The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
Substances that inhibit or prevent the proliferation of NEOPLASMS.
Antineoplastic antibiotic obtained from Streptomyces peucetius. It is a hydroxy derivative of DAUNORUBICIN.
Precursor of an alkylating nitrogen mustard antineoplastic and immunosuppressive agent that must be activated in the LIVER to form the active aldophosphamide. It has been used in the treatment of LYMPHOMA and LEUKEMIA. Its side effect, ALOPECIA, has been used for defleecing sheep. Cyclophosphamide may also cause sterility, birth defects, mutations, and cancer.
A sarcoma originating in bone-forming cells, affecting the ends of long bones. It is the most common and most malignant of sarcomas of the bones, and occurs chiefly among 10- to 25-year-old youths. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
An inorganic and water-soluble platinum complex. After undergoing hydrolysis, it reacts with DNA to produce both intra and interstrand crosslinks. These crosslinks appear to impair replication and transcription of DNA. The cytotoxicity of cisplatin correlates with cellular arrest in the G2 phase of the cell cycle.
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
An antitumor alkaloid isolated from VINCA ROSEA. (Merck, 11th ed.)
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
A neoplasm characterized by abnormalities of the lymphoid cell precursors leading to excessive lymphoblasts in the marrow and other organs. It is the most common cancer in children and accounts for the vast majority of all childhood leukemias.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Precise and detailed plans for the study of a medical or biomedical problem and/or plans for a regimen of therapy.
Chemical substances, produced by microorganisms, inhibiting or preventing the proliferation of neoplasms.
Agents obtained from higher plants that have demonstrable cytostatic or antineoplastic activity.
A semisynthetic derivative of PODOPHYLLOTOXIN that exhibits antitumor activity. Etoposide inhibits DNA synthesis by forming a complex with topoisomerase II and DNA. This complex induces breaks in double stranded DNA and prevents repair by topoisomerase II binding. Accumulated breaks in DNA prevent entry into the mitotic phase of cell division, and lead to cell death. Etoposide acts primarily in the G2 and S phases of the cell cycle.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Preliminary cancer therapy (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone/endocrine therapy, immunotherapy, hyperthermia, etc.) that precedes a necessary second modality of treatment.
A class of drugs that differs from other alkylating agents used clinically in that they are monofunctional and thus unable to cross-link cellular macromolecules. Among their common properties are a requirement for metabolic activation to intermediates with antitumor efficacy and the presence in their chemical structures of N-methyl groups, that after metabolism, can covalently modify cellular DNA. The precise mechanisms by which each of these drugs acts to kill tumor cells are not completely understood. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2026)
Time schedule for administration of a drug in order to achieve optimum effectiveness and convenience.
A cyclodecane isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew tree, TAXUS BREVIFOLIA. It stabilizes MICROTUBULES in their polymerized form leading to cell death.
Antimetabolites that are useful in cancer chemotherapy.
Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.
An antineoplastic antimetabolite with immunosuppressant properties. It is an inhibitor of TETRAHYDROFOLATE DEHYDROGENASE and prevents the formation of tetrahydrofolate, necessary for synthesis of thymidylate, an essential component of DNA.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
Resistance or diminished response of a neoplasm to an antineoplastic agent in humans, animals, or cell or tissue cultures.
Antitumor alkaloid isolated from Vinca rosea. (Merck, 11th ed.)
An organoplatinum compound that possesses antineoplastic activity.
A complex of related glycopeptide antibiotics from Streptomyces verticillus consisting of bleomycin A2 and B2. It inhibits DNA metabolism and is used as an antineoplastic, especially for solid tumors.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A group of diterpenoid CYCLODECANES named for the taxanes that were discovered in the TAXUS tree. The action on MICROTUBULES has made some of them useful as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Positional isomer of CYCLOPHOSPHAMIDE which is active as an alkylating agent and an immunosuppressive agent.
A pyrimidine nucleoside analog that is used mainly in the treatment of leukemia, especially acute non-lymphoblastic leukemia. Cytarabine is an antimetabolite antineoplastic agent that inhibits the synthesis of DNA. Its actions are specific for the S phase of the cell cycle. It also has antiviral and immunosuppressant properties. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p472)
Organic compounds which contain platinum as an integral part of the molecule.
Initial drug treatment designed to bring about REMISSION INDUCTION. It is typically a short-term and high-dose drug treatment that is followed by CONSOLIDATION CHEMOTHERAPY and then MAINTENANCE CHEMOTHERAPY.
Methods of investigating the effectiveness of anticancer cytotoxic drugs and biologic inhibitors. These include in vitro cell-kill models and cytostatic dye exclusion tests as well as in vivo measurement of tumor growth parameters in laboratory animals.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
Organic compounds that have a tetrahydronaphthacenedione ring structure attached by a glycosidic linkage to the amino sugar daunosamine.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Tumors or cancer of the OVARY. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. They are classified according to the tissue of origin, such as the surface EPITHELIUM, the stromal endocrine cells, and the totipotent GERM CELLS.
A very toxic anthracycline aminoglycoside antineoplastic isolated from Streptomyces peucetius and others, used in treatment of LEUKEMIA and other NEOPLASMS.
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
The transfer of a neoplasm from one organ or part of the body to another remote from the primary site.
A cell-cycle phase nonspecific alkylating antineoplastic agent. It is used in the treatment of brain tumors and various other malignant neoplasms. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p462) This substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen according to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
A heterogeneous aggregate of at least three distinct histological types of lung cancer, including SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA; ADENOCARCINOMA; and LARGE CELL CARCINOMA. They are dealt with collectively because of their shared treatment strategy.
The forcible expulsion of the contents of the STOMACH through the MOUTH.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
An unpleasant sensation in the stomach usually accompanied by the urge to vomit. Common causes are early pregnancy, sea and motion sickness, emotional stress, intense pain, food poisoning, and various enteroviruses.
An alkaloid isolated from the stem wood of the Chinese tree, Camptotheca acuminata. This compound selectively inhibits the nuclear enzyme DNA TOPOISOMERASES, TYPE I. Several semisynthetic analogs of camptothecin have demonstrated antitumor activity.
The action of a drug in promoting or enhancing the effectiveness of another drug.
Any of a group of malignant tumors of lymphoid tissue that differ from HODGKIN DISEASE, being more heterogeneous with respect to malignant cell lineage, clinical course, prognosis, and therapy. The only common feature among these tumors is the absence of giant REED-STERNBERG CELLS, a characteristic of Hodgkin's disease.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.
A decrease in the number of NEUTROPHILS found in the blood.
Neoplasm drug therapy involving an extracorporeal circuit with temporary exclusion of the tumor-bearing area from the general circulation during which high concentrations of the drug are perfused to the isolated part.
A therapeutic approach, involving chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or surgery, after initial regimens have failed to lead to improvement in a patient's condition. Salvage therapy is most often used for neoplastic diseases.
An alkylating agent of value against both hematologic malignancies and solid tumors.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
An antineoplastic antibiotic produced by Streptomyces caespitosus. It is one of the bi- or tri-functional ALKYLATING AGENTS causing cross-linking of DNA and inhibition of DNA synthesis.
The use of IONIZING RADIATION to treat malignant NEOPLASMS and some benign conditions.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
An antineoplastic agent. It has significant activity against melanomas. (from Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p564)
The long-term (minutes to hours) administration of a fluid into the vein through venipuncture, either by letting the fluid flow by gravity or by pumping it.
An alkylating nitrogen mustard that is used as an antineoplastic in the form of the levo isomer - MELPHALAN, the racemic mixture - MERPHALAN, and the dextro isomer - MEDPHALAN; toxic to bone marrow, but little vesicant action; potential carcinogen.
Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.
Tumors or cancer located in bone tissue or specific BONES.
Tumors or cancer of the TESTIS. Germ cell tumors (GERMINOMA) of the testis constitute 95% of all testicular neoplasms.
Radiotherapy given to augment some other form of treatment such as surgery or chemotherapy. Adjuvant radiotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.
An experimental lymphocytic leukemia originally induced in DBA/2 mice by painting with methylcholanthrene.
An anthracenedione-derived antineoplastic agent.
A malignant disease characterized by progressive enlargement of the lymph nodes, spleen, and general lymphoid tissue. In the classical variant, giant usually multinucleate Hodgkin's and REED-STERNBERG CELLS are present; in the nodular lymphocyte predominant variant, lymphocytic and histiocytic cells are seen.
In vivo methods of screening investigative anticancer drugs, biologic response modifiers or radiotherapies. Human tumor tissue or cells are transplanted into mice or rats followed by tumor treatment regimens. A variety of outcomes are monitored to assess antitumor effectiveness.
Any process by which toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, preferred route of administration, safe dosage range, etc., for a drug or group of drugs is determined through clinical assessment in humans or veterinary animals.
Clinical protocols used to inhibit the growth or spread of NEOPLASMS.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
Antibodies from non-human species whose protein sequences have been modified to make them nearly identical with human antibodies. If the constant region and part of the variable region are replaced, they are called humanized. If only the constant region is modified they are called chimeric. INN names for humanized antibodies end in -zumab.
An antimetabolite antineoplastic agent with immunosuppressant properties. It interferes with nucleic acid synthesis by inhibiting purine metabolism and is used, usually in combination with other drugs, in the treatment of or in remission maintenance programs for leukemia.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
A rare, metallic element designated by the symbol, Ga, atomic number 31, and atomic weight 69.72.
Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
A carcinoma derived from stratified SQUAMOUS EPITHELIAL CELLS. It may also occur in sites where glandular or columnar epithelium is normally present. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
All of the processes involved in increasing CELL NUMBER including CELL DIVISION.
Neoplasms composed of primordial GERM CELLS of embryonic GONADS or of elements of the germ layers of the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN. The concept does not refer to neoplasms located in the gonads or present in an embryo or FETUS.
A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)
A group of 20-member macrolactones in which there are three remotely substituted pyran rings that are linked by a methylene bridge and an E-disubstituted alkene, and have geminal dimethyls at C8 and C18 carbons. Some interact with PROTEIN KINASE C.
Pyrido-CARBAZOLES originally discovered in the bark of OCHROSIA ELLIPTICA. They inhibit DNA and RNA synthesis and have immunosuppressive properties.
Phospholipids which have an alcohol moiety in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol. They are usually derivatives of phosphoglycerols or phosphatidates. The other two alcohol groups of the glycerol backbone are usually in ester linkage. These compounds are widely distributed in animal tissues.
A glycoprotein of MW 25 kDa containing internal disulfide bonds. It induces the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of neutrophilic granulocyte precursor cells and functionally activates mature blood neutrophils. Among the family of colony-stimulating factors, G-CSF is the most potent inducer of terminal differentiation to granulocytes and macrophages of leukemic myeloid cell lines.
Mutant mice homozygous for the recessive gene "nude" which fail to develop a thymus. They are useful in tumor studies and studies on immune responses.
An antineoplastic antimetabolite that is metabolized to fluorouracil when administered by rapid injection; when administered by slow, continuous, intra-arterial infusion, it is converted to floxuridine monophosphate. It has been used to treat hepatic metastases of gastrointestinal adenocarcinomas and for palliation in malignant neoplasms of the liver and gastrointestinal tract.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
Regional infusion of drugs via an arterial catheter. Often a pump is used to impel the drug through the catheter. Used in therapy of cancer, upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage, infection, and peripheral vascular disease.
Inorganic compounds which contain platinum as the central atom.
Coverings for the hands, usually with separations for the fingers, made of various materials, for protection against infections, toxic substances, extremes of hot and cold, radiations, water immersion, etc. The gloves may be worn by patients, care givers, housewives, laboratory and industrial workers, police, etc.
Clonal expansion of myeloid blasts in bone marrow, blood, and other tissue. Myeloid leukemias develop from changes in cells that normally produce NEUTROPHILS; BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and MONOCYTES.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Simultaneous resistance to several structurally and functionally distinct drugs.
A nursing specialty concerned with the care provided to cancer patients. It includes aspects of family functioning through education of both patient and family.
Drugs used to prevent NAUSEA or VOMITING.
Transfer of HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS from BONE MARROW or BLOOD between individuals within the same species (TRANSPLANTATION, HOMOLOGOUS) or transfer within the same individual (TRANSPLANTATION, AUTOLOGOUS). Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been used as an alternative to BONE MARROW TRANSPLANTATION in the treatment of a variety of neoplasms.
Experimental transplantation of neoplasms in laboratory animals for research purposes.
A very toxic alkylating antineoplastic agent also used as an insect sterilant. It causes skin, gastrointestinal, CNS, and bone marrow damage. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), thiotepa may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen (Merck Index, 11th ed).
Tumors or cancer of the PERITONEUM.
The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.
The use of DRUGS to treat a DISEASE or its symptoms. One example is the use of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to treat CANCER.
A subnormal level of BLOOD PLATELETS.
Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.
Care alleviating symptoms without curing the underlying disease. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.
Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
Congener of FLUOROURACIL with comparable antineoplastic action. It has been suggested especially for the treatment of breast neoplasms.
Alkaloids derived from TYRAMINE combined with 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde via a norbelladine pathway, including GALANTAMINE, lycorine and crinine. They are found in the Amaryllidaceae (LILIACEAE) plant family.
A malignant neoplasm of the germinal tissue of the GONADS; MEDIASTINUM; or pineal region. Germinomas are uniform in appearance, consisting of large, round cells with vesicular nuclei and clear or finely granular eosinophilic-staining cytoplasm. (Stedman, 265th ed; from DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, pp1642-3)
Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.
Soft tissue tumors or cancer arising from the mucosal surfaces of the LIP; oral cavity; PHARYNX; LARYNX; and cervical esophagus. Other sites included are the NOSE and PARANASAL SINUSES; SALIVARY GLANDS; THYROID GLAND and PARATHYROID GLANDS; and MELANOMA and non-melanoma skin cancers of the head and neck. (from Holland et al., Cancer Medicine, 4th ed, p1651)
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in neoplastic tissue.
A plant genus of the family LILIACEAE. Members contain ungiminorine and LECTINS.
A 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. It serves as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a variety of chemicals, including many ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of this glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance (see DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE).
The complex series of phenomena, occurring between the end of one CELL DIVISION and the end of the next, by which cellular material is duplicated and then divided between two daughter cells. The cell cycle includes INTERPHASE, which includes G0 PHASE; G1 PHASE; S PHASE; and G2 PHASE, and CELL DIVISION PHASE.
A plant genus of the family ASTERACEAE. This plant should not be confused with microtubule asters (MICROTUBULES) nor with aster yellows phytoplasma (mycoplasma-like organisms).
The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)
Experimentally induced new abnormal growth of TISSUES in animals to provide models for studying human neoplasms.
A group of methylazirinopyrroloindolediones obtained from certain Streptomyces strains. They are very toxic antibiotics used as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS in some solid tumors. PORFIROMYCIN and MITOMYCIN are the most useful members of the group.
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
A malignancy of mature PLASMA CELLS engaging in monoclonal immunoglobulin production. It is characterized by hyperglobulinemia, excess Bence-Jones proteins (free monoclonal IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) in the urine, skeletal destruction, bone pain, and fractures. Other features include ANEMIA; HYPERCALCEMIA; and RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
A compound that, on administration, must undergo chemical conversion by metabolic processes before becoming the pharmacologically active drug for which it is a prodrug.
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.
Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).
Abnormally high temperature intentionally induced in living things regionally or whole body. It is most often induced by radiation (heat waves, infra-red), ultrasound, or drugs.
Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.
A group of 16-member MACROLIDES which stabilize MICROTUBULES in a manner similar to PACLITAXEL. They were originally found in the myxobacterium Sorangium cellulosum, now renamed to Polyangium (MYXOCOCCALES).
Compounds with 1,2-diphenylethane. They are structurally like reduced STILBENES.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
Treatment that combines chemotherapy with radiotherapy.
Vinblastine derivative with antineoplastic activity against CANCER. Major side effects are myelosuppression and neurotoxicity. Vindesine is used extensively in chemotherapy protocols (ANTINEOPLASTIC COMBINED CHEMOTHERAPY PROTOCOLS).
A small plant family of the order Santalales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida.
Cyclic hydrocarbons that contain multiple rings and share one or more atoms.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Form of leukemia characterized by an uncontrolled proliferation of the myeloid lineage and their precursors (MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS) in the bone marrow and other sites.
Agents and endogenous substances that antagonize or inhibit the development of new blood vessels.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
An aminoacridine derivative that intercalates into DNA and is used as an antineoplastic agent.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Treatment designed to help prevent a relapse of a disease following the successful primary treatments (INDUCTION CHEMOTHERAPY and CONSOLIDATION CHEMOTHERAPY) with a long-term low-dose drug therapy.
The exposure of the head to roentgen rays or other forms of radioactivity for therapeutic or preventive purposes.
A connective tissue neoplasm formed by proliferation of mesodermal cells; it is usually highly malignant.
Disorders that result from the intended use of PHARMACEUTICAL PREPARATIONS. Included in this heading are a broad variety of chemically-induced adverse conditions due to toxicity, DRUG INTERACTIONS, and metabolic effects of pharmaceuticals.
Works about comparative studies to verify the effectiveness of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques determined in phase II studies. During these trials, patients are monitored closely by physicians to identify any adverse reactions from long-term use. These studies are performed on groups of patients large enough to identify clinically significant responses and usually last about three years. This concept includes phase III studies conducted in both the U.S. and in other countries.
Benign and malignant central nervous system neoplasms derived from glial cells (i.e., astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and ependymocytes). Astrocytes may give rise to astrocytomas (ASTROCYTOMA) or glioblastoma multiforme (see GLIOBLASTOMA). Oligodendrocytes give rise to oligodendrogliomas (OLIGODENDROGLIOMA) and ependymocytes may undergo transformation to become EPENDYMOMA; CHOROID PLEXUS NEOPLASMS; or colloid cysts of the third ventricle. (From Escourolle et al., Manual of Basic Neuropathology, 2nd ed, p21)
Platinum. A heavy, soft, whitish metal, resembling tin, atomic number 78, atomic weight 195.09, symbol Pt. (From Dorland, 28th ed) It is used in manufacturing equipment for laboratory and industrial use. It occurs as a black powder (platinum black) and as a spongy substance (spongy platinum) and may have been known in Pliny's time as "alutiae".
Individuals responsible for various duties pertaining to the medical office routine.
The concentration of a compound needed to reduce population growth of organisms, including eukaryotic cells, by 50% in vitro. Though often expressed to denote in vitro antibacterial activity, it is also used as a benchmark for cytotoxicity to eukaryotic cells in culture.
A subspecialty of internal medicine concerned with the study of neoplasms.
Remnant of a tumor or cancer after primary, potentially curative therapy. (Dr. Daniel Masys, written communication)
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A sulfinylindene derivative prodrug whose sulfinyl moiety is converted in vivo to an active NSAID analgesic. Specifically, the prodrug is converted by liver enzymes to a sulfide which is excreted in the bile and then reabsorbed from the intestine. This helps to maintain constant blood levels with reduced gastrointestinal side effects.
The application of probability and statistical methods to calculate the risk of occurrence of any event, such as onset of illness, recurrent disease, hospitalization, disability, or death. It may include calculation of the anticipated money costs of such events and of the premiums necessary to provide for payment of such costs.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Cyclic esters of hydroxy carboxylic acids, containing a 1-oxacycloalkan-2-one structure. Large cyclic lactones of over a dozen atoms are MACROLIDES.
Devices designed to provide personal protection against injury to individuals exposed to hazards in industry, sports, aviation, or daily activities.
The total amount (cell number, weight, size or volume) of tumor cells or tissue in the body.
An antineoplastic agent used to treat ovarian cancer. It works by inhibiting DNA TOPOISOMERASES, TYPE I.
Compounds consisting of chains of AMINO ACIDS alternating with CARBOXYLIC ACIDS via ester and amide linkages. They are commonly cyclized.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
Antagonist of urate oxidase.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Functions and activities of DENTITION as a whole.
The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.
Systems for the delivery of drugs to target sites of pharmacological actions. Technologies employed include those concerning drug preparation, route of administration, site targeting, metabolism, and toxicity.
Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.
Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.
A glucocorticoid with the general properties of the corticosteroids. It is the drug of choice for all conditions in which routine systemic corticosteroid therapy is indicated, except adrenal deficiency states.
A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)
Malignant lymphoma composed of large B lymphoid cells whose nuclear size can exceed normal macrophage nuclei, or more than twice the size of a normal lymphocyte. The pattern is predominantly diffuse. Most of these lymphomas represent the malignant counterpart of B-lymphocytes at midstage in the process of differentiation.

