Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.Antineoplastic Agents: Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.Doxorubicin: Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.Cyclophosphamide: Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.Osteosarcoma: A sarcoma originating in bone-forming cells, affecting the ends of long bones. It is the most common and most malignant of sarcomas of the bones, and occurs chiefly among 10- to 25-year-old youths. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Combined Modality Therapy: The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.Cisplatin: An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Vincristine: An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Chemotherapy, Adjuvant: Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma: A neoplasm characterized by abnormalities of the lymphoid cell precursors leading to excessive lymphoblasts in the marrow and other organs. It is the most common cancer in children and accounts for the vast majority of all childhood leukemias.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Clinical Protocols: Precise and detailed plans for the study of a medical or biomedical problem and/or plans for a regimen of therapy.Antibiotics, Antineoplastic: Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic: Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.Etoposide: A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Neoadjuvant Therapy: Preliminary cancer therapy (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone/endocrine therapy, immunotherapy, hyperthermia, etc.) that precedes a necessary second modality of treatment.Antineoplastic Agents, Alkylating: A class of drugs that differs from other alkylating agents used clinically in that they are monofunctional and thus unable to cross-link cellular macromolecules. Among their common properties are a requirement for metabolic activation to intermediates with antitumor efficacy and the presence in their chemical structures of N-methyl groups, that after metabolism, can covalently modify cellular DNA. The precise mechanisms by which each of these drugs acts to kill tumor cells are not completely understood. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2026)Drug Administration Schedule: Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.Paclitaxel: A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.Antimetabolites, Antineoplastic: Antimetabolites that are useful in cancer chemotherapy.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Methotrexate: An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Drug Resistance, Neoplasm: Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.Vinblastine: Antitumor alkaloid isolated from Vinca rosea. (Merck, 11th ed.)Carboplatin: An organoplatinum compound that possesses antineoplastic activity.Bleomycin: A complex of related glycopeptide antibiotics from Streptomyces verticillus consisting of bleomycin A2 and B2. It inhibits DNA metabolism and is used as an antineoplastic, especially for solid tumors.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Taxoids: A group of diterpenoid CYCLODECANES named for the taxanes that were discovered in the TAXUS tree. The action on MICROTUBULES has made some of them useful as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Ifosfamide: Positional isomer of CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE which is active as an alkylating agent and an immunosuppressive agent.Cytarabine: A pyrimidine nucleoside analog that is used mainly in the treatment of leukemia, especially acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia. Cytarabine is an antimetabolite antineoplastic agent that inhibits the synthesis of DNA. Its actions are specific for the S phase of the cell cycle. It also has antiviral and immunosuppressant properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p472)Organoplatinum Compounds: Organic compounds which contain platinum as an integral part of the molecule.Induction Chemotherapy: Initial drug treatment designed to bring about REMISSION INDUCTION. It is typically a short-term and high-dose drug treatment that is followed by CONSOLIDATION CHEMOTHERAPY and then MAINTENANCE CHEMOTHERAPY.Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor: Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.DeoxycytidineNeoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Anthracyclines: Organic compounds that have a tetrahydronaphthacenedione ring structure attached by a glycosidic linkage to the amino sugar daunosamine.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Ovarian Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.Daunorubicin: A very toxic anthracycline aminoglycoside antineoplastic isolated from Streptomyces peucetius and others, used in treatment of LEUKEMIA and other NEOPLASMS.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Neoplasm Metastasis: The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.Carmustine: A cell-cycle phase nonspecific alkylating antineoplastic agent. It is used in the treatment of brain tumors and various other malignant neoplasms. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p462) This substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen according to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Adenocarcinoma: A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung: A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.Vomiting: The forcible expulsion of the contents of the STOMACH through the MOUTH.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Nausea: An unpleasant sensation in the stomach usually accompanied by the urge to vomit. Common causes are early pregnancy, sea and motion sickness, emotional stress, intense pain, food poisoning, and various enteroviruses.Camptothecin: An alkaloid isolated from the stem wood of the Chinese tree, Camptotheca acuminata. This compound selectively inhibits the nuclear enzyme DNA TOPOISOMERASES, TYPE I. Several semisynthetic analogs of camptothecin have demonstrated antitumor activity.Drug Synergism: The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin: Any of a group of malignant tumors of lymphoid tissue that differ from HODGKIN DISEASE, being more heterogeneous with respect to malignant cell lineage, clinical course, prognosis, and therapy. The only common feature among these tumors is the absence of giant REED-STERNBERG CELLS, a characteristic of Hodgkin's disease.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Neutropenia: A decrease in the number of NEUTROPHILS found in the blood.Chemotherapy, Cancer, Regional Perfusion: Neoplasm drug therapy involving an extracorporeal circuit with temporary exclusion of the tumor-bearing area from the general circulation during which high concentrations of the drug are perfused to the isolated part.Salvage Therapy: A therapeutic approach, involving chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery, after initial regimens have failed to lead to improvement in a patient's condition. Salvage therapy is most often used for neoplastic diseases.Lomustine: An alkylating agent of value against both hematologic malignancies and solid tumors.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Mitomycin: An antineoplastic antibiotic produced by Streptomyces caespitosus. It is one of the bi- or tri-functional ALKYLATING AGENTS causing cross-linking of DNA and inhibition of DNA synthesis.Radiotherapy: The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.Brain Neoplasms: Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Dacarbazine: An antineoplastic agent. It has significant activity against melanomas. (from Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p564)Infusions, Intravenous: The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.Melphalan: An alkylating nitrogen mustard that is used as an antineoplastic in the form of the levo isomer - MELPHALAN, the racemic mixture - MERPHALAN, and the dextro isomer - MEDPHALAN; toxic to bone marrow, but little vesicant action; potential carcinogen.Transplantation, Autologous: Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.Bone Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.Testicular Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the TESTIS. Germ cell tumors (GERMINOMA) of the testis constitute 95% of all testicular neoplasms.LeukopeniaRadiotherapy, Adjuvant: Radiotherapy given to augment some other form of treatment such as surgery or chemotherapy. Adjuvant radiotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.Leukemia P388: An experimental lymphocytic leukemia originally induced in DBA/2 mice by painting with methylcholanthrene.Mitoxantrone: An anthracenedione-derived antineoplastic agent.Hodgkin Disease: A malignant disease characterized by progressive enlargement of the lymph nodes, spleen, and general lymphoid tissue. In the classical variant, giant usually multinucleate Hodgkin's and REED-STERNBERG CELLS are present; in the nodular lymphocyte predominant variant, lymphocytic and histiocytic cells are seen.Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays: In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.Drug Evaluation: Any process by which toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, preferred route of administration, safe dosage range, etc., for a drug or group of drugs is determined through clinical assessment in humans or veterinary animals.Antineoplastic Protocols: Clinical protocols used to inhibit the growth or spread of NEOPLASMS.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized: Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.6-Mercaptopurine: An antimetabolite antineoplastic agent with immunosuppressant properties. It interferes with nucleic acid synthesis by inhibiting purine metabolism and is used, usually in combination with other drugs, in the treatment of or in remission maintenance programs for leukemia.Lymphoma: A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.Gallium: A rare, metallic element designated by the symbol, Ga, atomic number 31, and atomic weight 69.72.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Colonic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Carcinoma, Squamous Cell: A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Cell Proliferation: All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal: Neoplasms composed of primordial GERM CELLS of embryonic GONADS or of elements of the germ layers of the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the gonads or present in an embryo or FETUS.Carcinoma: A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)Bryostatins: A group of 20-member macrolactones in which there are three remotely substituted pyran rings that are linked by a methylene bridge and an E-disubstituted alkene, and have geminal dimethyls at C8 and C18 carbons. Some interact with PROTEIN KINASE C.Ellipticines: Pyrido-CARBAZOLES originally discovered in the bark of OCHROSIA ELLIPTICA. They inhibit DNA and RNA synthesis and have immunosuppressive properties.Phospholipid Ethers: Phospholipids which have an alcohol moiety in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol. They are usually derivatives of phosphoglycerols or phosphatidates. The other two alcohol groups of the glycerol backbone are usually in ester linkage. These compounds are widely distributed in animal tissues.Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor: A glycoprotein of MW 25 kDa containing internal disulfide bonds. It induces the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of neutrophilic granulocyte precursor cells and functionally activates mature blood neutrophils. Among the family of colony-stimulating factors, G-CSF is the most potent inducer of terminal differentiation to granulocytes and macrophages of leukemic myeloid cell lines.Mice, Nude: Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.Floxuridine: An antineoplastic antimetabolite that is metabolized to fluorouracil when administered by rapid injection; when administered by slow, continuous, intra-arterial infusion, it is converted to floxuridine monophosphate. It has been used to treat hepatic metastases of gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas and for palliation in malignant neoplasms of the liver and gastrointestinal tract.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Infusions, Intra-Arterial: Regional infusion of drugs via an arterial catheter. Often a pump is used to impel the drug through the catheter. Used in therapy of cancer, upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage, infection, and peripheral vascular disease.ThiadiazinesPlatinum Compounds: Inorganic compounds which contain platinum as the central atom.Gloves, Protective: Coverings for the hands, usually with separations for the fingers, made of various materials, for protection against infections, toxic substances, extremes of hot and cold, radiations, water immersion, etc. The gloves may be worn by patients, care givers, housewives, laboratory and industrial workers, police, etc.Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute: Clonal expansion of myeloid blasts in bone marrow, blood, and other tissue. Myeloid leukemias develop from changes in cells that normally produce NEUTROPHILS; BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Drug Resistance, Multiple: Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.Oncology Nursing: A nursing specialty concerned with the care provided to cancer patients. It includes aspects of family functioning through education of both patient and family.Antiemetics: Drugs used to prevent NAUSEA or VOMITING.Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation: Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.Neoplasm Transplantation: Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.Thiotepa: A very toxic alkylating antineoplastic agent also used as an insect sterilant. It causes skin, gastrointestinal, CNS, and bone marrow damage. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), thiotepa may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck Index, 11th ed).Peritoneal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PERITONEUM.Radiotherapy Dosage: The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.Drug Therapy: The use of DRUGS to treat a DISEASE or its symptoms. One example is the use of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to treat CANCER.Thrombocytopenia: A subnormal level of BLOOD PLATELETS.Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Leukemia L1210Palliative Care: Care alleviating symptoms without curing the underlying disease. (Stedman, 25th ed)Stomach Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Tegafur: Congener of FLUOROURACIL with comparable antineoplastic action. It has been suggested especially for the treatment of breast neoplasms.Amaryllidaceae Alkaloids: Alkaloids derived from TYRAMINE combined with 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde via a norbelladine pathway, including GALANTAMINE, lycorine and crinine. They are found in the Amaryllidaceae (LILIACEAE) plant family.Germinoma: A malignant neoplasm of the germinal tissue of the GONADS; MEDIASTINUM; or pineal region. Germinomas are uniform in appearance, consisting of large, round cells with vesicular nuclei and clear or finely granular eosinophilic-staining cytoplasm. (Stedman, 265th ed; from DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, pp1642-3)Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Head and Neck Neoplasms: Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)Gene Expression Regulation, Neoplastic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.Narcissus: A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. Members contain ungiminorine and LECTINS.P-Glycoprotein: A 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. It serves as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a variety of chemicals, including many ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of this glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance (see DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE).Cell Cycle: The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.Aster Plant: A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. This plant should not be confused with microtubule asters (MICROTUBULES) nor with aster yellows phytoplasma (mycoplasma-like organisms).Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Leukemia: A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.Mitomycins: A group of methylazirinopyrroloindolediones obtained from certain Streptomyces strains. They are very toxic antibiotics used as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS in some solid tumors. PORFIROMYCIN and MITOMYCIN are the most useful members of the group.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Multiple Myeloma: A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Prodrugs: A compound that, on administration, must undergo chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming the pharmacologically active drug for which it is a prodrug.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Drug Resistance: Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.Pancreatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).Hyperthermia, Induced: Abnormally high temperature intentionally induced in living things regionally or whole body. It is most often induced by radiation (heat waves, infra-red), ultrasound, or drugs.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Epothilones: A group of 16-member MACROLIDES which stabilize MICROTUBULES in a manner similar to PACLITAXEL. They were originally found in the myxobacterium Sorangium cellulosum, now renamed to Polyangium (MYXOCOCCALES).Bibenzyls: Compounds with 1,2-diphenylethane. They are structurally like reduced STILBENES.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Chemoradiotherapy: Treatment that combines chemotherapy with radiotherapy.Vindesine: Vinblastine derivative with antineoplastic activity against CANCER. Major side effects are myelosuppression and neurotoxicity. Vindesine is used extensively in chemotherapy protocols (ANTINEOPLASTIC COMBINED CHEMOTHERAPY PROTOCOLS).Olacaceae: A small plant family of the order Santalales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.Bridged Compounds: Cyclic hydrocarbons that contain multiple rings and share one or more atoms.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Leukemia, Myeloid: Form of leukemia characterized by an uncontrolled proliferation of the myeloid lineage and their precursors (MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS) in the bone marrow and other sites.Angiogenesis Inhibitors: Agents and endogenous substances that antagonize or inhibit the development of new blood vessels.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Amsacrine: An aminoacridine derivative that intercalates into DNA and is used as an antineoplastic agent.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Maintenance Chemotherapy: Treatment designed to help prevent a relapse of a disease following the successful primary treatments (INDUCTION CHEMOTHERAPY and CONSOLIDATION CHEMOTHERAPY) with a long-term low-dose drug therapy.Cranial Irradiation: The exposure of the head to roentgen rays or other forms of radioactivity for therapeutic or preventive purposes.Sarcoma: A connective tissue neoplasm formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells; it is usually highly malignant.Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions: Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.Clinical Trials, Phase III as Topic: Works about comparative studies to verify the effectiveness of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques determined in phase II studies. During these trials, patients are monitored closely by physicians to identify any adverse reactions from long-term use. These studies are performed on groups of patients large enough to identify clinically significant responses and usually last about three years. This concept includes phase III studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.Glioma: Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)Platinum: Platinum. A heavy, soft, whitish metal, resembling tin, atomic number 78, atomic weight 195.09, symbol Pt. (From Dorland, 28th ed) It is used in manufacturing equipment for laboratory and industrial use. It occurs as a black powder (platinum black) and as a spongy substance (spongy platinum) and may have been known in Pliny's time as "alutiae".Medical Secretaries: Individuals responsible for various duties pertaining to the medical office routine.Inhibitory Concentration 50: The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.Medical Oncology: A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of neoplasms.Neoplasm, Residual: Remnant of a tumor or cancer after primary, potentially curative therapy. (Dr. Daniel Masys, written communication)Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Prostatic Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Sulindac: A sulfinylindene derivative prodrug whose sulfinyl moiety is converted in vivo to an active NSAID analgesic. Specifically, the prodrug is converted by liver enzymes to a sulfide which is excreted in the bile and then reabsorbed from the intestine. This helps to maintain constant blood levels with reduced gastrointestinal side effects.Actuarial Analysis: The application of probability and statistical methods to calculate the risk of occurrence of any event, such as onset of illness, recurrent disease, hospitalization, disability, or death. It may include calculation of the anticipated money costs of such events and of the premiums necessary to provide for payment of such costs.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Lactones: Cyclic esters of hydroxy carboxylic acids, containing a 1-oxacycloalkan-2-one structure. Large cyclic lactones of over a dozen atoms are MACROLIDES.Protective Devices: Devices designed to provide personal protection against injury to individuals exposed to hazards in industry, sports, aviation, or daily activities.Tumor Burden: The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.Topotecan: An antineoplastic agent used to treat ovarian cancer. It works by inhibiting DNA TOPOISOMERASES, TYPE I.Depsipeptides: Compounds consisting of chains of AMINO ACIDS alternating with CARBOXYLIC ACIDS via ester and amide linkages. They are commonly cyclized.LaunderingBone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Oxonic Acid: Antagonist of urate oxidase.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Dental Physiological Processes: Functions and activities of DENTITION as a whole.Nitrosourea CompoundsBone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Drug Delivery Systems: Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.Antibodies, Monoclonal, Murine-Derived: Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Prednisolone: A glucocorticoid with the general properties of the corticosteroids. It is the drug of choice for all conditions in which routine systemic corticosteroid therapy is indicated, except adrenal deficiency states.HL-60 Cells: A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)

