: 5361-5366, 1997. ...
more infohttps://cebp.aacrjournals.org/content/10/9/949?ijkey=3a6658a2a888185d4cd9f007accb87fedf0f0693&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Redox Signalling and Role of Antioxidant in Heart and Kidney DiseaseRedox Signalling and Role of Antioxidant in Heart and Kidney Disease

Enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants defence system satiates ROS in heart.. *Nrf2/ARE (antioxidant response element) ... antioxidant response element; cardiovascular disease; chronic kidney disease; cannabinoid receptors; hyperoxaluria ... Huang Y, Li W, Su ZY and Kong AN (2015) The complexity of the Nrf2 pathway: beyond the antioxidant response. The Journal of ... Kurutas EB (2016) The importance of antioxidants which play the role in cellular response against oxidative/nitrosative stress ...
more infohttp://www.els.net/WileyCDA/ElsArticle/refId-a0027100.html

Plus itPlus it

antioxidant response element. CDDO-MA. CDDOmethylamide. CoQ10. coenzyme Q10. COX. cytochrome c oxidase. DA. dopaminergic. Drp1 ...
more infohttp://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/342/3/619

Gankyrin has an antioxidative role through the feedback regulation of Nrf2 in hepatocellular carcinoma | JEMGankyrin has an antioxidative role through the feedback regulation of Nrf2 in hepatocellular carcinoma | JEM

antioxidant-response element. GCLC. glutamate-cysteine ligase, catalytic subunit. GCLM. glutamate-cysteine ligase, modifier ... Transcriptional regulation of the antioxidant response element. Activation by Nrf2 and repression by MafK. J. Biol. Chem. 275: ... Nrf1 and Nrf2 positively and c-Fos and Fra1 negatively regulate the human antioxidant response element-mediated expression of ... An Nrf2/small Maf heterodimer mediates the induction of phase II detoxifying enzyme genes through antioxidant response elements ...
more infohttp://jem.rupress.org/content/213/5/859
  • These polyphenolic components give bilberry its blue/black color and high antioxidant content, and they are believed to be the key bioactives responsible for the many reported health benefits of bilberry and other berry fruits. (seeds-gallery.shop)
  • Eukaryotic cells have developed an evolutionarily conserved adaptive mechanism, the unfolded protein response (UPR), which aims to clear unfolded proteins and restore ER homeostasis. (nih.gov)
  • The endoplasmic-reticulum (ER) stress response constitutes a cellular process that is triggered by a variety of conditions that disturb folding of proteins in the ER. (nih.gov)
  • The ER stress response is mediated by three sensors located at the ER membrane: IRE1α, ATF6 and PERK. (nih.gov)
  • Finally, we propose that comparing and contrasting these concepts to data collected from model organisms able to withstand dramatic changes in muscular function without injury will allow researchers to delineate physiological versus pathological responses. (degruyter.com)
  • It is known that inflammation involves a complex series of protective and reparative responses to tissue injury caused by either mechanical and autoimmune stimuli or infection. (springer.com)
  • Bilirubin, on the other hand, is oxidized to biliverdin to form the biliverdin reductase cycle that functions as an important antioxidant in protecting lipid oxidation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Curcumin is demonstrated to induce remarkable antioxidant activity in a variety of cells and tissues. (hindawi.com)
  • Consequently, hibernators hold a wealth of knowledge as it pertains to understanding the natural capacity of myocytes to alter structural, contractile and metabolic properties in response to environmental stimuli. (degruyter.com)