Tumour ablation and hepatic decompensation rates in multi-agent chemoembolization of hepatocellular carcinoma. (1/20433)

Thirty-seven cirrhotic patients with 62 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) foci--most Child-Pugh class B or C and/or with large, inoperable tumours--underwent 148 sessions of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) using lipiodol, doxorubicin and cisplatin. Treatment efficacy was assessed by serial hepatic arteriography in 34/37 (91.9%) patients and abdominal CT scanning in 3/37 (8.1%) patients. Child-Pugh status was determined prior to each treatment session. Varying degrees of control of tumour neovascularity occurred for a median 390 days (range 90 to > 1680 days) in 33/34 (97.1%) patients in whom progress hepatic arteriography was performed. Ablation of tumour neovascularity occurred in 6/6 (100%), 4/12 (33.3%) and 6/16 (37.5%) patients with HCC diameters < 4 cm, 4-7 cm and > 8 cm, respectively (p < 0.02). Significantly more sessions were required for ablation of larger tumours (p < 0.05). Recurrent HCC was detected in 50% of patients after a median 240 days (range 60-1120 days). Deterioration in Child-Pugh status followed a session of TACE on 19/148 (12.8%) occasions but resulted in unscheduled hospitalization on only 4/148 (2.7%) occasions, the highest incidence (8.3%) in Child-Pugh C patients. Actuarial survival was 27/36 (75.0%) at 6 months, 17/34 (50.0%) at 12 months, 14/34 (41.2%) at 18 months, 9/31 (29.0%) at 24 months and 4/27 (14.8%) at 36 months. Multi-agent TACE with lipiodol, doxorubicin and cisplatin provides a useful anti-tumour effect, even in cirrhotic patients with large HCCs. The incidence of clinically significant deterioration in hepatic function due to ischaemia of non-tumorous liver is acceptably low, even in Child-Pugh C patients.  (+info)

Intensive weekly chemotherapy is not effective in advanced pancreatic cancer patients: a report from the Italian Group for the Study of Digestive Tract Cancer (GISCAD). (2/20433)

Twenty-two patients, with locally advanced unresectable and/or metastatic pancreatic carcinoma, received weekly administration of cisplatin 40 mg m(-2), 5-fluorouracil 500 mg m(-2), epidoxorubicin 35 mg m(-2), 6S stereoisomer of leucovorin 250 mg m(-2) and glutathione 1.5 mg m(-2), supported by a daily administration of lenograstim at a dose of 5 microg kg(-1). Nineteen patients were men and three were women. Median age was 63 years (range 47-70). At study entry, pain was present in 15 out of 22 patients (68%) with a mean value of Scott-Huskisson scale of 27.6+/-23.8, whereas a weight loss >10% was present in 15 patients. After eight weekly treatments, three partial responses were achieved for a response rate of 13% (95% CI 0-26%), five patients had stable disease and 14 progressed on therapy. Pain was present in 9 out of 22 patients (40%) with a mean value of Scott-Huskisson scale of 12.3+/-18.4. Eight patients (36%) (three partial response and five stable disease) had a positive weight change. Toxicity was mild: WHO grade III or IV toxicity was recorded in terms of anaemia in 7 out of 188 cycles (3.7%), of neutropenia in 9 out of 188 cycles (4.7%) and of thrombocytopenia in 3 out of 188 cycles (1.5%). Median survival of all patients was 6 months. The outcome of this intensive chemotherapy regimen does not support its use in pancreatic cancer.  (+info)

Early death during chemotherapy in patients with small-cell lung cancer: derivation of a prognostic index for toxic death and progression. (3/20433)

Based on an increased frequency of early death (death within the first treatment cycle) in our two latest randomized trials of combination chemotherapy in small-cell lung cancer (SCLC), we wanted to identify patients at risk of early non-toxic death (ENTD) and early toxic death (ETD). Data were stored in a database and logistic regression analyses were performed to identify predictive factors for early death. During the first cycle, 118 out of 937 patients (12.6%) died. In 38 patients (4%), the cause of death was sepsis. Significant risk factors were age, performance status (PS), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and treatment with epipodophyllotoxins and platinum in the first cycle (EP). Risk factors for ENTD were age, PS and LDH. Extensive stage had a hazard ratio of 1.9 (P = 0.07). Risk factors for ETD were EP, PS and LDH, whereas age and stage were not. For EP, the hazard ratio was as high as 6.7 (P = 0.0001). We introduced a simple prognostic algorithm including performance status, LDH and age. Using a prognostic algorithm to exclude poor-risk patients from trials, we could minimize early death, improve long-term survival and increase the survival differences between different regimens. We suggest that other groups evaluate our algorithm and exclude poor prognosis patients from trials of dose intensification.  (+info)