Tumour ablation and hepatic decompensation rates in multi-agent chemoembolization of hepatocellular carcinoma. (1/20433)

Thirty-seven cirrhotic patients with 62 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) foci--most Child-Pugh class B or C and/or with large, inoperable tumours--underwent 148 sessions of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) using lipiodol, doxorubicin and cisplatin. Treatment efficacy was assessed by serial hepatic arteriography in 34/37 (91.9%) patients and abdominal CT scanning in 3/37 (8.1%) patients. Child-Pugh status was determined prior to each treatment session. Varying degrees of control of tumour neovascularity occurred for a median 390 days (range 90 to > 1680 days) in 33/34 (97.1%) patients in whom progress hepatic arteriography was performed. Ablation of tumour neovascularity occurred in 6/6 (100%), 4/12 (33.3%) and 6/16 (37.5%) patients with HCC diameters < 4 cm, 4-7 cm and > 8 cm, respectively (p < 0.02). Significantly more sessions were required for ablation of larger tumours (p < 0.05). Recurrent HCC was detected in 50% of patients after a median 240 days (range 60-1120 days). Deterioration in Child-Pugh status followed a session of TACE on 19/148 (12.8%) occasions but resulted in unscheduled hospitalization on only 4/148 (2.7%) occasions, the highest incidence (8.3%) in Child-Pugh C patients. Actuarial survival was 27/36 (75.0%) at 6 months, 17/34 (50.0%) at 12 months, 14/34 (41.2%) at 18 months, 9/31 (29.0%) at 24 months and 4/27 (14.8%) at 36 months. Multi-agent TACE with lipiodol, doxorubicin and cisplatin provides a useful anti-tumour effect, even in cirrhotic patients with large HCCs. The incidence of clinically significant deterioration in hepatic function due to ischaemia of non-tumorous liver is acceptably low, even in Child-Pugh C patients.  (+info)

Intensive weekly chemotherapy is not effective in advanced pancreatic cancer patients: a report from the Italian Group for the Study of Digestive Tract Cancer (GISCAD). (2/20433)

Twenty-two patients, with locally advanced unresectable and/or metastatic pancreatic carcinoma, received weekly administration of cisplatin 40 mg m(-2), 5-fluorouracil 500 mg m(-2), epidoxorubicin 35 mg m(-2), 6S stereoisomer of leucovorin 250 mg m(-2) and glutathione 1.5 mg m(-2), supported by a daily administration of lenograstim at a dose of 5 microg kg(-1). Nineteen patients were men and three were women. Median age was 63 years (range 47-70). At study entry, pain was present in 15 out of 22 patients (68%) with a mean value of Scott-Huskisson scale of 27.6+/-23.8, whereas a weight loss >10% was present in 15 patients. After eight weekly treatments, three partial responses were achieved for a response rate of 13% (95% CI 0-26%), five patients had stable disease and 14 progressed on therapy. Pain was present in 9 out of 22 patients (40%) with a mean value of Scott-Huskisson scale of 12.3+/-18.4. Eight patients (36%) (three partial response and five stable disease) had a positive weight change. Toxicity was mild: WHO grade III or IV toxicity was recorded in terms of anaemia in 7 out of 188 cycles (3.7%), of neutropenia in 9 out of 188 cycles (4.7%) and of thrombocytopenia in 3 out of 188 cycles (1.5%). Median survival of all patients was 6 months. The outcome of this intensive chemotherapy regimen does not support its use in pancreatic cancer.  (+info)

Early death during chemotherapy in patients with small-cell lung cancer: derivation of a prognostic index for toxic death and progression. (3/20433)

Based on an increased frequency of early death (death within the first treatment cycle) in our two latest randomized trials of combination chemotherapy in small-cell lung cancer (SCLC), we wanted to identify patients at risk of early non-toxic death (ENTD) and early toxic death (ETD). Data were stored in a database and logistic regression analyses were performed to identify predictive factors for early death. During the first cycle, 118 out of 937 patients (12.6%) died. In 38 patients (4%), the cause of death was sepsis. Significant risk factors were age, performance status (PS), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and treatment with epipodophyllotoxins and platinum in the first cycle (EP). Risk factors for ENTD were age, PS and LDH. Extensive stage had a hazard ratio of 1.9 (P = 0.07). Risk factors for ETD were EP, PS and LDH, whereas age and stage were not. For EP, the hazard ratio was as high as 6.7 (P = 0.0001). We introduced a simple prognostic algorithm including performance status, LDH and age. Using a prognostic algorithm to exclude poor-risk patients from trials, we could minimize early death, improve long-term survival and increase the survival differences between different regimens. We suggest that other groups evaluate our algorithm and exclude poor prognosis patients from trials of dose intensification.  (+info)

Profound variation in dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase activity in human blood cells: major implications for the detection of partly deficient patients. (4/20433)

Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) is responsible for the breakdown of the widely used antineoplastic agent 5-fluorouracil (5FU), thereby limiting the efficacy of the therapy. To identify patients suffering from a complete or partial DPD deficiency, the activity of DPD is usually determined in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBM cells). In this study, we demonstrated that the highest activity of DPD was found in monocytes followed by that of lymphocytes, granulocytes and platelets, whereas no significant activity of DPD could be detected in erythrocytes. The activity of DPD in PBM cells proved to be intermediate compared with the DPD activity observed in monocytes and lymphocytes. The mean percentage of monocytes in the PBM cells obtained from cancer patients proved to be significantly higher than that observed in PBM cells obtained from healthy volunteers. Moreover, a profound positive correlation was observed between the DPD activity of PBM cells and the percentage of monocytes, thus introducing a large inter- and intrapatient variability in the activity of DPD and hindering the detection of patients with a partial DPD deficiency.  (+info)

Patterns of care and survival for adolescents and young adults with acute leukaemia--a population-based study. (5/20433)

We report a population-based study of patterns of care and survival for people with acute leukaemia diagnosed at age 15-29 years during 1984-94 in regions of England and Wales covered by specialist leukaemia registries. There were 879 patients: 417 with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and 462 with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). For ALL, actuarial survival rates were 43% at 5 years after diagnosis and 37% at 10 years. Survival improved significantly between 1984-88 and 1989-94 for those aged 15-19 at diagnosis. Patients entered in national clinical trials and those not entered had similar survival rates. Survival rates were similar at teaching and non-teaching hospitals and at hospitals treating different numbers of study patients per year. For AML, survival rates were 42% at 5 years after diagnosis and 39% at 10 years. Survival improved significantly between 1984-88 and 1989-94. Patients entered in the Medical Research Council AML10 trial had a higher survival rate than those who were in the earlier AML9 trial. Survival did not vary with category of hospital. We conclude that survival has improved for adolescents and young adults with acute leukaemia but that there is at present no evidence that centralized treatment results in a survival benefit for patients in this age group.  (+info)

The minimum CD34 threshold depends on prior chemotherapy in autologous peripheral blood stem cell recipients. (6/20433)

