Nucleotide sequences that are found in the PROMOTER REGIONS of the genes of stress-responsive and cytoprotective proteins, such as those encoding antioxidant and PHASE II DETOXIFICATION enzymes. NF-E2-RELATED FACTOR 2 containing transcription factors bind to these elements during induction of these genes.
A basic-leucine zipper transcription factor that was originally described as a transcriptional regulator controlling expression of the BETA-GLOBIN gene. It may regulate the expression of a wide variety of genes that play a role in protecting cells from oxidative damage.
Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.
Nucleotide sequences, usually upstream, which are recognized by specific regulatory transcription factors, thereby causing gene response to various regulatory agents. These elements may be found in both promoter and enhancer regions.
A flavoprotein that reversibly catalyzes the oxidation of NADH or NADPH by various quinones and oxidation-reduction dyes. The enzyme is inhibited by dicoumarol, capsaicin, and caffeine.
MafG is a ubiquitously expressed small maf protein that is involved in CELL DIFFERENTIATION of ERYTHROCYTES. It dimerizes with P45 NF-E2 PROTEIN and activates expression of ALPHA-GLOBIN and BETA-GLOBIN.
One of the enzymes active in the gamma-glutamyl cycle. It catalyzes the synthesis of gamma-glutamylcysteine from glutamate and cysteine in the presence of ATP with the formation of ADP and orthophosphate. EC 6.3.2.2.
Organic compounds with the general formula R-NCS.
Organic derivatives of thiocyanic acid which contain the general formula R-SCN.
A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).
A polyaromatic hydrocarbon inducer of P4501A1 and P4501A2 cytochromes. (Proc Soc Exp Biol Med 1994 Dec:207(3):302-308)
A transcription factor that controls the expression of variety of proteins including CYTOCHROME C and 5-AMINOLEVULINATE SYNTHETASE. It plays an important role in maintenance of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN of MITOCHONDRIA.
A ubiquitous stress-responsive enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of HEME to yield IRON; CARBON MONOXIDE; and BILIVERDIN.
A small Maf protein involved in differentiation of ERYTHROID CELLS. MafK was originally described as the small subunit of the NF-E2 Transcription Factor, but other small MAF PROTEINS also serve as NF-E2 subunits.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
A basic-leucine zipper transcription factor that is involved in regulating inflammatory responses, MORPHOGENESIS, and HEME biosynthesis.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
A family of transcription factors that control expression of a variety of nuclear GENES encoding proteins that function in the RESPIRATORY CHAIN of the MITOCHONDRIA.
Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.
Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Alternatives to the use of animals in research, testing, and education. The alternatives may include reduction in the number of animals used, replacement of animals with a non-animal model or with animals of a species lower phylogenetically, or refinement of methods to minimize pain and distress of animals used.
Maf proto-oncogene protein is the major cellular homolog of the V-MAF ONCOGENE PROTEIN. It was the first of the mammalian MAF TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS identified, and it is induced in activated T-LYMPHOCYTES and regulates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of INTERLEUKIN-4. c-maf is frequently translocated to an immunoglobulin locus in MULTIPLE MYELOMA.
Enzymes that oxidize certain LUMINESCENT AGENTS to emit light (PHYSICAL LUMINESCENCE). The luciferases from different organisms have evolved differently so have different structures and substrates.
Processes that stimulate the GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of a gene or set of genes.
SESQUITERPENES cyclized into two adjoining rings, one being 7-carbons and the other is 5-carbons.
An aromatic perennial plant species that has been used to treat migraines, arthritis, and as a febrifuge. It contains TANNINS, volatile oils (OILS, ESSENTIAL), and sesquiterpene lactones, especially parthenolide.
Mixture of 2- and 3-tert-butyl-4-methoxyphenols that is used as an antioxidant in foods, cosmetics, and pharmaceuticals.
Agents that reduce the frequency or rate of spontaneous or induced tumors independently of the mechanism involved.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Electron-accepting molecules in chemical reactions in which electrons are transferred from one molecule to another (OXIDATION-REDUCTION).
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.
DNA-binding motifs formed from two alpha-helixes which intertwine for about eight turns into a coiled coil and then bifurcate to form Y shaped structures. Leucines occurring in heptad repeats end up on the same sides of the helixes and are adjacent to each other in the stem of the Y (the "zipper" region). The DNA-binding residues are located in the bifurcated region of the Y.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
A transferase that catalyzes the addition of aliphatic, aromatic, or heterocyclic FREE RADICALS as well as EPOXIDES and arene oxides to GLUTATHIONE. Addition takes place at the SULFUR. It also catalyzes the reduction of polyol nitrate by glutathione to polyol and nitrite.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Organic compounds containing a BENZENE ring attached to a flavone group. Some of these are potent arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase inhibitors. They may also inhibit the binding of NUCLEIC ACIDS to BENZOPYRENES and related compounds. The designation includes all isomers; the 7,8-isomer is most frequently encountered.
A human liver tumor cell line used to study a variety of liver-specific metabolic functions.
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A flavoprotein that reversibly oxidizes NADPH to NADP and a reduced acceptor. EC 1.6.99.1.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
Proteins and peptides that are involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION within the cell. Included here are peptides and proteins that regulate the activity of TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS and cellular processes in response to signals from CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. Intracellular signaling peptide and proteins may be part of an enzymatic signaling cascade or act through binding to and modifying the action of other signaling factors.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
A large superfamily of transcription factors that contain a region rich in BASIC AMINO ACID residues followed by a LEUCINE ZIPPER domain.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The process by which chemical compounds provide protection to cells against harmful agents.
A multiprotein complex composed of the products of c-jun and c-fos proto-oncogenes. These proteins must dimerize in order to bind to the AP-1 recognition site, also known as the TPA-responsive element (TRE). AP-1 controls both basal and inducible transcription of several genes.
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of HYDROGEN PEROXIDE to water and oxygen. It is present in many animal cells. A deficiency of this enzyme results in ACATALASIA.
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.
A pentacyclic triterpene that occurs widely in many PLANTS as the free acid or the aglycone for many SAPONINS. It is biosynthesized from lupane. It can rearrange to the isomer, ursolic acid, or be oxidized to taraxasterol and amyrin.
A mixed function oxidase enzyme which during hemoglobin catabolism catalyzes the degradation of heme to ferrous iron, carbon monoxide and biliverdin in the presence of molecular oxygen and reduced NADPH. The enzyme is induced by metals, particularly cobalt. EC 1.14.99.3.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.
A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Cis-acting DNA sequences which can increase transcription of genes. Enhancers can usually function in either orientation and at various distances from a promoter.
A protein that has been shown to function as a calcium-regulated transcription factor as well as a substrate for depolarization-activated CALCIUM-CALMODULIN-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. This protein functions to integrate both calcium and cAMP signals.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
An enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of 2 moles of glutathione in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to yield oxidized glutathione and water. EC 1.11.1.9.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Nucleic acid sequences involved in regulating the expression of genes.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
A broad category of carrier proteins that play a role in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They generally contain several modular domains, each of which having its own binding activity, and act by forming complexes with other intracellular-signaling molecules. Signal-transducing adaptor proteins lack enzyme activity, however their activity can be modulated by other signal-transducing enzymes
Major constituent of the cytoskeleton found in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. They form a flexible framework for the cell, provide attachment points for organelles and formed bodies, and make communication between parts of the cell possible.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Small double-stranded, non-protein coding RNAs (21-31 nucleotides) involved in GENE SILENCING functions, especially RNA INTERFERENCE (RNAi). Endogenously, siRNAs are generated from dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) by the same ribonuclease, Dicer, that generates miRNAs (MICRORNAS). The perfect match of the siRNAs' antisense strand to their target RNAs mediates RNAi by siRNA-guided RNA cleavage. siRNAs fall into different classes including trans-acting siRNA (tasiRNA), repeat-associated RNA (rasiRNA), small-scan RNA (scnRNA), and Piwi protein-interacting RNA (piRNA) and have different specific gene silencing functions.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The N-acetyl derivative of CYSTEINE. It is used as a mucolytic agent to reduce the viscosity of mucous secretions. It has also been shown to have antiviral effects in patients with HIV due to inhibition of viral stimulation by reactive oxygen intermediates.
A DNA sequence that is found in the promoter region of many growth-related genes. The regulatory transcription factor SERUM RESPONSE FACTOR binds to and regulates the activity of genes containing this element.
A group of compounds with an 8-carbon ring. They may be saturated or unsaturated.
A plant species of the family VACCINIUM.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
A peroxiredoxin that is a cytosolic bifunctional enzyme. It functions as a peroxiredoxin via a single redox-active cysteine and also contains a Ca2+-independent acidic phospholipase A2 activity.
An electrophoretic technique for assaying the binding of one compound to another. Typically one compound is labeled to follow its mobility during electrophoresis. If the labeled compound is bound by the other compound, then the mobility of the labeled compound through the electrophoretic medium will be retarded.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Proteins in the nucleus or cytoplasm that specifically bind RETINOIC ACID or RETINOL and trigger changes in the behavior of cells. Retinoic acid receptors, like steroid receptors, are ligand-activated transcription regulators. Several types have been recognized.
Catalyzes the oxidation of GLUTATHIONE to GLUTATHIONE DISULFIDE in the presence of NADP+. Deficiency in the enzyme is associated with HEMOLYTIC ANEMIA. Formerly listed as EC 1.6.4.2.
Cyclic AMP response element modulator is a basic leucine zipper transcription factor that is regulated by CYCLIC AMP. It plays an important role in SPERMATID development in the mammalian TESTIS.
A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.
Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.
A subtype of RETINOIC ACID RECEPTORS that are specific for 9-cis-retinoic acid which function as nuclear TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that regulate multiple signaling pathways.
A small maf protein that forms dimers with NRF1 protein; NRF2 PROTEIN; and P45 NF-E2 PROTEIN. MafF complexes bind Maf recognition elements to regulate tissue-specific GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A GLUTATHIONE dimer formed by a disulfide bond between the cysteine sulfhydryl side chains during the course of being oxidized.
The dialdehyde of malonic acid.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
An enzyme that catalyzes the acetylation of chloramphenicol to yield chloramphenicol 3-acetate. Since chloramphenicol 3-acetate does not bind to bacterial ribosomes and is not an inhibitor of peptidyltransferase, the enzyme is responsible for the naturally occurring chloramphenicol resistance in bacteria. The enzyme, for which variants are known, is found in both gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. EC 2.3.1.28.
A DNA sequence that is found in the promoter region of vitamin D regulated genes. Vitamin D receptor (RECEPTOR, CALCITRIOL) binds to and regulates the activity of genes containing this element.
A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.
A direct-acting oxidative stress-inducing agent used to examine the effects of oxidant stress on Ca(2+)-dependent signal transduction in vascular endothelial cells. It is also used as a catalyst in polymerization reactions and to introduce peroxy groups into organic molecules.
Specific high affinity binding proteins for THYROID HORMONES in target cells. They are usually found in the nucleus and regulate DNA transcription. These receptors are activated by hormones that leads to transcription, cell differentiation, and growth suppression. Thyroid hormone receptors are encoded by two genes (GENES, ERBA): erbA-alpha and erbA-beta for alpha and beta thyroid hormone receptors, respectively.
A generic descriptor for all TOCOPHEROLS and TOCOTRIENOLS that exhibit ALPHA-TOCOPHEROL activity. By virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus, these compounds exhibit varying degree of antioxidant activity, depending on the site and number of methyl groups and the type of ISOPRENOIDS.
Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
One of the enzymes active in the gamma-glutamyl cycle. It catalyzes the synthesis of glutathione from gamma-glutamylcysteine and glycine in the presence of ATP with the formation of ADP and orthophosphate. EC 6.3.2.3.
A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.
A plant species of the genus IPOMOEA, family CONVOLVULACEAE. An abundance of spontaneous mutants makes it useful in study of PLANT DNA and GENETICS.
Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-jun genes (GENES, JUN). They are involved in growth-related transcriptional control. There appear to be three distinct functions: dimerization (with c-fos), DNA-binding, and transcriptional activation. Oncogenic transformation can take place by constitutive expression of c-jun.
A group of chemical elements that are needed in minute quantities for the proper growth, development, and physiology of an organism. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A MADS domain-containing transcription factor that binds to the SERUM RESPONSE ELEMENT in the promoter-enhancer region of many genes. It is one of the four founder proteins that structurally define the superfamily of MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS.
Intracellular receptors that can be found in the cytoplasm or in the nucleus. They bind to extracellular signaling molecules that migrate through or are transported across the CELL MEMBRANE. Many members of this class of receptors occur in the cytoplasm and are transported to the CELL NUCLEUS upon ligand-binding where they signal via DNA-binding and transcription regulation. Also included in this category are receptors found on INTRACELLULAR MEMBRANES that act via mechanisms similar to CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.
A yellow-orange dye obtained from tumeric, the powdered root of CURCUMA longa. It is used in the preparation of curcuma paper and the detection of boron. Curcumin appears to possess a spectrum of pharmacological properties, due primarily to its inhibitory effects on metabolic enzymes.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
A shiny gray element with atomic symbol As, atomic number 33, and atomic weight 75. It occurs throughout the universe, mostly in the form of metallic arsenides. Most forms are toxic. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), arsenic and certain arsenic compounds have been listed as known carcinogens. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
Cytoplasmic proteins that specifically bind glucocorticoids and mediate their cellular effects. The glucocorticoid receptor-glucocorticoid complex acts in the nucleus to induce transcription of DNA. Glucocorticoids were named for their actions on blood glucose concentration, but they have equally important effects on protein and fat metabolism. Cortisol is the most important example.
Low-molecular-weight end products, probably malondialdehyde, that are formed during the decomposition of lipid peroxidation products. These compounds react with thiobarbituric acid to form a fluorescent red adduct.