Profound variation in dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase activity in human blood cells: major implications for the detection of partly deficient patients. (4/20433)

Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) is responsible for the breakdown of the widely used antineoplastic agent 5-fluorouracil (5FU), thereby limiting the efficacy of the therapy. To identify patients suffering from a complete or partial DPD deficiency, the activity of DPD is usually determined in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBM cells). In this study, we demonstrated that the highest activity of DPD was found in monocytes followed by that of lymphocytes, granulocytes and platelets, whereas no significant activity of DPD could be detected in erythrocytes. The activity of DPD in PBM cells proved to be intermediate compared with the DPD activity observed in monocytes and lymphocytes. The mean percentage of monocytes in the PBM cells obtained from cancer patients proved to be significantly higher than that observed in PBM cells obtained from healthy volunteers. Moreover, a profound positive correlation was observed between the DPD activity of PBM cells and the percentage of monocytes, thus introducing a large inter- and intrapatient variability in the activity of DPD and hindering the detection of patients with a partial DPD deficiency.  (+info)

Patterns of care and survival for adolescents and young adults with acute leukaemia--a population-based study. (5/20433)

We report a population-based study of patterns of care and survival for people with acute leukaemia diagnosed at age 15-29 years during 1984-94 in regions of England and Wales covered by specialist leukaemia registries. There were 879 patients: 417 with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and 462 with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). For ALL, actuarial survival rates were 43% at 5 years after diagnosis and 37% at 10 years. Survival improved significantly between 1984-88 and 1989-94 for those aged 15-19 at diagnosis. Patients entered in national clinical trials and those not entered had similar survival rates. Survival rates were similar at teaching and non-teaching hospitals and at hospitals treating different numbers of study patients per year. For AML, survival rates were 42% at 5 years after diagnosis and 39% at 10 years. Survival improved significantly between 1984-88 and 1989-94. Patients entered in the Medical Research Council AML10 trial had a higher survival rate than those who were in the earlier AML9 trial. Survival did not vary with category of hospital. We conclude that survival has improved for adolescents and young adults with acute leukaemia but that there is at present no evidence that centralized treatment results in a survival benefit for patients in this age group.  (+info)

The minimum CD34 threshold depends on prior chemotherapy in autologous peripheral blood stem cell recipients. (6/20433)

We analysed 57 patients with non-myeloid malignancies who received a non-purged autologous PBSCT. All had similar mobilisation and conditioning regimens. A high prior chemotherapy score and the number of chemotherapy lines used (P = 0.015 and P = 0.01, respectively) were adverse predictors of CD34 cell yields. Lower CD34 values (P = 0.002) were seen in patients treated with potent stem cell toxins (BCNU, melphalan, CCNU and mustine), designated toxicity factor 4 agents (TF4). All patients infused with grafts containing CD34 cell doses between 1.0 and 2.0 x 10(6)/kg (range 1.25-1.90) engrafted by day 51. The only variable associated with slow platelet recovery was exposure to TF4 (P = 0.007). The majority of patients with CD34 >1.0 x 10(6)/kg achieved rapid and sustained engraftment and the only predictive factor of delayed recovery is prior exposure to stem cell toxins. Potential PBSCT candidates should if possible avoid first line and salvage chemotherapy containing TF4 drugs. We therefore advocate a minimum CD34 threshold of >1.0 x 10(6)/kg in patients without extensive prior chemoradiotherapy, and > or = 2.0 x 10(6)/kg in all other patients.  (+info)

Infectious complications in 126 patients treated with high-dose chemotherapy and autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. (7/20433)

The effect of an extensive prophylactic antimicrobial regimen was prospectively assessed in 126 patients after high-dose chemotherapy and autologous PBSC. They received ciprofloxacin (500 mg/12 h), acyclovir (200 mg/6 h), and itraconazole (200 mg/12 h) orally until neutrophil recovery. Febrile patients received i.v. imipenem (500 mg/6 h) to which vancomycin and amikacin were added if fever persisted for 2-3 and 5 days, respectively. Amphotericin B lipid complex was further given on day 7 or 8 of fever. Median times for a neutrophil count of >0.5 x 10(9)/l and a platelet count of >20 x 10(9)/l were 9 and 11 days. Severe neutropenia (<0.1 x 10(9)/l) lasted for a median of 5 days in which 72% of febrile episodes and 50% of cases of bacteremia occurred. Gram-positive bacteria were isolated in 30 of 40 episodes of bacteremia, 25 of which were caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis. Clinical foci were the intravascular catheter in 35 cases, respiratory infection in 11, cellulitis in two, anal abscess in one, and neutropenic enterocolitis in one. The high incidence of febrile episodes (94%) and bacteremias (31%) may be due to the lack of efficacy of antimicrobial prophylaxis and the persistence of a 5-day period of severe neutropenia.  (+info)

Central venous catheter exchange by guidewire for treatment of catheter-related bacteraemia in patients undergoing BMT or intensive chemotherapy. (8/20433)

Current guidelines for the treatment of catheter-related bacteraemia (CRB) advise against central venous catheter (CVC) exchange because of the potential risk of prolonging infection. However, there are no consistent data proving this recommendation. We evaluated prospectively the usefulness of CVC exchange by guidewire for the treatment of CRB in patients undergoing BMT or intensive chemotherapy. CVC exchange was considered when fever and positive blood cultures persisted after 2 days of adequate antimicrobial therapy and no potential source of bacteraemia other than CVC could be identified. The guidewire exchange was preceded and followed by a slow infusion of adequate antimicrobial therapy. Bacteraemia was confirmed as catheter-related by demonstrating concordance between isolates from the tip and blood cultures by pulsed-field electrophoresis of genomic DNA. This procedure was performed in 19 episodes of bacteraemia during a 1-year period. Fourteen episodes (74%) were catheter-related and 71% of these were due to coagulase-negative staphylococci. Guidewire replacement was accomplished uneventfully 4 days after development of sepsis (range 3-6). In all cases, clinical signs of sepsis disappeared in less than 24 h after replacement. Definitive catheter withdrawal was carried out a median of 16 days (range 3-42) after guidewire exchange; in all cases, the tip culture was negative. We conclude that CVC replacement by guidewire under adequate antimicrobial therapy may be a reasonable option for the treatment of CRB when antimicrobial therapy alone has been unsuccessful.  (+info)