We analysed 57 patients with non-myeloid malignancies who received a non-purged autologous PBSCT. All had similar mobilisation and conditioning regimens. A high prior chemotherapy score and the number of chemotherapy lines used (P = 0.015 and P = 0.01, respectively) were adverse predictors of CD34 cell yields. Lower CD34 values (P = 0.002) were seen in patients treated with potent stem cell toxins (BCNU, melphalan, CCNU and mustine), designated toxicity factor 4 agents (TF4). All patients infused with grafts containing CD34 cell doses between 1.0 and 2.0 x 10(6)/kg (range 1.25-1.90) engrafted by day 51. The only variable associated with slow platelet recovery was exposure to TF4 (P = 0.007). The majority of patients with CD34 >1.0 x 10(6)/kg achieved rapid and sustained engraftment and the only predictive factor of delayed recovery is prior exposure to stem cell toxins. Potential PBSCT candidates should if possible avoid first line and salvage chemotherapy containing TF4 drugs. We therefore advocate a minimum CD34 threshold of >1.0 x 10(6)/kg in patients without extensive prior chemoradiotherapy, and > or = 2.0 x 10(6)/kg in all other patients.  (+info)

Infectious complications in 126 patients treated with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. (7/20433)

The effect of an extensive prophylactic antimicrobial regimen was prospectively assessed in 126 patients after high-dose chemotherapy and autologous PBSC. They received ciprofloxacin (500 mg/12 h), acyclovir (200 mg/6 h), and itraconazole (200 mg/12 h) orally until neutrophil recovery. Febrile patients received i.v. imipenem (500 mg/6 h) to which vancomycin and amikacin were added if fever persisted for 2-3 and 5 days, respectively. Amphotericin B lipid complex was further given on day 7 or 8 of fever. Median times for a neutrophil count of >0.5 x 10(9)/l and a platelet count of >20 x 10(9)/l were 9 and 11 days. Severe neutropenia (<0.1 x 10(9)/l) lasted for a median of 5 days in which 72% of febrile episodes and 50% of cases of bacteremia occurred. Gram-positive bacteria were isolated in 30 of 40 episodes of bacteremia, 25 of which were caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis. Clinical foci were the intravascular catheter in 35 cases, respiratory infection in 11, cellulitis in two, anal abscess in one, and neutropenic enterocolitis in one. The high incidence of febrile episodes (94%) and bacteremias (31%) may be due to the lack of efficacy of antimicrobial prophylaxis and the persistence of a 5-day period of severe neutropenia.  (+info)

Central venous catheter exchange by guidewire for treatment of catheter-related bacteraemia in patients undergoing BMT or intensive chemotherapy. (8/20433)

Current guidelines for the treatment of catheter-related bacteraemia (CRB) advise against central venous catheter (CVC) exchange because of the potential risk of prolonging infection. However, there are no consistent data proving this recommendation. We evaluated prospectively the usefulness of CVC exchange by guidewire for the treatment of CRB in patients undergoing BMT or intensive chemotherapy. CVC exchange was considered when fever and positive blood cultures persisted after 2 days of adequate antimicrobial therapy and no potential source of bacteraemia other than CVC could be identified. The guidewire exchange was preceded and followed by a slow infusion of adequate antimicrobial therapy. Bacteraemia was confirmed as catheter-related by demonstrating concordance between isolates from the tip and blood cultures by pulsed-field electrophoresis of genomic DNA. This procedure was performed in 19 episodes of bacteraemia during a 1-year period. Fourteen episodes (74%) were catheter-related and 71% of these were due to coagulase-negative staphylococci. Guidewire replacement was accomplished uneventfully 4 days after development of sepsis (range 3-6). In all cases, clinical signs of sepsis disappeared in less than 24 h after replacement. Definitive catheter withdrawal was carried out a median of 16 days (range 3-42) after guidewire exchange; in all cases, the tip culture was negative. We conclude that CVC replacement by guidewire under adequate antimicrobial therapy may be a reasonable option for the treatment of CRB when antimicrobial therapy alone has been unsuccessful.  (+info)

*List of MeSH codes (E02)

... antineoplastic combined chemotherapy protocols MeSH E02.319.310.075 --- antiretroviral therapy, highly active MeSH E02.319. ... antineoplastic combined chemotherapy protocols MeSH E02.319.162.150 --- antibiotic prophylaxis MeSH E02.319.300.253 --- delayed ... antineoplastic combined chemotherapy protocols MeSH E02.190.044.080 --- acupressure MeSH E02.190.044.105 --- acupuncture ...

*FLAG (chemotherapy)

The FLAMSA protocol is most often used as an induction part of a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen for patients eligible ... G-CSF is still included, even though the "G" is taken out of the acronym.) Amsacrine is an alkylating antineoplastic agent that ... In this setting, it is often combined with other agents, such as: Cyclophosphamide (FLAMSA-CYC), and/or Busulfan or treosulfan ... FLAG is an acronym for a chemotherapy regimen used for relapsed and refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The standard FLAG ...

*Chemotherapy

This type of chemotherapy is used for curative intent. Combined modality chemotherapy is the use of drugs with other cancer ... Antineoplastic Agents in Encyclopedia of Molecular Pharmacology, 2nd Edition, Volume 1. Eds. Offermanns S and Rosenthal W. ... Generating Inhibitors of P-Glycoprotein: Where to, Now?. Springer Protocols. pp. 405-432. Luqmani YA (2005). "Mechanisms of ... Intensification chemotherapy is identical to consolidation chemotherapy but a different drug than the induction chemotherapy is ...

*Drug discovery

"The purine path to chemotherapy. Nobel Lecture 1988". Black J. "Drugs from emasculated hormones: the principles of synoptic ... Some descriptors such as ligand efficiency (LE) and lipophilic efficiency (LiPE) combine such parameters to assess druglikeness ... For certain therapy areas, such as antimicrobials, antineoplastics, antihypertensive and anti-inflammatory drugs, the numbers ... agonists using parallel synthesis protocols: A Lipophilic Efficiency (LipE) analysis". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters ...