A low-molecular-weight (approx. 10 kD) protein occurring in the cytoplasm of kidney cortex and liver. It is rich in cysteinyl residues and contains no aromatic amino acids. Metallothionein shows high affinity for bivalent heavy metals.
A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.
Reduction of pharmacologic activity or toxicity of a drug or other foreign substance by a living system, usually by enzymatic action. It includes those metabolic transformations that make the substance more soluble for faster renal excretion.
Substances that comprise all matter. Each element is made up of atoms that are identical in number of electrons and protons and in nuclear charge, but may differ in mass or number of neutrons.
Compounds containing the -SH radical.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
A computer based method of simulating or analyzing the behavior of structures or components.
Compounds based on fumaric acid.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Inorganic salts or organic esters of arsenious acid.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
A gene silencing phenomenon whereby specific dsRNAs (RNA, DOUBLE-STRANDED) trigger the degradation of homologous mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). The specific dsRNAs are processed into SMALL INTERFERING RNA (siRNA) which serves as a guide for cleavage of the homologous mRNA in the RNA-INDUCED SILENCING COMPLEX. DNA METHYLATION may also be triggered during this process.
An important regulator of GENE EXPRESSION during growth and development, and in NEOPLASMS. Tretinoin, also known as retinoic acid and derived from maternal VITAMIN A, is essential for normal GROWTH; and EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT. An excess of tretinoin can be teratogenic. It is used in the treatment of PSORIASIS; ACNE VULGARIS; and several other SKIN DISEASES. It has also been approved for use in promyelocytic leukemia (LEUKEMIA, PROMYELOCYTIC, ACUTE).
Proteins found usually in the cytoplasm or nucleus that specifically bind steroid hormones and trigger changes influencing the behavior of cells. The steroid receptor-steroid hormone complex regulates the transcription of specific genes.
A member of the p300-CBP transcription factor family that was initially identified as a binding partner for CAMP RESPONSE ELEMENT-BINDING PROTEIN. Mutations in CREB-binding protein are associated with RUBINSTEIN-TAYBI SYNDROME.
Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.
A group of phenyl benzopyrans named for having structures like FLAVONES.
Nucleotide sequences of a gene that are involved in the regulation of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.
Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
The Alu sequence family (named for the restriction endonuclease cleavage enzyme Alu I) is the most highly repeated interspersed repeat element in humans (over a million copies). It is derived from the 7SL RNA component of the SIGNAL RECOGNITION PARTICLE and contains an RNA polymerase III promoter. Transposition of this element into coding and regulatory regions of genes is responsible for many heritable diseases.
A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.
A natural tocopherol and one of the most potent antioxidant tocopherols. It exhibits antioxidant activity by virtue of the phenolic hydrogen on the 2H-1-benzopyran-6-ol nucleus. It has four methyl groups on the 6-chromanol nucleus. The natural d form of alpha-tocopherol is more active than its synthetic dl-alpha-tocopherol racemic mixture.
Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Retrovirus-associated DNA sequences (fos) originally isolated from the Finkel-Biskis-Jinkins (FBJ-MSV) and Finkel-Biskis-Reilly (FBR-MSV) murine sarcoma viruses. The proto-oncogene protein c-fos codes for a nuclear protein which is involved in growth-related transcriptional control. The insertion of c-fos into FBJ-MSV or FBR-MSV induces osteogenic sarcomas in mice. The human c-fos gene is located at 14q21-31 on the long arm of chromosome 14.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The region of DNA which borders the 5' end of a transcription unit and where a variety of regulatory sequences are located.
A large class of organic compounds having more than one PHENOL group.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
Inorganic or organic oxy acids of sulfur which contain the RSO2(OH) radical.
Promoter-specific RNA polymerase II transcription factor that binds to the GC box, one of the upstream promoter elements, in mammalian cells. The binding of Sp1 is necessary for the initiation of transcription in the promoters of a variety of cellular and viral GENES.
A method for determining the sequence specificity of DNA-binding proteins. DNA footprinting utilizes a DNA damaging agent (either a chemical reagent or a nuclease) which cleaves DNA at every base pair. DNA cleavage is inhibited where the ligand binds to DNA. (from Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A large multisubunit complex that plays an important role in the degradation of most of the cytosolic and nuclear proteins in eukaryotic cells. It contains a 700-kDa catalytic sub-complex and two 700-kDa regulatory sub-complexes. The complex digests ubiquitinated proteins and protein activated via ornithine decarboxylase antizyme.
A carotenoid that is a precursor of VITAMIN A. It is administered to reduce the severity of photosensitivity reactions in patients with erythropoietic protoporphyria (PORPHYRIA, ERYTHROPOIETIC). (From Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Engewood, CO, 1995.)
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
A T3 thyroid hormone normally synthesized and secreted by the thyroid gland in much smaller quantities than thyroxine (T4). Most T3 is derived from peripheral monodeiodination of T4 at the 5' position of the outer ring of the iodothyronine nucleus. The hormone finally delivered and used by the tissues is mainly T3.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.
The act of ligating UBIQUITINS to PROTEINS to form ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes to label proteins for transport to the PROTEASOME ENDOPEPTIDASE COMPLEX where proteolysis occurs.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
A di-tert-butyl PHENOL with antioxidant properties.
The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.
Highly repeated sequences, 6K-8K base pairs in length, which contain RNA polymerase II promoters. They also have an open reading frame that is related to the reverse transcriptase of retroviruses but they do not contain LTRs (long terminal repeats). Copies of the LINE 1 (L1) family form about 15% of the human genome. The jockey elements of Drosophila are LINEs.
The artificial induction of GENE SILENCING by the use of RNA INTERFERENCE to reduce the expression of a specific gene. It includes the use of DOUBLE-STRANDED RNA, such as SMALL INTERFERING RNA and RNA containing HAIRPIN LOOP SEQUENCE, and ANTI-SENSE OLIGONUCLEOTIDES.
The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.

HIV-1 gp120 induces antioxidant response element-mediated expression in primary astrocytes: role in HIV associated neurocognitive disorder. (1/39)

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Polyphenols, isothiocyanates, and carotenoid derivatives enhance estrogenic activity in bone cells but inhibit it in breast cancer cells. (2/39)

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Epigallocatechin gallate induces expression of heme oxygenase-1 in endothelial cells via p38 MAPK and Nrf-2 that suppresses proinflammatory actions of TNF-alpha. (3/39)

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Regulatory role of KEAP1 and NRF2 in PPARgamma expression and chemoresistance in human non-small-cell lung carcinoma cells. (4/39)

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The Nrf2-ARE pathway: a valuable therapeutic target for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. (5/39)

Modulation of NF-E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) has been shown in several neurodegenerative disorders. The overexpression of Nrf2 has become a potential therapeutic avenue for various neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Alzheimer's disease. The expression of phase II detoxification enzymes is governed by the cis-acting regulatory element known as antioxidant response element (ARE). The transcription factor Nrf2 binds to ARE thereby transcribing multitude of antioxidant genes. Keap1, a culin 3-based E3 ligase that targets Nrf2 for degradation, sequesters Nrf2 in cytoplasm. Disruption of Keap1-Nrf2 interaction or genetic overexpression of Nrf2 can increase the endogenous antioxidant capacity of the brain thereby rendering protection against oxidative stress in neurodegenerative disorders. This review primarily focuses on recent patents that target Nrf2 overexpression as a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders.  (+info)

Up-regulation of human prostaglandin reductase 1 improves the efficacy of hydroxymethylacylfulvene, an antitumor chemotherapeutic agent. (6/39)

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Activation of antioxidant response element in mouse primary cortical cultures with sesquiterpene lactones isolated from Tanacetum parthenium. (7/39)

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Molecular basis of electrophilic and oxidative defense: promises and perils of Nrf2. (8/39)

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Excellgen Nuclear factor-like 2, NRF2, NFE2L2, nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 [RP-123] - Product Name Nuclear factor-like 2, NRF2, NFE2L2 Size 100 µg Description Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2, also known as NFE2L2 or Nrf2, is a transcription factor that binds to the antioxidant response element (ARE) of target genes in response to oxidative stress and increases the transcription of a variety of antioxidative and carcinogen-detoxification enzymes. Stress
Nuclear Factor Erythroid Derived 2 products available through Novus Biologicals. Browse our Nuclear Factor Erythroid Derived 2 product catalog backed by our Guarantee+.
Activation of antioxidant response and induction of HMOX1. (A) Representative immunoblots of total cellular proteins (20 μg) illustrating the effect of 25 μM
This is a short article explaining the significance of Nrf2, a major regulator of antioxidant response and Keap1 regulation of Nrf2.
UCL Discovery is UCLs open access repository, showcasing and providing access to UCL research outputs from all UCL disciplines.
筑波大学の研究情報ポータル、COmmunity of Tsukuba Researchers、略してCOTREにようこそ!このサイトでは、筑波大学に所属する研究者の情報、筑波大学が誇る高被引用論文、研究推進体制、学内の諸手続きなど筑波大学の「研究」についての情報を網羅的に紹介しています。筑波大学の研究大学強化促進事業の目玉、国際テニュアトラックについても本サイトで情報公開しています。
Antioxidant response element (ARE)-mediated expression and coordinated induction of antioxidant enzymes is a critical mechanism of protection against chemically induced oxidative/electrophilic stress. NF-E2-related nuclear factors (Nrf1 and Nrf2) bind to ARE and regulate ARE-mediated gene expression
This gene encodes a transcription factor which is a member of a small family of basic leucine zipper (bZIP) proteins. The encoded transcription factor regulates genes which contain antioxidant response elements (ARE) in their promoters; many of these genes encode proteins involved in response to injury and inflammation which includes the production of free radicals. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been characterized for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Sep 2015 ...
PubMedID: 22703534 | Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 nuclear translocation induces myofibroblastic dedifferentiation in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. | Antioxidants & redox signaling | 1/1/2013
Synthesis and biological evaluation of biotin conjugates of (±)-(4bS,8aR,10aS)-10a-ethynyl-4b,8,8-trimethyl- 3,7-dioxo-3,4b,7,8,8a,9,10,10a-octahydro-phenanthrene-2,6-dicarbonitrile, an activator of the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway, for the isolation of its protein targets, A. Saito, M. Higgins, S. Zheng, W. Li, I. Ojima, A. T. Dinkova-Kostova, and T. Honda, Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 23, 5540-5543 (2013). PMID: ...
Mouse monoclonal PCBP2/hnRNP E2 antibody [376CT13.1.2] validated for WB and tested in Human. Immunogen corresponding to recombinant full length protein
The nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) plays an important role in cellular protection against cancer, renal, pulmonary, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases where oxidative stress and inflammation are common conditions. The Nrf2 regulates the expression of detoxifying enzymes by reco …
Title:Antioxidant Response of Osteoblasts to Doxycycline in an Inflammatory Model Induced by C-reactive Protein and Interleukin-6. VOLUME: 14 ISSUE: 1. Author(s):A. Tilakaratne and Mena Soory. Affiliation:Kings College London Dental Institute, Denmark Hill, London SE5 9RW, UK.. Keywords:Antioxidant responses, CRP, doxycycline, IL-6, DHT and AR, osteoblasts, periodontitis and systemic comorbidities, redox healing, risk markers.. Abstract:Objectives: Investigation of osteoblastic responses to oxidative stress, induced by C-reactive protein (CRP) and IL-6 and ameliorating effects of doxycycline (Dox); using assays for 5-alpha dihydrotestosterone (DHT) as an antioxidant marker of healing. IL-6 and CRP are risk markers of periodontitis and prevalent comorbidities in periodontitis subjects. Methods: Confluent monolayer cultures of osteoblasts were incubated with radiolabelled testosterone (14C-T) as substrate, in the presence or absence (Control) of pre-determined optimal concentrations of CRP, IL-6, ...
Drug resistance during chemotherapy is the major obstacle to the successful treatment of many cancers. Here, we report that inhibition of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) may be a promising strategy to combat chemoresistance. Nrf2 is a critical transcription factor regulating a cellular protective response that defends cells against toxic insults from a broad spectrum of chemicals. Under normal conditions, the low constitutive amount of Nrf2 protein is maintained by the Kelch-like ECH-associated protein1 (Keap1)-mediated ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation system. Upon activation, this Keap1-dependent Nrf2 degradation mechanism is quickly inactivated, resulting in accumulation and activation of the antioxidant response element (ARE)-dependent cytoprotective genes. Since its discovery, Nrf2 has been viewed as a good transcription factor that protects us from many diseases. In this study, we demonstrate the dark side of Nrf2: stable overexpression of Nrf2 resulted in enhanced resistance of ...
The Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1)/nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response elements pathway enables cells to survive oxidative stress conditions through regulating the expression of cytoprotective enzymes such as for example NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). in the binding pocket (Arg483, Tyr525, and Phe478) set alongside the indigenous ligand or any additional compound with this series. (%): 319 (M+) (3.23), 204 (100). Calculated for C21H25N3 (319): C, 78.96; H, 7.89; N, 13.15. Found out: C, 78.59; H, 8.13; N, 12.81. (%): 333 (M+) (12.7), 255 (100). Calculated for C22H27N3 (333.47): C, 79.24; H, 8.16; N, 12.60. Found out: C, 79.50; H, 7.84; N, 12.25. 2-Phenyl-(%): 318 (M+) (22.5), 247 (100). Calculated for C20H22N4 (318): C, 75.44; H, 6.96; N, 17.60. Found out: C, 75.09; H, 6.63; U-69593 IC50 N, 17.92. (%): 332 (M+) (21.6), 316 (100). Calculated for C21H24N4 (332): C, 75.87; H, 7.28; N, 16.85. Found out: C, 76.11; H, 7.57; N, 17.20. (%): 328 ...