A study to evaluate the efficacy of lenalidomide as maintenance therapy after completion of first-line combination chemotherapy in patients with mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) who are not candidates for transplantation and have achieved partial response (PR) or complete response (CR).. This study was prematurely terminated by the sponsor in light of new unpublished data that rendered the current design of the study no longer clinically relevant. A study design with the control arm of no active treatment was no longer appropriate. The termination of the trial was not based on any safety concerns in the study. ...
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A chemotherapy regimen is a regimen for chemotherapy, defining the drugs to be used, their dosage, the frequency and duration of treatments, and other considerations. In modern oncology, many regimens combine several chemotherapy drugs in combination chemotherapy. The majority of drugs used in cancer chemotherapy are cytostatic, many via cytotoxicity. A fundamental philosophy of medical oncology, including combination chemotherapy, is that different drugs work through different mechanisms, and that the results of using multiple drugs will be synergistic to some extent. Because they have different dose-limiting adverse effects, they can be given together at full doses in chemotherapy regimens.[1]. The first successful combination chemotherapy was MOPP, introduced in 1963 for lymphomas. The term induction regimen refers to a chemotherapy regimen used for the initial treatment of a disease. A maintenance regimen refers to the ongoing use of chemotherapy to reduce the chances of a cancer ...
RATIONALE: Drugs used in chemotherapy work in different ways to stop the growth of cancer cells, either by killing the cells or by stopping them from dividing. Giving more than one drug (combination chemotherapy) may kill more cancer cells. It is not yet known which combination chemotherapy regimen is more effective in treating acute lymphoblastic leukemia.. PURPOSE: This randomized clinical trial is studying the side effects of two combination chemotherapy regimens and to see how well they work in treating children with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia. ...
A multi-agent system (M.A.S.) is a computerized system composed of multiple interacting intelligent agents within an environment. Multi-agent systems can be used to solve problems that are difficult or impossible for an individual agent or a monolithic system to solve. Intelligence may include some methodic, functional, procedural approach, algorithmic search or reinforcement learning. Although there is considerable overlap, a multi-agent system is not always the same as an agent-based model (ABM). The goal of an ABM is to search for explanatory insight into the collective behavior of agents (which dont necessarily need to be intelligent) obeying simple rules, typically in natural systems, rather than in solving specific practical or engineering problems. The terminology of ABM tends to be used more often in the sciences, and MAS in engineering and technology.[1] Topics where multi-agent systems research may deliver an appropriate approach include online trading,[2] disaster response,[3][4] ...
Giving chemotherapy drugs every 2 weeks instead of the usual every 3 weeks reduces the risk of breast cancer recurrence and death, according to research published in The Lancet on 7 February 2019.. The study, undertaken by the Early Breast Cancer Trialists Collaborative Group (EBCTCG) analysed data from over 37,000 women with early (operable) breast cancer who had taken part in 26 randomised trials from across the world that compared dose-intense chemotherapy with standard schedule chemotherapy.. The analysis aimed to find out whether increasing the dose intensity of chemotherapy (the amount of drug delivered per unit time), was more effective at lowering breast cancer recurrence and death rates than standard schedule chemotherapy regimens. One way to increase dose intensity was to use the same chemotherapy agents at the same doses but administer treatment every two weeks instead of every three weeks. The average weekly dose is therefore 50% higher with 2-weekly treatment than with the ...
This study looks at how well how well pazopanib hydrochloride, (targeted chemotherapy), combination chemotherapy, and radiation therapy work compared to radiation therapy alone, or in combination with pazopanib hydrochloride or combination chemotherapy in treating patients with newly diagnosed non-rhabdomyosarcoma soft tissue sarcomas that can be removed by surgery. Radiation therapy uses high energy x-rays to kill tumor cells. Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as ifosfamide and doxorubicin hydrochloride, work in different ways to stop the growth of tumor cells, either by killing the cells, by stopping them from dividing, or by stopping them from spreading. Pazopanib hydrochloride may stop the growth of tumor cells by blocking some of the enzymes needed for cell growth. It is not yet known whether radiation therapy works better when given with or without combination chemotherapy and/or pazopanib hydrochloride in treating patients with non-rhabdomyosarcoma soft tissue sarcomas. ...
Chemotherapy is medication delivered to the body to eliminate cancer cells or greatly reduce their effect. It targets cells that divide rapidly, a characteristic of most cancer cells.. Chemotherapy, often used to support and enhance other cancer treatment modalaties, interferes with the division and reproduction of cells. If a cancer cell cannot reproduce, it eventually dies without another cell to replace it. Chemotherapy is usually administered orally or intravenously. Some types of chemotherapy are delivered daily over a prescribed period, while others are given weekly. Similarly, some chemotherapy infusion sessions last only a few minutes, while others take a full day.. Recent advances in chemotherapy treatment mean patients may not experience some of the common side effects previously associated with chemotherapy. For instance, not all treatments result in hair loss, weight gain, or nausea. Side effects of chemotherapy depend on the type and dose of chemotherapy received. Your physician may ...
Abstract Background: For patients with metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma, there are no approved or established treatments beyond the 2nd line. A Phase Ib study of fractionated radioimmunotherapy was undertaken in this setting, administering 90Y-clivatuzumab tetraxetan (yttrium-90-radiolabelled humanised antibody targeting pancreatic adenocarcinoma mucin) with or without low radiosensitising doses of gemcitabine.
Sam and I keep hearing the same excellent questions about chemotherapy and his schedule. Up until a few weeks ago, we never understood how the whole chemotherapy thing worked. Our heads spun wildly at our first meeting with our oncologist who came up with the chemotherapy treatment and schedule. I was left staring blankly at Kates rigorous note-taking. We refer to her unbelievably thorough notes frequently.. Sam and I recently talked about our chemotherapy knowledge prior to the last several weeks. Even though we have known several people who have received chemotherapy, we had never thought about all the details. The only thing we knew was that chemotherapy was usually associated with hair loss. Heres a bit of the education weve gotten over the last few weeks.. Chemotherapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses drugs to destroy cancer cells. It works by stopping or slowing the growth of cancer cells, which grow and divide quickly. While its busy with the bad cells, it also harms healthy ...
Keytruda established itself as the new standard for first-line treatment of metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) - and also finally overtook its main rival, BMS Opdivo in revenues in Q2 of last year.. This success rests on numerous trials, but its biggest bullseyes last year were as a first-line combination with standard chemotherapy regimens in non-squamous NSCLC (KEYNOTE-189, which confirmed its efficacy after conditional approval via another study) and in squamous (KEYNOTE-407) NSCLC as compared to these existing regimens alone.. These indications have now both been approved in the US (with Europe expected to clear the squamous use soon) and are set to be key drivers for Keytrudas growth in 2019.. The only drug that has any realistic chance of challenging Keytruda in NSCLC is Roches Tecentriq. The company is exploring its use in a variety of double and triple combinations.. In December the FDA approved its use in combination with Avastin and chemotherapy in non-squamous NSCLC ...
The goal of this clinical research study is to find out if switching from a standard chemotherapy combination to a more intensive experimental combination, based on imaging scans, will improve response to treatment in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). The safety of this experimental chemotherapy combination will also be studied.
Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCRT) is superior to neoadjuvant multi-agent chemotherapy (NMAC) for the treatment of stage II or III rectal adenocarcinoma.
The present study demonstrated the following three important clinical observations. First, the OS of the chemotherapy group was better than that of the BSC group in elderly patients with poor PS. Second, the number of treatment cycles had a larger impact on the survival benefit of chemotherapy than the decision/selection of either single-agent therapy or carboplatin-doublet therapy. Third, hypoalbuminemia was not only the risk factor for early termination of chemotherapy, but also the independent prognostic factor in the chemotherapy group.. The clinician-estimated PS is the most common method to evaluate physiologic reserve and functional status in NSCLC patients, and it is used to assess a patients tolerability against chemotherapy. In previous clinical trials conducted for elderly, advanced NSCLC patients, such as the ELVIS and IFCT-0501 trials [3, 4, 7], 20-30% of patients had a PS of 2, whereas almost no data were available for patients with PS ≥ 3. Given this, there is a general ...
BACKGROUND: The molecular characteristics associated with the response to treatment in glioblastomas (GBMs) remain largely unknown. We performed a retrospective study to assess the genomic characteristics associated with the response of GBMs to either first-line chemotherapy or radiation therapy. The gene expression (n = 56) and genomic profiles (n = 67) of responders and non-responders to first-line chemotherapy or radiation therapy alone were compared on Affymetrix Plus 2 gene expression arrays and BAC CGH arrays. RESULTS: According to Verhaak et al.s classification system, mesenchymal GBMs were more likely to respond to radiotherapy than to first-line chemotherapy, whereas classical GBMs were more likely to respond to first-line chemotherapy than to radiotherapy. In patients treated with radiation therapy alone, the response was associated with differential expression of microenvironment-associated genes; the expression of hypoxia-related genes was associated with short-term progression-free
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Irinotecan and raltitrexed: An active combination in advanced colorectal cancer. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Table of Contents. Table of Contents 2. List of Tables 7. List of Figures 8. Introduction 9. Global Markets Direct Report Coverage 9. Chemotherapy Induced Neutropenia Overview 10. Therapeutics Development 11. Pipeline Products for Chemotherapy Induced Neutropenia-Overview 11. Pipeline Products for Chemotherapy Induced Neutropenia-Comparative Analysis 12. Chemotherapy Induced Neutropenia-Therapeutics under Development by Companies 13. Chemotherapy Induced Neutropenia-Therapeutics under Investigation by Universities/Institutes 16. Chemotherapy Induced Neutropenia-Pipeline Products Glance 17. Late Stage Products 17. Clinical Stage Products 18. Early Stage Products 19. Unknown Stage Products 20. Chemotherapy Induced Neutropenia-Products under Development by Companies 21. Chemotherapy Induced Neutropenia-Products under Investigation by Universities/Institutes 24. Chemotherapy Induced Neutropenia-Companies Involved in Therapeutics Development 25. Bio-Ker s.r.l 25. Biogenomics Limited 26. Bolder ...
Chemotherapy is the use of anticancer drugs to treat cancer cells. Chemotherapy has been used for many years and is one of the most common treatments for cancer. In most cases, chemotherapy works by interfering with the cancer cells ability to grow or reproduce. Different groups of drugs work in different ways to fight cancer cells. Chemotherapy may be used alone for some types of cancer or in combination with other treatments, such as radiation or surgery. Often, a combination of chemotherapy drugs is used to fight a specific cancer. Certain chemotherapy drugs may be given in a specific order depending on the type of cancer its being used to treat.. While chemotherapy can be quite effective in treating certain cancers, chemotherapy drugs reach all parts of the body, not just the cancer cells. Because of this, there may be many side effects during treatment. Being able to anticipate these side effects can help you and your child prepare and, in some cases, prevent these symptoms from ...
This trial is investigating the efficacy and tolerability of oxaliplatin [Eloxatin] in combination with capecitabine [Xeloda] in untreated patients with locally
Inclusion Criteria:. Histologically confirmed solid tumor malignancy for which platinum-based chemotherapy on a 21-day cycle or 14 day cycle is being recommended. Stage I of the trial: newly diagnosed disease for which neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy is planned in the curative setting, or metastatic disease. Stage II of the trial: evaluable disease by Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) criteria must be present for all subjects in the randomized component of the trial- if surgery or radiation is planned, the target lesions may not be so treated until after the assessment of the effect of chemotherapy. Stage I: subjects may have already received no more than 2 cycle of their platinum-based chemotherapy but should not have received other prior chemotherapy regimens with the exception of patients with metastatic disease who received neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy and that chemotherapy was completed , 6 months prior to enrollment. Stage II: subjects must have received no ...
Chemotherapy combinations commonly used in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer include: fluorouracil (5FU) and leucovorin (FU/LV) leucovorin c...
This phase Ib study will evaluate the antimalarial and transmission blocking activity of a single dose of DSM265 or OZ439 in healthy subjects with induced blood
Chemotherapy, not surprisingly, is easy to demonize. There are few treatments that cause such odious side effects, and when taken to its fullest extreme, such as complete ablation of a cancer patients bone marrow in preparation for a bone marrow transplant, chemotherapy can be brutal. Its also true that for advanced solid malignancies, it only tends to produce palliation or a prolongation in survival, not a cure, and people with cancer want a cure. Palliation just isnt that appealing, for obvious reasons. When people think of chemotherapy, they think of hair falling out, nausea and vomiting, fatigue, and death. Since chemotherapy is often given for more advanced malignancies, its sometimes hard to tell how many of these symptoms (other than the hair loss) are due to the cancer and how much they are due to side effects of the chemotherapy, and many people incorrectly blame chemotherapy for the deaths of their loved ones with cancer. Also, because, like radiation therapy, chemotherapy is often ...