*Thymidine kinase

Helgstrand E, Oberg B (1980). "Enzymatic targets in virus chemotherapy". Antibiotics and Chemotherapy. 27: 22-69. PMID 6996606 ... This may also be combined with radioactivity to achieve apoptosis of malignant cells. Some antiviral drugs, such as acyclovir ( ... A standardized protocol that will help comparison of clinical studies has been suggested. Hybridomas are cells obtained by ... a biochemical strategy to enhance the activation of antineoplastic drugs". P R Health Sci J. 13 (1): 19-23. PMID 8016290. Sun R ...
A study to evaluate the efficacy of lenalidomide as maintenance therapy after completion of first-line combination chemotherapy in patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) who are not candidates for transplantation and have achieved partial response (PR) or complete response (CR).. This study was prematurely terminated by the sponsor in light of new unpublished data that rendered the current design of the study no longer clinically relevant. A study design with the control arm of no active treatment was no longer appropriate. The termination of the trial was not based on any safety concerns in the study. ...
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A chemotherapy regimen is a regimen for chemotherapy, defining the drugs to be used, their dosage, the frequency and duration of treatments, and other considerations. In modern oncology, many regimens combine several chemotherapy drugs in combination chemotherapy. The majority of drugs used in cancer chemotherapy are cytostatic, many via cytotoxicity. A fundamental philosophy of medical oncology, including combination chemotherapy, is that different drugs work through different mechanisms, and that the results of using multiple drugs will be synergistic to some extent. Because they have different dose-limiting adverse effects, they can be given together at full doses in chemotherapy regimens.[1]. The first successful combination chemotherapy was MOPP, introduced in 1963 for lymphomas. The term "induction regimen" refers to a chemotherapy regimen used for the initial treatment of a disease. A "maintenance regimen" refers to the ongoing use of chemotherapy to reduce the chances of a cancer ...
RATIONALE: Drugs used in chemotherapy work in different ways to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. Giving more than one drug (combination chemotherapy) may kill more cancer cells. It is not yet known which combination chemotherapy regimen is more effective in treating acute lymphoblastic leukemia.. PURPOSE: This randomized clinical trial is studying the side effects of two combination chemotherapy regimens and to see how well they work in treating children with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia. ...
A multi-agent system (M.A.S.) is a computerized system composed of multiple interacting intelligent agents within an environment. Multi-agent systems can be used to solve problems that are difficult or impossible for an individual agent or a monolithic system to solve. Intelligence may include some methodic, functional, procedural approach, algorithmic search or reinforcement learning. Although there is considerable overlap, a multi-agent system is not always the same as an agent-based model (ABM). The goal of an ABM is to search for explanatory insight into the collective behavior of agents (which dont necessarily need to be "intelligent") obeying simple rules, typically in natural systems, rather than in solving specific practical or engineering problems. The terminology of ABM tends to be used more often in the sciences, and MAS in engineering and technology.[1] Topics where multi-agent systems research may deliver an appropriate approach include online trading,[2] disaster response,[3][4] ...
This randomized phase III trial studies how well standard-dose combination chemotherapy works compared to high-dose combination chemotherapy and stem cell transplant in treating patients with germ cell tumors that have returned after a period of improvement or did not respond to treatment. Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as paclitaxel, ifosfamide, cisplatin, carboplatin, and etoposide, work in different ways to stop the growth of tumor cells, either by killing the cells, by stopping them from dividing, or by stopping them from spreading. Giving chemotherapy before a stem cell transplant stops the growth of cancer cells by stopping them from dividing or killing them. Giving colony-stimulating factors, such as filgrastim or pegfilgrastim, and certain chemotherapy drugs, helps stem cells move from the bone marrow to the blood so they can be collected and stored. Chemotherapy is then given to prepare the bone marrow for the stem cell transplant. The stem cells are then returned to the patient to ...
This study looks at how well how well pazopanib hydrochloride, (targeted chemotherapy), combination chemotherapy, and radiation therapy work compared to radiation therapy alone, or in combination with pazopanib hydrochloride or combination chemotherapy in treating patients with newly diagnosed non-rhabdomyosarcoma soft tissue sarcomas that can be removed by surgery. Radiation therapy uses high energy x-rays to kill tumor cells. Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as ifosfamide and doxorubicin hydrochloride, work in different ways to stop the growth of tumor cells, either by killing the cells, by stopping them from dividing, or by stopping them from spreading. Pazopanib hydrochloride may stop the growth of tumor cells by blocking some of the enzymes needed for cell growth. It is not yet known whether radiation therapy works better when given with or without combination chemotherapy and/or pazopanib hydrochloride in treating patients with non-rhabdomyosarcoma soft tissue sarcomas. ...
Abstract Background: For patients with metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma, there are no approved or established treatments beyond the 2nd line. A Phase Ib study of fractionated radioimmunotherapy was undertaken in this setting, administering 90Y-clivatuzumab tetraxetan (yttrium-90-radiolabelled humanised antibody targeting pancreatic adenocarcinoma mucin) with or without low radiosensitising doses of gemcitabine.
The goal of this clinical research study is to find out if switching from a standard chemotherapy combination to a more intensive experimental combination, based on imaging scans, will improve response to treatment in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). The safety of this experimental chemotherapy combination will also be studied.
The present study demonstrated the following three important clinical observations. First, the OS of the chemotherapy group was better than that of the BSC group in elderly patients with poor PS. Second, the number of treatment cycles had a larger impact on the survival benefit of chemotherapy than the decision/selection of either single-agent therapy or carboplatin-doublet therapy. Third, hypoalbuminemia was not only the risk factor for early termination of chemotherapy, but also the independent prognostic factor in the chemotherapy group.. The clinician-estimated PS is the most common method to evaluate physiologic reserve and functional status in NSCLC patients, and it is used to assess a patients tolerability against chemotherapy. In previous clinical trials conducted for elderly, advanced NSCLC patients, such as the ELVIS and IFCT-0501 trials [3, 4, 7], 20-30% of patients had a PS of 2, whereas almost no data were available for patients with PS ≥ 3. Given this, there is a general ...
This phase Ib study is investigating the tolerability of selumetinib in combination with pemetrexed; pemetrexed and cisplatin; paclitaxel and carboplatin in
Table of Contents. Table of Contents 2. List of Tables 7. List of Figures 8. Introduction 9. Global Markets Direct Report Coverage 9. Chemotherapy Induced Neutropenia Overview 10. Therapeutics Development 11. Pipeline Products for Chemotherapy Induced Neutropenia-Overview 11. Pipeline Products for Chemotherapy Induced Neutropenia-Comparative Analysis 12. Chemotherapy Induced Neutropenia-Therapeutics under Development by Companies 13. Chemotherapy Induced Neutropenia-Therapeutics under Investigation by Universities/Institutes 16. Chemotherapy Induced Neutropenia-Pipeline Products Glance 17. Late Stage Products 17. Clinical Stage Products 18. Early Stage Products 19. Unknown Stage Products 20. Chemotherapy Induced Neutropenia-Products under Development by Companies 21. Chemotherapy Induced Neutropenia-Products under Investigation by Universities/Institutes 24. Chemotherapy Induced Neutropenia-Companies Involved in Therapeutics Development 25. Bio-Ker s.r.l 25. Biogenomics Limited 26. Bolder ...
Chemotherapy is the use of anticancer drugs to treat cancer cells. Chemotherapy has been used for many years and is one of the most common treatments for cancer. In most cases, chemotherapy works by interfering with the cancer cells ability to grow or reproduce. Different groups of drugs work in different ways to fight cancer cells. Chemotherapy may be used alone for some types of cancer or in combination with other treatments, such as radiation or surgery. Often, a combination of chemotherapy drugs is used to fight a specific cancer. Certain chemotherapy drugs may be given in a specific order depending on the type of cancer its being used to treat.. While chemotherapy can be quite effective in treating certain cancers, chemotherapy drugs reach all parts of the body, not just the cancer cells. Because of this, there may be many side effects during treatment. Being able to anticipate these side effects can help you and your child prepare and, in some cases, prevent these symptoms from ...
Inclusion Criteria:. Histologically confirmed solid tumor malignancy for which platinum-based chemotherapy on a 21-day cycle or 14 day cycle is being recommended. Stage I of the trial: newly diagnosed disease for which neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy is planned in the curative setting, or metastatic disease. Stage II of the trial: evaluable disease by Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) criteria must be present for all subjects in the randomized component of the trial- if surgery or radiation is planned, the target lesions may not be so treated until after the assessment of the effect of chemotherapy. Stage I: subjects may have already received no more than 2 cycle of their platinum-based chemotherapy but should not have received other prior chemotherapy regimens with the exception of patients with metastatic disease who received neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy and that chemotherapy was completed , 6 months prior to enrollment. Stage II: subjects must have received no ...
Chemotherapy combinations commonly used in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer include: fluorouracil (5FU) and leucovorin (FU/LV) leucovorin c...
Patients median age was 60 years (28-72). All were classified as ECOG 0-1. Each patient received oxaliplatin as a first line treatment. Also prior use of bevacizumab was reported in 12 patients (60%) and anti-EGFR in 5 patients (25%). 70% of them had mutated RAS status and 30% wild-type RAS status.. The median number of cycles given was 10 (2-42). Aflibercept dose reduction was required in 6 patients (30%), and therapy discontinuation due to toxicity in 2 (10%), 1 as a consequence of hypertension and 1 as diarrhea. In all patients, some kind of grade treatment-related adverse events occurred. Most frequently 3-4 grade toxicity observed were: asthenia (20%), neutropenia (20%), hypertension (20%), diarrhea (15%), stomatitis (15%), palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia (10%) and proteinuria (5%).. In patients evaluable for response, the response rate was 40% and the disease control rate of 73%. In a follow-up median time of 9 months, the progression-free survival median time was 6,5 months (2-23), and ...
Data on 2281 participants from eight RCTs were available from reports of single-agent doxorubicin versus doxorubicin-based combination chemotherapy. Meta-analysis using the fixed effect model detected a higher tumour response rate with combination chemotherapy compared with single-agent chemotherapy (odds ratio [OR= 1.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03 to 1.60; p = 0.03), but the OR from a pooled analysis using the random effects model and the same data did not achieve statistical significance (OR= 1.26; 95% CI, 0.96 to 1.67; p = 0.10). No significant difference between the two regimens was detected in the pooled one-year mortality rate (OR = 0.87; 95% CI, 0.73 to 1.05; p=0.14) or two-year mortality rate (OR = 0.84; 95% CI, 0.67 to 1.06; p=0.13) (N=2097). Although reporting of adverse effects was limited and inconsistent among trials (making pooling of data for this outcome impossible), adverse effects such as nausea/vomiting and hematologic toxic effects were consistently reported as being ...
Chemotherapy is a systemic method of cancer treatment, in contrast with local therapies such as surgery and radiation therapy. The drugs used in chemotherapy are able to reach most parts of the body. Therefore, chemotherapy is likely to be recommended for cancer that has already spread to other areas of the body, for tumors that occur at more than one site, or for tumors that cannot be removed surgically. It is also used when a patient has recurrent disease after initial treatment with surgery or radiation therapy.. Chemotherapy is less mutilating than surgery and helps conserve organ or limb function since anti-cancer drugs are used to act on cancer cells without direct removal of a body part.. For some cancers, chemotherapy alone can destroy all the cancer cells and cure the cancer (primary treatment). As an adjuvant treatment, chemotherapy is given prior to, or after other methods, to increase the effectiveness of cancer treatment. Most often, adjuvant chemotherapy is given after other ...
Nausea and vomiting are common side effects of chemotherapy drugs that are used to treat cancer. Some chemotherapy drugs are worse offenders than others In most cases, patients will be given anti-vomiting (antiemetics) and anti-nausea medication prior to the administration of chemotherapy. Some of the commonly used antiemetics are listed in the chart below. As you can see, these drugs may also have some side effects of their own.
This paper considers the consensus problem of nonlinear multi-agent systems under switching directed topologies. Specifically, the dynamics of each agent incorporates an intrinsic nonlinear term and the interaction topology may not contain a spanning tree at any time. By designing a state-controlled switching law, we show that the multi-agent system with the neighbor-based protocol can achieve consensus if the switching topologies jointly contain a spanning tree. Moreover, an easily manageable algebraic criterion is deduced to unravel the underlying mechanisms in reaching consensus. Finally, a numerical example is exploited to illustrate the effectiveness of the developed theoretical results.
Roche noted that a Phase III IMpower150 study met its co-primary endpoint of progression-free survival (PFS) and demonstrated that the combination of TECENTRIQ (atezolizumab) and Avastin (bevacizumab) plus chemotherapy (paclitaxel and carboplatin) provided a statistically significant and clinically meaningful reduction in the risk of disease worsening or death (PFS) compared to Avastin plus chemotherapy in the first-line treatment of people with advanced non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Initial observations for the co-primary endpoint of overall survival (OS) are encouraging. These data are not fully mature and the next OS analysis is expected in the first half of 2018. Safety for the TECENTRIQ and Avastin plus chemotherapy combination appeared consistent with the known safety profile of the individual medicines, and no new safety signals were identified with the combination ...
Patients whose cancer progresses following Platinol®-based chemotherapy require treatment with different chemotherapy regimens. Currently available chemotherapy regimens can induce long-term complete remissions in approximately 25% of patients with cancer that persisted or recurred following initial Platinol®-based treatment. Patients who experience a complete response to initial chemotherapy and those without extensive disease at the time of recurrence have the most favorable outcomes.. Patients who are refractory to Platinol®-based chemotherapy have a markedly poor prognosis. Several chemotherapeutic agents have been evaluated in intensively treated or Platinol®-refractory patients. Doxorubin, Ellence®, Navelbine®, Hycamtin®, or biologic agents such as a suramin and retinoic acid have not demonstrated significant activity in Platinol®-refractory patients. However, paclitaxel has shown a response rate of approximately 21%, with a few patients having a complete response. Current clinical ...
Eliminating pro-inflammatory cells after treatment relieves symptoms in mice.. January 17, 2017/Novato, California: Standard chemotherapy is a blunt force instrument against cancer - and its a rare cancer patient who escapes debilitating side effects from systemic treatments that mostly affect dividing cells, both malignant and healthy, throughout the body. Researchers at the Buck Institute and elsewhere now show that chemotherapy triggers a pro-inflammatory stress response termed cellular senescence, promoting the adverse effects of chemotherapy as well as cancer relapse and metastasis. Eliminating the senescent cells in mice prevented the side effects and relapse. The research is published in Cancer Discovery.. "While chemotherapy does save lives, it often comes with a very high price," said Judith Campisi, PhD, Buck faculty and senior scientist on the study. "Our work in mice studied the effects of chemotherapy on cancer relapse and other serious side effects. It provides a ...
Median follow-up was 16.1 months (5.1-39.0) in the FOLFOX-FOFIRI regimen and 19.9 months (4.0-46.6) in the XELOX-XELIRI regimen. Ten patients were treated with bevacizumab in either a first or second setting in the FOLFOX-FOFIRI regimen, whereas 20 patients were treated with bevacizumab in the XELOX-XELIRI regimen. In the first-line chemotherapy, DCR was 85.0% in the FOLFOX regimen and 58.5% in the XELOX regimen, whereas, in the second-line chemotherapy, DCR was 50.0% in the FOLFIRI regimen and 41.4% in the XELIRI regimen. In the first-line chemotherapy, the median PFS was 6.5 months in the FOLFOX regimen and 6.0 months in the XELOX regimen (p = 0.127). In the second-line chemotherapy, the median PFS was 4.6 months in the FOLFIRI regimen and 4.0 months in the XELIRI regimen (p = 0.370). The median OS was 24.5 months in the FOLFOX-FOFIRI regimen and 23.2 months in the XELOX-XELIRI regimen (p = 0.994). The median TI was 14.0 months in the FOLFOX-FOFIRI regimen and 12.0 months in the XELOX-XELIRI ...
For women with early-stage breast cancer who are receiving chemotherapy, shortening the time between treatment cycles or administering the agents sequentially may reduce disease recurrence and mortality compared with standard chemotherapy regimens.
AVEO Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a biopharmaceutical company focused on discovering, developing and commercializing cancer therapeutics, today announced preliminary results from an ongoing Phase 1b clinical trial evaluating the companys lead product candidate, tivozanib, a highly potent and selective inhibitor of VEGF receptors 1, 2, and 3, in combination with paclitaxel (Taxol®), a standard chemotherapy regimen, in patients with metastatic breast cancer.