Read Effect of boron deficiency on photosynthesis and antioxidant responses of young tea plantlets, Russian Journal of Plant Physiology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
An Italian doctor says that he came up with a cure for many types of MS. He also feels that he knows what cause these types of the disease. The doctors name is Paolo Zamboni. He says that there are pathways in the brain that get rid of extra iron that the brain does not need. In the brains of MS patients, they passages are blocked, which causes a build up of iron in the brain. The cure, he says, is a surgery to open some of the main veins in the brain that aid in moving this extra iron. his research all started when MS hit close to home, his wife was diagnosed. He began doing deep and intense research on the disease and found very old information on a the theory of iron build-up as the cause. When the iron builds up in the brain, it damages blood vessels that are vital to the body. He began taking ultrasounds on all of the patients he was treating for MS. Surprisingly these ultrasounds confirmed his theory. More than 90% of the patients have some sort of blockage in the veins that drain blood ...
細胞內的氧化還原狀態不平衡,與起始和促進發炎相關疾病發展有關,如癌症、代謝症候群、老化和敗血症。慢性或急性發炎反應誘導產生之活性氧自由基 (ROS) 與親電子試劑,不僅造成DNA損傷與突變,更引起癌初始細胞內多重基因之表觀遺傳學的改變,而導致腫瘤細胞增生和轉移。此外,轉錄因子NF-B和Nrf2 ...
We compared antioxidant responses and regulation of porphyrin metabolism in rice plants treated with oxyfluorfen (OF) or methyl viologen (MV). Plants treated with MV exhibited not only greater increases in conductivity and malondialdehyde but also a greater decline in Fv/Fm, compared to plants treated with OF. MV-treated plants had greater increases in activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) as well as transcript levels of SODA and CATA than OF-treated plants after 28 h of the treatments, whereas increases in ascorbate peroxidase (APX) activity and transcript levels of APXA and APXB were greater in OF-treated plants. Both OF- and MV-treated plants resulted in not only down-regulation of most genes involved in porphyrin biosynthesis but also disappearance of Mg-porphyrins during the late stage of photooxidative stress. By contrast, up-regulation of heme oxygenase 2 (HO2) is possibly part of an efficient antioxidant response to compensate photooxidative damage in both treatments. Our
Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Friedreichs Ataxia (FRDA), a neurodegenerative disease caused by the decreased expression of frataxin, a mitochondrial protein responsible of iron homeostasis. Under conditions of oxidative stress, the activation of the transcription factor NF-E2-related factor (Nrf2) triggers the antioxidant cellular response by inducing antioxidant response element (ARE) driven genes. Increasing evidence supports a role for the Nrf2-ARE pathway in neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we analyzed the expression and the distribution of Nrf2 in silenced neurons for frataxin gene. Decreased Nrf2 mRNA content and a defective activation after treatment with pro-oxidants have been evidenced in frataxin-silenced neurons by RT-PCR and confocal microscopy. The loss of Nrf2 in FRDA may greatly enhance the cellular susceptibility to oxidative stress and make FRDA neurons more vulnerable to injury. Our findings may help to focus on this promising target, especially
TY - JOUR. T1 - Relevance of anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of exemestane and synergism with sulforaphane for disease prevention. AU - Liu, Hua. AU - Talalay, Paul. PY - 2013/11/19. Y1 - 2013/11/19. N2 - Exemestane (6-methyleneandrosta-1,4-diene-3,17-dione) is a synthetic steroidal inhibitor of the aromatase reaction that catalyzes the terminal and rate-limiting step of the biosynthesis of estrogens. It is active clinically in preventing, delaying progression of, and treating mammary cancers, many of which are estrogen receptor-positive. A striking feature of the structure of exemestane is an extended system of conjugated Michael reaction functions, which is also characteristic of inducers of a broad network of chemoprotective genes regulated by the Keap1 (Kelch-like ECAassociated protein)/Nrf2 (nuclear factor E2-related factor 2)/ARE (antioxidant response element) signaling system. These genes are largely involved in xenobiotic metabolism and antioxidative and anti-inflammatory ...
Chronic treatment with azathioprine, a highly effective anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive agent, profoundly increases the risk for development of unusually aggressive cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma. Its ultimate metabolite, 6-thioguanine (6-TG) nucleotide, is incorporated in DNA of skin cells, and upon exposure to UVA radiation, causes oxidative stress, followed by damage of DNA and associated proteins. The acetylenic tricyclic bis(cyano enone) TBE-31 is a strong inhibitor of inflammation and a potent inducer of the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway, which orchestrates the expression of a large network of cytoprotective genes. We now report that long-term (five days per week for four weeks) topical daily applications of small (200 nmol) quantities of TBE-31 cause a robust systemic induction of the Keap1/Nrf2/ARE pathway and decreases the 6-TG incorporation in DNA of skin, blood, and liver of azathioprine-treated mice, indicating extraordinary bioavailability and efficacy. In addition, TBE-31, at ...
Aim 1 was to elucidate the effects of diesel exhaust particulate (DEP) and ambient PM components on the generation of oxidative stress and inflammation in cellular studies performed in vitro. We demonstrated that DEP induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in macrophages and bronchial epithelial cells, and that these effects can be reproduced by methanol extracts made from these particles. ROS generation by pro-oxidative PM chemicals induced a hierarchical oxidative stress response in which a protective antioxidant defense (Tier 1) upgrades to pro-inflammatory (Tier 2) and cytotoxic effects (Tier 3) as the level of oxidative stress increases. An example of a Tier 1 antioxidant defense is the expression of HO-1. This gene is activated by the nuclear accumulation of Nrf2. This transcription factor drives the antioxidant response element (ARE) in the promoter of phase II enzymes, leading to increased expression of hemoxygenase-1, glutathione-S- transferase, NADPH quinone oxidoreductase, ...
Cells respond to oxidants and electrophiles by activating receptor/transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) to coordinate the induction of cytoprotective genes critical for defense against oxidative and other stresses. Activation involves blocking the ubiquitination-proteasomal degradation of Nrf2. Modification of cysteine thiol groups by inducers in the linker regio
The CellSensor ARE-bla Hep G2 cell line is responsive to tBHQ and Sulforaphane and can be used for analyzing the Nrf2/antioxidant response signaling pathway using the GeneBLAzer Loading Substrates. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can damage biological macromolecules and are detrimental to cellular hea
The Keap1-Nrf2-ARE signaling pathway elicits an adaptive response for cell survival after endogenous and exogenous stresses, such as inflammation and carcinogens, respectively. Keap1 inhibits the transcriptional activation activity of Nrf2 (p45 nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-related factor 2) in unstressed cells by facilitating its degradation. Through transcriptional analyses in Keap1- or Nrf2-disrupted mice, we identified interactions between the Keap1-Nrf2-ARE and the Notch1 signaling pathways. We found that Nrf2 recognized a functional antioxidant response element (ARE) in the promoter of Notch1. Notch1 regulates processes such as proliferation and cell fate decisions. We report a functional role for this cross talk between the two pathways and show that disruption of Nrf2 impeded liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy and was rescued by reestablishment of Notch1 signaling.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Proteomic analysis of Nrf2 deficient transgenic mice reveals cellular defence and lipid metabolism as primary Nrf2-dependent pathways in the liver. AU - Kitteringham, Neil R.. AU - Abdullah, Azman. AU - Walsh, Joanne. AU - Randle, Laura. AU - Jenkins, Rosalind E.. AU - Sison, Rowena. AU - Goldring, Christopher E.P.. AU - Powell, Helen. AU - Sanderson, Christopher. AU - Williams, Samantha. AU - Higgins, Larry. AU - Yamamoto, Masayuki. AU - Hayes, John. AU - Park, B. Kevin. PY - 2010/6/16. Y1 - 2010/6/16. N2 - The transcription factor Nrf2 regulates expression of multiple cellular defence proteins through the antioxidant response element (ARE). Nrf2-deficient mice (Nrf2-/-) are highly susceptible to xenobiotic-mediated toxicity, but the precise molecular basis of enhanced toxicity is unknown. Oligonucleotide array studies suggest that a wide range of gene products is altered constitutively, however no equivalent proteomics analyses have been conducted. To define the range of ...
Kang-fu-ling (KFL) is a polybotanical dietary supplement with antioxidant properties. This study aimed to evaluate the potential protective effects of KFL on cognitive deficit induced by high-power microwave (HPM) and the underlying mechanism for this neuroprotection. The electron spin resonance technique was employed to evaluate the free radical scavenging activity of KFL in vitro and KFL exhibited scavenging hydroxyl radical activity. KFL at doses of 0.75, 1.5 and 3 g kg-1 and vehicle were administered orally once daily for 14 days to male Wistar rats after being exposed to 30 mW cm-2 HPM for 15 minutes. KFL reversed HPM-induced memory loss and the histopathological changes in hippocampus of rats. In addition, KFL displayed a protective effect against HPM-induced oxidative stress and activated the nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its target genes in the hippocampus of rats. The Nrf2-antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling pathway may be involved in the neuroprotective effects ...
PURPOSE. the purpose of this study was to conduct a content validation for the elements of the nursing diagnosis Impaired Memory and include aging as a related factor.METHOD. Fehrings (1987) model of diagnosis content validation was used, with the participation of 18 experts.FINDING. the definition, defining characteristics, and related factors of NANDA-I were evaluated by experts, as was the proposed related factor aging.CONCLUSIONS. Elements of the NANDA-I diagnosis Impaired Memory and the proposed related factor of aging were validated in the Brazilian context. A clinical validation of this related factor will be necessary to build evidence for this relationship.IMPLICATIONS for NURSING PRACTICE. NANDA-I diagnoses should be tested and validated in the elderly, in order to take their specific needs into account, thus contributing to quality nursing care for these patients ...
Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is an important transcription factor that regulates antioxidant response element (ARE)-driven phase II detoxification enzymes. In this study, inducti
Antioxidant responses to simulated acid rain and heavy metal deposition in birch seedlings. / Koricheva, J.; Roy, S.; Vranjic, J.A.; Haukioja, E.; Hughes, P.R.; Hänninen, O.. In: Environmental Pollution, Vol. 95, 1997, p. 249-258.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ...
Compelling evidences have shown that diverse environmental insults arising during early life can either directly lead to a reduction in the number of dopaminergic neurons or cause an increased susceptibility to neurons degeneration with subsequent environmental insults or with aging alone. Oxidative stress is considered the main effect of neurotoxins exposure. In this study, we investigated the oxidative stress effect of Paraquat (PQ) on immortalized human embryonic neural progenitor cells by treating them with various concentrations of PQ. We show that PQ can decrease the activity of SOD and CAT but increase MDA and LDH level. Furthermore, the activities of Cyc and caspase-9 were found increased significantly at 10 |i|μ|/i|M of PQ treatment. The cytoplasmic Nrf2 protein expressions were upregulated at 10 |i|μ|/i|M but fell back at 100 |i|μ|/i|M. The nuclear Nrf2 protein expressions were upregulated as well as the downstream mRNA expressions of HO-1 and NQO1 in a
The potential mechanisms of action of ozone therapy are reviewed in this paper. The therapeutic efficacy of ozone therapy may be partly due the controlled and moderate oxidative stress produced by the reactions of ozone with several biological components. The line between effectiveness and toxicity of ozone may be dependent on the strength of the oxidative stress. As with exercise, it is well known that moderate exercise is good for health, whereas excessive exercise is not. Severe oxidative stress activates nuclear transcriptional factor kappa B (NFκB), resulting in an inflammatory response and tissue injury via the production of COX2, PGE2, and cytokines. However, moderate oxidative stress activates another nuclear transcriptional factor, nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Nrf2 then induces the transcription of antioxidant response elements (ARE). Transcription of ARE results in the production of numerous antioxidant enzymes, such as SOD, GPx, glutathione-s-transferase(GSTr),
Journal of Diabetes Research is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes research articles, review articles, and clinical studies related to type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The journal welcomes submissions focusing on the epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, management, and prevention of diabetes, as well as associated complications, such as diabetic retinopathy, neuropathy and nephropathy.
Cabbage has long been known as a fantastic food for the reduction of cancer risk, and for the healing of the intestinal tract. It turns out that there are numerous factors that play into those abilities. These include the beneficial fibers in cabbage, the content of glutamine (an amino acid-like substance used by intestinal cells for healing), and a high content of miraculous compounds called glucosinolates. Glucosinolates are sulfur containing molecules that have glucose attached to them. When you break open the cell walls of cabbage, an enzyme is released called myrosinase that removes the glucose from the sulfur compounds commonly called isothiocyanates. One of these isothiocyanates, sulforaphane, has an amazing capacity to turn on a part of our genes called the Antioxidant Response Element. When it does this, we start producing more antioxidant proteins, and detoxification proteins (enzymes actually) that provide us 72 hours of protection from environmentally and internally produced toxins. ...
NFE2L2 Full-Length MS Protein Standard (NP_006155), Labeled with [U- 13C6, 15N4]-L-Arginine and [U- 13C6, 15N2]-L-Lysine, was produced in human 293 cells (HEK293) with fully chemically defined cell culture medium to obtain incorporation efficiency at Creative-Proteomics. This gene encodes a transcription factor which is a member of a small family of basic leucine zipper (bZIP) proteins. The encoded transcription factor regulates genes which contain antioxidant response elements (ARE) in their promoters; many of these genes encode proteins involved in response to injury and inflammation which includes the production of free radicals. Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.
3). The latter DNA sequences have been recognized as antioxidant/electrophile response elements or NF-E2-binding motifs, to ... Katsuoka, F (2005). "Genetic evidence that small maf proteins are essential for the activation of antioxidant response element- ... Katsuoka, F (2005). "Nrf2 transcriptionally activates the mafG gene through an antioxidant response element". J. Biol. Chem. ... "An Nrf2/small Maf heterodimer mediates the induction of phase II detoxifying enzyme genes through antioxidant response elements ...
"In vitro and in vivo regulation of antioxidant response element-dependent gene expression by estrogens". Endocrinology. 145 (1 ... Colon cells with reduced ability to undergo apoptosis in response to DNA damage would tend to accumulate mutations, and such ...