Patients median age was 60 years (28-72). All were classified as ECOG 0-1. Each patient received oxaliplatin as a first line treatment. Also prior use of bevacizumab was reported in 12 patients (60%) and anti-EGFR in 5 patients (25%). 70% of them had mutated RAS status and 30% wild-type RAS status.. The median number of cycles given was 10 (2-42). Aflibercept dose reduction was required in 6 patients (30%), and therapy discontinuation due to toxicity in 2 (10%), 1 as a consequence of hypertension and 1 as diarrhea. In all patients, some kind of grade treatment-related adverse events occurred. Most frequently 3-4 grade toxicity observed were: asthenia (20%), neutropenia (20%), hypertension (20%), diarrhea (15%), stomatitis (15%), palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia (10%) and proteinuria (5%).. In patients evaluable for response, the response rate was 40% and the disease control rate of 73%. In a follow-up median time of 9 months, the progression-free survival median time was 6,5 months (2-23), and ...
Data on 2281 participants from eight RCTs were available from reports of single-agent doxorubicin versus doxorubicin-based combination chemotherapy. Meta-analysis using the fixed effect model detected a higher tumour response rate with combination chemotherapy compared with single-agent chemotherapy (odds ratio [OR= 1.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03 to 1.60; p = 0.03), but the OR from a pooled analysis using the random effects model and the same data did not achieve statistical significance (OR= 1.26; 95% CI, 0.96 to 1.67; p = 0.10). No significant difference between the two regimens was detected in the pooled one-year mortality rate (OR = 0.87; 95% CI, 0.73 to 1.05; p=0.14) or two-year mortality rate (OR = 0.84; 95% CI, 0.67 to 1.06; p=0.13) (N=2097). Although reporting of adverse effects was limited and inconsistent among trials (making pooling of data for this outcome impossible), adverse effects such as nausea/vomiting and hematologic toxic effects were consistently reported as being ...
Chemotherapy is a systemic method of cancer treatment, in contrast with local therapies such as surgery and radiation therapy. The drugs used in chemotherapy are able to reach most parts of the body. Therefore, chemotherapy is likely to be recommended for cancer that has already spread to other areas of the body, for tumors that occur at more than one site, or for tumors that cannot be removed surgically. It is also used when a patient has recurrent disease after initial treatment with surgery or radiation therapy.. Chemotherapy is less mutilating than surgery and helps conserve organ or limb function since anti-cancer drugs are used to act on cancer cells without direct removal of a body part.. For some cancers, chemotherapy alone can destroy all the cancer cells and cure the cancer (primary treatment). As an adjuvant treatment, chemotherapy is given prior to, or after other methods, to increase the effectiveness of cancer treatment. Most often, adjuvant chemotherapy is given after other ...
Nausea and vomiting are common side effects of chemotherapy drugs that are used to treat cancer. Some chemotherapy drugs are worse offenders than others In most cases, patients will be given anti-vomiting (antiemetics) and anti-nausea medication prior to the administration of chemotherapy. Some of the commonly used antiemetics are listed in the chart below. As you can see, these drugs may also have some side effects of their own.
This paper considers the consensus problem of nonlinear multi-agent systems under switching directed topologies. Specifically, the dynamics of each agent incorporates an intrinsic nonlinear term and the interaction topology may not contain a spanning tree at any time. By designing a state-controlled switching law, we show that the multi-agent system with the neighbor-based protocol can achieve consensus if the switching topologies jointly contain a spanning tree. Moreover, an easily manageable algebraic criterion is deduced to unravel the underlying mechanisms in reaching consensus. Finally, a numerical example is exploited to illustrate the effectiveness of the developed theoretical results.
Roche noted that a Phase III IMpower150 study met its co-primary endpoint of progression-free survival (PFS) and demonstrated that the combination of TECENTRIQ (atezolizumab) and Avastin (bevacizumab) plus chemotherapy (paclitaxel and carboplatin) provided a statistically significant and clinically meaningful reduction in the risk of disease worsening or death (PFS) compared to Avastin plus chemotherapy in the first-line treatment of people with advanced non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Initial observations for the co-primary endpoint of overall survival (OS) are encouraging. These data are not fully mature and the next OS analysis is expected in the first half of 2018. Safety for the TECENTRIQ and Avastin plus chemotherapy combination appeared consistent with the known safety profile of the individual medicines, and no new safety signals were identified with the combination ...
Eliminating pro-inflammatory cells after treatment relieves symptoms in mice.. January 17, 2017/Novato, California: Standard chemotherapy is a blunt force instrument against cancer - and its a rare cancer patient who escapes debilitating side effects from systemic treatments that mostly affect dividing cells, both malignant and healthy, throughout the body. Researchers at the Buck Institute and elsewhere now show that chemotherapy triggers a pro-inflammatory stress response termed cellular senescence, promoting the adverse effects of chemotherapy as well as cancer relapse and metastasis. Eliminating the senescent cells in mice prevented the side effects and relapse. The research is published in Cancer Discovery.. While chemotherapy does save lives, it often comes with a very high price, said Judith Campisi, PhD, Buck faculty and senior scientist on the study. Our work in mice studied the effects of chemotherapy on cancer relapse and other serious side effects. It provides a ...
Lung, breast, and colorectal cancers are the 3 most frequent causes of cancer-related death in the United States. In the past 15 years, survival has increased dramatically for patients with these tumor types, partly because improved chemotherapy caused major changes in standard care. In addition, maintaining chemotherapy dose intensity has an established a positive effect on patient outcomes. However, delivering chemotherapy at full dose and on schedule is limited primarily by myelosuppression. To determine how expert opinion about preferred chemotherapy for lung, breast, and colorectal cancers has changed over the past decade, the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) treatment guidelines from 1996, 2000 or 2001, and 2005 for each tumor type were compared. The myelosuppressive potentials of NCCN-recommended agents were assessed using data from their prescribing information. Many agents and combinations of agents recommended in the NCCN guidelines for treating lung, breast, and colorectal ...
Median follow-up was 16.1 months (5.1-39.0) in the FOLFOX-FOFIRI regimen and 19.9 months (4.0-46.6) in the XELOX-XELIRI regimen. Ten patients were treated with bevacizumab in either a first or second setting in the FOLFOX-FOFIRI regimen, whereas 20 patients were treated with bevacizumab in the XELOX-XELIRI regimen. In the first-line chemotherapy, DCR was 85.0% in the FOLFOX regimen and 58.5% in the XELOX regimen, whereas, in the second-line chemotherapy, DCR was 50.0% in the FOLFIRI regimen and 41.4% in the XELIRI regimen. In the first-line chemotherapy, the median PFS was 6.5 months in the FOLFOX regimen and 6.0 months in the XELOX regimen (p = 0.127). In the second-line chemotherapy, the median PFS was 4.6 months in the FOLFIRI regimen and 4.0 months in the XELIRI regimen (p = 0.370). The median OS was 24.5 months in the FOLFOX-FOFIRI regimen and 23.2 months in the XELOX-XELIRI regimen (p = 0.994). The median TI was 14.0 months in the FOLFOX-FOFIRI regimen and 12.0 months in the XELOX-XELIRI ...
For women with early-stage breast cancer who are receiving chemotherapy, shortening the time between treatment cycles or administering the agents sequentially may reduce disease recurrence and mortality compared with standard chemotherapy regimens.
AVEO Pharmaceuticals, Inc., a biopharmaceutical company focused on discovering, developing and commercializing cancer therapeutics, today announced preliminary results from an ongoing Phase 1b clinical trial evaluating the companys lead product candidate, tivozanib, a highly potent and selective inhibitor of VEGF receptors 1, 2, and 3, in combination with paclitaxel (Taxol®), a standard chemotherapy regimen, in patients with metastatic breast cancer.
PURPOSE To evaluate the role of early intensification with high-dose therapy (HDT) and autologous stem-cell transplantation (ASCT) as front-line chemotherapy for patients with high-risk, histologically aggressive non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL). PATIENTS AND METHODS We planned a multicenter, randomized trial to compare a conventional chemotherapy regimen of methotrexate with leucovorin rescue, doxorubicin, cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone, and bleomycin (MACOP-B; arm A) with an abbreviated regimen of MACOP-B (8 weeks) followed by HDT and ASCT (arm B) for intermediate-high-risk/high-risk patients (according to the age-adjusted International Prognostic Index). From September 1994 to April 1998, 150 patients with aggressive lymphoma were enrolled onto the trial. Seventy-five patients were randomly assigned to arm A and 75 patients were randomly assigned to arm B. In both arms, involved-field radiation therapy (36 Gy) was delivered to the site of bulky disease. RESULTS The rate of complete
Advanced or metastatic breast cancer is cancer that has spread beyond the breast and underarm lymph nodes to other parts of the body. Although metastatic breast cancer is often responsive to conventional chemotherapy it does not provide a cure. The dose of chemotherapy that can be given to an individual is limited because it is unsafe in high doses and can seriously damage the bone marrow, creating high risk of serious infection. One treatment that was considered promising at the start of the 1990s was use of autograft, which involves transplantation of a womans own bone marrow or peripheral stem cells to regenerate her bone marrow. Autografting allowed the administration of chemotherapy doses many times higher than could otherwise be used. This systematic review aimed to compare the evidence from randomised controlled trials comparing high dose chemotherapy with conventional chemotherapy.. This review identified six randomised trials including 437 women receiving high dose chemotherapy with ...
received REG and FTD/TPI, respectively. The REG group received more prior systemic chemotherapies and significantly more frequent additional chemotherapies than the FTD/TPI group did. The median follow-up was 6.2 months, whereas the median overall survival was 9.9 and 11.4 months in the REG and FTD/TPI groups, respectively (hazard ratio = 0.954, p = 0.837). The median progression-free survival was 2.0 and 3.3 months in the REG and FTD/TPI groups, respectively (hazard ratio = 0.52, p = 0.00047), indicating significant differences, whereas the objective response and disease control rates did not differ. The median overall survival of patients with additional subsequent chemotherapies after disease progression was longer than that of patients without additional chemotherapy. The most frequent grade ≥3 adverse events were hypertension and neutropenia in the REG and FTD/TPI groups, respectively. Our study suggested that sequential use of both drugs may prolong survival. ...
Key Findings. The median number of neoadjuvant cycles of FOLFIRINOX was six.. Among the 520 patients, 343 (66.0%) received adjuvant chemotherapy, including FOLFIRINOX in 19.8%, gemcitabine-based chemotherapy in 58.6%, capecitabine in 4.1%, a combination or other agents in 13.1%, and unknown chemotherapy in 4.4%. A total of 177 patients received no adjuvant chemotherapy.. Median overall survival was 29 months in the adjuvant therapy group vs 29 months in the no adjuvant therapy group (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.77-1.28, P = .93). On multivariate analysis, the hazard ratio was 0.85 (95% CI = 0.35-2.10, P = .73).. On multivariate analysis, only the interaction term of nodal status with adjuvant chemotherapy was significant. Among the 50% vs 38% of patients with pathology-proven, node-positive disease, median overall survival was 26 months with adjuvant chemotherapy vs 13 months with no adjuvant chemotherapy (HR = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.22-0.75, P = .004). Among patients ...
Background: This multicenter phase II study investigated the efficacy and feasibility of preoperative induction chemotherapy followed by chemoradiation and surgery in patients with esophageal carcinoma. Patients and methods: Patients with locally advanced resectable squamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma of the esophagus received induction chemotherapy with cisplatin 75 mg/m2 and docetaxel (Taxotere) 75 mg/m2 on days 1 and 22, followed by radiotherapy of 45 Gy (25 × 1.8 Gy) and concurrent chemotherapy comprising cisplatin 25 mg/m2 and docetaxel 20 mg/m2 weekly for 5 weeks, followed by surgery. Results: Sixty-six patients were enrolled at eleven centers and 57 underwent surgery. R0 resection was achieved in 52 patients. Fifteen patients showed complete, 16 patients nearly complete and 26 patients poor pathological remission. Median overall survival was 36.5 months and median event-free survival was 22.8 months. Squamous cell carcinoma and good pathologically documented response were ...
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the fourth most frequently diagnosed cancer and the second leading cause of neoplasm-related death in the United States. Several studies analyzed the efficacy of bevacizumab combined with different chemotherapy regimens consisting on drugs such as 5-FU, capecitabine, irinotecan and oxaliplatin. This systematic review aims to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of chemotherapy plus bevacizumab versus chemotherapy alone in patients with previously untreated advanced or metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Several databases were searched, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, and CENTRAL. The primary endpoints were overall survival and progression-free survival. Data extracted from the studies were combined by using hazard ratio (HR) or risk ratio (RR) with their corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (95 % CI). The final analysis included 9 trials comprising 3,914 patients. Patients who received the combined treatment (chemotherapy + bevacizumab) had higher response rates (RR =
Clinical trial for childhood ALL | leukemia , Hyper-CVAD Regimen in Sequential Combination With Blinatumomab as Frontline Therapy for Adults With B-Cell Lineage Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia
PURPOSE: A randomized three-arm phase II study was undertaken to evaluate the optimum administration schedule of pemetrexed and gemcitabine in chemotherapy-naïve patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients were randomly assigned to three schedules of pemetrexed 500 mg/m2 plus gemcitabine 1,250 mg/m2, separated by a 90-minute interval, on a 21-day cycle as follows: schedule A, pemetrexed followed by gemcitabine on day 1 and gemcitabine on day 8; schedule B, gemcitabine followed by pemetrexed on day 1 and gemcitabine on day 8; and schedule C, gemcitabine on day 1 and pemetrexed followed by gemcitabine on day 8. RESULTS: One hundred fifty-two eligible patients (schedule A, n = 59; schedule B, n = 31, and schedule C, n = 62) received a median of five (schedule A), two (schedule B), and four (schedule C) treatment cycles. Overall, 66% of patients experienced grade 3 or 4 neutropenia. Common grade 3 and 4 nonhematologic toxicities were dyspnea (11%), fatigue (16%), and