1573 PURPOSE: Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death in patients diagnosed with gynecologic cancers. This is due in part to the late stage at diagnosis as well as the development of chemotherapy resistance. Ovarian cancer is commonly treated with debulking surgery followed by adjuvant platinum/taxane-based chemotherapy combinations. To prevent chemotherapy-related side effects, synthetic glucocorticoids (GCs) such as dexamethasone (DEX) are routinely given with cytotoxic therapy. Of concern, pre-clinical data implicate GCs in inhibiting apoptosis in epithelial tumors such as breast and ovarian cancers, and therefore in resistance to chemotherapy. These effects are thought to be mediated by upregulation of pro-cell survival genes including Serum and Glucocorticoid-regulated Kinase (SGK). SGK encodes SGK-1, a serine/threonine kinase that shares 54% homology with the catalytic domain of protein kinase B (PKB/Akt) and has been shown to be overexpressed in a variety of cancers. Despite abundant ...
The oncologist will also determine how long and how often you will have chemotherapy treatments. Chemotherapy can be given intravenously (in the vein or IV) or by pill, and usually a combination of drugs is used. Chemotherapy treatments are often given in cycles; a treatment for a period of time, followed by a recovery period, then another treatment. Chemotherapy may be given in a variety of settings including your home, a hospital outpatient facility, a doctors office or clinic, or in a hospital.. Chemotherapy can be given before surgery to shrink the tumor and sometimes make breast conserving surgery possible rather than a mastectomy. Many times it is given after surgery and may be given every three weeks or every two weeks in a "dose dense" fashion.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Temporal differences in coping, mood, and stress with chemotherapy. AU - Chernecky, Cynthia C. PY - 1999/8/1. Y1 - 1999/8/1. N2 - This longitudinal study examined relations among mood, coping, perceived stress, and side effects from chemotherapy in 50 individuals with stages III and IV adenocarcinoma of the lung over four consecutive combination chemotherapy courses. Results indicated that perceived stress was moderately high only at the time of pretreatment, and four coping strategies were used: seeking social support, planful problem solving, self-control, and positive reappraisal. No relations existed between coping strategies and side effects from chemotherapy, coping and perceived stress, mood and side effects, and perceived stress and side effects. Seven side effects occurred: leukopenia, decreased activity, nausea, loss of appetite, fatigue, constipation, and taste changes. In summary, receiving chemotherapy is stressful at the time of pretreatment, so nursing ...
Biweekly chemotherapy treatment -- a dose-dense regimen -- for patients with early-stage breast cancer was found to be as safe as treatment administered every third week; however, the dose-dense regimen did not result in improvements in recurrence or survival, according to a study in the December 7 issue of the Journal of the National Cancer Institute.
Patients with MDS who are unable or unwilling to undergo a stem cell transplant using donor cells or those planning to have their own stem cells collected for a future transplant can receive conventional chemotherapy without stem cell support. While many patients have a remission with this type of treatment, most ultimately experience disease progression. While some patients may experience a long remission following therapy, remissions after conventional chemotherapy typically average less than 12 months.. Because most patients with MDS are over 65 years of age and cannot tolerate the side effects of conventional chemotherapy, lower doses of chemotherapy may be beneficial.. Vidaza® (azacitadine): In May of 2004, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved Vidaza for the treatment of MDS. Vidaza is the first drug to be approved specifically for the treatment of MDS.. Results of a clinical trial that compared Vidaza to supportive care in the treatment of 191 patients with MDS ...
While there is some evidence from different other, mostly retrospective, trials reporting a benefit from continued trastuzumab treatment beyond disease progression with a changed chemotherapy regimen only [22-24], a discontinuation after disease progression is still standard of care. Though the here presented study is limited by the relatively small number of patients included, we are clearly able to strengthen existing evidence that there is a benefit for at least some patients.. The reported decline in response rates from 42.6% in first line treatment to 30% in beyond second line compares to the expected drop of response rates with every further line of chemotherapy or endocrine therapy in palliative treatment. Stable disease and objective response combined, clinical benefit rates were 85.2% in first line, 68.5% in second line and 58.3% in beyond second line. As some other groups, we believe this to be the more significant parameter in judging the efficacy of palliative treatment, as a ...
Inclusion Criteria: - The subject has histologically or cytologically proven adenocarcinoma of the breast that is HER2+ - The subject has AR+ breast cancer - The subject has metastatic disease or has locally advanced disease that is not amendable to curative treatment - The subject has measurable disease or nonmeasurable, evaluable disease per RECIST 1.1. (NOTE: pleural effusions, ascites or other third fluid space are not evaluable diseases per RECIST 1.1). - The subject has received at least 1 line of therapy in the metastatic or locally advanced disease setting. The subject has been documented to have progressed by determination of the investigator on a regimen containing an anti-HER2 agent as the most recent regimen or the most recent anti-HER2 regimen was discontinued for any toxicity, with the exception of a cardiotoxicity. - The subject has adequately recovered from toxicities due to prior therapy. - The subject has an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance (ECOG) status ≤ 1 at ...
This purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety and tolerability of study drug atezolizumab when administered with bevacizumab and FOLFOX in patients with gastric cancer. This study will also evaluate the safety and tolerability of atezolizumab administered with nab-paclitaxel and gemcitabine in patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer.
The Cochrane review by Jones and colleagues clearly shows that overall survival and progression-free survival are not improved by adding extra cytotoxic drugs to an existing regimen (≥ 2 drugs) in women having first-line chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer. Toxicities, such as leukopenia, nausea, vomiting, and alopecia, were increased, as were rates of tumor shrinkage. More recent trials comparing 1- and 2-drug combinations had similar findings (1). All trials in this review were published before 1992, which limits the direct applicability of the results to current practice. The trials did not include newer agents, such as the taxanes, or targeted drugs, such as trastuzumab and bevacizumab. More recent trials of newer agents have generally tested their addition to a single drug, and trials of that design were not eligible for this review. For example, the addition of capecitabine to docetaxel improved response rates, time to progression, and overall survival, but also increased toxicity ...
The connectivity of information exchange network plays a key role in consensus-seeking for multi-agent systems. However, the absence of connectivity often
During high-dose chemotherapy, the patient receives high doses of chemotherapy, and possibly radiation therapy, in order to kill the cancer cells. Whi
The Mayo Clinic has been a member of the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) for 37 years. This application is submitted to request funding via the U10 me...
Word Scramble - English word CHEMOTHERAPY: words that start with chemotherapy, words that end with chemotherapy, anagrams of chemotherapy, how to spell chemotherapy!, Words with Friends, Scrabble
Short-term side effects occur because many chemotherapy drugs act on normal cells as well as cancer cells. Fast growing cells are the most affected. This includes cells that make up hair, skin, the digestive tract and blood. Chemotherapy can also affect certain other cells, such as those in the nervous system and organs (such as heart, kidneys, liver and lungs). They may also impact fertility. Some chemotherapy drugs may have long-term effects. For example, another cancer could occur at a later time as a result of taking chemotherapy. If you have any questions regarding this matter, please ask your doctor or nurse.. ...
Results Physicians and nurses reported trying to inform patients fully about their poor prognosis and treatment options. They would carefully consider the (side) effects of chemotherapy and sometimes doubted whether further treatment would contribute to patients quality of life. Both groups considered the patients wellbeing to be important, and physicians seemed inclined to try to preserve this by offering further chemotherapy, often followed by the patient. Nurses were more often inclined to express their doubts about further treatment, preferring to allow patients to make the best use of the time that is left. When confronted with a treatment dilemma and a patients wish for treatment, physicians preferred to make compromises, such as by "trying out one dose." Discussing death or dying with patients while at the same time administering chemotherapy was considered contradictory as this could diminish the patients hope.. ...
The Hoosier Oncology Group has recently activated a phase III FFilagra of PTK787 in combination with trastuzumab in patients with newly diagnosed Ffrom overexpressing, locally recurrent, or metastatic breast cancer. p.
Chemotherapy is a standard treatment for cancer. It kills healthy cells along with cancer cells, inflicting damage on the body and seriously compromising the immune system. Chemotherapy also kills most rapidly dividing healthy and cancer cells, but not all the cells are fast growing. Cancer stem cells (CSCs), a small population of cancer cells that are slow growing and thus resistant to treatment, do not die. Chemotherapy makes these cells even more numerous as the ratio of highly malignant cells to benign cells begins to spiral out of control soon after chemotherapy treatment ends. These cells then take up residence elsewhere in the body and regenerate treatment ...
Chemotherapy side effects depend on the chemotherapy treatment as there are varied types of chemotherapy medications. Traditional chemotherapy drugs kill growing cancer cells.
When you express interest in a specific study, the information from your profile will be sent to the doctor conducting that study. If youre eligible to participate, you may be contacted by a nurse or study coordinator. If you select a health category rather than a specific study, doctors who have active studies in that area may contact you to ask if you would like to participate. In both cases, you will be contacted by the preferred method (email or phone) that you specified in your profile. ...
Doctors and pharmaceutical companies make money from it. Thats the only reason chemotherapy is still used. Not because its effective, decreases morbidity, mortality or diminishes any specific cancer rates. In fact, it does the opposite....
AC-T or AC-Taxol is a chemotherapy combination treatment used to treat breast cancer. Learn more about the medicines it contains and the treatment itself here.
The GND chemotherapy regimen is an alternative chemotherapy treatment. Current data is developing, but preliminary results indicate it is a relatively successful treatment for Hodgkins lymphoma.
Every year in the United Kingdom, 200,000 people are diagnosed with cancer and 152,500 people die. In the United States, the annual death rate for this disease is approxi¬mately 547,000. These deaths are recorded as cancer deaths, but how many of these deaths are really attributable to the disease itself? How many deaths should in fact be recorded as "death by doctoring"? When we consider that conventional treatment consists almost entirely of radiation, chemotherapy and the long-term application of toxic pharma-ceuticals-treatments which are all well known for their life-threatening side-effects- then the question becomes all the more legitimate. On chemotherapy, for instance, note the following: "Most cancer patients in this country die of chemotherapy. Chemotherapy does not eliminate breast, colon, or lung cancers. This fact has been documented for over a decade, yet doctors still use chemotherapy for these tumors." (Allen Levin, MD, UCSF, The Healing of Cancer, Marcus Books, 1990 ...
1) Treatment with anticancer drugs. (Science: pharmacology, oncology) The treatment of disease by means of chemicals that have a specific toxic effect upon the disease producing microorganisms (antibiotics) or that selectively destroy cancerous tissue (anticancer therapy). (2) In the original sense, a chemical that binds to and specifically kills microbes or tumor cells. The term chemotherapy was coined in this regard by Paul Ehrlich (1854-1915). 2. In oncology, drug therapy for cancer. Also called "chemo" for short. Most cancer chemotherapeutic drugs are given IV (into a vein) or IM (into muscle). Some anticancer agents are taken orally (by mouth). Chemotherapy is usually systemic treatment, meaning that the drugs flow through the bloodstream to nearly every part of the body. Patients who need many rounds of IV chemotherapy may receive the drugs through a catheter (a thin flexible tube). One end of the catheter is placed in a large vein in the chest. The other end is outside the body or ...
The main way that traditional chemotherapy works is to kill fast growing cells. Tumours generally grow faster than the tissue where they started (how you get a bump or tumour) so you want to stop this extra growth. But a fast growing kidney cell (not an organ that grows a lot) isnt necessarily that fast when compared to a skin cell. We shed our skin every 30 days (or so the local Science Centre tells me) and our skin divides and grows pretty fast. Other fast growing tissues are hair and gut/mouth linings. So, if you take a drug that kills fast growing cells, it can attack hair, skin, and gut linings = the common side effects seen in chemotherapy.. There are many ways that this older chemotherapy can work - including messing up the DNA of a cell. This can lead to mutations that give an increased risk of cancers in the future because some mutations stick around. But this is a long term complication and the most important thing is to survive the cancer and treatment.. ...
Among the most effective chemotherapy agents for breast cancer are doxorubicin, epirubicin, paclitaxel, docetaxel, vinorelbine, cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, fluorouracil, capecitabine, and prednisone. These agents are used singly or in combination in the treatment of advanced or metastatic breast cancer. If the tumor overexpresses the Her/neu oncogene, trastuzumab (Herceptin) may be added to improve the effectiveness of chemotherapy.. Reference: Casciato DA, Lowitz BB (eds): Manual of Clinical Oncology, 5th ed. Boston, Little, Brown, 2000. ...
This unit (1) provides background into understanding how agents that target specific molecules or receptors (molecular‐targeted agents), in particular, agents affecting the tumor vasculature (perivasculature network in tumors), interact with and modify radiation therapy; (2) details factors affecting interpretation of results in murine tumor model experiments utilizing radiation therapy and drug combinations; and (3) provides specific protocols for the application of radiation therapy, both alone and in combination with chemotherapy and/or molecular‐targeted agents
Chemotherapy is the therapeutic use of chemical agents to destroy, or inhibit the growth and division of cancer cells. Chemotherapy is usually used when tumors are widespread or when there is significant or immediate risk of spread from the primary location. It is often used following the surgical removal of tumors. In some cases, chemotherapy is started prior to surgery. Different protocols are used depending on the drug and the type of cancer being treated. The side effects of chemotherapy are related to the effects of chemotherapy on normal - as well as cancerous - cells. The principal goal with cancer care in pets is to provide cancer control without reducing quality of life. With pets, chemotherapy protocols are purposefully designed so the treatment does not become worse than the disease. ...
NEW YORK, Oct 20 (Reuters Health) - Women with high-risk breast cancer who undergo specifically-tailored chemotherapy are less likely to have a recurrence and are more likely to survive, researchers report. Women can have dramatic differences in response to chemotherapy drugs, according to the report in the October 21st issue of The Lancet. "Some patients can experience severe toxicity at doses that are perfectly safe in others," explain Dr. Jonas Bergh from Karolinska Institute in Stockholm, Sweden and colleagues. In a new study, the researchers individually tailored a chemotherapy regimen including three drugs (abbreviated FEC) for patients with early, high-risk cancer, depending on their ability to tolerate the drugs. The women were compared with patients who received standard high-dose chemotherapy plus blood cell transplant. After 3 years, 72% of the women in the FEC group remained free of recurrence, compared with 63% of women in the other treatment group. Survival was also better in the ...
The cancers from which most people die the big killers like breast, colon, and lung cancer generally do not respond to chemotherapy. Chemotherapy has only a limited effectiveness against any tumor that is large or has spread; its successes are generally with small, very early tumors. Several studies indicate that chemotherapy has no survival value in breast cancer. 17
Chemotherapy is the use of special drugs to kill tumor cells. Some chemotherapy drugs are given by mouth; others are given by injection. In some cases, chemotherapy may need to be given without stopping over a long period of time. In this case, a pump or catheter may be placed underneath the skin to deliver the drugs.. There is a chemically protective layer around the brain called the blood-brain barrier. This barrier can prevent the drugs or chemotherapy given by mouth or injection from reaching the brain. To solve this problem, new ways of giving chemotherapy are being developed to deliver the drug directly to the tumor. One example of this is chemotherapy wafer implants that are surgically implanted in the tumor site and deliver treatment over time. New drugs are also being developed that target specific abnormalities in the tumor cells. Referred to as "targeted treatments," this new generation of drugs forms the basis of personalized medicine.. Because chemotherapy affects both healthy cells ...
h2,How is chemotherapy given?,/h2, ,p,There are several different ways to give chemotherapy. This depends on the type of illness your child has, and on the medicine your child is taking. ,/p, ,p,The doctor gives your child chemotherapy drugs according to a schedule or timetable for each cycle or phase. You may hear your doctor refer to this as the "protocol." The protocols are specific to your childs condition and type of transplant (allogenic versus autologous). ,/p, ,h2,Routes of administration,/h2, ,p,Your child is given chemotherapy intravenously (IV). The drugs are delivered through a needle directly into the central line. This is the most common way to give chemotherapy.,/p, ,h2,Medicines your child takes during chemotherapy,/h2, ,p,The specific protocol will vary depending on what type of illness your child has, and the type of BMT they receive.,/p, ,p,Your childs conditioning chemotherapy regimen may include the following medicines:,/p, ,ul, ,li,,a ...