Natsch, Andreas; Emter, Roger (2007). "Skin Sensitizers Induce Antioxidant Response Element Dependent Genes: Application to the ...
Some lines of investigation are focused on the application of D. radiodurans antioxidant systems in human cells to prevent ROS ... Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology. 50: 465-473. doi:10.1016/j.jtemb.2018.02.001. PMID 29449107. Pavlov AK, ... "A Model for Manganese interaction with Deinococcus radiodurans proteome network involved in ROS response and defense". ... Michael Daly has suggested the bacterium uses manganese complexes as antioxidants to protect itself against radiation damage. ...
Iodine is an essential trace element in biological systems. It has the distinction of being the heaviest element commonly ... It has been shown to act as an antioxidant and antiproliferant in various tissues that can uptake iodine. Molecular iodine (I2 ... Eskin, Bernard A.; Grotkowski, Carolyn E.; Connolly, Christopher P.; Ghent, William R. (1995). "Different tissue responses for ... In the proposed mechanism, the iodide ion functions in gastric mucosa as an antioxidant reducing species that detoxifies ...
Calcium-response element CaRE1 Antioxidant response element (ARE) p53 response element Thyroid hormone response element Growth ... Sterol response element Polycomb Response Elements (PREs) Vitamin D response element (VDRE) Rev response element (RRE) response ... DNA damage response element (DRE) IFN-stimulated response elements (ISREs) ROR-response element Glucocorticoid response element ... estrogen response elements (EREs) and 2- androgen response elements (AREs) Serum response element (SRE) Retinoic acid response ...
... response element binding protein (CREB), by phosphorylation. This results in a decrease in the transcription of important genes ... Oxidative stress and reduced levels of anti-oxidants (such as glutathione) lead to cell death. Lithium may protect against ... For more general information on lithium as an element, see Lithium.. Lithium compounds, also known as lithium salts, are ... In addition, Fieve and David L. Dunner developed the concept of "rapid cycling" bipolar disorder based on non-response to ...
This causes the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-regulated response pathway to induce antioxidant responses. ... which stimulates transcription directed by xenobiotic response elements. AhR ligands can induce formation of an AhR-estrogen ... Due to the influence of the compound on the central nervous system, its responses and change in response are compared. It is ...
... inflammatory responses and autoimmune diseases, and systemic DNA damage responses leading to malignancies. Several experimental ... Karin M, Delhase M (February 2000). "The I kappa B kinase (IKK) and NF-kappa B: key elements of proinflammatory signalling". ... Antioxidants & Redox Signaling. 21 (17): 2322-43. doi:10.1089/ars.2013.5823. PMC 4241867. PMID 25133688. Wang ZV, Hill JA ( ... The specific response to ARF derepression is thought to be mediated by specificity in the pairing of individual ARF and Aux/IAA ...
... limits the adrenal stress response, has anti-neoplastic properties, is an antioxidant, and stimulates insulin release. In ... Ginseng is a major plot element in the book due to its legendary healing powers, which reflects traditional Chinese belief in ...
PG directly binds with and activates PPARγ thereby inducing the transcription of genes containing the PPARγ response element. ... adducts with KEAP1 cysteines 273 and 288 thereby blocking its ability to suppress activation of Nrf2's induction of antioxidant ... 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-PGJ2, Δ12-PGJ2, PGJ2 and, in fewer studies, PGA2 and PGA1 inhibit the inflammatory response and tissue damage ... It (they) regulates signaling by: a) inhibiting the STAT3-Janus kinase pathway to block cellular pro-inflammatory responses; b ...
... estrogen response element, ERE), allowing for gene transcription which can take place over hours and days. Given by ... As antioxidants, they have been found to have neuroprotective function. The positive and negative feedback loops of the ...
Biological trace element research". 3 (121), s. 249-57, marzec 2008. DOI: 10.1007/s12011-007-8050-2. PMID: 17968513. ... Antioxidants & redox signaling". 7 (10), s. 1235-74, lipiec 2008. DOI: 10.1089/ars.2007.1931. PMID: 18377232. ... Thioredoxin-mediated reversible dissociation of a stromal multiprotein complex in response to changes in light availability.. „ ... Alteration of the adenine nucleotide response and increased Rubisco activation activity of Arabidopsis rubisco activase by site ...
A response to a directional stimulus, such as gravity or sunlight, is called a tropism. A response to a nondirectional stimulus ... The chemical elements of which plants are constructed-principally carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, etc.- ... Carotenoids have been shown to act as antioxidants and to promote healthy eyesight in humans. Anthocyanins (literally "flower ... A familiar example is thigmonasty (response to touch) in the Venus fly trap, a carnivorous plant. The traps consist of modified ...
The type II hexokinase promoter contains functionally active response elements for the tumor suppressor p53". J. Biol. Chem. ... NADPH plays an important role as an antioxidant by decreasing the reactive oxygen produced during rapid cell proliferation. It ... Activated mTOR stimulates protein and lipid biosynthesis and cell growth in response to sufficient nutrient and energy ...
The product is an oxide phase Mn(II) that would provide additional affinity for other toxic elements and thus prove as an ... AsES has proteolytic activity that appears to elicit an immune response in these species that results in the accumulation of ... Under mild drought conditions, A. strictum enhanced leaf soluble sugars, proteins, proline and antioxidant enzyme activity, ... Biogenic Mn oxides (BMOs) are naturally occurring Mn oxides that have the ability to oxidize various redox-sensitive elements. ...
Response to cellular stressEdit. In response to cellular stresses - such as infection, heat shock, or oxidative damage - heat ... "Antioxidants & Redox Signaling. 21 (17): 2322-43. doi:10.1089/ars.2013.5823. PMC 4241867. PMID 25133688.. ... Karin M, Delhase M (February 2000). "The I kappa B kinase (IKK) and NF-kappa B: key elements of proinflammatory signalling". ... inflammatory responses and autoimmune diseases,[123] and systemic DNA damage responses leading to malignancies.[124] ...
These elements can also be taken up into the cellular compartment and stored in vacuoles and may be an important source of ... C. nivalis can be used as a model species for studying the cellular response mechanism to stressful conditions given the harsh ... C. nivalis is likely to have strong antioxidant capabilities, a robust repair mechanism, and other components that may be of ... The thylakoid membrane lipid composition can also be changed to enhance lipid fluidity in response to lower temperatures. An ...
Ashwood P, Wills S, Van de Water J. The immune response in autism: a new frontier for autism research. J Leukoc Biol. 2006;80(1 ... This theory hypothesizes that autoantibodies that target the brain or elements of brain metabolism may cause or exacerbate ... Evidence includes genetic effects on metabolic pathways, reduced antioxidant capacity, enzyme changes, and enhanced biomarkers ... Prenatal exposure to rubella or cytomegalovirus activates the mother's immune response and may greatly increases the risk for ...
... response elements (RXREs) on the DNA; although several RAREs near target genes have been shown to control physiological ... The findings of the review extend evidence that antioxidants may not have long-term benefits. As some carotenoids can be ... bind to various distinct response elements on the DNA to control processes not regulated by vitamin A. Upon binding of retinoic ... The RAR-RXR heterodimer recognizes retinoic acid response elements (RAREs) on the DNA whereas the RXR-RXR homodimer recognizes ...
Historically, these elements have been referred to as ground substances, and because of their continuity, they act to form a ... This is what occurs in the adaptation response described by Hans Selye. When the ground regulation is out of balance, the ... Levine, S.A.; Kidd, M.P. (1985). "Antioxidant Adaptation: Its Role in Free Radical Pathology". Biocurrent Division, San Leandro ...
Bakkar N, Kousari A, Kovalik T, Li Y, Bowser R (July 2015). "RBM45 Modulates the Antioxidant Response in Amyotrophic Lateral ... "Identification of the RNA recognition element of the RBPMS family of RNA-binding proteins and their transcriptome-wide mRNA ... Leung AK, Vyas S, Rood JE, Bhutkar A, Sharp PA, Chang P (May 2011). "Poly(ADP-ribose) regulates stress responses and microRNA ... Hua Y, Zhou J (January 2004). "Rpp20 interacts with SMN and is re-distributed into SMN granules in response to stress". ...
The Nrf2 then activates antioxidant responsive element (ARE) as well as electrophilic responsive element (EpRE) both of which ... and Biotransformation Involved in Cellular Response and Toxicity". Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology. 47: 243-62. ... "Keap1 represses nuclear activation of antioxidant responsive elements by Nrf2 through binding to the amino-terminal Neh2 domain ... Arsenic is a moderately abundant element in Earth's crust, and although many arsenic compounds are often considered highly ...
... act to phosphorylate the cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB) transcription factor.[7] Phosphorylated CREB ... and antioxidant properties. NGF suppresses food intake.[citation needed] ... "Nerve Growth Factor Gene Therapy: Activation of Neuronal Responses in Alzheimer Disease". JAMA Neurology. 72: 1139-47. doi ...
Instead of an immune response, the dying cell synthesizes substances to break itself down and places them in a vacuole that ... Lang, F; Lang, KS; Lang, PA; Huber, SM; Wieder, T (2006). "Mechanisms and significance of eryptosis". Antioxidants & Redox ... "ZEN1 Is a Key Enzyme in the Degradation of Nuclear DNA during Programmed Cell Death of Tracheary Elements". The Plant Cell. 14 ... The researchers, Steven G. Thomas and Veronica E. Franklin-Tong, also found that the response involves rapid inhibition of ...
... an inflammatory or immune response, a cell survival response, or cellular proliferation. Translocation of NF-κB to nucleus can ... Many natural products (including anti-oxidants) that have been promoted to have anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activity have ... Certainly, learning and memory could be influenced by transcriptional changes in astrocytes and other glial elements. And it ... Fidelity of feedback responses between diverse cell types and the immune system depends on the integrity of mechanisms that ...
... formation with elements of the periodic table. v t e Salts and covalent derivatives of the nitrate ion Ammonium f-ratio ... The production of carcinogenic nitrosamines may be inhibited by the use of the antioxidants vitamin C and the alpha-tocopherol ... "Effect of white versus red meat on endogenous N-nitrosation in the human colon and further evidence of a dose response". The ...
... trace elements MeSH D27.505.696.377.605.600 - vitamins MeSH D27.505.696.377.605.600.708 - vitamin b complex MeSH D27.505. ... antioxidants MeSH D27.505.519.217.500 - free radical scavengers MeSH D27.505.519.249 - chelating agents MeSH D27.505.519.249. ... biological response modifiers MeSH D27.505.696.477.274.050 - adjuvants, immunologic MeSH D27.505.696.477.274.400 - interferon ... antisense elements (genetics) MeSH D27.720.470.530.600.150.200 - dna, antisense MeSH D27.720.470.530.600.150.200.640 - ...
20 Test Method for Response of Rigid Cellular Plastics to Thermal and Humid Aging D2129 - 17 Test Method for Color of Clear ... Antioxidants, Antiozonants and Stabilizers) D3157 - 05(2020) Test Method for Rubber from Natural Sources-Color D3159 - 20 ... 19 Test Method for Determination of Shear Wave Velocity and Initial Shear Modulus in Soil Specimens using Bender Elements D8296 ... 18 Test Method for In-Plane Shear Response of Polymer Matrix Composite Materials by Tensile Test of a ±45° Laminate D3521 - 86( ...
In type 3 diabetes, the neurons lack glucose, a key element needed for the neurons to function effectively in body however more ... Optimistic emotions such as love, appreciation and kindness are known to lessen the stress response and maintain a healthy ... The consumption of carbohydrates, fatty (unsaturated) acids, small antioxidant consumption and little exercise are diabetic ... which is major element in the cause of Alzheimer's disease. Stress has a negative impact on a patient's genes such as producing ...
In comparison to most foods, cocoa contains more phenolic antioxidants.[97] Cocoa solids are a source of flavonoids[98] and ... "Trace elements in cocoa solids and chocolate: An ICPMS study". Talanta. 119: 1-4. doi:10.1016/j.talanta.2013.10.048. PMID ... in response to consumer concern about the proposal, the FDA reiterated "Cacao fat, as one of the signature characteristics of ... "Impact of Alkalization on the Antioxidant and Flavanol Content of Commercial Cocoa Powders". Journal of Agricultural and Food ...
Antioxidants, such as vitamins C and E, have been proposed to protect against the disease, but results of studies have been ... several authors wrote about elements of the disease, including Sylvius, Gaubius, Hunter and Chomel.[109][110][111] ... response to levodopa for at least five years, clinical course of at least ten years and appearance of dyskinesias induced by ... and phases with poor response to medication and significant PD symptoms ("off" state).[74] Using lower doses of levodopa may ...
"Intake of antioxidant vitamins and trace elements during pregnancy and risk of advanced beta cell autoimmunity in the child". ... T-Cell-B-Cell discordance - A normal immune response is assumed to involve B and T cell responses to the same antigen, even if ... Antioxidants *It has been theorized that free radicals contribute to the onset of type-1 diabetes in infants and young children ... Autoimmunity is the system of immune responses of an organism against its own healthy cells and tissues. Any disease that ...
Biological trace element research". 3 (121), s. 249-57, marzec 2008. DOI: 10.1007/s12011-007-8050-2. PMID: 17968513. ... Antioxidants & redox signaling". 7 (10), s. 1235-74, lipiec 2008. DOI: 10.1089/ars.2007.1931. PMID: 18377232. ... Thioredoxin-mediated reversible dissociation of a stromal multiprotein complex in response to changes in light availability.. „ ... Alteration of the adenine nucleotide response and increased Rubisco activation activity of Arabidopsis rubisco activase by site ...