On March 27, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved durvalumab (Imfinzi) in combination with etoposide and either carboplatin or cisplatin as first-line treatment of patients with extensive-stage small cell lung cancer (SCLC).. CASPIAN Trial. Efficacy of this combination in patients with previously untreated extensive-stage SCLC was investigated in CASPIAN, a randomized, multicenter, active-controlled, open-label phase III trial. The evaluation was based on the comparison of patients randomly assigned to durvalumab plus chemotherapy vs chemotherapy alone. The major efficacy outcome measure was overall survival; additional efficacy outcome measures were investigator-assessed progression-free survival and objective response rate per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors, version 1.1.. Median overall survival was 13.0 months (95% confidence interval [CI] = 11.5-14.8) in the durvalumab-plus-chemotherapy arm vs 10.3 months (95% CI = 9.3-11.2) in the chemotherapy-alone arm (hazard ...
The impact of adding bevacizumab to perioperative chemotherapy in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) undergoing liver resection is yet to be defined. A retrospective review of our patient records showed that the addition of bevacizumab did not increase morbidity or mortality related to liver resection. Pathologic complete response (CR) is associated with prolonged survival. Background: Patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) and liver metastases benefit from perioperative chemotherapy and liver resection. The potential benefit of adding bevacizumab is yet to be defined. The impact of bevacizumab on liver resection complications has been explored in a small number of retrospective studies. Methods: The records of patients with CRC and liver metastases who underwent liver resection and had received perioperative chemotherapy were reviewed. Complications were reported separately for 2 groups (chemotherapy alone vs chemotherapy and bevacizumab). Survival outcomes (progression-free survival [PFS] ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Long-term complete remission with nab-paclitaxel, bevacizumab, and gemcitabine combination therapy in a patient with triple-negative metastatic breast cancer. AU - Montero, Alberto. AU - Glück, Stefan. PY - 2012/9/1. Y1 - 2012/9/1. N2 - This is a case study of a 52-year-old female patient diagnosed in June 2007 with primary metastatic invasive ductal carcinoma of the left breast and synchronous metastases in the bone, lymph nodes, and lung. Biopsy results of the tumor tissue were negative for the estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2). In November 2007, she participated in a phase II study of metastatic HER2-negative breast cancer. Treatment consisted of systemic chemotherapy with gemcitabine 1,500 mg/m 2, nab-paclitaxel 150 mg/m2, and bevacizumab 10 mg/kg once every other week. The patient experienced pain relief in her sternum after 5 weeks of chemotherapy, and her analgesic therapy was discontinued. After 7 months, the ...
The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the efficacy of cisplatin chemotherapy in BRCA1 mutation carriers with metastatic breast cancer. In a phase II, open-label study, 20 patients with metastatic breast cancer who carried a mutation in BRCA1 were treated with cisplatin 75 mg/m2 intravenously every 3 weeks as part of a 21-day cycle for 6 cycles. Restaging studies to assess response were performed after cycles 2 and 6, and every three months thereafter. Between July 2007 and January 2009, 20 patients were enrolled. Baseline characteristics were as follows: 65% had prior adjuvant chemotherapy, 55% had prior chemotherapy for metastatic breast cancer; mean age was 48 years (ranges 32 to 70); 30% estrogen receptor (ER) or progesterone receptor (PR)+, 70% ER/PR/Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 (HER2)- and 0% HER2+. Overall response rate was 80%; nine patients experienced a complete clinical response (45%) and seven experienced a partial response (35%). Overall survival was 80% at one year,
TY - JOUR. T1 - Proof of principle study of sequential combination atezolizumab and Vigil in relapsed ovarian cancer. AU - Rocconi, Rodney P.. AU - Stevens, Erin E.. AU - Bottsford-Miller, Justin N.. AU - Ghamande, Sharad A.. AU - Elder, Jeffrey. AU - DeMars, Leslie L.. AU - Munkarah, Adnan. AU - Aaron, Phylicia. AU - Stanbery, Laura. AU - Wallraven, Gladice. AU - Bognar, Ernest. AU - Manley, Meghan. AU - Horvath, Staci. AU - Manning, Luisa. AU - Walter, Adam. AU - Galanis, Evanthia. AU - Herzog, Thomas. AU - Monk, Bradley J.. AU - Coleman, Robert L.. AU - Nemunaitis, John. N1 - Publisher Copyright: © 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature America, Inc.. PY - 2021. Y1 - 2021. N2 - Vigil® is a personalized vaccine that enhances tumor neoantigen expression. We investigated for the first time safety and efficacy of Vigil in combination with atezolizumab in relapsed ovarian cancer (OC) patients. This is a randomized, Phase 1 study of Vigil, an autologous tumor tissue ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Seeing the forest through the trees. T2 - A systematic review of the safety and efficacy of combination chemotherapies used in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. AU - Bekaii-Saab, Tanios. AU - Wu, Christina. PY - 2014/7. Y1 - 2014/7. N2 - Combinations of fluoropyrimidines with oxaliplatin or irinotecan plus a biologic agent are standard treatments for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Recent approvals of first-line cetuximab, second-line ziv-aflibercept, and regorafenib as salvage therapy have increased the complexity of the treatment armamentarium. To define optimal regimens, we systematically reviewed combination chemotherapy trials (N= 83). Descriptive analyses focusing on fluoropyrimidine formulation, oxaliplatin vs irinotecan combinations, and compatibility with biologics indicated the following: infusional 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) yielded better efficacy and safety than bolus 5-FU. Capecitabine had similar outcomes and better safety than 5-FU with oxaliplatin ...
Study is Second Positive Phase III Trial of Rituxan Plus Chemotherapy in Most Common Adult Leukemia. SOUTH SAN FRANCISCO, Calif. & CAMBRIDGE, Mass.--(BUSINESS WIRE)--Genentech, Inc. (NYSE:DNA) and Biogen Idec (Nasdaq:BIIB) today announced that a global Phase III study of Rituxan® (rituximab) in combination with fludarabine and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy met its primary endpoint of improving progression-free survival (PFS), as assessed by investigators, in patients with previously treated CD20-positive chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) compared to chemotherapy alone. There were no new or unexpected safety signals reported in the study. An independent review of the primary endpoint is being conducted for U.S. regulatory purposes.. Data from the study, REACH, will be submitted for presentation at a future medical meeting. Earlier this year, another European Phase III study, CLL-8, showed a similar treatment combination improved PFS in patients with CLL who had not previously received ...
Single arm, open label, Phase IB study of indibulin capsules in subjects with advanced solid tumors; eligible subjects will have a baseline PET scan sho
CPAA: Chemotherapy, Cancer Chemotherapy India, Side Effects of Chemotherapy. India based NGO providing Information on Chemotherapy, Cancer Chemotherapy, Side Effects of Chemotherapy in India.
Similarly claims that chemotherapy have produced increased percentage 5-year survival for other cancers, such as cancer of the large bowel1, could be attributed to poor methodology because none of these cancers exhibited a divergence between incidence and mortality rate curves over time5.. Ulrich Abel reviewed the evidence for the efficacy of chemotherapy for invasive epithelial cancer6, the types of cancer for which chemotherapy is most commonly used. He concluded that there was some evidence from randomised trials that chemotherapy increased survival only for small-cell lung cancer. Yet even here the gain in survival was measured in weeks or months.. Adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer It is widely claimed that adjuvant chemotherapy extends survival with late-stage breast cancer. For example, in a letter in the Sydney Morning Herald of 22 November 1996 Professor Allan Langlands claimed that the results of a meta-analysis of more than 100 trials of adjuvant systemic therapy in many ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adverse effects of bevacizumab and their management in solid tumors. AU - Arriaga, Yull. AU - Becerra, Carlos R.. PY - 2006/7. Y1 - 2006/7. N2 - Bevacizumab is the first successful example of targeting the vasculature for the treatment of solid tumors. Although generally well tolerated in combination with different chemotherapy regimens, bevacizumab has side effects that are unique to this class of agents. In this review, we discuss the side effects associated with bevacizumab and potential treatments to ameliorate these toxicities.. AB - Bevacizumab is the first successful example of targeting the vasculature for the treatment of solid tumors. Although generally well tolerated in combination with different chemotherapy regimens, bevacizumab has side effects that are unique to this class of agents. In this review, we discuss the side effects associated with bevacizumab and potential treatments to ameliorate these toxicities.. KW - Bleeding. KW - Gastrointestinal ...
This volume highlights new trends and challenges in research on agents and the new digital and knowledge economy, and includes 23 papers classified into the following categories: business process management, agent-based modeling and simulation, and anthropic-oriented computing. All papers were originally presented at the 11th International KES Conference on Agents and Multi-Agent Systems - Technologies and Applications (KES-AMSTA 2017) held June 21-23, 2017 in Vilamoura, Algarve, Portugal. Todays economy is driven by technologies and knowledge. Digital technologies can free, shift and multiply choices, and often intrude on the territory of other industries by providing new ways of conducting business operations and creating value for customers and companies. The topics covered in this volume include software agents, multi-agent systems, agent modeling, mobile and cloud computing, big data analysis, business intelligence, artificial intelligence, social systems, computer embedded systems and
... antineoplastic combined chemotherapy protocols MeSH E02.190.044.080 - acupressure MeSH E02.190.044.105 - acupuncture analgesia ... antineoplastic combined chemotherapy protocols MeSH E02.319.162.150 - antibiotic prophylaxis MeSH E02.319.300.253 - delayed- ... antineoplastic combined chemotherapy protocols MeSH E02.319.310.075 - antiretroviral therapy, highly active MeSH E02.319. ...
The FLAMSA protocol is most often used as an induction part of a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen for patients eligible ... G-CSF is still included, even though the "G" is taken out of the acronym.) Amsacrine is an alkylating antineoplastic agent that ... In this setting, it is often combined with other agents, such as: Cyclophosphamide (FLAMSA-CYC), and/or Busulfan or treosulfan ... FLAG is a chemotherapy regimen used for relapsed and refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The acronym incorporates the ...
Springer Protocols. pp. 405-432.. *^ Luqmani YA (2005). "Mechanisms of drug resistance in cancer chemotherapy". Medical ... Combined modality chemotherapy is the use of drugs with other cancer treatments, such as surgery, radiation therapy, or ... Main article: List of antineoplastic agents. There is an extensive list of antineoplastic agents. Several classification ... Intensification chemotherapy is identical to consolidation chemotherapy but a different drug than the induction chemotherapy is ...
This type of chemotherapy is used for curative intent. Combined modality chemotherapy is the use of drugs with other cancer ... In the 1970s, antineoplastic (chemotherapy) drugs were identified as hazardous, and the American Society of Health-System ... Generating Inhibitors of P-Glycoprotein: Where to, Now?. Springer Protocols. pp. 405-432. Luqmani YA (2005). "Mechanisms of ... Intensification chemotherapy is identical to consolidation chemotherapy but a different drug than the induction chemotherapy is ...
Aprepitant combined with ondansetron and dexamethasone has been shown to be better for highly emetogenic chemotherapy than just ... The new protocol that he developed led to a marked increase in disease-free survival rates for patients with medulloblastoma, ... Cisplatin is in the platinum-based antineoplastic family of medications. It works in part by binding to DNA and inhibiting its ... Cisplatin is a chemotherapy medication used to treat a number of cancers. These include testicular cancer, ovarian cancer, ...
See also: Antineoplastic resistance. A major cause for the ineffectiveness of current chemotherapy treatments is multiple drug ... Synthetic protocols for silver nanoparticle production can be modified to produce silver nanoparticles with non-spherical ... second approach is to attach a chemotherapeutic drug directly to the functionalized surface of the silver nanoparticle combined ... Chemotherapy[edit]. The introduction of nanotechnology into medicine is expected to advance diagnostic cancer imaging and the ...
The chemotherapy used was Cisplatin or Carboplatin, combined with Gemcitabine for patient with squamous cell NSCLC, or ... with cisplatin or carboplatin as the backbone of all the chemotherapy treatments protocols. Pemetrexed is provided with ... and approved pembrolizumab in combination with pemetrexed and platinum-based antineoplastic (carboplatin or cisplatin) as first ... chemotherapy plus atezolizumab or chemotherapy plus Bevacizumab and atezolizumab. The chemotherapy used was Carboplatin, and ...
Helgstrand E, Oberg B (1980). "Enzymatic targets in virus chemotherapy". Virus Chemotherapy. Antibiotics and Chemotherapy. 27. ... This may also be combined with radioactivity to achieve apoptosis of malignant cells. Some antiviral drugs, such as acyclovir ( ... 2015). "Crucial roles of thymidine kinase 1 and deoxyUTPase in incorporating the antineoplastic nucleosides trifluridine and 2 ... Cold Spring Harbor Protocols. 2016 (2): pdb.prot085118. doi:10.1101/pdb.prot085118. PMID 26832684. Sun R, Eriksson S, Wang L ( ...
"The purine path to chemotherapy. Nobel Lecture 1988".. *^ Black J. "Drugs from emasculated hormones: the principles of synoptic ... Some descriptors such as ligand efficiency[23] (LE) and lipophilic efficiency[24][25] (LiPE) combine such parameters to assess ... For certain therapy areas, such as antimicrobials, antineoplastics, antihypertensive and anti-inflammatory drugs, the numbers ... agonists using parallel synthesis protocols: A Lipophilic Efficiency (LipE) analysis". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters ...
The combined high prevalence of rates of aflatoxin and hepatitis B in settings such as China and West Africa has led to ... Mipsagargin (G-202), has orphan drug designation as a treatment during chemotherapy for HCC. It is a thapsigargin-based prodrug ... Controversy remains as to the most effective screening protocols. For example, while some data support decreased mortality ... "Blockade of IGF-1 receptor tyrosine kinase has antineoplastic effects in hepatocellular carcinoma cells". Biochemical ...
Refractory chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting; anorexia; neuropathic pain.. Dizziness, euphoria, paranoia, somnolence, ... Smith, Howard S.; Raffa, Robert B.; Pergolizzi, Joseph V.; Taylor, Robert; Tallarida, Ronald J. (2014-07-01). "Combining opioid ... "Should New Zealand continue signing up to the Pethidine Protocol?" (PDF). The New Zealand Medical Journal. 119 (1230): U1875. ...