Learn all you want to know about cancer and its various forms. Bright Hub provides articles on the various types of cancer, like breast cancer, ovarian cancer, cervical cancer, prostrate cancer, lung and liver cancer. Learn how to deal with cancer as a patient and as a caretaker of your loved ones. Know important cancer management tips to make surviving with cancer less painful. Learn also about cancer chemotherapy and how to cope with the effects of chemotherapy.
RATIONALE: Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as gemcitabine, fluorouracil, and cisplatin, work in different ways to stop the growth of tumor cells, eithe
The purpose of this study is to attempt to find better tolerated doses and schedules of this highly effective combination chemotherapy regimen.
Chemotherapy may be able to cure breast cancer. If a cure isnt possible, chemotherapy may help keep the cancer from growing or spreading. Or it may help ease symptoms caused by cancer and improve your quality of life.
Conclusions: The intensified treatment paradigm of XELOX concurrent chemoradiation followed by one cycle of consolidation chemotherapy was well tolerated in our cohort and provided a promising long-term oncologic outcome, which warranted further investigation in a randomize trails....
Chemotherapy prolongs life for older adults with most types of cancer, but for women older than 80 years with breast cancer, the chances of improved survival due to chemotherapy are significantly lower, according to a recent study.
In Catalonia, the prevalence of breast cancer is of more than 50,000 women. Although the number of cases and incidence rate increase every year, mortality rate decreases. Survival of patients is improving, achieving a 5 year survival of almost 80%, a number higher than the European mean. The improvement of the screening programmes and the continuous improvements in treatment underlie the key of success in the decrease of mortality. Chemotherapy treatment plays an important role in recovery or increase of survival of these patients. Now, a new line to improve results consists in finding which patients are benefited from chemotherapy in order to make a personalized treatment ...
The latest from http://brainblogger.com! Cancer is challenging to treat. Despite recent advances in earlier diagnostics and targeted therapy, radiotherapy and chemotherapy remain the mainstream treatments to complement surgery. Chemotherapy is an umbrella term referring to multiple aggressive drugs administered to cancer patients. What unites them is the way they work by targeting fast dividing cells…
Drugs and medications used in cancer chemotherapy. In addition to conventional chemotherapy agents, includes cancer treatment drugs such targeted drug therapies, anti-estrogens, and anti-androgens.
A full-text transcript is available.Chemotherapy treats many types of cancer effectively. But like other treatments, it often causes side effects. The side effects of chemotherapy are different for each person. They depend on the type of cancer, location, drugs and dose, and your general health.
Chemotherapy treatments are usually given in cycles. A cycle involves taking chemotherapy medicine for several days, then having a break for a few weeks to let the therapy work and for your body to recover from the effects of the treatment.. The number of cycles you need will depend on the type and grade of lung cancer. Most people need 4 to 6 cycles of treatment over 3 to 6 months. You will see your doctor after these cycles have finished. If the cancer has improved, you may not need any more treatment.. If the cancer has not improved after these cycles, your doctor will tell you if you need a different type of chemotherapy. Alternatively, you may need maintenance chemotherapy to keep the cancer under control. Chemotherapy for lung cancer involves taking a combination of different medicines. The medicines are usually given through a drip into a vein (intravenously), or into a tube connected to one of the blood vessels in your chest. Some people may be given capsules or tablets to swallow ...
Health is difficult to achieve if it is experiencing a serious and risky. For patients with cancer or non-cancer, chemotherapy is usually medical therapy has always been a smooth routine performed. But no justice chemotherapy reading for the patient, but it is the best way. Effect of chemotherapy is the patient will experience nausea and vomiting due to chemotherapy drugs contain dna nausea vomiting. Patients also will feel tired easily, because the energy was also great made in undergoing chemotherapy. In addition, the patients hair will fall out easily this course only temporary and not all cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy experience such things. Many of those who did not experience hair loss ...
Chemotherapy drugs are used to treat many types of cancer. Learn why its done, side effects and what to expect during chemotherapy treatment.
Chemotherapy drugs are used to treat many types of cancer. Learn why its done, side effects and what to expect during chemotherapy treatment.
Professor Philip Hogg, the director of the universitys NSW Cancer Research Centre, says that his test uses a dye to determine whether cancer cells are being destroyed or not.. He says he has developed a family of molecules that attach themselves to dying or dead cancer cells, which enables doctors to determine whether a particular course of treatment is working within 24 hours of the first dose.. Currently, patients receiving chemotherapy or radiotherapy have to undergo a full cycle of treatment, which can take up to six months, before it can determined whether the tumour has been reduced or has grown.. Professor Hogg says the dye may prevent patients from the side effects in case their combination of cytotoxic drugs proves ineffective. He also says that new test can enable doctors to personalise treatment.. "Chemotherapy has three outcomes - the tumour is reduced, stays the same, or it grows and spreads - but we have no way of knowing which way things are going until the end of a cycle of ...
Chemotherapy is the use of anticancer medicines to destroy cancerous cells. Chemotherapy has been used for many years and is one of the most common treatments for cancer. Different groups of medicines work in different ways to fight cancer cells. Chemotherapy may be used alone for some types of cancer or in combination with other treatments, such as radiation or surgery. Certain chemotherapy medicines may be given in a specific order depending on the type of cancer it is being used to treat.. While chemotherapy can be quite effective in treating certain cancers, the medicines reach all parts of the body, not just the cancer cells. Because of this, there may be many side effects during treatment. Being able to anticipate these side effects can help you and your childs caregivers prepare and, in some cases, prevent these symptoms from happening.. ...
Short and long term side-effects of chemotherapy: chemotherapy is a medical treatment given to cancer patients to kill the cancerous cells. While the most common short-term side-effect is hair loss, the most common long-term effect is infertility.
This paper presents a Multi Agent System (MAS) framework applied to achieve energy management in a multiple micro grids systems. Each micro grid consists o
Farrenkopf, T., Guckert, M., & Urquhart, N. (2017). AGADE-TRAFFIC: Multi-Agent Simulations in Geographical Networks. In Y. Demazeau, P. Davidsson, J. Bajo, & Z. Vale (Eds.), PAAMS 2017: Advances in Practical Applications of Cyber-Physical Multi-Agent Systems: The PAAMS Collection, 355-358. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-59930-4_37. ...
Chemotherapy is the use of medicines to treat cancer or kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy has been used for many years. Its one of the most common treatments for cancer.
Farrenkopf, T., Guckert, M., & Urquhart, N. (2017). AGADE-TRAFFIC: Multi-Agent Simulations in Geographical Networks. In Y. Demazeau, P. Davidsson, J. Bajo, & Z. Vale (Eds.), PAAMS 2017: Advances in Practical Applications of Cyber-Physical Multi-Agent Systems: The PAAMS Collection, 355-358. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-59930-4_37. ...
Automated trading is a novel field of study in which computer programs are put in charge of deciding when and how to trade financial instruments. Intelligent agents, with their ability to act autonomo
The activation from the NF-B pathway by pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as for example tumor necrosis factor- (TNF), is definitely an important contributor for the re-programming of chondrocyte gene expression, thereby rendering it a therapeutic target in articular diseases. DFMO, while leading to polyamine depletion, Quarfloxin (CX-3543) manufacture considerably decreased NF-B DNA binding activity. Furthermore DFMO … Continue reading The activation from the NF-B pathway by pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as. ...
At present, patients with cancer of the gullet (food pipe) are offered chemotherapy treatment before surgery, but there is no way of deciding in advance which patients are likely to gain the most benefit from chemotherapy and which patients are less likely to benefit from chemotherapy. The aim of this study is to assess the changes in DNA and proteins in the cancer that occur as a result of chemotherapy ...
Here is my day by day progress of experiencing FEC-T chemotherapy. I wanted to chart my progress as before I started I was very keen to know what I would be going through...hopefully this diary will help others remain positive should they have the misfortune to endure this also.
Are you coping with chemotherapy? The side effects of chemotherapy arent just physical. The latest womens health tips from LifeScript.com.
Recommendations for IV chemotherapy treatment of tuberculosisThe presentation is currently available only in ukrainian: Download: /userfiles/files/Severe%20TB%20recomendations.ppsx
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It is known from previous research that the ER-beta estrogen receptor often has a protective effect. A new study from Lund University in Sweden has found that this effect is more pronounced in patients that undergo chemotherapy.
Study finds obesity is an important factor contributing to chemotherapy resistance and increasing relapse rates among children with leukemia
Leurocristine (Vincristine) chemotherapy side effects, how its given, how it works, precautions and self care tips for treatment of multiple cancers
Chemotherapy (chemo) uses anticancer medicines to kill cancer cells. Targeted therapies are medicines that target specific defects found in cancer cells.
Chemotherapy (chemo) uses anticancer medicines to kill cancer cells. Targeted therapies are medicines that target specific defects found in cancer cells.
Chemotherapy can be an effective way of treating cancer. However, while it destroys cancer cells, it can also have adverse effects. Learn how doctors use it and what to expect.
Roche bladder cancer drug Tecentriq shrank tumours in 24 percent of patients previously untreated for the disease, raising hopes that it might be approved in the first-line setting. - News - PharmaTimes
Chemotherapy is a treatment used to attack rapidly-growing cancer cells. Learn why its used, what to expect, and how to cope with the side effects.
Latest study results show that although chemotherapy shrinks cancer tumours in the short term, it could trigger the spread of cancer cells around the body.
PROCRIT (Epoetin Alfa) colony stimulating factor side effects, how its given, how it works, precautions and self care tips for treatment of anemia caused by chemotherapy
PURPOSE To evaluate the role of early intensification with high-dose therapy (HDT) and autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) as front-line chemotherapy for patients with high-risk, histologically aggressive non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL). PATIENTS AND METHODS We planned a multicenter, randomized trial to compare a conventional chemotherapy regimen of methotrexate with leucovorin rescue, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone, and bleomycin (MACOP-B; arm A) with an abbreviated regimen of MACOP-B (8 weeks) followed by HDT and ASCT (arm B) for intermediate-high-risk/high-risk patients (according to the age-adjusted International Prognostic Index). From September 1994 to April 1998, 150 patients with aggressive lymphoma were enrolled onto the trial. Seventy-five patients were randomly assigned to arm A and 75 patients were randomly assigned to arm B. In both arms, involved-field radiation therapy (36 Gy) was delivered to the site of bulky disease. RESULTS The rate of complete
Introduction: Cytotoxic chemotherapy is widely used to palliate advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) but can induce severe toxic events. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemotherapy toxicity in adavanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and its impact on overall survival (OS ...
Induction platinum-based chemotherapy followed by radical hyperfractionated radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy in the treatment of locally advanced non-small-cell carcinoma of the lung. Induction platinum-based chemotherapy followed by radical hyperfractionated radiotherapy with concurrent chemotherapy in the treatment of locally advanced non-small-cell carcinoma of the lung
TY - JOUR. T1 - Paclitaxel by either 1-hour or 24-hour infusion in combination with carboplatin in advanced non-small cell lung cancer. T2 - Preliminary results comparing sequential phase II trials. AU - DeVore, R. F.. AU - Jagasia, M.. AU - Johnson, D. H.. PY - 1997/10/22. Y1 - 1997/10/22. N2 - Our group previously described the activity of carboplatin plus paclitaxel (Taxol; Bristol-Myers Squibb Company, Princeton, NJ) (given as a 24-hour infusion) in 51 patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer. To facilitate outpatient administration, the regimen was modified to infuse paclitaxel over 1 hour. Between February 1995 and August 1996, 63 patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer were accrued by the Vanderbilt Cancer Center and its affiliate network. The first four patients received paclitaxel 175 mg/ml2; all subsequent patients received paclitaxel 200 mg/m2. The carboplatin dose was determined using the Calvert formula, with a target area under the concentration-time curve of 6. ...
For the second time this month, the FDA has given an approval to Genentechs PD-L1 inhibitor, Tecentriq.. On March 18, 2019, the FDA awarded the immunotherapy agent, Tecentriq (atezolizumab; Genentech), in combination with chemotherapy (carboplatin and etoposide), approval for the first-line treatment of adults with extensive-stage small-cell lung cancer (ES-SCLC).. As evidence of the rapidity with which the immunotherapy field is gaining ground in cancer treatment, this new approval comes only 10 days after the drug received an accelerated approval (in combination with nab-paclitaxel) for the treatment of triple-negative breast cancer. Not only is this the second approval for atezolizumab in close succession to the first, but it is the first novel treatment in 2 decades for ES-SCLC, an aggressive and deadly malignancy.. This latest approval was based on data from the phase 3 IMpower133 trial, which was the first study to show that initial treatment with the immunotherapy-based combination ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Chemoradiotherapy for poor-risk stage III non-small cell lung cancer.. AU - Lau, Derick H. AU - Ryu, J. K.. AU - Gandara, David R. PY - 1997/8. Y1 - 1997/8. N2 - Cisplatin-based chemoradiotherapy is becoming a standard treatment for patients with stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, a significant proportion of patients with lung cancer also present with co-morbid conditions that indicate a poor prognosis and poor tolerance of treatment. We have completed a phase I/II study to evaluate the tolerability and efficacy of carboplatin-based chemoradiotherapy for patients with poor-risk stage III NSCLC. Twenty-four patients with stage IIIA/B NSCLC and concurrent medical conditions rendering them ineligible for cisplatin-based chemoradiotherapy protocols were treated with thoracic irradiation, 1.8 to 2 Gy daily to the primary tumor and regional lymph nodes, for a total dose of 61 Gy. Concurrently, patients received carboplatin 200 mg/m2/d intravenously on days 1, 3, 29, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Phase 1 Study of Accelerated Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy With Concurrent Chemotherapy for Stage III Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer. T2 - CALGB 31102 (Alliance). AU - Urbanic, James J.. AU - Wang, Xiaofei. AU - Bogart, Jeffrey A.. AU - Stinchcombe, Thomas E.. AU - Hodgson, Lydia. AU - Schild, Steven E.. AU - Bazhenova, Lyudmila. AU - Hahn, Olwen. AU - Salgia, Ravi. AU - Vokes, Everett E.. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - Purpose: To investigate the safety of accelerated hypofractionated radiation therapy (AHRT) with concurrent chemotherapy (CT) for inoperable stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients and Methods: The primary objectives were to define the maximally tolerable course of accelerated radiation therapy and to describe toxicities of therapy. Total radiation therapy remained at 60 Gy. The number of once-daily fractions in each successive cohort was reduced as follows: cohort 1, 60 Gy in 27 fractions; cohort 2, 60 Gy in 24 fractions; cohort 3, 60 Gy in 22 ...
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved panitumumab (Vectibix) for use in combination with FOLFOX (fluorouracil, leucovorin, oxaliplatin) as first-line treatment in patients with wild-type KRAS (exon 2) metastatic colorectal cancer.. This approval converts the accelerated monotherapy approval granted in 2006 to a full approval. Panitumumab was previously approved by the FDA as a monotherapy for patients with EGFR-expressing metastatic colorectal cancer after disease progression and prior treatment with fluoropyrimidine-, oxaliplatin-, and irinotecan-containing chemotherapy. The agent is not indicated for the treatment of patients with KRAS-mutant metastatic colorectal cancer or for whom KRAS mutation status is unknown.. The FDA has also approved the therascreen KRAS test as a companion diagnostic to guide use of panitumumab in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer.. Phase III Studies. The approval is based on results from the phase III PRIME and -ASPECCT trials. The ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A phase 2 study of carboplatin plus docetaxel in men with metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer who are refractory to docetaxel. AU - Ross, Robert W.. AU - Beer, Tomasz (Tom). AU - Jacobus, Susanna. AU - Bubley, Glenn J.. AU - Taplin, Mary Ellen. AU - Ryan, Christopher. AU - Huang, Jiaoti. AU - Oh, William K.. PY - 2008/2/1. Y1 - 2008/2/1. N2 - BACKGROUND. Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer mortality among men in the U.S. To the authors knowledge, there is no proven, effective, second-line therapy for docetaxel-refractory disease. Recent data suggest that platinum salts may be effective when combined with taxanes in metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer (HRPC). The authors conducted a phase 2 trial of docetaxel plus carboplatin chemotherapy in this disease setting. METHODS. Eligible men had metastatic HRPC that had progressed during or within 45 days after the completion of docetaxel-based chemotherapy. Patients were treated with intravenous ...