Another significant element in the full development of the fruit is the temperature variation between summer and winter and, ... Barros HR, Ferreira TA, Genovese MI (2012). "Antioxidant capacity and mineral content of pulp and peel from commercial ... ", "sweating", or "curing".[76] Oranges are non-climacteric fruits and cannot post-harvest ripen internally in response to ...
Walnuts are particularly beneficial to health and contain a higher level of antioxidants than do other nuts.[113] A variety of ... It protects the trunk against the elements, disease, animal attack and fire. It is perforated by a large number of fine ... Trees have evolved leaves in a wide range of shapes and sizes, in response to environmental pressures including climate and ... The tree form has evolved separately in unrelated classes of plants in response to similar environmental challenges, making it ...
Selenium and zinc are commonly referred to as antioxidant nutrients, but these chemical elements have no antioxidant action ... Vieira Dos Santos C, Rey P (July 2006). "Plant thioredoxins are key actors in the oxidative stress response". Trends in Plant ... Examples of bioactive antioxidant compounds[edit]. Antioxidants are classified into two broad divisions, depending on whether ... Antioxidants that are reducing agents can also act as pro-oxidants. For example, vitamin C has antioxidant activity when it ...
The 3'-UTR often contains microRNA response elements (MREs). MREs are sequences to which miRNAs bind. These are prevalent ... Niggeweg R, Michael AJ, Martin C (June 2004). "Engineering plants with increased levels of the antioxidant chlorogenic acid". ... which can be divided into the acute inflammatory responses and antiviral responses.[167] The inflammatory response is created ... In response, many plant viruses have evolved elaborate mechanisms to suppress the RNAi response.[81] These include viral ...
Valko M, Leibfritz D, Moncol J, Cronin MT, Mazur M, Telser J. Free radicals and antioxidants in normal physiological functions ... energetics and transcriptional regulation in response to electron acceptors. „Biochim. Biophys. Acta". 1320 (3), s. 217-34, ...
Zambon R, Vakharia V, Wu L (2006). "RNAi is an antiviral immune response against a dsRNA virus in Drosophila melanogaster". ... Buchon N, Vaury C (2006). "RNAi: a defensive RNA-silencing against viruses and transposable elements". Heredity 96 (2): 195-202 ... Niggeweg R, Michael A, Martin C (2004). "Engineering plants with increased levels of the antioxidant chlorogenic acid". Nat ... "Induction of the interferon response by siRNA is cell type- and duplex length-dependent". RNA 12 (6): 988-93. PMC 1464853 ...
Some of the drugs that are being considered are retinoids, which are vitamins with antioxidant properties, and molecules that ... This shower of secondary and fragmented particles may be reduced by the use of hydrogen or light elements for shielding. ... whereby a particle traversal to some cells modifies the response of other cells not traversed by particles. There is limited ... "Interplay of space radiation and microgravity in DNA damage and DNA damage response". Npj Microgravity. 3 (14): 14. doi ...
... block mouse airway responses to 13(S)-HODE.[47] While much further work is needed, these pre-clinical studies allow that 13(S)- ... as consequence of their release of deleterious elements, to cause cell injury.[47] ... "Lipid peroxidation biomarkers for evaluating oxidative stress and assessing antioxidant capacity in vivo". Journal of Clinical ... stimulate TRPV1-dependent responses in rodent neurons, rodent and human bronchial epithelial cells, and in model cells made to ...
Dietary minerals are inorganic chemical elements required by living organisms,[72] other than the four elements carbon, ... See also: List of antioxidants in food. Phytochemicals such as polyphenols are compounds produced naturally in plants (phyto ... Crapo, P; Reaven, Olefsky (1977). "Postprandial plasma-glucose and -insulin responses to different complex carbohydrates". ... Furthermore, deficiency of one element may present as symptoms of toxicity from another element, and vice versa. ...
"In vitro and in vivo regulation of antioxidant response element-dependent gene expression by estrogens". Endocrinology. 145 (1 ... Colon cells with reduced ability to undergo apoptosis in response to DNA damage would tend to accumulate mutations, and such ...
"Mercury toxicity and antioxidants: part I: role of glutathione and alpha-lipoic acid in the treatment of mercury toxicity. ( ... Cookware in which copper is the main structural element (as opposed to copper clad, copper sandwiched or copper colored) is ... Ezeonyejiaku, CD, Obiakor, MO and Ezenwelu, CO (2011). "Toxicity of copper sulphate and behavioural locomotor response of ... Kabata-Pendias, Alina (2011). "Trace Elements in Soils and Plants, Fourth Edition". Taylor and Francis Group. Retrieved 17 June ...
"American Elements.. *^ Shapiro SS, Saliou C (2001). "Role of vitamins in skin care". Nutrition. 17 (10): 839-844. doi:10.1016/ ... Vitamin E is a membrane antioxidant that protects against oxidative damage and also provides protection against harmful UV rays ... Finally pigs have similar physical and molecular responses to various growth factors.. .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font- ... Vitamin C is an antioxidant that regulates collagen synthesis, forms barrier lipids, regenerates vitamin E, and provides ...
Dietary minerals are the chemical elements required by living organisms, other than the four elements carbon, hydrogen, ... Selenium required for peroxidase (antioxidant proteins). *Zinc required for several enzymes such as carboxypeptidase, liver ... and in response to demands for food purity and consistency.[99] ... Many ultratrace elements have been suggested as essential, but ... In the early 19th century, the elements carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen and oxygen were recognized[by whom?] as the primary ...
They can be attached to the cell wall proteins as part of -O and -N glycosyl groups and also constitute elements of large α-D- ... As animal health and performance are influenced by many factors other than nutrition, the responses to a feed additive will ... They also play a role in animal antioxidant and antimutagenic defense. Glycosidic bond Mannan Mannose Saccharomyces cerevisiae ... In turkeys 76 comparisons have shown similar responses to MOS as in broilers. Several studies also suggest that MOS, when added ...
The response to infection can involve up to 2,423 genes, or 13.7% of the genome. Although the fly's transcriptional response to ... One approach of inserting foreign genes into the Drosophila genome involves P elements. The transposable P elements, also known ... Further research has shown that the antioxidant alpha-ketoglutarate may be beneficial in reducing the oxidative stress produced ... This core group of genes is associated with gene ontology categories such as antimicrobial response, stress response, secretion ...
Maes, M. Lower serum vitamin E concentrations in major depression Another marker of lowered antioxidant defenses in that ... Trace elements and the electroencephalogram during long-term lithium treatment. British Journal of Psychiatry. 160:654-658, ... Subjective response to negative air ion exposure. Aviat Space Environ Med. 53(8):822-823, 1982. ... Toward a new recommended dietary allowance for vitamin C based on antioxidant and health effects in humans. American Journal of ...
... estrogen response element, ERE), allowing for gene transcription which can take place over hours and days. ... As antioxidants, they have been found to have neuroprotective function.[25] The positive and negative feedback loops of the ...
Evaluation of the Linear-Nonthreshold Dose-Response Model for Ionizing Radiation. National Council on Radiation Protection and ... The free-radical theory suggests that the use of compounds which inactivate ROS, such as antioxidants, would lead to a ... The resulting materials are then free to interact with any environmental elements, and the energy released can also be used as ... Similarly, low doses of the phthalate DEHP cause increased allergic responses to allergens, while higher doses have no effect.[ ...
Mercury (element) Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon Francium Radium Actinium Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium ... NOAA Office of Response and Restoration, US GOV. "Chlorine". noaa.gov. Archived from the original on 15 October 2015. Retrieved ... Antioxidants & acidity regulators (E300-399). *Thickeners, stabilisers & emulsifiers (E400-499). *pH regulators & anticaking ... It is an extremely reactive element and a strong oxidising agent: among the elements, it has the highest electron affinity and ...
Minerals are the exogenous chemical elements indispensable for life. Four minerals: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen, are ... Cermak NM, Res PT, de Groot LC, Saris WH, van Loon LJ (2012). "Protein supplementation augments the adaptive response of ... Bjelakovic, G; Nikolova, D; Gluud, LL; Simonetti, RG; Gluud, C (14 March 2012). "Antioxidant supplements for prevention of ... Dietary Supplement Labels: Key Elements Office of Inspector General, Depart of Health and Human Services (2003). ...
Heo JH, Lee KM (March 2013). "The possible role of antioxidant vitamin C in Alzheimer's disease treatment and prevention". ... that can be explained as an immune system response to an infection in the CNS,[284][285][286] as found by R. Moir and R. Tanzi ... and economic elements.[14] Exercise programs may be beneficial with respect to activities of daily living and can potentially ... and may be either secondary to tissue damage in AD or a marker of an immunological response.[110] There is increasing evidence ...
És un consens que el virus es transmet pels mosquits i, per això, el control del vector és un element essencial per reduir la ... Santibañez S, Lynch J, Paye YP, McCalla H, et al «Engaging Community and Faith-Based Organizations in the Zika Response, United ... Prajakta, P; Pednekar, BV; Vakil, RT; Datar, G; et al «Phytochemical profile and antioxidant activity of the essential oil from ... Priyamvada, L; Quicke, KM; Hudson, WH; et al «Human antibody responses after dengue virus infection are highly cross-reactive ...
"Mercury toxicity and antioxidants: part I: role of glutathione and alpha-lipoic acid in the treatment of mercury toxicity. ( ... Sandstead HH (1995). "Requirements and toxicity of essential trace elements, illustrated by zinc and copper". Am. J. Clin. Nutr ... Ezeonyejiaku, CD, Obiakor, MO and Ezenwelu, CO (2011). "Toxicity of copper sulphate and behavioural locomotor response of ... Cookware in which copper is the main structural element (as opposed to copper clad, copper sandwiched or copper colored) is ...
Dietary antioxidants, cognitive function and dementia - A systematic review. „Plant Foods for Human Nutrition". 68 (3), s. 279- ... Association between vitamin C intake and lung cancer: A dose-response meta-analysis. „Scientific Reports". 4, s. 6161, 2014. ... Antioxidant vitamin supplementation for preventing and slowing the progression of age-related cataract. „Cochrane Database of ... Antioxidants in the chemoprevention of colorectal cancer and colorectal adenomas in the general population: A systematic review ...
Regulatory mechanisms controlling gene expression mediated by the antioxidant response element.. Nguyen T1, Sherratt PJ, ... the antioxidant response element or ARE, found in the promoter of the enzymes gene. The transcription factor Nrf2 has been ... implicated as the central protein that interacts with the ARE to activate gene transcription constitutively or in response to ... and Phase II detoxification enzymes is induced in cells exposed to electrophilic compounds and phenolic antioxidants. Induction ...
Functional characterization and role of INrf2 in antioxidant response element-mediated expression and antioxidant induction of ... Carotenoids activate the antioxidant response element transcription system. Anat Ben-Dor, Michael Steiner, Larisa Gheber, ... Carotenoids activate the antioxidant response element transcription system. Anat Ben-Dor, Michael Steiner, Larisa Gheber, ... Carotenoids activate the antioxidant response element transcription system. Anat Ben-Dor, Michael Steiner, Larisa Gheber, ...
Nuclear Factor E2-Related Factor 2-Dependent Antioxidant Response Element Activation by tert-Butylhydroquinone and Sulforaphane ... Nuclear Factor E2-Related Factor 2-Dependent Antioxidant Response Element Activation by tert-Butylhydroquinone and Sulforaphane ... Nuclear Factor E2-Related Factor 2-Dependent Antioxidant Response Element Activation by tert-Butylhydroquinone and Sulforaphane ... Nuclear Factor E2-Related Factor 2-Dependent Antioxidant Response Element Activation by tert-Butylhydroquinone and Sulforaphane ...
... binding to antioxidant response elements (AREs) in their promoter regions. Due to the therapeutic role of the Nrf2/ARE system ... The transcription factor Nrf2 is a master regulator of antioxidant and cytoprotective genes, ... Keywords: Antioxidant response element; DtBHQ; Nrf2; Oxidizable phenol; Reactive oxygen species; Sulforaphane. ... Hyde: Oxidizable phenol-generated reactive oxygen species enhance sulforaphanes antioxidant response element activation, even ...
Antioxidant activity in human U373 cells assessed as increase of antioxidant response element-mediated phase 2 protein ...
The activation of nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2/Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1/antioxidant response element ... Nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2, keap1, antioxidant response element, oxidative stress, free radicals ... Hagemann TL, Jobe EM, Messing A. Genetic ablation of Nrf2/antioxidant response pathway in Alexander disease mice reduces ... Increased m6A RNA modification is related to the inhibition of the Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response in di-(2-ethylhexyl) ...
Abbreviations: 15d-PGJ2, 15d-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2; ARE, antioxidant response element; As(III), sodium arsenite; BIA, ... Cul3-mediated Nrf2 ubiquitination and antioxidant response element (ARE) activation are dependent on the partial molar volume ... Cul3-mediated Nrf2 ubiquitination and antioxidant response element (ARE) activation are dependent on the partial molar volume ... Cul3-mediated Nrf2 ubiquitination and antioxidant response element (ARE) activation are dependent on the partial molar volume ...
Identification of a novel Nrf2-regulated antioxidant response element (ARE) in the mouse NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 gene ... Abbreviations used: ARE, antioxidant response element; bZIP, basic leucine zipper; ChIP, chromatin immunoprecipitation; EMSA, ... Identification of a novel Nrf2-regulated antioxidant response element (ARE) in the mouse NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 gene ... Identification of a novel Nrf2-regulated antioxidant response element (ARE) in the mouse NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 gene ...
... through the antioxidant responsive element (ARE). We showed here that tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ), an electrophile stressor, ... thioredoxin expression is a mechanism of enhancing signal transduction through the ARE in electrophile-induced stress responses ... Thioredoxin-dependent redox regulation of the antioxidant responsive element (ARE) in electrophile response. @article{ ... Thioredoxin-dependent redox regulation of the antioxidant responsive element (ARE) in electrophile response}, author={Yong-Chul ...