Refractory chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting; anorexia; neuropathic pain.. Dizziness, euphoria, paranoia, somnolence, ... Smith, Howard S.; Raffa, Robert B.; Pergolizzi, Joseph V.; Taylor, Robert; Tallarida, Ronald J. (2014-07-01). "Combining opioid ... "Should New Zealand continue signing up to the Pethidine Protocol?" (PDF). The New Zealand Medical Journal. 119 (1230): U1875. ...
Protocols Source: ... 3204009-Antineoplastic+Combined+Chemotherapy+ ...
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. *Drug: Cesamet™ (nabilone). Interventional. Phase 4. *NEMA Research, Inc. ... A Phase IV Trial of Cesamet™ Given With Standard Antiemetic Therapy for Chemotherapy-induced Nausea and Vomiting. *Nausea and ... Evaluation of the Efficacy of Cesamet™ for the Treatment of Pain in Patients With Chemotherapy-Induced Neuropathy. *Peripheral ... To demonstrate incremental improvement with Cesamet in control of chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting in patients who have ...
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. Paclitaxel. Cisplatin. Additional relevant MeSH terms: Lung Neoplasms. ... Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic. Antineoplastic Agents. Tubulin Modulators. Antimitotic Agents. Mitosis Modulators. Molecular ... Effect of Chemotherapy With Paclitaxel/Cisplatin on Development Dysgeusia in Non Small Cell Lung Cancer. The safety and ... Effect of Chemotherapy With Paclitaxel and Cisplatin on Development Dysgeusia in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer Patients. ...
PURPOSE: The combination of sorafenib with chemotherapy is well-tolerated and is associated with encouraging response rates in ... Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. *Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols: th. *Benzenesulfonates. * ... A phase II study was conducted to determine the efficacy and toxicity of combined sorafenib, docetaxel, and cisplatin in ... PURPOSE: The combination of sorafenib with chemotherapy is well-tolerated and is associated with encouraging response rates in ...
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / adverse effects * Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic ... However, recently, a regimen combining fluorouracil, irinotecan, oxaliplatin, and leucovorin (FOLFIRINOX) and another combining ... In addition, PDAC cells promote a dense functional stroma that facilitates tumor resistance to chemotherapy and radiation. ... Keywords: Adoptive T cell therapy; Antibody therapy; Biomarkers; Chemotherapy; Immune surveillance; Immunotherapy; Inhibitors; ...
This study has identified pathway specific prognostic biomarkers possibly underlying a differential chemotherapy response in ... Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use* * Carcinoma, Ovarian Epithelial * Cluster Analysis * Drug ... Background: Resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy remains a major impediment in the treatment of serous epithelial ovarian ... Identification of the IGF1/PI3K/NF κB/ERK gene signalling networks associated with chemotherapy resistance and treatment ...
Antineoplastic agents. Antineoplastic combined chemotherapy protocols. Carcinoma squamous cell/drug therapy. Carcinoma squamous ... Phase I/II study of erlotinib combined with cisplatin and radiotherapy in patients with locally advanced squamous cell ... and possibly has a synergistic interaction with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. We investigated the safety and efficacy of ...
Keywords : Leukemia, lymphoid; Antineoplastic combined chemotherapy protocols; Immunization; Viral vaccines; Child. · text in ... RESULTS: After chemotherapy, 75.9%, 67.9%, 59.3% and 51.7% of the patients showed low antibody titers that would be unlikely to ... OBJECTIVE: To evaluate viral vaccine antibody levels in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia after chemotherapy and after ... Antibody responses to Hepatitis B and measles-mumps-rubella vaccines in children who received chemotherapy for acute ...
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols /economics /therapeutic use; Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung /drug therapy / ... Combine searches by placing the search numbers in the top search box and pressing the search button.. An example search might ... 17.T reatment with high-dose chemotherapy outside II 314, 315 6.2 of clinical trials is not recommended. 18.Women should be ... Received steroid therapy with in 7 days prior to 1st dose of study drug for anti-neoplastic intent. Received any anti (...) and ...
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / pharmacology. Apoptosis / drug effects*. Breast Neoplasms / drug therapy, ... Title: Cancer chemotherapy and pharmacology Volume: 66 ISSN: 1432-0843 ISO Abbreviation: Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. ...
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / pharmacology*. Cell Death / drug effects. Cells, Cultured. Dose-Response ... The role of IRS1 and IRS2 in controlling cell responses to chemotherapy is unknown. To determine the role of IRS1 and IRS2 in ... We found that expression of IRS1, in contrast to IRS2, enhanced the sensitivity of 32D cells to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis ... Decreasing Annexin A2 levels reduced 32D-IRS1 cell sensitivity to chemotherapy. These results suggest IRS1 enhances sensitivity ...
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols [administration & dosage]; Cyclophosphamide [administration & dosage]; ... DUARTE, Bruno Kosa Lino et al. Brazilian experience using high dose sequential chemotherapy followed by autologous ... Chemotherapy consisted of the sequential administration of high-dose cyclophosphamide (4 or 7 g/m2) and granulocyte-colony ... OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the use of high-dose sequential chemotherapy in a Brazilian population. METHODS: High-dose ...
ANTINEOPLASTIC COMBINED CHEMOTHERAPY PROTOCOLS - therapeutic use; CISPLATIN - therapeutic use; COMBINED MODALITY THERAPY; ... Adjuvant sandwich chemotherapy plus radiotherapy vs adjuvant chemotherapy alone for locally advanced bladder cancer after ... Combined Positive Score) mora biti ≥ 10. Imunoterapija se može primijeniti bez obzira na razinu izraženosti PD-L1 u bolesnika ... Seven year update of an EORTC phase III trial of high-dose intensity M-VAC chemotherapy and G-CSF versus classic M-VAC in ...
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols; Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung; Chemotherapy, Adjuvant; Head and Neck Neoplasms ...
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols; Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung; Chemotherapy, Adjuvant; Head and Neck Neoplasms ...
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. 1. 2014. 9799. 0.140. Why? Mutation. 2. 2014. 26651. 0.130. Why? ...
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. *Breast Neoplasms. *Neoplasms. *Lung Neoplasms. *Ovarian Neoplasms. *Prostatic ... Chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, or systemic biologic. - anticancer therapy within 21 days before beginning ... progressed during or after one or more chemotherapy regimens; Metastatic breast. cancer; Hormone-refractory prostate cancer; ...
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols. *Pelvic Exenteration. *Pelvic Neoplasms. *Chemotherapy, Cancer, Regional ... In Combination With And/or Following Chemotherapy In Patients With Previously Untreated Epithelial Ovarian Cancer ... or Primary Peritoneal Cancer That Have Received at Least 2 Prior Lines of Chemotherapy ... Versus Investigators Choice of Chemotherapy in Women With Folate Receptor Alpha Positive Advanced Epithelial Ovarian Cancer, ...
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocol. *Neoplasms. .map{width:100%;height:300px;margin-bottom:15px}. Name. Location. ... Concurrent treatment with any other anticancer therapy, including chemotherapy,. immunotherapy, radiotherapy (excluding ...
Antineoplastic combined chemotherapy protocols. With the important exception of the E4599 trial of bevacizumab in conjunction ... Trials combining cetuximab with chemotherapy have shown a trend to increased response rate and prolonged progression-free ... ATLAS is a phase III trial of bevacizumab with chemotherapy followed by erlotinib after chemotherapy is completed that will ... that combined novel agents with standard chemotherapy have produced disappointing or equivocal results. Many agents identified ...
Antineoplastic combined chemotherapy protocols; Chemotherapy, adjuvant; Combined modality therapy; Neoplasm staging; Neoplasm ... Irinotecan combined with fluorouracil alone as first-line treatment for metastatic colorectal cancer: a multicentre randomised ... Jalil O, Claydon L, Arulampalam T. Review of neoadjuvant chemotherapy alone in locally advance rectal cancer. J Gastrointest ... American Society of Clinical Oncology recommendations on adjuvant chemotherapy for stage II colon cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2004;22 ...
Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin; Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols; Hemangiopericytoma; Meningioma; Antiretroviral Therapy, ... Peritoneal Neoplasms; Hyperthermia, Induced; Chemotherapy, Cancer, Regional Perfusion; Adenocarcinoma; Antineoplastic Combined ... Carcinoma, Lobular; Biopsy; Antineoplastic Agents; Breast Neoplasms; Chemoprevention Academic: 336-716-4316. Department: 336- ... Brain Neoplasms; Glioma; Glioblastoma; Central Nervous System Neoplasms; Antineoplastic Agents Academic: 336-716-9527. ...
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols 07/2006. CureHunter Inc. provides medical information and specifically does NOT ...
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols (administration & dosage) *Arsenicals (administration & dosage) *Cytarabine ( ...
Adult; Aged; Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols /economics /therapeutic use; Bayes Theorem; Biomarkers, Tumor / ... Genomic test-directed chemotherapy (using the Oncotype DX 21-gene assay) was compared with chemotherapy alone (standard care) ... The study objective was to assess the cost-effectiveness of genomic test-directed chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone for ... This study assessed the cost-effectiveness of genomic test-directed chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone in patients with ...
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use. *Child. *Cohort Studies. *Cyclin D1/metabolism ... The combined TP53/MIPI show significant (P = 0·006) separation between low and intermediate risk groups in relation to (G) OS ... The combined TP53/MIPI show significant (P = 0·006) separation between low and intermediate risk groups in relation to (G) OS ... The combined SOX11/MIPI improves separation between low and intermediate risk groups (although, P , 0·05) in relation to (E) OS ...
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols/therapeutic use. *Blotting, Western. *Cell Line, Tumor. *Cell Proliferation/drug ... Taken together, our findings demonstrate that microRNA-21 is a chemotherapy responsive microRNA and can serve as a prognostic ... Taken together, our findings demonstrate that microRNA-21 is a chemotherapy responsive microRNA and can serve as a prognostic ... However, the utility of specific microRNAs in predicting the clinical benefit of chemotherapy has not been well-established. ...
24.antineoplastic combined chemotherapy protocols 12 ƪ8.000%. 25.cell line 11 ƪ7.333% ...
Neoplasms, Medical Oncology, Radiotherapy, Antineoplastic Protocols, Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols, ... Antineoplastic Protocols, Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols, Precancerous Conditions, Cancer Symptoms, Feeding and ... Antineoplastic Protocols, Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols, Precancerous Conditions, Cancer Symptoms, Feeding and ... Antineoplastic Protocols, Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols, Precancerous Conditions, Genetics, Genes, Neoplasm, ...
Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols 24 * Nuclear Medicine 24 * Oncology Nursing 22 * Head and Neck Neoplasms 22 ...
  • Purpose: Erlotinib, an oral tyrosine-kinase inhibitor, is active against squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) and possibly has a synergistic interaction with chemotherapy and radiotherapy. (
  • Here, we investigated the correlation between microRNA-21 expression and hepatic arterial infusion chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil and pirarubicin (HAIC) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). (
  • Conclusion: VEGF expression alone was an important marker of good response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with advanced carcinoma of the cervix. (
  • METHODS: We searched for English-language publications through Pubmed using a combination of the following key words: endometrial carcinoma, clear cell carcinoma, recurrence, prognosis, adjuvant therapy, radiation treatment and chemotherapy. (
  • Sixty-two patients with metastatic colorectal carcinoma involving the liver were treated by hepatic intra-arterial chemotherapy using an implantable infusion pump. (
  • Which alters the feeding of cancer patients, contributing to the anorexia, weight loss and malnutrition, which leads to a prognostic impact in a lower patient response to chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgical treatment as well as increased toxic effects, impacting treatment discontinuation and therefore, morbidity and survival of patients. (
  • Treatment options in metastatic disease range from cisplatin-based chemotherapy, immunotherapy, palliative radiotherapy and finally supportive care. (
  • Concurrent treatment with any other anticancer therapy, including chemotherapy, immunotherapy, radiotherapy (excluding radiotherapy with palliative intent on non-target lesions), targeted therapy, gene therapy, or patients planning to receive these treatments during the study. (
  • The treatment outcomes of this disease have improved significantly in recent years due to the improvement of diagnostic methods (pathohistology, radiology, nuclear medicine), screening and treatment improvements: surgical and oncological (chemotherapy, immunotherapy, radiotherapy). (
  • Weekly cisplatin (30 mg/m) and oral vinorelbine (30 mg/m) were combined with standard thoracic radiotherapy (66 Gy, 33 fractions) for 6.5 weeks. (
  • The therapeutic gain of radiotherapy may be further improved with the addition of systemic chemotherapy. (
  • DISCUSSION: This trial is the first in the world to test a remote monitoring/management intervention for adult haematological cancer patients receiving chemotherapy. (
  • Concomitant use of pembrolizumab and entinostat in adult patients with metastatic uveal melanoma (PEMDAC study): protocol for a multicenter phase II open label study. (
  • Resistance to platinum-based chemotherapy remains a major impediment in the treatment of serous epithelial ovarian cancer. (
  • All 28 patients had advanced stage, high-grade serous ovarian cancer, and were treated with standard platinum-based chemotherapy. (
  • Conversely, in patients with MIBC radical cystectomy remains the corne stone of the treatment, optimally in conjunction with neoadjuvant platinum-based chemotherapy in cisplatin-eligible patients. (
  • The role of platinum-based chemotherapy as an adjuvant therapy for early stage NSCLC has been unequivocally established. (
  • In addition, PDAC cells promote a dense functional stroma that facilitates tumor resistance to chemotherapy and radiation. (
  • BACKGROUND: Combined treatment approaches targeting tumor cells as well as stromal cells may control chemorefractory malignancies. (