GENERIC 3204009-Antineoplastic+Combined+Chemotherapy+ProtocolsGENERIC 3204009-Antineoplastic+Combined+Chemotherapy+Protocols

Protocols Source:http://linkedlifedata.com/resource/pubmed/meshheading/3204009-Antineoplastic+Combined+Chemotherapy+Protocols ... 3204009-Antineoplastic+Combined+Chemotherapy+ ...
more infohttp://linkedlifedata.com/resource/pubmed-meshheading/3204009-Antineoplastic%2BCombined%2BChemotherapy%2BProtocols

Phase II study of sorafenib in co... preview & related info | MendeleyPhase II study of sorafenib in co... preview & related info | Mendeley

PURPOSE: The combination of sorafenib with chemotherapy is well-tolerated and is associated with encouraging response rates in ... Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. *Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: th. *Benzenesulfonates. * ... A phase II study was conducted to determine the efficacy and toxicity of combined sorafenib, docetaxel, and cisplatin in ... PURPOSE: The combination of sorafenib with chemotherapy is well-tolerated and is associated with encouraging response rates in ...
more infohttps://www.mendeley.com/research-papers/phase-ii-study-sorafenib-combination-docetaxel-cisplatin-treatment-metastatic-advanced-gastric-gastr/

Search of: nabilone OR cesamet AND Antiemetics - List Results - ClinicalTrials.govSearch of: nabilone OR cesamet AND Antiemetics - List Results - ClinicalTrials.gov

Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. *Drug: Cesamet™ (nabilone). Interventional. Phase 4. *NEMA Research, Inc. ... A Phase IV Trial of Cesamet™ Given With Standard Antiemetic Therapy for Chemotherapy-induced Nausea and Vomiting. *Nausea and ... Evaluation of the Efficacy of Cesamet™ for the Treatment of Pain in Patients With Chemotherapy-Induced Neuropathy. *Peripheral ... To demonstrate incremental improvement with Cesamet in control of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting in patients who have ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/results?term=nabilone+OR+cesamet+AND+Antiemetics

Effect of Chemotherapy With Paclitaxel/Cisplatin on Development Dysgeusia in Non Small Cell Lung Cancer - Full Text View -...Effect of Chemotherapy With Paclitaxel/Cisplatin on Development Dysgeusia in Non Small Cell Lung Cancer - Full Text View -...

Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Paclitaxel. Cisplatin. Additional relevant MeSH terms: Lung Neoplasms. ... Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic. Antineoplastic Agents. Tubulin Modulators. Antimitotic Agents. Mitosis Modulators. Molecular ... Effect of Chemotherapy With Paclitaxel/Cisplatin on Development Dysgeusia in Non Small Cell Lung Cancer. The safety and ... Effect of Chemotherapy With Paclitaxel and Cisplatin on Development Dysgeusia in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Patients. ...
more infohttps://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01540045

Antibody responses to Hepatitis B and measles-mumps-rubella vaccines in children who received chemotherapy for acute...Antibody responses to Hepatitis B and measles-mumps-rubella vaccines in children who received chemotherapy for acute...