... reporter provided evidence that the modulation of NQO1 gene expression by resveratrol involved the antioxidant response element ... Induction of quinone reductase NQO1 by resveratrol in human K562 cells involves the antioxidant response element ARE and is ... Induction of quinone reductase NQO1 by resveratrol in human K562 cells involves the antioxidant response element ARE and is ... An antioxidant response phenotype shared between hereditary and sporadic type 2 papillary renal cell carcinoma.. *Aikseng Ooi, ...
They include molecules that are involved in antioxidant activity, the antioxidant response element (ARE), apoptosis induction, ... Functional characterization and role of INrf2 in antioxidant response element-mediated expression and antioxidant induction of ... Antioxidant Response Element. Induction of phase 2 enzymes that neutralize reactive electrophiles and act as indirect ... through the antioxidant response element (ARE) found in the regulatory regions of their genes. The transcription factor Nrf2, ...
NRF2-Antioxidant Response Element Signaling Pathway. The nuclear factor erythroid 2 (NFE2)-related factor (NRF2), a basic ... NRF2 plays a role as a positive regulator of human Antioxidant Response Elements (AREs; Venugopal and Jaiswal, 1996). NRF2 was ... Phosphorylation of Nrf2 at Ser-40 by protein kinase C regulates antioxidant response element-mediated transcription. J. Biol. ... Nrf1 and Nrf2 positively and c-Fos and Fra1 negatively regulate the human antioxidant response element-mediated expression of ...
... antioxidant response elements; apoptotic-signaling kinase-1; bax-inhibitor 1; bifunctional apoptosis regulator; binding ... AGE; ALS; AMD; ARE; ASK1; ATF/cAMP response elements; ATF4; ATF6; BAG; BAR; BI-1; Bcl-2 associated athanogene; BiP; CASR; CHOP ... ER stress-response element; ER-assisted degradation; ERAD; ERO1α; ERSE; GADD34; HCV; HFD; HO-1; HSV; IBD; IEC; IP(3)R; IRE1α; ... The ER stress response is mediated by three sensors located at the ER membrane: IRE1α, ATF6 and PERK. Accumulation of unfolded ...
... antioxidant response elements; GCL, glutamate-cysteine ligase; GST, glutathione-S-transferase; NQO1, NADPH:quinone ... 4. The Endogenous Antioxidant Response System. Under conditions of oxidative/nitrosative stress, the antioxidant response ... 28] found that exogenous antioxidants have a priming effect on the antioxidant response system [19]. Following approximately ... Working together with our endogenous antioxidant response system, exogenous antioxidants allow for a more enhanced and ...
M. Biswas and J. Y. Chan, "Role of Nrf1 in antioxidant response element-mediated gene expression and beyond," Toxicology and ... Antioxidant Response Element (ARE) Reporter Assay. Cignal Lenti ARE reporter transduction of HaCaT cells was performed as ... We found that curcumin led to nuclear accumulation of NRF2 protein and increased the expression of antioxidant response element ... that regulate the cellular adaptive response to oxidative stress through the cis-regulating antioxidant response element (ARE ...
4.26 Is There an Age-Related Progressive Antioxidant Deficiency Syndrome?. 4.27 Natures Antioxidant Response Element ... Chapter 9. The Polyphenolic Antioxidant Resveratrol, the Carotinoid Lycopene, and the Proanthocyanidin Pycnogenol ...
Abbreviations: ARE, antioxidant response element; NQO1, nicotinamide quinone oxidoreductase 1, NAD(P)H:quinone acceptor ... Many phase 2 genes are regulated by upstream antioxidant response elements (ARE) that are targets of the leucine zipper ... The Nrf2-Antioxidant Response Element Signaling Pathway and Its Activation by Oxidative Stress ... Phase 2 genes are regulated by 5′ upstream regulatory sequences which have been designated as antioxidant response elements ( ...
Wang, X. J., Hayes, J. D. & Wolf, C. R. Generation of a stable antioxidant response element-driven reporter gene cell line and ... 6d) encodes green fluorescent protein (GFP), which is preceded by eight antioxidant response elements GTGACNNNGCANNN46, known ... Johnson, D. A., Andrews, G. K., Xu, W. & Johnson, J. A. Activation of the antioxidant response element in primary cortical ... eight times antioxidant response element; minP: minimal promoter, GFP: green fluorescent proteins. e HEK 293 cells transfected ...
Benzo(a)pyrene affects Jurkat T cells in the activated state via the antioxidant response element dependent Nrf2 pathway ... the proteome changes in unstimulated cells point towards a modified regulation of the cytoskeleton and cellular stress response ...
A Polymorphic Antioxidant Response Element Links NRF2/sMAF Binding to Enhanced MAPT Expression and Reduced Risk of Parkinsonian ... A polymorphic antioxidant response element links NRF2/sMAF binding to enhanced MAPT expression and reduced risk of Parkinsonian ... A polymorphic antioxidant response element links NRF2/sMAF binding to enhanced MAPT expression and reduced risk of Parkinsonian ... A polymorphic antioxidant response element links NRF2/sMAF binding to enhanced MAPT expression and reduced risk of Parkinsonian ...
Chen, Y. H., & Ramos, K. S. (2000). A CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein site within antioxidant/electrophile response element ... Chen, Yun Houng ; Ramos, Kenneth S. / A CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein site within antioxidant/electrophile response element ... Chen, YH & Ramos, KS 2000, A CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein site within antioxidant/electrophile response element along with ... Studies were conducted to evaluate the negative regulatory function of rat (r)GST-Ya antioxidant/electrophile response element ...
... mediated expression and coordinated induction of antioxidant enzymes is a critical mechanism of protection against chemically ... Antioxidant response element (ARE)-mediated expression and coordinated induction of antioxidant enzymes is a critical mechanism ... Nrf2 signaling in coordinated activation of antioxidant gene expression Free Radic Biol Med. 2004 May 15;36(10):1199-207. doi: ... This is presumably to keep the expression of antioxidant enzymes "in check" to maintain the cellular defenses active and/or to ...
Is Antioxidant Response Element a Prevention Target?. Lubet RA, Townsend R, Clapper ML, Juliana MM, Steele VE, McCormick DL, ... Pharmacometabolomic Pathway Response of Effective Anticancer Agents on Different Diets in Rats with Induced Mammary Tumors.. ...
Nrf3 negatively regulates antioxidant-response element-mediated expression and antioxidant induction of NAD(P)H:quinone ... Functional characterization and role of INrf2 in antioxidant response element-mediated expression and antioxidant induction of ... Small Maf (MafG and MafK) proteins negatively regulate antioxidant response element-mediated expression and antioxidant ... Regulation of the antioxidant response element by protein kinase C-mediated phosphorylation of NF-E2-related factor 2. Proc ...
Regulation of the antioxidant response element by protein kinase C-mediated phosphorylation of NF-E2-related factor 2. Proc ... Antioxidant defenses during mammalian hibernation. Adaptation of antioxidant defenses is widespread as a response to ... This activates Nrf and promotes binding to the antioxidant response element (ARE) that is present in the promoter region of ... Sirt3 blocks the cardiac hypertrophic response by augmenting Foxo3a-dependent antioxidant defense mechanisms in mice. J Clin ...
... microglia elaborate pro-inflammatory cytokines and neurotoxic molecules promoting inflammation and cytotoxic responses. In ... microglia elaborate pro-inflammatory cytokines and neurotoxic molecules promoting inflammation and cytotoxic responses. In ... antioxidant response element; SOD1, superoxide dismutase 1; TSA, trichostatin A. ... 2013). Microglial activation and antioxidant responses induced by the Parkinsons disease protein alpha-synuclein. J. ...
ARE - Antioxidant response element. * Related Studies :. * Protective effect of resveratrol on fluoride induced alteration in ... Sub-acute exposure to fluoride at a dose of 20mg/kgb.w./day for 30 days caused significant alteration in pro-oxidant/anti-oxidant ... In this study, we demonstrated that NaF activated the Nrf2 signaling and enhanced the downstream antioxidant protein levels, ... is a redox-sensing transcription factor that drives an adaptive cellular defense in response to oxidative stress. However, the ...
Role of AP1 binding site contained within human antioxidant response element(Published erratum in J. Biol. Chem., 268: 21454, ... Li Y., Jaiswal A. K. Human antioxidant-response-element-mediated regulation of type 1 NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase gene ... 3 The abbreviations used are: GST, glutathione-S-transferase; ARE, antioxidant response element; GSH, reduced glutathione; QR, ... Wasserman W. W., Fahl W. E. Functional antioxidant responsive elements. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA, 94: 5361-5366, 1997. ...
3). The latter DNA sequences have been recognized as antioxidant/electrophile response elements or NF-E2-binding motifs, to ... Katsuoka, F (2005). "Genetic evidence that small maf proteins are essential for the activation of antioxidant response element- ... Katsuoka, F (2005). "Nrf2 transcriptionally activates the mafG gene through an antioxidant response element". J. Biol. Chem. ... "An Nrf2/small Maf heterodimer mediates the induction of phase II detoxifying enzyme genes through antioxidant response elements ...
antioxidant response element. CDDO-MA. CDDOmethylamide. CoQ10. coenzyme Q10. COX. cytochrome c oxidase. DA. dopaminergic. Drp1 ...
  • The transcription factor Nrf2 has been implicated as the central protein that interacts with the ARE to activate gene transcription constitutively or in response to an oxidative stress signal. (nih.gov)
  • Expression of phase II enzymes is regulated by the antioxidant response element (ARE) and the transcription factor Nrf2 (nuclear factor E 2 -related factor 2). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The major ARE-activating transcription factor Nrf2 (nuclear factor E 2 -related factor 2) plays a central role in the induction of antioxidant and detoxifying genes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The transcription factor Nrf2 is a master regulator of antioxidant and cytoprotective genes, binding to antioxidant response elements (AREs) in their promoter regions. (nih.gov)
  • Nrf2, a nuclear transcriptional factor is observed to show a protective role in cell defence and survival against xenobiotics and OS [ 14 ] via the control and regulation of the production of number of genes and enzymes that function as antioxidants. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Some of the antioxidant enzymes produced through the activation of Nrf2 are, superoxide dismutase (SOD), sulfiredoxin (Srx), peroxiredoxin (Prx), GSH peroxidase (GPx) and sestrin2 (Sesn2), which are involved in catabolism of free radicals into hydrogen peroxide, which is further broken down into water and oxygen by the enzyme catalase. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2) is a transcription factor that activates transcription of a battery of cytoprotective genes by binding to the ARE (antioxidant response element). (biochemj.org)
  • Through characterization of the murine nqo1 5′-upstream region, we now show that Nrf2 regulates this gene directly via an ARE (antioxidant response element) that lies within a 24 bp region spanning nt −444 to −421. (biochemj.org)
  • In K562 cells, we have previously reported that hemin induces activation of the thioredoxin gene by regulating NF-E2-related factor (Nrf2) through the antioxidant responsive element (ARE). (semanticscholar.org)
  • Induction of quinone reductase NQO1 by resveratrol in human K562 cells involves the antioxidant response element ARE and is accompanied by nuclear translocation of transcription factor Nrf2. (semanticscholar.org)
  • We found that curcumin led to nuclear accumulation of NRF2 protein and increased the expression of antioxidant response element- (ARE-) regulated genes in HaCaT keratinocytes in concentration- and time-dependent manners. (hindawi.com)
  • Upon oxidative stress, NRF2 and/or NRF1 dimerize with small MAF or other bZIP proteins in the nucleoplasm, and then the heterodimer binds to the AREs in the promoter regions of various detoxifying and antioxidative stress response genes, such as NADPH: quinone oxidoreductase 1 ( NQO1 ), glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic ( GCLC ) and regulatory ( GCLM ) subunits, and heme oxygenase-1 ( HMOX-1 ). (hindawi.com)
  • Thus, NRF2 and/or NRF1-mediated adaptive antioxidant response plays important roles against oxidative/electrophilic stress and in chemical detoxification. (hindawi.com)
  • Our previous studies demonstrated that NRF2, NRF1, and KEAP1 contribute to the coordinated regulation of antioxidant and detoxification enzyme expression and protect cells from arsenic-induced apoptosis and cytotoxicity in human HaCaT cells [ 6 - 8 , 11 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • A Polymorphic Antioxidant Response Element Links NRF2/sMAF Binding to Enhanced MAPT Expression and Reduced Risk of Parkinsonian Disorders. (cdc.gov)
  • The NRF2/sMAF protein complex regulates the oxidative stress response by occupying cis-acting enhancers containing an antioxidant response element (ARE). (cdc.gov)
  • The future studies should also reveal a complete mechanism of signal transduction from antioxidants and xenobiotics to the transcription factors, such as Nrf2, that bind to ARE. (nih.gov)
  • Transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) regulates antioxidant response element (ARE)-mediated expression and coordinated induction of chemoprotective proteins in response to chemical stress. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this report, we investigated Nrf2 response to low and high dose UVB irradiation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Antioxidant response element (ARE) present in the promoter of chemoprotective genes and nuclear factor, NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), regulate the expression and coordinated induction of chemoprotective proteins in response to antioxidants and xenobiotics ( 13 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The treatment of cells with antioxidants and xenobiotics leads to the release of Nrf2 from INrf2. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a redox-sensing transcription factor that drives an adaptive cellular defense in response to oxidative stress. (fluoridealert.org)
  • In this study, we demonstrated that NaF activated the Nrf2 signaling and enhanced the downstream antioxidant protein levels, including heme oxygenase-1 and quinine oxidoreductase 1. (fluoridealert.org)
  • The latter DNA sequences have been recognized as antioxidant/electrophile response elements or NF-E2-binding motifs, to which Nrf2-sMaf heterodimers and p45 NF-E2-sMaf heterodimers bind, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • The transcription factor Nrf2 (nuclear factor E2-related factor 2) induces expression of cytoprotective genes, including Nqo1 (NADPH:quinone oxidoreductase 1), Ho-1 (heme oxygenase-1), and Gclc (glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic subunit), in response to electrophilic and oxidative stress. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Targets of Nrf2 transcription include proteins involved in drug metabolism, efflux transporters (such as multidrug resistance-associated proteins, Mrps), antioxidant enzymes, heat shock responses, and proteasomal degradation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Interestingly, accumulation and translocation of Nrf2 increased the transcription of gankyrin through binding to the ARE elements in the promoter of gankyrin. (rupress.org)
  • The positive feedback regulation involving gankyrin and Nrf2 modulates a series of antioxidant enzymes, thereby lowering intracellular ROS and conferring a steadier intracellular environment, which prevents mitochondrial damage and cell death induced by excessive oxidative stress. (rupress.org)
  • In this article, the importance of redox‐activated NF‐E2‐related factor 2 (Nrf2) is discussed as an example for transcriptional antioxidant response. (els.net)
  • Nrf2/ARE (antioxidant response element) regulates expression of many detoxifying genes and confers protection against cardiac and vascular disorders. (els.net)
  • ROS generation and Nrf2/ ARE signalling mediated cardio/athero‐protection through the transcriptional activation of Nrf2‐targeted antioxidant enzymes. (els.net)