  • The children were followed up to 6 months after chemotherapy, and the two groups were compared in terms of visual acuity and tumor size before and after chemotherapy and adverse reactions during chemotherapy. (
  • [email protected]#The combined chemotherapy group had a significantly higher proportion of children achieving tumor regression than the conventional chemotherapy group (P0.05). (
  • Combined with castration, ganetespib displayed deeper PDX tumor regressions and delayed castration resistance relative to either monotherapy. (
  • Chemotherapy consisted of the sequential administration of high-dose cyclophosphamide (4 or 7 g/m 2 ) and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (300 µg/day), followed by peripheral blood progenitor cell harvesting, administration of etoposide (2g/m 2 ) and methotrexate (8 g/m 2 only for Hodgkin's lymphoma) and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. (
  • In conclusion, purine analogs, particularly combined with cyclophosphamide, significantly improve progression free survival but not survival. (
  • Amsacrine is an alkylating antineoplastic agent that is highly active toward AML, unlike more conventional alkylators like cyclophosphamide. (
  • In this setting, it is often combined with other agents, such as: Cyclophosphamide (FLAMSA-CYC), and/or Busulfan or treosulfan (FLAMSA-BU or FLAMSA-TREO), and/or Melphalan (FLAMSA-MEL), and/or Total body irradiation, given shortly after the end of FLAMSA to prepare the patient for transplant. (
  • We found that expression of IRS1, in contrast to IRS2, enhanced the sensitivity of 32D cells to chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. (
  • However, recently, a regimen combining fluorouracil, irinotecan, oxaliplatin, and leucovorin (FOLFIRINOX) and another combining albumin-bound paclitaxel with gemcitabine have shown clear therapeutic advantage in advanced PDAC, with survival outcomes of 11.3 and 8.5 mo on phase III trials, respectively, over single-agent gemcitabine. (
  • With the important exception of the E4599 trial of bevacizumab in conjunction with combination chemotherapy, recent clinical trials in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that combined novel agents with standard chemotherapy have produced disappointing or equivocal results. (
  • 89% of these patients received combination chemotherapy. (
  • CONCLUSION: Standard (non-antimetabolite) combination chemotherapy administered past the first trimester, as early as 13 weeks gestation, was associated with few complications and expected maternal survival with lymphoma occurring during pregnancy. (
  • Between 1983 and 1990, 128 patients with limited disease small cell lung cancer (SCLC) received consolidative thoracic irradiation after reaching a complete (CR) or partial response (PR) to combination chemotherapy. (
  • Gemcitabine combined with sequential paclitaxel and carboplatin in patients with urothelial cancers and other advanced malignancies. (
  • BACKGROUND: High-dose chemotherapy with tandem or triple carboplatin and etoposide course is currently the first curative choice for relapsing GCT. (
  • According to whether bevacizumab was used, they were divided into conventional chemotherapy (carboplatin, vincristine and etoposide) group with 12 children and combined chemotherapy (bevacizumab, carboplatin, vincristine and etoposide) group with 18 children. (
  • The study cohort comprised 28 patients divided into two groups based on their varying sensitivity to first-line chemotherapy using progression free survival (PFS) as a surrogate of response. (
  • Patients treated in CR1 with SCT, autologous SCT or chemotherapy had a survival of 18 +/- 9, 5 +/- 5 and 41 +/- 5%, respectively. (
  • Afatinib versus cisplatin-based chemotherapy for EGFR mutation-positive lung adenocarcinoma (LUX-Lung 3 and LUX-Lung 6): analysis of overall survival data from two randomised, phase 3 trials. (
  • PURPOSE: The addition of bevacizumab to cytotoxic chemotherapy has demonstrated a progression-free survival (PFS) benefit in the first-line and second-line treatment of advanced or metastatic breast cancer (MBC). (
  • however, two long-term pilot studies suggest that IL-2 and IFNbeta, when used appropriately can have a positive effect on clinical benefit and overall survival of patients with minimal residual disease after chemotherapy or with disseminated disease controlled by conventional endocrine therapy. (
  • BACKGROUND: Moderate differences in efficacy between adjuvant chemotherapy regimens for breast cancer are plausible, and could affect treatment choices. (
  • CONCLUSION: As adjuvant chemotherapy for stage III colon cancer, mFOLFOX6/XELOX regimens are acceptable. (
  • A phase II study was conducted to determine the efficacy and toxicity of combined sorafenib, docetaxel, and cisplatin in patients with metastatic or advanced adenocarcinoma of stomach or gastroesophageal junction (GEJ). (
  • PATIENTS AND METHODS: Forty-four chemotherapy-naïve patients with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0 or 1, of whom 80% had metastatic disease and two thirds had poorly differentiated gastric or GEJ adenocarcinoma, were enrolled. (
  • Efficacy of first-line afatinib versus chemotherapy in EGFR mutation positive pulmonary adenocarcinoma]. (
  • The objective of this study was to use gene expression profiling to delineate major deregulated pathways and biomarkers associated with the development of intrinsic chemotherapy resistance upon exposure to standard first-line therapy for ovarian cancer. (
  • This study has identified pathway specific prognostic biomarkers possibly underlying a differential chemotherapy response in patients undergoing standard platinum-based treatment of serous epithelial ovarian cancer. (
  • Results: eighteen patients (45%) had good response to chemotherapy, and 22 (55%), poor response. (
  • When analyzed separately for response to chemotherapy, only the positive expression of VEGF was associated with good clinical response (p=0.0157). (
  • The objective of this study is to describe the threshold of perception and recognition of basic tastes in patients with NSCLC before treatment with platin and paclitaxel-based chemotherapy and after the second cycle, and analyze the effect in the developement of dysgeusia, as well as the association between these and the nutritional status and quality of life. (
  • After chemotherapy, 75.9%, 67.9%, 59.3% and 51.7% of the patients showed low antibody titers that would be unlikely to protect against exposure to measles, rubella, hepatitis B and mumps, respectively. (
  • This study assessed the cost-effectiveness of genomic test-directed chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone in patients with early-stage breast cancer. (
  • The study objective was to assess the cost-effectiveness of genomic test-directed chemotherapy versus chemotherapy alone for patients with oestrogen receptor-positive, lymph node-positive early-stage breast cancer. (
  • patients were allocated a to standard care group where they all received chemotherapy or to a test where patients were allocated to high-risk or low risk recurrence groups. (
  • For patients who received Oncotype DX-directed chemotherapy, the QALYs gained were 10.32 and the cost per patient was £23,130. (
  • For patients who received standard care (chemotherapy alone), the QALYs gained were 10.16 and the cost per patient was £22,270. (
  • Taken together, our findings demonstrate that microRNA-21 is a chemotherapy responsive microRNA and can serve as a prognostic biomarker for HCC patients undergoing HAIC. (
  • This paper presents the protocol for a Phase 3 multi-site randomised controlled trial evaluating a novel nurse-led Telehealth intervention for remote monitoring/management of chemotherapy side-effects in Australian haematological cancer patients. (
  • Patients will be randomised 1:1 to either the control or intervention arm with stratification by diagnosis, chemotherapy toxicity (high versus low), receipt of previous chemotherapy and hospital. (
  • Intervention patients will be provided with a computer tablet and software prompting twice-daily completion of physical/emotional scales for up to four chemotherapy cycles. (
  • METHODS: A Phase II trial was initiated to analyze the activity of a continuously administered molecularly targeted treatment regimen (daily pioglitazone [45 mg administered orally] and rofecoxib [25 mg administered orally]) combined with sequentially added angiostatic chemotherapy for patients with previously treated metastatic melanoma (n = 19) or soft tissue sarcoma (n = 21). (
  • CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, the current study is the first to demonstrate that a novel, completely orally administered combined biomodulator/metronomic chemotherapy regimen may be active and well tolerated in patients with chemorefractory malignancies. (
  • Of 463 patients enrolled in the international ALCL99 trial, 36 (8%) had stage I disease and were treated with a prephase chemotherapy, followed by either 3 chemotherapy courses in case of initial complete resection (6 patients) or otherwise by 6 courses of chemotherapy (30 patients). (
  • RESULTS: Ninety-four per cent of patients received at least three courses of chemotherapy. (
  • The phase III CONFIRM clinical trials demonstrated that metastatic colorectal cancer patients with elevated serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) had improved outcome when the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) inhibitor PTK/ZK (Vatalanib) was added to FOLFOX4 chemotherapy. (
  • Lenz, H-J. / Intratumoral expression profiling of genes involved in angiogenesis in colorectal cancer patients treated with chemotherapy plus the VEGFR inhibitor PTK787/ZK 222584 (vatalanib) . (
  • Outcomes and changes in code status of patients with acute myeloid leukemia undergoing induction chemotherapy who were transferred to the intensive care unit. (
  • Temsirolimus activity was preserved in patients with prior adjuvant chemotherapy. (
  • All patients underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy and evaluation for clinical response and expression of VEGF. (
  • PURPOSE: Adjuvant chemotherapy with oxaliplatin combined with a fluoropyrimidine derivative is widely accepted as standard therapy for patients with stage III colon cancer, since few clinical data are available for Japanese patients. (
  • This prospective, multicenter, phase II study was undertaken to evaluate the ability of a comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) to select the elderly La-NSCLC patients who potentially may benefit from concurrent radio-chemotherapy. (
  • Twenty-six (49%) of the 53 patients developed hepatitis during infusion chemotherapy, which resolved after temporary cessation of the chemotherapy. (
  • Eleven patients had evidence of peptic ulceration by endoscopic examination during the infusion chemotherapy. (
  • PRODIGE 34-FFCD 1402-ADAGE: Adjuvant chemotherapy in elderly patients with resected stage III colon cancer: A randomized phase 3 trial. (
  • The FLAMSA protocol is most often used as an induction part of a reduced-intensity conditioning regimen for patients eligible to undergo an allogeneic stem cell transplant. (
  • Angiostatic chemotherapy consisted of trofosfamide (50 mg) administered orally 3 times daily beginning on the 15th day after the start of molecularly targeted therapy. (
  • INTERPRETATION: 10-year gains from a one-third breast cancer mortality reduction depend on absolute risks without chemotherapy (which, for oestrogen-receptor-positive disease, are the risks remaining with appropriate endocrine therapy). (
  • Evidence for combined radiation therapy with systemic chemotherapy in women with advanced stage UCCC has remained debatable. (
  • In vitro combined effect of Doxorubicin and sulfonated zinc Phthalocyanine-mediated photodynamic therapy on MCF-7 breast cancer cells. (
  • The aim of the current study was to retrospectively explore the prognosis and predictive values of TP53 somatic mutations in the BIG 02-98 randomized phase III trial in which women with node-positive breast cancer were treated with adjuvant doxorubicin-based chemotherapy with or without docetaxel. (
  • This trial aims to determine if the MEK inhibitor selumetinib (AZD6244) increases the efficacy of docetaxel, a standard of care chemotherapy. (
  • Additional studies of sorafenib with chemotherapy are warranted in gastric cancer. (
  • The direct costs included were treatment of recurrences and distant recurrences, terminal care, cancer treatment, out-patient care, genomic testing with Oncotype DX test, and chemotherapy-related toxicities treatment (including gut perforation, bleeding, thrombosis, allergic reactions and hypertension). (
  • However, this treatment modality is fraught with difficulties associated with toxicity and also the emergence of chemotherapy resistance is a considerable problem. (
  • To evaluate viral vaccine antibody levels in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia after chemotherapy and after vaccine booster doses. (
  • Antibody levels against hepatitis B, rubella, measles and mumps vaccine antigens were evaluated in 33 children after completing chemotherapy (before and after vaccine booster doses) and the results were compared to the data of 33 healthy children matched for gender, age and social class. (
  • In case of relapse of aggressive lymphoma or if not obtaining CR, high dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell support (HDT) is standard treatment. (
  • To determine the role of IRS1 and IRS2 in the sensitivity of cells to chemotherapy, we treated 32D cells lacking or expressing IRS proteins with various concentrations of chemotherapeutic agents. (
  • The LUX-Lung 3 study investigated the efficacy of chemotherapy compared with afatinib, a selective, orally bioavailable ErbB family blocker that irreversibly blocks signaling from epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/ErbB1), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/ErbB2), and ErbB4 and has wide-spectrum preclinical activity against EGFR mutations. (
  • [email protected]#A retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of 30 children with OPG who underwent chemotherapy. (
  • ABSTRACT Objective: to analyze the expression of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), its receptor (VEGFR-2), age and histological type of advanced cervical carcinomas with respect to the clinical response to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. (
  • RESULTS: Following 236 courses of chemotherapy, 112 positive blood cultures were registered. (
  • FLAG is a chemotherapy regimen used for relapsed and refractory acute myeloid leukemia (AML). (
  • Furthermore, we explored the possibility of creating an improved prognostic tool by combining the MIPI with information on molecular markers.SOX11 was shown to significantly add prognostic information to the MIPI, but in multivariate analysis TP53 was the only significant independent molecular marker.Based on these findings, we propose that TP53 and SOX11 should routinely be assessed and that a combined TP53/MIPI score may be used to guide treatment decisions. (
  • In the current study, the authors sought to test one such combined approach in the treatment of chemorefractory melanoma and soft tissue sarcoma. (
  • Chemotherapy remains the mainstay in the treatment and management of many cancers. (
  • The high rate of VGS seemed independent of high-dose cytarabine but was more likely caused by the intensive chemotherapy treatment leading to severe mucositis and neutropenia. (
  • Continuation of the planned cycle rate of protocol treatment was 69.9% in the mFOLFOX6 group and 68.4% in the XELOX group. (
  • and polychemotherapy versus no chemotherapy (n=32,000). (
  • This condition could be more often recognised by careful follow-up of liver function test, C-reactive protein level, ultrasonography, CT and MRI after recovery from chemotherapy-induced neutropenia. (