Keywords : Leukemia, lymphoid; Antineoplastic combined chemotherapy protocols; Immunization; Viral vaccines; Child. · text in ... RESULTS: After chemotherapy, 75.9%, 67.9%, 59.3% and 51.7% of the patients showed low antibody titers that would be unlikely to ... OBJECTIVE: To evaluate viral vaccine antibody levels in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia after chemotherapy and after ... Antibody responses to Hepatitis B and measles-mumps-rubella vaccines in children who received chemotherapy for acute ...
more infohttp://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_abstract&pid=S1516-84842012000400011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en

A novel, small molecule inhibitor of Hsc70/Hsp70 potentiates Hsp90 inhibitor induced apoptosis in HCT116 colon carcinoma cells.A novel, small molecule inhibitor of Hsc70/Hsp70 potentiates Hsp90 inhibitor induced apoptosis in HCT116 colon carcinoma cells.

Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / pharmacology. Apoptosis / drug effects*. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy, ... Title: Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology Volume: 66 ISSN: 1432-0843 ISO Abbreviation: Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/novel-small-molecule-inhibitor-potentiates/20012863.html

Insulin receptor substrate 1 expression enhances the sensitivity of 32D cells to chemotherapy-induced cell death.Insulin receptor substrate 1 expression enhances the sensitivity of 32D cells to chemotherapy-induced cell death.

Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / pharmacology*. Cell Death / drug effects. Cells, Cultured. Dose-Response ... The role of IRS1 and IRS2 in controlling cell responses to chemotherapy is unknown. To determine the role of IRS1 and IRS2 in ... We found that expression of IRS1, in contrast to IRS2, enhanced the sensitivity of 32D cells to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis ... Decreasing Annexin A2 levels reduced 32D-IRS1 cell sensitivity to chemotherapy. These results suggest IRS1 enhances sensitivity ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Insulin-receptor-substrate-1-expression/22652453.html

Program Members > Yale Cancer Center | Yale School of...Program Members > Yale Cancer Center | Yale School of...

Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols; Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung; Chemotherapy, Adjuvant; Head and Neck Neoplasms ...
more infohttps://medicine.yale.edu/cancer/patient/programs/thoracic/members/

Program MembersProgram Members

Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols; Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung; Chemotherapy, Adjuvant; Head and Neck Neoplasms ...
more infohttp://www.yalecancercenter.org/patient/programs/thoracic/members/

Study of Motexafin Gadolinium and Docetaxel for Advanced Solid TumorsStudy of Motexafin Gadolinium and Docetaxel for Advanced Solid Tumors

Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. *Breast Neoplasms. *Neoplasms. *Lung Neoplasms. *Ovarian Neoplasms. *Prostatic ... Chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, or systemic biologic. - anticancer therapy within 21 days before beginning ... progressed during or after one or more chemotherapy regimens; Metastatic breast. cancer; Hormone-refractory prostate cancer; ...
more infohttp://www.knowcancer.com/cancer-trials/NCT00080041/

Dan-Arin Silasi, MD | Yale School of MedicineDan-Arin Silasi, MD | Yale School of Medicine

Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. *Pelvic Exenteration. *Pelvic Neoplasms. *Chemotherapy, Cancer, Regional ... In Combination With And/or Following Chemotherapy In Patients With Previously Untreated Epithelial Ovarian Cancer ... or Primary Peritoneal Cancer That Have Received at Least 2 Prior Lines of Chemotherapy ... Versus Investigators Choice of Chemotherapy in Women With Folate Receptor Alpha Positive Advanced Epithelial Ovarian Cancer, ...
more infohttp://medicine.yale.edu/intranet/facultybydept/dan-arin_silasi-3.profile

Plus itPlus it

Antineoplastic combined chemotherapy protocols. With the important exception of the E4599 trial of bevacizumab in conjunction ... Trials combining cetuximab with chemotherapy have shown a trend to increased response rate and prolonged progression-free ... ATLAS is a phase III trial of bevacizumab with chemotherapy followed by erlotinib after chemotherapy is completed that will ... that combined novel agents with standard chemotherapy have produced disappointing or equivocal results. Many agents identified ...
more infohttp://clincancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/13/15/4583s

Brazilian experience using high dose sequential chemotherapy followed by autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for...Brazilian experience using high dose sequential chemotherapy followed by autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for...

Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols [administration & dosage]; Cyclophosphamide [administration & dosage]; ... DUARTE, Bruno Kosa Lino et al. Brazilian experience using high dose sequential chemotherapy followed by autologous ... Chemotherapy consisted of the sequential administration of high-dose cyclophosphamide (4 or 7 g/m2) and granulocyte-colony ... OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the use of high-dose sequential chemotherapy in a Brazilian population. METHODS: High-dose ...
more infohttp://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_abstract&pid=S1516-84842011000600011&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=en

Academic Programs Faculty -  Last Initial L - Wake Forest School of MedicineAcademic Programs Faculty - Last Initial L - Wake Forest School of Medicine

Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin; Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols; Hemangiopericytoma; Meningioma; Antiretroviral Therapy, ... Peritoneal Neoplasms; Hyperthermia, Induced; Chemotherapy, Cancer, Regional Perfusion; Adenocarcinoma; Antineoplastic Combined ... Carcinoma, Lobular; Biopsy; Antineoplastic Agents; Breast Neoplasms; Chemoprevention Academic: 336-716-4316. Department: 336- ... Brain Neoplasms; Glioma; Glioblastoma; Central Nervous System Neoplasms; Antineoplastic Agents Academic: 336-716-9527. ...
more infohttp://www.wakehealth.edu/School/FacultySR.htm?st=L&li=L&ft=R

AVE8062 in Combination With Platinum-taxane Doublet in Advanced Solid TumorAVE8062 in Combination With Platinum-taxane Doublet in Advanced Solid Tumor

Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocol. *Neoplasms. .map{width:100%;height:300px;margin-bottom:15px}. Name. Location. ... Concurrent treatment with any other anticancer therapy, including chemotherapy,. immunotherapy, radiotherapy (excluding ...
more infohttp://www.knowcancer.com/cancer-trials/NCT00719524/

Five-year Follow-Up of Patients Receiving Imatinib for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia - PubMedFive-year Follow-Up of Patients Receiving Imatinib for Chronic Myeloid Leukemia - PubMed

Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH ...
more infohttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/17151364/

Arsenic trioxide improves event-free and overall survival for adults with acute promyelocytic leukemia: North American Leukemia...Arsenic trioxide improves event-free and overall survival for adults with acute promyelocytic leukemia: North American Leukemia...

Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols (administration & dosage) *Arsenicals (administration & dosage) *Cytarabine ( ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/pubmed20705755.do

Continuous hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy (CHART) in localized cancer of the esophagus. | CureHunterContinuous hyperfractionated accelerated radiotherapy (CHART) in localized cancer of the esophagus. | CureHunter

Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols (therapeutic use) *Cause of Death. *Cisplatin (administration & dosage) ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/pubmed9212014.do

Economic evaluation of genomic test-directed chemotherapy for early-stage lymph node-positive breast cancerEconomic evaluation of genomic test-directed chemotherapy for early-stage lymph node-positive breast cancer

Adult; Aged; Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols /economics /therapeutic use; Bayes Theorem; Biomarkers, Tumor / ... Genomic test-directed chemotherapy (using the Oncotype DX 21-gene assay) was compared with chemotherapy alone (standard care) ... The study objective was to assess the cost-effectiveness of genomic test-directed chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone for ... This study assessed the cost-effectiveness of genomic test-directed chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone in patients with ...
more infohttps://www.crd.york.ac.uk/crdweb/ShowRecord.asp?ID=22012001735&ID=22012001735

Potential Interactions of Complementary and Alternative Medicine With Cancer Therapy in Outpatients With Gynecological Cancer...Potential Interactions of Complementary and Alternative Medicine With Cancer Therapy in Outpatients With Gynecological Cancer...

Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / administration & dosage *. Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH ... Results: Sixty-nine of the interviewed 100 women received chemotherapy, 23 endocrine therapy and 41 monoclonal antibodies. In ... This number is independent of whether the patient is taking chemotherapy, endocrine therapy or antibodies. ...
more infohttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/23099993/

Kaplan-Meiers estimate of overall survival and event-f | Open-iKaplan-Meier's estimate of overall survival and event-f | Open-i

Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use. *Child. *Cohort Studies. *Cyclin D1/metabolism ... The combined TP53/MIPI show significant (P = 0·006) separation between low and intermediate risk groups in relation to (G) OS ... The combined TP53/MIPI show significant (P = 0·006) separation between low and intermediate risk groups in relation to (G) OS ... The combined SOX11/MIPI improves separation between low and intermediate risk groups (although, P , 0·05) in relation to (E) OS ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC4282019_bjh0166-0098-f3&req=4

The miR-21-mediated program is modified by 5-fluorourac | Open-iThe miR-21-mediated program is modified by 5-fluorourac | Open-i

Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use. *Blotting, Western. *Cell Line, Tumor. *Cell Proliferation/drug ... Taken together, our findings demonstrate that microRNA-21 is a chemotherapy responsive microRNA and can serve as a prognostic ... Taken together, our findings demonstrate that microRNA-21 is a chemotherapy responsive microRNA and can serve as a prognostic ... However, the utility of specific microRNAs in predicting the clinical benefit of chemotherapy has not been well-established. ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC4385853_oncotarget-06-2302-g005&req=4

HKU Scholars Hub: Isolated lymph node T lymphoblastic transformation of chronic myeloid leukemia during interferon treatmentHKU Scholars Hub: Isolated lymph node T lymphoblastic transformation of chronic myeloid leukemia during interferon treatment

Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols - Therapeutic Use. en_US. dc.subject.mesh. Bone Marrow - Pathology. en_US. ...
more infohttp://hub.hku.hk/handle/10722/162287
  • Here, we investigated the correlation between microRNA-21 expression and hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil and pirarubicin (HAIC) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, we explored the possibility of creating an improved prognostic tool by combining the MIPI with information on molecular markers.SOX11 was shown to significantly add prognostic information to the MIPI, but in multivariate analysis TP53 was the only significant independent molecular marker.Based on these findings, we propose that TP53 and SOX11 should routinely be assessed and that a combined TP53/MIPI score may be used to guide treatment decisions. (nih.gov)
  • Taken together, our findings demonstrate that microRNA-21 is a chemotherapy responsive microRNA and can serve as a prognostic biomarker for HCC patients undergoing HAIC. (nih.gov)
  • To determine the role of IRS1 and IRS2 in the sensitivity of cells to chemotherapy, we treated 32D cells lacking or expressing IRS proteins with various concentrations of chemotherapeutic agents. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Antibody levels against hepatitis B, rubella, measles and mumps vaccine antigens were evaluated in 33 children after completing chemotherapy (before and after vaccine booster doses) and the results were compared to the data of 33 healthy children matched for gender, age and social class. (scielo.br)
  • These results suggest IRS1 enhances sensitivity to chemotherapy in part through Annexin A2. (biomedsearch.com)
  • When compared with standard care, the incremental cost-utility ratio of Oncotype DX-directed chemotherapy was £5,529 per QALY gained. (york.ac.uk)
  • PURPOSE: The combination of sorafenib with chemotherapy is well-tolerated and is associated with encouraging response rates in several malignances. (mendeley.com)
  • Additional studies of sorafenib with chemotherapy are warranted in gastric cancer. (mendeley.com)
  • Costs and benefits were combined using an incremental cost-utility ratio (the additional cost per QALY gained). (york.ac.uk)
  • The low-risk group was spared chemotherapy. (york.ac.uk)
  • The combined TP53/MIPI show significant (P = 0·006) separation between low and intermediate risk groups in relation to (G) OS and identifies a high risk group with decreased (H) EFS. (nih.gov)