  • In particular, isothiocyanates, the activated form of glucosinolates present in Brassica vegetables, have shown neuroprotective activity in several experimental paradigms due to their peculiar ability to activate the Nrf2/ARE pathway, playing a role in boosting the neuronal natural phase 2 enzyme antioxidant defense system and functioning as a powerful indirect antioxidant. (springer.com)
  • Previous studies showed that the antioxidant responsive element (ARE), found in these genes, can be bound by the transcription factor Nrf2, and is responsive to the activation by chemopreventive compounds and by oxidative stress. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Nuclear Nrf2 activates ARE elements and induces expression of stress-responsive genes, including HO-1 . (aacrjournals.org)
  • Dzx also activates KATP channels from the plasma membrane, which modifies the cell response to activation signals, (2) activates Nrf2 and (3) through a mechanism that remains to be described. (intechopen.com)
  • Although studies of some enzymes induced by oltipraz implicate a novel transcriptional activating pathway involving Nrf2 and antioxidant-response elements (AREs), the mechanism of phenol UGT induction has remained unclear. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Buccal swabs were analyzed for gene expression of Nrf2-regulated antioxidant enzymes including Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NAD(P)H Quinone Oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The main function of Nrf2 is to activate the antioxidant response and induce transcription of a wide array of genes that are able to combat the harmful effects of oxidative stress, thus restoring intracellular homeostasis. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The promoter regions of Nrf2 target genes contain a specific DNA sequence, called the antioxidant response element (ARE), that is required for Nrf2 binding and gene induction. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Other Nrf2 downstream genes play a role in a wide variety of functions such as the inflammatory response, cell growth and apoptosis, DNA repair, and the ubiquitin-mediated degradation pathway ( 99 ) The diverse nature of Nrf2 downstream genes demonstrates its vital importance in cell survival and protection. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Since its discovery, Nrf2 has been regarded as a regulator of the cell survival response, and as a result it has been found to not only promote survival of normal cells, but also cancer cells. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • One mechanism causing persistent Nrf2 activation is the adaptation of epithelial cells to oxidative stress during chronic inflammation, e.g. colonocytes in inflammatory bowel diseases, and the multifunctional stress response gene immediate early response-3 ( IER3 ) has a crucial role under these conditions. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 4 Acting mainly as a key regulator of the cellular response to oxidative and metabolic stress ( 5 ), Nrf2 induces the expression of a great number of antioxidative and phase II enzymes as well as a number of genes involved in cell growth and survival ( 6 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The Nrf2-antioxidant response element pathway protects cells from oxidative stress. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • To define the role of C/EBPβ or Nrf2 repression in GST expression under the condition excluding the negative regulation by C2-mediated HNF1 suppression, luciferase activity was determined in the cells transfected with ΔHNF-pGL-1651 plasmid lacking the HNF1-response element. (aspetjournals.org)
  • 3) redox perturbations that ultimately underlie oxidative stress due to an imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS)/reactive nitrogen species (RNS) and endogenous antioxidants, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction and alterations in redox sensitive pathways such as Nrf2/keap1/ARB. (intechopen.com)
  • Bardoxolone exerts transcriptional control by promoting nuclear translocation of Nrf2, facilitating antioxidant response element (ARE) binding that upregulates endogenous antioxidant enzyme activity. (intechopen.com)
  • Nuclear erythroid factor 2 like 2 (Nrf2) is the master regulator of the antioxidant response to oxidative stresses. (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Nuclear Factor Erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2) senses oxidative environments and/or stress and initiates a cytoprotective response through transcriptional activation of antioxidant and detoxification genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Nuclear factor erythroid 2 like 2 (NFE2L2/Nrf2) is a conserved cap'n'collar (CNC) basic leucine zipper transcription factor which affords cytoprotection against xenobiotics and reactive oxygen species (ROS) through induction of antioxidant (ARE) and electrophile (EpRE) response elements [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Keap1-Nrf2-ARE signaling pathway elicits an adaptive response for cell survival after endogenous and exogenous stresses, such as inflammation and carcinogens, respectively. (sciencemag.org)
  • We found that Nrf2 recognized a functional antioxidant response element (ARE) in the promoter of Notch1 . (sciencemag.org)
  • A promising approach to neurotherapeutics involves activating the nuclear-factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element signaling, which regulates expression of antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cytoprotective genes. (jneurosci.org)
  • Our data suggest that DMF and MMF exhibit neuroprotective effects against MPTP neurotoxicity because of their distinct Nrf2-mediated antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and mitochondrial functional/biogenetic effects, but MMF does so without depleting glutathione and inhibiting mitochondrial and glycolytic functions. (jneurosci.org)
  • Here, we report that p300/CBP directly acetylates Nrf2 in response to arsenite-induced stress. (asm.org)
  • These findings demonstrated that acetylation of Nrf2 by p300/CBP augments promoter-specific DNA binding of Nrf2 and established acetylation as a novel regulatory mechanism that functions in concert with Keap1-mediated ubiquitination in modulating the Nrf2-dependent antioxidant response. (asm.org)
  • Nrf2 is a critical transcription factor that regulates endogenous antioxidants, phase II detoxification enzymes, and other cellular defensive proteins through the antioxidant responsive elements (AREs) in the promoter regions of these genes ( 42 , 43 , 63 ). (asm.org)
  • A growing body of evidence has established the Nrf2-dependent antioxidant response as a pivotal protection system against the detrimental effects of many environmental insults. (asm.org)
  • In defense, vertebrates have developed multiple stress response systems, including the system regulated by the Nrf2-Keap1 pathway ( 13 , 21 , 23 , 24 , 28 , 29 ). (asm.org)
  • Nrf2 activates the expression of these genes through a cis -acting element called the antioxidant/electrophile responsive element (ARE/EpRE) ( 13 , 21 , 23 , 24 , 28 , 29 ). (asm.org)
  • NFE2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor that orchestrates the expression of a battery of antioxidant and detoxification genes under both basal and stress conditions. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The vertebrate transcription factor NFE2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a member of the cap'n'collar family that has emerged as a master regulator of the cell's redox status and detoxification responses ( 16 - 19 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Both activate the transcription factor Nrf2, which activates genes that are involved in detoxification of chemicals and antioxidant defense**( 9 , 10 , 11 , 12 ). (blogspot.com)
  • Nrf2 is one of the main pathways by which polyphenols increase stress resistance and antioxidant defenses, including the key cellular antioxidant glutathione ( 14 ). (blogspot.com)
  • This paper demonstrated, for the first time, that toxic metal element AS induces phase II detoxification genes by activating Nrf2. (cdc.gov)
  • NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a key transcription regulator for antioxidant and detoxification enzymes, is abundantly expressed in cancer cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In A549 cells, the expression of self-defense genes, such as antioxidant enzymes, phase II detoxifying enzymes, and drug efflux pumps, was significantly reduced by Nrf2-siRNA concomitant with a reduction of the cellular glutathione level. (aacrjournals.org)
  • On exposure to oxidative or xenobiotic stress, Keap1-dependent ubiquitin ligase activity is inhibited and Nrf2 can translocate to the nucleus, where it forms a heterodimer with small Maf proteins and binds to a consensus sequence called the antioxidant response element. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Nrf2 effector genes bearing antioxidant response element include a majority of antioxidant and phase II detoxifying enzymes ( 11 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Nrf2 forms heterodimers with Maf proteins to control differential gene regulation through the antioxidant response element (ARE). (omicsonline.org)
  • Resveratrol inhibits paraquat-induced oxidative stress and fibrogenic response by activating the Nrf2 pathway. (cdc.gov)
  • Nrf2 is an antioxidant-activated transcription factor that recently emerged as a critical regulator of cellular defense against oxidative and inflammatory lesions. (cdc.gov)
  • Here we analyzed the molecular mechanism of the fibrogenic response to PQ and its inhibition by Res and Nrf2. (cdc.gov)
  • Res strongly activated the Nrf2 signaling pathway and induced antioxidant response element-dependent cytoprotective genes. (cdc.gov)
  • The imbalance between oxidant and antioxidant levels remain the underlying cause of oxidative stress. (ijpsonline.com)
  • NQO1 [NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1] has an integral role in cellular responses to oxidative stress. (biochemj.org)
  • Oxidative stress occurs as a state of disturbance between free radical produced and the capability of antioxidant system to counteract such ( Pisoschi and Pop, 2015 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • In cases where this balance of antioxidants and reactive species is disrupted by an excess or deficiency of either one, our body experiences a strong modulation of its redox status, commonly referred to as oxidative stress [ 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Our previous studies reveal that oxidative stress occurs in response to inorganic arsenite (iAs 3+ ) exposure [ 5 - 8 ], which may partly account for the dermal toxicity of iAs 3+ , including hyperkeratosis and carcinogenesis. (hindawi.com)
  • Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factors (NRFs) are a family of transcription factors that regulate the cellular adaptive response to oxidative stress through the cis -regulating antioxidant response element (ARE). (hindawi.com)
  • Antioxidant response element (ARE)-mediated expression and coordinated induction of antioxidant enzymes is a critical mechanism of protection against chemically induced oxidative/electrophilic stress. (nih.gov)
  • Oxidative stress refers to the imbalance due to excess ROS and the incapability of the cell to respond to an effective antioxidant. (els.net)
  • Oltipraz is proposed to stimulate binding to this element by members of the Jun/Fos and small Maf family of proteins by a mechanism that may involve oxidative stress. (aspetjournals.org)
  • This thiol modification is reversible by reducing agents, including glutathione, in vitro, and likely represents a reversible means of inhibiting the kinase activity within the cell during the response to oxidative insult. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Important for the coordinated up-regulation of genes in response to oxidative stress. (genecards.org)
  • Oxidative stress activates the transcription of a variety of antioxidant genes through cis-acting sequences of antioxidant response element (ARE) (Brigelius-Flohe 2011). (thermofisher.com)
  • However, in response to increased oxidative stress, the vascular BK channel function is impaired, with reduced BK-β1 protein expression being a common feature in the vascular SMCs of prediabetic, type 1 diabetic, and type 2 diabetic animals ( 8 - 13 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This current chapter gives a brief review of recent literature on the relationship between CKD, CVD and oxidative stress and indicates how, by applying knowledge of the molecular controls of oxidative stress, this information may help improve targeted therapy with antioxidants for these diseases. (intechopen.com)
  • They are primarily characterized through the accumulation of modified proteins, which further trigger biological responses such as inflammation, oxidative stress, excitotoxicity and modulation of signalling pathways. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Essentially, oxidative stress is an imbalance between ROS production and the counteractive ability of antioxidants [ 6 ]. (jcancer.org)
  • To maintain intracellular redox homeostasis, genes encoding many antioxidants and detoxification enzymes are transcriptionally upregulated upon deleterious oxidative stress through the cis antioxidant responsive elements (AREs) in their promoter regions. (asm.org)
  • The cause of oxidative stress is the production of reactive oxygen species exceeding the capacity of the body's natural antioxidant defense mechanisms. (asm.org)
  • Regulated by stretches of DNA called antioxidant response elements, the enzymes prevent oxidative damage and inflammation. (healthcanal.com)
  • The sigma-1 receptor protects against cellular oxidative stress and activates antioxidant response elements. (springer.com)
  • The antioxidant intervention had no impact on the altitude-induced oxidative stress or changes in acute cytokine responses to exercise stress-tests. (uio.no)
  • In this study, a direct association was observed between NPMc + expression in AML, reduced antioxidant responses, and enhanced sensitivity to an oral proteasome inhibitor that induces oxidative stress. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Furthermore, it suggests that monitoring oxidative stress responses in leukemic cells before and during treatment with proteasome inhibitors may provide prognostic information on the potential for a therapeutic response. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The expression of genes encoding antioxidative and Phase II detoxification enzymes is induced in cells exposed to electrophilic compounds and phenolic antioxidants. (nih.gov)
  • The activation of nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2/Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1/antioxidant response element signalling pathway regulates the expression of numbers of genes that are cytoprotective, antioxidative and detoxificative in action. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Cellular exposure to antioxidants and xenobiotics leads to coordinated induction of a battery of chemoprotective genes including quinone oxidoreductases, NQO1 and NQO2 ( 1 , 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The up-regulation of cellular defense genes, such as phase II detoxifying and stress response genes, is believed to play an important biological function in the protection against carcinogenesis and in the attenuation of cancer development ( 1 , 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • These recent findings suggest a key role for the antioxidant response element (ARE)/electrophile response element in the regulation of some phase II and stress-responsive antioxidant genes, such as NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1, glutathione S-transferase ( GST ), UDP-glucuronosyltransferase , and heme oxygenase-1 ( HO-1 ) by many chemicals, phenolic antioxidants, and other naturally occurring cancer chemopreventive agents ( 5 , 9 - 12 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Subset of enhancers -binding allows for the cell to respond to enviornmental changes by expressing genes involved in that response ex. (brainscape.com)
  • Phase 2 genes are induced through an antioxidant response element (ARE). (pnas.org)
  • many of these genes encode proteins involved in response to injury and inflammation which includes the production of free radicals. (genecards.org)
  • Transcription activator that binds to antioxidant response (ARE) elements in the promoter regions of target genes. (genecards.org)
  • Strikingly, cross-dataset comparisons indicated that the pattern of gene expression caused by MnSOD was similar to that observed in long-lived Caenorhabditis elegans insulin-like signaling mutants and to the xenobiotic stress response, thus exposing potential conserved longevity promoting genes and implicating detoxification in Drosophila longevity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Promoter-reporter assays revealed the importance of antioxidant response elements in Nrf1-mediated upregulation of proteasome subunit genes. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Furthermore, the expression of genes for heme uptake changed in response to B-cell activation and heme administration. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Taken together, these findings identify important tobacco smoke exposure response genes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Significance of tobacco exposure response genes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The plant signaling molecule salicylic acid (SA) and/or xenobiotic chemicals like the auxin mimic 2,4-D induce transcriptional activation of defense- and stress-related genes that contain activation sequence-1 ( as-1 )-like cis -elements in their promoters. (plantcell.org)
  • Several studies have reported that NSCLC expresses several self-defense genes that are involved in the protection against anticancer drugs, including phase II detoxifying enzyme genes, antioxidant genes, and drug efflux protein genes ( 4 - 7 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Studies were conducted to evaluate the negative regulatory function of rat (r)GST-Ya antioxidant/electrophile response element (ARE/EpRE) in vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs). (elsevier.com)
  • Chen, YH & Ramos, KS 2000, ' A CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein site within antioxidant/electrophile response element along with CREB-binding protein participate in the negative regulation of rat GST-Ya, gene in vascular smooth muscle cells ', Journal of Biological Chemistry , vol. 275, no. 35, pp. 27366-27376. (elsevier.com)
  • In characterizing the molecular mechanism of quinone reductase and glutathione S -transferase induction by oltipraz, several studies have reported evidence that the effects are mediated transcriptionally through a cis -acting enhancer known as the antioxidant response element (ARE) or "electrophile" response element. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The endoplasmic-reticulum (ER) stress response constitutes a cellular process that is triggered by a variety of conditions that disturb folding of proteins in the ER. (nih.gov)
  • Moreover, the proteome changes in unstimulated cells point towards a modified regulation of the cytoskeleton and cellular stress response, which was proven by western blotting. (fu-berlin.de)
  • This is presumably to keep the expression of antioxidant enzymes "in check" to maintain the cellular defenses active and/or to rapidly restore induced enzymes to normal levels. (nih.gov)
  • Normally, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels are tightly controlled by an inducible antioxidant program that responds to cellular stressors. (rupress.org)
  • Low level of ROS is responsible for cellular processes such as immune response, metabolism, transcriptional signalling, cell cycle, apoptosis and cell differentiation. (els.net)
  • Cellular sites for antioxidant therapy targets in CKD and CVD. (intechopen.com)
  • We discuss findings indicating that these NO-elicited events act as triggers by which mitochondria modulate signal transduction cascades involved in the induction of cellular defense mechanisms and adaptive responses. (ahajournals.org)
  • This review therefore assesses the reliability of the neuroprotective benefits of epigallocatechin-gallate (EGCG) by shedding light on their biological, pharmacological, antioxidant and metal chelation properties, with emphasis on their ability to invoke a range of cellular mechanisms in the brain. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The metabolism of these antioxidants regulates the cellular concentration of ROS to prevent cellular damage. (jcancer.org)
  • The cellular response to stresses originating from the environment is controlled by the coordinated function of multiple cellular regulatory factors, providing animals with an important means of protection against environmental insults. (asm.org)
  • It does so by triggering a protective cellular response, increasing cellular defenses out of proportion to the minor threat posed by the radiation itself. (blogspot.com)
  • Although it may not be obvious, radiation and polyphenols activate a cellular response that is similar in many ways. (blogspot.com)
  • Eukaryotic cells have developed an evolutionarily conserved adaptive mechanism, the unfolded protein response (UPR), which aims to clear unfolded proteins and restore ER homeostasis. (nih.gov)
  • The MEKK1 protein kinase is a critical upstream mediator in signaling pathways that control the response of cells to stress stimuli. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Human GLO1 has MRE (metal-response element), IRE (insulin-response element), E2F4 (early gene 2 factor isoform 4), AP-2α (activating enhancer-binding protein 2α) and ARE (antioxidant response-element) regulatory elements and is a hotspot for copy number variation. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • By integrating transcriptomic (microarray) data and genomic data (computational search of regulatory elements), we found that protein expression levels were mainly controlled at the level of transcription. (mcponline.org)
  • At molecular level, they behave directly as antioxidants thereby providing protection from DNA, protein and lipid damage. (nature.com)
  • Efficacy was associated with superoxide generation, reduced glutathione levels, and reduced mRNA and protein expression of antioxidant effectors in responding cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This activated heterodimer binds to cognate cis -regulatory sequences (the aryl hydrocarbon receptor response element, AHRE-I) and functions as a transcription factor to recruit coactivators and possibly to interact directly with the basal transcription machinery ( 4 - 6 ). (mcponline.org)
  • The potency of the carotenoids in ARE activation did not correlate with their effect on intracellular reactive oxygen species and reduced glutathione level, which may indicate that ARE activation is not solely related to their antioxidant activity. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Apart from mitochondrial, the NADPH oxidase (NOX), which is mainly response to stress, is another source of intracellular ROS [ 12 ] (Fig. 1 ). (jcancer.org)
  • Glutathione (GSH) is the main intracellular thiol antioxidant. (bodyecology.com)
  • They appear to be able to regulate not only antioxidant gene transcription but also numerous aspects of intracellular signaling cascades involved in the regulation of cell growth, inflammation and many other processes. (blogspot.com)
  • AML cells expressing NPMc + had significantly reduced levels of intracellular glutathione and NADPH associated with reduced antioxidant responses to drug treatment. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These data suggest that intracellular determinants of antioxidant responses may be good predictors of therapeutic response to ixazomib. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Induction of phase 2 detoxification enzymes by phenolic antioxidants can account for prevention of tumor initiation but cannot explain why these compounds inhibit tumor promotion. (pnas.org)
  • Since AP-1 is an important mediator of tumor promoter action, these findings may explain the anti-tumor-promoting activity of phenolic antioxidants. (pnas.org)
  • Although antioxidants, redox modulations, and neuropsychiatric disorders have been widely studied for many years, the field would benefit from an integrative and corroborative review. (hindawi.com)
  • Our primary objective is to delineate the biological significance of compounds that modulate our redox status (i.e., reactive species and antioxidants) as well as outline their current role in brain health and the impact of redox modulations on the severity of illnesses. (hindawi.com)
  • Reactive oxygen species (ROS) regulates various physiological, pathological and stress response pathways through redox signalling. (els.net)
  • Redox imbalance is resulted from the destruction of balance between oxidants and antioxidants. (jcancer.org)
  • 1 ) antioxidant defenses, (2) the regulation of structural, contractile and metabolic proteins, (3) ubiquitin proteosomal machinery, and ( 4 ) macroautophagy pathways. (degruyter.com)
  • These results reveal, for the first time, a subset of hepatic proteins that are differentially regulated in response to TCDD in a strain-specific manner. (mcponline.org)
  • 11 They form heterodimers with small Maf proteins, bind to the Maf recognition element (MARE), and repress target gene expression. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Recent research has shown that dietary phytochemicals have pleiotropic behaviors, exerting antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and cytoprotective effects in neuronal and glial cells. (springer.com)
  • Flaxseed (FS), a dietary botanical supplement with high fiber, lignan phenolics, and omega-3 fatty acids has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties in murine models of acute and chronic lung injury. (biomedcentral.com)
  • His paper describes how increased expression of these enzymes correlates with an increased antioxidant status of the cell and anti-inflammatory activity. (healthcanal.com)
  • Depending on species concentration, p53 activates both pro-oxidants promoting autophagy and antioxidant responses [ 11 ] to regulate cell repair, senescence, DNA damage recognition, proliferation, and migration [ 12 ]. (thno.org)
  • In a healthy cell, this balance is maintained as a result of our natural, endogenous antioxidant defences counteracting the continuous production of reactive species. (hindawi.com)
  • The antioxidant enzyme activities in sea lettuce make it ideal for development as a preventive natural supplement. (healthcanal.com)
  • Binds to the T-MARE (Maf response element) sites of lens-specific alpha- and beta-crystallin gene promoters. (uniprot.org)
  • Binds element G1 on the glucagon promoter. (uniprot.org)
  • Binds an AT-rich region adjacent to the TGC motif (atypical Maf response element) in the CD13 proximal promoter in endothelial cells (By similarity). (uniprot.org)
  • For example, long-term consumption of high-polyphenol chocolate increases sunburn resistance in humans, implying that it induces a hormetic response in skin ( 19 ). (blogspot.com)
  • The discovery that the expression of mutated NPM1 (NPMc + ) results both in reduced antioxidant responses and in enhanced sensitivity to a proteasome inhibitor that induces superoxide provides a new insight into the mechanism of action of ixazomib and of other drugs in this class such as bortezomib. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Induction of these enzymes is regulated at the transcriptional level and is mediated by a specific enhancer, the antioxidant response element or ARE, found in the promoter of the enzyme's gene. (nih.gov)
  • More recently, evidence has begun to emerge suggesting that these organelles may act also as signaling devices for the regulation of cytoprotective mechanisms and adaptive responses to hypoxia. (ahajournals.org)
  • DIM has been shown to be a strong inducer of the antioxidant response element (ARE), a regulator of the expression of many phase II drug metabolizing enzymes and phase III transporters. (prohealth.com)
  • DIM may be one of the compounds that contributes to these benefits, as it has been shown to support a healthy immune response, normal hormone metabolism, and natural detoxification pathways. (prohealth.com)
  • However, little is known about the mechanism of the heme-mediated responses or changes in heme metabolism in the immune system. (bloodjournal.org)
  • Upon activation to the M1 phenotype, microglia elaborate pro-inflammatory cytokines and neurotoxic molecules promoting inflammation and cytotoxic responses. (frontiersin.org)
  • It is known that inflammation involves a complex series of protective and reparative responses to tissue injury caused by either mechanical and autoimmune stimuli or infection. (springer.com)
  • Regulatory mechanisms controlling gene expression mediated by the antioxidant response element. (nih.gov)
  • In another study, we found that ceramide decreased nuclear hepatic nuclear factor-1 (HNF1), whose binding to the HNF1-response element in the GSTA2 gene was responsible for the constitutive and inducible gene expression. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Plasma exerted significant effects on wound healing in mice, including the promotion of granulation and reepithelialization as a consequence of the migration of skin cells, the balance of antioxidant and inflammatory response, and the early induction of macrophage and neutrophil recruitment to the wound sites. (thno.org)
  • Lateral epicondylitis (LE) is often considered an inflammatory disease characterized by tendon microtears that are followed by an incomplete reparative response that leads to chronic pain and decreased function on the upper extremity. (nursingcenter.com)
  • It was originally thought to be an inflammatory process but "epicondylitis has been shown histologically to result from tendonous microtearing, followed by an incomplete reparative response" ( Ciccotti, Schwartz, & Ciccotti, 2004 , p. 693). (nursingcenter.com)
  • Those of us who have chosen to explore the Body Ecology Diet know from first-hand experience the effects of systemic Candida , immune sensitivity, and whole-body inflammatory response. (bodyecology.com)
  • Modulates immune system (TH1/TH2) and inflammatory response (involves TH17). (bodyecology.com)
  • Conclusions Increased intake of antioxidant-rich foods elevated the antioxidant capacity and attenuated some of the altitude-induced systemic inflammatory biomarkers in elite athletes. (uio.no)
  • Bilirubin, on the other hand, is oxidized to biliverdin to form the biliverdin reductase cycle that functions as an important antioxidant in protecting lipid oxidation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Most of these studies have been observational and only a limited number of controlled exposure studies have examined acute responses to single or multiple polluting agents on repolarization parameters as a possible mechanism responsible for arrhyrhmo-genesis (Samet et al. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Interestingly, AP-1 DNA binding activity was induced by the phenolic antioxidant tert-butylhydroquinone (BHQ), but the induction of AP-1 transcriptional activity by the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate (TPA) was inhibited by this compound. (pnas.org)
  • Because P1 contained no visible AREs, the role of a xenobiotic response element (XRE) centered between bases −134 and −129 was evaluated. (aspetjournals.org)
  • sMaf homodimers bind to a palindromic DNA sequence called the Maf recognition element (MARE: TGCTGACTCAGCA) and its related sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been proposed that the latter sequences are classified as CNC-sMaf-binding elements (CsMBEs). (wikipedia.org)
  • As relatively high doses of the two chemicals (1 mM SA and 50 μM 2,4-D) are needed for the induction, it was speculated that the response was not mediated through auxin- and/or SA-specific signal transduction pathways but rather through a more general stress response pathway ( Zhang and Singh, 1994 ). (plantcell.org)
  • To protect against these vulnerabilities, a number of antioxidant defences are present in the lung epithelial lining fluids, as well as within the lung cells. (mdpi.com)
  • We now have scientific evidence that this seaweed raises the body's antioxidant defense system and therefore might potentially prevent a number of diseases, including cancer," said Luesch. (healthcanal.com)
  • Importantly, CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 are induced when PAH bind to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, which turns on gene transcription via the xenobiotic response element (refs. (aacrjournals.org)